WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjective well-being additional

  1. Innovativeness and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of innovativeness on well-being? This paper argues that research on subjective well-being has progressed to a point where measures of subjective well-being (or: happiness) can usefully be employed to assess the welfare effects of innovative change. Based on a discussion of the prospects and pitfalls associated with subjective…

  2. The anatomy of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Praag, B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-layer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the

  3. The Anatomy of Subjective Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praag, van B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-Iayer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the

  4. Personality dimensions and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico Librán, Eliseo

    2006-05-01

    This work examines the association between personality dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) and subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is associated both with extraversion and neuroticism, and currently, neuroticism is generally considered the more important. A total of 368 students from the University of Rovira i Virgili completed the Extraversion and Neuroticism subscales of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck, Eysenck, and Barrett, 1985), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin, 1985), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen, 1988). Regression analyses revealed the personality variable of neuroticism as one of the most important correlates of subjective well-being. Regression analyses also showed that 44% of the variance of subjective well-being was accounted for by neuroticism, whereas extraversion only explained 8% of the variance.

  5. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short......-term costs in the form of reductions in people’s sense of well-being....

  6. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short......-term costs in the form of reductions in people’s sense of well-being....

  7. Sociological theories of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSubjective well-being is no great issue in sociology; the subject is not mentioned in sociological textbooks (a notable exception is Nolan & Lenski, 2004) and is rarely discussed in sociological journals. This absence has many reasons: pragmatic, ideological, and theoretical. To begin

  8. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Kamp Justesen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...

  9. Life Events and Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall

    2014-01-01

    The literature on Happiness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) has been dominated by studies of the impact from income and labour market status - and the impact on happiness from changes in these determinants. It seems obvious to expect an impact from non-economic factors as well. In the present paper...... we focus on the eventual impact on SWB from having children. The dominant result in the rather few studies until now is the finding of no – or even a negative – impact on subjective well being following birth of a child. We focus on the impact from having children using two very big panel data sets...

  10. Homeownership and subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    Favouring homeownership is an important part of housing policies in many countries. Although this may be explained by the preferences of the majority of voters, it may also be because homeownership is believed to have positive effects on individuals’ behaviour and welfare. Previous research seems...... and subjective well-being....

  11. Smoking status and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhold, Diana; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2017-03-01

    A debate is currently underway about the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) methods for evaluating antitobacco regulation. In particular, the US government requires a cost-benefit analysis for significant new regulations, which has led the FDA to consider potential lost subjective well-being (SWB) of ex-smokers as a cost of any proposed antitobacco policy. This practice, which significantly limits regulatory capacity, is premised on the assumption that there is in fact a loss in SWB among ex-smokers. We analyse the relationship between SWB and smoking status using a longitudinal internet survey of over 5000 Dutch adults across 5 years. We control for socioeconomic, demographic and health characteristics, and in a contribution to the literature, we additionally control for two potential confounding personality characteristics, habitual use of external substances and sensitivity to stress. In another contribution, we estimate panel fixed effects models that additionally control for unobservable time-invariant characteristics. We find strong suggestive evidence that ex-smokers do not suffer a net loss in SWB. We also find no evidence that the change in SWB of those who quit smoking under stricter tobacco control policies is different from those who quit under a more relaxed regulatory environment. Furthermore, our cross-sectional estimates suggest that the increase in SWB from quitting smoking is statistically significant and also of a meaningful magnitude. In sum, we find no empirical support for the proposition that ex-smokers suffer lower net SWB compared to when they were smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Identity, gender, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Using the self-reported level of happiness as a measure of subjective well-being, this study examines the relationship between gender identity and subjective well-being with data from Taiwan. The findings suggest that an individual's perceptions about the ideals of women's gender roles in the labor market, the family, and politics are strongly related to his or her assigned social category, the prescriptions and characteristics associated with the social category, and the actions taken to match the ideals of gender identity. Consistent with Akerlof and Kranton's (2000) identity model, it is also found that an individual's gains or losses in gender identity lead to increases or decreases in the level of happiness.

  13. Eating habits and subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta Lorena; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán

    2015-01-01

    (mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 2.27). The survey included the Health-related Quality of Life Index-4 (HRQOL), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL), as well as questions about the place of residence, importance of food for well-being, frequency of meals...... with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students...... with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns...

  14. Subjective measures of well--being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter deals with three question: 1) What are ‘subjective’ measure? 2) What is ‘wellbeing’? and 3) Are subjective measures of wellbeing of use for policymaking, in particular in developing nations? The first question is answered by making a distinction between two kinds of

  15. Family Support and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    In order to distinguish typologies of university students based on family support received in the form of tangible and intangible resources, their level of satisfaction with life and food-related life as well as subjective happiness, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 347 stude...

  16. [Reliability and validity of Subjective Well-Being Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuko; Sagara, Junko; Ikeda, Masako; Kawaura, Yasuyuki

    2003-08-01

    In this study, a subjective well-being scale was developed, and its reliability and validity evaluated. The Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) had twelve items which covered four domains. It was administered to 1005 adults and 520 college students. Results indicated that for the students, college life satisfaction and self-esteem had positive correlations with SWBS score. For the adults, marital satisfaction, workplace satisfaction, and household income satisfaction had positive correlations with the score. These findings showed considerable constructive validity for SWBS. In addition, internal consistency was sufficiently high, indicating the measure's high reliability. SWBS may be a simple but reliable and valid measure, and it is useful for examining subjective well-being of both adults and college students.

  17. Goal Orientation Dan Subjective Well Being Pada Lansia

    OpenAIRE

    Desiningrum, Dinie Ratri

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between goal orientation and subjective well-being in the elderly, which includes psychological well-being, emotional well-being and social well-being. The research subjects consisted of 90 elderly from the elderly group Adi Yuswo and Wulandaru Semarang obtained through simple random sampling. The data were obtained using a measuring instrument goal orientation (18 items, α = .87), psychological well-being (33 items, α = .92), social well-being (33...

  18. Subjective well-being in schizophrenia as measured with the Subjective Well-Being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vothknecht, Sylke; Schoevers, Robert A.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    Objective: The Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale (SWN) is the most widely used self-rating scale in recent research of subjective well-being in schizophrenia. We reviewed all available publications on relevant research of subjective well-being using the SWN, in order to

  19. Subjective well-being in schizophrenia as measured with the Subjective Well-Being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vothknecht, Sylke; Schoevers, Robert A.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale (SWN) is the most widely used self-rating scale in recent research of subjective well-being in schizophrenia. We reviewed all available publications on relevant research of subjective well-being using the SWN, in order to

  20. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al

    2017-01-01

    One important aspect of subjective judgments about one's well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the "the ideal life." In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents' nationality. Italian (n = 255) and Swedish (n = 277) adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden) using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents' psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective component, of subjective well-being and psychological well-being

  1. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al

    2017-01-01

    Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255) and Swedish (n = 277) adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden) using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective component, of

  2. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255 and Swedish (n = 277 adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective

  3. Ethnic Identity and Subjective Well-Being of Bully Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Kordesh, Kathy; Polanin, Megan; Adams, Kristen; Aydin, Fatma; Knoll, Mike; Oh, Jennifer; Wade, James; Roche, Meghan; Hughes, Kelly; Eisenberg, Corry; Camacho, Daniel; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane

    2015-01-01

    Relationships among bully victimization, bully perpetration, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) were examined in a group of urban, ethnically diverse early adolescents. Indices of subjective well-being correlated with participants' scores on bully victimization and…

  4. Personality and Motivation in Positive Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin Hammershøj

    Autonomous general causality orientation is a unique motivational concept, that mediates the relationship between Extraversion and positive subjective well-being (SWB).......Autonomous general causality orientation is a unique motivational concept, that mediates the relationship between Extraversion and positive subjective well-being (SWB)....

  5. Subjective well-being, reference groups and relative standing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies on the determinants of subjective well-being concur on the importance of relative income, i.e., the fact that individuals' subjective well-being is dependent on how well they are doing in relation to their reference group. Using South African data from 1993, Kingdon and Knight (2006, 2007) found that in ...

  6. College students' motivations for money and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robak, Rostyslaw W; Chiffriller, Sheila H; Zappone, Melinda C

    2007-02-01

    Previous research indicates that, while making money is important to college students, it is negatively correlated with subjective well-being. This study asked 157 undergraduate business and psychology students about the importance of making money, their motives for doing so, and several dimensions of subjective well-being: satisfaction with life, self-actualization, and mood/affect. Making money remains very important to college students. Being motivated to make money was not globally related to subjective well-being, but wanting to make money to help others, to feel secure, and to feel proud of oneself were predictive of happiness or subjective well-being. Motives such as comparing oneself favorably to others, spending impulsively, and overcoming self-doubt were not correlated with subjective well-being. Business students appeared more motivated to make money than other students and also to have more negative affect.

  7. Reflecting on subjective well-being and spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Christine; Tonge, Bruce

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with the subjective well-being of individuals with spinal cord injuries, while acknowledging theories that describe the subjective well-being tendency to homeostasis. A representative community cross-sectional cohort of 443 adults with traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord injury completed a self-report survey (by internet, telephone or hard copy) that included reliable and valid measures of quality of life, depression, anxiety and stress, post-traumatic stress disorder, coping strategies, and emotional consequences. The subjective well-being of half of the population with spinal cord injury lay above the normative subjective well-being set-point threshold. Despite the inclusion of many biopsychosocial factors, only Intimacy, Safety, Acceptance, and Helplessness were significantly associated with normative subjective well-being. Comparatively few factors were significantly associated with normative subjective well-being, but the results help to explain observed contradictions noted in previous research into subjective well-being after spinal cord injuries. The results highlight the resilience of individuals in general and are in keeping with the disability paradox. However, many individuals with spinal cord injuries do not live satisfactory lives. It is for them that further psychological care and rehabilitation is necessary to create a good life after spinal cord injury.

  8. The objective benefits of subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Jan-Emmanuel De Neve; Ed Diener; Louis Tay; Cody Xuereb

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to survey the 'hard' evidence on the effects of subjective well-being. In doing so, we complement the evidence on the determinants of well-being by showing that human well-being also affects outcomes of interest such as health, income, and social behaviour. Generally, we observe a dynamic relationship between happiness and other important aspects of our lives, with influence running in both directions.

  9. Giftedness and Subjective Well-Being: A Study with Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…

  10. Geographical differences in subjective well-being predict extraordinary altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethel-Haurwitz, Kristin M; Marsh, Abigail A

    2014-03-01

    Altruistic kidney donation is a form of extraordinary altruism, the antecedents of which are poorly understood. Although well-being is known to increase the incidence of prosocial behaviors and there is significant geographical variation in both well-being and altruistic kidney donation in the United States, it is unknown whether geographical variation in well-being predicts the prevalence of this form of extraordinary altruism. We calculated per capita rates of altruistic kidney donation across the United States and found that an index of subjective well-being predicted altruistic donation, even after we controlled for relevant sociodemographic variables. This relationship persisted at the state level and at the larger geographic regional level. Consistent with hypotheses about the relationship between objective and subjective well-being, results showed that subjective well-being mediated the relationship between increases in objective well-being metrics, such as income, and altruism. These results suggest that extraordinary altruism may be promoted by societal factors that increase subjective well-being.

  11. Progressive taxation and the subjective well-being of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether progressive taxation is associated with increased levels of subjective well-being. Consistent with Rawls's theory of justice, our results showed that progressive taxation was positively associated with the subjective well-being of nations. However, the overall tax rate and government spending were not associated with the subjective well-being of nations. Furthermore, controlling for the wealth of nations and income inequality, we found that respondents living in a nation with more-progressive taxation evaluated their lives as closer to the best possible life and reported having more positive and less negative daily experiences than did respondents living in a nation with less-progressive taxation. Finally, we found that the association between more-progressive taxation and higher levels of subjective well-being was mediated by citizens' satisfaction with public goods, such as education and public transportation.

  12. Role interference and subjective well-being among expatriate families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, KI; Salome, E

    The present study examined the relation of demands and social support, and positive and negative Work-Home (WHI) and Home-Work interference (HWI) with the subjective well-being of expatriates. Moreover, we were also interested in crossover effects of expatriate interference to the subjective

  13. Differences in subjective well-being within households: An analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigate differences in subjective well-being (life satisfaction) within the household using matched data on co-resident couples drawn from the 2008 National Income Dynamics Study for South Africa. The majority of men and women in co-resident partnerships report different levels of subjective wellbeing. We use ...

  14. Role of Subjective Well-Being in Intercultural Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ju Chebotareva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the study of subjective well-being correlations with such factors of intercultural communication, as ethnic identity, communicative tolerance, as well as some personality traits. Subjective well-being is positively related to ethnic identity and, ambiguously, to communicative tolerance. The main positive role in the intercultural communication is played by a person's satisfaction with the social support received, which is inversely related to some forms of extremist manifestations of ethnic identity and with many manifestations of intolerance. In contrast, satisfaction with daily activities, good self-reported health and mood stability are directly related to some forms of intolerance.

  15. Religion and Subjective Well-Being: Western and Eastern Religious Groups Achieved Subjective Well-Being in Different Ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chang, Frances; Chiang, Shih-Kuang; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl

    2016-08-01

    Culture can moderate which variables most influence subjective well-being (SWB). Because religion can be conceptualized as culture, religious differences can be considered cultural differences. However, there have been few studies comparing how different religious groups evaluate SWB at any given time. This study is among the first to investigate this issue. The present study compared Buddhists, Taoists, Christians, and atheists. In addition to demographic items, 451 Chinese adults completed Chinese version of the Socially Oriented Cultural Conception of SWB Scale. Religious belief was distributed as follows: 10 % Christian, 20 % Buddhist, 25 % Taoist, and 43 % atheists. As predicted, the socially oriented cultural conception of SWB was found to be highest among Buddhists, followed in order by Taoists, atheists, and Christians. It was concluded that the various religious groups achieved SWB in different ways.

  16. Relationship between leisure involvement and subjective well-being ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between leisure involvement and subjective well-being and clarify the moderating effect of spousal support in this relationship. A total of 254 questionnaires were collected from a sample of players of slow pitch softball. Structural equation modelling was utilised to ...

  17. Anxiety, Locus of Control, Subjective Well Being and Knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study determines a few differences between accident free drivers and drivers with a history of accidents. 30 public transport bus drivers with a record of road accidents were compared with 30 public transport drivers free of accidents on their knowledge of road rules an regulations, subjective well being, state and ...

  18. Cultural orientation and subjective well-being | Owusu-Ansah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a plethora of literature that attests to the important implication of cultural orientation for many spheres of human existence. In previous research the individualism-collectivism construct has been associated with, and most predictive of, subjective well-being. However, these studies have predominantly, though not ...

  19. Objective Academic Achievement and Subjective Personal Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betty

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between objective academic achievement (OAA) and subjective well-being (SWB). Using a sample of 515 adolescents from ten different high schools across a small country, semi-structured interviews, academic records and observations provided relevant data for the study. OAA was measured from examination results…

  20. Personality and Subjective Well-Being: Evidence from South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Shang E.; Kim, Seokho

    2013-01-01

    Although the statistically significant relationship between personality traits and subjective well-being (i.e., self-reported happiness and life satisfaction) is well-known in the field of positive psychology, some scholars still cast doubt on the external validity of this finding and the strength of personality dimensions vis-a-vis other…

  1. Agent-based modeling of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggio, J.; Papyrakis, E.

    2014-01-01

    There has been extensive empirical research in recent years pointing to a weak correlation between economic growth and subjective well-being (happiness), at least for developed economies (i.e. the so-called 'Easterlin paradox'). Recent findings from the behavioural sciences and happiness literature

  2. Subjective well-being related to satisfaction with daily travel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobsson Bergstad, C.; Gamble, A.; Gärling, T.; Hagman, O.; Polk, M.; Ettema, D.F.; Friman, M.; Olsson, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates an impact on subjective well-being (SWB) of affect associated with routine performance of out-of-home activities. A primary aim of the present study is to investigate whether satisfaction with daily travel has a positive impact on SWB, either directly or indirectly

  3. A Web Survey Analysis of Subjective Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzi, M.; de Pedraza García, P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - This paper explores the role of work conditions and job characteristics with respect to three subjective well-being indicators: life satisfaction, job satisfaction and satisfaction with work-life balance. From a methodological point of view, the paper shows how social sciences can benefit

  4. Subjective Well-Being Experiences of Taiwanese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yii-nii

    2017-01-01

    This study described the subjective well-being (SWB) experiences of Taiwanese undergraduate students. Thirty senior students from three different styles of universities participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 20 to 25 years old with an average of 21.65. A phenomenological methodology with in-depth interviews was employed. Five themes…

  5. Social Relationships and Children's Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Haridhan

    2012-01-01

    The quality of relationships is now recognised as an important aspect of children's subjective well-being. This article focuses on both positive and negative quality of relationships. It includes six areas of children's relationships--family, neighbourhood adults, positive affect friendship, negative affect friendship, experiences of being bullied…

  6. Subjective well-being and social production functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, J.; Lindenberg, S.M.; Steverink, N.; Verbrugge, L.M.

    Recent reviews of scientific work on subjective well-being (SWB) reveal disagreements in conceptualization, measurement, and explanation of the concept. We propose Social Production Function theory as a framework to resolve them. Social Production Function (SPF) theory integrates strengths of

  7. Career Decidedness as a Predictor of Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthayakumar, Ramya; Schimmack, Ulrich; Hartung, Paul J.; Rogers, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Forming, pursing, and achieving life tasks constitute important determinants of subjective well-being (SWB). A principal life task for emerging adults involves deciding about career goals. Prior research indicates that depression predicts SWB and may be linked to lower levels of career decidedness. We tested whether or not career decidedness…

  8. How Friendship Network Characteristics Influence Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Mariska; Coffe, Hilde

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue that these characteristics shape SWB through the…

  9. How Friendship Network Characteristics Influence Subjective Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    van der Horst, Mariska; Coffé, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue that these characteristics shape SWB through the benefits they bring. Benefits considered are more social trust, less stress, better health, and more social support. Results confirm that higher fr...

  10. Subjective well-being related to satisfaction with daily travel

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson Bergstad, C.; Gamble, A; Gärling, T.; Hagman, O.; Polk, M.; Ettema, D.F.; Friman, M.; Olsson, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates an impact on subjective well-being (SWB) of affect associated with routine performance of out-of-home activities. A primary aim of the present study is to investigate whether satisfaction with daily travel has a positive impact on SWB, either directly or indirectly through facilitating the performance of out-of-home activities. A secondary aim is to determine whether emotional-symbolic or instrumental reasons for car use results in higher satisfaction with daily...

  11. Do Social Networks Improve Chinese Adults' Subjective Well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population-the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants-happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people.

  12. Rising income and the subjective well-being of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Tay, Louis; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2013-02-01

    We explored whether rising income in nations is associated with increasing subjective well-being (SWB), with several advances over earlier work. Our methods are improved in that across time, the same well-being questions were asked in the same order, and we employed broad and equivalent representative samples over time from a large number of nations. We also assessed psychosocial factors that might mediate the relation of income and SWB. We found that changes in household income were associated with concomitant changes in life evaluations, positive feelings, and negative feelings. The effects of gross domestic product (GDP) change were weaker and significant only for life evaluations, perhaps because GDP was a less certain index of the standard of living of the average household. The association of income and SWB is more likely to occur when the average person's material welfare accompanies rising income, when people become more satisfied with their finances, and when people become more optimistic about their futures. People did not adapt to the income rises during the period of years we studied, in that income rises produced SWB increases that did not return to earlier levels. It appears that previous researchers failed to come to agreement because of the small sample sizes of the nations, the inconsistent methods across years and surveys, and the lack of measures of potential mediating variables. Analyses of income relative to people in one's nation and between-nation slopes together suggest that income standards are now largely global, with little effect of national social comparison. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Do Facebook Status Updates Reflect Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Tov, William; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Qiu, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, millions of people around the world use social networking sites to express everyday thoughts and feelings. Many researchers have tried to make use of social media to study users' online behaviors and psychological states. However, previous studies show mixed results about whether self-generated contents on Facebook reflect users' subjective well-being (SWB). This study analyzed Facebook status updates to determine the extent to which users' emotional expression predicted their SWB-specifically their self-reported satisfaction with life. It was found that positive emotional expressions on Facebook did not correlate with life satisfaction, whereas negative emotional expressions within the past 9-10 months (but not beyond) were significantly related to life satisfaction. These findings suggest that both the type of emotional expressions and the time frame of status updates determine whether emotional expressions in Facebook status updates can effectively reflect users' SWB. The findings shed light on the characteristics of online social media and improve the understanding of how user-generated contents reflect users' psychological states.

  14. Deprivation, Social Exclusion and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, Luna; D'Ambrosio, Conchita

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating empirically the relationship between self-declared satisfaction with life and an individual's well-being as measured by the indices of deprivation and social exclusion proposed in the income distribution literature. Results on European countries show that life satisfaction decreases with an increase in deprivation…

  15. Design for subjective well-being in interior architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petermans, A.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Can interior environments engage people in pleasurable and meaningful experiences and thereby have a positive influence on their happiness? This paper discusses why and how interior architects might want to consider implementing ideas in relation to ‘design for subjective well-being’. Despite of

  16. Internalized mental illness stigma and subjective well-being: The mediating role of psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-08-30

    This study examines the relationships between internalized stigma, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being in a sample of people with mental illness. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 213 outpatients from the Spanish public social care network. The results showed that (a) internalized stigma was significantly negatively correlated with psychological well-being and subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) (all correlations are significant with at least pstigma on affect balance and life satisfaction was mediated by psychological well-being. The component of internalized stigma most consistently associated with both types of well-being was alienation (life satisfaction: B=-0.35, p=0.001; affect balance: B=-0.38, p=0.001). These findings should be confirmed in future longitudinal or experimental research. On the basis of these results we recommend that interventions to combat self-stigma aim to reduce feelings of alienation and improve self-acceptance and other aspects of positive psychological functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Original article Entitlement and subjective well-being: a three-nations study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The current study investigated the role of three facets of entitlement (active, passive and revenge in various forms of subjective well-being (SWB: hedonistic and two facets of eudaimonic well-being (social and psychological. Social well-being was based on Keyes’ model (1998 and psychological well-being on Ryff’s model (1989. Participants and procedure The study was performed in three nations (Poland, Puerto Rico and Vietnam on student samples (Poland, n = 245, Vietnam, n = 115, and Puerto Rico, n = 300. To assess entitlement level the Entitlement Questionnaire was used. The level of hedonistic well-being was measured with the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, and eudaimonic well-being by the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC-SF. Results Active entitlement was positively related to all aspects of SWB. Revenge entitlement was negatively related to hedonistic and psychological SWB in all samples and negatively related to social well-being only in Poland. Passive entitlement was unrelated to SWB. Conclusions The current study shows cross-cultural similarities in relationships of entitlement with hedonistic and psychological well-being and cross-cultural differences in the relationship of entitlement with social well-being. Additionally, the study indicates positive meaning of healthy aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being and negative meaning of dysfunctional aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being.

  18. Predicting saturated fat consumption: exploring the role of subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Barbara; Xavier, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of saturated fat (SF) is associated with obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer; which are among the leading causes of death in Australia and worldwide. A causal relationship between subjective well-being and positive health outcomes has been established, although few studies have specifically focused on health-enhancing or health-risk behaviours. The aim of this research was to develop an improved understanding of the processes underlying SF consumption by exploring the relationship between subjective well-being and SF consumption, within the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. Questionnaires related to the TPB variables, subjective well-being and SF intake were administered online to 96 participants. Perceived behavioural control (PBC) was found to be a significant predictor of intention to limit SF intake. Intention and PBC accounted for 25% of variance in behaviour; with PBC the only significant predictor of SF consumption. While subjective well-being variables were not significant unique predictors of SF consumption, these variables contributed an additional 2% to the prediction of behaviour, and this model was significant. The addition of subjective well-being to the TPB is novel and the results partially support the potential of subjective well-being in improving the prediction of this health-risk behaviour. Future research will need to replicate and extend these preliminary findings before such a framework may be translated into an intervention targeting SF consumption.

  19. Well-being dialogue: elderly women's subjective sense of well-being from their course of life perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Ann-Marie; Mårtensson, Lena B; Muhli, Ulla H Hellström

    2012-12-10

    In this article, we are concerned with narratives of elderly women's well-being from their perspectives of the latter parts of their life, living at special housing accommodation (SHA) in the context of Swedish elderly care. In focusing on narratives about well-being, we have a two-fold focus: (1) how the elderly women create their own identity and meaning-making based on lifetime experience; and (2) how narratives of well-being are reflected through the filter of life in situ at the SHA. Based on empirical data consisting of well-being narratives, a dialogical performance analysis was undertaken. The results show how relationships with important persons during various stages of life, and being together and enjoying fellowship with other people as well as enjoying freedom and self-determination, are central aspects of well-being. The conclusions drawn are that the characteristic phenomena of well-being (the what) in the narratives are continuity, identity, and sociality for the elderly person, and this is manifested (the how) as a question of contrasting the state of self-management and self-decline.

  20. Subjective Well-Being and Social Capital in Belgian Communities. The Impact of Community Characteristics on Subjective Well-Being Indicators in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc; Vanhoutte, Bram

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effect of individual and community level characteristics on subjective well-being in Belgium. Various indicators for subjective well-being are being used in a multilevel analysis of the 2009 SCIF survey (n = 2,080) and the 2006 Belgian ESS sample (n = 1,798). On the individual level, most hypotheses on the…

  1. Uncontrollable Stress, Coping, and Subjective Well-Being in Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether uncontrollable stress related to levels of subjective well-being (SWB) in a group of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Additionally, the researchers examined what types of coping skills were utilized in the face of high levels of uncontrollable stress. Finally, a moderation model was proposed,…

  2. Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) as Living Fossils of Hominoid Personality and Subjective Well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; Adams, Mark James; Widdig, Anja; Gerald, Melissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Personality dimensions capturing individual differences in behavior, cognition, and affect have been described in several species, including humans, chimpanzees, and orangutans. However, comparisons between species are limited by the use of different questionnaires. We asked raters to assess free-ranging rhesus macaques at two time points on personality and subjective well-being questionnaires used earlier to rate chimpanzees and orangutans. Principal-components analysis yielded domains we labeled Confidence, Friendliness, Dominance, Anxiety, Openness, and Activity. The presence of Openness in rhesus macaques suggests it is an ancestral characteristic. The absence of Conscientiousness suggests it is a derived characteristic in African apes. Higher Confidence and Friendliness, and lower Anxiety were prospectively related to subjective well-being, indicating that the connection between personality and subjective well-being in humans, chimpanzees, and orangutans is ancestral in catarrhine primates. As demonstrated here, each additional species studied adds another fold to the rich, historical story of primate personality evolution. PMID:21341912

  3. Lifelong Education for Subjective Well-Being: How Do Engagement and Active Citizenship Contribute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepke, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the question: how can lifelong education contribute to subjective well-being by engaging learners and fostering active citizenship? The question arises due to the fact that governments in the western world have identified well-being as an important policy driver. Well-being research suggests that subjective well-being,…

  4. Explaining subjective well-being: The role of victimization, trust, health, and social norms

    OpenAIRE

    Douhou, S.; van Soest, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends research on the relation between crime and happiness by investigating the impact of serious and less serious crime (i.e. incorrect behavior) on subjective well-being using a representative survey of the Dutch adult population in 2008. We also control for variables reflecting trust, health and social norms, in addition to standard demographic and socio-economic characteristics. We find that people who feel healthy, have more trust in others and have higher social norms are i...

  5. Subjective Memory in a National Sample: Predicting Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogle, Jacqueline A; Hill, Nikki; McDermott, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Individual perception of memory performance (i.e., subjective memory) is assessed using a variety of approaches. This article focuses on 2 such approaches: (1) self-comparison assessments that attempt to capture changes in memory ability over a period of time and (2) age-anchored comparisons that assess how an individual perceives their memory in relation to others their age. These different types of assessment may relate to psychological well-being differently due to the underlying mechanisms of assessment. The purpose of these analyses is to examine 2 measures of subjective memory (i.e., a self-comparison measure and an age-anchored comparison measure) as predictors of psychological well-being among adults in mid- and late life. Participants (n = 3,434) in the Midlife in the United States Study completed measures of subjective memory, depressive affect, and life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling was used to examine whether the self-comparison and age-anchored comparison measures had differential predictive utility regarding psychological well-being. Higher age-anchored comparison ratings were related to higher life satisfaction scores. There was a significant interaction between the 2 items such that individuals with lower ratings on both subjective memory measures had the poorest outcomes. Additionally, age-anchored comparisons interacted with age: older adults had the poorest outcomes when they reported poorer age-anchored comparisons. These findings highlight the importance of precise measurement in the consideration of subjective memory. How an individual was asked to rate his or her perception of memory influenced the relationships between subjective memory and psychological well-being. This study contributes valuable insight into the importance of the assessment models of subjective memory. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Compassionate love for a romantic partner, love styles and subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Neto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently a compassionate love scale was developed to assess compassionate love or altruistic love for different targets (e.g., romantic partner, close others and all the humanity; Sprecher & Fehr, 2005. This study was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Compassionate Love Scale in the Portuguese context. In addition, it has been examined how compassionate love for a romantic partner was related to socio-demographic variables, love styles, and subjective well-being. Two hundred and eighty one men and women participated (42% of women with a mean age of 21.89. All participants were currently in a romantic relationship. The Compassionate Love Scale shows satisfactory psychometric properties. Furthermore, our predictions were supported, as those who experience high levels of compassionate love for a romantic partner are more likely to report Eros and altruistic love (Agape, and subjective well-being.

  7. The impact of methamphetamine use on subjective well-being in an Internet survey: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2007-04-01

    Methamphetamine is one of the most widely used stimulants worldwide. Common reasons for use of the drug include efforts to improve or enhance one's life and to uplift one's mood. Nevertheless, acute effects of the drug lead to temporary improvements in mood followed by negative affect. The purpose of the present study was to expand on the current literature and examine other aspects of mood and satisfaction with life in methamphetamine users. Over 6000 adults completed an Internet survey and reported on depression, apathy, satisfaction with life, happiness, and subjective well-being, in addition to measures of methamphetamine use. We compared those who had used methamphetamine at least once within the past year (N = 610) to those who had never used (N = 6063). Methamphetamine use accounted for significant variance in depression, apathy, satisfaction with life, happiness, and subjective well-being even when alcohol and other drugs served as covariates. Methamphetamine use may decrease one's subjective well-being instead of enhancing it, which is contradictory to the perceptions of many users. Increasing awareness about methamphetamine's negative impact on mood and life satisfaction might help decrease prevalence of the drug's use and associated troubles. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Analyzing Trends in Subjective Well-Being in 15 European Countries, 1973-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2008-01-01

    Previous empirical research has been unable to find a sufficient correlation between subjective well-being and per capita income, being hampered by limited longitudinal information and an inability to account for the predictions of competing theories. We bring new evidence to this question......-being, accelerations in GDP growth do. In addition, faster GDP growth and faster growth of government consumption than in neighbouring countries induces positive trends in life satisfaction. Our findings are consistent with the predictions of aspirations theory and the theory of reference group comparisons.  ...

  9. Employment status and subjective well-being: The role of the social norm to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; Graaf, P.M. de

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct

  10. The Role of Basic Needs Fulfillment in Prediction of Subjective Well-Being among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkdogan, Turgut; Duru, Erdinc

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the role of fulfillment level of university students' basic needs in predicting the level of their subjective well being. The participants were 627 students (56% female, 44% male) attending different faculties of Pamukkale University. In this study, subjective well being was measured with Life Satisfaction Scale…

  11. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

  12. Subjective Well-Being in Rural India: The Curse of Conspicuous Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linssen, Rik; van Kempen, Luuk; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2011-01-01

    Using data on 697 individuals from 375 rural low income households in India, we test expectations on the effects of relative income and conspicuous consumption on subjective well-being. The results of the multi-level regression analyses show that individuals who spent more on conspicuous consumption report lower levels of subjective well-being.…

  13. The Subjective Well-Being of the Homeless, and Lessons for Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas-Diener, Robert; Diener, Ed

    2006-01-01

    The current study assessed the subjective well-being of a broad spectrum of homeless people. One-hundred-and-eighty-six homeless people from the streets of Calcutta (India), California, and a tent camp in Portland (Oregon) were interviewed, and responded to measures of subjective well-being. They answered questions about life satisfaction,…

  14. The Influence of Water Access in Subjective Well-Being: Some Evidence in Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Jorge; Gonzalez-Gomez, Francisco; Grajales, Angel Lendechy

    2013-01-01

    The literature on happiness or subjective well-being has explored the determinants of happiness without taking into consideration the role that water plays. In this paper we attempt to draw attention to water in subjective well-being studies. Approximately one hundred million people do not have access to water. A lack of clean water causes…

  15. Positive design : An introduction to design for subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.M.A.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how design can contribute to the happiness of individuals–to their subjective well-being. A framework for positive design is introduced that includes three main components of subjective well-being: pleasure, personal significance and virtue. Each component

  16. Employment status and subjective well-being : The role of the social norm to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; de Graaf, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct

  17. The Subjective Well-Being of Israeli Adolescents Attending Specialized School Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkibi, Hod; Ronen, Tammie; Assoulin, Naama

    2014-01-01

    Although adolescents' well-being has long been considered a central goal in therapy and education, research focusing on the link between subjective well-being (SWB; happiness) and studying in specialized school classes is rather limited. Using a between-subjects design, the present study examined whether adolescents studying in sports, arts, or…

  18. Subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kedde, H.; van de Wiel, H. B. M.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Wijsen, C.

    The aim of this study was to systematically describe the nature and context of subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer. Data on sexual behavior and subjective sexual well-being were collected through an internet questionnaire. Respondents were included if

  19. If, Why, and When Subjective Well-Being Influences Health, and Future Needed Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Pressman, Sarah D; Hunter, John; Delgadillo-Chase, Desiree

    2017-07-01

    We review evidence on whether subjective well-being (SWB) can influence health, why it might do so, and what we know about the conditions where this is more or less likely to occur. This review also explores how various methodological approaches inform the study of the connections between subjective well-being and health and longevity outcomes. Our review of this growing literature indicates areas where data are substantial and where much more research is needed. We conclude that SWB can sometimes influence health, and review a number of reasons why it does so. A key open question is when it does and does not do so-in terms of populations likely to be affected, types of SWB that are most influential (including which might be harmful), and types of health and illnesses that are most likely to be affected. We also describe additional types of research that are now much needed in this burgeoning area of interest, for example, cross-cultural studies, animal research, and experimental interventions designed to raise long-term SWB and assess the effects on physical health. This research area is characterised both by potentially extremely important findings, and also by pivotal research issues and questions. © 2017 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Applied Psychology.

  20. Exploring the socio-emotional factors associated with subjective well-being in the unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pilar Berrios

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the relations between dimensions of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI and classic constructs, such as social support, on depression, stress, and subjective well-being indicators (life satisfaction and happiness. The study also sought to determine whether PEI dimensions accounted for a significant portion of the variance beyond that of classic constructs in the study of depression, stress, and well-being outcomes in a sample of 442 unemployed subjects. Results indicated that social support and all PEI dimensions are found to be significant and negatively related to depression and stress, and these variables were also found to be significant and positively associated with life satisfaction and happiness. Additionally, results using regression analysis indicated that PEI, and specifically use of emotions and regulation of emotions, explain a significant amount of the variance of all outcomes after controlling for socio-demographics and social support dimensions. Finally, theoretical and practical implications of these constructs and their relation with psychological adjustment and well-being in unemployed people are discussed.

  1. Interaction Between Subjective Well-Being, Economic Activity and Education in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Gataūlinas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the impact of professional well-being of EU citizens on their life satisfaction at both micro and macro levels. The following indicators were selected to describe the professional well-being: involvment in the official employment, level of education, and job satisfaction. The findings of the article suggest that employed respondents evaluated their subjective well-being significantly higher as compared to those not participating in the labour market. Similar findings were drawn when comparing subjective well-being of the respondents in relation to their education. Respondents with higher education reported significantly higher statistically proven subjective well-being than those with lower education. In the article, the interpretation of the findings is based on the conceptual model of subjective well-being of needs as well as on the role of employment and education in satisfaction of physiological and socially acceptable needs of individuals. Work activity is more directly linked with the satisfaction of individual needs than education. However, engagement in work has only an impact on subjective well-being if work activity is perceived as job satisfaction. If employment is perceived by individuals as providing greater satisfaction, it tends to make a more positive impact on the subjective well-being of individuals compared to activities that are perceived as providing less satisfaction.

  2. The Multiple Dimensions of Transnationalism: Examining their Relevance to Immigrants’ Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Vaquera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data from a random representative survey of South Florida immigrants (n=1,268, our research examines different facets of transnationalism and how they relate to a typically overlooked component of immigrant incorporation–subjective well-being. We examine separately the affective and evaluative components of immigrants’ well-being in their country of reception—the United States—by differentiating between self-reported emotional well-being and self-reported satisfaction with life in the U.S. Findings support that the kinds and frequency of connections that immigrants maintain with the home country are important factors for understanding immigrants’ subjective well-being.

  3. Treatment adherence and subjective well-being in HIV/AIDS infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ana Catarina Rodrigues da Silva; Guerra, Marina Natália Prista; Lencastre, Leonor Mendes de Freitas Queirós E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between treatment adherence and subjective well-being (positive and negative affects and satisfaction with life) in HIV/AIDS infection. The empirical study was conducted at two Portuguese hospitals (Porto and Lisbon) with a sample of 197 outpatients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS attending the Infectology service and on antiretroviral medication, during a 6-month period (February-July 2009). All patients were asked for voluntary fulfillment of the questionnaire which recorded information on different socio-demographic variables. Clinical records were inspected in order to collect additional clinical information from the patients. The "Questionnaire to Assess Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment-HIV" was used in order to assess the adherence degree in Portuguese version of Reis et al. The Portuguese versions of "Positive and Negative Affect Schedule" (PANAS) and the "Satisfaction with Life Scale" were used to measure subjective well-being. The study collected evidence on the positive correlation between therapeutic adherence (assessed by CEAT-VIH) and positive affect, as well as between adherence and satisfaction with life. Differences in therapeutic adherence and positive affect according to some clinical variables were also found. The multiplicity and the interaction of several determinants are being considered in the adjustment process during treatment for HIV/AIDS. The results may have implications for the psychological intervention directed at improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

  4. Development and Initial Validation of a Multidimensional Scale Assessing Subjective Well-Being: The Well-Being Scale (WeBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, P Priscilla; Fernando, Gaithri A

    2017-01-01

    Numerous scales currently exist that assess well-being, but research on measures of well-being is still advancing. Conceptualization and measurement of subjective well-being have emphasized intrapsychic over psychosocial domains of optimal functioning, and disparate research on hedonic, eudaimonic, and psychological well-being lacks a unifying theoretical model. Lack of systematic investigations on the impact of culture on subjective well-being has also limited advancement of this field. The goals of this investigation were to (1) develop and validate a self-report measure, the Well-Being Scale (WeBS), that simultaneously assesses overall well-being and physical, financial, social, hedonic, and eudaimonic domains of this construct; (2) evaluate factor structures that underlie subjective well-being; and (3) examine the measure's psychometric properties. Three empirical studies were conducted to develop and validate the 29-item scale. The WeBS demonstrated an adequate five-factor structure in an exploratory structural equation model in Study 1. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that a bifactor structure best fit the WeBS data in Study 2 and Study 3. Overall WeBS scores and five domain-specific subscale scores demonstrated adequate to excellent internal consistency reliability and construct validity. Mean differences in overall well-being and its five subdomains are presented for different ethnic groups. The WeBS is a reliable and valid measure of multiple aspects of well-being that are considered important to different ethnocultural groups.

  5. The Structure of Subjective Well-Being and Its Relation to Objective Well-Being Indicators: Evidence from EU-SILC for Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladisavljević, Marko; Mentus, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we examine the structure of the subjective well-being and its relation to objective well-being indicators using the data from the European Union's Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) from Serbia. This is one of the first papers to analyze a new module on subjective well-being from EU-SILC micro-dataset (with over 20,000 respondents). We investigate the factor structure of the items and the differences in the association of subjective well-being dimensions with objective indicators of well-being within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Better Life Initiative framework. Three factors emerge from the principal components analysis: general life satisfaction, affective well-being, and satisfaction with the local environment. The analysis further reveals that life satisfaction is more related to the material living conditions, such as income, unemployment, and housing conditions, while affective well-being is more related to non-material indicators of well-being such as perceived health, personal security, and social connections. On the other hand, positive and negative affect within the affective well-being are not clearly separable, nor is the eudaimonic indicator from either life satisfaction or affective well-being.

  6. Measuring subjective well-being for policy purposes: The example of well-being indicators in the WHO "Health 2020" framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Mari Hagtvedt; Carlquist, Erik

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses the rationale for measuring national well-being, and examines the use of subjectively oriented well-being measures in the context of public policy. Recent years have witnessed growing attention towards the concept and measurement of well-being, both within academic disciplines, intergovernmental organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as in many governments across Europe, including the Nordic countries. Economic indicators have commonly been regarded as proxies of societal progress of nations, but indicators of well-being have increasingly been applied in order to complement or replace these measures. Well-being indicators of the WHO "Health 2020" framework are critically examined with particular attention given to the subjective aspects of well-being. Literature discussing the rationale for subjective indicators is reviewed. As a background, central theoretical and measurement perspectives on well-being are outlined, including hedonic, eudaimonic and objective list approaches. The WHO refers to well-being in definitions of health and mental health, but has primarily reported on disease. The "Health 2020" framework marked a shift in this concern. One of the main targets of "Health 2020" concerns well-being, involving six core indicators. Only one indicator refers to well-being as subjective experience. Literature supports more extensive use of subjective indicators in combination with objective measures. Although consensus on definitions and instruments is lacking, subjective and objective measures of national well-being may jointly contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of societal progress, as well as a broader conception of health. Further research is required, particularly with regard to eudaimonic indicators.

  7. Influence of Job Status on Subjective Well-Being of University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjective well-being (SWB) is increasingly becoming important to individuals in various professions, university lecturers inclusive. Observations show that individuals desire to live fulfilling lives as evaluated by them, most importantly, and by others around them. Therefore, it is believed that the well-being of any individual ...

  8. Pretend Play, Coping, and Subjective Well-Being in Children: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, Julie A.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers, the authors state, link play to cognitive and affective processes important for a child's development and overall well-being. In this article, the authors examine the relationships involving pretend play, coping, and subjective well-being (the last of which they conceptualize as positive affect--positive mood--and life satisfaction)…

  9. The Role of Musical Possible Selves in Supporting Subjective Well-Being in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan; Varvarigou, Maria; Gaunt, Helena; McQueen, Hilary; Pincas, Anita

    2014-01-01

    There is now an accepted need for initiatives that support older people's well-being. There is increasing evidence that active engagement with music has the potential to contribute to this. This paper explores the relationship between musical possible selves and subjective well-being in later life. The research reported here formed part of a…

  10. Recent life events and subjective well-being of personality disordered forensic outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Yvonne H. A.; de Ruiter, Corine; Schene, Aart H.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The majority of patients treated at forensic psychiatric outpatient facilities suffer from personality disorders, especially Cluster B disorders. Life events have been shown to influence subjective well-being, severity of psychopathology and delinquent behaviour of patients with different

  11. Employee subjective well-being and physiological functioning: An integrative model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Kuykendall

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that worker subjective well-being influences physiological functioning—an early signal of poor health outcomes. While several theoretical perspectives provide insights on this relationship, the literature lacks an integrative framework explaining the relationship. We develop a conceptual model explaining the link between subjective well-being and physiological functioning in the context of work. Integrating positive psychology and occupational stress perspectives, our model explains the relationship between subjective well-being and physiological functioning as a result of the direct influence of subjective well-being on physiological functioning and of their common relationships with work stress and personal resources, both of which are influenced by job conditions.

  12. Relationship between Income and Subjective Economic Well-Being: Absolute or Relative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Khashchenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of the absolute and relative income in determining the subjective economic well-being. It is shown that the relationship of the income to SEB is curvilinear with the increase of marginal utility for a higher income. At low income levels its effect on SEB is determined not by its absolute, but by its relative value based on the comparisons with the subjective standards of well-being.

  13. Review of some advances of the literature about predictive variables concerning subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Cajiao; Dennis Lissete Morales Arias; Genny Carolina Garzón Romero; Liliana Benavides Basante; José Leonardo Acevedo Rincón

    2013-01-01

    This review of scientific literature presents some tendencies, conceptual advances, empirical findings and tests that measure the predictive variables of subjective well-being. It was done through the search in bibliographical database like ProQuest, PsycArticles, Psyctest, OVID SP, books and Thesis. Two types of predictive variables were recognized- internal and external to the individual-. Both of them influence the achievement of the subjective well-being. Besides, the studies and conceptu...

  14. Subjective well-being: evidence from the different personality traits of online game teenager players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lily Shui-Lien

    2008-10-01

    This present study provides insight into the relationship between personality traits and the subjective well-being for online game teenager players in Taiwan. The questionnaire has been adopted in the cyber cafe shops in Taipei, Taiwan, and 134 usable questionnaires produced to be used for the final data analysis. The results demonstrate that Neuroticism and Agreeableness have significant negative influence and Openness has significant positive influence on subjective well-being.

  15. Injured athletes' rehabilitation beliefs and subjective well-being: the contribution of hope and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank J H; Hsu, Yawen

    2013-01-01

    Injuries are a significant problem in the world of sports. Hope and social support are very important features in providing psychological help as people face life challenges such as sport injuries. To examine how hope and social support uniquely and jointly predict postinjury rehabilitation beliefs, rehabilitation behavior, and subjective well-being. Cross-sectional study. Four sports-injury rehabilitation centers of local universities in Taiwan. A total of 224 injured Taiwanese collegiate student-athletes. The Trait Hope Scale, the Sports Injury Rehabilitation Beliefs Survey, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affective and Negative Affective Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were completed by participants after they received their regular rehabilitation treatment. We conducted hierarchical regressions and found that social support and 2 types of hope in injured athletes predicted their rehabilitation beliefs and subjective well-being. However, only hope agency predicted their rehabilitation behavior. Also, hope and social support had an interactive effect on the prediction of subjective well-being; for participants with low hope pathways, the perception of more social support was associated with higher levels of subjective well-being, whereas social support had only a relatively low association with subjective well-being among participants with high hope pathways. Enhancing hope perceptions and strengthening injured athletes' social support during rehabilitation are beneficial to rehabilitation behavior and subjective well-being.

  16. Injured Athletes' Rehabilitation Beliefs and Subjective Well-Being: The Contribution of Hope and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank J. H; Hsu, Yawen

    2013-01-01

    Context Injuries are a significant problem in the world of sports. Hope and social support are very important features in providing psychological help as people face life challenges such as sport injuries. Objective To examine how hope and social support uniquely and jointly predict postinjury rehabilitation beliefs, rehabilitation behavior, and subjective well-being. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Four sports-injury rehabilitation centers of local universities in Taiwan. Participants A total of 224 injured Taiwanese collegiate student-athletes. Main Outcomes Measure(s) The Trait Hope Scale, the Sports Injury Rehabilitation Beliefs Survey, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affective and Negative Affective Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were completed by participants after they received their regular rehabilitation treatment. Results We conducted hierarchical regressions and found that social support and 2 types of hope in injured athletes predicted their rehabilitation beliefs and subjective well-being. However, only hope agency predicted their rehabilitation behavior. Also, hope and social support had an interactive effect on the prediction of subjective well-being; for participants with low hope pathways, the perception of more social support was associated with higher levels of subjective well-being, whereas social support had only a relatively low association with subjective well-being among participants with high hope pathways. Conclusions Enhancing hope perceptions and strengthening injured athletes' social support during rehabilitation are beneficial to rehabilitation behavior and subjective well-being. PMID:23672330

  17. Review of some advances of the literature about predictive variables concerning subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Cajiao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review of scientific literature presents some tendencies, conceptual advances, empirical findings and tests that measure the predictive variables of subjective well-being. It was done through the search in bibliographical database like ProQuest, PsycArticles, Psyctest, OVID SP, books and Thesis. Two types of predictive variables were recognized- internal and external to the individual-. Both of them influence the achievement of the subjective well-being. Besides, the studies and conceptualization about Subjetive well-being and some of the Predictive Variables were analyzed in the conclusion.

  18. The dyadic interaction of relationships and disability type on informal carer subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Thomas; Weinberg, Melissa K; Cummins, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    Care-related factors have frequently been associated with elevated levels of distress and diminished subjective well-being. However, these variables have traditionally been considered independently. The objectives of this study were to explore the subjective well-being of informal carers in Australia and to specifically examine the effect of the dyadic interaction between the caring relationship and type of disability on the subjective well-being of informal carers. Informal carers (n = 4,096) completed the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) and Depression and Stress Scales. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the subjective well-being of carers to the general population while controlling for socio-demographic factors. To examine the dyadic relationship, a multivariate analysis of covariance was employed. After socio-demographic variables were controlled, informal carers reported significantly lower PWI scores compared to the general population. The results of the multivariate analysis of covariance revealed a significant interaction between the caring relationship and the type of disability being managed on subjective well-being. No differences were found for symptoms of depression and stress. The findings of this study imply that the detrimental effect of caring on subjective well-being is magnified for carers who support a child with a mental illness or multiple types of disabilities. These carers displayed the lowest levels of subjective well-being, highlighting the dyadic effects of care-related variables. Consideration of these factors is essential to target effective intervention programs for those most at risk of diminished well-being.

  19. Subjective Well-being and Partnership Dynamics; Are Same-sex Relationships Different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Shuai; van Ours, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Partnered individuals are happier than singles. This can be because partnership leads to more satisfactory subjective well-being or because happier people are more likely to find a partner. We analyze Dutch panel data to investigate whether there is a causal effect of partnership on subjective

  20. Quality of Life and Leisure Activities: How Do Leisure Activities Contribute to Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajsa-Zganec, Andreja; Merkas, Marina; Sverko, Iva

    2011-01-01

    The quality of life is determined with objective factors and also with subjective perception of factors which influence human life. Leisure activities play a very important role in subjective well-being because they provide opportunities to meet life values and needs. Through participation in leisure activities people build social relationships,…

  1. Mindfulness, perceived stress, and subjective well-being: a correlational study in primary care health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanes, Ana C M; Andreoni, Solange; Hirayama, Marcio S; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Barros, Viviam V; Ronzani, Telmo M; Kozasa, Eliza H; Soler, Joaquim; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Demarzo, Marcelo M P

    2015-09-02

    Primary health care professionals (PHPs) usually report high levels of distress and burnout symptoms related to job strain. Mindfulness, defined as non-judgmental-present-moment awareness, seems to be a moderator in the causal association between life stressors and well-being. This study aimed to verify correlations among self-reported mindfulness, perceived stress (PS), and subjective well-being (SW) in Brazilian PHPs. We performed a correlational cross-sectional study in a purposive sample of Brazilian PHPs (physicians, nurses, nursing assistants, and community health workers), working in community-oriented primary care programs (known locally as "Family Health Programs"). We used validated self-reporting instruments: the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Subjective Well-being Scale (SWS). We performed a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), through regression coefficients (beta) in relation to the professional category (nursing assistant), in addition to the length of time in the same job (under than 6 months) that had indicated the lowest level of PS. Participants (n=450) comprised community health workers (65.8%), nursing assistants (18%), registered nurses (10.0%), and doctors (family physicians) (6.0%); 94% were female and 83.1% had worked in the same position for more than one year. MANOVA regression analysis showed differences across professional categories and length of time in the same job position in relation to mindfulness, PS, and SW. Nurses demonstrated lower levels of mindfulness, higher PS, and SW negative affect, as well as lower SW positive affect. Being at work for 1 year or longer showed a clear association with higher PS and lower SW positive affect, and no significance with mindfulness levels. Pearson's coefficient values indicated strong negative correlations between mindfulness and PS, and medium correlations between mindfulness and SW. In this study, there were clear correlations

  2. Combat exposure, social relationships, and subjective well-being among middle-aged and older Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mai See; Burr, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    This study described the association of subjective well-being with combat exposure and social relationships among middle-aged and older Veteran men in the USA. The stress-buffering hypothesis, which predicts social relationships may moderate the association between combat exposure and subjective well-being, was also examined. Data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study (N = 2961) were used to estimate logistic regression models, focusing on three measures of subjective well-being: depression, life satisfaction, and self-reported health. In the fully adjusted models, there were no statistically significant relationships between combat exposure and the three indicators of subjective well-being. However, compared to Veterans who had lower scores on the social relationship index, Veterans who had higher scores were less likely to be depressed and less likely to report poor or fair health. Veterans who had higher scores on the social relationships index reported higher levels of life satisfaction than those Veterans who had lower scores. There was no evidence for a social relationships buffering effect. The results of this study demonstrated that combat exposure did not have a long-term relationship with subjective well-being. Longitudinal research designs with more comprehensive indicators of combat exposure may help researchers better understand some of the underlying complexity of this relationship. Complementary research with samples of women Veterans, as well as samples of Hispanic, and non-Black, non-White Veterans, is also needed.

  3. Exploring compatibility between subjective well-being and sustainable living in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karsten Bruun

    2015-01-01

    to be in place: subjective well-being (Subjective well-being comprises in this paper; (1) “hedonic well-being”, characterized by materialistic oriented values, such as; material possessions, -pleasure, -comfort and positive emotions, and (2) “eudaimonic well-being”, such as; meaning in life, feelings of vitality......, personal flourishing, and social relations.) in Sweden, for example, has stagnated for the well-off middle and upper classes since the 1980s. In some of the most affluent welfare societies in the world, well-off persons have trouble finding meaning in life, eudaimonic well-being (EWB), although levels...... of hedonic well-being have grown continuously. Apparently economic prosperity is not a key factor providing meaning and personal flourishing. Based on social constructivist theory, this paper reveals leisure time as a important sources providing EWB in terms of shaping frames for existential meaning...

  4. A pilot study of subjective well-being in colorectal cancer patients and their caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Janet Graham,1 Pavlina Spiliopoulou,1 Rob Arbuckle,2 Julie Ann Bridge,3 James Cassidy1 1Department of Medical Oncology, Beatson, West of Scotland Cancer Center, Glasgow, UK, 2Adelphi Values, Adelphi Mill Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK; 3Eli Lilly Pty Ltd., West Ryde, NSW, Australia Background: Traditional endpoints in oncology are based on measuring the tumor size and combining this with a time factor. Current studies with immunotherapy show that even when median survival is unaltered, a significant proportion of patients can achieve prolonged survival. Objective tumor response does not always mean “overall” improvement, especially if toxicity is harsh. Novel agents are significantly expensive, and it is therefore crucial to measure the impact on “quality” of life, in addition to “quantity”.Materials and methods: We studied the preferences and experiences of cancer patients and their caregivers, measuring subjective well-being (SWB ratings, EQ5D descriptions and time trade-off preferences.Results: We studied 99 patients and 88 caregivers. Life satisfaction ratings were similar between the two groups, but daily mood was significantly lower in caregivers (P<0.1. Anxiety/depression affected SWB, while pain and mobility did not. Positive thoughts about health were associated with better daily moods in both groups, and stage IV cancer was associated with lower life satisfaction. Cancer in remission was associated with better daily moods, but, interestingly, not with patient life satisfaction. Patients with better daily mood and positive thoughts about family were less willing to “trade-off” life years.Conclusion: Caregivers are as anxious or depressed as patients, and report similar levels of life satisfaction but lower daily mood. A focus on SWB could provide a valid assessment of treatment benefit. Given the interesting results of this pilot study, we suggest a larger study should be conducted, measuring SWB over time. Keywords

  5. Exposure to Domestic and Community Violence and Subjective Well-Being in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralúcia Gil da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract There is major exposure to domestic and community violence during adolescence, which has been negatively related to well-being. This work aimed to identify relationships between domestic and community violence and the levels of subjective well-being perceived by adolescents, considering sex and age. The participants were 426 adolescents from public schools in the south of Brazil; 62% were girls, with a mean age of 14.91 years old ( SD = 1.65, who answered one instrument about exposure to violence and another about well-being. Results indicated greater domestic violence exposure among girls and greater community exposure among boys. The age range from 16 to 18 years old was the most exposed to domestic violence. Boys reported greater well-being and less negative affect. Differences in violence exposure may be related to roles of gender in our society. Well-being promotion is highlighted as a resource for confronting violence among adolescents.

  6. Stress and subjective well-being among first year UK undergraduate students

    OpenAIRE

    Denovan, Andrew; Macaskill, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Transition to university is stressful and successful adjustment is imperative for well-being. Historically research on transitional stress focussed on negative outcomes and ill health. This is the first UK study applying a positive psychology approach to investigate the characteristics that facilitate adjustment among new university students. A range of psychological strengths conceptualised as covitality factors, shown individually to influence the stress and subjective well-being (SWB) rela...

  7. Sexual Health and Positive Subjective Well-Being in Partnered Older Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, David; Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We examine the associations between different patterns of sexual behavior and function, and three indicators of subjective well-being (SWB) covering eudemonic, evaluative and affective well-being in a representative sample of partnered older people. Method. Using data from a sexual relationships and activities questionnaire (SRA-Q) in wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, latent class analysis (LCA) identified groups characterized by distinctive patterns of sexual be...

  8. The Structure of the Subjective Economic Well-being Depending on Its Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Hashchenko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the new approach to studying the psychology of the economic well-being, i.e. structural-level. From its position the subjective economic well-being is revealed as polyphenomenological formation, the contents and specificity of which are defined by the natural organization of the system of its structural formations. The new data are submitted, allowing to establish and explain a number of features and laws of the organization of SEW.

  9. Exposure to Domestic and Community Violence and Subjective Well-Being in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Doralúcia Gil da; Dell'Aglio, Débora Dalbosco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is major exposure to domestic and community violence during adolescence, which has been negatively related to well-being. This work aimed to identify relationships between domestic and community violence and the levels of subjective well-being perceived by adolescents, considering sex and age. The participants were 426 adolescents from public schools in the south of Brazil; 62% were girls, with a mean age of 14.91 years old ( SD = 1.65), who answered one instrument about exposu...

  10. Subjective well-being, personality, demographic variables, and American state differences in smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2010-09-01

    The present study was conducted to determine relations between smoking prevalence, subjective well-being, and the Big Five personality variables at the American state level. State smoking prevalence was based on the responses of more than 350,000 adults interviewed in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2008. Subjective well-being was based on the state-aggregated responses of 353,039 adults to the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index phone interviews during 2008. Big Five variables were based on the state-aggregated responses of 619,397 persons to an Internet survey between 1999 and 2005, which included the 44-item Big Five Inventory. Well-being and smoking prevalence were negatively correlated and remained so when state Big Five, socioeconomic status (SES), White population percent, urban population percent, and median age were controlled in a partial correlation. Hierarchical and stepwise multiple regressions showed (a) that SES and neuroticism were the prime predictors of well-being, (b) that well-being was the prime predictor of smoking prevalence, and (c) that openness to experience was the sole personality or demographic variable to account for differences in smoking prevalence when well-being was controlled, and it explained very little of the remaining variance. Applied implications for state-tailored attempts to reduce smoking are briefly discussed, and suggestions for future research directions are put forward.

  11. Personality and subjective well-being in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; King, James E; Perkins, Lori

    2006-03-01

    Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii) are semisolitary apes and, among the great apes, the most distantly related to humans. Raters assessed 152 orangutans on 48 personality descriptors; 140 of these orangutans were also rated on a subjective well-being questionnaire. Principal-components analysis yielded 5 reliable personality factors: Extraversion, Dominance, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Intellect. The authors found no factor analogous to human Conscientiousness. Among the orangutans rated on all 48 personality descriptors and the subjective well-being questionnaire, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and low Neuroticism were related to subjective well-being. These findings suggest that analogues of human, chimpanzee, and orangutan personality domains existed in a common ape ancestor. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Subjective well-being among Episcopal priests: predictors and comparisons to non-clinical norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Sicking, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    Few studies of the clergy have examined emotional well-being using normed measures. This study examined subjective well-being among 1,581 non-retired Episcopal priests. Subjective well-being was measured with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Predictors of subjective well-being were measured with the Dispositional Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991) and scales of personal practices, social support, congregational dynamics, fit, and economic satisfaction. Participants reported more positive affect (Hedges's g = 1.19), more negative affect (Hedges's g = 0.61) and more satisfaction with life (Hedges's g = 0.73) than nonclinical norms. Hope agency was the strongest predictor for positive affect and satisfaction with life; stress was the strongest predictor for negative affect and partially mediated the effect of congregational dynamics and fit on this outcome. Results suggest that prevention programs must focus on all aspects of subjective well-being and consider the direct effects of different levels of the ecosystem to be effective.

  13. Leisure participation and subjective well-being: Exploring gender differences among elderly in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Feng, Qiushi; Lacanienta, Joy; Zhen, Zhihong

    To explore the association between leisure participation and subjective well-being and the role gender in this issue among elderly Chinese in Shanghai, China. Principal components analysis and logistic regressions are used to analyze the cross-sectional data of the 2013 Shanghai Elderly Life and Opinion Survey that contains 2884 respondents (60+ with a mean age of 72.6) recruited from a multistage cluster sampling design. Subjective well-being is measured by happiness and life satisfaction, and leisure participation is examined by the type and diversity of leisure activities. Principal components analysis identifies four major types of leisure activity that elderly Chinese are actively engaged in-detachment-recovery, aesthetic, social, and performing-arts activities. Among them, social activities and performing-arts activities have the most relevance to subjective well-being. Females are more likely to engage in social and performing-arts activities whereas males are more likely to engage in detachment-recovery and aesthetic activities. Performing-arts activities promote subjective well-being only for females. Social activities are beneficial for both gender groups, but more so for males than for females. While increased levels of leisure diversity are linearly related to increased odds of subjective well-being for females, moderate level of leisure diversity is found to be the most important for males. Leisure participation is positively related to subjective well-being among elderly Chinese, and thus could play a critical role in promoting healthy aging. The major gender differences as observed suggest the need to further explore gender-specific barriers in leisure participation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Building a profile of subjective well-being for social media users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lushi; Gong, Tao; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Davidson, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Subjective well-being includes 'affect' and 'satisfaction with life' (SWL). This study proposes a unified approach to construct a profile of subjective well-being based on social media language in Facebook status updates. We apply sentiment analysis to generate users' affect scores, and train a random forest model to predict SWL using affect scores and other language features of the status updates. Results show that: the computer-selected features resemble the key predictors of SWL as identified in early studies; the machine-predicted SWL is moderately correlated with the self-reported SWL (r = 0.36, p social media language.

  15. Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kross, Ethan; Verduyn, Philippe; Demiralp, Emre; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, David Seungjae; Lin, Natalie; Shablack, Holly; Jonides, John; Ybarra, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our re...

  16. Building a profile of subjective well-being for social media users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Davidson, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Subjective well-being includes ‘affect’ and ‘satisfaction with life’ (SWL). This study proposes a unified approach to construct a profile of subjective well-being based on social media language in Facebook status updates. We apply sentiment analysis to generate users’ affect scores, and train a random forest model to predict SWL using affect scores and other language features of the status updates. Results show that: the computer-selected features resemble the key predictors of SWL as identified in early studies; the machine-predicted SWL is moderately correlated with the self-reported SWL (r = 0.36, p social media language. PMID:29135991

  17. THE EFFECT OF FRIENDSHIP SKILLS TRAINING ON FRIENDSHIP QUALITY AND SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING OF ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Çekiç; Aykut Kul; Ayşenur Çetin; Ümmügülsüm Cihangiroğlu

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of friendship skills training on the quality of friendship and subjective well-being of adolescents. In order to determine the experimental and control groups, the Friendship Quality Scale and the Adolescent Subjective Well-Being Scale were administered to 311 students in 9th, 10th and 11th grade classes from a state school in İskenderun in Hatay during the 2015-2016 education year. As a result, 21 students who had lower than average scores were included...

  18. Psychological Safety of Educational Environment and Subjective Well-Being of Trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyusova Oksana Valeryevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The federal government standard defines educational objectives of education and development of such a person who can meet their needs, as well as the needs of society and the state. The standard combines individual, public and state needs. The new standard requires the teaching staff of the institution to create conditions for subjective well-being of trainees. Subjective well-being is regarded as the emotional state of the integral human satisfaction with various aspects of their life and life in general. An important condition for psychological well-being is a specially arranged educational environment in which the student is a significant part of it. Safety is an integral indicator of satisfaction, security, referential educational environment. To study this problem the security educational environment was monitored among schools. The total number of respondents amounted to 810 persons. The main purpose of the monitoring is to provide objective and reliable information about the security role of the educational environment in the formation of subjective well-being of students. The strongest link between security of the educational environment and the subjective wellbeing of students was revealed at schools that implemented pilot programs, innovative projects, in-depth studies of particular subjects. They were identified as protective factors of the educational environment.

  19. Maternal subjective well-being and preventive health care system in Japan and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hakulinen, Tuovi; Sugimoto, Masako; Silventoinen, Karri; Kalland, Mirjam

    2017-12-19

    Maternal well-being is an important issue not only for mothers but also for their offspring and whole families. This study aims to clarify differences in subjective well-being for mothers with infants and associated factors by comparing Japanese and Finnish mothers. In Finland, 101 mothers with infants who received health check-ups at child's age 4 months participated in the study. In Japan, 505 mothers with infants who should receive health check-ups at child's age 4 months and, whose age, age of the infant and number of children matched with the Finnish mothers were selected. The factors associated with maternal subjective well-being were explored by the linear regression analysis. All Finnish mothers had individual infant health check-ups by nurses in Child Health Clinics nearly monthly. The same nurse was responsible for following up the family throughout the years. All Japanese participants received group health check-up once at child's age 3 to 4 months, and a nurse did not cover same child and their mother. Finnish mothers showed significantly better subjective well-being compared with Japanese mothers. Whereas 85% of Finnish mothers responded that they had obtained childcare information from public health nurses, significantly fewer Japanese mothers indicated the same response (8%). Linear regression analyses disclosed that mothers' subjective well-being was associated with country, mothers' stress and age. Finnish mothers had better subjective well-being than Japanese mothers. Our results may indicate that the Finnish health care system supports mothers better than the Japanese health care system does.

  20. Adolescent mothers' subjective well-being and mothering challenges in a Yoruba community, southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Agunbiade Ojo; Uzoma, Udenkor Vera

    2012-01-01

    Well-being varies within cultures and context. Studies on the well-being and mothering challenges of adolescents in Nigeria have focused on the general poor well-being of adolescent mothers rather than exploring their agency and subjective well-being within specific context. This study explores adolescent mothers' (13-20 years) subjective well-being by focusing on their childbirth, mothering experiences, and available network of supports. Thirty face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted through the support of four informants and peer referrals. Content analysis was used to identify salient themes and patterns. Findings showed that a high proportion of the adolescent mothers had stigmatizing experiences among which include dropping out of school, and lack of supports from families, friends, and the society. Where available, supports were perceived as inadequate in contributing to their well-being and that of their children. Some of the adolescent mothers were apprehensive of losing their children to ill health while emphasizing that their present challenges could affect their children's future. However, the adolescent mothers invoked their agency by subtly using strategies such as petty trading and apprenticeship to reduce the social consequences of unintended pregnancy and earn a living. Recognizing adolescent mothers' agency in policies targeted toward their empowerment would be of benefit.

  1. Gratitude and Subjective Well-Being in Early Adolescence: Examining Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Jeffrey J.; Yurkewicz, Charles; Kashdan, Todd B.

    2009-01-01

    Gratitude was examined among 154 students to identify benefits from its experience and expression. Students completed measures of subjective well-being, social support, prosocial behavior, and physical symptoms. Positive associations were found between gratitude and positive affect, global and domain specific life satisfaction, optimism, social…

  2. Gender Differences in Contextual Predictors of Urban, Early Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Moallem, B. Isabel; Vacek, Kimberly R.; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura D.; Gomez, Kenia L.; Lamp, Kristen; Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Luginbuhl, Paula; Mull, Megan K.; Telander, Kyle J.; Steele, J. Corey

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in predicting subjective well-being (SWB) were examined in 168 urban adolescents. School satisfaction predicted life satisfaction for boys; for girls, family satisfaction predicted life satisfaction and neighborhood satisfaction predicted negative affect. Self-esteem predicted positive affect for both genders, but friends…

  3. Explaining subjective well-being : the role of victimization, trust, health and social norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douhou, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends research on the relation between crime and happiness by investigating the impact of serious and less serious crime (i.e. incorrect behavior) on subjective well-being using a representative survey of the Dutch adult population in 2008. We also control for variables reflecting

  4. Do Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Major economic crises tend to be followed by crises in subjective well-being. Following the financial and debt crises, politicians and social scientists have engaged in heated discussions of ways to alleviate such losses. In particular, should governments intervene more or less? This paper explores...

  5. The Effectiveness of a Peer-Helping Programme That Increases Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a peer-helping programme in increasing the subjective well-being of a group of university students compared with a control group with the same characteristics who did not receive the intervention. The intervention recipients consisted of 13 male and 17 female participants. The peer helpers…

  6. Subjective Well-being of Primary Health Care Patients in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients living with a chronic illness face many challenges in their lives such as an altered body image, physical pain or discomfort, the need for frequent medical visits and the negative side effects of treatment. To this extent their sense of personal or subjective well-being may be compromised by the severity ...

  7. Editorial: Subjective well-being in Africa | Botha | African Review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Review of Economics and Finance. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial: Subjective well-being in Africa.

  8. Contextual and psychological variables in a descriptive model of subjective well-being and school engagement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Arantzazu; Ramos-Díaz, Estibaliz; Fernández-Zabala, Arantza; Goñi, Eider; Goñi, Alfredo; Esnaola, Igor

    2016-01-01

    ...), aged between 12 and 15 years (M = 13.72, SD =1.09), randomly selected. We used a structural equation model to analyze the effects of perceived social support, self-concept and resilience on subjective well-being and school engagement. Results...

  9. Discrimination and subjective well-being: protective influences of membership in a discriminated category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnilica, Karel

    2011-03-01

    Research reveals that discrimination has harmful effects on health and quality of life. Among the most frequent types of discrimination pertains gender and age discrimination. Research results show that discriminatory behaviours based on gender afflict predominantly women; age discrimination afflicts mainly older adults. At the same time, it has been found that members of these traditionally discriminated categories often use strategies that mitigate the effects of discrimination. Discrimination will have detrimental effects on subjective well-being. But its effects will be most harmful for persons who are not members of the traditionally discriminated categories. These hypotheses were tested on data from three waves of the European Social Survey that the Czech Republic also participated in. Data were analyzed in a series of multilevel random coefficients regression analyses with respondents nested within states and states nested within years of study. Both perceived gender discrimination and perceived age discrimination have negative effects on subjective well-being. However, gender discrimination had more harmful effects on the subjective well-being of men than women and age discrimination had the most harmful effects on the subjective well-being of people in their middle ages, not the elderly ones. Discrimination does not need to have most harmful effects on the quality of life of members of the categories that are discriminated against most often.

  10. Relationships among Emotional and Intellectual Overexcitability, Emotional IQ, and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beduna, Kerry; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on intellectual and emotional overexcitabilities and their relationship to emotional intelligence and subjective well-being. Dabrowski's (1964) theory of positive disintegration (TPD), which proposes that optimum personality development involves the breaking down of current psychological structures, in which individuals…

  11. How Is Gender Self-Confidence Related to Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Rose Marie

    2006-01-01

    This study of ethnically diverse participants explored the relationship of gender self-confidence to subjective well-being. The 2 components of gender self-confidence (gender self-definition and gender self-acceptance) were assessed using the Hoffman Gender Scale (R. M. Hoffman, 1996; R. M. Hoffman, L. D. Borders, & J. A. Hattie, 2000). The…

  12. Culture, Parental Conflict, Parental Marital Status, and the Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohm, Carol L.; Oishi, Shigehiro; Darlington, Janet; Diener, Ed

    1998-01-01

    Study 1 found that subjective well-being was negatively associated with marital conflict among offspring of never-divorced and remarried parents. Study 2 found that the negative association of divorce and of marital conflict with the life satisfaction of the offspring did not differ for adopted young adults. (Author/MKA)

  13. New Findings and Future Directions for Subjective Well-Being Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings on subjective well-being (SWB) are presented, and I describe the important questions for future research that these raise. Worldwide predictors of SWB such as social support and fulfillment of basic needs have been uncovered, and there are large differences in SWB between societies. A number of culture-specific predictors of SWB…

  14. Global Judgments of Subjective Well-Being: Situational Variability and Long-Term Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Michael; Diener, Ed

    2004-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) is an important indicator of quality of life. SWB can be conceptualized as a momentary state (e.g., mood) as well as a relatively stable trait (e.g., life satisfaction). The validity of self-reported trait aspects of SWB has been questioned by experimental studies showing that SWB judgments seem to be strongly context…

  15. Predictors of labor satisfaction an subjective well-being of Health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Paris

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the predictors of job satisfaction and subjective well-being in health professionals. We worked with a sample of 99 nurses and 97 doctors from Rosario city (Argentina. The subjects completed a questionnaire of personal data, two scales developed for this study (Care Stressors, and Coping with Care Stress, Job Satisfaction Scale (Shouksmith, 1990, and Subjective Well-being Inventory (Nacpal & Shell, 1992. Number of weekly working hours, problem-solving coping, satisfaction with life, and some dimensions of well-being (such as correspondence between expectations and achievements, the adequate mental management, and emotional support of family group, emerged as the strongest predictors of work satisfaction. Differences in function of the profession showed that, the best predictors, among physicians, are family and organizational support, and coherence between expectations and achievements (regarding salaries and promotion opportunities. In contrast, among nurses, only highlighted the use of cooperative coping as an explanatory variable. In relation to subjective well-being, the results showed that the best predictors are the following: having children, working more hours per week, perceiving organizational justice, using problem-solving coping, and being satisfied with their development of skills and capacities. The only difference in function of the profession shows that nurses respond to stressors using emotional distance and recreational leisure more often than doctors do.

  16. Family Ties, Friendships, and Subjective Well-Being among Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher G.

    1990-01-01

    Examined relationships between kinship, friendships, and subjective well-being of Black adults, using data from National Survey of Black Americans. The results indicated, although number of friends was positively related to happiness regardless of age, other aspects of friendship varied by age; size, density, and intimacy of friendship networks…

  17. The Relationship of Coping, Self-Worth, and Subjective Well-Being: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Catalano, Denise; Ebener, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between various coping-related variables and the evaluation of self-worth and subjective well-being among persons with spinal cord injury. Positive coping variables included hope, proactive coping style, and sense of humor, whereas negative coping variables included perceptions of stress,…

  18. Gratitude, Gratitude Intervention and Subjective Well-Being among Chinese School Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the dispositional gratitude and its relationships with orientations to happiness and burnout in a sample of 96 Chinese school teachers in Hong Kong and investigated the effectiveness of an eight-week gratitude intervention programme using a pre-test/post-test design with outcome measures of subjective well-being in the same…

  19. The What, Why, When, and How of Teaching the Science of Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Scollon, Christie Napa

    2014-01-01

    The field of subjective well-being (SWB), or happiness, has become a thriving area of science, with over 10,000 publications per year on the topic in recent years. Discoveries about the causes and processes involved in SWB range widely, from culture to biology to circumstances, providing instructors an opportunity to draw broadly on concepts from…

  20. Satisfaction with travel and subjective well-being: development and test of a measurement tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Gärling, T.; Eriksson, L.; Friman, M.; Olsson, L.E.; Fujii, S.

    2011-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) that includes individuals’ cognitive and affective evaluations of life in general is proposed to be a more appropriate measure capturing the benefits individuals derive from travel improvements. We develop and testa measure of travel-related SWB, the nine item self-report

  1. Exploring Subjective Well-being in Older Age by Using Participant-generated Word Clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Linden; Steverink, Nardi; Hutter, Inge; Meijering, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Previous research has overlooked the heterogeneity in older adults' personal conceptions of subjective well-being (SWB), by not taking into account intradomain differences in the conceptions of SWB for different groups of older adults. The aim of this article is therefore to

  2. Children with Special Education Needs and Subjective Well-Being: Social and Personal Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Tania; Bilimória, Helena; Albergaria, Francisca; Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents with cognitive and developmental difficulties show difficulty in social interaction, feelings of rejection, autonomy, social rules and in behavioural and emotional self-regulation. Importantly, their subjective well-being is associated to social support and personal factors, such as self-esteem and a positive self-image.…

  3. Amputation, phantom pain and subjective well-being : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, J.C.; Suurmeijer, T.P.B.M.; Hulsink, M.; van der Schans, C.P.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the impact of an amputation and of phantom pain on the subjective well-being of amputees. Sixteen lower-limb amputees were interviewed. A semi-structured interview and two Visual Analogue Scales were used. To interpret the results, a new

  4. A Short Introduction to Subjective Well-being: Measurement, Correlates and Policy Uses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, A.A.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Since the emergence of the field over five decades ago, the subjective well-being (SWB; e.g. self-reported happiness or life satisfaction) literature has progressed rapidly. This overview discusses the state of the art in the measurement of SWB, the understanding of the factors determining SWB,

  5. Subjective Well-Being in Urban, Ethnically Diverse Adolescents the Role of Stress and Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura; Gomez, Kenia; Jorgenson, Katherine; Luginbuhl, Paula; Moallem, Isabel; Steele, John C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines stressors, general stress levels, coping strategies, and subjective well-being in a sample of 144 ethnically diverse, urban adolescents (mean age of 13). The most frequently reported stressors include the death of a family member, feeling socially isolated, family financial problems, injury of a family member, and parents…

  6. Dimensions of national culture as predictors of cross-national differences in subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Hatzichristou, C; Wensink, J; Rosenberg, E; van Twillert, B; Stedema, J; Meijer, D

    The value of predicting cross-national variations in Subjective Well-Being (SWB) from Hofstede's dimensions of national culture (1980) was examined using data collected in 36 nations; The Hofstede dimensions were: Individualism-Collectivism (IDV), Power Distance (PDI), Masculinity-Femininity (MAS),

  7. Teacher Support and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being: A Mixed-Methods Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Friedrich, Allison A.; White, Tiffany; Farmer, Jennie; Minch, Devon; Michalowski, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' subjective well-being (SWB) is associated with a variety of schooling experiences, particularly their perceptions of teacher support. This article presents results of a mixed-methods study conducted to identify which types of perceived social support enacted by teachers are most strongly associated with middle school students' SWB…

  8. Top-down versus bottom-up theories of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Headey; R. Veenhoven (Ruut); A.J. Wearing

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses issues of causal direction in research on subjective well being (SWB). Previous researchers have generally assumed that such variables as domain satisfactions, social support, life events, and levels of expectation and aspiration are causes of SWB. Critics have

  9. Counting Blessings in Early Adolescents: An Experimental Study of Gratitude and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Jeffery J.; Sefick, William J.; Emmons, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The development and manifestation of gratitude in youth is unclear. We examined the effects of a grateful outlook on subjective well-being and other outcomes of positive psychological functioning in 221 early adolescents. Eleven classes were randomly assigned to either a gratitude, hassles, or control condition. Results indicated that counting…

  10. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  11. Which social needs are important for subjective well-being? What happens to them with aging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steverink, N; Lindenberg, S

    In this study the authors investigated how satisfaction levels of affection, behavioral confirmation, and status, as three human social needs, relate to age, physical loss, and subjective well-being. Results (N = 883, aged 65 to 98 years) revealed that (a) affection was relatively high and status

  12. Subjective Well-Being Approach to Environmental Valuation: Evidence for Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beja, Edsel L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The subjective well-being approach to environmental valuation is applied to analyze the valuation of greenhouse gas emissions with a fairness-adjustment in the valuation exercise. Results indicate that industrialized countries have high willingness-to-pay to reduce emissions. Developing countries differ in their valuations. Results indicate that…

  13. Self Esteem, Locus of Control and Multidimensional Perfectionism as the Predictors of Subjective Well Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Zeynep; Tagay, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism, and the extent to which the variables of self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism contribute to the prediction of subjective well-being. The study was carried out with 318 final…

  14. The Relationship between Subjective Well-Being and Vocational Personality Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between subjective well-being (SWB) and Holland's Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (RIASEC) model. It was hypothesized that individuals resembling Social and Enterprising vocational personality types would report higher SWB than those resembling other personality types.…

  15. Do Immigrants Suffer More From Job Loss? Unemployment and Subjective Well-being in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Liliya; Leopold, Thomas; Lechner, Clemens M

    2017-02-01

    This study asks whether immigrants suffer more from unemployment than German natives. Differences between these groups in pre-unemployment characteristics, the type of the transition into unemployment, and the consequences of this transition suggest that factors intensifying the negative impact of unemployment on subjective well-being are more concentrated in immigrants than in natives. Based on longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (1990-2014; N = 34,767 persons aged 20 to 64; N = 210,930 person-years), we used fixed-effects models to trace within-person change in subjective well-being across the transition from employment into unemployment and over several years of continued unemployment. Results showed that immigrants' average declines in subjective well-being exceeded those of natives. Further analyses revealed gender interactions. Among women, declines were smaller and similar among immigrants and natives. Among men, declines were larger and differed between immigrants and natives. Immigrant men showed the largest declines, amounting to one standard deviation of within-person change over time in subjective well-being. Normative, social, and economic factors did not explain these disproportionate declines. We discuss alternative explanations for why immigrant men are most vulnerable to the adverse effects of unemployment in Germany.

  16. Work characteristics and personal social support as determinants of subjective well-being.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Stansfeld

    Full Text Available Well-being is an important health outcome and a potential national indicator of policy success. There is a need for longitudinal epidemiological surveys to understand determinants of well-being. This study examines the role of personal social support and psychosocial work environment as predictors of well-being in an occupational cohort study.Social support and work characteristics were measured by questionnaire in 5182 United Kingdom civil servants from phase 1 of the Whitehall II study and were used to predict subjective well-being assessed using the Affect Balance Scale (range -15 to 15, SD = 4.2 at phase 2. External assessments of job control and demands were provided by personnel managers.Higher levels of well-being were predicted by high levels of confiding/emotional support (difference in mean from the reference group with low levels of confiding/emotional support  =  0.63, 95%CI 0.38-0.89, p(trend<0.001, high control at work (0.57, 95%CI 0.31-0.83, p(trend<0.001; reference low control and low levels of job strain (0.60, 95%CI 0.31-0.88; reference high job strain, after adjusting for a range of confounding factors and affect balance score at baseline. Higher externally assessed work pace was also associated with greater well-being.Our results suggest that the psychosocial work environment and personal relationships have independent effects on subjective well-being. Policies designed to increase national well-being should take account of the quality of working conditions and factors that facilitate positive personal relationships. Policies designed to improve workplaces should focus not only on minimising negative aspects of work but also on increasing the positive aspects of work.

  17. Better late than early: Marital timing and subjective well-being in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew D; Krahn, Harvey J; Galambos, Nancy L

    2017-08-01

    Drawing on data from 405 Canadian adults surveyed as high school seniors (Age 18) and again in midlife (Age 43), the present study examined whether marital timing, a variable rooted in the age norm hypothesis (whether marriage was early, on time, or late in relation to peers), might contribute additional insight into the well-documented association between marital status and subjective well-being (SWB; happiness, symptoms of depression, and self-esteem). The analysis also considered 3 alternative explanations of the marriage-SWB link: the social selection hypothesis, social role theory, and the adaptation perspective. Path analysis results demonstrated marrying on time or late compared with marrying early predicted fewer symptoms of depression in midlife, offering some support for the age norm hypothesis. Little support was found for the social selection hypothesis, but getting married and divorcing were consistently linked with future SWB, in accordance with social role theory. Marrying at an older age predicted higher self-esteem in midlife for men, implying potential adaptation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Subjective Well-being Across the Lifespan in Europe and Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Jan Michael; Levin, Victoria; Munoz Boudet, Ana Maria

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the Integrated Values Survey (IVS), the Life in Transition Survey (LiTS), and the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), we analyse the relation between age and subjective well-being in the World Bank’s Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region and compare it to that in Western...... controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, this pattern generally remains robust for most of our cross-sectional and panel analyses. Hence, despite significant heterogeneity in the pattern of well-being across the lifespan within the ECA region, we do not observe high levels of cross-country or cross...

  19. Subjective evaluation of psychosocial well-being in children and youths with overweight or obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Hamann, Sophie Amalie; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme on subjective evaluations of psychosocial well-being and quality of life. METHODS: This longitudinal observational study included 1291 children, adolescents and young adults, 6-22 years of age......, with overweight or obesity. At entry and after 2-82 months of obesity treatment, the patients evaluated the following domains of psychosocial well-being on a visual analogue scale: quality of life, mood, appetite, bullying, motivation for weight loss and body image satisfaction. The degree of overweight.......0001). Improvements were observed in the domains of quality of life, mood, appetite, bullying and body image satisfaction (p

  20. Relationships between Flow Experience, Life Meaningfulness and Subjective Well-being in Music Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sedlár

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examines relationships between flow experience in musical activities, life meaningfulness and subjective well-being. Life meaningfulness belongs to eudaimonic good life, subjective well-being belongs to hedonic good life and flow seems to be combination of both approaches. It is supposed that flow experience in musical activity and life meaningfulness should have positive impact on subjective well-being. The research sample consisted of 96 university music students (37 males, 59 females from the Music and Dance Faculty, Academy of Performing Arts in Bratislava, Slovakia. Dispositional Flow Scale-2, which measures nine dimension of flow, was used for measuring frequency of flow experience. Life Meaningfulness Scale, which measures three dimensions of life meaningfulness, was used for measuring meaningfulness of life. Positive and Negative Affect Schedule measured affective components of subjective well-being, and Satisfaction with Life Scale measured cognitive component of subjective well-being. Categorization revealed that the most favourite performing musical activities are creative musical activities, such as reproduction and production, during which music students relatively often experience flow. The results of correlation analysis showed that total scores of flow experience, life meaningfulness and components of subjective well-being, significantly correlate each other. Aspects of flow, clear goals and autotelic experience are positively related to cognitive and motivational dimension of life meaningfulness and also to positive affectivity. Loss of self-consciousness and autotelic experience are positively related to emotional dimension of life meaningfulness. Challenge-skill balance, action-awareness merging, clear goals, concentration on task at hand, sense of control and autotelic experience are negatively related to negative affectivity. Challenge-skill balance and autotelic experience are related to satisfaction with life

  1. [Personal and social factors that influence subjective well-being: socioeconomic differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Tania; Balancho, Leonor

    2017-04-01

    The main objective is to study the relation and impact of Socioeconomic Status (SES) on the subjective well-being in children and adolescents and the role of social and personal factors in this relation. Data was collected in 16 schools; 8 in the North and 8 in the Lisbon Region of Portugal. The questionnaires were filled out by 1,181 youths, 51.5% of which were female. Ages ranged between 8 and 17, the girl's average age being 9.8 years (SD = 1.32) and the boy's average age being 10.0 (SD = 1.53); 2.6% of young people had special educational needs, and 3% did not use the Portuguese language at home; 12.2% had repeated a grade; 27.1% had a high SES; 64.2% had medium/low SES and 8.7% were unemployed. Three adequate regression models were built. Model 1 established the association between SES and subjective well-being. This association turned out to be not significant with the effect of personal and social factors, which were strongly associated with subjective wellbeing. It was revealed that the impact of SES on subjective well-being is mitigated by the presence of social and personal factors. The promotion of personal and social skills appears to be an effective way to avoid the negative effects of low SES in child and adolescent development.

  2. Subjective well-being in the new China: religion, social capital, and social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunsong; Williams, Mark

    2016-12-01

    We present the first nationally representative evidence on the relationship between religion and subjective well-being for the case of China. Research on Western societies tends to find a positive association between being religious and level of well-being. China provides an interesting critical case as the religious population is growing rapidly and the religious and socioeconomic environments are profoundly different from Western societies, implying different mechanisms might be at work. We hypothesize to find a positive association between religion and well-being in China too, but argue social capital, for which strong evidence is often found in Western societies, is unlikely to be an important mechanism because religion in China is generally non-congregational. Instead, we argue that the private and subjective dimension of religion matters for well-being in China by helping adherents have an improved sense of social status relative to the non-religious in the context of rapid social change and growing inequality. Our results generally support these predictions. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  3. Total Participation Management: Toward Psychological Determinants of Subjective Well-Being at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to determine which management practice has the strongest influence on the subjective well-being (SWB of employees, three workplaces were assessed with reference to different levels of total participation management (TPM, an innovative approach to human resource management. The study examined whether the level of TPM is positively related with SWB, defined according to Diener’s (1984 affective and cognitive facets of work. The psychological explanation of the predicted dependence was the level of satisfaction of three basic needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness distinguished by Deci and Ryan (2000a. The hypothesis about a positive relationship between SWB and TPM was confirmed. Results indicate that the least participative company has employees with the lowest subjective well-being and with the lowest satisfaction of basic psychological needs.

  4. Weekend experiences and subjective well-being of retired older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jinmoo; Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Byung-Gook; Heo, Seongmoo

    2014-07-01

    To examine how involvement in activities is related to subjective well-being (SWB) among older adults in particular during weekends. To explore the situational and behavioral factors such as day of week, type of activities, and social context and their impact on subjective well being of older adults. The experience sampling method (ESM) was used with retired older adults. Participants reported lower levels of SWB on the weekend. They experienced higher levels of SWB when they were engaged in active leisure on the weekend. Social contexts were significant predictors of older adults' SWB on the weekend. These findings extend the body of knowledge that involvement in active leisure and socializing with friends improve SWB of older adults.

  5. Distinguishing Relational Aspects of Character Strengths with Subjective and Psychological Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Hausler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that character strengths are positively linked with well-being in general. However, there has not been a fine-grained analysis up to date. This study examines the individual relational aspects between the 24 character strengths, subjective well-being (SWB, and different aspects of psychological well-being (PWB at two times of measurement (N = 117. Results showed that overall the “good character” was significantly stronger related with PWB than with SWB. The character strength “hope” was at least moderately correlated with the PWB aspects meaning, optimism and autonomy, and “zest” with the PWB aspects relationships and engagement. “Persistence” showed the highest correlation with the PWB aspect mastery. Out of the 24 character strengths, the happiness-related strengths (hope, zest, gratitude, curiosity, and love were more likely to correlate with PWB and SWB than any other character strength. This study offers a more fine-grained and thorough understanding of specific relational aspects between the 24 character strengths and a broad range of well-being aspects. Future studies should take up a detailed strategy when exploring relationships between character strengths and well-being.

  6. The experience of flow and subjective well-being of music students:

    OpenAIRE

    Avsec, Andreja; Smolej-Fritz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we were interested in the concept of flow – an optimal psychical state which is connected with high achievement and positive experiences. It was supposed that experiencing flow during different musical activities (e. g., rehearsals, solo performance, performance with the orchestra) should be related to subjective well being, common in life. Eighty-four students of the Academy ofMusic (28 male and 56 female) completed the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PAN...

  7. Subjective well-being and engagement in arts, culture and sport

    OpenAIRE

    Wheatley, D.; Bickerton, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between engagement in arts, culture and sport, and subjective well-being, contributing to our understanding of the leisure experience, and cultural value, of these activities. Ordered probit analysis of UK data from wave 2 (2010-11) of Understanding Society , provides evidence in support of a wide range of cultural goods generating positive leisure experience, reflected in overall (life, general happiness) and domain (leisure) satisfaction. Frequency of en...

  8. Subjective well-being and career indecision : a cross-cultural comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Sovet, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Subjective well-being may be defined as a hedonic approach of happiness referring to an overall evaluation of individual’s life integrating both cognitive and affective components. Although that concept has been the focus of a considerable scientific literature, few research explored explicitly its relationships with career decision-making process. Our literature review highlighted the opposition between bottom-up and top-down approaches in the study of the relationships between these two var...

  9. Building a profile of subjective well-being for social media users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lushi Chen

    Full Text Available Subjective well-being includes 'affect' and 'satisfaction with life' (SWL. This study proposes a unified approach to construct a profile of subjective well-being based on social media language in Facebook status updates. We apply sentiment analysis to generate users' affect scores, and train a random forest model to predict SWL using affect scores and other language features of the status updates. Results show that: the computer-selected features resemble the key predictors of SWL as identified in early studies; the machine-predicted SWL is moderately correlated with the self-reported SWL (r = 0.36, p < 0.01, indicating that language-based assessment can constitute valid SWL measures; the machine-assessed affect scores resemble those reported in a previous experimental study; and the machine-predicted subjective well-being profile can also reflect other psychological traits like depression (r = 0.24, p < 0.01. This study provides important insights for psychological prediction using multiple, machine-assessed components and longitudinal or dense psychological assessment using social media language.

  10. The experience of flow and subjective well-being of music students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Smolej Fritz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we were interested in the concept of flow – an optimal psychical state which is connected with high achievement and positive experiences. It was supposed that experiencing flow during different musical activities (e. g., rehearsals, solo performance, performance with the orchestra should be related to subjective well being, common in life. Eighty-four students of the Academy ofMusic (28 male and 56 female completed the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS and the Dispositional Flow Scale (DFS-2, which measures nine dimensions of flow. Results confirmed that several aspects of flow are positively related to measures of subjective well being. Clear goals, challenge-skill balance, concentration on the task, and autotelicexperience are important predictors of positive affect, explaining 36% of its variance, challenge-skill balance is an important predictor for negative affect, explaining 26% of its variance, and clear goals is an important predictor for satisfaction with life, explaining 8% of its variance. We conclude that experiencing flow is more related to emotional than cognitive aspects of subjective well being, which is not surprising, since flow is an extremely emotional experience.

  11. Effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on subjective well-being of patients with cardiovascular diseases

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    Sara Karimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cardiovascular diseases are as a chronic diseases. can naturally decrease the patients' mental health. Subjective well-being is one of the main components of life quality whose existence is essential for having a happy life and mental health. The present study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in the subjective well-being of the patients with cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Among all patients with cardiovascular diseases who had been admitted in Imam Ali Hospital of Kermanshah in May and June, 2013, 32 patients were selected through voluntary sampling and randomly divided into control and experimental groups.The intervention consisted of 10 weekly sessions (each session for 1.5 hours of cognitive behavioral therapy for the experimental group while the control group received the routine medical care. For data collection, the life satisfaction tools (Diner 1985 and positive and negative affect schedule (Watson 1988 were used. The results were analyzed by the statistical test of covariance analysis. Results: The results showed a significant increase in life satisfaction and positive affect for the experimental group compared to the control group (P<0.05 and a significant decrease in negative affect (P<0.05. Conclusion: The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT increased the subjective well-being of the patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Subjective well-being and time use of brazilian PhD professors

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    Maiana Farias Oliveira Nunes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The university professor suffers high pressure to achieve productivity and performs under work conditions that are not always satisfactory. This study seeks to analyze the subjective well-being, the time-use strategies, and the satisfaction with their use of time of PhD-holding professors with and without productivity grants from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq. A total of 83 professors participated in the study (48 with productivity grants, with an average age of 50 years. A total of 89% of participants were from public institutions. The majority of the participants exhibited high levels of negative affect and low-average levels of satisfaction with their use of time. There was no difference in the subjective well-being or in the satisfaction with the use of time when comparing professors who had received a CNPq grant with professors who had not received a CNPq grant. The most important reason for dissatisfaction with the use of time was an excess of work, whereas peer recognition was the primary achievement obtained with the work. How work demands and conditions influence the well-being of the professors is discussed in this study.

  13. Subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedde, H; van de Wiel, H B M; Weijmar Schultz, W C M; Wijsen, C

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically describe the nature and context of subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer. Data on sexual behavior and subjective sexual well-being were collected through an internet questionnaire. Respondents were included if they had been diagnosed with breast cancer within the past 6 years and were currently 45 years of age or younger. Results were compared with a representative sample of the general Dutch population. In comparison with the general Dutch population of women, young women still undergoing breast cancer treatment are less sexually active and have a more negative experience of sexuality. While women who had already finished their treatment had more or less the same amount of sexual activity as the general Dutch population, there were still major differences in their experience of sexuality. Particularly strong associations were found between these women's sexual well-being in relation to their relationship satisfaction, and sexual interaction competence. In the wake of breast cancer treatment, young women have difficulty enjoying sex; it is evidently hard for them to resume their sex lives after breast cancer. In particular, women who find it hard to discuss sexual wishes and the possibilities and impossibilities associated with breast cancer with their partner experience negative consequences when trying to resume their sex lives.

  14. Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults.

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    Ethan Kross

    Full Text Available Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people "directly" did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it.

  15. Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kross, Ethan; Verduyn, Philippe; Demiralp, Emre; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, David Seungjae; Lin, Natalie; Shablack, Holly; Jonides, John; Ybarra, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people "directly" did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it.

  16. The impact of stigma on subjective well-being in people with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgades-Bamba, Clara I; Fuster-Ruizdeapodaca, María José; Molero, Fernando

    2017-08-04

    People diagnosed with a mental disorder are highly discriminated against, and when they internalize the social stigma they suffer severe consequences which have been associated with greater symptomatology and reduced recovery. This research was carried out in order to develop a predictive model about how discrimination contributes to subjective well-being (positive and negative affects experienced) by means of internalization of stigma (alienation, stereotype endorsement and social withdrawal) and deterioration of positive self-concept (self-esteem and self-efficacy). We conducted a cross-sectional research design. We used Partial Least Squares (PLS) modelling to analyze the data from 94 Spanish participants diagnosed with a mental disorder. A differential effect of blatant and subtle discrimination is found. Both internalized stigma and positive self-concept play a central role in the effects of discrimination on subjective well-being. Internalized stigma contributes to the explained variance of negative and positive affect, while positive self-concept contributes mainly to explain changes in positive affect. Positive self-concept protects the person from the harm that stigma may cause on his well-being. It especially protects positive affect, which we propose is an important resource in the recovery process. These findings have clinical and research implications.

  17. Joint physical custody and adolescents' subjective well-being: a personality × environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodermans, An Katrien; Matthijs, Koen

    2014-06-01

    Shared residence after divorce is rising in most Western countries and legally recommended by law in Belgium since 2006. Living with both parents after divorce is assumed to increase children's well-being, through a better parent-child relationship, but may also be stressful, as children live in 2 different family settings. In this study, we investigate whether the association between the residential arrangement of adolescents and 3 measures of subjective well-being (depressive feelings, life satisfaction, and self-esteem) is moderated by the Big Five personality factors. The sample is selected from the national representative Divorce in Flanders study and contains information about 506 children from divorced parents between 14- and 21-years-old. Our findings indicated a consistent pattern of interactions between conscientiousness and joint physical custody for 2 of the 3 subjective well-being indicators. The specific demands of this residential arrangement (making frequent transitions, living at 2 places, adjustment to 2 different lifestyles, etc.) may interfere with the nature of conscientious adolescents: being organized, ordered, and planful. Our results showed support for a Person × Environment interaction, and demonstrate the need for considering the individual characteristics of the child when settling postdivorce residential arrangements. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kross, Ethan; Verduyn, Philippe; Demiralp, Emre; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, David Seungjae; Lin, Natalie; Shablack, Holly; Jonides, John; Ybarra, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people “directly” did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it. PMID:23967061

  19. Subjective Well-Being of Children in the Context of Educational Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Krampen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of two empirical studies is the analysis of the development of subjective well-being in kindergarten and elementary school students in the context of the educational transitions (1 from kindergarten to elementary school and (2 from elementary to secondary schools in two different national school systems. Semi-structured interviews on self-esteem and dysthymic mood (i.e., low spirits, feelings of depressiveness and of dejection were administered in 5 cohorts (two kindergarten and the first three elementary school years. Measurements were repeated three times each a year apart. Samples refer to 312 German and 244 Luxembourg children enrolled in educational systems with optional kindergarten, 4-year comprehensive elementary school, and educational placement thereafter (Germany versus obligatory kindergarten and 6-year comprehensive elementary school (Luxembourg. Time- and age-effects point to significant discontinuities in the development of subjective well-being. There are declines of self-esteem and increases of dysthymic mood just after school enrollment (“transition shock” in the Luxembourg sample, whereas quite similar developments are observed in the last elementary school year before educational placement for secondary education in the German sample. School enrollment and educational placement for secondary education are critical life events with significant impact on children’s well-being, which varies between different school systems.

  20. Explaining age differences in women's emotional well-being: The role of subjective experiences of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne E; Toothman, Erica L

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines explanations for the "paradox" of older women's better emotional well-being compared with younger women. We consider the role of subjective experiences of aging in a society that devalues older women. Using a sample of women (n = 872) from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (1995-1996 and 2004-2006), we examine the role of five components of the subjective experience of aging in explaining older women's better emotional well-being compared with younger women: age identity, conceptions of the timing of middle age, aging attitudes, aging anxieties, and self-assessed physiological changes. We find that, compared with women 50-54 years old, those 35-39 years old report lower positive affect, and those 25-49 report higher negative affect. These patterns are partially explained by younger women's greater anxiety about declines in health and attractiveness and older women's more youthful identities. Our study underscores the value of considering the implications of our ageist and sexist society for women's emotional well-being across adulthood.

  1. Subjective well-being and Citizenship dimensions according to individualism and collectivism beliefs among Polish adolescents

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    Anna M. Zalewska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the research is to analyse pleasant (subjective well-being – SWB and meaningful life (Citizenship dimensions in the context of Horizontal and Vertical Individualism (HI, VI or Collectivism (HC, VC values (individual beliefs among adolescents living in the culture “in between individualism and collectivism”. Participants and procedure Second-year high (111 and secondary (98 school students filled in the Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism Questionnaire, the Citizenship Behaviour Questionnaire, and SWB (Subjective Happiness Scale, Satisfaction with the Life Scale, Mood Questionnaire, Ladder of Need Scales. Participants were recruited in schools. Results Subjective well-being positively correlated with all Citizenship dimensions except Political Activity. All values predicted SWB, but higher VI predicted lower SWB and was not linked to Citizenship. Citizenship dimensions oriented to general good were predicted by Collectivism values, and those including personal benefits were predicted by HI and Collectivism values. Subjective well-being mediated relations between HC and Social Activity, and between HC, HI and Personal Activity. VC moderated relations between SWB and Passive as well as Semi-active Citizenship. Conclusions Among young Poles, pleasant life is linked with meaningful life. Individualism and Collectivism values are relatively independent, and their relations with SWB and Citizenship are complex. Higher Horizontal values facilitate the achievement of both pleasant and meaningful life, but higher VC can hinder the coherence between them. High SWB, engagement in Citizenship and links between them are required for attaining “authentic happiness” and living a truly full life; thus it is important to study variables that may influence them.

  2. "Moved by the spirit": does spirituality moderate the interrelationships between subjective well-being subscales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans-Stekhoven, James

    2010-07-01

    Despite the recent escalation of research into the spirituality and well-being link, past efforts have been plagued by methodological problems. However, the potential for measurement error within psychometric instruments remains largely unexplored. After reviewing theory and evidence suggesting spirituality might represent an affective misattribution, moderation modeling-with each subjective well-being (SWB) subscale as a dependent variable as predicted by the remaining SWB subscales-is utilized to test the assumption of scale invariance. These interrelationships were shown to vary in conjunction with spirituality; that is the analysis revealed significant spirituality x subscale interactions. Importantly, in all models the spirituality main effect was either nonsignificant or accounted for by other predictors. In combination, the findings suggest the interrelationship between the subscales rather than the level of SWB varies systematically with spirituality and casts considerable doubt on the previously reported "belief-as-benefit" effect.

  3. Subjective quality of life of people with intellectual disabilities: the role of emotional competence on their subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Lourdes; Extremera, Natalio; Durán, Auxiliadora; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita

    2013-03-01

    For decades, the field of quality of life for people with intellectual disabilities has focused on the improving the external life conditions. However, scarce research has examined the contribution of person-related psychological resources such as emotional competence (EC) on well-being in this population. Using a cross-sectional design, 139 adults with intellectual disabilities completed different measures: Subjective Happiness Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale and Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale. Emotional competence shows a positive and significant association with life satisfaction and happiness. EC dimensions were predictors of well-being beyond socio-demographic variables and dispositional affectivity. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of the potential value of considering EC in the improvement in the quality of life of people with intellectual disabilities. Professionals interested in intellectual disabilities care might consider training programmes based on EC as an additional intervention strategy aimed at improving well-being. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Correlations between subjective well-being, dyadic adjustment and marital satisfaction in Brazilian married people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorsolini-Comin, Fabio; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between the constructs subjective well-being (SWB), dyadic adjustment (DA) and marital satisfaction (MS). Participants were 106 married Brazilians, of both sexes, with a mean age of 42 (+/- 11) years. Instruments used for the sociodemographic characterization and socioeconomic classification were the Subjective Wellbeing Scale (SWBS), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and the Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Through the analysis of correlations and of stepwise multiple regression, it was verified that all the factors of the dyadic adjustment showed correlation with the marital satisfaction. The satisfaction with life (factor of the SWBS) and dyadic satisfaction (factor of the DAS), were positively and significantly correlated (r = .20: p = .04), which reveals that people who say they are satisfied with life in different domains also do so in relation to the marital experience,

  5. Emotional Intelligence Mediates the Relationship between Age and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwei; Peng, Yisheng; Fang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Individuals' Subjective Well-being (SWB) increases as they grow older. Past literature suggests that emotional intelligence may increase with age and lead to higher levels of SWB in older adults. The primary purpose of the present study was to test whether emotional intelligence would mediate the relationship between age and SWB. A total of 360 Chinese adults (age range: 20 to 79 years old) participated in this study. They filled out questionnaires that assessed their age, life satisfaction (The Satisfaction with Life Scale), affective well-being (The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and emotional intelligence (The Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale). Using Structural Equation Modeling, the mediation model was supported, χ(2) (75) = 194.21, p Emotional intelligence partially mediated the relationship between age and life satisfaction, and fully mediated the relationship between age and affective well-being. The findings suggest that older adults may use their increased emotional intelligence to enhance their SWB. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Gender differences of social interactions and their effects on subjective well-being among Japanese elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Hideki; Hougham, Gavin W

    2014-01-01

    Gender differences of social interactions and their effects on subjective well-being among Japanese elders over three years were examined. Repeated measurements of 498 elders over a three-year survey interval were obtained from a baseline mail survey and two- and three-year follow-up surveys. Outcomes were analyzed using Hierarchical Linear Modeling. Male elders were more likely to have a spouse and work at paid jobs, while female elders were likely to have more frequent contacts with their child/children and more interactions with friends. As the elders aged over three years, life satisfaction decreased, while depression did not show any significant overall trend. There were no beneficial effects of social interactions on change in well-being, although social participation, interaction with friends, and conversation with spouse were beneficially related to baseline levels of both depressive tendency and life satisfaction. Among female elders only, the number of children had beneficial effects on life satisfaction. There are modest gender differences of the impact of social interactions on the well-being of Japanese elders, and the number of children seems to be more important as potential sources of support for female rather than male elders. Spousal conversation and non-obligatory social interaction such as unpaid social activities and friendship seem to be important for both male and female elders in Japan. These findings suggest that social relations among Japanese elders may be moving away from more gender dependent patterns seen in the past.

  7. The Moderating Role of Autonomous Motivation on the Relationship between Subjective Well-Being and Physical Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinko, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderator effects of autonomous motivation on the relationship between subjective well-being and physical health. Using a cluster sampling approach 486 students (403 female and 83 male students) were included in this study. Subjective well-being, physical health and autonomous motivation were determined by self-report measures. Data were analysed using hierarchical regression analysis and analysis of variance. The results show that high self-determination moderates the relationship between high subjective well-being and physical health. Accordingly, the best physical health was reported by participants who had high level of subjective well-being and whose behaviours were self-determined. Additional analyses have shown that the moderating effect of self-determination is based on the moderational impact of autonomous motives and not the controlling ones. Additionally, whether autonomous motivation moderates the relationship between components of subjective well-being and physical health was also tested. The findings have shown that autonomous motives moderate relationship between physical health and one component of well-being, positive affect. Consequently, a good physical health was found among participants with high positive affect and behaviours regulated by high degree of autonomous motives. Conclusion which can be drawn from these findings is that if an individual behaves autonomously then it can contribute to positive mind-body influences and support their own health.

  8. The Moderating Role of Autonomous Motivation on the Relationship between Subjective Well-Being and Physical Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Marcinko

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderator effects of autonomous motivation on the relationship between subjective well-being and physical health. Using a cluster sampling approach 486 students (403 female and 83 male students were included in this study. Subjective well-being, physical health and autonomous motivation were determined by self-report measures. Data were analysed using hierarchical regression analysis and analysis of variance. The results show that high self-determination moderates the relationship between high subjective well-being and physical health. Accordingly, the best physical health was reported by participants who had high level of subjective well-being and whose behaviours were self-determined. Additional analyses have shown that the moderating effect of self-determination is based on the moderational impact of autonomous motives and not the controlling ones. Additionally, whether autonomous motivation moderates the relationship between components of subjective well-being and physical health was also tested. The findings have shown that autonomous motives moderate relationship between physical health and one component of well-being, positive affect. Consequently, a good physical health was found among participants with high positive affect and behaviours regulated by high degree of autonomous motives. Conclusion which can be drawn from these findings is that if an individual behaves autonomously then it can contribute to positive mind-body influences and support their own health.

  9. The Moderating Role of Autonomous Motivation on the Relationship between Subjective Well-Being and Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinko, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderator effects of autonomous motivation on the relationship between subjective well-being and physical health. Using a cluster sampling approach 486 students (403 female and 83 male students) were included in this study. Subjective well-being, physical health and autonomous motivation were determined by self-report measures. Data were analysed using hierarchical regression analysis and analysis of variance. The results show that high self-determination moderates the relationship between high subjective well-being and physical health. Accordingly, the best physical health was reported by participants who had high level of subjective well-being and whose behaviours were self-determined. Additional analyses have shown that the moderating effect of self-determination is based on the moderational impact of autonomous motives and not the controlling ones. Additionally, whether autonomous motivation moderates the relationship between components of subjective well-being and physical health was also tested. The findings have shown that autonomous motives moderate relationship between physical health and one component of well-being, positive affect. Consequently, a good physical health was found among participants with high positive affect and behaviours regulated by high degree of autonomous motives. Conclusion which can be drawn from these findings is that if an individual behaves autonomously then it can contribute to positive mind—body influences and support their own health. PMID:25942449

  10. Active music making: a route to enhanced subjective well-being among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan; Varvarigou, Maria; McQueen, Hilary; Gaunt, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This research explored the relationship between active music making and subjective well-being, in older people's lives. The research focused on how participation in making music might enhance older people's social, emotional and cognitive well-being, through meeting the basic psychological needs identified in earlier research. The research comprised three case studies, each offering a variety of musical activities to older people. In each case study a sample of older people were asked to complete questionnaires and psychological needs scales related to autonomy, competence, relatedness and self-realisation before and after a substantial period of active engagement with music. Principal components analysis (PCA) of responses to the CASP-12(1) and the Basic Needs Satisfaction scale(2) revealed three factors: purpose (having a positive outlook on life; autonomy and control; and social affirmation (positive social relationships, competence and a sense of recognised accomplishment). Comparisons of those engaged in music making with those participating in other activities revealed statistically significant differences on all three factors with the music groups giving more positive responses. The enhanced subjective well-being found among participants in music may have been due to the potential for music to provide a sense of purpose through progression in music and creative expression. Control and autonomy may be supported by the holistic nature of musical engagement, whereby meeting new musical challenges involves physical and cognitive engagement. Finally, social affirmation may be supported through social interaction; giving and receiving peer support; and performance, which confers status, a sense of giving something back to the community, pride and opportunities for positive reinforcement. Further research needs to identify the mechanisms through which music is able to achieve these effects.

  11. Distancing, self-esteem, and subjective well-being in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devins, Gerald M; Wong, Janice C; Payne, Ada Y M; Lebel, Sophie; Lee, Ruth N F; Mah, Kenneth; Irish, Jonathan; Rodin, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Distancing (i.e. construing oneself as dissimilar to a negatively-stereotyped group) preserves self-esteem and may benefit other domains of subjective well-being. Head and neck cancer (HNC) is stigmatized because major risk factors include avoidable lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, and human papilloma virus). Because the benefits of coping efforts, such as distancing, are most evident when people are under stress, we hypothesize that the psychosocial benefits of distancing will be most pronounced when cancer and its treatment interfere substantially with participation in valued activities and interests (i.e. high illness intrusiveness). To test whether distancing preserves self-esteem and other domains of subjective well-being (SWB) in HNC, especially when illness intrusiveness is high. Five hundred and twenty-two HNC outpatients completed a semantic-differential measure of perceived similarity to the 'cancer patient' and measures of illness intrusiveness, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being in structured interviews. Evaluations of the 'cancer patient' reflected cancer stereotypes. A statistically significant interaction supported the central hypothesis: When people held negative stereotypes, those who construed themselves as similar to the 'cancer patient' reported lower self-esteem than those who construed themselves as dissimilar. Distancing did not benefit other SWB variables. Some results were counter-intuitive: e.g. Emotional distress increased with increasing illness intrusiveness when people did not hold negative cancer stereotypes, but when they held highly negative stereotypes, distress decreased with increasing illness intrusiveness. Overall, distancing preserved self-esteem in people with HNC and was associated with benefits in other SWB domains. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The effect of cognitive training on the subjective perception of well-being in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Bureš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background There is a growing number of studies indicating the major consequences of the subjective perception of well-being on mental health and healthcare use. However, most of the cognitive training research focuses more on the preservation of cognitive function than on the implications of the state of well-being. This secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial investigated the effects of individualised television-based cognitive training on self-rated well-being using the WHO-5 index while considering gender and education as influencing factors. The effects of cognitive training were compared with leisure activities that the elderly could be engaged in to pass time. Methods Cognitively healthy participants aged 60 years or above screened using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and Major Depression Inventory (MDI were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design and underwent 24 training sessions. Data acquired from the WHO-5 questionnaire administered before and after intervention were statistically analysed using a mixed design model for repeated measures. The effect of individualised cognitive training was compared with leisure activities while the impact of gender and education was explored using estimated marginal means. Results A total of 81 participants aged 67.9 ± 5.59 [60–84] without cognitive impairments and absent of depression symptoms underwent the study. Participants with leisure time activities declared significantly higher scores compared to participants with cognitive training M = 73.48 ± 2.88, 95% CI [67.74–79.22] vs M = 64.13 ± 3.034, 95% CI [58.09–70.17] WHO-5 score. Gender and education were found to moderate the effect of cognitive training on well-being when compared to leisure activities. Females engaged in leisure activities in the control group reported higher by M = 9.77 ± 5.4, 95% CI [

  13. Dopamine D2-receptor affinity of antipsychotics in relation to subjective well-being in patients with a psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Iris E; van Dijk, Floor A; Meijer, Carin J; van Tricht, Mirjam J; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2017-09-01

    Dopamine D2-receptor blockade by antipsychotic medication reduces psychotic symptoms, but may reduce subjective well-being. The current study aims to further explore the relation between dopamine D2-receptor affinity and subjective well-being within a large sample of patients with psychotic disorders. Patients participated in a longitudinal naturalistic cohort study: the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study. Three groups of antipsychotic medication were created on the basis of their affinity for the D2-receptor: (i) loose or partial agonistic binding, (ii) moderate binding, and (iii) tight binding. Subjective well-being was assessed using the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics scale (SWN) at baseline and the 3-year follow-up. In addition, we compared changes in SWN scores when switching to a more 'loose or partial agonistic' binding agent or to a 'tighter' binding agent between baseline and the 3-year follow-up. The final group included 388 patients at baseline and 290 at the 3-year follow-up. No significant differences in the SWN scores were found between the three affinity groups at baseline and the 3-year follow-up. In addition, analyses yielded no significant changes in SWN scores after switching to a more 'loose or partial agonistic' or more 'tight' binding antipsychotic agent. We did not find further support for the hypothesis that subjective well-being is associated with antipsychotics affinity for dopamine D2-receptors. This might imply that the effect of antipsychotic D2-receptors binding on subjective well-being is not large enough to be detected in this cross-sectional study. Other factors besides dopamine antagonism are probably more relevant for subjective well-being.

  14. Happier together. Social cohesion and subjective well-being in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhey, Jan; Dragolov, Georgi

    2016-06-01

    Despite mushrooming research on "social" determinants of subjective well-being (SWB), little is known as to whether social cohesion as a collective property is among the key societal conditions for human happiness. This article fills this gap in investigating the importance of living in a cohesive society for citizens' SWB. For 27 European Union countries, it combines the newly developed Bertelsmann Foundation's Cohesion Index with individual well-being data on life evaluation and psychological functioning as surveyed in the recent European Quality of Life Survey. The main results from multi-level analyses are as follows. First, Europeans are indeed happier and psychologically healthier in more cohesive societies. Second, all three core domains of cohesion increase individuals' SWB. Third, citizens in the more affluent part of Europe feel the positivity of social cohesion more consistently than those in the less affluent part. Finally, within countries, cohesion is good for the SWB of resource-rich and resource-poor groups alike. Our findings also shed new light on the ongoing debate on economic progress and quality of life: what makes citizenries of affluent societies happier is, in the first place, their capacity to create togetherness and solidarity among their members-in other words, cohesion. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Coping with Climate Change among Adolescents: Implications for Subjective Well-Being and Environmental Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ojala

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this questionnaire study was to investigate how Swedish adolescents (n = 321 cope with climate change and how different coping strategies are associated with environmental efficacy, pro-environmental behavior, and subjective well-being. The results were compared to an earlier study on 12-year-olds, and the same coping strategies, problem-focused coping, de-emphasizing the seriousness of the threat, and meaning-focused coping, were identified. As in the study on children, problem-focused and meaning-focused coping were positively related to felt efficacy and environmental behavior, while de-emphasizing the threat was negatively related to these measures. As expected, the more problem-focused coping the adolescents used, the more likely it was that they experienced negative affect in everyday life. This association was explained by the tendency for highly problem-focused adolescents to worry more about climate change. In contrast, meaning-focused coping was positively related to both well-being and optimism. When controlling for well-known predictors such as values and gender, meaning-focused and problem-focused coping were independent positive predictors of environmental efficacy and pro-environmental behavior, while de-emphasizing the threat was a negative predictor of pro-environmental behavior. The results are discussed in relation to coping theories and earlier studies on coping with climate change.

  16. How Achieving the Millennium Development Goals Increases Subjective Well-Being in Developing Nations

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    Shizuki Fukuda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The target date in 2015 for the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs was reached, and a new period of global goals for the post-2015 is dawning. To assess whether and how regional progress towards achieving the MDGs has contributed to better quality of life in developing nations, we formulated a correlation between various aspects of human development, indicated by MDG indicators, and subjective well-being (SWB, a response to the question of how much people feel happy or satisfied. We demonstrated that national levels of SWB can be explained by the degree of development; poverty reduction is the strongest determinant, and achieving the MDGs is associated with higher SWB levels. Scenario assessment of SWB allowed which domain of development should be improved preferentially in each region to be determined, hence the SWB approach is expected to offer an innovative proxy of human development for the assessment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs.

  17. Big Five personality traits: are they really important for the subjective well-being of Indians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanksale, Deepa

    2015-02-01

    This study empirically examined the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and subjective well-being (SWB) in India. SWB variables used were life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect. A total of 183 participants in the age range 30-40 years from Pune, India, completed the personality and SWB measures. Backward stepwise regression analysis showed that the Big Five traits accounted for 17% of the variance in life satisfaction, 35% variance in positive affect and 28% variance in negative affect. Conscientiousness emerged as the strongest predictor of life satisfaction. In line with the earlier research findings, neuroticism and extraversion were found to predict negative affect and positive affect, respectively. Neither openness to experience nor agreeableness contributed to SWB. The research emphasises the need to revisit the association between personality and SWB across different cultures, especially non-western cultures. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Subjective well-being and national satisfaction: findings from a worldwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mike; Tay, Louis; Diener, Ed

    2011-02-01

    We examined the relationship between satisfaction with one's country (national satisfaction) and subjective well-being utilizing data from a representative worldwide poll. National satisfaction was a strong positive predictor of individual-level life satisfaction, and this relationship was moderated by household income, household conveniences, residential mobility, country gross domestic product per capita, and region (Western vs. non-Western country). When individuals are impoverished or more bound to their culture and surroundings, national satisfaction more strongly predicts life satisfaction. In contrast, reverse trends were found in analyses predicting life satisfaction from satisfaction in other domains (health, standard of living, and job). These patterns suggest that people are more likely to use proximate factors to judge life satisfaction where conditions are salutary, or individualism is salient, but are more likely to use perceived societal success to judge life satisfaction where life conditions are difficult, or collectivism predominates. Our findings invite new research directions and can inform quality-of-life therapies.

  19. Can blogging enhance subjective well-being through self-disclosure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hsiu-Chia; Kuo, Feng-Yang

    2009-02-01

    Based on the self-disclosure theory and the social capital theory, this study investigates if bloggers' self-disclosure enhances their social capital and if these capitals in turn enhance perception of subjective well-being (SWB). The results reveal that the self-disclosure of bloggers significantly and directly affects a blogger's perception of social integration, bonding social capital, and bridge social capital, which in turn promote bloggers' SWB. It appears that as bloggers share their inner thoughts of their moods/feelings with others through writing, they may gain greater social support and improve their social integration. Therefore, self-disclosure through blogging may serve as the core of building intimate relationships. Furthermore, social capital, built through blogging, may improve a blogger's satisfaction with his or her social contact, interpersonal communication, and overall quality of life.

  20. The effects of job crafting on subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Peral

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Job crafting can result in a number of positive outcomes for teachers, such as increased meaningfulness and engagement at work. Increased work engagement and psychological meaningfulness may yield positive benefits for the practice of teaching, thus highlighting the pivotal role of job crafting.Research purpose: The study’s aim was to investigate the relationship between job crafting and subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers. Subjective well-being comprises psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. The potential mediating effect that psychological meaningfulness had on this relationship was further explored.Motivation for the study: Being in a highly stressful occupation, teachers need to continuously find ways to craft their working practices in order to deal effectively with their job demands and to capitalise on their available job resources. Furthermore, South Africa’s current education system calls for serious proactive measures to be taken to improve and rectify the current status, such as job crafting.Research approach, design and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was used and administered to a sample of South African high school teachers situated in Gauteng, South Africa (N = 251.Main findings: A positive relationship was found between job crafting (increasing structural resources and challenging job demands and work engagement. Furthermore, psychological meaningfulness mediated the relationship between job crafting and work engagement amongst the sampled high school teachers.Practical/managerial implications: Teachers who craft their work to better suit their preferences and needs will obtain greater meaning in their work and experience increased levels of work engagement. Training programmes and/or group-based interventions targeted around job crafting techniques may be particularly useful in the South African teaching context.Contribution/value-add: This study

  1. LEVELING CHARACTERISTICS INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN PERSONALITY COMPETITIVENESS AND SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Bocharova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical and empirical study of the relationship of personality characteristics of level of competitiveness and subjective well-being. The study was performed on a sample of high school students ( N = 70, female and male; 16-17 years old, differing in the level of personal competitiveness, with psycho-diagnostic tools, “Express-diagnostics of personal competitiveness”(G.M. Manuilov, “Express-diagnostics of the level of social frustration (L. Wasserman”, “The scale of subjective well-being” (M.V. Sokolova, “My self-regulation of behavior and activity” (V.I. Morosanova. It is shown that the ability for self-education, self-improvement, self-planning and modeling their prospects, achieving the goal on the background of their satisfaction with relations with the immediate environment acts as a basic capacity for personality competition in adolescents. The applied aspect of the research problem can be implemented in the development of programs of psycho- pedagogical support of the formation and development of personal competitiveness of students.

  2. Longitudinal Associations of Alcohol Involvement with Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Prediction to Alcohol Problems in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Spoth, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol involvement is associated with numerous negative outcomes, but also appears to have positive correlates, including subjective well-being. Additional research is needed to understand these paradoxical findings. The current study examines alcohol use, adverse alcohol-related (and other substance-related) consequences, and…

  3. Sexual Health and Positive Subjective Well-Being in Partnered Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David M; Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-07-01

    We examine the associations between different patterns of sexual behavior and function and three indicators of subjective well-being (SWB) covering eudemonic, evaluative, and affective well-being in a representative sample of partnered older people. Using data from a Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire (SRA-Q) in Wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, latent class analysis identified groups characterized by distinctive patterns of sexual behavior and function and then examined their link to SWB. Eudemonic SWB was measured using a revised 15-item version of the CASP-19, evaluative SWB using the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and affective SWB using the 8-item version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Sexual behavior and function was best described by six classes among men and five classes among women. These ranged from high sexual desire, frequent partnered sexual activities, and few sexual problems (Class 1) to low sexual desire, infrequent/no sexual activity, and problems with sexual function (Class 5([women])/6([men])). Men and women who reported either infrequent/no sexual activity, or were sexually active but reported sexual problems, generally had lower SWB than those individuals identified in Class 1. Poorer SWB in men was more strongly associated with sexual function difficulties, whereas in women desire and frequency of partnered activities appeared more important in relation to SWB. Within the context of a partnered relationship continuing sexual desire, activity and functioning are associated with higher SWB, with distinctive patterns for women and men. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4.  Self-determination theory fails to explain additional variance in well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Schnieber, Anette; Tønnesvang, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates relations between the five-factor model (FFM) and self-determination theory in predicting well-being. Nine-hundred-and-sixty-four students completed e-based measures of extroversion & neuroticism (NEO-FFI); autonomous- & impersonal general causality orientation (GCOS...... controlling for extroversion (PTheory seems inadequate in explaining variance in well-being supporting an integration with FFM....

  5. The Relationship of Anxiety and Depression to Subjective Well-Being in a Mainland Chinese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Christopher; Wachholtz, Amy

    2018-02-01

    This pilot study examines anxiety, depression, and well-being in a mainland Chinese sample and discusses the implications for mental health care. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being, and the Body Mind Spirit Well-Being Inventory were administered to 60 mainland China residents. Correlational analyses revealed significant relationships among depression, anxiety, and every domain of well-being except the faith domain. Levels of depression and anxiety are inversely related to levels of well-being in a mainland Chinese sample. Chinese culture was expected to moderate this relationship; however, this was not confirmed by the results.

  6. Gratitude mediates the effect of emotional intelligence on subjective well-being: A structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the relationship among emotional intelligence, gratitude, and subjective well-being in a sample of university students. A total of 365 undergraduates completed the emotional intelligence scale, the gratitude questionnaire, and the subjective well-being measures. The results of the structural equation model showed that emotional intelligence is positively associated with gratitude and subjective well-being, that gratitude is positively associated with subjective well-being, and that gratitude partially mediates the positive relationship between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being. Bootstrap test results also revealed that emotional intelligence has a significant indirect effect on subjective well-being through gratitude.

  7. Subjective well-being in times of social change: congruence of control strategies and perceived control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grümer, Sebastian; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between perceptions of broader changes in the social-ecological context and individuals' subjective well-being (SWB). Macro-level societal changes such as globalization or demographic change give rise to new demands for individual functioning at work and/or in the family. Such new demands associated with social change are stressful and likely to be related to lower levels of SWB. Being active agents, individuals attempt to deal with social change and its increasing demands to protect their SWB. The present study investigates which kinds of control strategies are most effective in protecting one's SWB. Specifically, we predicted that control strategies of goal engagement will be most effective under conditions of perceived high control, and control strategies of goal disengagement will be most effective under conditions of perceived low control. In a large sample of 2537 German adults, work- and family-related demands associated with social change were found to be negatively linked to SWB. Moreover and in line with the motivational theory of lifespan development, control strategies of goal engagement and disengagement were beneficial for SWB to the extent that they matched the perceived control of the demands associated with social change.

  8. Passion for a Cause: How It Affects Health and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Louis, Ariane C; Carbonneau, Noémie; Vallerand, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Using the dualistic model of passion (Vallerand et al., 2003), this research investigated how harmonious passion (HP) or obsessive passion (OP) for a cause can affect volunteers' health and subjective well-being. Three studies with volunteers for local (local emergency crises and community help) and international (humanitarian missions) causes assessed physical and psychological health using cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. Study 1 (N = 108) showed that HP was positively related to satisfaction with one's involvement in the cause and unrelated to physical injuries due to cause involvement. OP was unrelated to satisfaction but positively associated with injuries. Findings were replicated in Study 2 (N = 83). Moreover, self-neglect mediated the positive and negative effects of HP and OP, respectively, on injuries. Study 3 (N = 77) revealed that HP predicted an increase in satisfaction and health over a 3-month mission. OP predicted an increase in physical symptoms and a decrease in health. Furthermore, OP before a mission was positively related to self-neglect that was positively associated with physical symptoms after a mission. OP also positively predicted rumination that was conducive to posttraumatic stress disorder. HP was unrelated to these variables. Findings underscore the role of passion for a cause in predicting intrapersonal outcomes of volunteers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Early-life family income and subjective well-being in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariepy, Genevieve; Elgar, Frank J; Sentenac, Mariane; Barrington-Leigh, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) in youths positively relates to family income, however its association with income during childhood is unclear. Using longitudinal data from the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics (n = 2234 adolescents, age 12-19 years), we examined whether the timing and duration of low family income in childhood was associated with adolescent SWB. We categorized family income during childhood into state-specific quintiles. Adolescent SWB was assessed using a 12-item questionnaire (score range 3-18). We used marginal structural modelling to test for sensitive periods of exposure to low income and tested cumulative effects of income by modelling the number of years spent in the poorest income quintiles. A period in early childhood (age 0-2 years) was particularly sensitive to low family income. Adolescent SWB was 1.65 (95% CI 0.40, 2.91) points lower in those who grew up in the poorest income quintiles during early childhood compared with the top quintile. Further, each childhood year spent in the poorest income quintiles was associated with a 0.10 point (95% CI 0.04, 0.16) lower SWB score in adolescence. The timing and duration of low family income in childhood both predict individual differences in adolescent SWB. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of these models and inform public policies.

  10. Sport participation and subjective well-being: instrumental variable results from German survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruseski, Jane E; Humphreys, Brad R; Hallman, Kirstin; Wicker, Pamela; Breuer, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    A major policy goal of many ministries of sport and health is increased participation in sport to promote health. A growing literature is emerging about the benefits of sport participation on happiness. A challenge in establishing a link between sport participation and happiness is controlling for endogeneity of sport participation in the happiness equation. This study seeks to establish causal evidence of a relationship between sport participation and self reported happiness using instrumental variables (IV). IV estimates based on data from a 2009 population survey living in Rheinberg, Germany indicate that individuals who participate in sport have higher life happiness. The results suggest a U-shaped relationship between age and self-reported happiness. Higher income is associated with greater self-reported happiness, males are less happy than females, and single individuals are less happy than nonsingles. Since the results are IV, this finding is interpreted as a causal relationship between sport participation and subjective well-being (SWB). This broader impact of sport participation on general happiness lends support to the policy priority of many governments to increase sport participation at all levels of the general population.

  11. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda eSteinmayr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB, research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is however still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57 completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of one year. Grade Point Average (GPA indicated students’ academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction. Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students’ GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents’ SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes.

  12. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In the context of adolescents' subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents' SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students' academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students' GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents' SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes.

  13. Occupational experiences and subjective well-being of mothers of children with ASD in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ya-Lin; Lo, Jin-Ling

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the relationship between mothers' daily occupational experiences of productivity, restoration and pleasure with their subjective well-being (SWB) and with their child's developmental skills. Forty caregivers parenting young children with autism spectrum disorders served as a convenience sample in this study. Participants rated their occupational experience in a time diary for a 1-week period and rated their SWB on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Their child's occupational performance and development were evaluated using the Pediatric Daily Occupation Scale and Chinese Child Development Inventory. Spearman rank correlations were used to examine the relationship of SWB to these maternal and child factors. Mothers' pleasure levels were associated with two SWB measures: the positive affect and Satisfaction With Life Scale. Restoration levels related to positive affect only. Productivity levels and child factors were not significantly correlated with any of the SWB measures. A larger heterogeneous sample and a longitudinal study design to explore the fluctuation and stability of occupational experiences across time are recommended to examine caregivers' adaptation and/or alterations in SWB while adapting to their child's diagnosis and special needs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2016-01-01

    In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students’ academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students’ GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents’ SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes. PMID:26779096

  15. Thinking About One's Subjective Well-Being: Average Trends and Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C; Cacioppo, John T

    2014-08-01

    In two studies, participants reported what they had been thinking about while completing measures of subjective well-being (SWB). These thought reports were analyzed with respect to life domain, valence, and how strongly they were related to actual levels of SWB. Most people focused on their life circumstances (e.g., career) rather than on dispositional predictors (e.g., personality) of SWB. The domains mentioned most frequently (career, family, romantic life) were also the ones that were most strongly related to actual SWB, indicating that most of people think about things that actually contribute to their SWB. Some domains are predominantly mentioned in positive contexts (e.g., family) whereas others are predominantly mentioned in negative contexts (e.g., money). On average, people thought more about positive than about negative things, a result that is magnified for respondents high in extraversion or emotional stability. In sum, these findings provide insight into what people think contributes to their SWB; beliefs that may guide them as they make important decisions.

  16. Subjective well-being: gender differences in Holocaust survivors-specific and cross-national effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Sara; King, David B; O'Rourke, Norm; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2017-06-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) has become an important concept in evaluating older adults' quality of life. The cognitive and emotional evaluations which are used to appraise it differ in structure, characteristics, and effects on life. The purpose of this study was to support hypotheses regarding expected Holocaust survivors-specific effects and cross-cultural differences on three indicators of SWB. We recruited samples of 50 male and female Israeli Holocaust survivors, other older Israelis, and older Canadians (N = 300) for allowing us to distinguish survivors-specific effects from cross-national differences. State anxiety, depressive symptoms, and life-satisfaction were compared across groups of men and women. Where univariate differences were detected, post hoc comparisons were computed to determine which of the groups significantly differed. In general, a higher level of SWB was found among Canadians in comparison to both comparative Israeli groups. Level of depressive symptoms was significantly higher among women survivors than in the other two groups. Both groups of Israeli women had higher scores on anxiety than Canadian Women; less apparent were differences across groups of men. Life-satisfaction did not differ among the groups. Our findings regarding depression support the survivor-specific effect hypothesis for women, and a national effect on anxiety, but not any effect on life-satisfaction. These findings suggest significant differences in impacts of traumatic life events on cognitive versus emotional indicators of SWB. This issue should be further investigated due to its practical implications in use of various measures of SWB with people who experienced traumatic events.

  17. Proeating disorder websites and subjective well-being: A four-country study on young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turja, Tuuli; Oksanen, Atte; Kaakinen, Markus; Sirola, Anu; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Räsänen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Proeating disorder (pro-ED) communities online encourage harmful weight-loss and weight-control practices. This study examined the association between exposure to pro-ED content online and subjective well-being (SWB) among adolescents and young adults in four countries. Cross-national data were collected in the US, Germany, the UK and Finland from Internet users aged 15-30 years (N = 3,557; 50.15% male). The questionnaire assessed SWB, exposure to harm-advocating websites, online activity, prior victimization, and social belonging. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models assessed the relationship between SWB and pro-ED exposure and adjusted for a number of confounding factors. Of the participants, 17% had been exposed to pro-ED content (US 20%, Germany 7%, UK 21%, Finland 22%). Exposure to pro-ED content online was negatively associated with SWB in the US, Germany, and Finland, also after adjusting for the confounding factors. Offline social belonging moderated the association between pro-ED and SWB. Participants who visited pro-ED websites reported lower SWB than others did. The potentially harmful impact of visiting these sites was buffered by the strong offline social belonging. Given the observed similarities across the countries, it is important for families, health professionals, and educators to stay abreast of online communities that have possible contra recovery influences and to be able to discuss such Internet contents in a way that increases treatment motivation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:50-57). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Influence of socio-demographic factors on subjective well-being ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the role played by socio-demographic factors in the determination of retirees\\' well-Being. The relationship between well- Being and socio- demographic factors – sex; year of retirement; present employment status; and no of retirees\\' dependants is negative but this does not imply causation. A total of ...

  19. Life Expectancy as an Objective Factor of a Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavlassopulos, Nikolas; Keppler, David

    2011-01-01

    The paper has two parts. In the first part we offer a definition of well-being which makes life expectancy an explicit variable. We recognize the importance of happiness as a significant aspect of any definition of well-being, but we side-step the issue of what determines its level or how to measure it, and concentrate instead on the consequences…

  20. How Do Adolescents Increase Their Subjective Well-Being Level by Means of Relationships With Their Environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, investigating of how adolescents increase their subjective well-being level by means of relationships with their environment is aimed. Method: This study is carried out following the scanning model. The primarily participants of the study include a total of 360 adolescents (202 male and 158 female. The ages of them range between 14 and 17. Main study group include a total of 90 adolescents (45 male and 45 female. The data of the study were obtained through the use of the Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being Increasing Scale and open ended questions. The data were analyzed through using of content analysis method with respect to sentences. Results: The findings obtained indicate that adolescents increase their subjective well-being levels with receiving positive reaction from an environment by means of such sub-strategies to get responses to the environment to be considered important and valuable, to receive social support, to receive responses which protect trust in relationships, to receive responses which increase perceived control, to receive responses which support the autonomy, to receive responses which increase the subjective well-being directly, and also to receive responses to be liked, to be understood, to be loved. In addition to these, adolescents increase their subjective well-being levels with reacting positively to an environment by means of such sub-strategies to show behaviors which increase the subjective well-being directly, to give social support, to establish positive relationship, to control yourself in relationship, to give a gift, to behave altruistically, to have optimistic taught, to give responses which protect trust in relationships, and also to pay compliments. Discussion and Conclusions: The findings of the study suggest that there are nine factors for reacting positively to an environment and also receiving positive reaction from an environment. Results of this study may be used for

  1. Believing Is Doing: Emotion Regulation Beliefs Are Associated With Emotion Regulation Behavioral Choices and Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Nicole Marie Ortner

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research in emotion regulation has begun to examine various predictors of emotion regulation choices, including individual differences and contextual variables. However, scant attention has been paid to the extent to which people’s beliefs about the specific consequences of emotion regulation strategies for the components of an emotional response and long-term well-being predict their behavioral regulatory choices and, in turn, their subjective well-being. Participants completed measures to assess their beliefs about the consequences of functional and dysfunctional strategies, behavioral choices of emotion regulation strategies in negative scenarios, and subjective well-being. The model that fit the data indicated partial mediation whereby beliefs were associated with approximately 9% of the variance in choices. Emotion regulation choices were related to subjective well-being, with an additional direct effect between beliefs and well-being. This suggests beliefs play a role in people’s regulatory choices. Future research should explore how beliefs interact with individual differences and contextual variables to better understand why people regulate their emotions in different ways and, ultimately, to help individuals make healthy emotion regulation choices.

  2. Believing Is Doing: Emotion Regulation Beliefs Are Associated With Emotion Regulation Behavioral Choices and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Catherine Nicole Marie; Briner, Esther Lydia; Marjanovic, Zdravko

    2017-01-01

    Research in emotion regulation has begun to examine various predictors of emotion regulation choices, including individual differences and contextual variables. However, scant attention has been paid to the extent to which people’s beliefs about the specific consequences of emotion regulation strategies for the components of an emotional response and long-term well-being predict their behavioral regulatory choices and, in turn, their subjective well-being. Participants completed measures to assess their beliefs about the consequences of functional and dysfunctional strategies, behavioral choices of emotion regulation strategies in negative scenarios, and subjective well-being. The model that fit the data indicated partial mediation whereby beliefs were associated with approximately 9% of the variance in choices. Emotion regulation choices were related to subjective well-being, with an additional direct effect between beliefs and well-being. This suggests beliefs play a role in people’s regulatory choices. Future research should explore how beliefs interact with individual differences and contextual variables to better understand why people regulate their emotions in different ways and, ultimately, to help individuals make healthy emotion regulation choices. PMID:28344675

  3. Impaired Sleep Mediates the Negative Effects of Training Load on Subjective Well-Being in Female Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Brickson, Stacey

    2018-02-01

    Although increased training load (TL) and impaired sleep are associated with decreases in subjective well-being in adult athletes, these relationships among female youth athletes are unclear. It is unknown whether the effects of sleep and TL on well-being are independent or whether alterations in sleep mediate the effects of TL on subjective well-being. Sleep and TL exert independent effects on subjective well-being among youth athletes, although alterations in sleep mediate a significant portion of the effect of TL on well-being in female youth athletes. Prospective cohort study. Level 4. A total of 65 female soccer athletes (age range, 13-18 years) were monitored for 1 year. Daily TL was determined by session rating of perceived exertion and converted to z-scores. Every morning, participants recorded sleep duration in hours and rated stress, mood, fatigue, and soreness on a scale from -3 to +3 (worst to best). Linear mixed-effects models and mediation analysis were used to evaluate the independent effects of TL and sleep on well-being. Average sleep duration was 7.9 ± 1.4 hours during the study period. In the multivariable model, TL and sleep duration were independently associated with fatigue (TL: β = -0.19, P < 0.001; sleep: β = 0.15, P < 0.001), mood (TL: β = -0.030, P = 0.014; sleep: β = 0.13, P < 0.001), stress (TL: β = -0.055, P = 0.001; sleep: β = 0.13, P < 0.001), and soreness (TL: β = -0.31, P < 0.001; sleep: β = 0.022, P = 0.042). Sleep duration mediated a significant portion of the effect of TL on mood (26.8%, P < 0.001), fatigue (12.6%, P < 0.001), and stress (24.5%, P < 0.001). Among female youth athletes, decreased sleep duration and increased TL are independently associated with impairments of subjective well-being. In addition, decreased sleep mediates a significant portion of the negative effect of increases in TL on subjective well-being. Monitoring and promoting sleep among female adolescent athletes may significantly improve

  4. Intercultural relations in Kabardino-Balkaria: Does integration always lead to subjective well-being?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepshokova Z. Kh.

    2016-05-01

    strategy in promoting sociocultural adaptation and well-being among the migrants in Moscow and the Muscovites. These findings require additional analysis of the sociopolitical and historical context in Latvia in order to understand the psychological outcomes of acculturation among the Russian minority there.

  5. Social Network Type and Subjective Well-Being in a National Sample of Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Howard; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study considers the social networks of older Americans, a population for whom there have been few studies of social network type. It also examines associations between network types and well-being indicators: loneliness, anxiety, and happiness. Design and Methods: A subsample of persons aged 65 years and older from the first wave of…

  6. Interpersonal Relationships and Subjective Well-being among Older Adults in Sheltered Housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbers, Daniel J.; Meijering, Louise

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine how experiences with interpersonal relationships contribute to older adults’ well-being in the residential context of sheltered housing. We draw on data collected from sixteen in-depth interviews with older adults living in sheltered housing in a small town in

  7. Promoting Adaptive Coping Skills and Subjective Well-Being through Credit-Based Leisure Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Cindy L.; Evans, Kate E.; Anderson, Denise M.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study addresses the need for campus-based programming that allows students to practice adaptive coping skills and increase well-being. Eight focus groups and seven individual interviews were conducted with students participating in credit-based leisure education courses to understand self-reported health-related motivations and…

  8. Enhancing the Educational Subject: Cognitive Capitalism, Positive Psychology and Well-Being Training in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, James

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is influencing educational policy and practice in Britain and North America. This article reveals how this psychological discourse and its offshoot school-based training programs, which stress happiness, self-improvement and well-being, align with an emergent socio-economic formation: cognitive capitalism. Three key points are…

  9. Examining Whether Spirituality Predicts Subjective Well-Being: How to Avoid Tautology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garssen, Bert; Visser, Anja; de Jager Meezenbroek, Eltica

    Spirituality may help people to maintain a high level of well-being despite adversity, but several studies that claim to support this statement have used spirituality scales and outcome measures that have overlapping content. This practice seems to be widespread: In an exploratory survey of 8

  10. Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Teacher Connectedness: A Health Asset Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moya, Irene; Brooks, Fiona; Morgan, Antony; Moreno, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Teacher connectedness is an important factor for young people's well-being. The aim of this paper was to examine teacher connectedness in detail and its potential association with emotional wellbeing. More specifically, we set out to analyse whether teacher connectedness acted as a universal asset for boys and girls of different ages…

  11. The pursuit of subjective well-being and the complexity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's GDP increase has in part stemmed from the consumption patterns of consumers who have since 1994 been awarded equal opportunities and thus have ... that may elicit economic, environmental and social responsibility as a measurement of well-being instead of maintaining the prevailing hedonic treadmill.

  12. Self-esteem mediates the relationship between spirituality and subjective well-being in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshanloo, Mohsen; Daemi, Fatemeh

    2015-03-01

    Self-esteem appears to play a central role in the spiritual life and ethical behaviour of the typical Iranian. For example, for many Iranians, humankind is believed to be the crown of creation, and each person is believed to be individually valued by God. Previous empirical studies also indicate that in Iran spirituality is positively associated with self-esteem. On this basis, it was hypothesised that self-esteem would be one of the mechanisms through which spirituality leads to increased mental well-being. Mediation analysis showed that self-esteem was a partial mediator of the spirituality-well-being relationship. Moreover, results of moderated mediation analysis revealed that this mediation was not significantly moderated by gender, and that the indirect path through self-esteem was significant in both genders. Implications of the results and their relevance to other western and eastern religions (e.g. Christianity and Buddhism) are discussed. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derringer, Jaime; Gratten, Jacob; Lee, James J; Liu, Jimmy Z; de Vlaming, Ronald; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Cavadino, Alana; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Davies, Gail; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Garfield, Victoria; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Gonzalez, Juan R; Haitjema, Saskia; Karlsson, Robert; van der Laan, Sander W; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J; Miller, Michael B; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Tian; Matteson, Lindsay; Mihailov, Evelin; Minica, Camelia C; Nolte, Ilja M; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; van der Most, Peter J; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rawal, Rajesh; Realo, Anu; Rueedi, Rico; Schmidt, Börge; Smith, Albert V; Stergiakouli, Evie; Tanaka, Toshiko; Taylor, Kent; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Willems, Sara M; Zhao, Wei; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Bergmann, Sven; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Boyle, Patricia A; Cherney, Samantha; Cox, Simon R; Davis, Oliver S P; Ding, Jun; Direk, Nese; Eibich, Peter; Emeny, Rebecca T; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Faul, Jessica D; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forstner, Andreas J; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Richa; Harris, Tamara B; Harris, Juliette M; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; De Jager, Philip L; Kaakinen, Marika A; Kajantie, Eero; Karhunen, Ville; Kolcic, Ivana; Kumari, Meena; Launer, Lenore J; Franke, Lude; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Liewald, David C; Koini, Marisa; Loukola, Anu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Montgomery, Grant W; Mosing, Miriam A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Petrovic, Katja E; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Quaye, Lydia; Räikkönen, Katri; Rudan, Igor; Scott, Rodney J; Smith, Jennifer A; Sutin, Angelina R; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Vinkhuyzen, Anna E; Yu, Lei; Zabaneh, Delilah; Attia, John R; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Boomsma, Dorret I; Snieder, Harold; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Bültmann, Ute; de Geus, Eco J C; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hansen, Torben; Hartman, Catharine A; Haworth, Claire M A; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kraft, Peter; Kubzansky, Laura D; Lehtimäki, Terho; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mills, Melinda; de Mutsert, Renée; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L; Plomin, Robert; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Christine; Rich, Stephen S; Rosendaal, Frits R; den Ruijter, Hester M; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Svento, Rauli; Schmidt, Reinhold; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Starr, John M; Stefansson, Kari; Steptoe, Andrew; Terracciano, Antonio; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, André G; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagner, Gert G; Weir, David R; Yang, Jian; Conley, Dalton C; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Laibson, David I; Medland, Sarah E; Meyer, Michelle N; Pickrell, Joseph K; Esko, Tõnu; Krueger, Robert F; Beauchamp, Jonathan P; Koellinger, Philipp D; Benjamin, Daniel J; Bartels, Meike; Cesarini, David

    2016-01-01

    We conducted genome-wide association studies of three phenotypes: subjective well-being (N = 298,420), depressive symptoms (N = 161,460), and neuroticism (N = 170,910). We identified three variants associated with subjective well-being, two with depressive symptoms, and eleven with neuroticism, including two inversion polymorphisms. The two depressive symptoms loci replicate in an independent depression sample. Joint analyses that exploit the high genetic correlations between the phenotypes (|ρ^| ≈ 0.8) strengthen the overall credibility of the findings, and allow us to identify additional variants. Across our phenotypes, loci regulating expression in central nervous system and adrenal/pancreas tissues are strongly enriched for association. PMID:27089181

  14. Eating habits and subjective well-being. A typology of students in Chilean state universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán; Orellana, Ligia; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Etchebarne, Soledad; Mora, Marcos; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish and characterize university student typologies according to their life satisfaction and satisfaction with their food-related life. An online survey was applied between June and August 2013 in five state universities in Chile, to 369 university students (mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 2.27). The survey included the Health-related Quality of Life Index-4 (HRQOL), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL), as well as questions about the place of residence, importance of food for well-being, frequency of meals in the place of residence and the frequency of consumption of eight food groups. A cluster analysis was used to determine student typologies. Three typologies of students were distinguished with significant differences in the average scores of the SWLS and SWFL scales, self-perception of health, days with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns that foster healthful eating in the entire university population, these campaigns must be specifically targeted to students who do not receive direct support from their families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Job Satisfaction and Subjective Well-Being Among Midwives: Analysis of a Multinational Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosova, Darja; Gurkova, Elena; Ziakova, Katarina; Nedvedova, Daniela; Palese, Alvisa; Godeas, Gloria; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Song, Mi Sook; Lee, Jongwon; Cordeiro, Raul; Babiarczyk, Beata; Fras, Malgorzata

    2017-03-01

    There is a considerable amount of empirical evidence to indicate a positive association between an employee's subjective well-being and workplace performance and job satisfaction. Compared with nursing research, there is a relative lack of consistent scientific evidence concerning midwives' subjective well-being and its determinants related to domains of job satisfaction. The purpose of the study was to examine the association between the domains of job satisfaction and components of subjective well-being in hospital midwives. This cross-sectional descriptive study involved 1190 hospital midwives from 7 countries. Job satisfaction was measured by the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale. Subjective well-being was conceptualized in the study by the 2 components (the affective and the cognitive component). The affective component of subjective well-being (ie, emotional well-being) was assessed by the Positive and the Negative Affect Scale. The cognitive component of subjective well-being (ie, life satisfaction) was measured by the Personal Well-Being Index. Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to determine associations between variables. Findings from correlation and regression analyses indicated an overall weak association between the domains of job satisfaction and components of subjective well-being. Satisfaction with extrinsic rewards, coworkers, and interaction opportunities accounted for only 13% of variance in the cognitive component (life satisfaction). The affective component (emotional well-being) was weakly associated with satisfaction with control and responsibility. The low amount of variance suggests that neither component of subjective well-being is influenced by the domains of job satisfaction. Further studies should focus on identifying other predictors of subjective well-being among midwives. A better understanding of how specific job facets are related to the subjective well-being of midwives might assist employers in the

  16. Subjective well-being of the Adolescents: A Comparative Study between Argentina and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Castellá Sarriera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess and compare the degree of personal well-being of Argentinean and Brazilian adolescents. The sample consists of 640 adolescents of both sexes, aged between 12 and 16 years old, with 46.3% Argentinean and 53.7% Brazilian. Three scales have been used: the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS and the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (BMSLSS. The PWI and BMSLSS scores were higher in Argentinean adolescents (MPWI = 82.42 y MBMSLSS = 41.19 than in Brazilians (MPWI = 80.88 y MBMSLSS = 40.09, but the SWLS scores are similar (MSWLS-Arg = 31.50 y MSWLS-Bra = 31.32. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA reveals that the three scales forming a statistical variable as a whole are significantly different by country (p less than .038 and age (p less than .024 and their interaction country*age (p less than .008, but no difference is observed concerning sex (p = .174 and the interaction country*sex (p = .856. Results’ implications are discussed relating well-being considering adolescents’ country, age and sex.

  17. Influences of Affect Associated with Routine Out-of-Home Activities on Subjective Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobson Bergstad, C.J.; Gamble, A.; Hagman, O.; Polk, M.; Gärling, T.; Ettema, D.F.; Friman, M.; Olsson, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    A survey of a random sample of 1,330 Swedish residents assessed the relationships between affect associated with performance of routine out-of-home activities, mood, and judgments of life satisfaction (cognitive subjective wellbeing, CSWB). Regression analyses showed that sociodemographic

  18. Subjective Well-Being and Cardiometabolic Health: An 8–11 Year Study of Midlife Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K.; Chen, Ying; Williams, David R.; Ryff, Carol D.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Individuals who are satisfied and experience frequent positive emotions tend to have reduced risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, conflicting evidence exists and little research has investigated whether well-being is associated with early-warning indicators of biological risk that precede CHD. We investigated whether life satisfaction and positive emotions longitudinally predicted reduced risk of incident cardiometabolic conditions and healthier cardiometabolic risk scores, which may provide insight into underlying mechanisms and novel prevention targets. Methods Initially healthy men and women (N=754–854) reported their baseline life satisfaction and positive emotions. During follow-up, presence of manifest cardiometabolic conditions was assessed and a separate cardiometabolic risk score was constructed from eight biomarkers. Poisson and linear regression analyses tested whether life satisfaction and positive emotions were associated with reduced incident disease risk and lower cardiometabolic risk scores 8–11 years later. Results Life satisfaction and positive emotions were each prospectively associated with reduced risk of manifest conditions, controlling for demographics and family history of CHD. Associations were attenuated for positive emotions after adjusting for depressive symptoms and for life satisfaction after adjusting for health behaviors. Life satisfaction was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk scores until adding health behaviors, but positive emotions were not (regardless of the included covariates). Conclusion Well-being, particularly life satisfaction, is associated with reduced risk for incident cardiometabolic conditions in minimally-adjusted models. However, accounting for underlying behavioral pathways attenuates the association. Low levels of life satisfaction (but not positive emotions) may also provide early warning of cardiometabolic risk prior to disease development. PMID:27212662

  19. Relationships between Flow Experience, Life Meaningfulness and Subjective Well-being in Music Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sedlár

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines relationships between flow experience in musical activities, life meaningfulness and subjective well – being. Life meaningfulness belongs to eudaimonic good life, subjective well–being belongs to hedonic good life and flow seems to be combination of both approaches. It is supposed that flow experience in musical activity and life meaningfulness should have positive impact on subjective well –being. The research sample consisted of 96 university music students (37 males, 59 females from the Music and Dance Faculty, Academy of Performing Arts in Bratislava, Slovakia. Dispositional Flow Scale–2, which measures nine dimension of flow, was used for measuring frequency o f flow experience. Life Meaningfulness Scale, which measures three dimensions of life meaningfulness, was used for measuring meaningfulness of life. Positive and Negative Affect Schedule measured affective components of subjective well–being, and Satisfaction with Life Scale measured cognitive component of subjective well–being. Categorization revealed that the most favourite performing musical activities are creative musical activities, such as reproduction and production, during which music students relatively often experience flow. The results of correlation analysis showed that total scores of flow experience, life meaningfulness and components of subjective well–being, significantly correlate each other. Aspects of flow, clear goals and autotelic experience are positively related to cognitive and motivational dimension of life meaningfulness and also to positive affectivity. Loss of self–consciousness and autotelic experience are positively related to emotional dimension of life meaningfulness. Challenge–skill balance, action–awareness merging, clear goals, concentration on task at hand, sense of control and autotelic experience are negatively related to negative affectivity. Challenge–skill balance and autotelic experience are related to

  20. Women's Autonomy and Subjective Well-Being in India: How Village Norms Shape the Impact of Self-Help Groups

    OpenAIRE

    De Hoop, Thomas; van Kempen, Luuk; Linssen, Rik; Van Eerdewijk, Anouka

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents quasi-experimental impact estimates of women self-help groups on subjective well-being in Orissa, India. We find that, on average, self-help group membership does not affect subjective well-being. However, our results at the same time reveal that subjective well-being sharply declines for those members whose newly gained autonomy meets with relatively conservative social gender norms among non-members. We interpret this finding as evidence for heterogeneous losses of feeli...

  1. A research regarding the relationship among intensive care nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction and subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Huihui Liu; Xiaohong Zhang; Rui Chang; Weining Wang

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The paper aims to explore the status of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being and to investigate the relationship among the three elements. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 224 nurses from five teaching hospitals in Tianjin, China, was conducted. Self-esteem scale, job satisfaction scale, and subjective well-being scale were used to explore the status of ICU nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being....

  2. Explaining Differences in Subjective Well-Being Across 33 Nations Using Multilevel Models: Universal Personality, Cultural Relativity, and National Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cecilia; Cheung, Mike W-L; Montasem, Alex

    2016-02-01

    This multinational study simultaneously tested three prominent hypotheses--universal disposition, cultural relativity, and livability--that explained differences in subjective well-being across nations. We performed multilevel structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized relationships at both individual and cultural levels in 33 nations. Participants were 6,753 university students (2,215 men; 4,403 women; 135 did not specify), and the average age of the entire sample was 20.97 years (SD = 2.39). Both individual- and cultural-level analyses supported the universal disposition and cultural relativity hypotheses by revealing significant associations of subjective well-being with Extraversion, Neuroticism, and independent self-construal. In addition, interdependent self-construal was positively related to life satisfaction at the individual level only, whereas aggregated negative affect was positively linked with aggregate levels of Extraversion and interdependent self-construal at the cultural level only. Consistent with the livability hypothesis, gross national income (GNI) was related to aggregate levels of negative affect and life satisfaction. There was also a quadratic relationship between GNI and aggregated positive affect. Our findings reveal that universal disposition, cultural self-construal, and national income can elucidate differences in subjective well-being, but the multilevel analyses advance the literature by yielding new findings that cannot be identified in studies using individual-level analyses alone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Eating habits and subjective well-being among university students in southern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Orellana, Ligia; Paiva, Galo; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-11-01

    To distinguish typologies of university students in southern Chile on the basis of their level of satisfaction with life and food-related life, and to characterize them according to their eating habits inside and outside the place of residence, aspects associated with health and demographic characteristics. A structured questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 347 students at the Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile. The instruments for collecting information included the SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life) and the HRQOL (Health-related Quality of Life Index). Questions were asked about eating habits inside and outside the place of residence, weight and approximate height, and variables for demographic classification. Using a cluster analysis, three student typologies were distinguished, with significant differences in the SWLS and SWFL scores. The typologies differed in the number of days affected by emotional health problems, classification of their nutritional status (BMI), self-perception of their state of health, importance of food to personal well-being, place of residence during the period of studies, frequency of eating in the place of residence and frequency of meals at inconvenient times. The possibility of living with parents during the period of university studies is associated with better eating habits, better emotional health and self-perception of health, lower prevalence of overweight and obesity, and greater satisfaction with the life and food-related life. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. The Mediator Role of Need Satisfaction between Subjective Well-Being and Romantic Relationships Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali; Dogan, Tayfun

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: The most important part of identity exploration for emerging adults is love. Establishing healthy intimate relationships support the process of identity exploration. In addition to the positive and negative factors that affect romantic relationships, the concept of quality is also very important in these romantic relationships.…

  5. Subjective Factors of the Hospital Environment and Their Influence on Psychological Well-being of Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agalarova K.N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the relationship between man and the space around him, namely between the patient and hospital environment. The article gives a little insight into the history of the issue. The study held in a number of hospitals explored the influence of hospital environment on the psychological state of patients and their recovery, as well as the searching of behavior patterns of patients staying in the hospital. There are several main factors in the right treatment: the doctor’s qualification, quality of medical equipment, novelty of medical technology and medicines prescribed to patients but also the conditions of the hospital environment and trusting relationship between patient and doctor as well. This theme is insufficiently explored especially in Russian medicine. Its studying will serve as a referral base for a more effective treatment of patients, and also for a creating a conducive hospital environment. This theme is interdisciplinary in nature. Mainly it refers to the subject of environmental psychology, also located at the junction of personality, health psychology and rehabilitation psychology.

  6. Satisfaction of Needs and Determining of Life Goals: A Model of Subjective Well-Being for Adolescents in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test a subjective well-being model for adolescents in high school. A total of 326 adolescents in high school (176 female and 150 male) participated in this study. The data was collected by using the general needs satisfaction questionnaire, which is for the adolescents' subjective well-being, and determining…

  7. The Relationship between Happiness, Subjective Well-Being, Creativity and Job Performance of Primary School Teachers in Ramhormoz City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Zohreh; Heidari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the relationship between happiness, subjective well-being, creativity and job performance of primary school teachers in Ramhormoz City. Hence, a sample of 330 individuals was selected through random stratified sampling. The research tools included Oxford Happiness Inventory, Subjective Well-being Scale by Keyes…

  8. Improving Middle School Students' Subjective Well-Being: Efficacy of a Multicomponent Positive Psychology Intervention Targeting Small Groups of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Rachel A.; Suldo, Shannon M.; Ferron, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Most interventions intended to improve subjective well-being, termed "positive psychology interventions" (PPIs), have neglected to include relevant stakeholders in youth's lives and have not included booster sessions intended to maintain gains in subjective well-being. The current study investigated the impact of a multitarget,…

  9. Subjective well-being and social media use: Do personality traits moderate the impact of social comparison on Facebook?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerson, J.; Plagnol, A.; Corr, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore whether personality traits moderate the association between social comparison on Facebook and subjective well-being, measured as both life satisfaction and eudaimonic well-being. Data were collected via an online questionnaire which measured Facebook use, social comparison behavior and personality traits for 337 respondents. The results showed positive associations between Facebook intensity and both measures of subjective well-being, and negative assoc...

  10. A research regarding the relationship among intensive care nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction and subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Liu

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: The study shows that the prevalence of subjective well-being and self-esteem with ICU nurses are at a low level, and job satisfaction is at the median level. Associations among self-esteem, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being in ICUs have been confirmed. Self-esteem and job satisfaction positively correlated with nurse subjective well-being. The higher the self-esteem and job satisfaction levels are, the stronger the subjective well-being is. The working pressure in ICUs cannot be alleviated temporarily; hence, to promote a high subjective well-being, managers and ICU nurses increase their self-esteem and job satisfaction through taking strategies that strengthen psychological construction.

  11. Associations Among Individuals' Perceptions of Future Time, Individual Resources, and Subjective Well-Being in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Infurna, Frank J; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2017-05-01

    Perceptions of future time are of key interest to aging research because of their implications for subjective well-being. Interestingly, perceptions about future time are only moderately associated with age when looking at the second half of life, pointing to a vast heterogeneity in future time perceptions among older adults. We examine associations between future time perceptions, age, and subjective well-being across two studies, including moderations by individual resources. Using data from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516; Mage = 85 years), we link one operationalization (subjective nearness to death) and age to subjective well-being. Using Health and Retirement Study data (N = 2,596; Mage = 77 years), we examine associations of another future time perception indicator (subjective future life expectancy) and age with subjective well-being. Consistent across studies, perceptions of limited time left were associated with poorer subjective well-being (lower life satisfaction and positive affect; more negative affect and depressive symptoms). Importantly, individual resources moderated future time perception-subjective well-being associations with those of better health exhibiting reduced future time perception-subjective well-being associations. We discuss our findings in the context of the Model of Strength and Vulnerability Integration.

  12. Subjective well-being of mental health nurses in the United Kingdom: Results of an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Jennifer; Jones, Julia; Drey, Nicholas

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure the subjective well-being of a group of 225 UK registered mental health nurses (MHN) using three survey measures, and to identify whether certain demographic and workplace factors correlated with subjective well-being measure scores. An online survey incorporating the subjective well-being questions used by the Office for National Statistics, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale was administered to members of two professional bodies for MHN. There was good consistency between the three subjective well-being measures, each demonstrating that UK MHN had a relatively low subjective well-being. Apart from the Office for National Statistics question, 'Overall, to what extent do you feel the things you do in your life are worthwhile?', demographic and workplace factors did not correlate with subjective well-being measure scores, although the characteristics of being male, living alone, and being aged 40-49 years were associated with lower mean scores on all three measures. The findings of the exploratory study suggest that a similar study should be undertaken with a larger representative population of MHN, and that qualitative research should explore why and how UK MHN have relatively low subjective well-being. The limitations of this study, namely the response rate and sample representativeness, mean that the results of the present study must be tested in further research on the MHN population. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  13. Perceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-being in Chinese Migrant Adolescents: Collective and Personal Self-esteem As Mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuji Jia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine whether collective and personal self-esteem serve as mediators in the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents. Six hundred and ninety-two adolescents completed a perceived discrimination scale, a collective self-esteem scale, a personal self-esteem scale, and a subjective well-being scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. The analysis indicated that both collective and personal self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being. The final model also revealed a significant path from perceived discrimination through collective and personal self-esteem to subjective well-being. These findings contribute to the understanding of the complicated relationships among perceived discrimination, collective and personal self-esteem, and subjective well-being. The findings suggest that collective and personal self-esteem are possible targets for interventions aimed at improving subjective well-being. Programs to nurture both the personal and collective self-esteem of migrant adolescents may help to weaken the negative relationships between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being.

  14. Perceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-being in Chinese Migrant Adolescents: Collective and Personal Self-esteem As Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuji; Liu, Xia; Shi, Baoguo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether collective and personal self-esteem serve as mediators in the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents. Six hundred and ninety-two adolescents completed a perceived discrimination scale, a collective self-esteem scale, a personal self-esteem scale, and a subjective well-being scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. The analysis indicated that both collective and personal self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being. The final model also revealed a significant path from perceived discrimination through collective and personal self-esteem to subjective well-being. These findings contribute to the understanding of the complicated relationships among perceived discrimination, collective and personal self-esteem, and subjective well-being. The findings suggest that collective and personal self-esteem are possible targets for interventions aimed at improving subjective well-being. Programs to nurture both the personal and collective self-esteem of migrant adolescents may help to weaken the negative relationships between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being.

  15. Perceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-being in Chinese Migrant Adolescents: Collective and Personal Self-esteem As Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuji; Liu, Xia; Shi, Baoguo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether collective and personal self-esteem serve as mediators in the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents. Six hundred and ninety-two adolescents completed a perceived discrimination scale, a collective self-esteem scale, a personal self-esteem scale, and a subjective well-being scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. The analysis indicated that both collective and personal self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being. The final model also revealed a significant path from perceived discrimination through collective and personal self-esteem to subjective well-being. These findings contribute to the understanding of the complicated relationships among perceived discrimination, collective and personal self-esteem, and subjective well-being. The findings suggest that collective and personal self-esteem are possible targets for interventions aimed at improving subjective well-being. Programs to nurture both the personal and collective self-esteem of migrant adolescents may help to weaken the negative relationships between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being. PMID:28769850

  16. Longitudinal associations between perceived age discrimination and subjective well-being: variations by age and subjective life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidor, Sharon; Ayalon, Liat; Palgi, Yuval; Bodner, Ehud

    2017-07-01

    Perceived age discrimination can have negative effects on one's subjective well-being (SWB). The response to age discrimination might differ based on age, and based on perceived longevity, or subjective life expectancy (SLE). These differential effects have not yet been prospectively examined within adult life span samples. We examined the association between perceived age discrimination at baseline (T1) and SWB at follow-up (T2), and the moderation effect of SLE. We compared differences in these effects between middle-aged and older adults. Analyses were based on participants who took part in the 2008 (T1) and 2011 (T2) assessments of the German Ageing Survey (DEAS; listwise N = 1534), a population-based representative sample of the German adult population. Participants were categorized as middle-aged (ages 40-64; n = 919) or older adults (ages 65-93; n = 615). Regression analyses indicated that T1 perceived age discrimination significantly predicts lower T2 SWB among middle-aged, but not among older adults, after adjusting for covariates and T1 SWB. There is a significant interaction between age discrimination and SLE for predicting SWB, only among middle-aged participants, suggesting that age discrimination predicts decreases in SWB for those reporting higher, but not lower levels of SLE. People in the transition from midlife to old age, who hold higher SLE, appear to be more vulnerable to age discrimination. This may be due to the experience of age discrimination as an 'off-time', or unexpected event for those in midlife who have a higher expectation to live longer.

  17. Outdoor group activity, depression, and subjective well-being among retirees of China: The mediating role of meaning in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the effect of outdoor group activity on mental health and the potential mediating effect of meaning in life. Participants were 559 retired people. A self-developed questionnaire measured outdoor group activity; the Meaning in Life Scale, the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression assessed meaning in life, subjective well-being, and depression, respectively. Results indicated outdoor group activity significantly predicted subjective well-being and depression; meaning in life fully mediated the relationship between outdoor group activity and subjective well-being and partially mediated the relationship between outdoor group activity and depression. The implications and limitations were also discussed.

  18. Health-related quality of life and subjective well-being : A cross-cultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Greimel, Elfriede

    2015-01-01

    Perspectives regarding the concept of health have changed from a pathogenic to a salutogenic model. The salutogenic approach considers different dimensions of well-being as determinants of health within individuals and societies. The relationship among health, subjective well-being, and the environment is broadly conceptualized within a transactional model of stress and coping, which recognizes the potential influence of the external environment on individual well-being. The salutogenic model...

  19. Soccer results affect subjective well-being, but only briefly: a smartphone study during the 2014 FIFA World Cup

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan eStieger; Götz, Friedrich M.; Fabienne eGehrig

    2015-01-01

    The current research examined the effects of soccer match results on spectators’ subjective well-being. Across the group stage of the soccer World Cup 2014, German-speaking participants indicated their well-being three times per day through a smartphone-based science app. In line with proposed hypotheses, comparisons of data taken after the three matches of the German national team showed robust effects, revealing that well-being was higher among spectators than non-spectators, with effects i...

  20. Relationships Between Self-Serving Attributional Bias and Subjective Well-Being Among Danish and Spanish Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjuán, Pilar; Jensen de López, Kristine M.

    2013-01-01

    samples from Denmark and Spain. SSAB has been inversely associated with psychological distress. However, well-being is not merely the absence of psychological distress. Therefore, positive affect balance and life satisfaction, as components of subjective well-being (SWB), were considered with the aim...

  1. Subjective Well-Being of Gifted American College Students: An Examination of Psychometric Properties of the PWI-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayler, Micheal F.; Boazman, Janette; Natesan, Prathiba; Periathiruvadi, Sita

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Personal Well-being Index for Adults (PWI-A), a measure of subjective well-being. The study used data from 533 high-ability American college students: honors students and participants in an early college entrance program. In earlier studies using the PWI-A, the instrument appeared to show…

  2. Travel Mode Use, Travel Mode Shift and Subjective Well-Being: Overview of Theories, Empirical Findings and Policy Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Friman, M.; Gärling, Tommy; Olsson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses how travel by different travel modes is related to primarily subjective well-being but also to health or physical well-being. Studies carried out in different geographic contexts consistently show that satisfaction with active travel modes is higher than travel by car and

  3. Brief Report : Influence of gender and age on parent reported subjective well-being in children with and without autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begeer, Sander; Ma, Yujie; Koot, Hans M.; Wierda, Marlies; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bartels, Meike

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with reduced Subjective well-being (SWB). To examine the influence of gender and age on well-being we collected parent reported SWB in children with or without ASD (total n = 1030), aged 8–14 years. Parents reported lower SWB for children with ASD

  4. The Effects of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status on Subjective Well-Being among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China: The Moderating Role of Subjective Social Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Silin; Hou, Jiawei; Sun, Ling; Dou, Donghui; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Hongchuan

    2017-01-01

    Although previous investigations have agreed that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants' socioeconomic status (SES) increases with their migration, the association between SES and subjective well-being is uncertain. To address this research gap, the present study proposed that the association between objective SES and subjective well-being is mediated by subjective SES. This model was tested with a sample of 432 Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. The results indicate a significant association between objective SES and subjective well-being and a partial mediating effect of subjective SES. Furthermore, subjective social mobility, which is one's expectation about the possibility to move upward in the social hierarchy, was found to moderate both the direct path from objective SES to subjective well-being and the indirect path from subjective SES to subjective well-being. These findings suggest that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants gained in subjective well-being not only because of direct financial achievement but also because of their perceptions and beliefs about their relative social status.

  5. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hongfei Du; Ronnel B King; Peilian Chi

    2017-01-01

    ...), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students...

  6. Perceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-being in Chinese Migrant Adolescents: Collective and Personal Self-esteem As Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Xuji; Liu, Xia; Shi, Baoguo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether collective and personal self-esteem serve as mediators in the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents. Six hundred and ninety-two adolescents completed a perceived discrimination scale, a collective self-esteem scale, a personal self-esteem scale, and a subjective well-being scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. The analysis indicated th...

  7. The relation among subjective well-being, social skills and quality of interpersonal interaction in adolescent friendships

    OpenAIRE

    徳永, 美紗子; 松下, 姫歌

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the following relationships in adolescent friendships: social skills (assertive skills and responsive skills), quality of interpersonal interaction (closeness, enjoyment, responsiveness, influence, and confidence), and subjective well-being. The results of the analysis revealed that for people with higher responsive skills and lower responsiveness, the lower the assertive skills, the higher the subjective well-being. By contrast, for people with higher ...

  8. Soccer results affect subjective well-being, but only briefly: A smartphone study during the 2014 FIFA World Cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eStieger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current research examined the effects of soccer match results on spectators’ subjective well-being. Across the group stage of the soccer World Cup 2014, German-speaking participants indicated their well-being three times per day through a smartphone-based science app. In line with proposed hypotheses, comparisons of data taken after the three matches of the German national team showed robust effects, revealing that well-being was higher among spectators than non-spectators, with effects increasing as a function of goal difference. Moreover, this gain in well-being was only found in spectators supporting the German soccer team, allowing us to rule out a general emotional contagion effect affecting all spectators. Although soccer results are associated with national identity and pride, their effects on subjective well-being were short-lived and only affected supporters.

  9. Soccer results affect subjective well-being, but only briefly: a smartphone study during the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan; Götz, Friedrich M; Gehrig, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    The current research examined the effects of soccer match results on spectators' subjective well-being. Across the group stage of the soccer World Cup 2014, German-speaking participants indicated their well-being three times per day through a smartphone-based science app. In line with proposed hypotheses, comparisons of data taken after the three matches of the German national team showed robust effects, revealing that well-being was higher among spectators than non-spectators, with effects increasing as a function of goal difference. Moreover, this gain in well-being was only found in spectators supporting the German soccer team, allowing us to rule out a general emotional contagion effect affecting all spectators. Although soccer results are associated with national identity and pride, their effects on subjective well-being were short-lived and only affected supporters.

  10. Psychological capital, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction amongst educators in the Umlazi region in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hansen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Challenges faced by educators in South Africa are increasing due to their working conditions, which in turn affects the educators’ enthusiasm towards their jobs. Change will likely be witnessed when educators are able to attain a positive and rewarding life, develop and flourish as individuals.Research purpose: This study sought to investigate the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction and to explore whether PsyCap mediates the relationship between subjective well-being and burnout.Motivation for the study: The study is premised on the fact that enhancing the positive attributes and strengths of educators can have a positive impact not only on their performance and commitment, but also on the satisfaction of students.Research approach, design and method: This cross-sectional study used a biographical questionnaire, PsyCap questionnaire, satisfaction with life scale, burnout inventory and Minnesota job satisfaction questionnaire to collect data from 103 educators.Main findings: Findings indicated statistically significant relationships between PsyCap, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction. PsyCap was found to mediate the relationship between subjective well-being and burnout.Managerial implications: PsyCap mediates the relationship between subjective well-being and burnout. Organisations can minimise burnout through the enhancement of positive capacities inherent in PsyCap and the aiding potential of subjective well-being.Contribution/value-add: The findings highlighted the aiding potential of subjective wellbeing as well as the possible resources PsyCap, subjective well-being and job satisfaction can provide in times of distress.

  11. How French subjects describe well-being from food and eating habits? Development, item reduction and scoring definition of the Well-Being related to Food Questionnaire (Well-BFQ©).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, I; Marrel, A; Arnould, B; Capuron, L; Dupuy, A; Ginon, E; Layé, S; Lecerf, J-M; Prost, M; Rogeaux, M; Urdapilleta, I; Allaert, F-A

    2016-01-01

    Providing well-being and maintaining good health are main objectives subjects seek from diet. This manuscript describes the development and preliminary validation of an instrument assessing well-being associated with food and eating habits in a general healthy population. Qualitative data from 12 groups of discussion (102 subjects) conducted with healthy subjects were used to develop the core of the Well-being related to Food Questionnaire (Well-BFQ). Twelve other groups of discussion with subjects with joint (n = 34), digestive (n = 32) or repetitive infection complaints (n = 30) were performed to develop items specific to these complaints. Five main themes emerged from the discussions and formed the modular backbone of the questionnaire: "Grocery shopping", "Cooking", "Dining places", "Commensality", "Eating and drinking". Each module has a common structure: items about subject's food behavior and items about immediate and short-term benefits. An additional theme - "Eating habits and health" - assesses subjects' beliefs about expected benefits of food and eating habits on health, disease prevention and protection, and quality of ageing. A preliminary validation was conducted with 444 subjects with balanced diet; non-balanced diet; and standard diet. The structure of the questionnaire was further determined using principal component analyses exploratory factor analyses, with confirmation of the sub-sections food behaviors, immediate benefits (pleasure, security, relaxation), direct short-term benefits (digestion and satiety, energy and psychology), and deferred long-term benefits (eating habits and health). Thirty-three subscales and 14 single items were further defined. Confirmatory analyses confirmed the structure, with overall moderate to excellent convergent and divergent validity and internal consistency reliability. The Well-BFQ is a unique, modular tool that comprehensively assesses the full picture of well-being related to food and eating habits in

  12. (Un)happy transition? Subjective Well-being in European Countries in 1991-2008 and Beyond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večerník, Jiří; Mysíková, Martina

    -, č. 467 (2014), s. 1-24 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/11/1521 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : subjective well - being * life satisfaction * transition Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.wifo.ac.at/jart/prj3/wifo/resources/person_dokument/person_dokument.jart?publikationsid=47205&mime_type=application/pdf

  13. Psychometric properties of the Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptics Scale and the Subjective Deficit Syndrome Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, L.; Weisfelt, M.; Dingemans, P. M. A. J.; Linszen, D. H.; Wouters, L.

    2002-01-01

    Rationale: Subjective experience of antipsychotic drugs is relevant for medication compliance and quality of life. There is, however, sparse knowledge about the assessment of subjective experience. Objectives: To examine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, sensitivity to medication

  14. Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptics Scale short form (SWN-K): reliability and validity in an Estonian speaking sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Liina; Mõttus, René; Jaanson, Peeter; Pilli, Raine; Mägi, Kairi; Maron, Eduard

    2013-09-11

    The Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale short form (SWN-K) is a self-rating scale developed to measure mentally ill patients' well-being under the antipsychotic drug treatment. This paper reports on adaptation and psychometric properties of the instrument in an Estonian psychiatric sample. In a naturalistic study design, 124 inpatients or outpatients suffering from the first psychotic episode or chronic psychotic illness completed the translated SWN-K instrument. Item content analysis, internal consistency analysis, exploratory principal components analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis were used to construct the Estonian version of the SWN-K (SWN-K-E). Additionally, socio-demographic and clinical data, observer-rated psychopathology, medication side effects, daily antipsychotic drug dosages, and general functioning were assessed at two time points, at baseline and after a 29-week period; the associations of the SWN-K-E scores with these variables were explored. After having selected 20 items for the Estonian adaptation, the internal consistency of the total SWN-K-E was 0.93 and the subscale consistencies ranged from 0.70 to 0.80. Good test-retest reliabilities were observed for the adapted scale scores, with the correlation of the total score over about 6 months being r = 0.70. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the presence of a higher-order factor (general well-being) and five first-order factors (mental functioning, physical functioning, social integration, emotional regulation, and self-control); the model fitted the data well. The results indicated a moderate-high correlations r = 0.54 between the SWN-K-E total score and the evaluation how satisfied patients were with their lives in generally. No significant correlations were found between the overall subjective well-being score and age, severity of the psychopathology, drug adverse effects, or prescribed drug dosage. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the Estonian

  15. THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO ETHNO-PSYCHOLOGICAL AND CROSS-CULTURAL STUDIES OF SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING OF THE PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Shamionov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a consistent analysis of the conceptual approaches to studying the psychological (cultural conditionality of subjective well-being. There are differences in the definition and understanding of subjective well-being, due to the commitment of foreign and domestic researchers to different theoretical trends. The issues of compatibility of different approaches to harmonizing them are discussed in the article. It is proposed to consider subjective well-being as a dynamic system with multiple and multi-level determination. The ethno-cultural determination of subjective well-being should be considered together with the general social, psycho-physiological, age and the others. A relative similarity of the approaches to ethno-psychological and cross-cultural studies of well-being by the Russian and foreign researchers, as well as a tendency to reconcile the various aspects of well-being in empirical research are noted in the article. The theoretical tasks necessary for the unification of the results of empirical research are determined.

  16. Examining relations between locus of control, loneliness, subjective well-being, and preference for online social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinghua; Lin, Lin

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented popularity of online communication has raised interests and concerns among the public as well as in scholarly circles. Online communications have pushed people farther away from one another. This study is a further examination of the effects of online communications on well-being, in particular: Locus of control, Loneliness, Subjective well-being, and Preference for online social interaction. Chinese undergraduate students (N = 260; 84 men, 176 women; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.2) were questioned about demographic information and use of social media as well as four previously validated questionnaires related to well-being. Most participants used QQ, a popular social networking program, as the major channel for online social interactions. Locus of control was positively related to Loneliness and Preference for online social interaction, but negatively related to Subjective well-being; Loneliness (positively) and Subjective well-being (negatively) were related to Preference for online social interaction; and Loneliness and Subjective well-being had a full mediating effect between the relationships of Locus of control and Preference for online social interaction. The findings of the study showed that more lonely, unhappy, and externally controlled students were more likely to be engaged in online social interaction. Improving students' locus of control, loneliness, and happiness may help reduce problematic Internet use.

  17. Subjective well-being and its association with peer caring and resilience among nursing vs medical students: A questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, FangFang; Guo, Yujie; Suhonen, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2016-02-01

    The subjective well-being (SWB) of nursing and medical students is a very important component in the training of future nurses and doctors, as well-being enables them to be more productive. The study examined the effects of peer caring and resilience on SWB as well as the mediating and moderating effects of resilience in the relationship between peer caring and SWB. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A university and an affiliated hospital in China. The convenience sample consisted of 426 nursing students and 336 medical students. Questionnaires comprising peer caring measurement, a resilience scale and a well-being scale were used in the spring of 2014. Students participate in the study showed low SWB. There was a significant difference between nursing students and medical students in peer caring, but not in SWB and resilience. The mediating effects of resilience on the relationship between peer caring and SWB were examined. As hypothesized, resilience mediated the relationship between peer caring and SWB partly for nursing students (SE=0.022, 95% CI=0.041-0.128) and fully for medical students (SE=0.023, 95% CI=0.067-0.161). Resilience did not statistically significantly moderate the peer caring-SWB relationship for nursing students (β=0.092, p=0.057) but did so for medical students (β=0.108, pPeer caring and resilience improved the SWB of both nursing students and medical students. In addition, resilience improved SWB through peer caring for both nursing students and medical students, and higher resilience in medical students enhanced the positive effects of peer caring on SWB. Therefore, educators should promote peer caring and resilience in order to improve students' SWB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Subjective Well-Being among Individuals from 138 Countries in the 2014 Gallup World Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frongillo, Edward A; Nguyen, Hoa T; Smith, Michael D; Coleman-Jensen, Alisha

    2017-04-01

    Background: Food insecurity is an aspect of living conditions that is particularly important for quality of life, health, and subjective well-being. The implementation of the 8-item Food Insecurity Experience Scale in 147 countries in the 2014 Gallup World Poll provided an unprecedented opportunity to understand the association of food insecurity with subjective well-being.Objective: We examined how food insecurity relates with measures of living conditions and how food insecurity and other living conditions relate with physical health and, in turn, subjective well-being.Methods: Data were collected from individuals aged ≥15 y by telephone in 38 countries and via face-to-face interviews in 111 others. The available sample was 132,618 (138 countries) and 122,137 (137 countries) for the daily experience and life evaluation indexes of subjective well-being, respectively. Daily experience was a continuous measure and life evaluation was categorized into thriving, struggling, and suffering. We estimated 6 linear or logistic regression models for each index controlling for country as a fixed effect.Results: Food insecurity was associated with the other 3 measures of living conditions: household income, shelter and housing, and employment. Food insecurity explained poor physical health and lower subjective well-being beyond other measures of living conditions. Instrumental and emotional support was associated with higher subjective well-being. The associations of food insecurity with subjective well-being were larger than with other explanatory variables. Food insecurity was associated with subjective well-being within each of the 4 World Bank income classes of countries, with a larger magnitude of differences for the higher-income classes.Conclusions: Food insecurity was strongly and negatively associated with subjective well-being in a large global sample of individuals aged ≥15 y. These results demonstrate the consistency of goal 2 of the Sustainable Development

  19. Independent self-construal mediates the association between CYP19A1 gene variant and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing; Yang, Yafang; Xue, Mengying; Fang, Pengpeng; Shen, Guomin; Zhang, Kejin; Gao, Xiaocai; Yu, Rongjun; Gong, Pingyuan

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone and estrogen are involved in self-related behavioral dispositions and experiences of subjective well-being. In this study, we investigated to what extent the aromatase (CYP19A1) gene, which encodes an enzyme in converting testosterone into estrogen, contributes to subjective well-being and in another self-related disposition: independent and interdependent self-construal. In study 1, a meta-analysis showed that the GG genotype of CYP19A1 (a G/A substitution at Val80, rs700518) was associated with higher testosterone and lower estradiol. In study 2, an empirical study of individuals with the GG (n=115), AG (n=286) and AA (n=193) genotypes indicated that individuals with the GG genotype exhibited higher independent self-construal and higher subjective well-being. The association between the GG genotype of CYP19A1 Val80 and subjective well-being was mediated by the independent self-construal. Our findings reinforce the idea that personality traits such as independent self-construal explain the link between genetic variant and subjective well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gratitude and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Multiple Mediating Roles of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction at School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Tian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the relationship between gratitude and general subjective well-being, and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (BPNT; Ryan & Deci, 2000, the present study's aim was to use structural equation modeling to test the multiple mediational roles of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school in accounting for the association between gratitude and subjective well-being in school (school satisfaction, school affect in adolescents. A total of 881 Chinese adolescents (427 males; Mean age = 12.97 completed a multi-measure questionnaire tapping the targeted variables. Results indicated that gratitude related statistically significantly to adolescents’ subjective well-being in school. Furthermore, a multiple-mediators analysis indicated that competence and relatedness needs satisfaction at school mediated the relation between gratitude and subjective well-being in school. Lastly, a multiple-mediators analysis also indicated that gratitude related to subjective well-being in school indirectly through autonomy needs satisfaction at school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed.

  1. Examining the role of attachment in the relationship between childhood adversity, psychological distress and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mark; McNulty, Muireann

    2017-11-23

    Childhood adversity is associated with a wide range of detrimental psychological consequences. This study examined the mediating role of relationship-specific attachment (avoidance and anxiety) in the associations between childhood adversity and both psychological distress and subjective well-being. University students (N=190) across the Republic of Ireland completed self-report measures including the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale, Experiences in Close Relationships - Relationship Structures scale, Depression Anxiety and Stress scales and measures of subjective well-being. One hundred and twenty-eight participants (67.4%) reported experiencing at least one adverse childhood experience. Childhood adversity was associated with symptoms of psychological distress and subjective well-being. All such associations were mediated by certain relationship-specific attachment dimensions. Of these, attachment anxiety in general relationships was the most prominent mediator for both psychological distress and subjective well-being. Attachment to one's father and to one's romantic partner did not mediate any association. These findings indicate that attachment, in particular relationships, is an important factor in the associations between childhood adversity and both psychological distress and subjective well-being as an adult. One's attachment anxiety in general relationships is particularly important in these associations. Therapeutic interventions addressing these attachment domains may offset the detrimental effects of childhood adversity. Future research is required using a longitudinal design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Subjective Quality of Life of People with Intellectual Disabilities: The Role of Emotional Competence on Their Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Lourdes; Extremera, Natalio; Duran, Auxiliadora; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Background: For decades, the field of quality of life for people with intellectual disabilities has focused on the improving the external life conditions. However, scarce research has examined the contribution of person-related psychological resources such as emotional competence (EC) on well-being in this population. Materials and Methods: Using…

  3. Personality, fear of missing out and problematic internet use and their relationship to subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Stead, Holly; Bibby, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    The current research examines how an individual’s personality, their internet use and the extent to which they are inclined to fear ‘missing out’ impacts subjective well-being overall and in terms of emotional, physical, and personal relationship well-being. A total of 495 participants aged 18 to 30 (69% female) completed an online questionnaire via the Qualtrics website that included measures of the Big-5 personality dimensions (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreea...

  4. Happier countries, longer lives: an ecological study on the relationship between subjective sense of well-being and life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Grahame F; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between sense of well-being and longevity is not well-established across populations of varying levels of socioeconomic status. We sought to examine the relationship between happiness, or subjective sense of well-being and life expectancy using data from 151 countries. This analysis is based on the 2012 Happy Planet Index project conducted by the Center of Well-Being of the New Economics Foundation, based in the United Kingdom. Well-being data for each country were taken from responses to the 'Ladder of Life' question in the 2012 Gallup World Poll in which participants were asked to rate their quality of life on a scale from 1 (worst possible life) to 10 (best possible life). Life expectancy and gross domestic product data were taken from the 2011 United Nations records. Ecological footprint data were taken from Global Footprint Network records. Subjective sense of well-being was highly correlated with life expectancy (Pearson correlation r = 0.71, p ecological footprint, and population, each 1 unit of the well-being scale was associated with an increase in life expectancy of 4.0 years (95% confidence interval = 2.7-5.3). In conclusion, better sense of well-being has a strong relationship with life expectancy regardless of economic status or population size, suggesting that governments should foster happiness in order to support long-living populations.

  5. Posttraumatic growth is related to subjective well-being of aid workers exposed to cumulative trauma in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Guido; Pepe, Alessandro; Massaiu, Irene; De Mol, Ann-Sophie; Robbins, Ian

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined how stress reactions after traumatic events influence subjective well-being (SWB) via the indirect effect of posttraumatic growth (PTG) in two samples of Palestinian professional helpers from the Gaza Strip and West Bank ( n = 201). Using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) as a dependent measure of well-being, and PTGI-10, PANAS-20, WHO-5 BREF, and IES-13 questionnaires as independent variables, structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to examine whether: (a) cumulative trauma was negatively and directly related to subjective well-being; (b) levels of trauma were positively and directly related to posttraumatic growth; and (c) PTG was positively and directly related to subjective well-being. The findings suggest that posttraumatic growth contributes to mitigating and buffering (on the order of approximately 10%) the effect of trauma on subjective well-being. PTG seems to be a resource that can help aid workers deal with the consequences of stressful life events. Clinical implications and directions for supervision and training are discussed.

  6. Socio-economic position and subjective health and well-being among older people in Europe: a systematic narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Sanna; Grundy, Emily; Foverskov, Else

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies of older European populations have established that disability and morbidity vary with indicators of socio-economic position (SEP). We undertook a systematic narrative review of the literature to ascertain to what extent there is evidence of similar inequalities in the subjective health and well-being of older people in Europe. Method: Relevant original research articles were searched for using Medline, Global Health, Embase, Social Policy and Practice, Cinahl, Web of Science and International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS). We included studies of SEP and indicators of subjective health and well-being (self-rated health; life satisfaction; quality of life) conducted since 1991 using population-based samples of older people in Europe and published 1995–2013. Results: A total of 71 studies were identified. Poorer SEP was associated with poorer subjective health and well-being. Associations varied somewhat depending on the SEP measure and subjective health and well-being outcome used. Associations were weaker when social support and health-related behaviours were adjusted for suggesting that these factors mediate the relationship between SEP and subjective health and well-being. Associations tended to be weaker in the oldest age groups. The patterns of associations by gender were not consistent and tended to diminish after adjusting for indicators of health and life circumstances. Conclusion: The results of this systematic narrative review of the literature demonstrate the importance of social influences on later life subjective health and well-being and indicate areas which need further investigation, such as more studies from Eastern Europe, more longitudinal studies and more research on the role of mediating factors. PMID:25806655

  7. Wisdom at the End of Life: An Analysis of Mediating and Moderating Relations Between Wisdom and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelt, Monika; Edwards, Carladenise A

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have shown that wisdom, measured as an integration of cognitive, reflective, and compassionate dimensions, is positively related to subjective well-being in old age. This study investigated whether wisdom might be particularly beneficial for people at the end of life, when extrinsic means to increase well-being largely disappear, and whether the association between wisdom and well-being is mediated by mastery and purpose in life. Samples of 156 older community residents (M = 71 years) and 41 older hospice patients and nursing home residents (M = 77 years) were analyzed, using a moderated and mediated path model. (a) Wisdom was positively related to subjective well-being in the later years, even after controlling for physical health, socioeconomic status, financial situation, social involvement, age, gender, race, and marital status. (b) The association between wisdom and well-being was significantly stronger in the nursing home and hospice sample than the community sample. (c) The relation between wisdom and well-being was partially mediated by purpose in life, both directly and via a sense of mastery. Aging well at the end of life might depend to a larger extent on psychosocial growth across the life course than on present circumstances. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Future time perspective: opportunities and limitations are differentially associated with subjective well-being and hair cortisol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Pavel; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Future time perspective has been associated with subjective well-being, though depending on the line of research considered either an open-ended future time perspective or a limited future time perspective has been associated with high well-being. Most of this research however has conceptualized future time perspective as a one-dimensional construct, whereas recent evidence has demonstrated that there are likely at least two different underlying dimensions, a focus on opportunities and a focus on limitations. This project first seeks to replicate the two-dimensional structure of the Future Time Perspective Scale, and then examines the associations these dimensions may have with different measures of subjective well-being and a biological index of chronic stress. To test if the two dimensions of the Future Time Perspective Scale, a focus on opportunities and a focus on limitations, differentially associate with two measures of subjective well-being and a biological indicator of chronic stress, namely hair cortisol. Sixty-six community-dwelling participants with a mean age of 72 years (SD = 5.83) completed the Future Time Perspective Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale. Participants also provided a 3-cm-long hair strand to index cortisol accumulation over the past 3 months. Following the results of a factor analysis, a mediation model was created for each dimension of the Future Time Perspective Scale, and significance testing was done through a bootstrapping approach to harness maximal statistical power. Factor analysis results replicated the two-dimensional structure of the Future Time Perspective Scale. Both dimensions were then found to have unique associations with well-being. Specifically, a high focus on opportunities was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and higher morale, whereas a low focus on limitations was associated with reduced hair cortisol, though this association was

  9. Subjective well-being in Swedish active seniors and its relationship with physical activity and commonly available biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsson LA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lovisa A Olsson,1,2 Anita Hurtig-Wennlöf,2 Torbjörn K Nilsson3 1Department of Laboratory Medicine/Clinical Chemistry, Örebro University Hospital, 2School of Health and Medical Science, Örebro University, Örebro; 3Department of Medical Biosciences/Clinical Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Background: Physical activity is claimed to be related to well-being and to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the possible associations of well-being with physical activity and biomarkers of somatic health were studied in a sample of Swedish active seniors to determine the strength of these associations. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-nine community-dwelling senior citizens (127 men and 262 women of mean age 74±5 years were recruited for this cross-sectional population study. Serum samples were analyzed for lipoproteins and markers of inflammation. The Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB index was used to measure subjective well-being. Physical activity was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire modified for the elderly. Results: More than 50% of men and women rated their physical activity as high; in the women, there was a significant difference between the age groups (younger and older than the median age [median =74.1 years], respectively. The mean PGWB index indicates a high degree of subjective well-being in this group of Swedish seniors. Of the PGWB subdimensions, general health had the strongest positive relationship with physical activity (r2=5.4%. for the subdimensions of depressed mood, positive well-being, vitality, and PGWB index, physical activity had an r2 ≤4%, while the contributions of sex, age, and biomarkers were minor. Conclusion: We have estimated the contribution of physical activity to the variance of subjective well-being in active seniors. Physical activity appears to play a greater role as a determinant of subjective well-being than do biomarkers of somatic health

  10. The role of cultural identity clarity for self-concept clarity, self-esteem, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usborne, Esther; Taylor, Donald M

    2010-07-01

    Knowing oneself and experiencing oneself as clearly defined has been linked to positive self-esteem and psychological well-being; however, this association has been tested only at the level of personal identity. The authors propose that a clear cultural identity provides the individual with a clear prototype with which to engage the processes necessary to construct a clear personal identity and, by extension, to achieve self-esteem and well-being. For samples of undergraduate students, Anglophone Quebecers, Francophone Québécois, Chinese North Americans, and Aboriginal Canadians, cultural identity clarity was positively related to self-concept clarity, self-esteem, and markers of subjective well-being. The relationship between cultural identity clarity and both self-esteem and well-being was consistently mediated by self-concept clarity. Interventions designed to clarify cultural identity might have psychological benefits for individuals facing cultural identity challenges.

  11. Relationship between achievement goals, anxiety and self-confidence, and subjective well-being in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between achievement goals, anxiety, self-confidence and subjective well-being (positive and negative affect, and satisfaction with life through path analysis. The sample consisted of 169 Brazilian athletes (140 males and 29 females, aged between 17 and 59 years, of different sports and competitive levels. The questionnaires TEOSQ, CSAI-2, EBES and SWLS were applied the day before the competition, on-site training of athletes. Main results partially demonstrated that anxiety and self-confidence mediated the relationship between motivational orientations and subjective well-being. Based on modification indices of the structural model, regression coefficients were specified between ego orientation and negative affect, and between task orientation and the positive dimensions of well-being (positive affect and satisfaction. Results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these relationships.

  12. Subjective Well-Being of Hong Kong Chinese Teachers: The Contribution of Gratitude, Forgiveness, and the Orientations to Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether gratitude and forgiveness contribute to subjective well-being (life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) above the contribution of the three orientations to happiness in a sample of 143 Hong Kong Chinese teachers. Gratitude and forgiveness correlated substantially and significantly with each other,…

  13. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted ...

  14. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Okbay (Aysu); Baselmans, B.M.L. (Bart M.L.); J.E. de Neve (Jan-Emmanuel); P. Turley (Patrick); M. Nivard (Michel); Fontana, M.A. (Mark Alan); Meddens, S.F.W. (S. Fleur W.); Linnér, R.K. (Richard Karlsson); Rietveld, C.A. (Cornelius A); J. Derringer; J. Gratten (Jacob); J.J. Lee (James J.); Liu, J.Z. (Jimmy Z); R. de Vlaming (Ronald); SAhluwalia, T. (Tarunveer); Buchwald, J. (Jadwiga); A. Cavadino (Alana); A.C. Frazier-Wood (Alexis C.); Furlotte, N.A. (Nicholas A); Garfield, V. (Victoria); Geisel, M.H. (Marie Henrike); J.R. Gonzalez (Juan R.); Haitjema, S. (Saskia); R. Karlsson (Robert); Der Laan, S.W. (Sander Wvan); K.-H. Ladwig (Karl-Heinz); J. Lahti (Jari); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); P.A. Lind (Penelope); Liu, T. (Tian); Matteson, L. (Lindsay); E. Mihailov (Evelin); M. Miller (Mike); CMinica, C. (Camelia); MNolte, I. (Ilja); D.O. Mook-Kanamori (Dennis); P.J. van der Most (Peter); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); Y. Qian (Yong); O. Raitakari (Olli); R. Rawal (R.); A. Realo; Rueedi, R. (Rico); Schmidt, B. (Börge); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); E. Stergiakouli (Evangelia); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); K.D. Taylor (Kent); Wedenoja, J. (Juho); Wellmann, J. (Juergen); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); MWillems, S. (Sara); Zhao, W. (Wei); L.C. Study (LifeLines Cohort); N. Amin (Najaf); Bakshi, A. (Andrew); P.A. Boyle (Patricia); Cherney, S. (Samantha); Cox, S.R. (Simon R); G. Davies (Gail); O.S.P. Davis (Oliver S.); J. Ding (Jun); N. Direk (Nese); Eibich, P. (Peter); R. Emeny (Rebecca); Fatemifar, G. (Ghazaleh); J.D. Faul; L. Ferrucci (Luigi); A.J. Forstner (Andreas); C. Gieger (Christian); Gupta, R. (Richa); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); J.M. Harris (Juliette); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); P.L. de Jager (Philip); M. Kaakinen (Marika); E. Kajantie (Eero); Karhunen, V. (Ville); I. Kolcic (Ivana); M. Kumari (Meena); L.J. Launer (Lenore); L. Franke (Lude); Li-Gao, R. (Ruifang); Koini, M. (Marisa); A. Loukola (Anu); P. Marques-Vidal; G.W. Montgomery (Grant); M. Mosing (Miriam); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); A. Pattie (Alison); K. Petrovic (Katja); Pulkki-R'back, L. (Laura); L. Quaye (Lydia); R'ikkönen, K. (Katri); I. Rudan (Igor); R. Scott (Rodney); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); A.R. Sutin; Trzaskowski, M. (Maciej); Vinkhuyze, A.E. (Anna E.); L. Yu (Lei); D. Zabaneh (Delilah); J. Attia (John); D.A. Bennett (David A.); Berger, K. (Klaus); L. Bertram (Lars); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H. Snieder (Harold); Chang, S.-C. (Shun-Chiao); F. Cucca (Francesco); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); K. Hagen (Knut); U. Bültmann (Ute); E.J. Geus (Eeco); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); T. Hansen (T.); Hartman, C.A. (Catharine A); C.M.A. Haworth (Claire M.); C. Hayward (Caroline); A.C. Heath (Andrew C.); D.A. Hinds (David A.); E. Hypponen (Elina); W.G. Iacono (William); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); K.-H. JöCkel (Karl-Heinz); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); Keltikangas-J'rvinen, L. (Liisa); P. Kraft (Peter); Kubzansky, L.D. (Laura D.); Lehtim'ki, T. (Terho); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. McGue (Matt); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Mills (Melinda); R. de Mutsert (Reneé); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); R. Plomin (Robert); O. Polasek (Ozren); C. Power (Christopher); S.S. Rich (Stephen); F.R. Rosendaal (Frits); H.M. den Ruijter (Hester ); Schlessinger, D. (David); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); R. Svento (Rauli); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); B.Z. Alizadeh (Behrooz); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); DSpector, T. (Tim); Steptoe, A. (Andrew); A. Terracciano; A.R. Thurik (Roy); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Vollenweider (Peter); Wagner, G.G. (Gert G.); D.R. Weir (David); J. Yang (Joanna); Conley, D.C. (Dalton C.); G.D. Smith; Hofman, A. (Albert); M. Johannesson (Magnus); D. Laibson (David); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M.N. Meyer (Michelle N.); Pickrell, J.K. (Joseph K.); Esko, T. (T'nu); R.F. Krueger; J.P. Beauchamp (Jonathan); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.); M. Bartels (Meike); D. Cesarini (David)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVery few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data.

  15. An Examination of Culturally Relevant Stressors, Coping, Ethnic Identity, and Subjective Well-Being in Urban, Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Coyle, Laura D.; Stinson, Jennifer; Mull, Megan; Doud, Katherine; Buchheit, Christine; Gorman, Catherine; Hewitt, Amber; Keene, Chesleigh; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Langrehr, Kimberly J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relations between culturally relevant stressors (i.e., urban hassles, perceived discrimination) and subjective well-being (SWB; i.e., positive/ negative affect, life satisfaction) to examine whether ethnic identity and/or coping strategies would serve as moderators of the relations between stress and SWB for 157 urban, ethnic…

  16. Self-related and other-related pathways to subjective well-being in Japan and the United States.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novin, S.; Tso, I.F.; Konrath, S.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons demonstrate that subjective well-being (SWB) is rated lower among East Asian than Western individuals. Regardless of such cultural differences, however, factors that predict SWB among people from various cultures may be similar. In the current study we demonstrate the

  17. Structural Relations of Personal and Collective Self-Esteem to Subjective Well-Being: Attachment as Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Omer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    A model indicating that the relationship between collective self-esteem and indicators of subjective well-being, happiness and life satisfaction, was mediated by personal self-esteem was tested by structural equation modeling. The model, including all participants, fitted well to the data. The results suggested that the relationship of collective…

  18. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okbay, Aysu; Baselmans, Bart M L; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Turley, Patrick; Nivard, Michel G; Fontana, Mark Alan; Meddens, S Fleur W; Linnér, Richard Karlsson; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Derringer, Jaime; Gratten, Jacob; Lee, James J; Liu, Jimmy Z; de Vlaming, Ronald; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Cavadino, Alana; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Garfield, Victoria; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Gonzalez, Juan R; Haitjema, Saskia; Karlsson, Robert; van der Laan, Sander W; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Tian; Matteson, Lindsay; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B; Minica, Camelia C; Nolte, Ilja M; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; van der Most, Peter J; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rawal, Rajesh; Realo, Anu; Rueedi, Rico; Schmidt, Börge; Smith, Albert V; Stergiakouli, Evie; Tanaka, Toshiko; Taylor, Kent; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Willems, Sara M; Zhao, Wei; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Boyle, Patricia A; Cherney, Samantha; Cox, Simon R; Davies, Gail; Davis, Oliver S P; Ding, Jun; Direk, Nese; Eibich, Peter; Emeny, Rebecca T; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Faul, Jessica D; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forstner, Andreas; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Richa; Harris, Tamara B; Harris, Juliette M; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; De Jager, Philip L; Kaakinen, Marika A; Kajantie, Eero; Karhunen, Ville; Kolcic, Ivana; Kumari, Meena; Launer, Lenore J; Franke, Lude; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Koini, Marisa; Loukola, Anu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Montgomery, Grant W; Mosing, Miriam A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Petrovic, Katja E; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Quaye, Lydia; Räikkönen, Katri; Rudan, Igor; Scott, Rodney J; Smith, Jennifer A; Sutin, Angelina R; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Vinkhuyzen, Anna E; Yu, Lei; Zabaneh, Delilah; Attia, John R; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Boomsma, Dorret I; Snieder, Harold; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Bültmann, Ute; de Geus, Eco J C; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hansen, Torben; Hartman, Catharine A; Haworth, Claire M A; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kraft, Peter; Kubzansky, Laura D; Lehtimäki, Terho; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mills, Melinda; de Mutsert, Renée; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L; Plomin, Robert; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Christine; Rich, Stephen S; Rosendaal, Frits R; den Ruijter, Hester M; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Svento, Rauli; Schmidt, Reinhold; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Steptoe, Andrew; Terracciano, Antonio; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, André G; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagner, Gert G; Weir, David R; Yang, Jian; Conley, Dalton C; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Laibson, David I; Medland, Sarah E; Meyer, Michelle N; Pickrell, Joseph K; Esko, Tõnu; Krueger, Robert F; Beauchamp, Jonathan P; Koellinger, Philipp D; Benjamin, Daniel J; Bartels, Meike; Cesarini, David

    Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted

  19. The Beck depression inventory as a measure of subjective well-being : A cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, D.A.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Poortinga, Y.H.

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined the question whether the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which is one of the most widely used instruments to assess depression, can be used to measure differences in subjective well-being at national level. In order to establish the meaning of depression scores at country

  20. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okbay, Aysu; Baselmans, Bart M L; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conduct...

  1. Increasing Elementary School Students' Subjective Well-Being through a Classwide Positive Psychology Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Hearon, Brittany V.; Bander, Bryan; McCullough, Mollie; Garofano, Jeffrey; Roth, Rachel A.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in school-based programs to promote students' subjective well-being (SWB). Students with greater SWB tend to have stronger relationships with their teachers and classmates, as well as behave in more positive ways. Drawing from theory and research pertinent to promoting children's SWB, we developed an 11-session classwide…

  2. The Role of Subjective Well-Being in Co-Designing Open-Design Assistive Devices; design case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Couvreur, L.; Dejonghe, W.; Detand, J.; Goossens, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the role of subjective well-being within the process of making together a personalized assistive device. Through a process of social product adaptation, assistive artifacts become part of occupational therapy and co-evolve with clients. Personal digital fabrication tools

  3. The Impact of Employment and Self-Rated Economic Condition on the Subjective Well-Being of Older Korean Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung; Lee, Yura; Sangalang, Cindy; Harris, Lesley M

    2015-09-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated a relationship between socioeconomic factors and health among older adults, yet fewer studies have explored this relationship with older immigrants. This study aims to examine the influence of employment and self-rated economic condition on the subjective well-being of older Korean immigrants in the United States. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study of 205 older Korean immigrants, aged 65 to 90, in Los Angeles County. Hierarchical regression was employed to explore the independent and interactive effects of employment status and self-rated economic condition. The study found that employment and self-rated economic status were positively associated with subjective well-being. Also, the interaction between employment and self-rated economic status was significantly associated with higher levels of subjective well-being, such that the influence of self-rated economic condition was stronger for unemployed older Korean immigrants compared with those who were employed. This population-based study provides empirical evidence that employment and self-rated economic condition are directly associated with subjective well-being for older Korean immigrants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847), we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1-5), but CSE was not (Studies 2-5). Implications are discussed.

  5. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B.; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847), we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1–5), but CSE was not (Studies 2–5). Implications are discussed. PMID:28841716

  6. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfei Du

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE, relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE, and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE. The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847, we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1-5, but CSE was not (Studies 2-5. Implications are discussed.

  7. Disparities in subjective well-being, participation, and health after spinal cord injury: a 6-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S; Saladin, Lisa K; Adkins, Rodney H

    2009-01-01

    To identify disparities and changes in subjective well-being, participation, and health over a 6-year period as a function of race-ethnicity and gender in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Stratified sampling was used to maximize inclusion of women and racial-ethnic minorities. Three model SCI systems participated, representing the Southeastern, Western, and Mountain regions of the United States. 250 participants completed measures on two occasions. Similar portions of Caucasians (n = 62), African-Americans (n = 61), American-Indians (n = 56), and Hispanics (n = 71) participated. Women made up approximately 43.1% of the sample. Three sets of outcome measures assessed: (a) subjective well-being and depressive symptoms, (b) participation, and (c) health. MANOVA indicated significant effects for race-ethnicity (between subjects effect) and time (within subjects effect) but not for gender or the interaction effects. A Bonferroni correction was used to compare outcomes as a function of race-ethnicity and time. Five outcomes were significantly related to race-ethnicity, whereas no items were significantly related to the time effect after the Bonferroni correction. Caucasians reported best subjective well-being scores in several domains followed by African-Americans. Caucasians also reported more hours out of bed than either African-Americans or Hispanics. Over a 6-year period, race-ethnicity continued to be related to differences in subjective well-being and participation but not health. Disparities in outcomes did not systematically increase or diminish over time, suggesting that once developed, such disparities are unlikely to change in the absence of intervention.

  8. Original article Agentic and communal narcissism and subjective well-being: are narcissistic individuals unhappy? A research report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The communal/agentic model of narcissism is well accepted in the current research literature (Gebauer, Sedikides, Verplanken & Maio, 2012. This model could be particularly useful in examining the relation between narcissism and hedonistic and eudaimonic subjective well-being (SWB; Deci & Ryan, 2008. Participants and procedure In an effort to examine the relationship between narcissism and SWB, correlational analyses of survey responses obtained from students (n = 138 were conducted. Agentic narcissism was measured using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988 and communal narcissism by the Communal Narcissism Inventory (CNI; Gebauer et al., 2012. Subjective well-being measures included the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985, Positive And Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark & Tegellen, 1988, and the Social Well-being Scale (SWBS; Keyes, 1998. Self-esteem was included in the study in order to examine the potential mediating role of self-esteem in the relationship between narcissism and subjective well-being. Results Agentic narcissism was positively related to the affective component of SWB whereas communal narcissism was positively related to the cognitive component of SWB. Both forms of narcissism were positively related to social well-being. All relationships were mediated by the participant’s self-esteem level. Conclusions The results indicate that both agentic narcissism and communal narcissism are positively related to SWB. The results are discussed in the context of the agentic/communal model of narcissism (Gebauer et al., 2012 and hedonistic/eudaimonic well-being (Deci & Ryan, 2008.

  9. Acute effects of progressive muscle relaxation on state anxiety and subjective well-being in chronic Bulgarian patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Asen; Probst, Michel; De Hert, Marc; Genova, Valentina; Tonkova, Anastasiya; Vancampfort, Davy

    2012-12-01

    Recently, there has been an interest in the relative effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) within the multidisciplinary treatment of patients with schizophrenia.The present study is aimed at providing evidence on the efficacy of PMR as means of alleviating the state anxiety and psychological distress and a way to increase subjective well-being in chronic patients with schizophrenia. Sixty four schizophrenia patients underwent 2 sessions of PMR. On the third session they were randomly allocated to either the PMR or the reading control condition. The State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) was used to assess state anxiety and the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale (SEES) to assess psychological distress and subjective well-being before and after the third session for both groups. Our data show a significant time by group interaction for the SAI and SEES (Wilks λ=0.58, p<0.001). Effect sizes for PMR were -0.22 (95%CI=-0.73 to 0.19) for state anxiety, -0.96 (95%CI=-0.41 to -1.43) for psychological stress, and +1.01 (95%CI=0.45 to 1.54) for subjective well-being. The present study provides scientific evidence for the utility of PMR in the chronic psychiatric settings for patients with schizophrenia.

  10. Discrimination, Subjective Well-Being, and the Role of Gender - A Mediation Model of LGB Minority Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, Sarah E; Douglass, Richard P; Ouch, Staci

    2017-10-26

    The present study examined the link between discrimination and Diener's (1984) three components of subjective well-being (positive and negative affect and life satisfaction) among a cisgender sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Specifically, we investigated internalized homonegativity and expectations of rejection as potential mediators of the links between discrimination and subjective well-being among a sample of 215 participants. Results from our structural equation model demonstrated a strong, positive direct link between discrimination and negative affect. Discrimination also had small, negative indirect effects on life satisfaction through our two mediators. Interestingly, neither discrimination nor our two mediators were related with positive affect, demonstrating the need for future research to uncover potential buffers of this link. Finally, our model evidenced configural, metric, and scalar invariance suggesting that our model applies well for both women and men. Practical implications and future directions for research are discussed.

  11. Friendship among Elderly People: The relationships among functions of friendship, degree of satisfaction with friendship and subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    山岡, もも; 松永, しのぶ; YAMAOKA, Momo; MATSUNAGA, Shinobu; 全国療育相談センター; 昭和女子大学心理学科

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates characteristics of friendship among elderly people, particularly the relationships between the functions of friendship, the degree of satisfaction with friendship, and subjective well-being. Written questionnaires completed by 241 elderly people aged between 60 and 88(92 men, mean age 72.03 years; 149 women, mean age 72.11 years)were analyzed. Among men, the duration of friendship was longer than among women. The most common initial acquaintance among men were co-worke...

  12. A descriptive roadmap: how to design for SWB? Interpreting design results in the field of subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    STEVENS, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Today’s public discourse on the design of care centers for the elderly population is increasingly emphasizing the importance of subjective well-being (SWB) and the value that architecture and interior architecture can have in this context. A design exercise was formulated for 10 groups of 4 master students in interior architecture in which they had to rethink the design of the communal space system of an existing residential care center (RCC) with the purpose of augmenting the living experien...

  13. Converting happiness theory into (interior) architectural design missions. Designing for subjective well-being in residential care centers.

    OpenAIRE

    STEVENS, Ruth; Petermans, Ann; Vanrie, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) is an emerging research topic in the field of design sciences, whereby various design researchers focus on the key question ‘how to design for SWB’. Throughout different design disciplines, definitions for SWB are rising and design models and strategies are being developed in an effort to enable designers to increase users’ SWB. However, a clear image of how to design an (interior) architectural environment with the purpose of increasing people’s level of subjectiv...

  14. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B.; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larg...

  15. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males;...

  16. Looking Down or Looking Up: Status and Subjective Well-Being among Asian and Latino Immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelatt, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Foundational theories of international migration rest on the assumption that immigrants maintain reference groups in their country of origin even after settling in a new place, while the transnationalism perspective suggests that immigrants maintain a dual frame of reference. This paper uses the nationally-representative National Latino and Asian American Survey to test the location of immigrants' reference groups. I find that the relationship between various measures of subjective social standing and subjective well-being suggests that immigrants maintain simultaneous reference groups in both the United States and the country of origin, supporting transnational theories, and refuting earlier theories.

  17. ETHNOPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL PECULIARITIES IN SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING(a case study of ethnic groups of the Saratov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Bocharova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data of the empirical study of the structural organization of ethnic groups subjective well-being on the territory of the Saratov Volga region conducted on proportionally selected samples ( N = 280, whose representatives identify themselves as Russians ( n = 70; city of Saratov, Armenians ( n = 70; city of Saratov, Kazakhs ( n = 70; village Alexandrov Ghay in the Saratov Region that borders on the West Kazakhstan Region of Kazakhstan with the ethnical composition represented primarily by Kazakhs, Tatars ( n = 70; village Yakovlevka in Bazarno-Karabulakskiy district of the Saratov Region with the Tatar dominant ethnical group, whose average age is 25.6 years old; SD = 9.7; sex ratio is female (52% and male (48%; respondents’ employment - 87%. It has been found that in contrast to the Russians, the sphere of social and socio-economic relations is the least “happy” area in the representatives of the Armenian, Kazakh, Tatar ethnic groups. The “happiest” is the sphere of family relations in the samples of Armenian, Kazakh and Tatar youth. The significant differences have been revealed in the structure of the subjective well-being both on the emotional and cognitive levels. A downward trend of the index of the subjective well-being of the ethnic groups from the remote areas of the region has been registered. The applied aspect of the research problem can be implemented in the development of ethno-national policy programmes of the Saratov region.

  18. Comprehensively Measuring Health-Related Subjective Well-Being: Dimensionality Analysis for Improved Outcome Assessment in Health Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Marieke; Emons, Wilco H M; Plantinga, Arnoud; Pietersma, Suzanne; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Stiggelbout, Anne M; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske

    2016-01-01

    Allocation of inevitably limited financial resources for health care requires assessment of an intervention's effectiveness. Interventions likely affect quality of life (QOL) more broadly than is measurable with commonly used health-related QOL utility scales. In line with the World Health Organization's definition of health, a recent Delphi procedure showed that assessment needs to put more emphasis on mental and social dimensions. To identify the core dimensions of health-related subjective well-being (HR-SWB) for a new, more comprehensive outcome measure. We formulated items for each domain of an initial Delphi-based set of 21 domains of HR-SWB. We tested these items in a large sample (N = 1143) and used dimensionality analyses to find a smaller number of latent factors. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a five-factor model, which explained 65% of the total variance. Factors related to physical independence, positive affect, negative affect, autonomy, and personal growth. Correlations between the factors ranged from 0.19 to 0.59. A closer inspection of the factors revealed an overlap between the newly identified core dimensions of HR-SWB and the validation scales, but the dimensions of HR-SWB also seemed to reflect additional aspects. This shows that the dimensions of HR-SWB we identified go beyond the existing health-related QOL instruments. We identified a set of five key dimensions to be included in a new, comprehensive measure of HR-SWB that reliably captures these dimensions and fills in the gaps of the existent measures used in economic evaluations. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. On "feeling right" in cultural contexts: how person-culture match affects self-esteem and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, C Ashley; Gelfand, Michele J; Kruglanski, Arie W; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Diener, Ed; Pierro, Antonio; Higgins, E Tory

    2010-11-01

    Whether one is in one's native culture or abroad, one's personality can differ markedly from the personalities of the majority, thus failing to match the "cultural norm." Our studies examined how the interaction of individual- and cultural-level personality affects people's self-esteem and well-being. We propose a person-culture match hypothesis that predicts that when a person's personality matches the prevalent personalities of other people in a culture, culture functions as an important amplifier of the positive effect of personality on self-esteem and subjective well-being at the individual level. Across two studies, using data from more than 7,000 individuals from 28 societies, multilevel random-coefficient analyses showed that when a relation between a given personality trait and well-being or self-esteem exists at the individual level, the relation is stronger in cultures characterized by high levels of that personality dimension. Results were replicated across extraversion, promotion focus, and locomotive regulatory mode. Our research has practical implications for the well-being of both cultural natives and migrants.

  20. Factors Associated with the Anxiety, Subjective Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem of Parents of Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesús; López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Góngora, David; Daza, María Teresa; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Salido-Campos, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine the connection of the personal, social and family context, educational variables with the levels of anxiety, subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem in a sample of 61 parents of blind children. Results suggest that parents present less anxiety when they have only one child, possess a technical degree, receive remuneration for their work, their child's visual impairment is not progressive, their knowledge about their child's disability is appropriate, and their leisure and labour possibilities have not been affected. Their psychological well-being is higher when they are married in first nuptials and perceive that their health is good. Their well-being is negatively related to reduced leisure, and self-esteem is lower when labour possibilities have been affected. In order for these families to achieve a more pleasant life, with greater psychological well-being, lower anxiety and higher self-esteem, professionals should be aware of the aspects with a negative impact.

  1. Efficacy of yoga therapy on subjective well-being and basic living skills of patients having chronic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Paikkatt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific studies demonstrate efficacy of yogic treatment methods in stress and anxiety related disorders, psychosomatic disorders and physical illness. Very few studies have been conducted on schizophrenic patients. Aims: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of yoga therapy on subjective well-being, basic living skills, self-care, interpersonal, communicational and routine functions of schizophrenic patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty chronic schizophrenic hospitalized patients were selected from Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences, Ranchi and were randomly assigned to the experimental group (yoga therapy along with Pharmacotherapy, n=15, and to control group (Pharmacotherapy alone, n=15. Baseline assessment was done using Post Graduate Institute general well-being measure (GWBM, Checklist for basic living skills and Indian disability evaluation and assessment scale (IDEAS. The experimental group attended yoga therapy every day for about 1΍ h including motivational and feedback session. After 1 month post-assessment was done for both the groups. Statistical Analysis: Pearson Chi-square test was used for comparing the results. Results: At the end of 1 month experimental group showed better rating in comparison to control group in PGI GWBM, basic living skills and IDEAS. Conclusion: Yoga could improve patients′ subjective well-being, their daily basic living functioning, personal hygiene, self-care, interpersonal activities and communication, and prompted more involvement in routine work.

  2. Resilient family processes, personal reintegration, and subjective well-being outcomes for military personnel and their family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malissa A; O'Neal, Catherine W; Conley, Kate M; Mancini, Jay A

    2018-01-01

    Deployment affects not just the service members, but also their family members back home. Accordingly, this study examined how resilient family processes during a deployment (i.e., frequency of communication and household management) were related to the personal reintegration of each family member (i.e., how well each family member begins to "feel like oneself again" after a deployment), as well as several indicators of subjective well-being. Drawing from the family attachment network model (Riggs & Riggs, 2011), the present study collected survey data from 273 service members, their partners, and their adolescent children. Resilient family processes during the deployment itself (i.e., frequency of communication, household management), postdeployment positive and negative personal reintegration, and several indicators of well-being were assessed. Frequency of communication was related to personal reintegration for service members, while household management was related to personal reintegration for nondeployed partners; both factors were related to personal reintegration for adolescents. Negative and positive personal reintegration related to a variety of subjective well-being outcomes for each individual family member. Interindividual (i.e., crossover) effects were also found, particularly between adolescents and nondeployed partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Distinguishing autonomous and directive forms of goal support: their effects on goal progress, relationship quality, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestner, Richard; Powers, Theodore A; Carbonneau, Noémie; Milyavskaya, Marina; Chua, Sook Ning

    2012-12-01

    Three studies examined the relations of autonomy support and directive support to goal progress over 3 months. Autonomy support was defined in terms of empathic perspective-taking, whereas directive support was defined in terms of the provision of positive guidance. Results from Study 1 revealed that autonomy support between romantic partners was significantly positively related to goal progress over 3 months, and that the beneficial effect of autonomy support was mediated by enhanced autonomous goal motivation. Study 2 involved female friend dyads and extended the goal progress results to include both self-reports and reports by peers. Study 3 showed that autonomy support similarly promoted progress at vicarious goals. Across three studies, autonomy support was also significantly associated with improved relationship quality and subjective well-being. Directive support was marginally associated with better goal progress across the three studies and unrelated to relationship quality or well-being.

  4. The Pursuit of Happiness in China: Individualism, Collectivism, and Subjective Well-Being during China's Economic and Social Transformation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Liza G; Lynch, Scott M

    2013-11-01

    This paper examines the consequences of China's dramatic socioeconomic and political transformations for individual subjective well-being (SWB) from 1990 to 2007. Although many still consider China to be a collectivist country, and some scholars have argued that collectivist factors would be important predictors of individual well-being in such a context, our analysis demonstrates that the Chinese are increasingly prioritizing individualist factors in assessments of their own happiness and life satisfaction thus substantiating descriptions of their society as increasingly individualistic. While the vast majority of quality of life studies have focused on Westerners, this study contributes findings from the unique cultural context of China. Moreover, concentration on this particular period in Chinese history offers insight into the relationship between SWB and rapid socioeconomic and political change.

  5. Effect of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship on Adolescent Boys' Body Image and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ofra; Shenaar-Golan, Vered

    2017-07-01

    Adolescent boys must cope with physical changes that hamper their ability to form a positive body image. Sociocultural messages influence the concepts of body image, personal appearance, and weight, encouraging men to develop lean and muscular bodies. The current study examined adolescent boys' body image and its relationship to their subjective well-being (SWB) and the effect of the parent-adolescent relationship on body image and SWB. Participating in the research were 107 adolescent boys in Israel, aged 13 to 18 years. Four questionnaires were utilized: demographic, body mass index, Body Investment Scale, and Personal Well-Being Index. The findings indicate a significant, medium positive correlation between SWB and body image. After controlling for the variable of parent-adolescent relationship, the correlation weakened, indicating that the parent-adolescent relationship has no effect on adolescent boys' SWB and body image. Body image was reported to be a predictor of SWB.

  6. Effect of the Parent–Adolescent Relationship on Adolescent Boys’ Body Image and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ofra; Shenaar-Golan, Vered

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent boys must cope with physical changes that hamper their ability to form a positive body image. Sociocultural messages influence the concepts of body image, personal appearance, and weight, encouraging men to develop lean and muscular bodies. The current study examined adolescent boys’ body image and its relationship to their subjective well-being (SWB) and the effect of the parent–adolescent relationship on body image and SWB. Participating in the research were 107 adolescent boys in Israel, aged 13 to 18 years. Four questionnaires were utilized: demographic, body mass index, Body Investment Scale, and Personal Well-Being Index. The findings indicate a significant, medium positive correlation between SWB and body image. After controlling for the variable of parent–adolescent relationship, the correlation weakened, indicating that the parent–adolescent relationship has no effect on adolescent boys’ SWB and body image. Body image was reported to be a predictor of SWB. PMID:28625112

  7. Compulsive buying in university students: its prevalence and relationships with materialism, psychological distress symptoms, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz; Otero-López, José Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Compulsive buying has become a severe problem among young people. The prominent role that psychological variables play in this phenomenon support their consideration in establishing a risk profile for compulsive buying that serves as a guide for the development of prevention and treatment programs with guarantees of effectiveness. However, there are only a small number of studies in existence which have explored the compulsive buying prevalence among students, and none of them have been conducted in a Mediterranean country. This study aims to estimate the compulsive buying prevalence in a sample of university students from the region of Galicia (Spain). We also intend to determine if statistically significant differences exist between compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers in relation with gender, materialistic values, psychological distress symptoms and subjective well-being. Lastly, the clarification of which of the determinants examined represent risk or protection factors for compulsive buying constitutes another important objective of this paper. A total sample of 1448 university students participated in this study. They answered a battery of self-reports assessing gender, compulsive buying propensity, materialism, distress symptomatology, and well-being. Participants were initially classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared for the aforementioned variables through chi-square testing or variance analyses. Then, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants make up a risk profile for compulsive buying. The estimated prevalence of compulsive buying in the sample of university students considered was 7.4%. Statistically significant differences between compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers were detected for gender, and each and every one of the psychological variables explored. Specifically, it was confirmed that compulsive buyers obtained significantly

  8. Aerobic exercise improves quality of life, psychological well-being and systemic inflammation in subjects with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Kader, Shehab M; Al-Jiffri, Osama H

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease has a destructive drawbacks on the patient and his/her entire family as this disease badly af fects the behavior, cognition and abilities to do activities of daily living (ADL). The physical and mental benefits of exercise are widely known but seldom available to persons suffering from Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to measure quality of life, systemic inflammation and psychological well-being response to aerobic exercises in Alzheimer's. Forty Alzheimer elderly subjects were enrolled in two groups; the first group received treadmill aerobic exercise, while the second group was considered as a control group and received no training intervention for two months. Assessment of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES),Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Profile of Mood States(POMS) and SF-36 health quality of life (SF-36 HRQL) were taken before and at the end of the study. There was a 25.2%, 19.4%, 23.5%, 21.3%, 17.7% , 11.7%, 12.5% and 10.1 % reduction in mean values of TNF-α, IL-6, BDI, POMS, health transition SF-36 subscale, bodily pain SF-36 subscale, role functioning: emotional SF-36 subscale and mental health SF-36 subscale respectively in addition to 15.7%, 13.1%, 12.6%, 11.1%, 13.2% and 11.2 % increase in mean values of RSES, physical functioning SF-36 subscale, role functioning:physical SF-36 subscale, general health SF-36 subscale, Vitality SF-36 subscale and Social functioning SF-36 subscale respectively in group (A) received aerobic exercise training, so that there was a significant reduction in the mean values of TNF-α, IL-6, BDI & POMS and increase in the mean values of SF-36 HRQL subscale scores, RSES in group (A) as a result of aerobic exercise training, while the results of group (B) who received no training intervention were not significant. Also, there were significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters in group (A) and group (B) at

  9. Impact of depressive symptoms on subjective well-being: the importance of patient-reported outcomes in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haro JM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Jorge Mauriño1, Julio Sanjúan2, Josep Maria Haro3, Teresa Díez1, Javier Ballesteros41AstraZeneca Medical Department, Madrid, Spain; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Valencia, CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain; 3Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, CIBERSAM, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain; 4Department of Neuroscience-Psychiatry, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, CIBERSAM, Leioa, SpainObjective: The subjective experience of psychotic patients toward treatment is a key factor in medication adherence, quality of life, and clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to assess the subjective well-being in patients with schizophrenia and to examine its relationship with the presence and severity of depressive symptoms.Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted with clinically stable outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The Subjective Well-Being under Neuroleptic Scale – short version (SWN-K and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS were used to gather information on well-being and the presence and severity of depressive symptoms, respectively. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to assess the associations between the SWN-K total score, its five subscales, and the CDSS total score. Discriminative validity was evaluated against that criterion by analysing the area under the curve (AUC.Results: Ninety-seven patients were included in the study. Mean age was 35 years (standard deviation = 10 and 72% were male. Both the total SWN-K scale and its five subscales correlated inversely and significantly with the CDSS total score (P < 0.0001. The highest correlation was observed for the total SWN-K (Spearman’s rank order correlation [rho] = –0.59, being the other correlations: mental functioning (–0.47, social integration (–0.46, emotional regulation (–0.51, physical functioning (–0.48, and self-control (–0.41. A total of 33 patients (34% were classified as depressed. Total SWN-K showed the highest AUC

  10. How Search for Meaning Interacts with Complex Categories of Meaning in Life and Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damásio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Sílvia Helena

    2015-03-03

    This study sought to assess how the search for meaning interacts with crisis of meaning and with different categories of meaning in life (meaningfulness, crisis of meaning, existential indifference, and existential conflict). Furthermore, the moderation role of search for meaning between the relation of categories of meaning and subjective well-being (SWB) was also evaluated. Participants included 3,034 subjects (63.9% women) ranging in age from 18 to 91 (M = 33.90; SD = 15.01) years old from 22 Brazilian states. Zero-order correlations and a factorial MANOVA were implemented. Positive low correlations were found for search for meaning and crisis of meaning (r = .258; p meaning presented a small-effect size moderation effect on the relation of the different categories of meaning with subjective happiness, F(6, 3008) = 2.698, p life, F(6, 3008) = .935, p = .47; η2 = .002. The differences on the levels of subjective happiness of those inserted in existential indifferent and conflicting categories differ depending on the levels of search for meaning. Further directions for future studies are proposed.

  11. Efficacy of life skills training on subjective well-being of students: a report from rafsanjan, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr-Mohammadi, Rezvan; Kalantari, Mehrdad; Molavi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the efficacy of life skills training on subjective well-being (SWB) among high school females. The population study comprised all female high school of Rafsanjan, Iran, in 2008-2009. Thirty students with the lowest scores according to the Molavi's SWB questionnaire were considered eligible. At the next stage, the required sample of 30 students were selected randomly and divided into two groups of experimental (15 subjects) and control (15 subjects). Then, life skills training sessions were started for the experimental group (eight sessions in a 4-week period). Control group did not receive any intervention. The method of data processing at a descriptive level was through using central tendency indicators, dispersion, frequency, and percentage. Student's t-test was used for analysis of independent variables. The greatest R(2) (0.48) was observed for SWB. The R(2) coefficients for neurosis, stress-depression, vitality, and life determination were 0.27, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.09, respectively. Life skills training showed the greatest effect regarding SWB of the students.

  12. The effects of counting blessings on subjective well-being: a gratitude intervention in a Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martí, María Luisa; Avia, María Dolores; Hernández-Lloreda, María José

    2010-11-01

    This study examined a gratitude intervention repeating Emmons and McCullough study (2003) in a Spanish sample, Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (gratitude, hassles and any event) and kept daily records during 2 weeks of gratitude, affect, quality of relationships, physical and subjective well-being. We added design features to assess the intervention long-term impact (follow-up measures), and to improve the design control (pre-treatment measures). Following the cited authors' analysis, i.e., comparing groups only in the post-test, we replicated their results, finding differences in positive affect and gratitude between the gratitude condition and the hassles condition. However, when including both the pre and the follow-up measures in the analysis, results were replicated only partially, as the difference in gratitude disappeared. Moreover, the difference in positive affect between groups in the post-test seemed to be influenced mainly by a decrease in positive affect in the hassles group. Post-test differences between groups in positive affect disappeared in the follow-up. Gratitude interventions may have an effect on well-being, but we consider other methods to promote gratitude besides gratitude journals should be tested.

  13. Social networks, happiness and health: from sentiment analysis to a multidimensional indicator of subjective well-being

    CERN Document Server

    Iacus, Stefano Maria; Salini, Silvia; Siletti, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies a novel technique of opinion analysis over social media data with the aim of proposing a new indicator of perceived and subjective well-being. This new index, namely SWBI, examines several dimension of individual and social life. The indicator has been compared to some other existing indexes of well-being and health conditions in Italy: the BES (Benessere Equo Sostenibile), the incidence rate of influenza and the abundance of PM10 in urban environments. SWBI is a daily measure available at province level. BES data, currently available only for 2013 and 2014, are annual and available at regional level. Flu data are weekly and distributed as regional data and PM10 are collected daily for different cities. Due to the fact that the time scale and space granularity of the different indexes varies, we apply a novel statistical technique to discover nowcasting features and the classical latent analysis to study the relationships among them. A preliminary analysis suggest that the environmental and...

  14. Subjective well-being and satisfaction with food-related life in university students in southern Chile: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Denegri Coria

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the experience of subjective well-being and self-assessment of dietary practices in university students in southern Chile. The sample was made up of 40 students of both genders, enrolled in undergraduate programs at a Chilean state university. Data was collected through a semi-structured interview. The results show that these university students are mostly satisfied with life, and spending time with family and friends, maintaining a good academic performance, having time for themselves and achieving their goals and objectives are reported as elements that make them happy. As to the assessment made by the participants about their current food-related life, more than half of the respondents reported dissatisfaction, while their degree of happiness when they eat is in relation to pleasurable sensations, social contact during the meal and meeting basic needs. This study explores issues on eating habits and well-being rarely addressed in Latin American university population so far, suggesting that interventions and strategies on healthful eating for this population must transcend nutrition information and take into account motivation and social factors that influence students’ food choices.

  15. Gratitude and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Multiple Mediating Roles of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Pi, Luyang; Huebner, E. S.; Du, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    Based on the relation between gratitude and general subjective well-being (SWB), and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), the present study’s aim was to use structural equation modeling to test the multiple mediational roles of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school in accounting for the association between gratitude and SWB in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescents. A total of 881 Chinese adolescents (427 males; Mean age = 12.97) completed a multi-measure questionnaire that tapped the targeted variables. Findings revealed that gratitude related significantly, positively to adolescents’ SWB in school. Moreover, a multiple-mediators analysis suggested that relatedness and competence needs satisfaction at school mediated the relation between gratitude and SWB in school. Lastly, a multiple-mediators analysis also indicated that autonomy needs satisfaction mediated the relation between relatedness and competence needs and SWB in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed. PMID:27708601

  16. Gratitude and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being in School: The Multiple Mediating Roles of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Pi, Luyang; Huebner, E S; Du, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    Based on the relation between gratitude and general subjective well-being (SWB), and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), the present study's aim was to use structural equation modeling to test the multiple mediational roles of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school in accounting for the association between gratitude and SWB in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescents. A total of 881 Chinese adolescents (427 males; Mean age = 12.97) completed a multi-measure questionnaire that tapped the targeted variables. Findings revealed that gratitude related significantly, positively to adolescents' SWB in school. Moreover, a multiple-mediators analysis suggested that relatedness and competence needs satisfaction at school mediated the relation between gratitude and SWB in school. Lastly, a multiple-mediators analysis also indicated that autonomy needs satisfaction mediated the relation between relatedness and competence needs and SWB in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed.

  17. Neurocognitive performance, subjective well-being, and psychosocial functioning after benzodiazepine withdrawal in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Glenthoj, Birte

    2017-01-01

    Chronic benzodiazepine use is common in patients with mental illness and is associated with cognitive impairment. It is unclear whether benzodiazepine-induced cognitive impairment is reversible. Amelioration of cognitive dysfunction may be facilitated during benzodiazepine tapering by add......-on melatonin due to its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. We examined how melatonin and benzodiazepine withdrawal affect cognition, subjective well-being, and psychosocial functioning. Eighty patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were randomized to add-on treatment once daily...... with either prolonged-release melatonin or placebo in a 24-week, double-blind clinical trial. All participants gradually tapered usual benzodiazepine dosage in a closely monitored treatment setting. We used the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) to assess neurocognitive performance...

  18. Relationship between coping and subjective well-being of elderly from the interior of the Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pereira Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to verify how the coping strategies, applied to health problems of the elderly, are related to the levels of Subjective Well-Being (SWB in a cluster sample of 381 elderly people with an average age of 71.50 years (SD = 8.0, mostly female (73.4 %. The following instruments were used: Mini-Mental State Examination, Problem Coping Mode Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and demographic issues. The results indicated that, among all the coping strategies, the most used were the Religious Practices. The Focus on Problem explained positively and the Focus on Emotion explained negatively the SWB. Therefore, focus on the problem contributes positively to the psychosocial adaptation of the elderly to health problems.

  19. What Constitutes a Good Life? Cultural Differences in the Role of Positive and Negative Affect in Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-01-01

    East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect—but not recalled negative affect—for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans’ life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life. PMID:19558439

  20. Socio-emotional selectivity in elderly and old age as a factor of subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melehin A.I.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the presence of social support, сonfidant network is associated with positive subjective well-being in elderly (55 - 74 years and old age (75-90 years. However, certain types of social interaction can be considered as predictors of affective disorders and chronic somatic disorders in later ages as in normal aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this article is to familiarize professionals in the mental health of people of later ages with the theory of socio-emotional selectivity (Socioemotional Selectivity Theory L.L. Carstensen, who makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the specificity and mechanisms of selection in social interaction in elderly and old age. Central mechanisms of socio-emotional selection in the later ages are the awareness of time and limited future time perspective, which enhances the awareness of mortality.

  1. Examining coping style and the relationship between stress and subjective well-being in Australia's 'sandwich generation'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Jade E; Crisp, Dimity A

    2017-09-01

    The sandwich generation represents adults, often in midlife, who care for both children and ageing parents/relatives. While the stress they experience has received some attention, little research has investigated the subjective well-being (SWB) of this population. This study examined the relationship between perceived stress and SWB and the moderating effect of coping style. Ninety-three participants (80 women), aged 23-63 years, completed an online survey measuring perceived stress, coping strategies, life satisfaction and positive and negative affect. Stress was negatively associated with SWB. While emotion- and problem-focused coping were directly associated with SWB outcomes, the only moderating effect found was for avoidance-focused coping (AFC). Specifically, AFC was associated with higher positive affect for those reporting lower stress. This study highlights the need to recognise the distinct circumstances that exist for the sandwich generation. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  2. Linking health states to subjective well-being: an empirical study of 5854 rural residents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Jia, X; Zhu, M; Chen, J

    2015-06-01

    Despite a maturing literature on the association between subjective well-being (SWB) and health status of the general population in Western countries, little is known regarding the happiness-health relation in China, and rural populations in particular. This study was aimed to explore the correlation between SWB and health states of China's rural residents. Cross-sectional survey. Data derived from a household survey conducted in 2010 with 5854 rural residents included. The single-item self-reported happiness measure used in the World Values Survey was employed to measure SWB. EQ-5D dimensions and visual analogue scale (VAS) were applied to measure subjective health status. The number of chronic diseases was used as proxy of objective health status. OLS regressions were performed to estimate the variation in SWB by health status and β coefficients were employed as effect size measures. Among EQ-5D dimensions, anxiety/depression had the strongest negative effect on SWB. Having severe anxiety/depression problems could reduce SWB by 1.65 on a scale 1-4. Reporting severe problems in pain/discomfort could also reduce SWB by 0.41, while the impact of other dimensions was insignificant. The coefficient on VAS implied a difference in SWB of 1.60 between the worst health state and the best health state. And suffering from three chronic diseases could reduce SWB by 0.62, but the effect turned insignificant when all measures of subjective health status were entered in the regression. The results from this study verify the strongly negative effect of the mental health dimension on SWB in the context of rural China. And suffering from chronic diseases has substantial negative effect on SWB even after subjective health status is controlled for. But the impact of chronic diseases on SWB could be fully captured when all measures of subjective health status are taken into account. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Proficiency in Positive versus Negative Emotion Identification and Subjective Well-being among Long-term Married Elderly Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ePetrican

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive versus negative emotions and a close partner’s well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1 and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease (Study 2, which tends to hinder emotional expressivity. To assess proficiency in identifying emotions from whole body postures, we had participants in both studies complete a pointlight walker task, featuring four actors (two male, two female expressing one positive (i.e., happiness and three negative (i.e., sadness, anger, fear basic emotions. Participants also filled out measures of subjective well-being. Among Study 1’s neurologically intact spouses, greater expertise in identifying positive (but not negative emotions was linked to greater partner life satisfaction (but not hedonic balance. Spouses of PD patients exhibited increased proficiency in identifying positive emotions relative to controls, possibly reflective of compensatory mechanisms. Complementarily, relative to controls, spouses of PD patients exhibited reduced proficiency in identifying negative emotions and a tendency to underestimate their intensity. Importantly, all of these effects attenuated with longer years from PD onset. Finally, there was evidence that it was increased partner expertise in identifying negative (rather than positive emotional states that predicted greater life satisfaction levels among the PD patients and their spouses. Our results thus suggest that positive versus negative emotions may play distinct roles in close relationship dynamics as a function of neurological status and disability trajectory.

  4. Proficiency in positive vs. negative emotion identification and subjective well-being among long-term married elderly couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrican, Raluca; Moscovitch, Morris; Grady, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive vs. negative emotions and a close partner's well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1) and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease (Study 2), which tends to hinder emotional expressivity. To assess proficiency in identifying emotions from whole body postures, we had participants in both studies complete a pointlight walker task, featuring four actors (two male, two female) expressing one positive (i.e., happiness) and three negative (i.e., sadness, anger, fear) basic emotions. Participants also filled out measures of subjective well-being. Among Study 1's neurologically intact spouses, greater expertise in identifying positive (but not negative) emotions was linked to greater partner life satisfaction (but not hedonic balance). Spouses of PD patients exhibited increased proficiency in identifying positive emotions relative to controls, possibly reflective of compensatory mechanisms. Complementarily, relative to controls, spouses of PD patients exhibited reduced proficiency in identifying negative emotions and a tendency to underestimate their intensity. Importantly, all of these effects attenuated with longer years from PD onset. Finally, there was evidence that it was increased partner expertise in identifying negative (rather than positive) emotional states that predicted greater life satisfaction levels among the PD patients and their spouses. Our results thus suggest that positive vs. negative emotions may play distinct roles in close relationship dynamics as a function of neurological status and disability trajectory.

  5. The Facebook paths to happiness: effects of the number of Facebook friends and self-presentation on subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghyun; Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn

    2011-06-01

    The current study investigates whether and how Facebook increases college-age users' subjective well-being by focusing on the number of Facebook friends and self-presentation strategies (positive vs. honest). A structural equation modeling analysis of cross-sectional survey data of college student Facebook users (N=391) revealed that the number of Facebook friends had a positive association with subjective well-being, but this association was not mediated by perceived social support. Additionally, we found that there was a negative curvilinear (inverted U-shape curve) relationship between Facebook friends and perceived social support. As for self-presentation strategies, whereas positive self-presentation had a direct effect on subjective well-being, honest self-presentation had a significant indirect effect on subjective well-being through perceived social support. Our study suggests that the number of Facebook friends and positive self-presentation may enhance users' subjective well-being, but this portion of happiness may not be grounded in perceived social support. On the other hand, honest self-presentation may enhance happiness rooted in social support provided by Facebook friends. Implications of our findings are discussed in light of affirmation of self-worth, time and effort required for building and maintaining friendships, and the important role played by self-disclosure in signaling one's need for social support.

  6. Height, Socioeconomic and Subjective Well-Being Factors among U.S. Women, Ages 49–79

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyshak, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. Methods/Findings Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 49–79; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p = 0.0333). Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance ‘once a week or more often’ were taller than those who reported ‘none’ and ‘once to 3 times a month’. Means in inches are respectively for: White women–63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p = 0.0027. p = 0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p = 0.0050, P = 0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobs–yes vs. no–63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P = 0.036; and given ‘a little’ strength and comfort from religion’ compared to ‘none’ and ‘a great deal’, 63.73 vs. 63.66 P = 0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P = 0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better health—excellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor–63.70 vs. 63.59, P = 0.0116. Conclusions Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated

  7. Cybercrime Victimization and Subjective Well-Being: An Examination of the Buffering Effect Hypothesis Among Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakinen, Markus; Keipi, Teo; Räsänen, Pekka; Oksanen, Atte

    2017-10-19

    The wealth of beneficial tools for online interaction, consumption, and access to others also bring new risks for harmful experiences online. This study examines the association between cybercrime victimization and subjective well-being (SWB) and, based on the buffering effect hypothesis, tests the assumption of the protective function of social belonging in cybercrime victimization. Cross-national data from the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Finland (N = 3,557; Internet users aged 15-30 years; 49.85 percent female) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and main and moderation effect models. Results show that cybercrime victimization has a negative association with SWB after adjusting for a number of confounding factors. This association concerns both general cybercrime victimization and subcategories such as victimization to offensive cybercrime and cyberfraud. In line with the buffering effect hypothesis, social belonging to offline groups was shown to moderate the negative association between SWB and cybercrime victimization. The same effect was not found in the social belonging to online groups. Overall, the study indicates that, analogously to crime victimization in the offline context, cybercrime is a harmful experience whose negative effects mainly concern those users who have weak social ties offline to aid in coping with such stressors.

  8. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations.

  9. Influences on happiness and subjective well-being of entrepreneurs and labour: Kwazulu-Natal case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darma Mahadea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Globally, individuals seek happiness, but not everybody is happy.  Economic reasoning suggests that rising incomes with expansions in GDP enhance the quality of life and subjective well-being.  This paper examines the influences on individual happiness, using ordinal logistic regression and chi-square analyses.  Based on the findings of a small case study, the chi-square test indicated that a significant relationship exists between gender, education, ethnicity, children, marital status, employment relations, income and self-reported happiness. The study also found that, on average, happier people tended to be educated, married with children, and treated fairly at work.  But having too many children produced a decrement in individual happiness.   The ordinal regression results indicate that an individual’s education, gender, age distribution and work environment are influential in producing higher levels of happiness.  Entrepreneurs were found to have a significantly higher mean level of happiness than employees.  In the workplace, individuals who experienced personal growth and were able to contribute their ideas tended to be happier, relative to others who perceived themselves to be ‘restricted’.

  10. The influence of the functional capacity on subjective well-being and quality of life of patients with silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Yan, Bo; Zhao, Na; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Jinkai; Lei, Xibing; Li, Chao; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Silicosis is a fibrosing and irreversible lung disease. In China, 9870 new silicosis cases were reported in 2010. The physical and mental status of patients with silicosis should be paid attention to. The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of the patients' functional capacity on subjective well-being (SWB) and quality of life (QOL), provide the scientific basis for further intervention measures, and improve their health status. We investigated 324 inpatients with silicosis during April 2011 to September 2011. The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) was the major methodology used to evaluate the functional capacity, the SF-12 (Short Form-12) to evaluate the QOL, and the MUNSH (Memorial University of Newfoundland Scale of Happiness) scale to evaluate the SWB. The distance of 6MWT suggested a significant and positive correlation with SWB and QOL of patients with silicosis (P silicosis had low SWB and QOL. The SWB and QOL of patients with silicosis are still relatively low and their health status needs improvement. At the same time, longer distances walked by patients suggest more positive influences on their SWB and QOL. It indicates that when the 6MWT cooperates with SWB and QOL, it may be able to get more accurate evaluation results of patients' survival status.

  11. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations. PMID:28197109

  12. Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Mediates the Association between Self-Control Skills and Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hod Orkibi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although studies have shown that self-control skills (SCSs are positively linked to both personal and interpersonal outcomes in adolescent students, studies on the putative mechanisms underlying this relationship are scarce. Drawing on Self-Determination Theory and previous studies, we theorized that the association between students’ SCSs and their subjective well-being (SWB in school may be mediated by students’ perceived satisfaction of their basic psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. The sample consisted of 1576 Israeli adolescent students (54% girls in grades 10–12 (mean age 16 enrolled in 20 schools. A mediation model was tested with structural equation modeling and a robust bootstrap method for testing indirect effects, controlling for school-level variance. The findings supported the hypothesized model and a post hoc multi-group comparison analysis yielded gender invariance in the model. The findings suggest that both girls and boys with high SCSs may perceive themselves as having greater needs satisfaction in school and consequently higher school-related SWB. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  13. Subjective well-being, body image, and functional capacity in people candidate for or undergoing bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Juliana Galvis-Aparicio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two studies that aimed (1 at assessing and comparing the subjective well-being (SWB, and functional capacity and body image of people with morbid obesity, candidate for or undergoing bariatric surgery (BS, and (2 at identifying the relationship among the components of SWB, BMI, functional capacity, and body image. The sample was composed by 48 patients in pre-surgery period, and 29 in post-surgery. Instruments used were the Life Satisfaction Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, WHODAS 2.0, the Brazilian scale of figures and silhouettes, and thebateria fatorial da personalidade. Statistically significant differences were found between both groups in all the variables, except positive affect, comprehension and communication, and relationships with others. FC was correlated to all the components of SWB and contributed to explaining the variance of life satisfaction and negative affect. Personality traits turned out to be more important than other variables for explaining the variance of positive affect.

  14. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Shoshani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention condition or a wait-list control condition. In the intervention condition, during one school year, 160 children experienced eight modules of basic concepts in positive psychology that were adapted to the developmental characteristics of young children and were compared to 155 children in demographically similar control classrooms. Children were administered a pre-test and post-test of subjective well-being measures. In addition, children’s mental health and emotional well-being were measured by parental questionnaires. Preschool teachers completed questionnaires concerning children’s learning behaviors. The findings showed significant increases in subjective well-being and positive learning behaviors among the intervention participants, with no significant changes in the control group. The results highlight the potential of positive psychology interventions for increasing subjective well-being and a positive approach to learning at young ages.

  15. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, Anat; Slone, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children's subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3-6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention condition or a wait-list control condition. In the intervention condition, during one school year, 160 children experienced eight modules of basic concepts in positive psychology that were adapted to the developmental characteristics of young children and were compared to 155 children in demographically similar control classrooms. Children were administered a pre-test and post-test of subjective well-being measures. In addition, children's mental health and emotional well-being were measured by parental questionnaires. Preschool teachers completed questionnaires concerning children's learning behaviors. The findings showed significant increases in subjective well-being and positive learning behaviors among the intervention participants, with no significant changes in the control group. The results highlight the potential of positive psychology interventions for increasing subjective well-being and a positive approach to learning at young ages.

  16. Subjective Well-Being and the Family: Results from an Ordered Probit Model with Multiple Random Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Winkelmann, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    The previous literature on the determinants of individual well-being has failed to fully account for the interdependencies in well-being at the family level. This paper develops an ordered probit model with multiple random effects that allows to identify the intrafamily correlation in well-being. The parameters of the model can be estimated with panel data using Maximum Marginal Likelihood. The approach is illustrated in an application using panel data for the period 1984-1997 from the German...

  17. Appreciation: individual differences in finding value and meaning as a unique predictor of subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Mitchel G; Fagley, N S

    2005-02-01

    Adler (2002; Adler & Fagley, 2001) argued that being appreciative facilitates and enhances feelings of well-being and life satisfaction, as well as feelings of connection to what we have, to what we experience, and to life itself. In addition, expressing appreciation to others is believed to build social bonds. Although appreciation is viewed as a disposition, it is also viewed as something people can learn over time, making it an especially valuable construct to measure. Appreciating something (e.g. an event, a person, a behavior, an object) involves noticing and acknowledging its value and meaning and feeling a positive emotional connection to it. We defined eight aspects of appreciation and developed scales to measure them: a focus on what one has ("Have" Focus), Awe, Ritual, Present Moment, Self/Social Comparison, Gratitude, Loss/Adversity, Interpersonal. Scores on the subscales may be totaled to yield a score representing one's overall degree of appreciation (or level of appreciativeness) (coefficient alpha=.94). We also developed an 18-item short form (coefficient alpha=.91) that correlates .95 with scores on the long form. The scales correlated in predicted ways with measures of life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. More importantly, appreciation was significantly related to life satisfaction and positive affect, even after the effects of optimism, spirituality, and emotional self-awareness had been statistically controlled.

  18. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning.

  19. Does Migration Make You Happy? A Longitudinal Study of Internal Migration and Subjective Well-Being (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowok, B.; Van Ham, M.; Findlay, A.; Gayle, V.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of modelling studies on consequences of internal migration focus almost exclusively on the labour market outcomes and the material well-being of migrants. We investigate whether individuals who migrate within the UK become happier after the move than they were before it and whether the

  20. Sense of Coherence, Sociodemographic, Lifestyle, and Health-related Factors in Older Adults' Subjective Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humboldt

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Self-reported spirituality is the strongest predictor of SWB. Other predictors are sense of coherence, social support, living setting, household, perceived health, and medication. Results emphasize that health care approaches may benefit from clearly understanding SWB and its predictors, as essential for promoting older adults' health and well-being.

  1. The Influence of Motivation and Adaptation on Students' Subjective Well-Being, Meaning in Life and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Thomas Hamilton; Phillips, Lisa J.

    2016-01-01

    High rates of mental illness among students and discontinuation with university studies are regularly reported. The current study sought to explore relationships between motivation, university adaptation and indicators of mental health and well-being and academic performance of 184 first-year university students (73% female, mean age?=?19.3…

  2. Question order sensitivity of subjective well-being measures: focus on life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy in survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.

  3. Examining the Relations between Subjective Social Class, Academics, and Well-Being in First-Generation College Student Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbow, Alexander James

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relations between aspects of subjective social class, academic performance, and subjective wellbeing in first-generation and veteran students. In recent years, both student veterans and first-generation students have become topics of interest for universities, counselors, and researchers, as they are…

  4. Perceived control and self-efficacy, subjective well-being and lifestyle behaviours in young Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Asiyeh; Harris, Neil; Coyne, Elisabeth; Sebar, Bernadette

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether young Iranian women's perceived control and self-efficacy, as a component of cognitive social capital, predicts health and well-being. A total of 391 women aged between 18 and 35 years completed a survey including scales measuring control and self-efficacy and health outcomes including quality of life, satisfaction with life and lifestyle behaviours. Statistical analyses indicated that participants had low perceived control and influence over community affairs together with high perceived control over their personal lives. Multiple regression analyses indicated the predictive role of control and self-efficacy for well-being outcomes suggesting the potential role for health interventions targeting control and self-efficacy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. The Long-Run Consequences of Chernobyl: Evidence on Subjective Well-Being, Mental Health and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Danzer, Alexander M.; Danzer, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the long-run toll taken by a large-scale technological disaster on welfare, well-being and mental health. We estimate the causal effect of the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe after 20 years by linking geographic variation in radioactive fallout to respondents of a nationally representative survey in Ukraine according to their place of residence in 1986. The psychological effects of this nuclear disaster are large and persistent. More affected individuals exhibit poorer subjecti...

  6. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L Raison

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behaviour, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that 1 thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, 2 these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and 3 activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders.

  7. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raison, Charles L.; Hale, Matthew W.; Williams, Lawrence E.; Wager, Tor D.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behavior, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that (1) thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, (2) these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and (3) activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders. PMID:25628593

  8. Explaining Differences in Subjective Well-Being Across 33 Nations Using Multilevel Models: Universal Personality, Cultural Relativity, and National Income

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cheng, C.; Cheung, M. W.-L.; Montasem, A.; Awang-Hashim, R.; Bačová, V.; Baumane, I.; Chan, R.; Christou, M.; Chun, W. Y.; Clemena, R. M.; Comunian, A.L.; Czapinski, J.; Dayan, N.; Loving, R.D.; Duarte-Silva, M. E.; Falzon, A.; Falzon, R.; Gan, Y.; Golden, D. L.; de Zavala Golec, A.; Guil-Bozal, A.; Hadiyono, J. E. P.; Hadjar, A.; Hertel, J.; Ines Alcalay, S. L.; Jose, P. E.; Dzuka, J.; Kafetsios, K.; Lawal, O. A.; Liu, J.-T.; Neto, F.; Opre, A.; Panayiotou, A.; Raudsepp, M.; Roth, R.; Sheldon, K. M.; Sideridis, G.; Šolcová, Iva; Spyrou, S.; Suhail, K.; Tam, W.-Ch. C.; Tanti-Burlo, E.; Tao, V. Y.; Tonon, G.; Tiliouine, H.; Tsaousis, I.; Uglanova, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 1 (2016), s. 46-58 ISSN 0022-3506 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : life satisfaction * self-esteem * individualism * collectivism * happiness * extroversion Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.590, year: 2016

  9. Subjective well-being amongst migrant children in China: unravelling the roles of social support and identity integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, S; Chui, C H-K; Ji, X; Jordan, L; Chan, C L-W

    2016-09-01

    Migrant children refer to rural children who accompany one or both parents to urban area. Empirical evidence showed that compared with their urban counterparts, migrant children had poorer developmental, emotional and psychological health. A sample of 1306 migrant children were recruited to examine the characteristics of migrant children and investigate the effects of identity integration, support and socioeconomic factors (e.g. age, gender, type of school, family socioeconomic status, city type) on their subjective wellbeing. Children with higher levels of identity integration, social support, family socioeconomic status, who attended public school and who lived in the third-tiered city of Weihai demonstrated better subjective wellbeing. Social support remained a strong predictor for subjective wellbeing, despite a significant mediating effect of identity integration. These results highlight the need for policymakers and practitioners alike to address individual factors pertaining to psychological adjustments, as well as social determinants of subjective wellbeing in the context of migration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Happy and healthy: The hypothesis of correlation between subjective well-being and psychological health and its role in late adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Horbal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Subjective well-being as an emotional-cognitive assessment of person’s life is an important aspect of psychological health and positive functioning in general. The hypothesis of connection between subjective well-being, psychological well-being and psychological health is presented. This correlation is very important in late adulthood for ensuring happy obsolescence but has some specifi c peculiarities due to the elderly people’s age and individual traits. Subjective well-being is a background for effective inner work of summarizing person’s previous life that is the main purpose in old age.

  11. Independent and combined association of overall physical fitness and subjective well-being with fibromyalgia severity : the al-Ándalus project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estévez-López, Fernando; Gray, Cindy M; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Arrayás-Grajera, Manuel J; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Pulido-Martos, Manuel

    PURPOSE: The present study aimed: (1) to test the associations of overall physical fitness and subjective well-being with fibromyalgia severity and (2) to determine whether the combination of overall physical fitness and subjective well-being is associated with fibromyalgia severity among adult

  12. Subjective Well-Being in Older Chinese and Korean Immigrants in the United States: Effects of Self-Rated Health and Employment Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung; Jun, Hyeyoun; Lee, Jisun; Linton, Kristen; Kim, Meehye; Browne, Colette

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of association between self-rated health and employment status on subjective well-being among older Chinese and Korean immigrants in the United States. Data were collected from 171 Chinese and 205 Korean older adult immigrants living in Los Angeles County. The primary variables included demographic data, subjective index of well-being, self-rated health, and employment status. Data support the association between self-rated health and subjective well-being for both groups. Employment, education, and age were associated with the level of subjective well-being only for older Korean immigrants. Similarities and differences were noted in these two Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest the need to develop health promotion services for both populations and employment opportunities targeted more so for Korean older immigrants to further support their subjective well-being. Results may have implications for other for older immigrants.

  13. Using Exponential Random Graph Models to Analyze the Character of Peer Relationship Networks and Their Effects on the Subjective Well-being of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Can; Wang, Ting; Liu, Jianxin; Wu, Huanjie; Cui, Fang; Peng, Xiaozhe

    2017-01-01

    The influences of peer relationships on adolescent subjective well-being were investigated within the framework of social network analysis, using exponential random graph models as a methodological tool. The participants in the study were 1,279 students (678 boys and 601 girls) from nine junior middle schools in Shenzhen, China. The initial stage of the research used a peer nomination questionnaire and a subjective well-being scale (used in previous studies) to collect data on the peer relationship networks and the subjective well-being of the students. Exponential random graph models were then used to explore the relationships between students with the aim of clarifying the character of the peer relationship networks and the influence of peer relationships on subjective well being. The results showed that all the adolescent peer relationship networks in our investigation had positive reciprocal effects, positive transitivity effects and negative expansiveness effects. However, none of the relationship networks had obvious receiver effects or leaders. The adolescents in partial peer relationship networks presented similar levels of subjective well-being on three dimensions (satisfaction with life, positive affects and negative affects) though not all network friends presented these similarities. The study shows that peer networks can affect an individual's subjective well-being. However, whether similarities among adolescents are the result of social influences or social choices needs further exploration, including longitudinal studies that investigate the potential processes of subjective well-being similarities among adolescents.

  14. Comparing subjective well-being and health-related quality of life of Australian drug users in treatment in regional and rural Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; Hyder, Shannon; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Droste, Nicolas; Harris, Jane B

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the self-reported subjective well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of alcohol and other drug users and to examine whether subjective well-being in this sample would be predicted by either HRQOL and/or severity of dependence. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 201 Victorian substance users in individual targeted outpatient treatment for a variety of types of substance use. Participants were administered an interview, including the personal well-being index, the SF-8 health survey and the severity of dependence scale, in order to assess subjective well-being, the mental health component of HRQOL and severity of drug dependence respectively. Subjective well-being was predicted by mental health aspects of HRQOL (sr(2)  = 0.03) and by employment (sr(2)  = 0.05), rather than by severity of dependence [F(5, 146) = 5.60, P well-being than do the general population. Subjective well-being was predicted by mental aspects of HRQOL and not by severity of drug dependence or by physical aspects of HRQOL. Treatment which aims to improve substance users' well-being should include mental health interventions and pathways to employment. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. Path Analysis of Work Family Conflict, Job Salary and Promotion Satisfaction, Work Engagement to Subjective Well-Being of the Primary and Middle School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun-mei; Cui, Shu-jing; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the path analysis of work family conflict, job salary and promotion satisfaction, work engagement to subjective well-being of the primary and middle school principals, and provide advice for enhancing their well-being. Methods: Using convenient sampling, totally 300 primary and middle school principals completed the WFC,…

  16. Investigation of the Structural Relationships Between Social Support, Self-Compassion, and Subjective Well-Being in Korean Elite Student Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyunsoo; Lee, Keunchul; Kwon, Sungho

    2016-08-01

    The study examined whether self-compassion mediates the relationship between social support and subjective well-being, as perceived by athletes. It also investigated the structural relationships between these variables. Participants were 333 athletes attending high school or university. Structural equation analysis showed that self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between social support and subjective well-being. To test the stability of the model, a multiple group analysis was performed according to sex of participant and school level, and this demonstrated that the model had similar fit to the data regardless of group. The confirmation that self-compassion plays an intermediary role in the relationship between social support and subjective well-being demonstrates that self-compassionate attitudes can be fostered by social support, and that, in turn, has a positive effect on an individual's subjective well-being. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. An examination of personality, emotional intelligence, coping, gender and subjective well-being with perceived stress (trait and state) in undergraduate students.

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Shona Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This multivariate study aimed to further understand student stress. Associations between personality, emotional intelligence, coping and subjective well-being with perceived stress (trait and state) were examined in 238 undergraduate students, using self-report measures. Gender differences in these variables were also investigated. The results showed that students low in emotional stability, extraversion, emotional intelligence, subjective well-being and those with a tendency to use emotion...

  18. Can a click buy a little happiness? The impact of business-to-consumer e-commerce on subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatini, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first empirical investigation into the effect of e-shopping on subjective well-being. The analysis relies on an Italian nationally and regionally representative dataset from Italy (n = 4,130) drawn from the 2008 wave of the Survey of Household Income and Wealth (SHIW) carried out by the Bank of Italy. Probit, OLS regressions and instrumental variables estimates show that e-shopping is strongly and positively associated with subjective well-being.

  19. Comparison of Subjective Well-Being and Personality Assessments in the Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia), and African Lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Marieke Cassia; Powell, David M; Weiss, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of subjective well-being in nonhuman animals is growing in the field of psychology, but there are still only a few published studies and the focus is on primates. To consider whether the construct of subjective well-being could be found in another mammal, this study aimed to assess subjective well-being in felids and to examine its association with personality. Personality is one of the strongest and most consistent predictors of well-being in humans. This relationship could have important implications for other species, because personality has also been shown to affect health outcomes including stress, morbidity, and mortality. As in previous studies in nonhuman animals, the study results revealed that subjective well-being was related to agreeableness/openness and neuroticism in clouded leopards, neuroticism in snow leopards, and impulsiveness and neuroticism in African lions. The implications of these results for health outcomes and the welfare of animals in captivity are discussed. More research on any direct links among personality, subjective well-being, and these outcomes is important to advancing this field and adding another tool for improving captive animals' lives.

  20. Effects of progressive muscle relaxation on state anxiety and subjective well-being in people with schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Hert, Marc; Knapen, Jan; Maurissen, Katrien; Raepsaet, Julie; Deckx, Seppe; Remans, Sander; Probst, Michel

    2011-06-01

    To examine the efficacy of a single progressive muscle relaxation session compared with a control condition on state anxiety, psychological stress, fatigue and subjective well-being in patients with schizophrenia. Randomized controlled trial. An acute inpatient care unit of an University Psychiatric Centre. Sixty-four out of 88 eligible patients with schizophrenia. Patients were randomly assigned to either a single progressive muscle relaxation session during 25 minutes or a resting control condition with the opportunity to read for an equal amount of time. Before and after the single interventions the State anxiety inventory and the Subjective exercise experiences scale were completed. Effect sizes were calculated. Only within progressive muscle relaxation, participants (n=27) showed decreased state anxiety, psychological stress and fatigue and increased subjective well-being. Between-group differences in post scores were found for state anxiety, subjective well-being and psychological stress, but not for fatigue. The effect size favouring progressive muscle relaxation was 1.26 for subjective well-being and -1.25 and -1.02 for respectively state anxiety and psychological stress. Progressive muscle relaxation is highly effective in reducing acute feelings of stress and anxiety in patients with schizophrenia. A reduction in stress and state anxiety is associated with an increase in subjective well-being.

  1. Modeling subjective well-being in individuals with chronic pain and a physical disability: the role of pain control and pain catastrophizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, Angela; Michel, Gisela; Terrill, Alexandra L; Jensen, Mark P; Müller, Rachel

    2017-10-23

    To investigate the associations between subjective well-being and pain intensity, pain interference, and depression in individuals with physical disabilities. We hypothesized that (1) pain control and (2) pain catastrophizing mediate the effects of subjective well-being on pain intensity, pain interference, and depression. Analyses of cross-sectional data from 96 individuals diagnosed with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disease, or post-polio syndrome, with average pain intensity of ≥4 (0-10) on at least half the days in the past month. Two models tested study hypotheses using structural equation. Both models showed acceptable model fit. Pain catastrophizing significantly mediated the effect of subjective well-being on pain intensity and pain interference, but not on depression. Pain control did not significantly mediate the effect of subjective well-being on pain intensity, pain interference, or depression. Path coefficients showed significant direct effects of subjective well-being on pain control (β = 0.39), pain catastrophizing (β = -0.61), pain interference (β = -0.48; -0.42), and depression (β = -0.75; -0.78). This study supports the potential of enhancing subjective well-being and lowering pain catastrophizing for reducing pain intensity, pain interference, and depressive symptoms in individuals with chronic pain and a physical disability. The findings indicate that true experiments to test for causal associations are warranted. Implications for rehabilitation The majority of individuals with physical disabilities report having persistent moderate-to-severe pain that may negatively limit daily activities and quality of life. The present cross-sectional study indicates that individuals who reported greater subjective well-being showed significantly lower pain intensity via the mediating effect of lower pain catastrophizing. Since sample size and respective power are low, these findings should be taken as first

  2. School-related social support and subjective well-being in school among adolescents: The role of self-system factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Zhao, Jie; Huebner, E Scott

    2015-12-01

    This 6-week longitudinal study aimed to examine a moderated mediation model that may explain the link between school-related social support (i.e., teacher support and classmate support) and optimal subjective well-being in school among adolescents (n = 1316). Analyses confirmed the hypothesized model that scholastic competence partially mediated the relations between school-related social support and subjective well-being in school, and social acceptance moderated the mediation process in the school-related social support--> subjective well-being in school path and in the scholastic competence--> subjective well-being in school path. The findings suggested that both social contextual factors (e.g., school-related social support) and self-system factors (e.g., scholastic competence and social acceptance) are crucial for adolescents' optimal subjective well-being in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Subjective Well Being Program and Fordyce Cognitive Behavior Method in Reduction of Depression in High School Students of Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mirzaei Teshnizi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the current research was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of Subjective Well Being Program and Fordyce Cognitive Behavior method in reduction of depression in high school students of Isfahan City. Methods: In the study, 150 high school girl and boy students who suffered from depression were randomly selected and were assigned in six groups (4 experimental groups and 2 control groups(n=25. The intervention methods were Subjective well-being Program and Fordyce cognitive-behavior method. Kovacs questionnaire was chosen as a research instrument. Results: Variance analysis showed some significant differences between the control and experimental groups with regards to depression reduction. The follow up Scheffe test also showed that there were no significant differences between the Subjective well-being Program and Fordyce cognitive-behavior methods. Conclusion: According to the performed research, both educational methods were effective in reducing depression without any significant difference between the two methods.

  4. A short-term, comprehensive, yoga-based lifestyle intervention is efficacious in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Raj Kumar; Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Mehta, Nalin; Mahapatra, Sushil Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of a short-term comprehensive yoga-based lifestyle intervention in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality. Materials and Methods: The study is a part of an ongoing larger study at a tertiary care hospital. Participants (n=90) included patients with chronic diseases attending a 10-day, yoga-based lifestyle intervention program for prevention and management of chronic diseases, and healthy controls (n=45) not attending any such intervention. Primary Outcome Measures: Change in state and trait anxiety questionnaire (STAI-Y; 40 items), subjective well-being inventory (SUBI; 40 items), and neuroticism extraversion openness to experience five factor personality inventory revised (NEO-FF PI-R; 60 items) at the end of intervention. Results: Following intervention, the STAI-Y scores reduced significantly (Panxiety and improve subjective well-being and personality in patients with chronic diseases. PMID:22869998

  5. Perceived social support as a moderator between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among people with physical disabilities in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzick, Michal; Kagan, Maya; Tal-Katz, Patricia

    2017-05-26

    Perceived social support has gained importance as a significant preventive factor of depressive symptoms and as helpful for rebuilding feelings of self-worth and subjective well-being among people with physical disabilities. The current study examined whether perceived social support moderates the association between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among people with physical disabilities in Israel. Data were collected by means of structured questionnaires among a convenience sample of 433 people with physical disabilities in Israel and hierarchical multiple regression was performed. The findings reveal that perceived social support has a moderating role in the association between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among people with physical disabilities, such that those with low and moderate levels of perceived social support showed a negative association between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being, while those with high levels of perceived social support showed no association between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being. Findings are discussed in light of the social model of disability, and practical implications are suggested. Implications for Rehabilitation A negative association was found between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among people with physical disabilities with low and moderate levels of perceived social support. Professionals working with people with physical disabilities must acknowledge the importance of social support for people with physical disabilities and for their families. Professionals working with people with physical disabilities should take a proactive approach to locating disabled people who do not receive or do not have adequate social support and offer them assistance. Professionals working with people with physical disabilities should engage in wide social activities aimed at providing resources and opportunities to service beneficiaries. Society

  6. Subjective well-being among family caregivers of individuals with developmental disabilities: the role of affiliate stigma and psychosocial moderating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shirli; Shulman, Cory

    2013-11-01

    Studies have shown that stigmatization is linked to lower quality of life; however, only scant research has examined the association between family caregivers' internalization of stigma (affiliate stigma) and their subjective quality of life (subjective well-being, SWB). Furthermore, studies have rarely examined this association via comparison between caregivers of individuals with different developmental disabilities in addition to examining the influence of psychosocial protective factors. These were the aims of the current study. Family caregivers (N=176) of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disabilities (ID), and physical disabilities (PD) completed a self-report structured questionnaire including scales measuring SWB, affiliate stigma, burden, positive meaning in caregiving, social support and self-esteem. Results showed that SWB of family caregivers was below the average normative level and especially low for caregivers of individuals with ASD. The strongest predictors of SWB were caregivers' self-esteem, social support, positive meaning in caregiving, and affiliate stigma. Furthermore, an interaction was found between affiliate stigma and diagnosis, showing that among caregivers of individuals with ASD, greater levels of stigma were associated with lower ratings of SWB, whereas such an association was not found among caregivers of individuals with ID or PD. Findings from this study point to the importance of supporting caregivers across the life-span in order to decrease stigma, improve social support and self-esteem and improve SWB. Further, findings point to the need to respond differentially to the various developmental disabilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils' academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils' mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils' academic achievement and well-being-assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement.

  8. [Socio-demographic characteristics, subjective well-being, and homophobia experienced by a sample of gay men from three cities in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Gómez-Ojeda, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics of a sample of gay men in three cities in Chile, as well as experience with homophobia and subjective well-being. Snowball sampling was used to interview 325 gay men. The main findings included high levels of perceived discrimination and victimization, but interviewees reported higher levels of social well-being compared to studies elsewhere in the country. Age was related to differences in levels of social well-being, but not other variables. Individuals with university education reported higher levels of victimization and greater impact of discrimination on their lives. Gay men in Santiago reported a higher relative impact from incidents of aggression, but better levels of social well-being and happiness compared to those in other regions of Chile.

  9. Organizations and social worker wellbeing: the intra-organizational context of practice and its impact on a practitioner's subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shier, Micheal L; Graham, John R

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand the varied factors that contribute to social worker subjective well-being (SWB) (the social science concept for happiness). Using qualitative methods of inquiry 19 social workers who reported having low to medium levels of workplace and profession satisfaction were interviewed to assess those factors within their lives that they perceived as impacting their well-being. One thematic category from the analysis was aspects of the intraorganizational context of workplaces that can impact social worker SWB. Respondents identified interpersonal workplace relationships, decision-making processes, management/supervisory dynamics, workload and workplace expectations, access to resources and infrastructure support, and inter-organizational relationships as key intra-organizational factors contributing to their overall wellbeing. In conclusion, these findings have practical application within organizations for structured policies and unstructured practices to improve social worker subjective well-being.

  10. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils’ academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils’ mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils’ academic achievement and well-being—assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement. PMID:25861553

  11. Income inequality and subjective well-being: : A cross-national study on the conditional effects of individual and national characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rözer, J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338041494; Kraaykamp, G.

    In this study we raise the question how a nation’s income inequality affects subjective well-being. Using information on 195,091 individuals from 85 different countries from the World Value Surveys and the European Value Surveys, we established that in general, people living in more unequal

  12. Income inequality and subjective well-being: A cross-national study on the conditional effects of individual and national characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rözer, J.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we raise the question how a nation's income inequality affects subjective well-being. Using information on 195,091 individuals from 85 different countries from the World Value Surveys and the European Value Surveys, we established that in general, people living in more unequal

  13. Looking Beyond Health-Related Quality of Life: Predictors of Subjective Well-Being among People Living with HIV in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberje, E.J.M.; Dima, A.L.; Hulzen, van A.G.W.; Prins, J.M.; Bruin, de M.

    2015-01-01

    Health care interventions are increasingly expected to improve subjective well-being (SWB) rather than health-related quality of life (HRQOL) only. However, little is known about how HRQOL and other relevant quality of life (QOL) domains relate to SWB among people living with HIV. People living with

  14. Tamoxifen effects on subjective and psychosexual well-being, in a randomised breast cancer study comparing high-dose and standard-dose chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, MJ; Bockermann, [No Value; de Vries, EG; van der Zee, AG; ten Hoor, KA; van der Graaf, WT; Sluiter, WJ; Willemse, PH

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of tamoxifen on subjective and psychosexual well-being in breast cancer patients in relation to type of prior chemotherapy and menopausal status. Longitudinal interview study in breast cancer patients during and after adjuvant tamoxifen use. Menopausal status was defined by

  15. Being a SportParent: Buffering the effect of your talented child's poor performance on his or her subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this longitudinal study was the process that can explain why poor performance (as assessed by the coach) may lead to less subjective well-being. The participants were 59 young, highly skilled male soccer players (mean age: 15.6 years) attending a prestigious soccer school. In line with

  16. Looking beyond health-related quality of life: predictors of subjective well-being among people living with HIV in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberjé, E.J.M.; Dima, A.L.; van Hulzen, A.G.W.; Prins, J.M.; de Bruin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Health care interventions are increasingly expected to improve subjective well-being (SWB) rather than health-related quality of life (HRQOL) only. However, little is known about how HRQOL and other relevant quality of life (QOL) domains relate to SWB among people living with HIV. People living with

  17. The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem: The Effects of Social Support and Subjective Well-Being on Adolescents' Risky Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi Çakar, Firdevs; Tagay, Özlem

    2017-01-01

    This research is a descriptive study based on the testing of a structural model developed by considering the effects of perceived social support and subjective well-being on adolescents' risky behaviors, and the possible mediating role of self-esteem. Participants consisted of 676 high school students attending formal education institutions,…

  18. Self-Esteem as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Social Support and Subjective Well-Being among Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Zhao, Jingjing; You, Xuqun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined both the mediating and moderating effects of global self-esteem on the relationship between social support and subjective well-being among Chinese university students. Three hundred and ninety-one university students (260 males and 131 females) from two different Chinese universities completed the social support scale, the…

  19. Perceived Personality Traits and Types of Teachers and Their Relationship to the Subjective Well-Being and Academic Achievements of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of the perceived types of teachers (liked, disliked and neutral) with the subjective well-being and academic success of their students, and to determine how students come to categorize their liked, disliked and neutral teachers considering the Big-Five Personality Model. The quantitative…

  20. Beyond chronological age. Examining perceived future time and subjective health as age-related mediators in relation to work-related motivations and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Jansen; Dorien Kooij; Annet de Lange; Josje Dikkers

    2013-01-01

    Since workforces across the world are aging, researchers and organizations need more insight into how and why occupational well-being, together with work-related attitudes and motivations, change with age. Lifespan theories point to subjective health and future time perspective (i.e. an individual's

  1. Beyond chronological age : Examining perceived future time and subjective health as age-related mediators in relation to work-related motivations and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.; de Lange, A.H.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Since workforces across the world are aging, researchers and organizations need more insight into how and why occupational well-being, together with work-related attitudes and motivations, change with age. Lifespan theories point to subjective health and future time perspective (i.e. an individual's

  2. Women's autonomy and subjective well-being: How gender norms shape the impact of self-help groups in Odisha, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoop, T.J. de; Kempen, L.A.C.M. van; Linssen, R.; Eerdewijk, A.H.J.M. van

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents impact estimates of women's self-help group (SHG) membership on subjective well-being in Odisha, India, using 2008 survey data in a quasi-experimental design. It finds that, while there is evidence of a positive impact of SHG membership on women's autonomy, on average, SHG

  3. Increasing Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention in Comparison to the Effects of Therapeutic Alliance, Youth Factors, and Expectancy for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the variance in subjective well-being (SWB) of early adolescents ( n = 54) exposed to a positive psychology intervention aimed at increasing positive affect and life satisfaction as well as decreasing negative affect through intentional activities (e.g., gratitude journals, acts of kindness, use of character strengths,…

  4. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Rania F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  5. Employment at Closure Is Associated with Enhanced Quality of Life and Subjective Well-Being for Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Martha H.; Holbert, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether persons with spinal cord injuries who had been successfully rehabilitated into employment following receipt of rehabilitation services had better quality of life and subjective well-being than the unsuccessfully rehabilitated who did not obtain employment following receipt of rehabilitation services. Persons who were…

  6. Examining the Effects of Perceived Relevance and Work-Related Subjective Well-Being on Individual Performance for Co-Op Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewery, Dave; Pretti, T. Judene; Barclay, Sage

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between co-op students' perceived relevance of their work term, work-related subjective well-being (SWB), and individual performance at work. Data were collected using a survey of co-op students (n = 1,989) upon completion of a work term. Results of regression analyses testing a…

  7. Well-being, problematic alcohol consumption and acute subjective drug effects in past-year ayahuasca users: a large, international, self-selecting online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Will; Hallak, Jaime E; Crippa, Jose A; Dos Santos, Rafael; Porffy, Lilla; Barratt, Monica J; Ferris, Jason A; Winstock, Adam R; Morgan, Celia J A

    2017-11-09

    Ayahuasca is a natural psychedelic brew, which contains dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Its potential as a psychiatric medicine has recently been demonstrated and its non-medical use around the world appears to be growing. We aimed to investigate well-being and problematic alcohol use in ayahuasca users, and ayahuasca's subjective effects. An online, self-selecting, global survey examining patterns of drug use was conducted in 2015 and 2016 (n = 96,901). Questions were asked about: use of ayahuasca, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and magic mushrooms; demographics, current well-being and past-year problematic alcohol use of past-year ayahuasca users and comparison drug users; and subjective effects of ayahuasca and comparison drugs. Ayahuasca users (n = 527) reported greater well-being than both classic psychedelic users (n = 18,138) and non-psychedelic drug-using respondents (n = 78,236). Ayahuasca users reported less problematic drinking than classic psychedelic users, although both groups reported greater problematic drinking than the other respondents. Ayahuasca's acute subjective effects usually lasted for six hours and were most strongly felt one hour after consumption. Within our online, self-selecting survey, ayahuasca users reported better well-being than comparison groups and less problematic drinking than classic psychedelic users. Future longitudinal studies of international samples and randomised controlled trials are needed to dissect the effects of ayahuasca on these outcomes.

  8. Associations of Sexual Subjectivity with Global and Sexual Well-Being: A New Measure for Young Males and Comparison to Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; French, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    Sexual subjectivity refers to multiple aspects of sexual self-perceptions, including sexual body-esteem, perceptions of efficacy and entitlement to sexual desire and pleasure, and sexual self-reflection (Horne & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2006). Previous research on sexual subjectivity has shown that it is elevated in young women who report better global well-being and have more sexual experience. However, research has not focused on young men. Thus, two studies were conducted to develop a new measure to assess young men's sexual subjectivity (Study 1, N = 304 men) and to examine associations of sexual subjectivity with general and sexual well-being among young men and women (Study 2, N = 208 men and 214 women). In Study 1, five elements of men's sexual subjectivity were found, which paralleled the elements found in previous research with young women. In Study 2, sexual subjectivity, especially two elements of sexual body-esteem and self-efficacy in achieving pleasure, was significantly associated with enhanced global and sexual well-being in both men and women. Gender did not moderate these associations, supporting sexual subjectivity as an aspect of sexual health in all young adults. As anticipated, men reported greater entitlement to self-pleasure and self-efficacy in achieving pleasure, but women reported greater entitlement to pleasure with partners. Women's feelings of less efficacy but more entitlement to pleasure with partners suggest that feelings of entitlement may not be consistent with their experiences. Future research with young men and women will be important for understanding sexual health and development during late adolescence and early adulthood.

  9. "I'm afraid I have bad news for you…" Estimating the impact of different health impairments on subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Martin; Coad, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Bad health decreases individuals' happiness, but few studies measure the impact of specific illnesses. We apply matching estimators to examine how changes in different (objective) conditions of bad health affect subjective well-being for a sample of 100,265 observations from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) database (1996-2006). The strongest effect is for alcohol and drug abuse, followed by anxiety, depression and other mental illnesses, stroke and cancer. Adaptation to health impairments varies across health impairments. There is also a puzzling asymmetry: strong adverse reactions to deteriorations in health appear alongside weak increases in well-being after health improvements. In conclusion, our analysis offers a more detailed account of how bad health influences happiness than accounts focusing on how bad self-assessed health affects individual well-being. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Urban-rural differences in social capital in relation to self-rated health and subjective well-being in older residents of six regions in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Zawisza, Katarzyna

    2017-06-12

    The aim of the study was to assess the differences between rural and urban areas as regards the role of social capital and its effect on self-rated health and subjective well-being among older people in Poland. The sample was selected on the basis of multi-stage clustered design from the non-institutionalized adult population. Analysis was based on 1,299 elderly people aged 65 and over from the general Polish population who participated in the COURAGE in Europe project. Six regions of Poland were distinguished according to first level of Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics (NUTS) classification . As an indicator of social capital, the COURAGE Social Network Index, the OSLO-3 Social Support Scale, and the three item UCLA Loneliness scale were used, as well as social participation and trust was assessed. Self-rated health (SRH) was measured by WHO-Europe recommended version (ranging from 'very good' to 'very bad'). Well-being was assessed by the Day Reconstruction Method. Results: The results showed that in urban areas, social network and social participation supported positive self-rated health; in rural, older residents the number of years of education and social support played the same role, while self-rated health decreased with an increasing level of loneliness. Self-rated health decreased in both groups of older people with a growing number of diseases. The multivariate linear regression model of predictors of well-being in older age also confirmed differences between urban and rural elderly residents. In rural residents, subjective well-being significantly increased with the positive effect of the social network. In both urban and rural areas, poor assessment of subjective well-being in older age increased with a higher level of loneliness and growing number of chronic diseases.

  11. Examination of the Two Models of Subjective Well-Being and Correlations between Satisfaction with Life, Demographic Variables and Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Lučev; Meri Tadinac

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to further the understanding of complex processes that are the base for feelings and satisfaction judgments by examining two models of subjective well-being. 1048 participants rated satisfaction with life and filled out IPIP-50 questionnaire that measures personality traits of the Big five model and demographic data questionnaire. Satisfaction with life in general was statistically significantly positively correlated with satisfaction of relationships with other peo...

  12. Well-being, problematic alcohol consumption and acute subjective drug effects in past-year ayahuasca users: a large, international, self-selecting online survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lawn, W.; Hallak, J. E.; Crippa, J. A.; Dos Santos, R.; Porffy, L.; Barratt, M. J.; Ferris, J. A.; Winstock, A. R.; Morgan, C. J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a natural psychedelic brew, which contains dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Its potential as a psychiatric medicine has recently been demonstrated and its non-medical use around the world appears to be growing. We aimed to investigate well-being and problematic alcohol use in ayahuasca users, and ayahuasca's subjective effects. An online, self-selecting, global survey examining patterns of drug use was conducted in 2015 and 2016 (n = 96,901). Questions were asked about: use of ayahuasca...

  13. Resilience among Urban American Indian Adolescents: Exploration into the Role of Culture, Self-Esteem, Subjective Well-Being, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumblingbear-Riddle, Glenna; Romans, John S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of enculturation, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and social support on resilience among urban American Indian (AI) adolescents from a South Central region of the U.S. were explored. Of the 196 participants, 114 (58.2%) were female and 82 (41.8%) were male (ages 14-18 years). Thirty-three percent of the variance in resilience was…

  14. The role of perceived well-being in the family, school and peer context in adolescents’ subjective health complaints: evidence from a Greek cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Petanidou, Dimitra; Daskagianni, Evangelie; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Kolaitis, Gerasimos; Tountas, Yannis

    2013-01-01

    Background During adolescence children are usually confronted with an expanding social arena. Apart from families, schools and neighbourhoods, peers, classmates, teachers, and other adult figures gain increasing importance for adolescent socio-emotional adjustment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which Greek adolescents’ perceived well-being in three main social contexts (family, school and peers) predicted self-reported Subjective Health Complaints. Methods Ques...

  15. Mastering developmental transitions in young and middle adulthood: the interplay of openness to experience and traditional gender ideology on women's self-efficacy and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, David; Freund, Alexandra M; Wiese, Bettina S

    2012-11-01

    The present research focuses on 2 factors that might help or hurt women to cope with the uncertainties associated with developmental transitions in modern societies (i.e., starting one's first job, graduating from high school, reentry to work after parental leave). We investigate (a) the role of openness to experience in coping with challenging transitions and (b) the (mal)adaptive consequences of adopting a traditional gender ideology. Starting with the assumption that transitional uncertainty has different consequences for women high or low in openness to experience, a first experiment (N = 61; 18-30 years) demonstrated that self-efficacy and well-being decrease after being confronted with transitional uncertainty among women low in openness. Two longitudinal studies investigated the (mal)adaptive consequences of adopting a traditional gender ideology for women high or low in openness in dealing with challenging transitions. Study 2 examined whether endorsing or rejecting traditional gender role beliefs might help female (but not male) students to maintain a sense of self-efficacy and subjective well-being during the transition of graduating from high school (N = 520, 17-22 years). Study 3 (N = 297; 20-53 years) tested the same model for women in middle adulthood during the transition from parental leave to reentry into work life. For both studies, latent growth analyses showed that endorsing traditional gender role beliefs contributed to self-efficacy and subjective well-being among women low in openness. By contrast, for women high in openness, rejecting traditional gender role beliefs had a positive effect on their relative level of self-efficacy and subjective well-being. Functions of ideologies in the context of challenging transitions are discussed.

  16. Evaluation of Vipassana Meditation Course Effects on Subjective Stress, Well-being, Self-kindness and Mindfulness in a Community Sample: Post-course and 6-month Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Roberta A; Wertheim, Eleanor H

    2015-12-01

    Residential Vipassana meditation courses, which teach mindfulness skills, are widely available globally but under-evaluated. This study examined effects of a standardized, community-based Vipassana course, on subjective stress, well-being, self-kindness and trait mindfulness in a community sample. Participants completed self-report measures of these variables at pre-course and post-course (n = 122), and outcomes were compared to a control group of early enrollers (EEs) (n = 50) who completed measures at parallel time points before course commencement. Six-month follow-up was undertaken in the intervention group (n = 90). Findings, including intention-to-complete analyses, suggested positive effects of the Vipassana course in reducing subjective stress and increasing well-being, self-kindness and overall mindfulness (present-moment awareness and non-reaction). Although some reductions in post-course gains were found at follow-up, particularly in stress, follow-up scores still showed improvements compared to pre-course scores. Mindfulness change scores between pre-course and 6-month follow-up were moderately to highly correlated with outcome variable change scores, consistent with the idea that effects of the Vipassana course on stress and well-being operate, at least partially, through increasing mindfulness. The present research underscores the importance of undertaking further investigations into Vipassana courses' effects and applications. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The potential of the Global Person Generated Index for evaluating the perceived impacts of conservation interventions on subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala; Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Jones, Julia P.G.

    2018-01-01

    There is growing interest in the importance of ensuring that biodiversity conservation is not achieved at the expense of local people’s well-being. It has been suggested that when evaluating the impact of an intervention, the affected population should be allowed to define well-being (requiring...... a subjective measure), and impacts (requiring a participatory approach), but very few, if any, conservation evaluations live up to these standards. We used a participatory impact evaluation approach with the Global Person Generated Index (GPGI) to investigate the relative impacts of strict protection......, and the relative importance of the five identified domains. Participatory impact evaluation establishes local perceptions of the cause-effect relationship between an intervention and respondents’ performance in each domain. Over half the respondents perceived no positive or negative impacts from the conservation...

  18. The Happy Culture: A Theoretical, Meta-Analytic, and Empirical Review of the Relationship Between Culture and Wealth and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Piers; Taras, Vasyl; Uggerslev, Krista; Bosco, Frank

    2017-08-01

    Do cultural values enhance financial and subjective well-being (SWB)? Taking a multidisciplinary approach, we meta-analytically reviewed the field, found it thinly covered, and focused on individualism. In counter, we collected a broad array of individual-level data, specifically an Internet sample of 8,438 adult respondents. Individual SWB was most strongly associated with cultural values that foster relationships and social capital, which typically accounted for more unique variance in life satisfaction than an individual's salary. At a national level, we used mean-based meta-analysis to construct a comprehensive cultural and SWB database. Results show some reversals from the individual level, particularly masculinity's facet of achievement orientation. In all, the happy nation has low power distance and low uncertainty avoidance, but is high in femininity and individualism, and these effects are interrelated but still partially independent from political and economic institutions. In short, culture matters for individual and national well-being.

  19. Subjective evaluation of psychosocial well-being in children and youths with overweight or obesity: the impact of multidisciplinary obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Hamann, Sophie Amalie; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Johansen, Mia Østergaard; Grønbæk, Helle Nergaard; Mollerup, Pernille Maria; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effects of a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme on subjective evaluations of psychosocial well-being and quality of life. This longitudinal observational study included 1291 children, adolescents and young adults, 6-22 years of age, with overweight or obesity. At entry and after 2-82 months of obesity treatment, the patients evaluated the following domains of psychosocial well-being on a visual analogue scale: quality of life, mood, appetite, bullying, motivation for weight loss and body image satisfaction. The degree of overweight was calculated using a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) at each visit. At entry, the mean BMI SDS was 2.81 (range: 1.35-6.65, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.44-3.18). After a median of 14 months of treatment, the median reduction in BMI SDS was 0.29 (95% CI: 0.26-0.31, p bullying and body image satisfaction (p < 0.0001). Larger reductions in BMI SDS were associated with greater improvements in the domains of quality of life (p = 0.001), mood (p = 0.04) and body image satisfaction (p < 0.0001), independent of BMI SDS at entry. However, improvements in psychosocial well-being were also observed in those increasing their BMI SDS (n = 315). In a large group of children and youths, psychosocial well-being improved during a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme, irrespective of the degree of obesity at treatment entry. Greater reductions in BMI SDS were associated with greater improvements in psychosocial well-being, but even in the group increasing their BMI SDS improvements were observed.

  20. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenico, T; Cicero, A F G; Valmorri, L; Mercuriali, M; Bercovich, E

    2009-04-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a cultivated root belonging to the brassica family used in the Andean region for its supposed aphrodisiac properties. We carried out a double-blind clinical trial on 50 Caucasian men affected by mild erectile dysfunction (ED), randomised to treatment with Maca dry extract, 2400 mg, or placebo. The treatment effect on ED and subjective well-being was tested administrating before and after 12 weeks the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Satisfaction Profile (SAT-P). After 12 weeks of treatment, both Maca- and placebo-treated patients experienced a significant increase in IIEF-5 score (P Maca experienced a more significant increase than those taking placebo (1.6 +/- 1.1 versus 0.5 +/- 0.6, P Maca- and placebo-treated subjects experienced a significant improvement in psychological performance-related SAT-P score, but the Maca group higher than that of placebo group (+9 +/- 6 versus +6 +/- 5, P Maca-treated patients experienced a significant improvement in physical and social performance-related SAT-P score compared with the baseline (+7 +/- 6 and +7 +/- 6, both P Maca supplementation on subjective perception of general and sexual well-being in adult patients with mild ED.

  1. WELL-BEING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An important ele- ment in developing positive psychology within. Ghana is to accumulate indigenous research. findings. It is in this light that the findings of this study stimulate further research of context-. speeifie correlates 'of well-being that can help expand the activities of psychologists as not just skilled Ihelpers in problem ...

  2. Well-being, problematic alcohol consumption and acute subjective drug effects in past-year ayahuasca users: a large, international, self-selecting online survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lawn, Will; Hallak, Jaime E.; Crippa, Jose A.; Dos Santos, Rafael; Porffy, Lilla; Barratt, Monica J.; Ferris, Jason A.; Winstock, Adam R.; Morgan, Celia J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a natural psychedelic brew, which contains dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Its potential as a psychiatric medicine has recently been demonstrated and its non-medical use around the world appears to be growing. We aimed to investigate well-being and problematic alcohol use in ayahuasca users, and ayahuasca’s subjective effects. An online, self-selecting, global survey examining patterns of drug use was conducted in 2015 and 2016 (n = 96,901). Questions were asked about: use of ayahuasca...

  3. The influence of perceived discrimination, sense of control, self-esteem and multiple discrepancies on the mental health and subjective well-being in Serbian immigrants in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the mental health and subjective well-being (SWB of Serbian immigrants of the first generation in Canada. We wanted to examine if perceived discrimination, sense of control, self-esteem and perceived multiple discrepancy affect their mental health and SWB. Our results indicate that self-esteem and sense of control have a positive effect on mental health and all aspects of the SWB, while the perceived discrimination and perceived multiple discrepancy negatively affect SWB and mental health. Self-esteem was the most salient predictor of mental health, while the perceived multiple discrepancy was the most salient predictor of life satisfaction of Serbian immigrants.

  4. The Effect of Intra- and Intergenerational Caregiving on Subjective Well-Being--Evidence of a Population Based Longitudinal Study among Older Adults in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hajek

    Full Text Available To examine whether intra- and intergenerational caregiving affect subjective well-being (SWB of the caregivers longitudinally.Data were drawn from the German Ageing Survey (DEAS, which is a population-based longitudinal study of individuals living in Germany aged 40 and over. The waves in 2002, 2008 and 2011 were used (with 10,434 observations. SWB was examined in a broad sense, covering affective (AWB and cognitive well-being (CWB, positive (PA and negative affect (NA as well as functional and mental health. While intragenerational caregiving was defined as providing care for spouse/partner, intergenerational caregiving was defined as providing care for mother, father, mother-in-law, father-in-law, partner's mother or partner's father.Fixed effects regressions adjusting for sociodemographic factors, social network, self-efficacy and morbidity showed that intergenerational informal care did not affect the various SWB outcome measures. Intragenerational caregiving affected CWB (women and mental health (total sample and men, whereas it did not affect the other outcome variables.Our findings highlight the importance of intragenerational caregiving for mental health (men and cognitive well-being (women. Consequently, interventions to avoid mental illness due to intragenerational caregiving are urgently needed.

  5. Effects of a commercial product containing guaraná on psychological well-being, anxiety and mood: a single-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrini, Gianluca Ivan; Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco

    2013-05-25

    Guaranà (Paulinia cupana) seed extracts are increasingly popular worldwide for their stimulant, cognitive and behavioral effects. To assess the effects on psychological well-being, anxiety and mood of a commercially available guaranà preparation taken regularly over several days according to the labelled dosages and instructions, 27 healthy volunteers were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Guaranà 350 mg × 3 daily just after breakfast or placebo were given for 5 consecutive days. Assessment was performed one day after the last intake and included the psychological well-being (PWB) scales, the self-rating anxiety state scale (SAS), and the Bond-Lader mood scales. There were no significant differences between guaranà and placebo in any of the 6 areas of PWB, in SAS, as well as in any of the 16 mood scales. In healthy subjects a 5-day treatment with a commercial preparation of guaranà used according to labelled instructions provided no evidence for any major effects on psychological well-being, anxiety and mood. Considering the increasing popularity of guaranà-containing products sold as dietary supplements for fitness purposes, controlled studies are strongly warranted to assess their benefits in comparison to the labelled claims.

  6. Gratitude and Well Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    The word “gratitude” has a number of different meanings, depending on the context. However, a practical clinical definition is as follows—gratitude is the appreciation of what is valuable and meaningful to oneself; it is a general state of thankfulness and/or appreciation. The majority of empirical studies indicate that there is an association between gratitude and a sense of overall well being. However, there are several studies that indicate potential nuances in the relationship between gratitude and well being as well as studies with negative findings. In terms of assessing gratitude, numerous assessment measures are available. From a clinical perspective, there are suggested therapeutic exercises and techniques to enhance gratitude, and they appear relatively simple and easy to integrate into psychotherapy practice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of these techniques remains largely unknown. Only future research will clarify the many questions around assessment, potential benefits, and enhancement of gratitude. PMID:21191529

  7. The effect of personal and group discrimination on the subjective well-being of people with mental illness: the role of internalized stigma and collective action intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study is to test a model in which personal discrimination predicts internalized stigma, while group discrimination predicts a greater willingness to engage in collective action. Internalized stigma and collective action, in turn, are associated to positive and negative affect. A cross-sectional study with 213 people with mental illness was conducted. The model was tested using path analysis. Although the data supported the model, its fit was not sufficiently good. A respecified model, in which a direct path from collective action to internalized stigma was added, showed a good fit. Personal and group discrimination appear to impact subjective well-being through two different paths: the internalization of stigma and collective action intentions, respectively. These two paths, however, are not completely independent, as collective action predicts a lower internalization of stigma. Thus, collective action appears as an important tool to reduce internalized stigma and improve subjective well-being. Future interventions to reduce the impact of stigma should fight the internalization of stigma and promote collective action are suggested.

  8. Women's experiences of increasing subjective well-being in CFS/ME through leisure-based arts and crafts activities: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Frances; Vivat, Bella; Prior, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    To understand the meanings of art-making among a group of women living with the occupational constraints and stigma of CFS/ME. The study explored their initial motives for art-making, and then examined how art-making had subsequently influenced their subjective well-being. Ten women with CFS/ME were interviewed; three provided lengthy written accounts to the interview questions. Illness had resulted in devastating occupational and role loss. Participants took many years to make positive lifestyle changes. Art-making was typically discovered once participants had accepted the long-term nature of CFS/ME, accommodated to illness, and reprioritized occupations. Several factors then attracted participants specifically to art-making. It was perceived as manageable within the constraints of ill-health. Participants also tended to be familiar with craft skills; had family members interested in arts and crafts, and some desired a means to express grief and loss. Once established as a leisure activity, art-making increased subjective well-being mainly through providing increased satisfaction in daily life, positive self-image, hope, and contact with the outside world. Participants recommended provision of occupational/recreational counselling earlier in the illness trajectory. Creative art-making occurred as part of a broader acceptance and adjustment process to CFS/ME, and allowed some psychological escape from a circumscribed lifeworld.

  9. The Role of Family Orientations in Shaping the Effect of Fertility on Subjective Well-being: A Propensity Score Matching Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbo, Nicoletta; Arpino, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    This article investigates whether and how having a child impacts an individual's subjective well-being, while taking into account heterogeneity in family attitudes. People with different family orientations have different values, gender attitudes, preferences toward career and family, and expectations about how childbearing can affect their subjective well-being. These differences impact fertility decisions and the effect of parenthood on an individual's life satisfaction. We define three groups of people based on their family orientations: Traditional, Mixed, and Modern. Applying propensity score matching on longitudinal data (British Household Panel Survey), we create groups of individuals with very similar socioeconomic characteristics and family orientations before childbearing. We then compare those who have one child with those who are childless, and those who have two children with those who have only one child. We show that parents are significantly more satisfied than nonparents, and this effect is stronger among men than among women. For men, we do not find significant differences across family orientations groups in the effect of the birth of the first child on life satisfaction. Among women, only Traditional mothers seem to be more satisfied than their childless counterparts. Women who have a second child are never more satisfied than those who have only one child, regardless of their family orientations. Traditional and Mixed men experience a gain in life satisfaction when they have a second child, but this effect is not found for Modern men.

  10. Satisfaction with dietary life affects oral health-related quality of life and subjective well-being in very elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iinuma, Toshimitsu; Arai, Yasumichi; Takayama, Midori; Takayama, Michiyo; Abe, Yukiko; Osawa, Yusuke; Fukumoto, Motoko; Fukui, Yusuke; Shioda, Yohei; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Komiyama, Kazuo; Gionhaku, Nobuhito

    2017-01-01

    Age-related deterioration in physical and oral health reduces healthy life expectancy and is thus an important problem for very elderly people. We investigated the effects of satisfaction with dietary life (SDL) in everyday life on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and subjective well-being and examined associations between these factors. We evaluated 426 elders aged 85 years or older. All participants completed a questionnaire that inquired about age, gender, drinking status, body mass index, cognitive function, disability, and comorbidities, among other covariates. Oral, physical, and mental health conditions were also examined. Associations of questionnaire results for SDL with items on subjective well-being (Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale [PGC] and World Health Organization-5 [WHO-5]) and OHRQoL (Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index [GOHAI]) were confirmed with multiple logistic regression analysis. In a multivariate model adjusted for various confounders, participants with self-reported "enjoyable" SDL had significantly lower risks for having the lowest scores on the GOHAI, PGC, and WHO-5 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.460, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.277-0.762; OR = 0.589, 95% CI = 0.348-0.996; and OR = 0.452, 95% CI = 0.263-0.775, respectively). These associations remained after further adjustment for number of teeth.

  11. Visual impairment, but not hearing impairment, is independently associated with lower subjective well-being among individuals over 95 years of age: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zuyun; Wu, Di; Huang, Jiapin; Qian, Degui; Chen, Fei; Xu, Jun; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Sensory impairment affects an increasing number of elderly adults, with a negative psychological impact. Our objective was to examine the associations of visual and hearing impairment with subjective well-being (SWB), an important psychological concept defined by life satisfaction [LS], positive affect [PA], negative affect [NA], and affect balance [AB] among long-lived individuals (LLIs) over 95 years of age. Data on 442 LLIs from the Rugao longevity cohort, a population-based study in Rugao, China, were analyzed. Graded classifications of visual and hearing impairment (none, mild, moderate, and severe) were constructed from self-reported items. Bivariate correlation and multiple regression analysis were performed to test the associations. Approximately 66.1% and 87.3% of the subjects reported varying degrees of visual and hearing impairment. Following the degree of vision impairment, LS, PA, and AB decreased linearly, whereas NA increased linearly (all p for trendimpairment with LS, NA, and AB, while diminished, still existed. Visual impairment, but not hearing impairment, was independently associated with low SWB among LLIs, and functional ability may play a mediating role in the observed relationship. The findings indicate that rehabilitation targeted for those with reduced vision and functioning in long-lived populations may be important for promoting well-being and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of night work on subjective reports of well-being: an exploratory study of health care workers from five nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald I Tepas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To carry out a survey data collection from health care workers in Brazil, Croatia, Poland, Ukraine and the USA with two primary goals: (1 to provide information about which aspects of well-being are most likely to need attention when shiftwork management solutions are being developed, and (2 to explore whether nations are likely to differ with respect to the impacts of night work on the well-being of workers involved in health care work. METHODS: The respondents from each nation were sorted into night worker and non-night worker groups. Worker perceptions of being physically tired, mentally tired, and tense at the end of the workday were examined. Subjective reports of perceived felt age were also studied. For each of these four dependent variables, an ANCOVA analysis was carried out. Hours worked per week, stability of weekly work schedule, and chronological age were the covariates for these analyses. RESULTS: The results clearly support the general proposal that nations differ significantly in worker perceptions of well-being. In addition, perceptions of physical and mental tiredness at the end of the workday were higher for night workers. For the perception of being physically tired at the end of a workday, the manner and degree to which the night shift impacts the workers varies by nation. CONCLUSIONS: Additional research is needed to determine if the nation and work schedule differences observed are related to differences in job tasks, work schedule structure, off-the-job variables, and/or other worker demographic variables.OBJETIVO: Coletar dados de pesquisa de profissionais da saúde no Brasil, Croácia, Polônia, Ucrânia e Estados Unidos com duas metas principais: (1 proporcionar informações quanto a aspectos do bem-estar que mais provavelmente precisam de atenção durante a elaboração de soluções administrativas para os turnos de trabalho e (2 examinar a existência de possíveis diferenças entre os países quanto ao

  13. Spiritual Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda D. Tvorogova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of personal and social values in the regulation of hu¬man behaviour. These values could be unconscious and hiding behind habits and rules, patterns of behavior and thinking, but they can be realized by both an individual and social community and eventually their choice in this case which arises an opportunity to make them manageable. Consideration of the spiritual component of public health has led the author of this article to discuss the concepts of "spiritual well-being" and "spiritual diseases". The article contains data of empirical research of deviant behavior as a consequence of spiritual distress.

  14. Self-rating scales assessing subjective well-being and distress correlate with rCBF in PTSD-sensitive regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, D; Högberg, G; Flumeri, F; Jacobsson, H; Larsson, S A; Hällström, T; Pagani, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in occupational-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subjects and to seek possible correlations between brain perfusion and self-rating scales (SRS) in order to cross-check their diagnostic value and to look for their neural correlates. A total of 13 traumatized underground and long-distance train drivers developing (S) and 17 not developing (NS) PTSD who had experienced a 'person under train' accident or who had been assaulted at work underwent clinical assessment and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT imaging during autobiographical trauma scripts. Statistical parametric mapping was applied to analyse rCBF changes in S as compared with NS and to search for correlations between rCBF and the administered SRS scores, modelling age, months to SPECT and the ratio 'grey matter/intra-cranial volume' as nuisance variables. Significantly higher activity was observed during trauma script in left posterior and anterior insula, posterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, precuneus, caudate and putamen in PTSD subjects as compared with the trauma-exposed control group. Impact of Event Scale and World Health Organisation (10) Well-Being Index scores highly correlated with tracer uptake to a great extent in the same regions in which rCBF differences between S and NS were found. These findings support the involvement of insular, cingulate and parietal cortices (as well as the basal ganglia) in the pathogenesis of PTSD and in the processing of related subjective well-being and distress.

  15. Preliminary data concerning the reliability and psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the 20-item Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale (SWN-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arapidis Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 20-item Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale (SWN-20 is a self-report scale developed in order to assess the well-being of patients receiving antipsychotic medication independent of the improvement in their psychotic symptoms. The current study reports on the reliability and the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the SWN-20. Methods A total of 100 inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia (79 males and 21 females, aged 42.6 ± 11.35 years old from 3 different facilities were assessed with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS, the Calgary Depression Scale and the Simpson-Angus Scale, and completed the SWN-20. The statistical analysis included the calculation of Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, the Cronbach α and factor analysis with Varimax normalised rotation. Results The SWN-20 had an α value equal to 0.79 and all the items were equal. The factor analysis revealed the presence of seven factors explaining 66% of total variance. The correlation matrix revealed a moderate relationship of the SWN-20 and its factors with the PANSS-Negative (PANSS-N, PANSS-General Psychopathology (PANSS-G, the Simpson-Angus and the Calgary scales, and no relationship to age, education and income class. Discussion The Greek translation of the SWN-20 is reliable, with psychometric properties close to the original scale.

  16. Integration in the Vocational World: How Does It Affect Quality of Life and Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults with ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eynat Gal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether the perception of quality of life (QOL and subjective well-being (SWB of young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD is affected by participation in a comprehensive program. Participants included 25 young adults with ASD who participated in the “Roim Rachok Program” (RRP, where they were trained to become aerial photography interpreters. Following the training period, they served in a designated army unit where they practiced their newly acquired profession. The participants filled out two questionnaires, (a Quality of Life (QOL-Q and (b Personal Well-being Index (PWI, at three points of the intervention: (a before the course, (b at the end of the course, and (c six months after integrating in the designated army unit. Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were used to assess the differences between the reported QOL and SWB at the three points of time. The results suggest that there were no significant differences at the end of the course, compared to its beginning. However, there were significantly improved perception of QOL and SWB during the period between the end of the course and six months after starting work. The results of this study highlight the importance of tailored vocational programs that are adapted to the unique needs and strengths of individuals with ASD.

  17. A medida positiva dos afetos: bem-estar subjetivo em pessoas casadas Positive affection measurement: subjective well-being in married people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Scorsolini-Comin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar as correlações entre os fatores do bem-estar subjetivo (BES em uma amostra de 106 pessoas casadas há 16,11 anos em média. Foram aplicados: Questionário Sociodemográfico, Questionário de Classificação Socioeconômica e Escala de Bem-estar Subjetivo (EBES. Para análise dos dados utilizou-se um software R e modelo multivariado para compreensão das correlações entre os domínios de BES. Todos os fatores da EBES mostraram-se correlacionadas entre si de modo significativo também em pessoas casadas, o que corroborou os resultados do estudo de validação da escala. Destaca-se a necessidade de estudos futuros que avaliem o BES em casais (díades, o que pode contribuir para a investigar se essa noção sofre influência do cônjuge ou apenas da situação conjugal.The study analyzed the correlations among the different factors of subjective well-being (SWB using a sample of 106 married people with an average of 16.11 years of marriage. The following instruments were used: Sociodemographic Questionnaire, Socioeconomic Questionnaire, and Subjective Well-being Scale (SWBS. Data analyses were conducted using the Software R and a multivariate model to understand the correlations among the factors of the SWBS. All factors of the SWBS were significantly inter-correlated, which confirm the results of the scale validation study. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the SWB in couples (dyads, which can help to understand whether this concept is influenced by the spouse or only by the marital status.

  18. Effects of a program to prevent social isolation on loneliness, depression, and subjective well-being of older adults: a randomized trial among older migrants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tami; Kai, Ichiro; Takizawa, Ayako

    2012-01-01

    Social isolation among the elderly is a concern in developed countries. Using a randomized trial, this study examined the effect of a social isolation prevention program on loneliness, depression, and subjective well-being of the elderly in Japan. Among the elderly people who relocated to suburban Tokyo, 63 who responded to a pre-test were randomized and assessed 1 and 6 months after the program. Four sessions of a group-based program were designed to prevent social isolation by improving community knowledge and networking with other participants and community "gatekeepers." The Life Satisfaction Index A (LSI-A), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Ando-Osada-Kodama (AOK) loneliness scale, social support, and other variables were used as outcomes of this study. A linear mixed model was used to compare 20 of the 21 people in the intervention group to 40 of the 42 in the control group, and showed that the intervention program had a significant positive effect on LSI-A, social support, and familiarity with services scores and a significant negative effect on AOK over the study period. The program had no significant effect on depression. The findings of this study suggest that programs aimed at preventing social isolation are effective when they utilize existing community resources, are tailor-made based on the specific needs of the individual, and target people who can share similar experiences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Mediating Roles of Primary and Secondary Control in the Relationship between Body Satisfaction and Subjective Well-Being Among Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Ashli D; Konnert, Candace A; Speirs, Calandra E C

    2017-07-01

    This study examined primary and secondary control as mediators in the relationship between body satisfaction and subjective well-being (SWB) and explored age differences in the mediation model. Data from 362 women, aged 40-91 years, assessed (i) the relationships between body satisfaction, age, primary and secondary control strategies (body-specific social comparison, acceptance, and positive reappraisal), and three indices of SWB (positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction), (ii) the mediation effects of primary and secondary control on the relationship between body satisfaction and SWB, and (iii) whether mediational relationships were moderated by age. Body satisfaction was unrelated to age but positively related to positive affect and life satisfaction and negatively related to negative affect. Body satisfaction was also related to primary and secondary control strategies. There were significant indirect (mediated) effects of body satisfaction on all outcome variables through acceptance and positive reappraisal. These mediators were significant at all age levels, but exerted their strongest influence among younger women. This study provides new information about the mechanisms that influence the relationship between body satisfaction and SWB among a broad age range of women who are experiencing physical changes that are inconsistent with Western beauty standards.

  20. [Is subjective well-being perceived by non-health care workers different from that perceived by nurses? Relation with personality and resilience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, O; Pérez-García, A M

    2013-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB), usually called 'happiness', is influenced directly by psychological factors. Personality and resilience (capacity of recover from adversity) are included among these factors. Empirical evidence has demonstrated that resilience is an essential and inherent characteristic for the nursery staff. This study has aimed to analyze personality factors (including resilience) related with SWB (satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect) in a nursery staff sample (n=59) of intensive care and cardiological units, and a non-health care workers sample (n=50) mainly made up of government employees and teachers. Multiple regression analyses showed that SWB was associated with more resilience and less neuroticism in the nursery staff. Extraversion and conscientiousness (positively related), and neuroticism (negatively related) were the significant predictors of SWB in the non-health care workers group. Finally, mediational analyses revealed that resilience measured the relationships between extraversion (total mediation) and neuroticism (partial mediation) with SWB in the nursery staff group, but not in the group of non-health care workers. The results show the importance of resilience for nursery staff of intensive care units, since they are constantly exposed to human suffering and to a continually adverse occupational environment. Likewise, the discussion stresses that resilience is a means for nursing staff to cope with the occupational stress and that resilient nurses are a crucial element in our health care system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  1. Memories of Holocaust-related traumatic experiences, sense of coherence, and survivors' subjective well-being in late life: some puzzling findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidner, Moshe; Aharoni-David, Eynat

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the nexus of relationships between memories of Holocaust-related early traumatic events, survivors' sense of coherence (SOC), and subjective well-being (SWB) in late life. The basic design of this study, based 106 survivors (54% female), was cross-sectional. Participants underwent an extensive in-depth clinical interview relating to their Holocaust experiences and responded to measures of SOC and SWB. These data provided no evidence for the moderating or "buffering" effect of SOC but showed support for indirect effects of SOC in the relationship between memory traces of specific traumatic experiences and adaptive outcomes. The results of the present study provide support for Antonovsky's salutogenic perspective. It is highly plausible that survivors who underwent severe experiences during the Holocaust period were forced to call upon all their inner strengths and coping resources,and that their success in doing so and also surviving this horrendous period, might have contributed to the development of a stronger sense of meaning and coherence, which, in turn lead to a better sense of mental health as they approach the final season of their lives.

  2. The psychological portrait as a tool to improve the subjective well-being of the client in the context of personal sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiseleva Elena S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the concept of relationship marketing is discussed. The notion of personal sale, which emphasizes the importance of knowing the psychology of customers, the ability to demonstrate significant competence and knowledge of modern techniques in sales by the seller is represented. The theory of marketing introduced by the concept of a "personal agent", most accurately reflects the activity of the seller in the context of relationship marketing. The necessity of the application of psychology in marketing is proved. This brief description of the four basic psychological concepts, which are the basis of the marketing strategy, is clarified by leading marketers. The three areas of application of differential psychology in marketing are suggested. The basis of the psychological techniques is represented by the typical characteristics of a person. The first point of the customer portrait is showed by the theory of spirits. The second point of psychological portrait is based on the theory of Socionics. The third point of the customer portrait refers to the theory of the types of perception of the world. Three stages of the process of building a psychological portrait of the client are proposed and described. Recommendations for dealing with clients of different psychological types are discussed. A technique of creation a psychological portrait of the client allows improving subjective well-being of customers and promotes the growth of the main indicators characterizing the effectiveness of personal sales.

  3. Mamma mia: a feasibility study of a web-based intervention to reduce the risk of postpartum depression and enhance subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Silje Marie; Drozd, Filip; Brendryen, Håvar; Slinning, Kari

    2013-08-12

    Currently, 10-15% of women giving birth suffer from symptoms of postpartum depression. Due to a lack of knowledge of this condition and the stigma associated with it, as well as few treatment options, a large proportion of postpartum women with depression remain untreated. Internet-based interventions have been found effective in treating depression, anxiety, phobias, and addictions. Hence, we developed such program ("Mamma Mia") with the aim of reducing the risk for postpartum depression and enhance subjective well-being. Mamma Mia is based on positive psychology, metacognitive therapy, and couples therapy. It starts in gestational week 22, and lasts until 6 months after birth. During pregnancy, Mamma Mia is delivered weekly (every Monday). After birth, Mamma Mia is delivered three times per week for six weeks. The remaining weeks, the program is delivered more sporadically. In total, Mamma Mia consists of 44 sessions. The program is individualized, interactive, and tunneled (ie, the user is guided through the program in a pre-determined manner). The purpose of the present study was to pilot test the intervention in order to assess the feasibility and acceptance among program users. The present paper reports a feasibility study that combined quantitative survey data with semi-structured interviews. Participants (N=103) were recruited via hospitals, well-baby clinics, and Facebook. Due to time constraint in completing the current study, our results were based on participation in one of the two phases: pregnancy or maternity. Participants in the pregnancy phase were surveyed 4 and 8 weeks after intervention enrollment, and participants in the postnatal phase were surveyed 2 and 4 weeks after intervention enrollment. The survey assessed perceived usefulness, ease-of-use, credibility, and unobtrusiveness. All measures were filled in by participants at both measurement occasions. Data were analyzed by running descriptives and frequencies with corresponding percentages

  4. Examination of the Two Models of Subjective Well-Being and Correlations between Satisfaction with Life, Demographic Variables and Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Lučev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to further the understanding of complex processes that are the base for feelings and satisfaction judgments by examining two models of subjective well-being. 1048 participants rated satisfaction with life and filled out IPIP-50 questionnaire that measures personality traits of the Big five model and demographic data questionnaire. Satisfaction with life in general was statistically significantly positively correlated with satisfaction of relationships with other people, satisfaction with health as well as with specific aspects of these domains. As was expected according to judgment model, correlations were higher for global domains than for specific aspects of satisfaction except for satisfaction with mood. Hypothesis of general positivity model and judgment model were tested in a series of hierarchical regression analyses. General life satisfaction explained variance of both global domains above and beyond satisfaction with corresponding specific domains. Contribution of global life satisfaction was significant even after effect of big five personality traits was controlled. Personality traits of the Big five model were statistically significantly associated with general life satisfaction. Correlation coefficients were -0.41 for Neuroticism, 0.30 for Extraversion, 0.14 for Agreeableness, 0.13 for Conscientiousness and 0.22 for Intellect. Age, education and being in a relationship were positively correlated with general life satisfaction. In this connection younger, better educated persons and those being in relationship were more satisfied with life in general. Women had higher levels of satisfaction for relationship with parents, while men had higher levels of satisfaction with partner, mobility, energy level, immunity and absence of pain.

  5. The Value of a Well-Being Improvement Strategy: Longitudinal Success across Subjective and Objective Measures Observed in a Firm Adopting a Consumer-Driven Health Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaobo; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Wells, Aaron

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate effectiveness of a firm's 5-year strategy toward improving well-being while lowering health care costs amidst adoption of a Consumer-Driven Health Plan. Repeated measures statistical models were employed to test and quantify association between key demographic factors, employment type, year, individual well-being, and outcomes of health care costs, obesity, smoking, absence, and performance. Average individual well-being trended upward by 13.5% over 5 years, monthly allowed amount health care costs declined 5.2% on average per person per year, and obesity and smoking rates declined by 4.8 and 9.7%, respectively, on average each year. The results show that individual well-being was significantly associated with each outcome and in the expected direction. The firm's strategy was successful in driving statistically significant, longitudinal well-being, biometric and productivity improvements, and health care cost reduction.

  6. ADAPTATION AND WELL-BEING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HEYINK, J

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the strategies individuals use to overcome misfortune and to restore their subjective well-being. Using adaptation-theory as a frame of reference, three groups of adaptive mechanisms are described, i.e., shifting intrapsychic criteria, cognitive reconstruction, and

  7. The use of audiovisual media in adolescence and its relationship with subjective well-being: A qualitative analysis from an intergenerational and gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Malo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative research that explores, from an intergenerational and gender perspective, how the use of audiovisual media influences to personal well-being in adolescence. Three, semi-structured group interviews were used with adolescent girls (aged 12 to 18 years, and two with mothers of boys and girls of those ages. The results show that interpersonal relationships are one of the factors that greatly contribute to the adolescents’ well-being. Girls said that the use of technology generates personal well-being because it allows them to maintain interpersonal relationships with their peers. The mothers, however, question whether overuse of technology can contribute to their personal well-being. On the other hand, girls and mothers agree to comment that the use of technology hinders the relationships that adolescents have with their parents. 

  8. Neurocognitive performance, subjective well-being, and psychosocial functioning after benzodiazepine withdrawal in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder: a randomized clinical trial of add-on melatonin versus placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baandrup, Lone; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Glenthoj, Birte

    2017-03-01

    Chronic benzodiazepine use is common in patients with mental illness and is associated with cognitive impairment. It is unclear whether benzodiazepine-induced cognitive impairment is reversible. Amelioration of cognitive dysfunction may be facilitated during benzodiazepine tapering by add-on melatonin due to its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. We examined how melatonin and benzodiazepine withdrawal affect cognition, subjective well-being, and psychosocial functioning. Eighty patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were randomized to add-on treatment once daily with either prolonged-release melatonin or placebo in a 24-week, double-blind clinical trial. All participants gradually tapered usual benzodiazepine dosage in a closely monitored treatment setting. We used the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) to assess neurocognitive performance with additional assessments of subjective well-being and psychosocial functioning. BACS composite and subscale scores (except motor speed) significantly improved in parallel with benzodiazepine dose reduction, but there was no additional effect of melatonin. Cognitive performance was still markedly impaired post-tapering compared with normative data. Neither benzodiazepine withdrawal nor treatment group affected subjective well-being or psychosocial functioning. In conclusion, add-on melatonin does not seem to affect cognition, well-being, or psychosocial functioning in patients with severe mental illness. The observed improvement in cognitive performance could not be distinguished from retest effects, which may in turn have been facilitated by the benzodiazepine tapering.

  9. The Impact of Affiliate Stigma on the Psychological Well-Being of Mothers of Children with Specific Learning Disabilities in India: The Mediating Role of Subjective Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga, Gazal; Ghosh, Subharati

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the impact of affiliate stigma on the wellbeing of caregivers to children with specific learning disability (SLD) in India is limited. To fill in this gap in knowledge a cross-sectional quantitative study was undertaken to assess the impact of affiliate stigma on the psychological well-being of mothers with children with…

  10. Assessment of quality of life in patients receiving palliative care: comparison of measurement tools and single item on subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiel, Stephanie; Psych, Dipl; Kues, Katharina; Krumm, Norbert; Radbruch, Lukas; Elsner, Frank

    2011-05-01

    Many quality-of-life assessment tools are not feasible in palliative care settings because of the severe impairment of the physical, cognitive, and psychological status of patients. This study investigated whether comprehensive instruments can be replaced by a single item concerning the well-being of patients. From April to December 2008 patients receiving palliative care in three different settings (palliative care unit, inpatient unit of the department of radiotherapy, inpatient hospice) were asked to answer the assessment tools Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Treatment (FACIT-G), European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30), Schedule for the Evaluation of the Individual Quality of Life (SEIQoL), and the Minimal Documentation System (MIDOS) including a single item on well-being. Correlations of sum and specific domain scores were used for correlational analysis. Datasets of 72 patients were collected. The MIDOS single item on well-being correlated significantly with the QoL indexes of the EORTC (Spearman rank correlation r = -0.563) and FACIT-G (0.527). SEIQoL had low to moderate correlations with the other assessment tools. Subscales on physical functioning from the FACIT-G (r = 0.583) and the EORTC-QLQ-C30 (r = 0.385) had the highest correlation with the single item on well-being. Well-being correlated higher with nonphysical subscales of the QoL instruments for patients in the palliative care unit than in the radiotherapy department. The single item is unable to completely replace comprehensive questionnaires, but it is useful to initiate communication on QoL and can be recommended as a substitute for physical-functional aspects of QoL assessment in the palliative care setting.

  11. Effects of a commercial product containing guaran? on psychological well-being, anxiety and mood: a single-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestrini, Gianluca Ivan; Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Background Guaran? (Paulinia cupana) seed extracts are increasingly popular worldwide for their stimulant, cognitive and behavioral effects. To assess the effects on psychological well-being, anxiety and mood of a commercially available guaran? preparation taken regularly over several days according to the labelled dosages and instructions, 27 healthy volunteers were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Results Guaran? 350 mg ? 3 daily just...

  12. Subjective indicators as a gauge for improving organizational well-being. An attempt to apply the cognitive activation theory to organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnetz, Bengt B

    2005-11-01

    Globally, organizations are undergoing substantial changes, commonly resulting in significant employee stress. However, facing similar stressors and challenges, departments within an organizations, as well as companies within the same area of business, vary in the way they cope with change. It was hypothesized that collective uncertainty about the future as well as unclear organizational goals contribute to chronic stress in organizations exposed to change. Applying the theoretical cognitive activation theory of stress--CATS--model by Ursin and Eriksen at an organizational level, support was found for the above hypothesis. Changes in chronic stress indicators between two assessments were related to clarity of organizational goals. It is suggested that the CATS model might be fruitful, not only in understanding variations in individual stress responses and experiences, but also to interpret and manage organizational stress. By doing so, both organizational health and well-being will improve, creating enterprises with healthy employees and healthy productivity and economic results.

  13. Formal Institutions and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina

    A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent cross-country stud...

  14. An experience sampling study on the ecological validity of the SWN-20: Indication that subjective well-being is associated with momentary affective states above and beyond psychosis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pos, Karin; de Wit, Iris E; van Dijk, Floor A; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Bruggeman, Richard; Meijer, Carin J; de Haan, Lieuwe; Alizadeh, Berhooz Z; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Van Beveren, Nico J; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Delespaul, Phillipe; Meijer, Carin J; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kahn, Rene S; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Simons, Claudia J P; van Haren, Neeltje E; van Os, Jim; van Winkel, Ruud

    2017-12-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) is associated with treatment adherence and symptom outcome in people with psychotic disorders. Also, it is associated with psychosis susceptibility and it is partly hereditable. The SWN-20 is a widely used tool to assess subjective well-being in patients; it was also found to be suitable for assessing SWB in healthy populations. Yet it is unclear how this retrospectively measured construct may be associated with momentary affective state, which is the proposed underlying mechanism of subjective well-being. This study therefore investigated the ecological validity of the SWN-20 in people at different risk for psychosis. In 63 patients with a psychotic disorder and 61 siblings of patients with a psychotic disorder we assessed whether subjective well-being as measured with the SWN-20, was associated with momentary positive affect, negative affect, reward experience and stress-sensitivity as measured by the experience sample method (ESM). Higher subjective well-being was associated with higher momentary positive affect and lower negative affect, and this association was not conditional on psychosis vulnerability. Subjective well-being was not associated with stress-sensitivity or reward-experience. SWN-20 is an easy-to-use and ecologically valid tool to measure subjective well-being in people with different vulnerability for psychosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Beş Faktör Kişilik Özellikleri ve Öznel İyi Oluş = The Five Factor Personality Traits and Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun DOĞAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the relations between personality traits and subjective well-being. The number of the participants of the research was 234 (98 women/136 men. The age range of the study group was 18-61. The Oxford Happiness Scale-Short Form and the Big Five Personality Scale were used. Findings showed that there was a significantly negative relationship between neurotic personality trait and subjective well-being. Findings also revealed that there were positive relationships between subjective well-being and extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness. Besides, it was found that neurotic personality trait was a negative and extraversion was a positive predictor of subjective well-being.

  16. Existential well-being : Spirituality or well-being?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Anja; Garssen, Bert; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality

  17. Existential Well-Being Spirituality or Well-Being?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Anja; Garssen, Bert; Vingerhoets, Ad J. J. M.

    Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality

  18. Existential Well-Being: Spirituality or Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Anja; Garssen, Bert; Vingerhoets, Ad Jjm

    2017-03-01

    Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality and of well-being among patients with cancer, by determining a) the divergent validity of the subscales of the SAIL compared with a well-being questionnaire and b) the differences in their associations to changes in pain and fatigue, and the occurrence of negative life events. Our findings suggest that a sense of trust that one is able to cope with difficulties of life belongs to the realm of well-being, instead of spirituality. Other aspects, such as a sense of meaning in life, seem more similar to spirituality than to well-being. These results can bring researchers a step further toward constructing "pure" spirituality and well-being measures, which will allow them to investigate the (causal) relationship between these constructs.

  19. The well-being questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ) has been designed to measure psychological well-being in people with a chronic somatic illness and is recommended by the World Health Organization for widespread use. However, studies into the factor structure of this instrument are still limited...... with 22 items and a three-factor model with 12 items). RESULTS: Exploratory factor analyses yielded a three-factor model with 21 items (negative well-being, energy and positive well-being). In the subgroups of group B confirmatory factor analyses only accepted the three-factor model with 12 items....... This factor solution was stable across gender, type of diabetes and level of education. CONCLUSIONS: The best description of the factor structure of the Dutch translation of the W-BQ was given by a three-factor solution with 12 items (W-BQ12), measuring positive well-being (four items), negative well-being...

  20. Monitoring Animal Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronskyte, Ruta

    In recent years, animal well-being in industrial slaughterhouses has become a significant concern for consumers, farmers, and meat producers. Different groups have different interpretations of animal well-being. For the majority of consumers, animal well-being is highly influenced by their values...... are handled. Ensuring the well-being of such large numbers of pigs using only personnel is a complicated task. Video surveillance of humans has been widely used to ensure safety and order in multiple situations. Methods have been developed to detect individual actions or abnormal behavior in small groups...

  1. Insomnia and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Nancy A.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Stevens, Natalie; Nelson, Christy A.; Karlson, Cynthia; McCurdy, Danyale

    2007-01-01

    Most Americans have occasional problems with insomnia. The relationship of insomnia to illness is well known. However, insomnia may also relate to lower levels of well-being. Although there are various definitions of well-being, one of the most clearly articulated and comprehensive models identifies 2 overarching constructs, psychological…

  2. Parenthood and Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, Anne; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Voorpostel, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to our knowledge on the association between parenthood and psychological well-being by examining whether pre-parenthood lifestyles (leisure and paid work) moderate the transition to parenthood. We expected that people with less active lifestyles would find it easier to

  3. Migrants’ pursuit of happiness : An analysis of the effects of adaptation, social comparison and economic integration on subjective well-being on the basis of German panel data for 1990–2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melzer, Silvia; Muffels, R.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    German reunification provides a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of migration on subjective well-being (SWB) on the basis of longitudinal pre- and post-migration data. Our main goal is to assess the effects of adaptation, social comparison and economic integration on the change in SWB

  4. The Mediating Roles of Upward Social Comparison and Self-esteem and the Moderating Role of Social Comparison Orientation in the Association between Social Networking Site Usage and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Hai-Zhen; Gaskin, James; Hawk, Skyler

    2017-01-01

    The increased pervasiveness of social media use has raised questions about potential effects on users' subjective well-being, with studies reaching contrasting conclusions. To reconcile these discrepancies and shed new light on this phenomenon, the current study examined: (1) whether upward social comparison and self-esteem mediate the association between social networking site (SNS) usage and users' subjective well-being, and (2) whether the association between SNS usage and upward social comparison is moderated by users' social comparison orientation. Data from 696 participants were collected. Structural equation modeling revealed that upward social comparison and self-esteem mediated the relationship between SNS usage and users' subjective well-being. We found that social comparison orientation moderated the association between passive SNS usage and users' upward social comparison. Specifically, social comparison orientation strengthened the association between passive SNS usage and upward social comparison. The results might suggest a process through which passive SNS usage is related to subjective well-being, and identify a context under which these associations may differ.

  5. Individual- and Neighbourhood-Level Indicators of Subjective Well-Being in a Small and Poor Eastern Cape Township: The Effect of Health, Social Capital, Marital Status, and Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, J. M.; Moller, V.; Nieboer, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Our study used multilevel regression analysis to identify individual- and neighbourhood-level factors that determine individual-level subjective well-being in Rhini, a deprived suburb of Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The Townsend index and Gini coefficient were used to investigate whether contextual neighbourhood-level…

  6. The Mediating Roles of Upward Social Comparison and Self-esteem and the Moderating Role of Social Comparison Orientation in the Association between Social Networking Site Usage and Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Liang Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased pervasiveness of social media use has raised questions about potential effects on users’ subjective well-being, with studies reaching contrasting conclusions. To reconcile these discrepancies and shed new light on this phenomenon, the current study examined: (1 whether upward social comparison and self-esteem mediate the association between social networking site (SNS usage and users’ subjective well-being, and (2 whether the association between SNS usage and upward social comparison is moderated by users’ social comparison orientation. Data from 696 participants were collected. Structural equation modeling revealed that upward social comparison and self-esteem mediated the relationship between SNS usage and users’ subjective well-being. We found that social comparison orientation moderated the association between passive SNS usage and users’ upward social comparison. Specifically, social comparison orientation strengthened the association between passive SNS usage and upward social comparison. The results might suggest a process through which passive SNS usage is related to subjective well-being, and identify a context under which these associations may differ.

  7. The Mediating Roles of Upward Social Comparison and Self-esteem and the Moderating Role of Social Comparison Orientation in the Association between Social Networking Site Usage and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Hai-Zhen; Gaskin, James; Hawk, Skyler

    2017-01-01

    The increased pervasiveness of social media use has raised questions about potential effects on users’ subjective well-being, with studies reaching contrasting conclusions. To reconcile these discrepancies and shed new light on this phenomenon, the current study examined: (1) whether upward social comparison and self-esteem mediate the association between social networking site (SNS) usage and users’ subjective well-being, and (2) whether the association between SNS usage and upward social comparison is moderated by users’ social comparison orientation. Data from 696 participants were collected. Structural equation modeling revealed that upward social comparison and self-esteem mediated the relationship between SNS usage and users’ subjective well-being. We found that social comparison orientation moderated the association between passive SNS usage and users’ upward social comparison. Specifically, social comparison orientation strengthened the association between passive SNS usage and upward social comparison. The results might suggest a process through which passive SNS usage is related to subjective well-being, and identify a context under which these associations may differ. PMID:28553256

  8. Well-Being and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the issue of whether there exists an objective element of well-being, completely independent of anyone’s desires, interests and preferences. After rejecting health-based and convention-based approaches to objectivity, I conclude that the element in question consists in respecting autonomy, voluntariness of every purposive agent and the principle of non-aggression.

  9. The control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers: Evidence of convergence with and divergence from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chi eWong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical review of the motivational theory of life-span development reveals that this theory has undergone a series of elegant theoretical integrations. Its claim to universality nonetheless brings forth unresolved controversies. With the purpose of scrutinizing the key propositions of this theory, an empirical study was designed to examine the control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers (N = 637. The OPS-Scales (Optimization in Primary and Secondary Control Scales for the Domain of Teaching were constructed to assess patterns of control processes. Three facets of subjective well-being were investigated with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Life Satisfaction Scale, and the Subjective Vitality Scale. The results revealed certain aspects of alignment with and certain divergences from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development. Neither primacy of primary control nor primacy of secondary control was clearly supported. Notably, using different criteria for subjective well-being yielded different subtypes of primary and secondary control as predictors. The hypothesized life-span trajectories of primary and secondary control received limited support. To advance the theory in this area, we recommend incorporating Lakatos’ ideas about sophisticated falsification by specifying the hard core of the motivational theory of life-span development and articulating new auxiliary hypotheses.

  10. Spacecraft Architecture and well being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ören, Ayşe

    2016-07-01

    As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.

  11. The WHO-5 Well-Being Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, C W; Østergaard, S D; Soendergaard, S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is among the most widely used questionnaires assessing subjective psychological well-being. Since its first publication in 1998, the WHO-5 has been translated into more than 30 languages and has been used in research studies...... is very high. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO-5 is a short questionnaire consisting of 5 simple and non-invasive questions, which tap into the subjective well-being of the respondents. The scale has adequate validity both as a screening tool for depression and as an outcome measure in clinical trials and has been...

  12. Objective drivers of subjective well-being in geriatric inpatients: mobility function and level of education are general predictors of self-evaluated health, feeling of loneliness, and severity of depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bień, Barbara; Bień-Barkowska, Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Identification of optimal predictors for different indicators of subjective well-being (SWB) in geriatric inpatients: (1) self-evaluated health status (SEH), (2) feeling of loneliness (FoL), and (3) severity of depression symptoms (SoDS). Investigation of the relationship between response categories of the SWB indicators and their predictors. The data were collected retrospectively from hospital records. All 555 geriatric inpatients underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment, including the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. The Bayesian information criterion was applied in ordinal logistic regression models to identify optimal predictors of SEH, FoL, and SoDS among different objective factors. After controlling for high-stress situations in the recent past, motor slowness measured with the TUG test, and a level of education were jointly selected as the best predictors of all three SWB indicators. The speed of performing the TUG test improved SEH (OR = 2.08) and decreased both FoL (OR = 0.41) and SoDS (OR = 0.41). A higher level of education improved SEH (OR = 1.05) and alleviated both FoL (OR = 0.96) and SoDS (OR = 0.92). Additionally, a higher level of SEH was positively correlated with a lower BMI, improved instrumental activities of daily living (I-ADL), and higher hemoglobin level. FoL was reinforced by the level of comorbidity, and SoDS was increased by impaired basic ADL. Although SWB in geriatric inpatients can be explained by objective comorbidities and disabilities, the good motor function (i.e., a TUG test outcome of less than about 20 s) and a higher level of education were the general predictors that exert an independent beneficial impact on all three SWB indicators.

  13. Bem-estar subjetivo e senso de ajustamento psicológico em idosos que sofreram acidente vascular cerebral: uma revisão Subjective well being and perceived psychological adjustment among old people affected by stroke: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóris Firmino Rabelo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um levantamento dos estudos brasileiros e estrangeiros publicados entre 1996 e 2005 que relacionavam bem-estar subjetivo, senso de ajustamento psicológico e acidente vascular cerebral, com o objetivo de identificar variáveis mediadoras dessa relação em idosos. Estudos transversais e prospectivos indicaram que os afetados por acidente vascular cerebral apresentam menor bem-estar subjetivo quando comparados com a população geral. Boa capacidade cognitiva, suporte social efetivo, continuidade de uma ocupação produtiva, manutenção da competência em atividades instrumentais de vida diária e humor positivo são fatores que podem melhorar o bem-estar subjetivo e psicológico. Variáveis que podem piorar o bem-estar subjetivo e psicológico são incapacidade funcional, déficits cognitivos, depressão, dificuldade em restabelecer a identidade e restrição à possibilidade de desempenhar atividades e papéis que contribuem para a auto-definição. O conhecimento das implicações psicológicas de sofrer acidente vascular cerebral pode beneficiar pacientes, familiares e profissionais no gerenciamento do evento.We gathered data from Brazilian and foreign studies published between 1996 and 2005 which related subjective well-being, sense of psychological adjustment and stroke. The objective was identifying mediator variables of this relation among old people. Prospective and cross-sectional studies indicated that those affected by stroke showed less subjective well-being than the general population. Good cognitive capacity, effective social support, continuity of a productive occupation, keeping the competence in instrumental activities of daily living and good mood are factors which can affect positively the subjective and psychological well-being. Variables which can affect negatively the subjective and psychological well-being are functional incapacity, cognitive deficits, depression, difficulty in re-establishing the identity and

  14. The social context of well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, John F; Putnam, Robert D

    2004-09-29

    Large samples of data from the World Values Survey, the US Benchmark Survey and a comparable Canadian survey are used to estimate equations designed to explore the social context of subjective evaluations of well-being, of happiness, and of health. Social capital, as measured by the strength of family, neighbourhood, religious and community ties, is found to support both physical health and subjective well-being. Our new evidence confirms that social capital is strongly linked to subjective well-being through many independent channels and in several different forms. Marriage and family, ties to friends and neighbours, workplace ties, civic engagement (both individually and collectively), trustworthiness and trust: all appear independently and robustly related to happiness and life satisfaction, both directly and through their impact on health.

  15. Yes, health is important, but as much for its importance via social life: The direct and indirect effects of health on subjective well-being in chronically ill individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamu, Admassu N; Olsen, Jan Abel

    2017-06-29

    There is an increasing evidence that health-related quality of life, income, and social relationships are important to our subjective well-being (SWB). Little is known, however, about the specific indirect pathways that link health to SWB via social relationships and income. On the basis of a unique data set of 7 disease groups from 6 OECD-countries (N = 6,173), we investigate the direct and indirect effects of health on SWB by using structural equation modeling. Three alternative measures of health are used: For generic instruments (EQ-5D-5L; SF-6D), the total indirect effect was stronger (0.226; 0.249) than its direct effect (0.157; 0.205). For the visual analogue scale, the direct effect was stronger (0.322) than its total indirect effect (0.179). Most of the indirect effect of improved health on SWB transmitted through social relationships. The effect via income was small. Nevertheless, the presence of unmeasured confounders may bias the estimates. An important lesson for researchers is to include meaningful items on social relationships when measuring the benefits from improved health. An important lesson for policy makers is that social isolation appears to be more detrimental to overall well-being than ill health. Hence, the Health and Care Services should facilitate social arenas for people with chronic conditions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Felicidade, bem-estar subjetivo e comportamento acadêmico de estudantes universitários Felicidad, bienestar subjetivo y comportamiento académico de estudiantes universitarios Happiness, subjective well-being and the academic behavior of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Dela Coleta

    2006-12-01

    les pueda ofrecer. La principal hipótesis fue confirmada al encontrarse coeficiente de correlación múltiple significativo entre las medidas de bienestar subjetivo y el comportamiento académico-universitario.This study had the purpose of determining rates of happiness and well-being, and their connection to academic behavior, in a sample of 252 university students, attending the last years of several courses and different College Institutions. The subjects were asked to answer an inventory composed by questions on biographical data and by scales concerning feelings such as happiness, satisfaction and subjective well-being, thus evaluating different aspects of their lives, their university, and their academic behavior. The results showed that the students interviewed evaluate their satisfaction, well-being and happiness in a very positive way. In general, they are satisfied with the university in which they study and their academic achievement; although they wonder if the education received at university will really guarantee their professional success. The main hypothesis was confirmed with the findings related to the significant multiple correlation between the measures related to subjective well-being and academic behavior.

  17. Heat stress in urban areas: Indoor and outdoor temperatures in different urban structure types and subjectively reported well-being during a heat wave in the city of Leipzig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Franck

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate projections for Leipzig suggest elevated minimum and maximum temperatures as well as more frequent days with high temperatures. Hence, climate change is threatening human well-being and health. People spend the majority of their time indoors. Therefore, indoor temperatures (especially during the night are of special importance with respect to well-being and health. Indoor air temperature depends on outdoor air temperatures, but is for example modified by type of urban structure, housing area, and may be also influenced by differences in the behavior of the inhabitants. Especially in cities, outdoor air temperatures depend on urban structure e.g. housing density, building arrangement, unpaved areas, types of urban structures, urban green, and other factors. Hence, the questions arise how types of urban structures are related to inner-urban temperature differences and how outdoor air temperatures influence indoor temperatures in dependence on urban housing conditions. This work is a part of a pilot study conducted during the summer 2010 which gathered data from remote sensing, mobile measurements, stationary measurements of air temperatures and relative humidity in areas with different housing structures, and of indoor as well as outdoor temperatures in occupied apartments. Household-survey data reported the subjective perception of heat stress. The study resulted in rather complex relationships between type of housing areas, indoor and outdoor temperatures, morning and evening temperatures, indoor and outdoor temperatures as well as subjective heat perception. Green spaces and types of residential areas are related to air temperatures. More green resulted in lower temperatures. Temperatures have a tendency to increase with increasing story number and are significantly higher in the top floor. An indoor heat island effect corresponding to the outdoor effect could be shown for the homes: Distance to city center is a predicting variable for

  18. Model Pengembangan Well Being Pada Peserta Didik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otih Jembarwati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on SMA Gita Bahari Semarang analysis from the results of a series of training programs of devotion that researchers do in SMA Gita Bahari. Research subjects consisted of 30 students of class X, amounting to 20 people per class. From the research results obtained Regression Model as follows: -2A-3,65B + 0,49C + 0,514D = Y, with regression coefficient 0,57, strength prediction model 32,5%. The results show the negative effects of emotional expression and resilience on emotional well-being, while future orientation and teacher type improve emotional well-being. Inferior emotional expression instrumental with low scores as well as cultural factors in interpretation Resilience expression becomes the basis of the regression model. Teacher Type and Future Orientation become important for further development considering its positive impact on emotional well-being. Further ediamonic studies on emotional well-being, training, and application of Teacher Type Understanding, and a more intensive Future Orientation are expected to improve Emotional Wellbeing among learners. More number of Subjects is needed to make the conclusions more generalizable to the wider population.

  19. Plotting the Course of Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Wilby

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Persons above age 80 comprise the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population, and it is estimated that one in four will need long-term care due to increased disabilities and illness. A major concern for residents, families, and providers is to ensure care that “allows the resident to maintain or attain their highest practicable physical, mental and psychosocial well-being.” The challenge is measuring a subjective concept such as well-being. The Eden Alternative is a current initiative aimed at improving the quality of life and well-being of long-term care residents. The initiative consists of providing long-term care environments that emphasize person-directed decision making and well-being. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Eden Alternative Well-Being Assessment Tool (EAWBAT. There are three assessment tools designed to measure the well-being of elders (residents, family members of residents, and employees working in the long-term care environments. The sample consisted of 237 residents, 430 employees, and 134 family members from seven Eden Alternative organizations throughout the United States. Factor analysis was completed to identify the underlying structure in these data for elders, employees, and families. Reliability statistics were computed for each scale. Reliability statistics ranged from .876 (employee assessment tool to .949 (family assessment tool, indicating the potential of the EAWBAT to measure the well-being of residents residing in long-term care environments, employees supporting them, and their family members.

  20. Relação do bem-estar subjetivo, estratégias de enfrentamento e apoio social em idosos Relationships of subjective well-being, coping strategies and perceived social support in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Teresa Domínguez Guedea

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as relações das estratégias de enfrentamento, apoio social e variáveis sócio-demográficas com o bem-estar subjetivo de uma amostra de idosos. O bem-estar foi definido pela satisfação com a vida, os afetos positivos e afetos negativos. Participaram 123 idosos (média = 67,1; desvio padrão = 6,1, residentes em João Pessoa, Brasil. Análises de regressão hierárquica revelaram que (a a satisfação com a vida é maior em mulheres, nas pessoas que recebem pensão, as pessoas que estão satisfeitas com o apoio recebido, as pessoas que dão apoio aos outros e nas pessoas que enfrentam os problemas de forma direta e uma re-avaliação positiva; (b os afetos positivos aumentam com a satisfação do apoio recebido e com o enfrentamento direto e re-avaliativo e a diminuição do enfrentamento de esquiva e (c os afetos negativos diminuem ao dar apoio e aumentam com o enfrentamento de esquiva. Os resultados mostram as diferenças dos componentes cognitivo e afetivo do bem-estar e apontam a necessidade de investigar a autonomia funcional do idoso.Subjective well-being was studied in a sample of the elderly by analyzing the relationship among coping strategies, social support, and social-demographic variables. Well-being was defined by life satisfaction and positive and negative affect. There were 123 elderly participants (mean=67.1; standard deviation=6.1 who were residents in João Pessoa, Brazil. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that (a life satisfaction is higher in: women, people who receive pensions, people who are satisfied with the support they receive, people who give support to others, and people who cope with problems directly and by re-appraising the situation in a positive way; (b positive affect increases with the satisfaction of the support received, with direct and re-appraisal coping, and with the decrease of coping by avoidance, and (c negative affect decreases with giving support and increases with

  1. Relações entre o bem-estar subjetivo e a funcionalidade em idosos em seguimento ambulatorial Relationship between subjective well-being and the functionality of elderly outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Sposito

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a relação entre o bem-estar subjetivo, independência funcional e desempenho de membros inferiores (força muscular, velocidade de marcha e equilíbrio de idosos em seguimento ambulatorial, em relação ao sexo e a grupos etários. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 125 idosos de ambos os sexos com idade mínima de 60 anos, atendidos em um ambulatório de geriatria. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: 1 Medida da Independência Funcional (MIF para avaliar a dependência funcional; 2 Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB para medir o desempenho físico; 3 Bem-Estar Subjetivo (BES: questões sobre a saúde e satisfação com a vida. RESULTADOS: A amostra utilizada foi de conveniência, com predomínio do sexo feminino, que apresentou maior comprometimento funcional. As correlações do bem-estar subjetivo com o teste de desempenho não demonstraram diferenças entre os sexos, contudo os idosos mais velhos apresentaram maior nível de satisfação que os idosos mais jovens. A saúde percebida também foi mais satisfatória entre os idosos mais velhos. Entretanto, a saúde percebida comparada mostrou melhores resultados nos idosos com moderado a bom desempenho físico. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que indivíduos mais velhos apresentam maior satisfação com a vida e melhor saúde percebida. Além disso, o bom desempenho físico foi uma variável de relevância para melhor saúde percebida quando comparada a outras pessoas.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective well-being, functional independence and lower-limb performance (muscle strength, gait velocity and balance among elderly people undergoing outpatient follow-up, stratified by sex and age groups. METHODS: We evaluated 125 elderly people, aged 60 years and over, who received care at a geriatric outpatient clinic. The instruments used were: 1 Functional Independence Measure (FIM to evaluate

  2. Personal Well-Being among Spanish Adolescents

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    FERRAN CASAS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although results from several samples of 12 to 16-year-old adolescents in Catalonia (region of N.E. Spain, obtained andpublished between 1999 and 2012, suggesting a constant decrease in adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB with age, untilnow no such data have been available for the general Spanish adolescent population. In this article we present results for arepresentative Spanish sample (N=5934, limited to students in the year of ESO (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria orCompulsory Secondary Education (mean age = 12.09. aims of this article are twofold: (a to validate an adaptationof the PWI for Spanish adolescents of around 12-years-old, which we will call PWI8adp; and (b to identify variables whichshow rences in children’s subjective well-being (SWB – using the PWI8adp as an indicator of SWB – whendichotomically comparing groups or categories of children. With this sample, among other we observe that Spanishadolescents scoring highest in subjective well-being tend to live in semi-urban environments, were born in Spain, have notrepeated a school year, live in only one family household, have two adults at home with paid employment, have parents withsecondary education or higher and have more material and cultural belongings at home compared to children with lower SWB.Furthermore, the adolescents with higher subjective well-being are those that never worry about money, think otherpeople treat them well, feel greater personal safety, feel they are listened to, report doing daily activities together with their family,do physical exercise or sport every day, have been told children have rights, have experienced fewer important recent changes intheir lives and feel their time is well organized.

  3. Effects of gender roles, child wish motives, subjective well-being, and marital adjustment on infertility-related stress: a preliminary study with a Hungarian sample of involuntary childless men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserepes, Réka Eszter; Kollár, János; Sápy, Tamás; Wischmann, Tewes; Bugán, Antal

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the infertility-related stress in a Hungarian infertile population and examine the effects of gender roles, child wish motives, subjective well-being, and marital relationship on the experience of infertility according to our self-constructed conceptual framework. Validated self-report questionnaires measuring the factors of the conceptual framework were taken in the study carried out in a sample of 53 people attending the fertility unit of a Hungarian clinic. Infertility-related global stress, infertility-related social concerns, and general health problems have more intensive effect on women than on men (all p gender role concepts (β = -0.248, p study emphasizes the importance of interrelations of gender role attitudes, gender role identification, general health, and satisfaction in couple relationship with infertility-related stress. In further investigations, both social and personal aspects and their effect on experiencing infertility need to be measured in infertile people, particularly in different cultural settings.

  4. Monetary valuation of illnesses in Costa Rica: a subjective well-being approach Estimación del valor monetario de las enfermedades en Costa Rica: enfoque del bienestar subjetivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Rojas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This report aims to 1 explain and illustrate the use of the subjective well-being (SWB approach as an alternative health-valuation methodology by estimating the monetary value of five general categories of illness in Costa Rica, and 2 foster comparative research on the advantages and limitations of alternative approaches to health valuation. METHOD: Use of the SWB valuation approach to measure the monetary value of illness (MVI, based on empirical data from a representative survey in Costa Rica carried out in 2004. The MVI is defined as the estimated percentage of monthly income that would be required to compensate for the loss in life satisfaction (LS-a primary SWB conception-that is expected to occur with the onset of illness. The five general categories of illnesses studied were cancer, cardiovascular disease, thyroid disease, arthritis, and infectious disease. RESULTS: There was wide disparity in the monetary values of the different illnesses. Some illnesses had relatively high monetary value compared to persons' mean income, indicating the high value of good health and of programs that aim to prevent the emergence of illnesses or abate their negative impact on people's well-being. CONCLUSIONS: The SWB valuation approach can be used to estimate illnesses' monetary value and thus can contribute to the design of health policies related to resource allocation and compensation, and revenue-generating schemes.OBJETIVOS: Explicar e ilustrar el uso del enfoque del bienestar subjetivo (BS como metodología alternativa para evaluar la salud mediante la estimación del valor monetario de cinco categorías de enfermedades en Costa Rica y promover investigaciones comparativas sobre las ventajas y las limitaciones de enfoques alternativos para la valoración de la salud. MÉTODOS: Se utilizó el enfoque de valoración del BS para calcular el valor monetario de la enfermedad a partir de los datos empíricos de una encuesta representativa de

  5. Well-Being on Planet Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Diener

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Gallup World Poll allows a look at how humanity is flourishing, based on the answers of survey respondents sampled from across the globe. Several conclusions are clear. First, how people are doing depends enormously on the society in which they live, and nations vary from doing very well to extremely poorly. In terms of subjective well-being, nations vary greatly, in both judgments of overall life and in positive and negative emotions. The best predictors of global life judgments were income and ownership of modern conveniences, whereas the best predictors of emotions were social factors such as the control of corruption and being able to count on others, and personal factors such as learning new things and being able to control one’s day. Thus, the answer to the question of whether money makes people happy must be qualified by the measure of well-being that is being used. It is proposed that systematic measures of well-being across and within nations would allow individuals, leaders, and policy makers to make better decisions.

  6. Winter swimming improves general well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Pirkko; Kokko, Leena; Ylijukuri, Virpi

    2004-05-01

    This study deals with the effects of regular winter swimming on the mood of the swimmers. Profile of Mood State (POMS) and OIRE questionnaires were completed before (October) and after (January) the four-month winter swimming period. In the beginning, there were no significant differences in the mood states and subjective feelings between the swimmers and the controls. The swimmers had more diseases (about 50%) diagnosed by a physician. Tension, fatigue, memory and mood negative state points in the swimmers significantly decreased with the duration of the swimming period. After four months, the swimmers felt themselves to be more energetic, active and brisk than the controls. Vigour-activity scores were significantly greater (p winter swimming had relieved pains. Improvement of general well-being is thus a benefit induced by regular winter swimming.

  7. Individual production of social well-being : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, Alida Christina van

    2001-01-01

    Improvement of well-being is a central objective in most policy making and individual behaviour. The pursuit of well-being is so common that it is almost trivial. What well-being is however, and how subjective well-being is affected by objective conditions, are by no means trivial questions. In this

  8. Gratitude and Adolescent Athletes' Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung Hung; Kee, Ying Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to examine the relationships between gratitude and athletes' well-being. Study 1 examines the relationship between dispositional gratitude and well-being, while Study 2 investigates the relationship between sport-domain gratitude and well-being. In Study 1, 169 Taiwanese senior high school athletes (M =…

  9. Following Passionate Interests to Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Bryan J.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the relationship between interests and well-being by conceptualizing interest as both an emotional state and a stable disposition. First, interest is explored as a distinct emotion or affective state, itself a form of well-being that also leads to other forms of well-being by facilitating the development of diverse life…

  10. Money, Sociability and Happiness: Are Developed Countries Doomed to Social Erosion and Unhappiness? Time-Series Analysis of Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being in Western Europe, Australia, Canada and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarracino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Discovering whether social capital endowments in modern societies have been subjected or not to a process of gradual erosion is one of the most debated topics in recent economic literature. Inaugurated by Putnam's pioneering studies, the debate on social capital trends has been recently revived by Stevenson and Wolfers (2008) contending…

  11. Globalization and Social Well-being:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing; Muchie, Mammo

    -going endeavours by many scholars in an attempt to contribute to the discussion of social well-being. It has three objectives: 1) to offer a framework of understanding the notion of well-being as essential part of social development; 2) to signify the limits of conventional measures of well-being attainment...... and performance; and 3) to propose an alternative interdisciplinary approach to constructing well-being measures. The overall objective is to formulate conceptual framework and a fresh approach for ranking the different countries in the world not merely on the number of individually reckoned well-being...

  12. Well-Being, Science, and Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Academic research on well-being is pursued in multiple disciplines and currently exploding. Governments are also interested in the topic, as witnessed by their recent efforts to develop statistical measures of progress that include well-being indicators. Combined, this interest opens the door...... to the fruitful application of well-being research to society. Research on well-being, however, is not always well integrated across the disciplines that purport to study it. In particular, there is insufficient communication between the empirical study of well-being, and its normative/conceptual study as pursued...... in philosophy. This state of affairs is lamentable, as it robs science and public policy of the expertise of philosophers, a desirable tool when evaluating empirical claims about well-being promotion. In this article, I examine the reasons for this lack of communication. In particular, I reject the view...

  13. Wishes, gender, personality, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L A; Broyles, S J

    1997-03-01

    Study participants (175 men, 230 women) made three wishes and completed measures of the five-factor model of personality, optimism, life satisfaction, and depression. Common wishes were for achievement, affiliation, intimacy, and power as well as for happiness and money. T tests showed women were more likely to wish for improved appearance, happiness, and health; men were more likely to make power wishes and wishes for sex. Among participants who were highly involved in the wishing process, Extraversion was related to making more interpersonal wishes and wishes for positive affect. Neuroticism was related to wishes for emotional stability. Agreeableness and Openness to Experience related to wishes reflective of these traits. Conscientiousness was related to low impulsivity. Depression was related to making highly idiosyncratic, specific wishes, suggesting the use of wishful thinking as a coping mechanism. In addition, happy participants were more likely to rate their wishes as likely to come true. Results indicate that the relatively commonplace process of wishing relates to traits, gender, and well-being.

  14. Measuring Well-Being and Progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. D'Acci (Luca)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWell-being is becoming a concept which is more and more involved in any world development consideration. A large amount of work is being carried out to study measurements of well-being, including a more holistic vision on the development and welfare of a country. This paper proposes

  15. Well-Being Narratives and Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estola, Eila; Farquhar, Sandy; Puroila, Anna-Maija

    2014-01-01

    Whereas research on children's well-being in education has largely focused on adult perspectives rather than on children's understandings, recent scholarship argues for a stronger focus on children's experience and perceptions of their own well-being. Adopting a narrative approach, this article puts children's stories centre stage as we explore a…

  16. Studying employee well-being : Moving forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilies, R.; Pluut, Helen; Aw, S.S.Y.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to integrate the commentaries to our position paper on intra-individual models of employee well-being (EWB; Ilies, R., Aw, S. S. Y., & Pluut, H. (2015). Intraindividual models of employee well-being: What have we learned and where do we go from here? European Journal of

  17. Personal Well-Being in Urban China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Russell; Nielsen, Ingrid; Zhai, Qingguo

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a survey administering the personal well-being index (PWI) in six Chinese cities (N = 3,390) to ascertain the personal well-being of China's urban population. The specific aims of the study were: (a) ascertain whether Chinese urban residents are satisfied with their lives; (b) validate the PWI using an urban…

  18. Managing Danish pupils’ well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad; Gad, Christopher

    The concept of well-being has become a key category of social and political imagination, cultivating new understandings of 'what it means to be a capable person' (Corsín Jiménez, 2008, 2). In 2015, the Danish Ministry of Education began conducting national, annual measurements of Danish pupils......' well-being. This measurement recasts the traditionally qualitative psycho-pedagogical concept of well-being in numerical terms. Moreover, different actors with overlapping but competing calculative techniques enters the scene. We investigate well-being as an emerging object of governance in Denmark...... with attention to competing techniques for measuring and calculating well-being: 1) the statistical factor and reliability calculations used by the Danish Ministry of Education, used to turn a 40 questions-questionnaire into a 'quality indicator', which again is used to hold institutions accountable to new...

  19. Equality of Opportunity for Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, Daniel Gerszon; Ramos, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    A growing literature has tried to measure the extent to which individuals have equal opportunities to acquire income. At the same time, policy makers have doubled down on efforts to go beyond income when measuring well- being. We attempt to bridge these two areas by measuring the extent to which...... individuals have equal opportunities to achieve a high level of well-being. We use the German Socio-Economic Panel to measure well-being in four different ways including incomes. This makes it possible to determine if the way well-being is measured matters for identifying who the opportunity......-deprived are and for tracking inequality of opportunity over time. We find that, regardless of how well-being is measured, the same people are opportunity-deprived and equality of opportunity has improved over the past 20 years. This suggests that going beyond income has little relevance if the objective is to provide equal...

  20. Can Facebook use induce well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Yi; Yu, Chia-Ping

    2013-09-01

    Over the past few decades, the widespread phenomenon of Internet abuse has gained attention from the public, academia, and the media. In a departure from this negative viewpoint, however, researchers and educators have devoted considerable effort in attempting to understand the influence of online communication on people's psychological well-being. This study focuses specifically on Facebook, and proposes a research model to examine the relationships among Facebook use, online social support, general social support, and psychological well-being. Our results show that using Facebook helped college students to obtain online social support, and that online social support is an extension of general social support. However, although general social support contributes to well-being, online social support appears to have little direct effect on well-being. The relationship between online social support and well-being is mediated through the factor of general social support.