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Sample records for subjective tonsil size

  1. Tonsillitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of tonsillitis include: Red, swollen tonsils White or yellow coating or patches on the tonsils Sore throat Difficult or painful swallowing Fever Enlarged, tender glands (lymph nodes) in the neck ...

  2. The correlation between tonsil size and academic performance is not a direct one, but the results of various factors

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    Kargoshaie, AA; Najafi, M; Akhlaghi, M; Khazraie, HR; Hekmatdoost, A

    2009-01-01

    Chronic upper airway obstruction most often occurs when both tonsils and adenoid are enlarged but may occur when either is enlarged. Obstructive sleep syndrome in young children has been reported to be associated with an adverse effect on learning and academic performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative size of the tonsil on academic performance in 4th grade school children. In 320 children, physical examination to determine the size of tonsils was performed by t...

  3. Tonsil volume, tonsil grade and obstructive sleep apnea: is there any meaningful correlation?

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    Michel Burihan Cahali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlation between oropharyngeal examination and objective palatine tonsil volume in snoring adults and verify the influence of the oropharyngeal anatomy, body mass index, age, and severity of obstructive sleep apnea on actual tonsil volume. In addition, we aimed to assess the influence of tonsil size on obstructive sleep apnea in adults. INTRODUCTION: Pharyngeal wall geometry is often altered in adults who have obstructive sleep apnea, and this might influence the findings of the oropharyngeal examination that, in turn, are the key factors when considering surgical management for this condition. Furthermore, the correlation between the actual tonsil volume and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea in adults is currently unknown. METHODS: We prospectively studied 130 patients with obstructive sleep apnea or primary snoring who underwent pharyngeal surgery with intraoperative measurement of tonsil volume. We compared tonsil volume with preoperative polysomnography, oropharyngeal examination, and anthropometric data. RESULTS: We found a significant correlation between actual tonsil volume and subjective tonsil grade. We also found a significant correlation between tonsil volume and the apnea-hypopnea index. Using a multivariate linear regression model, tonsil volume was found to be significantly correlated with age, body mass index, and oropharyngeal examination, but not with polysomnography. Clinically, only the rare tonsil grade IV was indicative of more severe obstructive sleep apnea. CONCLUSIONS: There is a strong correlation between clinical tonsil grade and objective tonsil volume in snoring adults, and this correlation exists regardless of the presence or severity of obstructive sleep apnea. Pharyngeal tissue volume likely reflects the body mass index rather than obstructive sleep apnea severity.

  4. Comparison of lingual tonsil size as depicted on MR imaging between children with obstructive sleep apnea despite previous tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and normal controls

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    Fricke, Bradley L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Donnelly, Lane F. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Shott, Sally R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kalra, Maninder; Poe, Stacy A.; Chini, Barbara A.; Amin, Raouf S. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Cine MRI has become a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) despite previous surgical intervention and in patients with underlying conditions that render them susceptible to multilevel airway obstruction. Findings on cine MRI studies have also increased our understanding of the mechanisms and anatomic causes of OSA in children. To compare lingual tonsil size between children with OSA and a group of normal controls. In addition, a subanalysis was made of the group of children with OSA comparing lingual tonsils between children with and without underlying Down syndrome. Children with persistent OSA despite previous palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and controls without OSA underwent MR imaging with sagittal fast spin echo inversion-recovery images, and lingual tonsils were categorized as nonperceptible at imaging or present and measurable. When present, lingual tonsils were measured in the maximum anterior-posterior diameter. If lingual tonsils were greater than 10 mm in diameter and abutting both the posterior border of the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall, they were considered markedly enlarged. There were statistically significant differences between the OSA and control groups for the presence vs. nonvisualization of lingual tonsils (OSA 33% vs. control 0%, P=0.0001) and mean diameter of the lingual tonsils (OSA 9.50 mm vs. control 0.0 mm, P=0.00001). Within the OSA group, there were statistically significant differences between children with and without Down syndrome for the three lingual tonsil width categories (P=0.0070) and occurrence of markedly enlarged lingual tonsils (with Down syndrome 35% vs. without Down syndrome 3%, P=0.0035). Enlargement of the lingual tonsils is relatively common in children with persistent obstructive sleep apnea after palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This is particularly true in patients with Down syndrome. (orig.)

  5. Comparison of lingual tonsil size as depicted on MR imaging between children with obstructive sleep apnea despite previous tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and normal controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, Bradley L.; Donnelly, Lane F.; Shott, Sally R.; Kalra, Maninder; Poe, Stacy A.; Chini, Barbara A.; Amin, Raouf S.

    2006-01-01

    Cine MRI has become a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) despite previous surgical intervention and in patients with underlying conditions that render them susceptible to multilevel airway obstruction. Findings on cine MRI studies have also increased our understanding of the mechanisms and anatomic causes of OSA in children. To compare lingual tonsil size between children with OSA and a group of normal controls. In addition, a subanalysis was made of the group of children with OSA comparing lingual tonsils between children with and without underlying Down syndrome. Children with persistent OSA despite previous palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and controls without OSA underwent MR imaging with sagittal fast spin echo inversion-recovery images, and lingual tonsils were categorized as nonperceptible at imaging or present and measurable. When present, lingual tonsils were measured in the maximum anterior-posterior diameter. If lingual tonsils were greater than 10 mm in diameter and abutting both the posterior border of the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall, they were considered markedly enlarged. There were statistically significant differences between the OSA and control groups for the presence vs. nonvisualization of lingual tonsils (OSA 33% vs. control 0%, P=0.0001) and mean diameter of the lingual tonsils (OSA 9.50 mm vs. control 0.0 mm, P=0.00001). Within the OSA group, there were statistically significant differences between children with and without Down syndrome for the three lingual tonsil width categories (P=0.0070) and occurrence of markedly enlarged lingual tonsils (with Down syndrome 35% vs. without Down syndrome 3%, P=0.0035). Enlargement of the lingual tonsils is relatively common in children with persistent obstructive sleep apnea after palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This is particularly true in patients with Down syndrome. (orig.)

  6. Tonsillitis (For Kids)

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    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... for Educators Search English Español Tonsillitis KidsHealth / For Kids / Tonsillitis Print Way in the back of your ...

  7. Acute tonsillitis at infectious patients

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    Y. P. Finogeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 1824 patients with diphtheria treated in Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital Botkin (St. Petersburg in 1993 – 1994, and more than 500 patients referred to the clinic with a diagnosis of «angina». Based on published data and our own research observations investigated the etiology of acute tonsillitis. Bacterial tonsillitis should be treated with antibiotics, and this is important aetiological interpretation of these diseases. Streptococcal tonsillitis should always be a sore throat syndrome as a diagnostic sign of support. For other forms of lymphoma lesion of the tonsils should not be defined as «angina», and called «tonsillitis». Аngina as β-hemolytic streptococcus group A infection is recognized as the leader in the development of rheumatic fever. On the basis of a large clinical material briefly analyzed the clinical manifestations of various forms of diphtheria with membranous tonsillitis. Also presented with a syndrome of infectious diseases as tonsillitis, therapeutic and surgical «mask» of infectious diseases.

  8. Lymphoepithelial Cyst in the Palatine Tonsil

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    Fatih Bingöl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC is the most commonly encountered congenital neck pathology in the lateral part of the neck. A 66-year-old woman presented to the ENT clinic due to difficulty in swallowing persisting for approximately 1 year. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic mass at right tonsil. Surgery was performed due to this unilateral tonsillar mass, which was excised together with the right tonsil. LEC was diagnosed at histopathological examination. LEC in the palatine tonsil is rare, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of LEC in the palatine tonsil.

  9. Having Your Tonsils Taken Out (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Having Your Tonsils Taken Out KidsHealth / For Kids / Having Your Tonsils Taken Out What's in this ...

  10. Tonsillitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11 View Video Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly ... Terms of Use © Copyright 2018. American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery 1650 Diagonal Rd Alexandria, ...

  11. Beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children

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    Ewa Nogaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Power plant dust is believed to be the main source of the increased presence of the element beryllium in the environment which has been detected in the atmospheric air, surface waters, groundwater, soil, food, and cigarette smoke. In humans, beryllium absorption occurs mainly via the respiratory system. The pharyngeal tonsils are located on the roof of the nasopharynx and are in direct contact with dust particles in inhaled air. As a result, the concentration levels of beryllium in the pharyngeal tonsils are likely to be a good indicator of concentration levels in the air. The presented study had two primary aims: to investigate the beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children living in southern Poland, and the appropriate reference range for this element in children’s pharyngeal tonsils. Pharyngeal tonsils were extracted from a total of 379 children (age 2–17 years, mean 6.2 ± 2.7 years living in southern Poland. Tonsil samples were mineralized in a closed cycle in a pressure mineralizer PDS 6, using 65% spectrally pure nitric acid. Beryllium concentration was determined using the ICP-AES method with a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DVTM. The software Statistica v. 9 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found that girls had a significantly greater beryllium concentration in their pharyngeal tonsils than boys. Beryllium concentration varies greatly, mostly according to the place of residence. Based on the study results, the reference value for beryllium in pharyngeal tonsils of children is recommended to be determined at 0.02–0.04 µg/g.

  12. Recurrent Acute Tonsillitis, The 'Core' Issue

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    Saikat Samaddar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today bacteriological and patho-anatomical considerations too are taken into account while treating a case of tonsillitis. Past decade has seen the rise of resistance amongst the common pathogens, as well as rise in the number of unusual offenders. Determination of the true offending organism and prescribing an antibiotic as per the sensitivity pattern is of utmost importance.  Materials and Method: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata. The study population consisted of patients presenting with recurrent attacks of acute tonsillitis. Determination of throat swab micro flora, ASO titre and core tissue microflora was done and correlated statistically. Result: There was poor correlation between throat swab and core tissue microflora. Positive predictive value of throat swab was 10%. Pseudomonas is the predominant flora harbouring tonsillar core in our study population. Amoxicillin the most commonly prescribed antibiotic stands out to be the most resistant one. No statistical significance could be reached comparing streptococcal tonsillitis with ASO titre. Discussion: The real pathology within the tonsil core is not always reflected in routine throat swab and bacteriology of recurrent tonsillitis may differ in different regions. ASO titre estimation adds up to the economic burden if rheumatic fever is not suspected. Judicious use of antibiotics based on true sensitivity pattern is encouraged. In the era of antibiotics Tonsillectomy still holds an important position in the management of recurrent attacks. Conclusion: Pseudomonas was found to be the most common pathogen in recurrent acute tonsillitis. Core tissue study remains the Gold standard in identifying the pathogenic organism. Oral third generation Cephalosporin was the most efficacious antibiotic for recurrent tonsillitis in our study population.

  13. Lymphangiomatous Polyp of Tonsil: A Case Report.

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    Sayar, Hamide; Sayar, Çağdaş; Adamhasan, Fulya; Uğuz, Aysun

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangiomatous polyps of the palatine tonsils are uncommon hamartomatous proliferations that could be clinically misdiagnosed as malignant neoplasms. These polyps consist of dilated lymphatic vessels located inside fibrous and/or adipose tissue. In this paper, a 27-year-old man who presented to the outpatient clinic with a complaint of dysphagia is presented. On physical examination, the patient had a smooth, polypoid mass extending from the posterior section of the right palatine tonsil into the oropharynx. The patient underwent right tonsillectomy. Histopathological examination of the specimen showed typical features of a lymphangiomatous polyp of the tonsil. The case is reported with the accompanying literature to avoid the possibility of misdiagnosing it as a malignant lesion clinically.

  14. Smell and taste in patients with neoplasms tumors of palatine tonsils treated by radiation

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    Korytowska, A.; Szmeja, Z.; Wojtowicz, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    The smell and taste investigations were made in group of 47 subjects with neoplasms of palatine tonsils surgical treated with radiation and in group of 7 subjects treated only by radiation. The investigation presents mostly quantitative disturbance of smell in both groups but with temporary character. (author)

  15. Medical image of the week: teenage tonsils

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    Knox AM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An 18 year old woman complained of gradual onset throat pain and symptoms of a viral URI with nasal congestion, conjunctivitis and coryza. Later, faint macular rash appeared on her hands. Shallow ulcers developed on her tonsils (Figure 1. She was diagnosed with coxsakie viral infection and treated conservatively with ibuprofen. A 19 year old man was seen for fatigue, malaise and odynophagia. Because of concern for peritonsilar abscess due to R>L tonsil enlargement (Figure 2 he was given intravenous steroids and antibiotics. His pain improved dramatically and he tested positive for infectious mononucleosis.

  16. Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacterial Isolates on the Surface and Core of Tonsils from Patients with Chronic Tonsillitis

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    Meera Niranjan Khadilkar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Controversy regarding treatment of tonsillitis based on throat culture report still persists. If surface culture is a determinant of bacteriology of the core, then rational therapy could be aimed at organisms cultured by surface swab. Materials and Methods A Cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 patients of chronic tonsillitis who underwent tonsillectomy. Tonsil surface and core swabs were studied for aerobic and anaerobic growth. Result Eighty seven percent patients had aerobic growth on tonsil surface and ninety percent in tonsil core. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest aerobic bacteria isolated. Anaerobic growth was present in 47% patients on tonsil surface, and 48% in core. Porphyromonas sp. was the commonest anaerobic bacterium isolated. Discussion There was no statistically significant difference between aerobic and anaerobic bacteria found in tonsil surface and core.  Conclusion Throat swabs adequately represent core pathogen, and are dependable in detecting bacteriology of chronic tonsillitis.

  17. EXPERIENCE OF SEA WATER HYPERTONIC SOLUTION APPLICATION FOR TOPICAL TREATMENT OF CHRONIC TONSILLITIS

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    E.P. Karpova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effectiveness of sea water hypertonic solution (Aqua Maris troath and oral cavity spray, Jadran, Croatia medication to treat chronic tonsillitis of the compensated form on 84 children aged between 5 and 15. All children had their tonsil lacunae rinsed in a day № 6–8. 64 children had them rinsed with the sea water hypertonic solution (main group, while 20 children had them rinsed with the nitrofural solution (comparison group. Treatment effectiveness was determined according to dynamics of main symptoms (odynophagia, dysphagia, hyperemia and mucosa infiltration of pillars of the fauces, as well as the degree of tonsil bacterial number before and after treatment (by the 14th day. The dynamic analysis of subjective data during treatment revealed more significant and positive changes among the children of the main group if compared with patients from the comparison group. After treatment the researchers noticed reduction of tonsil bacterial number among 90,62% of children from the main group, whereas this rate made up 60% in the comparison group. Acquired data allowed recommending this medication for the multimodality therapy of infant adenoid disease.Key words: chronic tonsillitis, treatment, children, sea water hypertonic solution.

  18. INFLUENCE OF PASSIVE SMOKING ON CONTENT OF NICKEL IN CHILDREN PHARYNGEAL TONSILS

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    Jerzy Kwapuliński

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of this study was pharyngeal tonsils which his anatomic location is interesing tissue. They are first tissue which has contact content in air inhalation substances in selective way. Pharyngeal tonsils came from children who lived in Silesia province. Some of these children have been expose to passive smoking. Contains nickel in pharyngeal tonsils was marked by the method of Inductively Coupled Plasma. Geometrical mean of contents of nickel in pharyngeal tonsils from exposed to tobacco smoke girls was 0,75 µg/g, in unexposed girls was 0,67 µg/g, in exposed to tobacco smoke boys was 0,55 µg/g and unexposed boys 0,6 µg/g was observed. The results have verified that sex, living place and exposure to tobacco smoke matter in accumulation nickel in pharyngeal tonsils. The cross-corelation analysis between content of Ni and other metals, found out positive corelation between Ni and Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ca, Mg.

  19. Changes in Tonsil B Cell Phenotypes and EBV Receptor Expression in Children Under 5-Years-Old.

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    Wohlford, Eric M; Baresel, Paul C; Wilmore, Joel R; Mortelliti, Anthony J; Coleman, Carrie B; Rochford, Rosemary

    2018-03-01

    Palatine tonsils are principally B cell organs that are the initial line of defense against many oral pathogens, as well as the site of infection for others. While the size of palatine tonsils changes greatly in the first five years of life, the cellular changes during this period are not well studied. Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a common orally transmitted virus that infects tonsillar B cells. Naïve B cells are thought to be the target of primary infection with EBV in vivo, suggesting that they are targeted by the virus. EBV enters B cells through CD21, but studies of older children and adults have not shown differences in surface CD21 between naïve B cells and other tonsil B cell populations. In this study, we used an 11-color flow cytometry panel to detail the changes in B cell subpopulations in human tonsils over the first five years of life from 33 healthy US children. We provide reference ranges for tonsil B cell subpopulations over this age range. We show that the frequency of naïve tonsil B cells decreases over the early years of life, and that naïve B cells expressed higher surface levels of CD21 relative to other tonsil B cell populations. We show that young children have a higher frequency of naïve tonsil B cells, and importantly that these cells express increased surface EBV receptor, suggesting that young children have a larger pool of cells that can be infected by the virus. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  20. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in tonsils of children with recurrent tonsillitis.

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    Brook, I; Yocum, P; Friedman, E M

    1981-01-01

    Tonsils were obtained from 50 children suffering from recurrent tonsillitis. Patients' ages ranged from 2.5 to 17 years (mean 6 years); 29 were males and 21 females. The tonsils were sectioned in half after heat searing of the surface and the core material was cultured for aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora was obtained in all patients, yielding an average of 7.8 isolates (4.1 anaerobes and 3.7 aerobes) per specimen. There were 207 anaerobes isolated. The predominant isolates were 101 Bacteroides sp (including 10 B fragilis group, and 47 B melaninogenicus group), 29 Fusobacterium sp, 34 Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (25 Peptococcus sp and 9 Peptostreptococcus sp) and 16 Veillonella sp. There were 185 aerobic isolates. The predominant isolates were 41 alpha-hemolytic streptococci, 24 Staphylococcus aureus, 19 beta-hemolytic streptococci (11 group A, 4 group B, and 2 each group C and F), 14 Haemophilus sp (including 12 H influenzae type B) and 5 H parainfluenzae. Beta-lactamase production was noted in 56 isolates recovered from 37 tonsils. These were all isolates of S aureus (24) and B fragilis (10), 15 of 47 B melaninogenicus (32%), 5 of the 12 B oralis (42%), and 2 of 12 H influenzae type B (17%). Our findings indicate the polymicrobial aerobic and anaerobic nature of deep tonsillar flora in children with recurrent tonsillitis, and demonstrate the presence of many beta-lactamase-producing organisms in 74% of the patients.

  1. Benign mass in tonsil- cavernous hemangioma.

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    Joseph, Sumitha; Prakash, M; Mohammed, Hafida K; Govar, Aberna

    2013-10-01

    Cavernous hemangioma is also called as 'ANGIOMA CAVERNOSUM' or 'CAVERNOMA' as benign lesion of blood vessels. They are similar to strawberry hemangioma but deeply situated. Although most often associated with skin it is also sometimes found in mucous membrane, brain and the viscera. The diagnosis of hemangiomas is mainly based on clinical evaluation . Isolated hemangiomas in the tonsillar tissue is a rare occurance. In this we report had a case of adult tonsillar hemangioma of left side associated with recurrent tonsillitis . He was effectively managed surgically without any complications.

  2. Targeted Treatment With Radio Frequency Ablation for Lingual Tonsil

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    Suvi Renkonen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Benign enlargement of the lingual tonsils due to various causes may cause symptoms that warrant treatment. Conventional lingual tonsillectomy remains a challenging procedure, and there is no established standard procedure. We aimed to review the patients receiving different methods of lingual tonsil surgery for various indications at our institute. Methods: Retrospective clinical data on all patients with an ablative operation of the tongue base during the 8-year period between 2007 and 2014 at the Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, were reviewed. The larger cohort comprised 35 patients, of whom 26 were men (74%. Ten patients had undergone solely lingual tonsil radio frequency ablation (LTRFA. The minimum follow-up time for all patients was 2 years. Results: Of the 10 patients, 5 patients with LTRFA had been operated on because of symptomatic lingual tonsil hypertrophy and 5 because of periodic fever associated with possible lingual tonsil involvement. In 2 of the 5 patients with periodic fever, the fever cycles ended after the operation. Of the 5 patients, 3 patients with symptomatic lingual tonsil hypertrophy have been non-symptomatic after 1 to 3 treatment sessions. The last 2 patients continue to have persistent symptoms. There were no major complications. Conclusions: Development of new approaches for the management of various lingual tonsil conditions is warranted. Lingual tonsil volume reduction by LTRFA seems to be a treatment alternative with low morbidity but with limited curative effect only.

  3. Radiologic evaluation of adenoids and tonsils in children with obstructive sleep apnea: Plain films and fluoroscopy

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    Kreplick Fernbach, S.; Brouillette, T.; Riggs, T.W.; Hunt, C.E.

    1983-07-01

    Twenty-six children with obstructive sleep apnea were evaluated by lateral neck radiographs during wakefulness, and by polygraphic monitoring and upper airway fluoreoscopy during natural sleep. Children with craniofacial abnormalities, palatal surgery, and central nervous system disease were excluded from the study. Moderate or marked enlargement of tonsils and adenoids was noted on lateral neck radiographs of 18 of 26 patients. An objective measure of adenoidal enlargement, the adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio, correlated well with subjective judgment of adenoidal size but was not generally more useful than subjective estimation. Upper airway fluroescopy demonstrated the site and mechanism of obstruction in all patients. Because all children with moderate to marked adenotonsillar enlargement demonstrated obstruction at the adenoidal or tonsillar level on fluoroscopy, we now screen children with suspected sleep apnea with lateral airway radiographs and polysomnography. Fluoroscopy is reserved for children with mild adenotosillar enlargement, craniofacial dysplasia, prior cleft palate repair, or neuromuscular disorders. These results suggest that the pathogenesis of obstuctive sleep apnea in children involve anatomic factors which narrow the upper airway, sleep-related hypotonia of pharyngeal dilator musculature, and compensatory mechanisms to prevent or alleviate asphyxia.

  4. Radiologic evaluation of adenoids and tonsils in children with obstructive sleep apnea: Plain films and fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreplick Fernbach, S.; Brouillette, T.; Riggs, T.W.; Hunt, C.E.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-six children with obstructive sleep apnea were evaluated by lateral neck radiographs during wakefulness, and by polygraphic monitoring and upper airway fluoreoscopy during natural sleep. Children with craniofacial abnormalities, palatal surgery, and central nervous system disease were excluded from the study. Moderate or marked enlargement of tonsils and adenoids was noted on lateral neck radiographs of 18 of 26 patients. An objective measure of adenoidal enlargement, the adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio, correlated well with subjective judgment of adenoidal size but was not generally more useful than subjective estimation. Upper airway fluroescopy demonstrated the site and mechanism of obstruction in all patients. Because all children with moderate to marked adenotonsillar enlargement demonstrated obstruction at the adenoidal or tonsillar level on fluoroscopy, we now screen children with suspected sleep apnea with lateral airway radiographs and polysomnography. Fluoroscopy is reserved for children with mild adenotosillar enlargement, craniofacial dysplasia, prior cleft palate repair, or neuromuscular disorders. These results suggest that the pathogenesis of obstuctive sleep apnea in children involve anatomic factors which narrow the upper airway, sleep-related hypotonia of pharyngeal dilator musculature, and compensatory mechanisms to prevent or alleviate asphyxia. (orig.)

  5. [Clinical studies on flomoxef in acute tonsillitis].

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    Tomiyama, M

    1994-09-01

    To objectively evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety in acute tonsillitis, flomoxef (FMOX) was examined for the distribution of sensitivity of clinical strains to it and for its clinical usefulness. 1. The 80% minimum inhibitory concentration of 11 clinical strains of Gram-positive bacteria, 6 of Gram-negative bacteria and 5 of anaerobic bacteria was 0.39 microgram/ml. FMOX showed the strongest, most comprehensive antibacterial action among the drugs tested. 2. Thirty patients received FMOX. Clinical effectiveness was evaluated in 28 patients, and clinical usefulness and safety in 30. 3. The clinical efficacy rate ('excellent' and 'good') was 75% (21/28). 4. As for bacteriological response, bacterial elimination rates were 67% for Gram-positive bacteria, 100% for Gram-negative bacteria, 100% for anaerobic bacteria and 100% for mixed infections. 5. Side effects occurred in 2 (6%) patients: drug eruption and diarrhea in 1 patient each. These symptoms improved rapidly after discontinuation of the drug. 6. Although abnormal clinical test results were found in 7 (23%) patients, i.e., increases in GOT and GPT in 2, in GPT in 4 and in BUN in 1, they were transient. 7. The usefulness of FMOX was assessed in light of its efficacy and safety. It was highly satisfactory in 14 patients, satisfactory in 11, relatively satisfactory in 1, unsatisfactory in 2 and highly unsatisfactory in 2, and rate of usefulness was 83%. FMOX is considered to be highly useful for the treatment of severe acute tonsillitis.

  6. Influence of radiofrequency surgery on architecture of the palatine tonsils.

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    Plzak, Jan; Macokova, Pavla; Zabrodsky, Michal; Kastner, Jan; Lastuvka, Petr; Astl, Jaromir

    2014-01-01

    Radiofrequency surgery is a widely used modern technique for submucosal volume reduction of the tonsils. So far there is very limited information on morphologic changes in the human tonsils after radiofrequency surgery. We performed histopathological study of tonsillectomy specimens after previous bipolar radiofrequency induced thermotherapy (RFITT). A total of 83 patients underwent bipolar RFITT for hypertrophy of palatine tonsils. Tonsil volume reduction was measured by 3D ultrasonography. Five patients subsequently underwent tonsillectomy. Profound histopathological examination was performed to determine the effect of RFITT on tonsillar architecture. All tonsillectomy specimens showed the intact epithelium, intact germinal centers, normal vascularization, and no evidence of increased fibrosis. No microscopic morphological changes in tonsillectomy specimens after bipolar RFITT were observed. RFITT is an effective submucosal volume reduction procedure for treatment of hypertrophic palatine tonsils with no destructive effect on microscopic tonsillar architecture and hence most probably no functional adverse effect.

  7. Twin Rectal Tonsils Mimicking Carcinoid or Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma.

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    Takehara, Masanori; Muguruma, Naoki; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Koichi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Bando, Yoshimi; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2017-09-01

    The rectal tonsil is a rare polypoid lesion exclusively found in the rectum and is considered a reactive proliferation of the lymphoid tissue. Although this lesion is benign, we recommend that it should be differentiated from carcinoid or polypoid type of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas, based on gross findings. In this case report, we describe a case of rectal lesions with a unique appearance in a 41-year-old man. Colonoscopy revealed two 5-mm-sized nodules located opposite from each other on the left and right sides of the lower rectum. Endoscopic mucosal resection was conducted. Histopathologically, both lesions were mainly located in the submucosa and consisted of prominent lymphoid follicles with germinal centers of various sizes. No immunoreactivity of Bcl-2 was seen in the germinal centers. Immunohistochemical staining for kappa and lambda light chains revealed a polyclonal pattern. Therefore, these lesions were diagnosed as rectal tonsils.

  8. Primary mantle cell lymphoma of tonsil: Case report

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    Knežević Snežana B.

    2017-01-01

    are not enlarged. Abdominal organs in the normal range. Bone marrow biopsy: No signs of lymphoproliferative disease. Haematological consulting team: NHL Mantle cell lymphoma CS IIAE. Chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (CHOP according to the protocol. Administered six cycles. After the second cycle of chemotherapy the size of the left tonsil was reduced and patient's breathing and swalowing were less troublesome. Patient completed the therapeutic regimen. and regulary attends follow-ups. Conclusion: Differential diagnosis of unilateral tonsillar swelling should include possibility of a rare type of lymphoma with primary extranodal localization. The role of general practitioner is crucial in establishing the diagnosis.

  9. Isolation of the bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs

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    B. Al-Mufti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed to identify the bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs. Twelve clinical cases of dogs (5 males and 7 females of different ages and breeds were observed. Tonsils swabs were taken from all the dogs, then cultured on different agars and bacterial smears prepared from all cultures and Gram stains were done. The study confirmed that the most bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella spp. and Pasteurella spp.

  10. Assessment of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity and oxidative stress in patients with chronic tonsillitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garca, Mehmet Fatih; Demir, Halit; Turan, Mahfuz; Bozan, Nazım; Kozan, Ahmet; Belli, Şeyda Bayel; Arslan, Ayşe; Cankaya, Hakan

    2014-06-01

    To emphasize the effectiveness of adenosine deaminase (ADA) enzyme, which has important roles in the differentiation of lymphoid cells, and oxidative stress in patients with chronic tonsillitis. Serum and tissue samples were obtained from 25 patients who underwent tonsillectomy due to recurrent episodes of acute tonsillitis. In the control group, which also had 25 subjects, only serum samples were taken as obtaining tissue samples would not have been ethically appropriate. ADA enzyme activity, catalase (CAT), carbonic anhydrase (CA), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the serum and tissue samples of patients and control group subjects. The serum values of both groups were compared. In addition, the tissue and serum values of patients were compared. Serum ADA activity and the oxidant enzymes MDA and NO values of the patient group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p ADA activity (p > 0.05). Elevated ADA activity may be effective in the pathogenesis of chronic tonsillitis both by impairing tissue structure and contributing to SOR formation.

  11. [Rectal tonsil or lymphoid follicular hyperplasia of the rectum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillo Fandiño, L; Arias González, M; Iglesias Castañón, A; Fernández Eire, M P

    2014-01-01

    The rectal tonsil is a reactive proliferation of lymphoid tissue located in the rectum. The morphology of the lymphoid proliferation of the colon is usually polypoid or, less commonly, nodular. Only in exceptional cases does lymphoid proliferation of the colon present as a mass in the rectum (rectal tonsil), although this is the most common presentation in middle-aged patients. It is important to be familiar with the rectal tonsil because in cases of exuberant growth it can be difficult to distinguish it from other types of masses. We present the case of rectal tonsil in a four-year-old girl. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings and review the literature. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiological FDG uptake in the palatine tonsils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Joji; Okamura, Terue; Shakudo, Miyuki

    2001-01-01

    In clinical F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies of the head and neck region, remarkable symmetric tonsillar FDG uptake is sometimes observed. We determined the incidence and degree of tonsillar FDG uptake and investigated the significance of tonsillar FDG uptake. Between June 1998 and August 1998, we obtained informed consent from 17 patients who were scheduled to undergo a FDG-PET study for their own disease (11 men and 6 women; aged 22 to 77 yr) and who did not have head and neck disease to perform FDG-PET scanning of the head and neck region in addition to their target organs. The incidence and degree of tonsillar FDG uptake were determined. Remarkable tonsillar FDG uptake was found in 9 patients. The SUVs of these FDG uptakes ranged from 2.48 to 6.75, with a mean of 4.29±1.20 (SD). Tonsillar FDG uptakes in the remaining 8 patients were not remarkable, and their SUVs ranged from 1.93 to 3.31, with a mean of 2.46±0.45. Head and neck disease does not appear to have been responsible for the increase in tonsillar FDG uptake. Differences among tonsillar FDG uptake in these 17 patients without head and neck disease appear to reflect differences in activity of ''physiological'' inflammation of the palatine tonsils. (author)

  13. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy.We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group.The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin.

  14. Kidney function and size in normal subjects before and during growth hormone administration for one week

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Orskov, H; Andersen, A R

    1981-01-01

    Kidney function and size were studied in seven normal male subjects before and after administration of highly purified human growth hormone for 1 week. Glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow (steady-state infusion technique with urinary collections using 125I-iothalamate and 131I-hippuran)......Kidney function and size were studied in seven normal male subjects before and after administration of highly purified human growth hormone for 1 week. Glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow (steady-state infusion technique with urinary collections using 125I-iothalamate and 131I...

  15. The functional role of the tonsils in speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Y; Nachmani, A; Ophir, D

    1994-08-01

    To present illustrative cases showing various tonsillar influences on speech and to present a clinical method for patient evaluation establishing concepts of management and a rational therapeutic approach. The cases were selected from a group of approximately 1000 patients referred to the clinic because of suspected palatal diseases. Complete velopharyngeal assessment was made, including otolaryngologic, speech, and hearing examinations, polysomnography, nasendoscopy, multiview videofluoroscopy, and cephalometry. New observations further elucidate the intimate relation between the tonsils and the velopharyngeal valve. The potential influence of the tonsils on the velopharyngeal valve mechanism, in hindering or assisting speech, is described. In selected cases, the decision to perform tonsillectomy depends on its potential effect on speech. The combination of nasendoscopic and multiview videofluoroscopic studies of the mechanical properties of the tonsils during speech is required for patients who present with velopharyngeal insufficiency in whom tonsillar hypertrophy is found. These studies are also required in patients with palatal anomalies who are candidates for tonsillectomy.

  16. Within-batch prevalence and quantification of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in tonsils of pigs at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt

    2014-03-14

    Yersiniosis is a common bacterial zoonosis in Europe and healthy pigs are known to be the primary reservoir of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. However, little information is available about the prevalence of these pathogens within pig batches at time of slaughter. The tonsils of 7047 fattening pigs, belonging to 100 farms, were aseptically collected immediately after evisceration in two Belgian slaughterhouses. The batch size varied between 70 and 930 pigs. On average, 70 pigs were sampled per batch. The tonsils were examined by direct plating on cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar plates and the number of suspect Yersinia colonies was counted. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica serotype O:3 were found in tonsils of 2009 pigs (28.5%), originating from 85 farms. The within-batch prevalence in positive farms ranged from 5.1 to 64.4%. The number of Y. enterocolitica in positive pigs varied between 2.01 and 5.98 log10 CFU g(-1) tonsil, with an average of 4.00 log10 CFU g(-1) tonsil. Y. pseudotuberculosis was found in seven farms, for which the within-batch prevalence varied from 2 to 10%. In five of these farms, both Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis were simultaneously present. Human pathogenic Yersinia spp. are widespread in slaughter pig batches in Belgium as 87% of the tested batches were infected with these pathogens at the time of slaughter. The large variation of the prevalence between batches may lead to different levels of contamination of carcasses and risks for public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. POSITION OF CEREBELLAR TONSILS IN REFERENCE TO FORAMEN MAGNUM: AN MRI STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Normal position of the cerebellar tonsils is described to be at or above the foramen magnum. Western studies have shown the cerebellar tonsils to be below the foramen magnum. Position of tonsils is of great importance in assessing the hind brain deformity–Chiari malformation. There are no Indian studies to corroborate the findings. Hence, we proposed a basic study to find out the existence of tonsillar ectopia (Position of tonsils below the foramen magnum) in normal population. Ou...

  18. Bias Corrections for Standardized Effect Size Estimates Used with Single-Subject Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A multilevel meta-analysis can combine the results of several single-subject experimental design studies. However, the estimated effects are biased if the effect sizes are standardized and the number of measurement occasions is small. In this study, the authors investigated 4 approaches to correct for this bias. First, the standardized effect…

  19. 13 CFR 121.401 - What procurement programs are subject to size determinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... program, the Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Federal Contract Assistance Procedures, SBA's Service... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What procurement programs are subject to size determinations? 121.401 Section 121.401 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

  20. Cartilaginous Choristoma of the Tonsil: Three Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Bedir

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion:  Choristomas may cause difficulty in the differential diagnosis of true neoplasms, since they are rare and may grow. Therefore pathologists should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cartilaginous lesions, because cartilaginous choristomas of the tonsil are a rare entity.

  1. Examination of the reticular epithelium of the bovine pharyngeal tonsil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nasopharyngeal tonsil (adenoid), located at the posterior of the nasopharynx is ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular composition of this important epithe...

  2. Clinical correlates of enlarged prostate size in subjects with sexual dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corona

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Digito-rectal examination (DRE of the prostate provides useful information on the state of prostate growth and on the presence of suspected peripheral nodules. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and biochemical correlates of finding an enlarged prostate size at DRE in subjects with sexual dysfunction (SD. A consecutive series of 2379 patients was retrospectively studied. The analysis was focused on a subset of subjects (n = 1823; mean age 54.7 ± 11.4 selected for being free from overt prostatic diseases. Several parameters were investigated. After adjusting for confounders, the presence of an enlarged prostate size at DRE was associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome (HR = 1.346 (1.129-1.759; P = 0.030, type 2 diabetes mellitus (HR = 1.489 (1.120-1.980; P = 0.006, increased LDL cholesterol (>100 mg dl−1 ; HR = 1.354 (1.018-1.801; P = 0.037 and increased mean blood pressure (BP values (HR = 1.017 (1.007-1.027 for each mmHg increment; P = 0.001. Accordingly, enlarged prostate size was also associated with a higher risk of arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED, as well as with other andrological conditions, such as varicocele and premature ejaculation (PE. PSA levels were significantly higher in subjects with enlarged prostate size when compared to the rest of the sample (HR = 3.318 (2.304; 4.799 for each log unit increment in PSA levels; P < 0.0001. Arteriogenic ED, according to different criteria, was also associated with increased PSA levels. In conclusion, our data support the need to examine prostate size either by clinical (DRE or biochemical (PSA inspection in subjects with SD, in order to have insights into the nature of the SD and the metabolic and cardiovascular (CV background of the patient.

  3. Utility of Neck, Height, and Tonsillar Size to Screen for Obstructive Sleep Apnea among Obese Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Indra; Al-Saleh, Suhail; Amin, Reshma; Propst, Evan J; Bin-Hasan, Saadoun; Campisi, Paolo; Ryan, Clodagh; Kendzerska, Tetyana

    2018-04-01

    Objectives To determine whether neck:height ratio combined with adenoid and tonsillar size is a good predictive tool for obstructive sleep apnea in obese youth. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Sleep clinics at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada. Subjects and Methods Consented obese individuals aged 8 to 18 years were recruited between 2013 and 2015. Anthropometric measures were obtained by a trained research coordinator in a standardized manner. Otolaryngologists evaluated adenoid and tonsil sizes. Obstructive sleep apnea was diagnosed with an overnight polysomnogram as an obstructive apnea-hypopnea index ≥2. Multivariable logistic regressions investigated the relationship between potential predictors and obstructive sleep apnea. The C-statistic measured the predictive ability. Results Of the 53 subjects (median age, 13 years; 55% males), 28 (53%) were diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea, with a median index of 10.6 per hour. In a logistic regression controlling for adenoid size, enlarged tonsils were significantly associated with the presence of obstructive sleep apnea ( P Controlling for tonsil and adenoid sizes, an increase in neck:height ratio was significantly associated with the presence of obstructive sleep apnea ( P = .01). Conclusion Our study suggests that neck:height ratio combined with tonsillar hypertrophy may have a strong predictive ability for obstructive sleep apnea and may be useful in an ambulatory setting to screen obese youth at high risk. These findings should be confirmed in a larger study.

  4. Diagnostic Value of Histological and Microbiological Screening in Etiopathogenesis of Recurrent and Hypertrophic Tonsillitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uldis Viesturs

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the mechanisms and causes of recurrent tonsillitis is considerable. CD4+CD25+ T-lymphocytes have an important role in the maintenance of immunological tolerance. The aim of our research was to compare the diagnostic value of palatine tonsils histological and microbiological screening in patients with hypertrophic and recurrent tonsillitis. 14 patients with hypertrophic and 10 patients with chronic tonsillitis undergoing tonsillectomy were enrolled in the study. Rapid diagnosis of adenovirus, parainfluenza, influenza A and B, and respiratory syncytial virus infection was made before tonsillectomy by viral antigen detection using the immunofluorescence procedure from tonsils. Herpes simplex and cytomegaloviruses DNA were detected by the polymerase chain reaction. Samples for bacteriological studies were collected using a cotton swab. Immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate S-100 and TGF-beta1 expression. The obtained results showed that patients with recurrent tonsillitis had less S-100 and TGF-beta1 positive cells in parafollicular regions compared to patients with hypertrophic tonsillitis. In both groups, tonsils were colonized predominantly by gram-positive microorganisms and adenovirus (36% of cases. However, in patients with recurrent tonsillitis, associations of gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and viruses (40% of cases were observed. To conclude, recurrent tonsillitis is characterized by the breakdown of the immunological tolerance to oral microflora.

  5. SYNTHESIS OF BIS-QUINOXALINE DERIVATIVES USING TONSIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A convenient and efficient synthesis of new bis-quinoxaline is described, involving ... the following composition (in %): SiO2: 74.5, Al2O3: 9.3, MgO: 0.4, Fe2O3: 1.3, CaO: 4.0, K2O: 0.4 and .... Tonsil clay is a nanoparticle with layered structure.

  6. Improvement of herpetic stomatitis therapy in patients with chronic tonsillitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepilin А.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to determine the clinical and pathogenetic efficacy of Cycloferon liniment in the combined therapy in patients with herpetic stomatitis accompanied by chronic tonsillitis. Materials and methods: Medical examination and treatment of 60 patients have been carried out. The marker of endogenous intoxication, infectious severity and immunity has been investigated. Results. It has been established that use of Cycloferon liniment in the combined therapy in patients with herpetic stomatitis accompanied by chronic tonsillitis has allowed to decrease infectious severity in par-odontal recess and evidence of local inflammation, to normalize immunity indices and reduce the level of endogenous intoxication that has been liable for acceleration of recuperation processes and lowering of frequency of stomatitis recurrences. Conclusion. The clinical efficacy of Cycloferon liniment in the therapy in patients with herpetic stomatitis accompanied by chronic tonsillitis conditioned by the decreasing of activity of local inflammatory process according to the reducing of level pro-inflammatory cytokines, infectious burden of the mouth cavity, endogenous intoxication

  7. PROPHYLACTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF FUSAFUNGINE IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC TONSILLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Garashchenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008/2009, at the time of influenza epidemic, the study of ambulatory prophylactic treatment of fusafungine (Bioparox in 50 children 7–15 years old with chronic tonsillitis was performed. All these children underwent regular ENT check-up. The control group included 50 schoolchildren the same age without chronic diseases of upper airways. After the treatment with intranasal fusafungine, the amount of patients with Streptococcus pyogenes was decreased 1,6 times low (and after 3 months of treatment it was decreased 3,5 times low. The sanation of palatine tonsils from Candida albicans was detected (eradication of microorganism was achieved in 58% of cases, and the amount of patients with pharyngomycosis was decreased 2,4 times low. Patient’s quality of life significantly increased, and ENT-specialists met less complaints (in 4,5–15 times low. The morbidity with respiratory infections in 3 months after the treatment with fusafungine was 7,5 times low than in control group.Key words: schoolchildren, chronic tonsillitis, acute respiratory infection, fusafungine.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:26-31

  8. Incretin and islet hormone responses to meals of increasing size in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalim, Wathik; Omar, Bilal; Pacini, Giovanni; Bizzotto, Roberto; Mari, Andrea; Ahrén, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Postprandial glucose homeostasis is regulated through the secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) through the stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of glucagon secretion. However, how these processes dynamically adapt to demands created by caloric challenges achieved during daily life is not known. The objective of the study was to explore the adaptation of incretin and islet hormones after mixed meals of increasing size in healthy subjects. Twenty-four healthy lean subjects ingested a standard breakfast after an overnight fast followed, after 4 hours, by a lunch of a different size (511, 743, and 1034 kcal) but with identical nutrient composition together with 1.5 g paracetamol. Glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, intact GLP-1, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and paracetamol were measured after the meals. Area under the 180-minute curve (AUC) for insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP and model-derived β-cell function and paracetamol appearance were calculated. Glucose profiles were similar after the two larger meals, whereas after the smaller meal, there was a postpeak reduction below baseline to a nadir of 3.8 ± 0.1 mmol/L after 75 minutes (P lunch meals of increasing size elicit a caloric-dependent insulin response due to increased β-cell secretion achieved by increased GIP and GLP-1 levels. The adaptation at larger meals results in identical glucose excursions, whereas after a lower caloric lunch, the insulin response is high, resulting in a postpeak suppression of glucose below baseline.

  9. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  10. Experience of Using Immunomodulatory Therapy in Comprehensive Treatment of Chronic Tonsillitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Marushko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulatory therapy is an important part of treating patients with chronic tonsillitis caused by β-hemolytic streptococcus group A, on the background of antibiotic therapy it allows us to achieve a more effective elimination of the pathogen. Administration of Imupret in the comprehensive treatment for exacerbation of chronic tonsillitis of streptococcal origin leads to the rapid disappearance of clinical manifestations of the disease, high frequency of pathogen elimination, reduces the incidence of chronic tonsillitis exa­cerbations.

  11. Size of corpus callosum in normal subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumihito; Duara, R.

    1989-01-01

    The area of the corpus callosum (CC) on midsagittal spin-echo sequence magnetic resonance (MR) scans was measured in 64 normal subjects and 12 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The normal subjects consisted of 32 males and 32 females, aged 25 to 83 years old. There was no significant age difference between males and females. Fifty-five out of the 64 subjects were right-handed (RH) and 9 were left-handed or ambidextrous (NRH). Among patients with AD, 5 were males and 7 were females, aged 53 to 79 years old. Diagnosis of AD was performed mainly based on clinical history, magnetic resonance image (MRI) and positron emission tomographic findings. The outline of the CC on midsagittal MR film was traced and the total callosal sectional area (CCT) as well as the anterior half (CCA), posterior half (CCP) and posterior 5th or splenium (CCS) area measurements were performed using a planimeter. In either normal males or females, the CCA showed a significant negative correlation with age, but the CCP and the CCS did not correlate with age. Total CC (CCT) area was 691.2±91.0 sq. mm for the whole group and no difference was found between males and females. When the CC area was normalized with respect to the midsagittal area of the supratentorial portion of the brain (MSB), females were found to have a large CC than males. No portion of the CC area was significantly different between RH and NRH subjects in absolute or normalized measures. Compared with 36 age-matched normals, patients with AD had smaller MSB and each portion of the CC, with significant reduction in the CCA and the CCT. In conclusion, relationships between age, sex and the size of the CC have been found, providing some insights into the connectivity of the human brain. Characteristics of white matter loss in AD were also clarified in this study. (author)

  12. Long-term results of ipsilateral radiotherapy for tonsil cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Tae Ryoolk; Wu, Hong Gyun [Dept. of Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of ipsilateral radiotherapy for the patient with well lateralized tonsil cancer: not cross midline and <1 cm of tumor invasion into the soft palate or base of tongue. From 2003 to 2011, twenty patients with well lateralized tonsil cancer underwent ipsilateral radiotherapy. Nineteen patients had T1-T2 tumors, and one patient had T3 tumor; twelve patients had N0-N2a disease and eight patients had N2b disease. Primary surgery followed by radiotherapy was performed in fourteen patients: four of these patients received chemotherapy. Four patients underwent induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). The remaining two patients received induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy and definitive CCRT, respectively. No patient underwent radiotherapy alone. We analyzed the pattern of failure and complications. The median follow-up time was 64 months (range, 11 to 106 months) for surviving patients. One patient had local failure at tumor bed. There was no regional failure in contralateral neck, even in N2b disease. At five-year, local progression-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and progression-free survival rates were 95%, 100%, and 95%, respectively. One patient with treatment failure died, and the five-year overall survival rate was 95%. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 2 xerostomia was found in one patient at least 6 months after the completion of radiotherapy. Ipsilateral radiotherapy is a reasonable treatment option for well lateralized tonsil cancer. Low rate of chronic xerostomia can be expected by sparing contralateral major salivary glands.

  13. Adenoid and tonsil surgeries in children: How relevant is pre-operative blood grouping and cross-matching?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Onotai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a part of pre-operative evaluation, several otolaryngologists group and cross-match blood routinely for children undergoing adenoid and tonsil surgeries. This practice has generated several debates either in support or against this practice. The aim of this study is to critically evaluate the incidence of post-tonsillectomy (with or without adenoidectomy bleeding and blood transfusions in otherwise healthy children with adenoid/tonsil pathologies conducted in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH. Patients and Methods: A descriptive retrospective study of children who underwent adenoid and tonsil surgeries in the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT surgery of UPTH from January 2003 to December 2012. Children with family history of bleeding disorders and derangement of clotting profile as well as different co-morbidity like sickle cell disease were excluded from this study. The patients′ data were retrieved from the registers of ENT out-patient clinics, theatre registers and patients case notes. Demographic data, indications for surgery, preoperative investigations, complications and management outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Results: Out of 145 children that had adenoid and tonsil surgeries; only 100 met the criteria for this study. The study subjects included 65 males and 35 females (male: female ratio 1.9:1 belonging to 0-16 years age group (mean age: 3.46 ± 2.82 years. The age group of 3-5 years had the highest (n = 40, 40% number of surgeries. Adenotonsillectomy was the commonest (n = 85, 85% surgery performed on patients who had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. The commonest (n = 6, 6% complication was haemorrhage, and only few (n = 3, 3% patients had blood transfusion. However, mortality was recorded in some (n = 3, 3% patients. Conclusion: This study confirms that the incidence of post adenoidectomy/tonsillectomy bleeding in otherwise healthy children is low and rarely requires blood transfusion

  14. Glomerular hypertrophy in subjects with low nephron number: contributions of sex, body size and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Victor G; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Zimanyi, Monika A; Armitage, James A; Hughson, Michael D; Kerr, Peter G; Bertram, John F

    2014-09-01

    We have shown that low nephron number (Nglom) is a strong determinant of individual glomerular volume (IGV) in male Americans. However, whether the same pattern is present in female Americans remains unclear. The contributions of body surface area (BSA) and race to IGV in the context of Nglom also require further evaluation. Kidneys without overt renal disease were collected at autopsy in Mississippi, USA. The extremes of female Nglom were used to define high and low Nglom for both sexes. Nglom and IGV were estimated by design-based stereology. A total of 24 African and Caucasian American females (n = 12 per race; 6 per Nglom extreme) were included. These subjects were subsequently matched to 24 comparable males by age and Nglom and to 18 additional males by age, Nglom and BSA. IGV average and variance were very similar in female African and Caucasian Americans with high and low Nglom. Males with low Nglom from both races showed greater IGV average and variance than comparable females matched by age and Nglom. These differences in IGV between sexes were not observed in Caucasian Americans with low Nglom that were matched by age, Nglom and BSA. In contrast, glomeruli from African Americans were larger than those from Caucasian Americans, especially in subjects with high Nglom. While female Americans with low Nglom did not show glomerular hypertrophy, comparable males with low Nglom showed marked glomerular hypertrophy that was closely associated with high BSA. Glomerular size in African Americans may be confounded by multiple additional factors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of in-feed versus injected oxytetracycline on piglet nasal and tonsil microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several studies have revealed the core microbiome of pig nasal and tonsil regions. However, little is known about how antibiotics and their different routes of administration affect the microbiome of these areas. Such questions are important areas to research since the tonsil and nasal regions are p...

  16. Detection and characterization of Ah receptor in tissue and cells from human tonsils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, A.; Okey, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Ah receptor was identified and characterized in cytosol and nuclear extracts from human tonsils obtained at surgery from children 2 to 6 years of age. Ah receptor was found in cytosol prepared from whole-tonsil homogenates as well as in cytosol and nuclear fractions prepared from tonsil lymphocytes or tonsil fibroblasts grown in primary culture. Cytosolic Ah receptor was detectable in tonsillar tissue with either halogenated (2,3,7,8-[3H]tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)) or nonhalogenated (3-[3H]methylcholanthrene and [3H]benzo[a]pyrene) aromatic hydrocarbons and sedimented at approximately 9 S after velocity sedimentation on sucrose gradients. The apparent binding affinity (Kd) of [3H]TCDD for Ah receptor ranged from 3 to 12 nM in cytosols from seven different donors. The same analyses indicated a concentration of Ah receptor in human tonsils of approximately 100-300 fmol/mg cytosolic protein. Incubation of either tonsil lymphocytes or tonsil fibroblasts with [3H]TCDD resulted in transformation of cytosolic Ah receptor to a nuclear binding form which could be detected as a specifically labeled peak sedimenting at approximately 6 S on sucrose gradients. These data demonstrate the existence of Ah receptor in human tonsils and suggest that this immune organ may be an appropriate model for further studies on the mechanism and manifestation of aromatic hydrocarbon-induced immunotoxicity in man

  17. BACTERIAL LYSATES FOR TOPICAL APPLICATION IN PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF CHRONIC TONSILLITIS AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Garashchenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have carried on the research of the influence Imudon exerts (during topical application on the run of chronic tonsillitis among 48 children aged between 5 and 10 years old, being dispensary registrants. The sublingual application of a medicine 6 pills daily within 20 days demonstrated the frequency reduction of chronic tonsillitis acerbations by 2.9 times, as well as the reduction of total need in systemic antibacterial treatment by 10 times. Apart from that, the frequency of S. pyogenes group a exposure reduced by 3 times. The researchers noticed the tendency to normalization of pharynx biocenosis. Thus, Imudon may be recommended for the daily courses of treatment to the people, suffering from chronic tonsillitis, palatine tonsil auxesis and recurrent tonsillo-pharyngites.Key words: chronic tonsillitis, children, prevention, bacterial lysates.

  18. The effect of font size and type on reading performance with Arabic words in normally sighted and simulated cataract subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z

    2007-05-01

    Previous investigations have shown that reading is the most common functional problem reported by patients at a low vision practice. While there have been studies investigating effect of fonts in normal and low vision patients in English, no study has been carried out in Arabic. Additionally, there has been no investigation into the use of optimum print sizes or fonts that should be used in Arabic books and leaflets for low vision patients. Arabic sentences were read by 100 normally sighted volunteers with and without simulated cataract. Subjects read two font types (Times New Roman and Courier) in three different sizes (N8, N10 and N12). The subjects were asked to read the sentences aloud. The reading speed was calculated as number of words read divided by the time taken, while reading rate was calculated as the number of words read correctly divided by the time taken. There was an improvement in reading performance of normally sighted and simulated visually impaired subjects when the print size increased. There was no significant difference in reading performance between the two types of font used at small print size, however the reading rate improved as print size increased with Times New Roman. The results suggest that the use of N12 print in Times New Roman enhanced reading performance in normally sighted and simulated cataract subjects.

  19. Detection of human papilloma virus in the tonsils of children undergoing tonsillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Moreira Xavier Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Human papilloma virus (HPV is related to respiratory mucosal diseases, such as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, as well as to upper-respiratory-tract malignancies. There are few reports concerning the prevalence of HPV in the upper respiratory tract of non-affected individuals. We examined the prevalence of HPV in the tonsils of children of the general population scheduled for tonsillectomy. Samples were taken from the tonsils of 100 children undergoing tonsillectomy and were then tested for HPV with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique, utilizing the generic primers MY09 and MY 11. The study excluded children known to have HPV and HIV-related diseases. Parents and legal guardians completed a standardized socio-demographic questionnaire. The questionnaire revealed that 84% of the mothers had at least one risk factor for genital HPV. None of the tonsil samples were positive for HPV. Apparently HPV does not commonly colonize the tonsils of children undergoing routine tonsillectomy.

  20. Duration of load behaviour of different sized straight timber beams subjected to bending in variable climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanhijärvi, A.; Galimard, P.; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1998-01-01

    The paper is the second in a series which sums up the results of an extensive project to quantify the duration-of-load (DOL) effect on different sized timber beams in different climates. The paper deals with straight (unnotched) beams. The results of various DOL-tests of stepwise and constant...

  1. Adaptive evolution of body size subject to indirect effect in trophic cascade system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Meng; Hao, Lina

    2017-09-01

    Trophic cascades represent a classic example of indirect effect and are wide-spread in nature. Their ecological impact are well established, but the evolutionary consequences have received even less theoretical attention. We theoretically and numerically investigate the trait (i.e., body size of consumer) evolution in response to indirect effect in a trophic cascade system. By applying the quantitative trait evolutionary theory and the adaptive dynamic theory, we formulate and explore two different types of eco-evolutionary resource-consumer-predator trophic cascade model. First, an eco-evolutionary model incorporating the rapid evolution is formulated to investigate the effect of rapid evolution of the consumer's body size, and to explore the impact of density-mediate indirect effect on the population dynamics and trait dynamics. Next, by employing the adaptive dynamic theory, a long-term evolutionary model of consumer body size is formulated to evaluate the effect of long-term evolution on the population dynamics and the effect of trait-mediate indirect effect. Those models admit rich dynamics that has not been observed yet in empirical studies. It is found that, both in the trait-mediated and density-mediated system, the body size of consumer in predator-consumer-resource interaction (indirect effect) evolves smaller than that in consumer-resource and predator-consumer interaction (direct effect). Moreover, in the density-mediated system, we found that the evolution of consumer body size contributes to avoiding consumer extinction (i.e., evolutionary rescue). The trait-mediate and density-mediate effects may produce opposite evolutionary response. This study suggests that the trophic cascade indirect effect affects consumer evolution, highlights a more comprehensive mechanistic understanding of the intricate interplay between ecological and evolutionary force. The modeling approaches provide avenue for study on indirect effects from an evolutionary perspective

  2. Molecular Mapping to Species Level of the Tonsillar Crypt Microbiota Associated with Health and Recurrent Tonsillitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anders; Fagö-Olsen, Helena; Sørensen, Christian Hjort; Kilian, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    The human palatine tonsils, which belong to the central antigen handling sites of the mucosal immune system, are frequently affected by acute and recurrent infections. This study compared the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts in children and adults affected by recurrent tonsillitis with that of healthy adults and children with tonsillar hyperplasia. An in-depth 16S rRNA gene based pyrosequencing approach combined with a novel strategy that included phylogenetic analysis and detection of species-specific sequence signatures enabled identification of the major part of the microbiota to species level. A complex microbiota consisting of between 42 and 110 taxa was demonstrated in both children and adults. This included a core microbiome of 12 abundant genera found in all samples regardless of age and health status. Yet, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria species, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were almost exclusively detected in children. In contrast, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was present in all samples. Obligate anaerobes like Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium were abundantly present in children, but the species diversity of Porphyromonas and Prevotella was larger in adults and included species that are considered putative pathogens in periodontal diseases, i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Unifrac analysis showed that recurrent tonsillitis is associated with a shift in the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Streptococcus intermedius and Prevotella melaninogenica/histicola were associated with recurrent tonsillitis in adults, whereas species traditionally associated with acute tonsillitis like pyogenic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were scarce. The findings suggest that recurrent tonsillitis is a polymicrobial infection in which interactions within consortia of taxa play an etiologic role. The study contributes to the human microbiome data, to the understanding of the

  3. Molecular mapping to species level of the tonsillar crypt microbiota associated with health and recurrent tonsillitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Jensen

    Full Text Available The human palatine tonsils, which belong to the central antigen handling sites of the mucosal immune system, are frequently affected by acute and recurrent infections. This study compared the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts in children and adults affected by recurrent tonsillitis with that of healthy adults and children with tonsillar hyperplasia. An in-depth 16S rRNA gene based pyrosequencing approach combined with a novel strategy that included phylogenetic analysis and detection of species-specific sequence signatures enabled identification of the major part of the microbiota to species level. A complex microbiota consisting of between 42 and 110 taxa was demonstrated in both children and adults. This included a core microbiome of 12 abundant genera found in all samples regardless of age and health status. Yet, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria species, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were almost exclusively detected in children. In contrast, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was present in all samples. Obligate anaerobes like Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium were abundantly present in children, but the species diversity of Porphyromonas and Prevotella was larger in adults and included species that are considered putative pathogens in periodontal diseases, i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Unifrac analysis showed that recurrent tonsillitis is associated with a shift in the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Streptococcus intermedius and Prevotella melaninogenica/histicola were associated with recurrent tonsillitis in adults, whereas species traditionally associated with acute tonsillitis like pyogenic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were scarce. The findings suggest that recurrent tonsillitis is a polymicrobial infection in which interactions within consortia of taxa play an etiologic role. The study contributes to the human microbiome data, to the

  4. Accumulation of selected elements in the pharyngeal tonsils of children as a result of secondary dust emission

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    Maria Gerycka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of secondary dust and car emission on the intoxication of adenoids. Material and methods. The amount of Pb, Be, Ba, Ca, Mg and Sr in pharyngeal tonsils of children living in Tychy (n 86, and in Chorzów (n 76 as well as the amount of the selected elements in suspended dust was determined by the ICP – AES method. The biological material had previously been subjected to mineralization using of nitric acid (V spectrally pure Merck. Results. Secondary emission as a potential additional source of trace elements in tonsils is described by secondary emission coefficient and by the additional weight of the metal present in general air pollution. Conclusions. The degree of accumulation of analyzed elements in the adenoid tissue mostly depends on the content of these elements in soluble form in suspended dust in the ground layer of air, as a result of secondary and car emissions.

  5. Neurotrophins and their receptors in human lingual tonsil: an immunohistochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; Bronzetti, Elena; Felici, Laura M; Alicino, Valentina; Ionta, Brunella; Bronzetti, Benedetto; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Grande, Claudia; Zamai, Loris; Pasquantonio, Guido; De Vincentiis, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Lymphoid organs are supplied by many nerve endings associated with different kinds of cells and macrophages. The role of this innervation on the release of locally active molecules is still unclear. Lingual tonsils belong to Waldeyer's Ring, in close association with palatine tonsils and nasopharyngeal (adenoids) tonsils, thus constituting part of NALT (nasal-associated lymphoid tissue) together with the tubal tonsils and lateral pharyngeal bands. In this study, we focused our attention on the expression of some neurotrophins (NTs) and their high- and low-affinity receptors in human lingual tonsils. Light immunohistochemistry showed that human tonsillar samples were generally positive for all the NTs investigated (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4) and their receptors (TrKA, TrKB, TrKC and p75) with some different expression levels. NGF and TrKC were strongly expressed in macrophages, but weakly in lymphocytes. However, BDNF and TrKB was highly expressed in lymphocytes and weaker in macrophages. The low-affinity receptor for NGF, p75, was mainly moderately expressed in the analysed samples. These results suggest the presence of a pattern of neurotrophin innervation in the human lingual tonsil which may play a role in sustaining inflammatory conditions and in modulating a close interaction between the nervous system and the different immune cellular subtypes.

  6. A predictive approach to selecting the size of a clinical trial, based on subjective clinical opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelhalter, D J; Freedman, L S

    1986-01-01

    The 'textbook' approach to determining sample size in a clinical trial has some fundamental weaknesses which we discuss. We describe a new predictive method which takes account of prior clinical opinion about the treatment difference. The method adopts the point of clinical equivalence (determined by interviewing the clinical participants) as the null hypothesis. Decision rules at the end of the study are based on whether the interval estimate of the treatment difference (classical or Bayesian) includes the null hypothesis. The prior distribution is used to predict the probabilities of making the decisions to use one or other treatment or to reserve final judgement. It is recommended that sample size be chosen to control the predicted probability of the last of these decisions. An example is given from a multi-centre trial of superficial bladder cancer.

  7. Prevalence of the Helicobacter pylori in the tonsils and adenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Bayindir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is an ongoing debate about the existence and effects of Helicobacter pylori (Hp in adenotonsillar tissue. OBJECTIVE: A clinical study was conducted to assess the existence of Hp in the adenoid and/or adenotonsillar tissues, which were surgically excised due to chronic adenotonsillitis. METHODS: Phosphoglucosamine mutase gene for the detection of Hp and cytotoxin-associated gene as virulence gene were examined in 84 adenotonsillar tissues obtained from 64 patients and patients' serum by using polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Hp IgG was detected in 57 (89% patients' serum. A total of seven tissue samples from 64 patients (10.9% were found positive for Hp DNA, of which five were adenoids and two were tonsil tissues. All polymerase chain reaction positive samples were also positive for the cytotoxin-associated gene, which is a virulence determinant for the organism. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that children are exposed to Hp at an early age of their life in this province. Hp may have a role in the pathogenesis of chronic adenotonsillitis, especially in endemic areas.

  8. Functional state of palatine tonsils in children with diabetes type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Афанасиевич Лайко

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Actuality. Chronic disease of lymphoepithelial throat structures (CHLTS in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM-1 are widespread according to our earlier studies. The frequent exacerbations lead to the rise of glycemia profile, worsening of patient life quality and effectiveness of the complex therapy of the main disease.Aim of research: to assess the functional state of palatine tonsils in children and teenagers with DM-1 and chronic tonsillitis.Materials and methods. During the period 2014-2015 years there was carried out clinical and laboratory examination of 51 children with DM-1 6-18 years old. All children were treated in endocrinological department of National child specialized hospital “Ohmatdit”. The main group of observance included 40 children with DM-1 and CT, the control one included 11 children and teenagers with DM-1 without ENT-pathology. All children of the main and control groups underwent cytological examination of the tonsillar crypt lacunas content.Results and discussion. The highest specific weight of the chronic diseases of lymphepithelial throat structures (CDLTS in the main group of observation was revealed at the presence of chronic tonsillitis. In children with DM-1was diagnosed CT – 17 (33,3 %, CT and nasal septum curvature– 16 (31,3 %, CT and adenoid – 9 (17,7 %, CT and palatine tonsils hypertrophy – 5 (9,8 %, CT and recidivous nasal bleedings – 4 (7,8 %. According to the results of this examination in children with CDLTS and DM-1 were separated the four cytological groups that characterize the functional state of palatine tonsils.I. Good functional power of palatine tonsils.II. High activity of lymphoid tissue of palatine tonsils.III. Compensated functional power of palatine tonsils.IV. Decompensation of palatine tonsils functions.Conclusion. Cytological examination of tonsillar crypt lacunas content in children and teenagers with DM-1 may be the accessible and informative method of assessment of

  9. A longer stay for the kissing disease: epidemiology of bacterial tonsillitis and infectious mononucleosis over a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, P; Saunders, J; Fenton, J E

    2013-02-01

    Anecdotally, infectious mononucleosis is considered a more severe infection than bacterial tonsillitis, requiring a longer hospital stay. However, there is little in the literature comparing the epidemiology of the two conditions. This study aimed to compare the epidemiology of bacterial tonsillitis and infectious mononucleosis, in particular any differences in the length of in-patient stay. The hospital in-patient enquiry system was used to analyse patients admitted with bacterial tonsillitis and infectious mononucleosis between 1990 and 2009 inclusive. There was a total of 3435 cases over the 20 years: 3064 with bacterial tonsillitis and 371 with infectious mononucleosis. The mean length of stay was 3.22 days for bacterial tonsillitis and 4.37 days for infectious mononucleosis. The median length of stay for each condition was compared using the Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test, and a significant difference detected (p mononucleosis have a significantly longer stay in hospital than those with bacterial tonsillitis.

  10. The role of environmental tobacco exposure and Helicobacter pylori infection in the risk of chronic tonsillitis in children

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    Chen Li’e

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a chronic infectious pathogen with high prevalence. This study investigated the interaction between environmental tobacco exposure and H. pylori infection on the incidence of chronic tonsillitis in Chinese children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study performed in an outpatient clinic in China. METHODS: Pediatric patients with chronic tonsillitis were enrolled. H. pylori infection was determined according to the presence of H. pylori CagA IgG antibodies. Serum cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure were determined for all participants. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in H. pylori infection between the children with chronic tonsillitis and children free of disease, but there was a significant difference in ETS between the two groups (P = 0.011. We next studied the association between ETS and chronic tonsillitis based on H. pylori infection status. In the patients with H. pylori infection, there was a significant difference in ETS distribution between the chronic tonsillitis and control groups (P = 0.022. Taking the participants without ETS as the reference, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that those with high ETS had higher susceptibility to chronic tonsillitis (adjusted OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.67-3.25; adjusted P < 0.001. However, among those without H. pylori infection, ETS did not predispose towards chronic tonsillitis. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that tobacco exposure should be a putative mediator risk factor to chronic tonsillitis among children with H. pylori infection.

  11. Assessing ventricular size: is subjective evaluation accurate enough? New MRI-based normative standards for 19-year-olds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aukland, Stein Magnus [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Institute of Surgical Sciences, Section for Radiology, Bergen (Norway); Odberg, Morten Duus [University of Bergen, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Section for Paediatrics, Bergen (Norway); Gunny, Roxanna; Chong, W.K. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Eide, Geir Egil [Haukeland University Hospital, Centre for Clinical Research, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, Bergen (Norway); Rosendahl, Karen [University of Bergen, Institute of Surgical Sciences, Section for Radiology, Bergen (Norway); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    To create new standards for radiological indices of dilated ventricles and to compare these with subjectively assessed ventricular size. One hundred healthy controls (54 females), birth weight above 3,000 g, were followed throughout childhood as part of a longitudinal study of ex-prematures. All had a 3 Tesla brain magnetic resonance scan at age 17-20, and the following measurements were performed: biparietal and occipitofrontal diameters, width and depth of the frontal and occipital horns, diameter of the third ventricle and the frontal sub-arachnoid space. Ventricular size was judged subjectively by two neuroradiologists as being normal, or mildly, moderately or severely dilated. Head circumference was 31 mm higher for males than for females (95% confidence interval (CI) 25-28, p < 0.001). Similar, ventricular size except for the depth of the right frontal horn was larger for male; however, the observed differences were partly accounted for by the larger head circumference. Normative sex specific standards for different cerebral measurements were presented as mean and ranges and additional 2.5, 10, 50, 90, 97.5 percentiles. The mean depth of the left ventricle was larger than the right for males, with an observed difference of 0.6 mm in male (95% CI 0.2-0.9, p = 0.005). The mean width of the left ventricle was larger than the right for females, with an observed difference of 0.4 mm in male (95% CI 0.1-0.7, p = 0.018). Two subjects were judged to have moderately and 36 to have mildly dilated ventricles by observer one, while figures for observer two were one and 14. Overall, the two observers agreed on 15 having either mild or moderate dilatation (kappa 0.43). For both sexes, the mean depth of the frontal horns as well as of the larger occipital horns differed significantly between the no dilatation and the mild/moderate dilatation groups. In our unselected cohort of healthy 19-year-olds, a high total of 14% was diagnosed to have dilated cerebral ventricles when

  12. Assessing ventricular size: is subjective evaluation accurate enough? New MRI-based normative standards for 19-year-olds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aukland, Stein Magnus; Odberg, Morten Duus; Gunny, Roxanna; Chong, W.K.; Eide, Geir Egil; Rosendahl, Karen

    2008-01-01

    To create new standards for radiological indices of dilated ventricles and to compare these with subjectively assessed ventricular size. One hundred healthy controls (54 females), birth weight above 3,000 g, were followed throughout childhood as part of a longitudinal study of ex-prematures. All had a 3 Tesla brain magnetic resonance scan at age 17-20, and the following measurements were performed: biparietal and occipitofrontal diameters, width and depth of the frontal and occipital horns, diameter of the third ventricle and the frontal sub-arachnoid space. Ventricular size was judged subjectively by two neuroradiologists as being normal, or mildly, moderately or severely dilated. Head circumference was 31 mm higher for males than for females (95% confidence interval (CI) 25-28, p < 0.001). Similar, ventricular size except for the depth of the right frontal horn was larger for male; however, the observed differences were partly accounted for by the larger head circumference. Normative sex specific standards for different cerebral measurements were presented as mean and ranges and additional 2.5, 10, 50, 90, 97.5 percentiles. The mean depth of the left ventricle was larger than the right for males, with an observed difference of 0.6 mm in male (95% CI 0.2-0.9, p = 0.005). The mean width of the left ventricle was larger than the right for females, with an observed difference of 0.4 mm in male (95% CI 0.1-0.7, p = 0.018). Two subjects were judged to have moderately and 36 to have mildly dilated ventricles by observer one, while figures for observer two were one and 14. Overall, the two observers agreed on 15 having either mild or moderate dilatation (kappa 0.43). For both sexes, the mean depth of the frontal horns as well as of the larger occipital horns differed significantly between the no dilatation and the mild/moderate dilatation groups. In our unselected cohort of healthy 19-year-olds, a high total of 14% was diagnosed to have dilated cerebral ventricles when

  13. Evidence of a true pharyngeal tonsil in birds: a novel lymphoid organ in Dromaius novaehollandiae and Struthio camelus (Palaeognathae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crole Martina R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tonsils are secondary lymphoid organs located in the naso- and oropharynx of most mammalian species. Most tonsils are characterised by crypts surrounded by dense lymphoid tissue. However, tonsils without crypts have also been recognised. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, although not well-organised and lacking tonsillar crypts, is abundant in the avian oropharynx and has been referred to as the “pharyngeal tonsil”. In this context the pharyngeal folds present in the oropharynx of ratites have erroneously been named the pharyngeal tonsils. This study distinguishes between the different types and arrangements of lymphoid tissue in the pharyngeal region of D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus and demonstrates that both species possess a true pharyngeal tonsil which fits the classical definition of tonsils in mammals. Results The pharyngeal tonsil (Tonsilla pharyngea of D. novaehollandiae was located on the dorsal free surface of the pharyngeal folds and covered by a small caudo-lateral extension of the folds whereas in S. camelus the tonsil was similarly located on the dorsal surface of the pharyngeal folds but was positioned retropharyngeally and encapsulated by loose connective tissue. The pharyngeal tonsil in both species was composed of lymph nodules, inter-nodular lymphoid tissue, mucus glands, crypts and intervening connective tissue septa. In S. camelus a shallow tonsillar sinus was present. Aggregated lymph nodules and inter-nodular lymphoid tissue was associated with the mucus glands on the ventral surface of the pharyngeal folds in both species and represented the Lymphonoduli pharyngeales. Similar lymphoid tissue, but more densely packed and situated directly below the epithelium, was present on the dorsal, free surface of the pharyngeal folds and represented a small, non-follicular tonsil. Conclusions The follicular pharyngeal tonsils in D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus are distinct from the pharyngeal folds in

  14. Incidental Mycobacterium-induced granulomatous inflammation of the follicular pharyngeal tonsils in a South African farmed ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina R. Crole

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycobacteriosis (AM is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium aviumcomplex (MAC, which can spread from avians to other farmed animals such as cattle and pigs as well as to humans. This study is the first report of granulomatous inflammation, as a result of avian mycobacteriosis, in the follicular pharyngeal tonsils of a farmed ostrich. The head of an apparently healthy farmed adult ostrich was obtained after slaughter. Each pharyngeal fold displayed a large tissue mass. This tissue was routinely prepared for light microscopy and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid Schiff, Grocott methenamine silver, Gram and Ziehl-Neelsen. Immunohistochemistry (IHC and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed to identify Mycobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, respectively. Histologically, the tissue masses consisted of confluent mature micro-granulomata that were characterised by central caseous necrosis surrounded by multinucleated giant cells, macrophages and lymphoid cells and an outer mature fibrous connective tissue capsule. Within some foci of caseous necrosis were variably sized colonies of small, Gram-negative, acid-fast bacilli, which showed positive IHC labelling for Mycobacterium spp., leading to a presumptive diagnosis of AM. PCR thus proved useful in excluding the presence of notifiable Mycobacteriumspp. The significance and role of the pharyngeal tonsils of ratites in diseases such as AM warrant specific attention. Moreover, as ratites are known to present with AM infections with apparently no visible loss in body condition, as presumably occurred in the present case, it is imperative that unusual masses in apparently healthy ratites be thoroughly investigated.

  15. Size-dependent thermal stability analysis of graded piezomagnetic nanoplates on elastic medium subjected to various thermal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the thermal stability of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic functionally graded (METE-FG) nanoplates based on the nonlocal theory and a refined plate model. The METE-FG nanoplate is subjected to the external electric potential, magnetic potential and different temperature rises. Interaction of elastic medium with the METE-FG nanoplate is modeled via Winkler-Pasternak foundation model. The governing equations are derived by using the Hamilton principle and solved by using an analytical method to determine the critical buckling temperatures. To verify the validity of the developed model, the results of the present work are compared with those available in the literature. A detailed parametric study is conducted to study the influences of the nonlocal parameter, foundation parameters, temperature rise, external electric and magnetic potentials on the size-dependent thermal buckling characteristics of METE-FG nanoplates.

  16. Size-dependent piezoelectric energy-harvesting analysis of micro/nano bridges subjected to random ambient excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radgolchin, Moeen; Moeenfard, Hamid

    2018-02-01

    The construction of self-powered micro-electro-mechanical units by converting the mechanical energy of the systems into electrical power has attracted much attention in recent years. While power harvesting from deterministic external excitations is state of the art, it has been much more difficult to derive mathematical models for scavenging electrical energy from ambient random vibrations, due to the stochastic nature of the excitations. The current research concerns analytical modeling of micro-bridge energy harvesters based on random vibration theory. Since classical elasticity fails to accurately predict the mechanical behavior of micro-structures, strain gradient theory is employed as a powerful tool to increase the accuracy of the random vibration modeling of the micro-harvester. Equations of motion of the system in the time domain are derived using the Lagrange approach. These are then utilized to determine the frequency and impulse responses of the structure. Assuming the energy harvester to be subjected to a combination of broadband and limited-band random support motion and transverse loading, closed-form expressions for mean, mean square, correlation and spectral density of the output power are derived. The suggested formulation is further exploited to investigate the effect of the different design parameters, including the geometric properties of the structure as well as the properties of the electrical circuit on the resulting power. Furthermore, the effect of length scale parameters on the harvested energy is investigated in detail. It is observed that the predictions of classical and even simple size-dependent theories (such as couple stress) appreciably differ from the findings of strain gradient theory on the basis of random vibration. This study presents a first-time modeling of micro-scale harvesters under stochastic excitations using a size-dependent approach and can be considered as a reliable foundation for future research in the field of

  17. Detection of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp funduliforme in tonsillitis in young adults by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders; Hagelskjær Kristensen, Lena; Prag, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Throat swabs from 61 patients, aged 18-32 years, with non-streptococcal tonsillitis (NST) and 92 healthy controls were examined for the presence of Fusobacterium necrophorum DNA using a novel TaqMan-based real-time quantitative PCR assay for F. necrophorum subspecies. The assay was based on the g...

  18. Peritonsillaer absces. Forekomst af operationskraevende sygdom i tilbageblevne tonsil efter unilateral tonsillektomi à chaud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, C; Sørensen, J A; Andersen, N H

    1991-01-01

    .3% of the patients under 30 years of age were readmitted for surgery on the remaining tonsil during the follow up period. Only 0.5% of the patients over 30 years were readmitted. Previous investigations have shown increasing frequency of pharyngitis after bilateral tonsillectomy. The present authors suggest...

  19. Marek’s disease virus induced transient atrophy of cecal tonsils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although bursal and thymic atrophy associated with Marek’s disease (MD) is well established and characterized, the effect of Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection on lymphoid aggregates within the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is not known. The cecal tonsils (CT) are the two largest lympho...

  20. Detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in the tonsils of pigs with proliferative enteropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian; Lindecrona, R. H.

    2000-01-01

    to necropsy but not in four pigs with moderate PE lesions. However, L. intracellularis was detected in the tonsils of 4/9 pigs with PE complicated with necroses and in 4/4 pigs with proliferative haemorrhagic enteropathy in which L. intracellularis antigen also was demonstrated in tonsillar macrophages...

  1. Evaluation of a PCR for detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in mixed bacterial cultures from tonsils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, T.; Ahrens, Peter; Nielsen, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    strains of A. lignieresii. The lower detection limit of the PCR test was 10(3) A. pleuropneumoniae CFU/PCR test tube and was not affected by addition of 10(6) E. coli CFU/PCR test tube. Mixed bacterial cultures from tonsils of 101 pigs from 9 different herds were tested by culture and by PCR using four...

  2. Histology, Immunohistochemistry and Ultrastructure of the Bovine Palatine Tonsil with Special Emphasis on Reticular Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paired palatine tonsils are located at the junction of the nasopharynx and oropharynx; ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through either the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular and functional composi...

  3. Disposable swim diaper retention of Cryptosporidium-sized particles on human subjects in a recreational water setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amburgey, James E; Anderson, J Brian

    2011-12-01

    Cryptosporidium is a chlorine-resistant protozoan parasite responsible for the majority of waterborne disease outbreaks in recreational water venues in the USA. Swim diapers are commonly used by diaper-aged children participating in aquatic activities. This research was intended to evaluate disposable swim diapers for retaining 5-μm diameter polystyrene microspheres, which were used as non-infectious surrogates for Cryptosporidium oocysts. A hot tub recirculating water without a filter was used for this research. The microsphere concentration in the water was monitored at regular intervals following introduction of microspheres inside of a swim diaper while a human subject undertook normal swim/play activities. Microsphere concentrations in the bulk water showed that the majority (50-97%) of Cryptosporidium-sized particles were released from the swim diaper within 1 to 5 min regardless of the swim diaper type or configuration. After only 10 min of play, 77-100% of the microspheres had been released from all swim diapers tested. This research suggests that the swim diapers commonly used by diaper-aged children in swimming pools and other aquatic activities are of limited value in retaining Cryptosporidium-sized particles. Improved swim diaper solutions are necessary to efficiently retain pathogens and effectively safeguard public health in recreational water venues.

  4. Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughter pig tonsils: enumeration and detection by enrichment versus direct plating culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Inge; Habib, Ihab; De Zutter, Lieven

    2010-02-01

    Tonsil samples from 139 slaughter pigs were examined for the presence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica by enrichment procedures based on the standard method ISO 10273:2003. In addition, samples were tested by direct plating method to evaluate its efficiency compared to the enrichment culture methods and to quantify the level of contamination in porcine tonsils. In total, 52 samples (37.4%) were positive for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, all belonging to bioserotype 4/O:3. Fifty out of the 52 positive samples (96.2%) were detected by direct plating. Enumeration showed an average concentration of 4.5 log(10) CFU g(-1) and 4.4 log(10) CFU g(-1) tonsil on Salmonella-Shigella-desoxycholate-calcium chloride (SSDC) and cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar plates, respectively. The enrichment procedures recommended by the ISO 10273:2003 method were not optimal for the isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig tonsils: two days enrichment in irgasan-ticarcillin-potassium chlorate (ITC) broth resulted in an isolation rate of 84.6%, while 5 days enrichment in peptone-sorbitol-bile (PSB) broth recovered only 59.6% of positive samples. Reducing the enrichment time in PSB from 5 to 2 days resulted in a significantly higher recovery rate (94.2%) and might serve as an appropriate enrichment protocol for the isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig tonsils. Compared to enrichment culture methods, results based on direct plating can be obtained in a shorter time course and provide quantitative data that might be needed for further risk assessment studies.

  5. STUDIES ON DETERMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL LEVELS OF ZINC IONS IN THE PHARYNGEAL TONSILS

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    Ewa Nogaj

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The zinc is one of the most important microelements. Element this conditions has corrected the functioning the nervous system of, immunological, sense of taste and smell. It the weakness of activity was manifested was the shortage of zinc and children’s motive development. The aim of this study was samples of pharyngeal tonsils from children living on Malopolska Region, Silesia and village (made up the area of reference of Southern Poland. We investigated population 95 children, in this 40 girls (42% and 55 boys (58% in age from 2 till 15 years (average 6,8 years. The content of zinc was determined by ICP – AES method. Average the content of zinc in pharyngeal tonsils in whole studied children’s population carried out 74,51 µg/g. The statistical differences were not affirmed among average (the average geometrical content of ions of zinc in studied come from girls – 73,15 µg/g and the boys – 75,49 µg/g. The differences between sex appear, in case of ranges of changes, at boys range this it is clearly larger (55,86–97,59 µg/g in comparison to girls (58,34–88,68 µg/g how also near comparison of content answering 95 percentylowi (the incidental resulting with large environmental exposition contents it in the pharyngeal boys’ tonsils is larger – (87,73 µg/g in comparison to young girls (81,98 µg/g. It was established, on basis of report of changes quotient content zinc in pharyngeal tonsils in function of changes of content zinc in air dust, the physiological quantities of zinc in pharyngeal tonsil on level 42 µg/g.

  6. Acute Streptococcal Tonsillitis in a Child. Questions asked by Life (Scientific Answers to the Question Put by the Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Nagornaya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of acute tonsillitis remains relevant in clinical pediatrics. A special role in its etiology belongs to group A β-hemolytic streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes, which is found in every fourth child with acute bacterial tonsillitis. In this article there is presented an analysis of the clinical case of streptococcal tonsillitis in children and the pathogen, epidemiology and prognosis of the disease are described. The authors reviewed the current diagnosis criteria and international treatment approaches. There has been grounded the use of cefuroxime axetil for eradication of Streptococcus pyogenes.

  7. Histology and scanning electron microscopy of the tubal tonsil of goats

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    V. R. Indu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To observe the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM of the caprine tubal tonsil. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on six crossbred male goats of 6 months of age. From the median sections of the head, tissue pieces from the nasopharynx around the auditory tube were collected and fixed for histology and SEM. Results: Tonsillar lymphoid tissue was located in the nasopharynx ventral to the auditory tube opening in the lateral wall of the pharynx. The height of the surface epithelium of the tubal tonsil measured 80.17±1.08 μm and was a pseudostratified ciliated columnar type with basal, supporting, and goblet cells. Above the dome of lymphoid nodules, the epithelium was modified into a follicle associated epithelium (FAE, also called lympho-epithelium or reticular epithelium and was characterized by the absence of goblet cells and cilia, reduced number of cell layers, and a large number of lymphoid cells due to interrupted basement membrane. The height of FAE was smaller than that of the surface epithelium and measured 34.33±0.92 μm. The surface of tubal tonsil showed folds and invaginations, which formed crypts. The lamina propria-submucosa underneath the epithelium was formed by the meshwork of reticular and, thin and loose collagen fibers with dome-like accumulation of lymphoid nodules. In the secondary lymphoid nodules, a corona, parafollicular area, and interfnodular area were observed. The average number of lymphoid nodules counted per field under low power magnification of microscope was 1.17±0.17, and the internodular distance was 34.00±4.37 μm. The mean diameter of lymphoid nodules was 566.67±11.45 μm and the lymphocyte count per nodule was 14741.67±174.36. The number of plasma cells counted per field under low power was 44.38±2.90 below the surface epithelium. The tubal tonsil was not encapsulated. In SEM, the surface epithelium of the tubal tonsils presented ciliated cells, microvillus (MV cells, and

  8. Histology and scanning electron microscopy of the tubal tonsil of goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indu, V. R.; Lucy, K. M.; Chungath, J. J.; Ashok, N.; Maya, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To observe the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the caprine tubal tonsil. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on six crossbred male goats of 6 months of age. From the median sections of the head, tissue pieces from the nasopharynx around the auditory tube were collected and fixed for histology and SEM. Results: Tonsillar lymphoid tissue was located in the nasopharynx ventral to the auditory tube opening in the lateral wall of the pharynx. The height of the surface epithelium of the tubal tonsil measured 80.17±1.08 µm and was a pseudostratified ciliated columnar type with basal, supporting, and goblet cells. Above the dome of lymphoid nodules, the epithelium was modified into a follicle associated epithelium (FAE), also called lympho-epithelium or reticular epithelium and was characterized by the absence of goblet cells and cilia, reduced number of cell layers, and a large number of lymphoid cells due to interrupted basement membrane. The height of FAE was smaller than that of the surface epithelium and measured 34.33±0.92 µm. The surface of tubal tonsil showed folds and invaginations, which formed crypts. The lamina propria-submucosa underneath the epithelium was formed by the meshwork of reticular and, thin and loose collagen fibers with dome-like accumulation of lymphoid nodules. In the secondary lymphoid nodules, a corona, parafollicular area, and interfnodular area were observed. The average number of lymphoid nodules counted per field under low power magnification of microscope was 1.17±0.17, and the internodular distance was 34.00±4.37 µm. The mean diameter of lymphoid nodules was 566.67±11.45 µm and the lymphocyte count per nodule was 14741.67±174.36. The number of plasma cells counted per field under low power was 44.38±2.90 below the surface epithelium. The tubal tonsil was not encapsulated. In SEM, the surface epithelium of the tubal tonsils presented ciliated cells, microvillus (MV) cells, and goblet cells. The

  9. THE ROLE OF PHYTOTHERAPY IN OPTIMIZATION OF REHABILITATION AT A HEALTH RESORT IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC TONSILLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Kondrat’eva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors present results of a treatment with complex of physical methods and phyto drug Tonsilgon N (Althaeae officinalis L., Chamomilla recutita, Equisetum arvense L., Juglans regia L., Achillea millefolium L., Quercus robur, Taraxacum officinale of 35 children with chronic tonsillitis at a health resort. Clinical, immunological effectiveness and safety was estimated. Inclusion of the drug in treatment scheme resulted in decrease of morbidity with acute respiratory infections and rate of exacerbations of tonsillitis. Phyto drug has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating activity manifested in increase of level of humoral factors in nasal secretion and cytoprotective effect related to positive changes in functional state of epithelium of nasal mucous membrane in children with chronic tonsillitis.Key words: children, chronic tonsillitis, rehabilitation, phytotherapy.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:58-63

  10. The Effects of Counterforce Brace Size on the Wrist Range of Motility, Pain, Grip & Wrist Extension Sterngth in Normal Subjects and Patients with Tennis Elbow

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    Ali Asghar Jameh-Bozorgi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Counter force brace is one of the most usefull treatments for lateral opicondylitis (Tennis elbow because it decreases grip pain and increases the power of grip, power of wrist extension and Wrist Range of Motility. The purpose of this quasi experimental (repeated measurementsstudy was to determine the effect of 3 counterforce brace sizes on the wrist R.O.M, grip and wrist extension strength and pain intensity in two groups of healthy subjects and patients with tennis elbow. Materials & Methods: 18 normal subjects & 18 patients with tennis elbow were selected simple conveniently and were tested with no brace and 3 size of counterforce (1,2 and 3 inches. The R.O.M , strength and pain intensity were measured by jamar goniometry and Nicholas MMT dynamometry & VAS, respectively. Results: 1 With all sizes there was a significant decrease of R.O.M on normal subjects but no significant difference in patients. 2 There was a significant decrease of grip strength with 1-inch brace in normal subjects but a significant increase of grip strength with 2 and 3-inch brace in patiens. 3 All sizes of brace caused significant decrease of extension strength in normal subjects but increase in patients. 4All size caused significant decrease of pain intensity that was more considerable in the case of 2 and 3 inch size. Conclusion: The results shows that the counterforce brace may be considered as an effective treatment for increasing strength and decreasing pain in patients with tennis elbow.

  11. Research study of the treatment efficacy of staphylococcia in the palatine tonsils by using Raman-scattering spectroscopy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, E. V.; Timchenko, P. E.; Asadova, A. A.; Ityaksov, Yu. D.; Tyumchenkova, A. S.

    2017-08-01

    Analysis of effectiveness of the staphylococcal infections treatment in the tonsils is carried out using Raman spectroscopy method. Spectral changes were established in the treatment of palatine tonsils with the antibiotic Amoksiklav. It was shown that when the antibiotic dosage is 500mg / 10ml, the lines disappear at wave numbers 735 cm-1 and 783 cm-1, 986 cm-1, and 1633 cm-1, corresponding to adenine, cytosine, proteins, and amide I, which indicates the effectiveness of treatment.

  12. Water Resource Vulnerability Characteristics by District’s Population Size in a Changing Climate Using Subjective and Objective Weights

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    Eun-Sung Chung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to derive water resource vulnerability characteristics for South Korea according to individual district populations in a changing climate. The definition of water resource vulnerability in this study consists of potential flood damage and potential water scarcity. To quantify these vulnerabilities, key factors, or indicators affecting vulnerability, are integrated with a technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS, which is a multi-criteria decision-making approach to determine the optimal alternative by considering both the best and worst solutions. The weight for each indicator is determined based on both the Delphi technique and Shannon’s entropy, which are employed to reduce the uncertainty in the process of determining the weights. The Delphi technique reflects expert opinions, and Shannon’s entropy reflects the uncertainty of the performance data. Under A1B climate change scenarios, medium-sized districts (200,000–300,000 inhabitants are the most vulnerable regarding potential flood damage; the largest districts (exceeding 500,000 inhabitants are found to be the most vulnerable with respect to potential water scarcity. This result indicates that the local governments of cities or districts with more than 200,000 inhabitants should implement better preventative measures for water resources. In addition, the Delphi and entropy methods show the same rankings for flood vulnerability; however, these approaches produce slightly different rankings regarding water scarcity vulnerability. Therefore, it is suggested that rankings from not only subjective but also objective weights should be considered in making a final decision to implement specific adaptive measures to climate change.

  13. Effect of sampling and short isolation methodologies on the recovery of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from pig tonsils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Inge; Berkvens, Dirk; De Zutter, Lieven

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sampling (swab samples compared to destructive samples) on isolation rates of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from pig tonsils. Moreover, the relative efficiency of different rapid, routinely applicable isolation methods was evaluated. Therefore, swab and destructive samples from tonsils of 120 pigs at slaughter were analyzed in parallel using direct plating and different enrichment methods. Salmonella-Shigella-desoxycholate-calcium chloride (SSDC) agar, cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar, and Yersinia enterocolitica chromogenic medium (YeCM) were used as selective agar media. For enrichment, irgasan-ticarcillin-potassium chlorate (ITC) broth and peptone-sorbitol-bile (PSB) broth were incubated at 25°C for 48 h. Overall, 55 tonsils (45.8%) were positive for Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3. Recovery was significantly higher using the destructive method compared to the swabbing method. Direct plating resulted in 47 and 28 Y. enterocolitica-positive destructive and swab samples, respectively. Alkali treatment of PSB and ITC enrichment broths significantly increased recovery of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from destructive tonsil samples. The performance of YeCM for qualitative and quantitative isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig tonsils was equal to SSDC and CIN. In conclusion, direct plating and ISO 10273: 2003 with minor modifications are suitable and rapid methods for isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from destructive tonsil samples.

  14. Pulsating Tonsil Due to Medial Displacement of the Internal Carotid Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsini, Albaraa Y; Ibrahim, Alsheikhi

    2017-05-06

    BACKGROUND The internal carotid artery (ICA) is about 2.5 cm away from the tonsils. It has no branches in the cervical portion. ICA anomalies of the neck zone may result in a massive arterial bleeding during pharynx and neck surgery. Due to these anomalies, the surgeon must be aware of this risk during tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, and pharyngeal operations.  CASE REPORT A 23-year-old woman who was discovered to have an acute S curling-type anomaly of the ICA in contact with the lateral border of the right tonsil during a work-up for a tonsillectomy. This anomaly was incidentally discovered via computed tomography (CT) with contrast. In re-evaluating the course of treatment, we found a severe S-shape kink on the right side, bringing it close to the right tonsil by approximately 2 mm, and putting it at severe risk of injury during a simple tonsillectomy, possibly exposing the patient to serious bleeding. Partial tonsillectomy was performed for this patient with the aim to preserve and not expose the internal carotid artery. Pulsation of right tonsil was recorded. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery. CONCLUSIONS Undetected ICA anomaly variation can lead to fatal bleeding during a simple procedure, like tonsillectomy. We recommend vigilance during tonsillectomy if one is using a hot dissection method versus a cold dissection method, which may allow for detection of a perioperative ICA anomaly. Tonsillectomy performed by a junior resident should be under direct supervision, particularly if the hot dissection method is used.

  15. Molecular mapping to species level of the tonsillar crypt microbiota associated with health and recurrent tonsillitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders; Fagö-Olsen, Helena; Sørensen, Christian Hjort

    2013-01-01

    and included species that are considered putative pathogens in periodontal diseases, i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Unifrac analysis showed that recurrent tonsillitis is associated with a shift in the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts. Fusobacterium...... were almost exclusively detected in children. In contrast, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was present in all samples. Obligate anaerobes like Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium were abundantly present in children, but the species diversity of Porphyromonas and Prevotella was larger in adults...

  16. The metabolically active bacterial microbiome of tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes of slaughter pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne eMann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of microbiomes in lymphatic organs is relevant for basic and applied research into explaining microbial translocation processes and understanding cross-contamination during slaughter. This study aimed to investigate whether metabolically active bacteria (MAB could be detected within tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes (MLNs of pigs. The hypervariable V1-V2 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes was amplified from cDNA from tonsils and MLNs of eight clinically healthy slaughter pigs. Pyrosequencing yielded 82,857 quality-controlled sequences, clustering into 576 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, which were assigned to 230 genera and 16 phyla. The actual number of detected OTUs per sample varied highly (23-171 OTUs. Prevotella zoogleoformans and Serratia proteamaculans (best type strain hits were most abundant (10.6% and 41.8% respectively in tonsils and MLNs, respectively. To explore bacterial correlation patterns between samples of each tissue, pairwise Spearman correlations (rs were calculated. In total, 194 strong positive and negative correlations |rs| ≥ 0.6 were found. We conclude that (i lymphatic organs harbor a high diversity of metabolically active bacteria, (ii the occurrence of viable bacteria in lymph nodes is not restricted to pathological processes and (iii lymphatic tissues may serve as a contamination source in pig slaughterhouses. This study confirms the necessity of the EFSA regulation with regard to a meat inspection based on visual examinations to foster a minimization of microbial contamination.

  17. Histology of palate and soft palate tonsil of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teófilo, T S; Morais, M R P T; Dias, G F; Diniz, A N; Chaves, H S A; Fontenele-Neto, J D

    2014-10-01

    Peccaries are characterized by a prominent skin gland, known as scent gland, which is located in the middle of the rump. These animals are able to survive in a great variety of habitats, from humid tropical forests to semi-arid areas. They are omnivorous animals, and their diet includes fibrous material, vegetables, fruits, small vertebrates and insects. Collared peccary hard palate and soft palate tonsils were studied, macroscopic morphometric data were collected and tissue samples were paraffin-embedded. Sections were stained with HE, Gomori's trichrome and von Kossa; the first two were used to study general organization and the latter to detect calcium deposits. The hard palate showed one incisive papilla followed by several rugae united by a distinct raphe. The hard palate is lined by a keratinised squamous epithelium resting on a dense connective, whereas in the soft palate, the epithelium is parakeratinised and showed lymphocyte infiltration. The palate showed several pacinian corpuscles in the propria-submucosa. Two ovoid-shaped tonsils were found in the soft palate, and several crypts were observed on its surface. The epithelium was highly infiltrated by lymphocytes, and within the crypts, tonsilloliths were frequently observed. The study showed that the general organization of collared peccary palate is similar to other species, but in its oropharynx, only the soft palate tonsil was present and the pacinian corpuscles formed small aggregates. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. FEATURES IMMUNOLOGIC INDICATORS OF CHRONIC TONSILLITIS ASSOCIATED WITH EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchma I.U

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic tonsillitis are the most common diseases of the upper respiratory tract. One of the causes of tonsillitis, with severe clinical manifestations or erased is the Epstein - Barr virus (EBV. According to the literature, more than 90% of the adult population infected with EBV and are lifelong carriers of the virus. After primary infection replication of the virus in asymptomatic or in the case of a weakened immune system may develop infectious mononucleosis. Primary EBV infection in adolescence and adults is much greater than in children and often causes the formation of chronic forms. The main entrance gate is EBV oropharyngeal epithelium. In epithelial cells undergoing complete EBV replication with lysis of cells and the formation of a large number of virions. EBV infects B lymphocytes through the interaction of the surface gp320 virus with CD21 (receptor for complement component C3d. In EBV-infected B lymphocytes are two possible kinds of replication: lytic and latent process. During replication of EBV lytic expressed approximately 100 proteins are immunogenic but are 4 types of proteins, which have specific antibodies: early antigen - EA; viral capsid antigen - VCA; Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen - EBNA; latent membrane protein - LMP. LMP-1 induced bcl-2 (a blocker of apoptosis in B-cells and promotes proliferation and migration of B-lymphocytes. Thus, EBV infection is characterized by widespread, reactivation of infection from infected parts that most often manifests itself with recurrent infection with symptoms of chronic tonsillitis. Objective: what features of general and local immunological parameters inherent in chronic tonsillitis in the acute stage, caused by reactivation of EBV infection. Materials and methods. The study included 311 patients with chronic tonsillitis subcompensated in the acute stage. Microbiological testing of samples produced from the throat, determined EBV DNA in saliva, EVB-VCA-IgM, EVB-EA-IgG and EVB-NA-IgG in

  19. Four cases of MALT lymphoma arising in the lingual tonsil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogihara, Hitomi; Yuta, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Motoko; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Hattori, Reiko; Imai, Hiroshi; Majima, Yuichi; Tanaka, Chikako

    2007-01-01

    We report four cases of lingual tonsillar MALT (mucosal associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma. The cases consisted of a 68-year-old woman, a 60-year-old woman, a 55-year-old woman, and a 75-year-old man. The clinical stages of these cases were IIA, IA, IV (invasion to bone marrow) and IA, respectively. As some types of lingual tonsillar MALT lymphomas show hypertrophy of the lymphoid tissue but not a mass, it is not easy to make a diagnosis of MALT lymphoma only by fiberscopic findings. Furthermore, the small size of biopsy specimens or tissue damaged by forceps can show a false negative consult. Repeat biopsies are sometimes required for a definitive diagnosis. It is important to take large biopsy specimens with little damage, and to discuss well with pathologists. (author)

  20. Updating the treatment of recurrent tonsillitis in adults. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina GASCÓN-RUBIO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: Acute pharyngitis in adults (APA is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in primary care. The main objective of this review is to update the therapeutic options for the prevention and treatment of APA and to determine which interventions have the greatest impact in reducing morbidity and improving the quality of life of patients, which directly affects the consumption of health resources. Material and Methods: First clinical criteria of the FAA, indications of tonsillectomy and patterns of antibiotic therapy according to clinical guidelines of national and international scientific societies were defined. Subsequently, the literature related to the treatment of the FAA including other therapeutic options not covered in previous clinical guidelines (P. Leucotomos extract, vaccination by the mucosal route, AM3 and beta-glucans, homeopathy and herbal medicine was revised. ClinicalKey bases and PubMed data were used. Results: The comparison of the studies was difficult due to the disparity of criteria for inclusion and diagnostics, sample sizes, time tracking and poor uniformity in the clinical scales measuring variations. Conclusions: Therefore we cannot conclude whether a therapeutic option is more effective than another in the treatment and prevention of adult APA.

  1. Do the cerebellar tonsils move during flexion and extension of the neck in patients with Chiari I malformation? A radiological study with clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Kirkpatrick, Christina M; Rizk, Elias; Chern, Joshua J; Oskouian, Rod J; Oakes, W Jerry

    2016-03-01

    In the past, diagnosis of the Chiari I malformation has primarily been made on midsagittal MRI. We hypothesized that based on the frequent presentation of opisthotonos in patients with hindbrain hernia (primarily Chiari II malformation but sometimes Chiari I malformation) that the hyperextension might be a compensatory technique used by such patients to bring the cerebellar tonsils up out of the cervical spine. This prospective study reviewed imaging of patients with Chiari I malformation who underwent flexion/extension MRI for evaluation of their hindbrain herniation. Age-matched controls were used for comparison. In general, there was elevation of the cerebellar tonsils with extension and increased descent with flexion of the cervical spine. In 72 % of patients, flexion of the neck resulted in descent of the cerebellar tonsils. In 64 % of patients, extension of the neck resulted in ascent of the cerebellar tonsils. In the 14 patients with an associated syrinx, 71 % were found to have caudal movement of the cerebellar tonsils with neck flexion, and only 43 % were observed to have any movement of the cerebellar tonsils in neck extension compared to patients without a syrinx where ascent of the tonsils was seen in only nine during neck extension. Two patients were observed to have the reverse finding of ascent of the cerebellar tonsils with neck flexion and descent of the cerebellar tonsils with neck extension. Five patients had no movement of the cerebellar tonsils in either flexion or extension of the neck, and one of these had a small syrinx. Although minimal and not in all patients, we observed elevation of the herniated cerebellar tonsils with extension of the cervical spine in patients with Chiari I malformation. This finding provides evidence as to why some patients with hindbrain herniation present with opisthotonos and supports earlier findings that CSF flow is reduced at the craniocervical junction in flexion in patients with Chiari I malformation.

  2. Generation of benchmark DVH's for normal tissues in IMRT for base of tongue and tonsil cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.S.; Arun Singh, O.; Goswami, P.; Bhardwaj, A.; Santam; Susmita, Goshal; Sharma, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    IMRT is the treatment of choice for treatment of prostate and H and N cancer treatment but it take quality of time to generate an optimal treatment plan and Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) varies significantly from one plan to other patient plan which is difficult to compare. Here the authors propose to generate bench mark DVH's for normal tissues for Base of tongue (BOT) and Tonsil cancer treatment to bring consistency in selection of plans and reduce the overall time of planning and comparison b/n different plan will be simpler and easier. Here the authors propose to generate benchmark DVH for spinal cord, larynx, pharynx, parotid and brain stem for BOT and tonsil patients treated with Intensity modulated radiotherapy in Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research. And to see whether Benchmark DVH can be effectively used in IMRT for BOT and Ca Tonsil

  3. Synovial Sarcoma of the Palatine Tonsil:Report of Two Cases and Review of theLiterature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Azarpira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe young men with synovial sarcoma in the palatine tonsil, who presented with a 3-4 month history of progressive sore throat, tonsillar ulcerativemass and bleeding. Clinical and radiological examinations revealed that the tumors arose from the palatine tonsil and extended to the parapharyngeal space. Both tumors were too advanced to remove completely; therefore, they underwent surgical debulking during tonsillectomy and partial pharyngectomy. Histopathological and immunohistochem-ical studies confirmed the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma of the palatine tonsil. Despite postoperative radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy, they relapsed 18 and 22 months later. The first patient died from unresectable local recurrent disease three years after primary diagnosis, and the second patient is alive after 36 months, but suffers from unresectable locoregional recurrent disease and is receiving palliative chemotherapy and supportive care.

  4. [Effectiveness of the GlideScope video laryngoscope in a case of unexpected difficult airway due to lingual tonsil hypertrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, P; Alarcón, L; Del Castillo, T; Cabrerizo, P; Díaz, S

    2015-05-01

    Lingual tonsil hypertrophy can cause varying degrees of airway obstruction and is considered a risk factor for difficult mask ventilation and tracheal intubation. We report a case of unexpected difficult airway in a patient with unknown lingual tonsil hypertrophy that was solved with the use of the GlideScope video laryngoscope. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Fitness decline under osmotic stress in Caenorhabditis elegans populations subjected to spontaneous mutation accumulation at varying population sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katju, Vaishali; Packard, Lucille B; Keightley, Peter D

    2018-04-01

    The consequences of mutations for population fitness depends on their individual selection coefficients and the effective population size. An earlier study of Caenorhabditis elegans spontaneous mutation accumulation lines evolved for 409 generations at three population sizes found that N e   = 1 populations declined significantly in fitness whereas the fitness of larger populations (N e   = 5, 50) was indistinguishable from the ancestral control under benign conditions. To test if larger MA populations harbor a load of cryptic deleterious mutations that are obscured under benign laboratory conditions, we measured fitness under osmotic stress via exposure to hypersaline conditions. The fitness of N e   = 1 lines exhibited a further decline under osmotic stress compared to benign conditions. However, the fitness of larger populations remained indistinguishable from that of the ancestral control. The average effects of deleterious mutations in N e   = 1 lines were estimated to be 22% for productivity and 14% for survivorship, exceeding values previously detected under benign conditions. Our results suggest that fitness decline is due to large effect mutations that are rapidly removed via selection even in small populations, with implications for conservation practices. Genetic stochasticity may not be as potent and immediate a threat to the persistence of small populations as other demographic and environmental stochastic factors. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Forced sound transmission through a finite-sized single leaf panel subject to a point source excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong

    2018-03-01

    In the case of a point source in front of a panel, the wavefront of the incident wave is spherical. This paper discusses spherical sound waves transmitting through a finite sized panel. The forced sound transmission performance that predominates in the frequency range below the coincidence frequency is the focus. Given the point source located along the centerline of the panel, forced sound transmission coefficient is derived through introducing the sound radiation impedance for spherical incident waves. It is found that in addition to the panel mass, forced sound transmission loss also depends on the distance from the source to the panel as determined by the radiation impedance. Unlike the case of plane incident waves, sound transmission performance of a finite sized panel does not necessarily converge to that of an infinite panel, especially when the source is away from the panel. For practical applications, the normal incidence sound transmission loss expression of plane incident waves can be used if the distance between the source and panel d and the panel surface area S satisfy d/S>0.5. When d/S ≈0.1, the diffuse field sound transmission loss expression may be a good approximation. An empirical expression for d/S=0  is also given.

  7. Cervical necrotising fasciitis and descending mediastinitis secondary to unilateral tonsillitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Asad

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cervical necrotizing fasciitis is an aggressive infection with high morbidity and mortality. We present a case of cervical necrotizing fasciitis and descending mediastinitis in a healthy young man, caused by unilateral tonsillitis with a successful outcome without aggressive debridement. Case presentation A 41-year-old man was admitted to our unit with a diagnosis of severe acute unilateral tonsillitis. On admission, he had painful neck movements and the skin over his neck was red, hot and tender. Computed tomography scan of his neck and chest showed evidence of cervical necrotizing fasciitis and descending mediastinitis secondary to underlying pharyngeal disease. He was treated with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. His condition improved over the next 3 days but a tender and fluctuant swelling appeared in the suprasternal region. A repeat scan showed the appearance of an abscess extending from the pretracheal region to the upper mediastinum which was drained through a small transverse anterior neck incision. After surgery, the patient's condition quickly improved and he was discharged on the 18th day of admission. Conclusion Less invasive surgical techniques may replace conventional aggressive debridement as the treatment of choice for cervical necrotizing fasciitis and descending necrotizing mediastinitis.

  8. Sinekia Palatum Molle dan Pilar Tonsil ke Dinding Faring Posterior pada Pasien Tuberkulosis Paru

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    Desno Marbun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tuberkulosis paru masih merupakan penyakit infeksi yang sering dijumpai dan masalah kesehatan di dunia. Sinekia yang disebabkan oleh infeksi kronik tuberkulosis pada daerah faring merupakan kasus yang jarang terjadi. Pembentukan sinekia ini menyebabkan obstruksi saluran napas bagian atas dan dapat menyebabkan gangguan menelan. Laporan kasus ini dimaksudkan untuk memaparkan penatalaksanaan pasien tuberkulosis paru disertai kelainan sinekia palatum molle dan pilar tonsil ke dinding faring posterior. Seorang pasien laki-laki usia 40 tahun terdiagnosis tuberkulosis milier yang telah mendapatkan pengobatan antituberkulosis 4 bulan datang dengan keluhan hidung tersumbat, suara sengau, dan gangguan menelan sejak 2 bulan sebelum masuk rumah sakit. Dilakukan pelepasan sinekia dengan cara reseksi dan insisi palatum molle pendekatan intraoral dengan panduan endoskopi, didapatkan massa jaringan granuloma pada tepi sinekia tersebut. Hasil pemeriksaan histopatologi berupa jaringan granuloma tuberkulosis. Pascaoperasi pasien dapat bernapas lancar melalui hidung dan gangguan menelan menghilang. Simpulan, operasi pelepasan sinekia diputuskan mengingat gangguan obstruksi saluran napas atas. Penatalaksanaan sinekia palatum molle dan pilar tonsil ke dinding faring posterior dengan operasi memberikan hasil yang baik untuk patensi jalan napas dan fungsi menelan.

  9. Bond-Slip Behavior of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer Bar in Concrete Subjected to Simulated Marine Environment: Effects of BFRP Bar Size, Corrosion Age, and Concrete Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Yongmin Yang; Zhaoheng Li; Tongsheng Zhang; Jiangxiong Wei; Qijun Yu

    2017-01-01

    Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) bars have bright potential application in concrete structures subjected to marine environment due to their superior corrosion resistance. Available literatures mainly focused on the mechanical properties of BFRP concrete structures, while the bond-slip behavior of BFRP bars, which is a key factor influencing the safety and service life of ocean concrete structures, has not been clarified yet. In this paper, effects of BFRP bars size, corrosion age, and c...

  10. A single point acupuncture treatment at large intestine meridian: a randomized controlled trial in acute tonsillitis and pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Johannes; Lill, Christian; Lüdtke, Rainer; Gleditsch, Jochen; Rasp, Gerd; Irnich, Dominik

    2009-09-01

    One out of 4 patients visiting a general practitioner reports of a sore throat associated with pain on swallowing. This study was established to examine the immediate pain alleviating effect of a single point acupuncture treatment applied to the large intestine meridian of patients with sore throat. Sixty patients with acute tonsillitis and pharyngitis were enrolled in this randomized placebo-controlled trial. They either received acupuncture, or sham laser acupuncture, directed to the large intestine meridian section between acupuncture points LI 8 and LI 10. The main outcome measure was the change of pain intensity on swallowing a sip of water evaluated by a visual analog scale 15 minutes after treatment. A credibility assessment regarding the respective treatment was performed. The pain intensity for the acupuncture group before and immediately after therapy was 5.6+/-2.8 and 3.0+/-3.0, and for the sham group 5.6+/-2.5 and 3.8+/-2.5, respectively. Despite the articulation of a more pronounced improvement among the acupuncture group, there was no significant difference between groups (Delta=0.9, confidence interval: -0.2-2.0; P=0.12; analysis of covariance). Patients' satisfaction was high in both treatment groups. The study was prematurely terminated due to a subsequent lack of suitable patients. A single acupuncture treatment applied to a selected area of the large intestine meridian was no more effective in the alleviation of pain associated with clinical sore throat than sham laser acupuncture applied to the same area. Hence, clinically relevant improvement could be achieved. Pain alleviation might partly be due to the intense palpation of the large intestine meridian. The benefit of a comprehensive acupuncture treatment protocol in this condition should be subject to further trials.

  11. Effect of tulathromycin on the carrier status of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in the tonsils of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Andreasen, M.; Nielsen, E.O.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a single or double dose of tulathromycin was evaluated in pigs carrying Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in their tonsils. Twenty-nine pigs from a reinfected specific pathogen-free-herd were selected from animals testing positive in an A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2-specific...

  12. The occurrence of calcium in pharyngeal tonsils of children dependent on gender, living place and influence of passive smoking

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    Ewa Nogaj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of occurrence calcium content in pharyngeal tonsils from 60 girls and 90 boys living in 9 region of Upper Silesia is presented in this article. Analysis of content of Ca in pharyngheal tonsils was observed in four groups of children: girls and boys exposed to tobacco smoke and unexposed to tabacco smoke, influence parameters environments on contents Ca in tissue tonsil and the cross-correlation analysis between content of ion Ca and other metals Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mg, Ba, showed repeating co-dependences between Ca in girls from Cd, Al., Zn, Ni, Pb. In case of boys colective dependence was been dependence Ca in Mg, Cd, Zn. Arithmetic mean of calcium in pharyngeal tonsils from exposed girls was 1345.00 µg/g, in comparison to unexposed girls 1292.88 µg/g, in exposed to tobacco smoke boys- 1832.63 µg/g and unexposed boys 565.05 µg/g. It turned out that gender perform important part in absorbed calcium and here noticeable was been big ability to concentrate toxic metals in girls

  13. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica in/on tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes of slaughtered pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdolec, Nevijo; Dobranić, Vesna; Filipović, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    A total of 156 tonsils and 156 mandibular lymph nodes from fattening pigs originating from 13 farms were sampled in Croatian slaughterhouses and examined for Salmonella spp. (n=78 per organ) and Yersinia enterocolitica (n=78 per organ) by cultural methods. Salmonella was isolated from two tonsils only, both originated from animals from the same farm (5.12%), while Y. enterocolitica were recovered from 26 tonsils (33.33%) which could be traced back to 10 farms. Salmonella was absent in mandibular lymph nodes, and Y. enterocolitica was isolated from eight lymph nodes (10.25%) which originated from six farms. Y. enterocolitica was present inside the lymph nodes of two pigs. The high prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in/on pig tonsils could be the result of cross-contamination during splitting the carcasses with head. This procedure may result in higher prevalence of Y. enterocolitica on surface of mandibular lymph nodes than in their depth. Traditional veterinary postmortem examination of pig halves will not necessarily contribute to cross-contamination with Salmonella or Yersinia under conditions of present slaughter practice.

  14. Epstein-Barr virus in non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the tonsil in Indonesian patients

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    A. N. Kurniawan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty cases of tonsillar non-Hodgkin lymphoma seen at the Department of Anatomic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia during 1995-1997 were studied clinicopathologically. The specimens were analysed for routine histopathology, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. The lymphoma was found mostly in the 7th decade, the median age was 57.5 year. Male to female ratio was 1:1. The hostological types were 70% of intermediate grade and 30% of high grade of malignancy. All of the lymphomas were B cell lymphomas. EBER and LMP1 were not expressed in all cases. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 69-72Keywords : tonsil lymphoma, clinicopathologic profile, immunopheno type, ebv

  15. Intracellular persisting Staphylococcus aureus is the major pathogen in recurrent tonsillitis.

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    Andreas E Zautner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two major indications for tonsillectomy are recurrent tonsillitis (RT and peritonsillar abscess (PTA. Unlike PTAs, which are primarily treated surgically, RT is often cured by tonsillectomy only after a series of failed drug therapy attempts. Although the bacteriological background of RT has been studied, the reason for the lack of success of conservative therapeutic approaches is not well understood. METHODS: In a prospective study, tonsil specimens from 130 RT patients and 124 PTA patients were examined for the presence of extra- and intracellular bacteria using antibiotic protection assays. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from RT patients were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa-typing and MSCRAMM-gene-PCR. Their ability for biofilm formation was tested and their cell invasiveness was confirmed by a flow cytometric invasion assay (FACS, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and immunohistochemistry. FINDINGS: S. aureus was the predominant species (57.7% in RT patients, whereas Streptococcus pyogenes was most prevalent (20.2% in PTA patients. Three different assays (FACS, FISH, antibiotic protection assay showed that nearly all RT-associated S. aureus strains were located inside tonsillar cells. Correspondingly, the results of the MSCRAMM-gene-PCRs confirmed that 87% of these S. aureus isolates were invasive strains and not mere colonizers. Based upon PFGE analyses of genomic DNA and on spa-gene typing the vast majority of the S. aureus isolates belonged to different clonal lineages. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that intracellular residing S. aureus is the most common cause of RT and indicate that S. aureus uses this location to survive the effects of antibiotics and the host immune response. A German translation of the Abstract is provided as supplementary material (Abstract S1.

  16. Evidence for a stepwise program of extrathymic T cell development within the human tonsil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClory, Susan; Hughes, Tiffany; Freud, Aharon G.; Briercheck, Edward L.; Martin, Chelsea; Trimboli, Anthony J.; Yu, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiaoli; Leone, Gustavo; Nuovo, Gerard; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of a broad repertoire of T cells, which is essential for effective immune function, occurs in the thymus. Although some data suggest that T cell development can occur extrathymically, many researchers remain skeptical that extrathymic T cell development has an important role in generating the T cell repertoire in healthy individuals. However, it may be important in the setting of poor thymic function or congenital deficit and in the context of autoimmunity, cancer, or regenerative medicine. Here, we report evidence that a stepwise program of T cell development occurs within the human tonsil. We identified 5 tonsillar T cell developmental intermediates: (a) CD34+CD38dimLin– cells, which resemble multipotent progenitors in the bone marrow and thymus; (b) more mature CD34+CD38brightLin– cells; (c) CD34+CD1a+CD11c– cells, which resemble committed T cell lineage precursors in the thymus; (d) CD34–CD1a+CD3–CD11c– cells, which resemble CD4+CD8+ double-positive T cells in the thymus; and (e) CD34–CD1a+CD3+CD11c– cells. The phenotype of each subset closely resembled that of its thymic counterpart. The last 4 populations expressed RAG1 and PTCRA, genes required for TCR rearrangement, and all 5 subsets were capable of ex vivo T cell differentiation. TdT+ cells found within the tonsillar fibrous scaffold expressed CD34 and/or CD1a, indicating that this distinct anatomic region contributes to pre–T cell development, as does the subcapsular region of the thymus. Thus, we provide evidence of a role for the human tonsil in a comprehensive program of extrathymic T cell development. PMID:22378041

  17. NAD(P-DEPENDENT DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES OF INFANTS WITH ENLARGEMENT OF PHARYNGEAL TONSILS

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    L. M. Kurtasova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have observed and examined 57 children 1 to 3 years old diagnosed with enlargement of pharyngeal tonsils. A control group was presented by 35 healthy children. Bioluminescence technique was applied for studying NAD(P-dependent dehydrogenase activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Activation of aerobic respiration and increasing activity of pentose phosphate cycle-dependent plastic processes were registered in blood lymphocytes of children with hypertrophic pharyngeal tonsils; along with decreased function of malate-aspartate shunt in energy metabolism of the cells, diminished anaerobic reaction of NADHdependent LDH, lower interaction between Krebs cycle and reactions of amino acid metabolism, and reduced activity of glutathione reductase.

  18. Histogram Analysis of Apparent Diffusion Coefficients for Occult Tonsil Cancer in Patients with Cervical Nodal Metastasis from an Unknown Primary Site at Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Hye Ok; Kim, Dae Yoon; Yoon, Ra Gyoung; Cho, So Hyun; Koh, Myeong Ju; Kim, Namkug; Kim, Sang Yoon; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    To explore the added value of histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values over magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and fluorine 18 ((18)F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for the detection of occult palatine tonsil squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients with cervical nodal metastasis from a cancer of an unknown primary site. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Differences in the bimodal histogram parameters of the ADC values were assessed among occult palatine tonsil SCC (n = 19), overt palatine tonsil SCC (n = 20), and normal palatine tonsils (n = 20). One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze differences among the three groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the best differentiating parameters. The increased sensitivity of histogram analysis over MR imaging and (18)F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of occult palatine tonsil SCC was evaluated as added value. Histogram analysis showed statistically significant differences in the mean, standard deviation, and 50th and 90th percentile ADC values among the three groups (P histogram analysis was 52.6% over MR imaging alone and 15.8% over combined conventional MR imaging and (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Adding ADC histogram analysis to conventional MR imaging can improve the detection sensitivity for occult palatine tonsil SCC in patients with a cervical nodal metastasis originating from a cancer of an unknown primary site. © RSNA, 2015.

  19. Quantification of hygiene indicators and Salmonella in the tonsils, oral cavity and rectal content samples of pigs during slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Inge; Mattheus, Wesley; Bertrand, Sophie; De Zutter, Lieven

    2018-05-01

    The tonsils, oral cavity and faeces of 94 pigs at slaughter were sampled to assess the numbers of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli in the rectal content, tonsils and oral cavity of pigs at time of evisceration. Moreover, the prevalence, numbers and types of Salmonella spp. were determined. Mean numbers of Enterobacteriaceae in tonsils and the oral cavity differed between slaughterhouses. The proportion of Enterobacteriaceae relative to total aerobic bacteria differed between the different tissues, though large variations were observed between animals. Salmonella spp. were mostly detected in oral cavity swabs (n = 51, 54%), of which six samples were contaminated in numbers over 2.0 log CFU/100 cm 2 . Salmonella spp. were also recovered from 17 tonsillar tissue samples (18%) and 12 tonsillar swabs (13%). Out of the 29 rectal content samples from which Salmonella was recovered (31%), most were lowly contaminated, in the range between -1 and 0 log CFU/g. The predominant serotypes were S. Typhimurium and its monophasic variant, which were recovered from 33 and 13 pigs, respectively. In most cases, the same serotypes and MLVA profiles were found in pigs slaughtered during the same day, thus suggesting a common source of contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the effect of Kanchnara Guggulu and Tankana-Madhu Pratisarana in the management of Tundikeri (tonsillitis) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhvaryu, Tarak R; Patel, K S; Kori, V K; Rajagopala, S; Manjusha, R

    2016-01-01

    Tonsillitis is a common illness in the childhood period. There are about 7,455,494 cases of tonsillitis in India per year. Tonsillitis can be compared with Tundikeri in Ayurveda. In the present study, Kanchnara Guggulu tablets and Pratisarana of Tankana-Madhu were selected. To evaluate the effect of Kanchnar Guggulu and Tankana-Madhu Pratisarana in the management of Tundikeri in children. In the present study, a total of 31 patients aged between 5 and 16 years attending the outpatient department of Kaumarbhritya Department and Shalakya Tantra Department were registered. Among them, 26 patients completed the treatment. Kanchnara Guggulu tablets were administered orally in Group A and in Group B, Pratisarana with Tankana-Madhu was done along with the oral administration of Kanchnara Guggulu tablets. The results showed that in Group A, 21.43% of patients got complete remission, 42.86% of patients got marked improvement and 35.71% of patients got moderate improvement. In Group B, 25% of patients got complete remission, 58.33% of patients got marked improvement and 16.67% of patients got moderate improvement. Both the groups showed highly significant results in all cardinal and associated features of Tundikeri . Kanchnara Guggulu and Tankana-Madhu Pratisarana are a safe and effective modality for the treatment of Tundikeri .

  1. Bond-Slip Behavior of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer Bar in Concrete Subjected to Simulated Marine Environment: Effects of BFRP Bar Size, Corrosion Age, and Concrete Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP bars have bright potential application in concrete structures subjected to marine environment due to their superior corrosion resistance. Available literatures mainly focused on the mechanical properties of BFRP concrete structures, while the bond-slip behavior of BFRP bars, which is a key factor influencing the safety and service life of ocean concrete structures, has not been clarified yet. In this paper, effects of BFRP bars size, corrosion age, and concrete strength on the bond-slip behavior of BFRP bars in concrete cured in artificial seawater were investigated, and then an improved Bertero, Popov, and Eligehausen (BPE model was employed to describe the bond-slip behavior of BFRP bars in concrete. The results indicated that the maximum bond stress and corresponding slip decreased gradually with the increase of corrosion age and size of BFRP bars, and ultimate slip also decreased sharply. The ascending segment of bond-slip curve tends to be more rigid and the descending segment tends to be softer after corrosion. A horizontal end in bond-slip curve indicates that the friction between BFRP bars and concrete decreased sharply.

  2. Designed Surface Topographies Control ICAM-1 Expression in Tonsil-Derived Human Stromal Cells

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    Aliaksei S. Vasilevich

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs, the T-cell zone stromal cell subtype in the lymph nodes, create a scaffold for adhesion and migration of immune cells, thus allowing them to communicate. Although known to be important for the initiation of immune responses, studies about FRCs and their interactions have been impeded because FRCs are limited in availability and lose their function upon culture expansion. To circumvent these limitations, stromal cell precursors can be mechanotranduced to form mature FRCs. Here, we used a library of designed surface topographies to trigger FRC differentiation from tonsil-derived stromal cells (TSCs. Undifferentiated TSCs were seeded on a TopoChip containing 2176 different topographies in culture medium without differentiation factors, then monitored cell morphology and the levels of ICAM-1, a marker of FRC differentiation. We identified 112 and 72 surfaces that upregulated and downregulated, respectively, ICAM-1 expression. By monitoring cell morphology, and expression of the FRC differentiation marker ICAM-1 via image analysis and machine learning, we discovered correlations between ICAM-1 expression, cell shape and design of surface topographies and confirmed our findings by using flow cytometry. Our findings confirmed that TSCs are mechano-responsive cells and identified particular topographies that can be used to improve FRC differentiation protocols.

  3. Effect of short-term low- and high-fat diets on low-density lipoprotein particle size in normolipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Valérie; Lamarche, Benoît; Charest, Amélie; Tremblay, André J; Couture, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate diets have been shown to raise plasma cholesterol levels, an effect associated with the formation of large low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. However, the impact of dietary intervention on time-course changes in LDL particle size has not been investigated. To test whether a short-term dietary intervention affects LDL particle size, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover study using an intensive dietary modification in 12 nonobese healthy men with normal plasma lipid profile. Participants were subjected to 2 isocaloric 3-day diets: high-fat diet (37% energy from fat and 50% from carbohydrates) and low-fat diet (25% energy from fat and 62% from carbohydrates). Plasma lipid levels and LDL particle size were assessed on fasting blood samples after 3 days of feeding on each diet. The LDL particles were characterized by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Compared with the low-fat diet, plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly increased (4.45 vs 4.78 mmol/L, P = .04; 2.48 vs 2.90 mmol/L, P = .005; and 1.29 vs 1.41 mmol/L, P = .005, respectively) following the 3-day high-fat diet. Plasma triglycerides and fasting apolipoprotein B-48 levels were significantly decreased after the high-fat diet compared with the low-fat diet (1.48 vs 1.01 mmol/L, P = .0003 and 9.6 vs 5.5 mg/L, P = .008, respectively). The high-fat diet was also associated with a significant increase in LDL particle size (255.0 vs 255.9 Å;P = .01) and a significant decrease in the proportion of small LDL particle (vs 44.6%, P = .01). As compared with a low-fat diet, the cholesterol-raising effect of a high-fat diet is associated with the formation of large LDL particles after only 3 days of feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Palatine Tonsils Asymmetry: 10 Years Experience of the Otorhinolaryngology Service of the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Paraná

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    Ballin, Annelyse Cristine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A few patients with asymmetric palatine tonsils have lymphoma; but most lymphomas in palatine tonsils evolve with tonsillar asymmetry. Objective: To report the profile of patients and histopathological changes in patients submitted to adenotonsillectomy/tonsillectomy with disproportional palatine tonsils. Method: Retrospective study based on data analysis from the Pathologic Anatomy Service Database and in the review of reports of patients submitted to adenotonsillectomy and tonsillectomy with palatine tonsils asymmetry during the period from October 1999 through October 2009 at the Clinical Hospital (HC of the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR. Results: 50 patients took part, aged between 3 to 53 years old, mean age of 14.05 years. The anatomopathological exam confirmed 48 patients (96% with lymphoid hyperplasia and 2 cases of lymphoma (4%. These included men aged from 40 to 53 yeas with complaint of unilateral increase of the tonsil, one of whom had other symptoms (asthenia and weight loss. Upon physical examination: tonsils disproportion without involvement of other organs or lymph nodes. Conclusion: Our study is according to the literature as regards the fact the lymphomas are more common in men, the patient is the first one to notice the increase in volume and the asymmetry is larger than 2 degrees between palatine tonsils in cases of lymphoma. Although it is rare, even in the presence of differences, there are chances for the asymmetry to evolve to a malignant profile. The need for anatomopathological evaluation of a part must be considered along with other clinical data that suggests a malignant profile.

  5. Characterisation of insulin-producing cells differentiated from tonsil derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Ye-Ryung; Park, Woo-Jae; Kim, Han Su; Jung, Sung-Chul; Woo, So-Youn; Jo, Inho; Ryu, Kyung-Ha; Park, Joo-Won

    2015-01-01

    Tonsil-derived (T-) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) display mutilineage differentiation potential and self-renewal capacity and have potential as a banking source. Diabetes mellitus is a prevalent disease in modern society, and the transplantation of pancreatic progenitor cells or various stem cell-derived insulin-secreting cells has been suggested as a novel therapy for diabetes. The potential of T-MSCs to trans-differentiate into pancreatic progenitor cells or insulin-secreting cells has not yet been investigated. We examined the potential of human T-MSCs to trans-differentiate into pancreatic islet cells using two different methods based on β-mercaptoethanol and insulin-transferin-selenium, respectively. First, we compared the efficacy of the two methods for inducing differentiation into insulin-producing cells. We demonstrated that the insulin-transferin-selenium method is more efficient for inducing differentiation into insulin-secreting cells regardless of the source of the MSCs. Second, we compared the differentiation potential of two different MSC types: T-MSCs and adipose-derived MSCs (A-MSCs). T-MSCs had a differentiation capacity similar to that of A-MSCs and were capable of secreting insulin in response to glucose concentration. Islet-like clusters differentiated from T-MSCs had lower synaptotagmin-3, -5, -7, and -8 levels, and consequently lower secreted insulin levels than cells differentiated from A-MSCs. These results imply that T-MSCs can differentiate into functional pancreatic islet-like cells and could provide a novel, alternative cell therapy for diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The part of soluble and insoluble forms of Pb, Be, Ba, Ca, Mg, Sr in particulate matter and in the pharyngeal tonsils

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    Maria Gerycka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Previous studies have confirmed that the pharyngeal tonsil is a good biomarker of exposure due to its position relative to inhaled air so that multiple elements can be accumulated in this organ. The aim of the study is to determine the share of soluble and insoluble compounds of individual elements in suspended particles in the accumulation of Pb, Be, Ba, Sr, Ca,Mg by the pharyngeal tonsils. Material and methods. The content of the analyzed elements is defined in 86 samples of pharyngeal tonsils from children living in Tychy and in 76 samples of pharyngeal tonsils from children living in Chorzów, as well as in the suspended particles in the air occurring in soluble and insoluble form. The specified coefficients k1, k2 present in the equation division allow the indication the greater importance of soluble and insoluble fraction of an element present in the inhaled air. Results. The value of the coefficients in the equation division based on gender confirmed its importance. Conclusions. The values detect area variation in relation to passive smoking in the extent of accumulation of Pb, Be, Ba, Sr, Mg, Ca in pharyngeal tonsils.

  7. Detection, seroprevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pig tonsils in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, S; Bruini, I; D'Incau, M; Van Damme, I; Carniel, E; Brémont, S; Cavallini, P; Tagliabue, S; Brindani, F

    2016-10-17

    Yersiniosis is the third most common reported zoonoses in Europe, with Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis responsible for 98.66% and 0.94% of the confirmed human cases in 2013. From June 2013 to October 2014, 201 pigs at slaughter belonging to 67 batches were tested for Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in tonsils. Diaphragm muscle samples were tested for antibodies against Yersinia by a commercially available ELISA test. Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 was detected in 55/201 pig tonsils (27.4%; 95% CI 23.1-37.1). The positive pigs came from 38/67 batches (56.7%) and were reared in 36/61 farms (59.0%). There was no statistical difference between farrow-to-finish and finishing farms. The mean count of Y. enterocolitica was 3.56±0.85log10CFU/g with a minimum of 2.0log10CFU/g and a maximum of 4.78log10CFU/g. Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 4/201 pig tonsils (2.0%; 95% CI 0.0-4.5). Three isolates belonged to serotype O:3 and one to serotype O:1. The positive pigs belonged to 4/67 batches (6.0%) and came from finishing farms only. Y. pseudotuberculosis could be enumerated in one sample only (4.27log10CFU/g). The ELISA test demonstrated that 56.1% of the meat juice samples were positive for Yersinia antibodies. Serological positivity was found in 67.9% (36/53) of the Y. enterocolitica- and 75.0% (3/4) of the Y. pseudotuberculosis positive pigs. A significant association was found between serological results and the presence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsils (OR=1.97, p=0.044). All the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, ceftazidime, ertapenem and meropenem, 94.5% to cefotaxime, 89.1% to kanamycin and 78.2% to tetracycline. The highest resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (100%), sulphonamides (98.2%) and streptomycin (78.2%). Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested, i.e. amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, azithromycin, cephalothin, cefoxitin

  8. Preliminary pediatric clinical evaluation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 in preventing recurrent pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes and recurrent acute otitis media

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    Di Pierro F

    2012-11-01

    during which the product was not administered. Subjects tolerated the product well, with no side effects or dropouts reported.Conclusion: Prophylactic administration of S. salivarius K12 to children with a history of recurrent oral streptococcal pathology reduced episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infections and/or tonsillitis as well as episodes of acute otitis media.Keywords: BLIS K12, bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance K12, Streptococcus salivarius K12, Bactoblis®, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute otitis media

  9. Agranulocitose e tonsilite associadas ao uso de metimazol Agranulocytosis with tonsillitis associated with methimazole therapy

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    Jorge T. Zambrana

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento do hipertireoidismo com drogas antitireoidianas pode provocar, em 0,2 a 0,3% dos casos, um importante efeito colateral: a agranulocitose. As complicações infecciosas decorrentes desta condição afetam principalmente a orofaringe, sendo a tonsilite uma de suas manifestações. No presente trabalho, é relatado o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, com 33 anos, apresentando odinofagia e febre resistentes à vários antibióticos. A paciente era portadora de hipertireoidismo e estava em uso de metimazol há dois meses. Com o diagnóstico de angina agranulocítica, foi suspensa a droga e iniciado tratamento com ciprofloxacina, sintomáticos e estimulador de colônias granulocíticas, além de fluconazol. A paciente evoluiu satisfatoriamente, recebendo alta dez dias após o início do tratamento. Quinze dias depois, uma tireoidectomia total foi realizada. O objetivo deste relato é ressaltar a importância de se conhecer os efeitos colaterais dos medicamentos, advertir os pacientes sobre os mesmos e alertar os médicos quanto à necessidade de se avaliar o paciente como um todo, investigando sobre outras doenças existentes e medicamentos em uso.The treatment of hyperthyroidism with antithyroid drugs can cause a significant side effect in 0.2 to 0.3% of the cases: agranulocytosis. Infectious complications caused by this condition affect mainly the throat, and tonsillitis is one of its manifestations. The present study reported the case of a female patient, 33 years old, manifesting odynophagia and fever resistant to many antibiotics. The patient showed hyperthyroidism and had been using methimazole for two months. With the diagnoses of agranulocytic angina, the drug was withdrawn and treatment with ciprofloxacin, symptomatic drugs and granulocytic-colony stimulator, besides fluconazol was started. The patient developed satisfactorily, being discharged ten days after the beginning of the treatment. Fifteen days later, total

  10. High abundance and diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in faeces and tonsils of pigs at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, I; Garcia-Graells, C; Biasino, W; Gowda, T; Botteldoorn, N; De Zutter, L

    2017-09-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates the abundance of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli (CREC) in the faeces and tonsils of 96 pigs during slaughter. Moreover, different isolates from a selected number of pigs were tested to study the diversity of bla ESBL genes within E. coli isolates from one pig. Cefotaxime-resistant bacteria (based on enumeration results on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1mg/L cefotaxime) were found in the faeces of 77 pigs (80%; 95% CI: 70-87%) and the tonsils of 91 pigs (95%; 95% CI: 88%-98%). Cefotaxime-resistant E. coli (based on enumeration results on Tryptone Bile X-glucuronide agar supplemented with 1mg/L cefotaxime) were detected in 72 faecal samples (75%; 95% CI: 64-83%) and 45 tonsil samples (47%; 95% CI: 35-59%), in numbers up to 5.5 and 5.6log 10 CFU/g, respectively. On average, around 1/10,000 E. coli in both faeces and tonsils were cefotaxime-resistant, though large variations were observed between pigs. Within one sample, CREC isolates with up to five different combinations of ESBL genes were observed. In three out of 16 faecal samples and six out of 14 tonsil samples, only one ESBL gene profile was found. The high numbers of CREC that are occasionally found in the faeces and tonsils of pigs during slaughter may represent an important source of contamination of carcasses and subsequently pork. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent trends in prescribing antibiotics for acute tonsillitis in pediatric ambulatory care in Taiwan, 2000-2009: A nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lo-Yi; Lai, Chou-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Jen; Cho, Ching-Yi; Luo, Yu-Cheng; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Wu, Keh-Gong

    2017-08-01

    Acute tonsillitis is the leading diagnosis in pediatric ambulatory care, and group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus is the main reason for antibiotic prescriptions in patients with acute tonsillitis. The aim of this study was to analyze trends in prescribing antibiotics and to investigate the prescription patterns for acute tonsillitis in pediatric ambulatory care in Taiwan from 2000 to 2009. Data on children younger than 18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute tonsillitis were retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan from 2000 to 2009. Concomitant bacterial infections were excluded. Sex, age, seasonality, location, level of medical institution, and physician specialty were analyzed. Annual and monthly changes in antibiotic prescriptions and classification were also evaluated. A total of 40,775 cases were enrolled, with an overall antibiotic prescription rate of 16.8%. There was a remarkable decline in the antibiotic prescription rates for tonsillitis from 28.4% in 2000 to 10.9% in 2009. Factors associated with a higher prescription rate included older age, visits from eastern Taiwan, medical centers, and nonpediatrician physicians. Otolaryngologists had higher antibiotic prescription rate, whereas pediatricians had the lowest (21.9% vs. 11.6%). The rates of obtaining throat cultures were low although the culture performing rate in the medical centers was significantly higher (12.3%, p < 0.001). From 2000 to 2009, there was a remarkable decline in the antibiotic prescription rates for tonsillitis. Further studies to evaluate diagnostic tools such as rapid antigen detection tests or throat cultures to decrease antibiotic prescriptions are warranted. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs; identification of oropharyngeal tonsils as sites of primary and sustained viral replication.

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    Carolina Stenfeldt

    Full Text Available A time-course study was performed to elucidate the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV infection in pigs subsequent to simulated natural, intra-oropharyngeal, inoculation. The earliest detectable event was primary infection in the lingual and paraepiglottic tonsils at 6 hours post inoculation (hpi characterized by regional localization of viral RNA, viral antigen, and infectious virus. At this time FMDV antigen was localized in cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells and CD172a-expressing leukocytes of the crypt epithelium of the paraepiglottic tonsils. De novo replication of FMDV was first detected in oropharyngeal swab samples at 12 hpi and viremia occurred at 18-24 hpi, approximately 24 hours prior to the appearance of vesicular lesions. From 12 through 78 hpi, microscopic detection of FMDV was consistently localized to cytokeratin-positive cells within morphologically characteristic segments of oropharyngeal tonsil crypt epithelium. During this period, leukocyte populations expressing CD172a, SLA-DQ class II and/or CD8 were found in close proximity to infected epithelial cells, but with little or no co-localization with viral proteins. Similarly, M-cells expressing cytokeratin-18 did not co-localize with FMDV proteins. Intra-epithelial micro-vesicles composed of acantholytic epithelial cells expressing large amounts of structural and non-structural FMDV proteins were present within crypts of the tonsil of the soft palate during peak clinical infection. These findings inculpate the paraepiglottic tonsils as the primary site of FMDV infection in pigs exposed via the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, the continuing replication of FMDV in the oropharyngeal tonsils during viremia and peak clinical infection with no concurrent amplification of virus occurring in the lower respiratory tract indicates that these sites are the major source of shedding of FMDV from pigs.

  13. Detection of Yersinia Enterocolitica Species in Pig Tonsils and Raw Pork Meat by the Real-Time Pcr and Culture Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelska, M A

    2017-09-26

    The aim of the present study was to establish a rapid and accurate real-time PCR method to detect pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pork. Yersinia enterocolitica is considered to be a crucial zoonosis, which can provoke diseases both in humans and animals. The classical culture methods designated to detect Y. enterocolitica species in food matrices are often very time-consuming. The chromosomal locus _tag CH49_3099 gene, that appears in pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, was applied as DNA target for the 5' nuclease PCR protocol. The probe was labelled at the 5' end with the fluorescent reporter dye (FAM) and at the 3' end with the quencher dye (TAMRA). The real-time PCR cycling parameters included 41 cycles. A Ct value which reached a value higher than 40 constituted a negative result. The developed for the needs of this study qualitative real-time PCR method appeared to give very specific and reliable results. The detection rate of locus _tag CH49_3099 - positive Y. enterocolitica in 150 pig tonsils was 85 % and 32 % with PCR and culture methods, respectively. Both the Real-time PCR results and culture method results were obtained from material that was enriched during overnight incubation. The subject of the study were also raw pork meat samples. Among 80 samples examined, 7 ones were positive when real-time PCR was applied, and 6 ones were positive when classical culture method was applied. The application of molecular techniques based on the analysis of DNA sequences such as the Real-time PCR enables to detect this pathogenic bacteria very rapidly and with higher specificity, sensitivity and reliability in comparison to classical culture methods.

  14. Incretin secretion in relation to meal size and body weight in healthy subjects and people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, T; Krarup, T; Sonne, J

    2003-01-01

    in patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present investigation was to investigate incretin secretion, in obesity and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and its dependence on the magnitude of the meal stimulus. Plasma concentrations of incretin hormones (total, reflecting secretion and intact...... subjects (22% P = 0.04) during the large meal, compared with the small meal, perhaps reflecting the increased incretin response. We conclude: 1) that a decreased GLP-1 secretion may contribute to impaired insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas GIP and GLP-1 secretion is normal in type 1......, reflecting potential action) were measured during two meal tests (260 kcal and 520 kcal) in eight type 1 diabetic patients, eight lean healthy subjects, eight obese type 2 diabetic patients, and eight obese healthy subjects. Both in diabetic patients and in healthy subjects, significant increases in GLP-1...

  15. Evidence of Bacterial Biofilms among Infected and Hypertrophied Tonsils in Correlation with the Microbiology, Histopathology, and Clinical Symptoms of Tonsillar Diseases

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    Saad Musbah Alasil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of the tonsils are becoming more resistant to antibiotics due to the persistence of bacteria through the formation of biofilms. Therefore, understanding the microbiology and pathophysiology of such diseases represent an important step in the management of biofilm-related infections. We have isolated the microorganisms, evaluated their antimicrobial susceptibility, and detected the presence of bacterial biofilms in tonsillar specimens in correlation with the clinical manifestations of tonsillar diseases. Therefore, a total of 140 palatine tonsils were collected from 70 patients undergoing tonsillectomy at University Malaya Medical Centre. The most recovered isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (39.65% followed by Haemophilus influenzae (18.53%. There was high susceptibility against all selected antibiotics except for cotrimoxazole. Bacterial biofilms were detected in 60% of patients and a significant percentage of patients demonstrated infection manifestation rather than obstruction. In addition, an association between clinical symptoms like snore, apnea, nasal obstruction, and tonsillar hypertrophy was found to be related to the microbiology of tonsils particularly to the presence of biofilms. In conclusion, evidence of biofilms in tonsils in correlation with the demonstrated clinical symptoms explains the recalcitrant nature of tonsillar diseases and highlights the importance of biofilm’s early detection and prevention towards better therapeutic management of biofilm-related infections.

  16. Incretin secretion in relation to meal size and body weight in healthy subjects and people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Krarup, T; Sonne, J

    2003-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are incretin hormones secreted in response to meal ingestion, thereby enhancing postprandial insulin secretion. Therefore, an attenuated incretin response could contribute to the impaired insulin responses...... with healthy subjects, whereas decreased GLP-1 responses were seen in type 2 diabetic patients, compared with matched obese healthy subjects. Incremental GLP-1 responses were normal in type 1 diabetic patients. Increased fasting concentrations of GIP and an early enhanced postprandial GIP response were seen...

  17. Detection, enumeration and characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 in pig tonsils at slaughter in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, Silvia; Alpigiani, Irene; Pongolini, Stefano; Morganti, Marina; Tagliabue, Silvia; Bacci, Cristina; Brindani, Franco

    2014-05-02

    Tonsils from 150 pigs slaughtered at 270 days or older were tested for Yersinia enterocolitica with different cultural methods. Samples were collected in three different abattoirs of Northern Italy between April and November 2012 and were analysed by direct plating on cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar and by enrichment procedures following the ISO 10273:2003 reference method. Twenty-three (15.3%) samples were positive: 22 tonsils (14.7%) were positive for human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 4/O:3 and one tonsil (0.7%) for Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 1A/7,8-8,8,19. Seventeen samples out of 23 (73.9%) were positive by direct plating method. Among the enrichment procedures, the best recovery rate (8 positives out of 23; 34.8%) was obtained by the two-day enrichment in peptone-sorbitol-bile (PSB) broth followed by plating on CIN agar plates. The two-day enrichment in PSB followed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment before plating onto CIN agar gave 7 positives out of 23 (30.4%), decreasing to 3 positives (13.0%) without KOH treatment. The worst results were obtained by prolonged (five days) enrichment in PSB, with or without KOH treatment, followed by plating on CIN agar: 4.3% (1 out of 23) and 0.0% recovery rates, respectively. The mean concentration was 1.9 × 10(4)CFU/g, with a minimum of 1.0 × 10(2)CFU/g and a maximum of 5.8 × 10(4)CFU/g, thus demonstrating that tonsils may play an important role in contamination of pluck sets, carcasses, and slaughterhouse environment. Prevalence of virulence genes among the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates was as follows: 12/22 (54.5%) for yadA, 21/22 (95.5%) for ail, 21/22 (95.5%) for inv and 22/22 (100%) for ystA. All Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime and resistant to ampicillin and cephalotin. High proportions of 4/O:3 isolates (95%) were sensitive to cefotaxime, gentamicin, kanamicin and nalidixic acid. High levels of

  18. Periodontal disease bacteria specific to tonsil in IgA nephropathy patients predicts the remission by the treatment.

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    Yasuyuki Nagasawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin (IgA nephropathy (IgAN is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis in the world. Some bacteria were reported to be the candidate of the antigen or the pathogenesis of IgAN, but systematic analysis of bacterial flora in tonsil with IgAN has not been reported. Moreover, these bacteria specific to IgAN might be candidate for the indicator which can predict the remission of IgAN treated by the combination of tonsillectomy and steroid pulse. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We made a comprehensive analysis of tonsil flora in 68 IgAN patients and 28 control patients using Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods. We also analyzed the relationship between several bacteria specific to the IgAN and the prognosis of the IgAN. Treponema sp. were identified in 24% IgAN patients, while in 7% control patients (P = 0.062. Haemophilus segnis were detected in 53% IgAN patients, while in 25% control patients (P = 0.012. Campylobacter rectus were identified in 49% IgAN patients, while in 14% control patients (P = 0.002. Multiple Cox proportional-hazards model revealed that Treponema sp. or Campylobactor rectus are significant for the remission of proteinuria (Hazard ratio 2.35, p = 0.019. There was significant difference in remission rates between IgAN patients with Treponema sp. and those without the bacterium (p = 0.046, and in remission rates between IgAN patients with Campylobacter rectus and those without the bacterium (p = 0.037 by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Those bacteria are well known to be related with the periodontal disease. Periodontal bacteria has known to cause immune reaction and many diseases, and also might cause IgA nephropathy. CONCLUSION: This insight into IgAN might be useful for diagnosis of the IgAN patients and the decision of treatment of IgAN.

  19. Periodontal disease bacteria specific to tonsil in IgA nephropathy patients predicts the remission by the treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yasuyuki; Iio, Kenichiro; Fukuda, Shinji; Date, Yasuhiro; Iwatani, Hirotsugu; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Horii, Arata; Inohara, Hidenori; Imai, Enyu; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Ohno, Hiroshi; Rakugi, Hiromi; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis in the world. Some bacteria were reported to be the candidate of the antigen or the pathogenesis of IgAN, but systematic analysis of bacterial flora in tonsil with IgAN has not been reported. Moreover, these bacteria specific to IgAN might be candidate for the indicator which can predict the remission of IgAN treated by the combination of tonsillectomy and steroid pulse. We made a comprehensive analysis of tonsil flora in 68 IgAN patients and 28 control patients using Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods. We also analyzed the relationship between several bacteria specific to the IgAN and the prognosis of the IgAN. Treponema sp. were identified in 24% IgAN patients, while in 7% control patients (P = 0.062). Haemophilus segnis were detected in 53% IgAN patients, while in 25% control patients (P = 0.012). Campylobacter rectus were identified in 49% IgAN patients, while in 14% control patients (P = 0.002). Multiple Cox proportional-hazards model revealed that Treponema sp. or Campylobactor rectus are significant for the remission of proteinuria (Hazard ratio 2.35, p = 0.019). There was significant difference in remission rates between IgAN patients with Treponema sp. and those without the bacterium (p = 0.046), and in remission rates between IgAN patients with Campylobacter rectus and those without the bacterium (p = 0.037) by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Those bacteria are well known to be related with the periodontal disease. Periodontal bacteria has known to cause immune reaction and many diseases, and also might cause IgA nephropathy. This insight into IgAN might be useful for diagnosis of the IgAN patients and the decision of treatment of IgAN.

  20. Variability of Battery Wear in Light Duty Plug-In Electric Vehicles Subject to Ambient Temperature, Battery Size, and Consumer Usage: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Brooker, A. D.; Gonder, J.; Smith, K. A.

    2012-08-01

    Battery wear in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is a complex function of ambient temperature, battery size, and disparate usage. Simulations capturing varying ambient temperature profiles, battery sizes, and driving patterns are of great value to battery and vehicle manufacturers. A predictive battery wear model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory captures the effects of multiple cycling and storage conditions in a representative lithium chemistry. The sensitivity of battery wear rates to ambient conditions, maximum allowable depth-of-discharge, and vehicle miles travelled is explored for two midsize vehicles: a battery electric vehicle (BEV) with a nominal range of 75 mi (121 km) and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with a nominal charge-depleting range of 40 mi (64 km). Driving distance distributions represent the variability of vehicle use, both vehicle-to-vehicle and day-to-day. Battery wear over an 8-year period was dominated by ambient conditions for the BEV with capacity fade ranging from 19% to 32% while the PHEV was most sensitive to maximum allowable depth-of-discharge with capacity fade ranging from 16% to 24%. The BEV and PHEV were comparable in terms of petroleum displacement potential after 8 years of service, due to the BEV?s limited utility for accomplishing long trips.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of the Position of the Cerebellar Tonsil before and after Posterior Spinal Fusion in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

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    Santiago Tomas Bosio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  To evaluate variations in cerebellar tonsil position after posterior spinal fusion (PSF in neurologically intact patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS.  Methods: We retrospective evaluated 40 patients with AIS and no neurological symptoms that underwent PSF. Anteroposterior and sagittal standing radiographs, and sagittal hindbrain MRI were performed in all patients before and after spinal surgery.  The level of the cerebellar tonsil relative to the magnum foramen was measured according to the method described by Aboulezz (J Comput Assist Tomogr 1985. We evaluate variations in cerebellar tonsil position in relation to spinal correction and spinal elongation after PSF. Results: Mean preoperative magnitude of the curve was 53,15° (SD 10,46° and thoracic kyphosis was 35,42º (SD 12,38°. Mean postoperative values were 7,45º (SD 7,33°  and 27,87º (SD 9,03°, respectively. This represents 86% correction in the coronal plane (p<0.00001 and 25% of kyphosis variation (p<0.00001. The average length of the spine in the coronal plane was 44,5 cm (SD 5,25 cm in preoperative x-rays and 48,27 cm (SD 4,40 cm in postoperative x-rays (p<0.00001.  The average length in the sagittal plane was 50,87 cm (SD 4,47 cm in preoperative x-rays and 55,13cm (SD 3,27 cm in postoperative x-rays (p<0.00001. There was no significant difference in the position of the Cerebellar Tonsil before and after spinal correction (p=0,6042. In 10 (25% of the 40 patients, we observed caudal displacement in cerebellar tonsil position after PSF. Average displacement in these patients was 1,22 mm (range 0.1-2.3 mm. In 21 patients we did not observe any variation and in 2 a cephalic displacement was measured. Conclusions:  In most AIS patients, position of the cerebellar tonsil does not change with PSF. We were not able to find any correlation between curve correction or spine elongation and variations in cerebellar tonsillar position.

  2. Reference values for vastus lateralis fiber size and type in healthy subjects over 40 years old: a systematic review and metaanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouzi, Fares; Maury, Jonathan; Molinari, Nicolas; Pomiès, Pascal; Mercier, Jacques; Préfaut, Christian; Hayot, Maurice

    2013-08-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a major systemic impairment in chronic diseases. Yet its determinants have been hard to identify because a clear research definition has not been agreed upon. The reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) is a widely acknowledged marker of muscle atrophy, but no reference values for the muscle fiber CSA at the age of the onset of chronic disease have ever been published. Thus, we aimed to systematically review the studies providing data on fiber CSA and fiber type proportion in the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps of healthy subjects (age >40 yr) and then to pool and analyze the data from the selected studies to determine reference values for fiber CSA. We followed the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and identified 19 studies, including 423 subjects that matched the inclusion criteria. On the basis of fiber type and gender, the mean fiber CSA and the lower limits of normal (LLNs) were (%type I*60) + 1,743 μm(2) and (%type I*60) - 718 μm(2), respectively, for men; and (%type I*70) + 139 μm(2) and (%type I*70) - 1,485 μm(2), respectively, for women. There was no significant heterogeneity among subgroups of fiber type and gender. The pooled type I fiber proportion was 50.3% (LLN = 32.9%). In multivariate analysis, fiber CSA was significantly correlated with Vo2 peak (r = 190.92; P = 0.03), and type I fiber proportion was correlated with age (r = -0.024; P = 0.005), body mass index (r = 0.096; P = 0.005), and Vo2 peak (r = -0.053; P = 0.005). Our metaanalysis of a homogeneous set of studies is the first to provide valuable LLNs for fiber CSA according to fiber type and gender. This analysis will be improved by prospective assessment in well-characterized healthy subjects.

  3. Response of right ventricular size, function, and pressure to supine exercise: a comparison of patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slutsky, R; Hooper, W; Ackerman, W; Moser, K

    1982-12-01

    The response of right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) to exercise was studied in 11 patients with severe (FEV/sub 25/sub(%)sub(-)/sub 75/sub(%)=0.32+-0.13, mean+-SD) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using gated radionuclide cardiac blood pool imaging techniques, the response of the patients with COPD was compared with that of 15 control subjects. Arterial blood gases, pulmonary arterial pressures, wedge pressure, and right ventricular pressures also were monitored in patients with COPD. The resting RVEF was lower and the resting RVEDV was higher in patients with COPD than in normals (both, P<0.01). Two of the 11 COPD patients had a RVEF during rest that was below lower limits, while 10 of 11 patients had RV dilation. Right ventricular end-diastolic pressure, measured during rest in patients with COPD, was normal (6.1+-2.1 mm Hg) and cardiac index was within normal limits (3.55+-0.82 l/min/m/sup 2/). With exercise this cardiac index rose to 5.52+-1.7/min/m/sup 2/(P<0.01) due to the increase in heart rate (83+-18 to 125+-25 beats/min; P<0.01) while stroke volume did not significantly change. During exercise, normal subjects showed an increase in RVEF while RVEDV did not change; in patients with COPD, the RVEF fell and the RVEDV increased. In the patients with COPD, mild resting arterial hypoxemia and hypercapnia were both exaggerated during exercise; and mild resting pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAm=24.3+-7.65 mm Hg) also worsened with exercise (PAm=41+-19 mm Hg, P<0.01). Correlation between change in RVEF and PAm was -0.58, and between change in RVEDV and PAm was 0.63. We conclude that patients with severe COPD often have right ventricular dilation at rest and commonly respond to supine exercise with a fall in FV ejection fraction and further dilation of the right ventricle.

  4. An Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae PCR typing system based on the apx and omlA genes - evaluation of isolates from lungs and tonsils of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, T.; Ahrens, Peter; Andreasen, Morten

    2000-01-01

    . The PCR typing system was tested on 102 field strains of A. pleuropneumoniae isolated from lungs of diseased pigs. The serotyping results of the investigated field strains were in agreement with the apr and omlA gene patterns found in the reference strains of the bacteria, with the exception of the oml...... gene patterns and in 89% of the isolates using the omlA gene. The same serotype specific apx/omlA gene pattern was thus found in the majority of the tonsil isolates and in isolates from diseased lungs. Most of the differences in the omlA gene were found in 18 tonsil isolates of serotype 12. The oml...

  5. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis due to bacterial tonsillitis Fasceite necrotizante cervical secundária a amigdalite bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Zilberstein

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a severe and potentially fatal soft tissue infection, but involvement of the head and neck is rare. We report on 4 cases of cervical necrotizing fasciitis arising from tonsillitis. One patient was diabetic and one had received steroids before disease development. One patient developed acute respiratory failure and died of septic shock. Three patients recovered, helped by early recognition, aggressive surgical intervention, appropriate broad-spectrum antibiotics, and supportive therapy. The common bacteria found in all abscess samples were Streptococcus sp., but mixed flora with anaerobic organisms was seen in all but 1 case. Tonsillitis and peritonsillar abscess must be suspected as a cause of cervical necrotizing fasciitis and a successful result can be achieved with immediate aggressive treatment.A fasceite necrotizante cervical é uma infecção grave de partes moles do pescoço. Trata-se de entidade rara, porém quando presente tem como principal origem um foco infeccioso odontogênico. São descritos 4 casos de fasceite necrotizante cervical a partir de tonsilites e abscesso peritonsilar, os quais, foram admitidos e tratados na unidade de terapia intensiva. Um dos pacientes era portador de Diabetes Melittus não insulino- dependente e outro paciente havia recebido corticoterapia antes do desenvolvimento da infecção. Em um dos casos ocorreu mediastinite, insuficiência respiratória e o paciente evolui para o óbito em decorrência de choque séptico. Durante o tratamento, 3 pacientes evoluíram satisfatoriamente devido ao diagnostico precoce, tratamento cirúrgico agressivo e utilização de antibiótico terapia de largo espectro. A bactéria mais comumente encontrada foi o Streptococcus sp, mas flora mista com germes anaeróbios foi encontrada em 3 dos casos descritos. CONCLUSÕES: Deve-se suspeitar de tonsilite e abscesso peritonsilar como causa de fasceite necrotizante cervical para que tratamento agressivo e

  6. Short communication: Inhibitory effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 on cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most toxic form among the mycotoxins. Cytokines are important mediators of the immune system. T-cell subsets play a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary AFB1 on the cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens throughout a 21-day experimental period. One hundred and fifty six one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into control group (0 mg AFB1/kg feed and AFB1 group (0.6 mg pure AFB1/kg feed. At 7, 14 and 21 days of age, the levels of seven cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA expression as well as the proportions of T-cell subsets (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry methods were assessed in the cecal tonsils. The levels of the seven cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets significantly decreased at 14 and 21 days of age in the AFB1 group compared with the control group. However, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not significantly changed. These results demonstrate that 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 dietary exposure reduced the levels of cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsils of broiler chickens, suggesting that the cell-mediated immunity of cecal tonsils might be impaired in broilers.

  7. Determining the prevalence of inv-positive and ail-positive Yersinia enterocolitica in pig tonsils using PCR and culture methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelska, Milena Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Yersiniosis is believed to be the third most common intestinal zoonosis in the European Union, after campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis. Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common species responsible for human infections. Pigs are regarded as the biggest reservoir of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, which are mainly isolated from pig tonsils. The aim of this paper is to examine the prevalence of inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica in pigs which were slaughtered in a Polish abattoir. Real-time PCR and culture methods were used to assess the prevalence of patho- genic Y. enterocolitica strains in pig tonsils. Real-time PCR was applied to detect inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica. Y. enterocolitica was also isolated by applying direct plating, unselective (tryptic soy broth) and selective (irgasan-ticarcillin-potassium chlorate bouillon) enrichment. A total of 180 pigs were studied, of which 85% and 32% respectively were found to be infected with inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica. The 92 inv-positive and ail-positive isolates, from 57 culture- positive tonsils, underwent bio- and serotyping. The most common was bioserotype 4/O:3, which was found in 53 (93%) out of 57 culture-positive tonsils. Strains of bioserotypes 2/O:5, 2/O:9 and 2/O:5.27 occurred in significantly lower numbers. The prevalence of inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica was found to be high in the ton- sils of slaughtered pigs, using real-time PCR. The real-time PCR method for the detection and identification of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica is sensitive and specific, which has been verified by specificity and sensitivity tests using the pure cultures. Serotypes were distinguished from each other using PCR serotyping. The PCR method was essential in forming our conclusions.

  8. Short communication: Inhibitory effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 on cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Jiang, M.; Fang, J.; Peng, X.; Cui, H.

    2016-11-01

    Afatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic form among the mycotoxins. Cytokines are important mediators of the immune system. T-cell subsets play a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary AFB1 on the cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens throughout a 21-day experimental period. One hundred and fifty six one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into control group (0 mg AFB1/kg feed) and AFB1 group (0.6 mg pure AFB1/kg feed). At 7, 14 and 21 days of age, the levels of seven cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α) mRNA expression as well as the proportions of T-cell subsets (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+) by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry methods were assessed in the cecal tonsils. The levels of the seven cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets significantly decreased at 14 and 21 days of age in the AFB1 group compared with the control group. However, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not significantly changed. These results demonstrate that 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 dietary exposure reduced the levels of cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsils of broiler chickens, suggesting that the cell-mediated immunity of cecal tonsils might be impaired in broilers. (Author)

  9. Comparison of detection procedures of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, and Mycoplasma hyorhinis in lungs, tonsils, and synovial fluid of slaughtered pigs and their distributions in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhanon, Metta; Tummaruk, Padet; Thongkamkoon, Pacharee; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether direct PCR (DP) gave similar results to culture prior to PCR (CPP) for detecting mycoplasmas in different types of pig tissues. A total of 724 samples obtained from lungs, tonsils, or synovial fluids from 270 slaughtered pigs were used. The history of clinical signs, lung score, and the presence of joint lesions were recorded during sample collection. The rates of detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, and Mycoplasma hyorhinis using both procedures were evaluated. The overall prevalences of M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyosynoviae, and M. hyorhinis were 40.3%, 12.3%, and 64.6%, respectively, and the detection rate depended on the sample type and the procedure used. With lung tissue, DP gave a higher detection rate for M. hyopneumoniae (77.4%) than CPP (38.5%). M. hyorhinis was detected by CPP at 15.6% and 18.1% and by DP at 31.5% and 5.2%, respectively. The positive rate derived from tonsil from CPP was closed to that of DP. Using synovial fluid could not yield any positive M. hyorhinis from CPP whereas 37.2% was positive from DP. In contrast, using sample tissue from lung and tonsil by CPP could show much higher positive number than that of DP. There was a significant relationship between joint lesion and M. hyorhinis detection by DP (P hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis detection by DP and CPP, respectively. Tonsil was likely the community of persistent M. hyosynoviae and M. hyorhinis with highly detection by CPP. Synovial fluid was apparently unsuitable for mycoplasmal culture. The accuracy of mycoplasmal detection may depend upon the type of sample relevant to the detection procedure used.

  10. Oral inoculation of young dairy calves with Mycoplasma bovis results in colonization of tonsils, development of otitis media and local immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Maunsell

    Full Text Available Because M. bovis otitis media is an economically important problem, there is a need to understand the pathogenesis of disease, not only to improve our understanding of the factors contributing to the development of this disease but also to inform the development of improved diagnostic tests and therapy. Oral ingestion of M. bovis-contaminated milk is linked, but not definitively proven, to development of otitis media. In the current study, we demonstrate that oral ingestion of M. bovis infected colostrum can result in an ascending infection and development of otitis media. Importantly, M. bovis was found to have a previously unrecognized tendency for colonization of the tonsils of calves, which most likely contributed to the subsequent development of otitis media. In contrast, transtracheal inoculation failed to produce clinically significant upper respiratory tract disease, although did induce lower respiratory tract disease. The upper respiratory tract was the major site of M. bovis-specific B cell and mucosal IgA responses in calves inoculated by the oral route. The oral inoculation route of infection presented here is particularly suited to the study of host-pathogen interactions during initial colonization of the tonsils, expansion of infection and dissemination to the lower respiratory tract and middle ear. In addition, it could be used to investigate potential new preventative or control strategies, especially those aimed at limiting colonization of the tonsils and/or spread to the middle ear.

  11. Surgical treatment of type I Chiari malformation: the role of Magendie’s foramen opening e tonsils manipulation

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    Claudio Henrique Fernandes Vidal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The treatment for type 1 Chiari malformation (CM 1 is one of the most controversial topics in the neurosurgical field. The present study evaluated two of the most applied surgical techniques to treat CM 1. Method 32 patients were evaluated and divided in two groups: group 1 had 16 patients that were submitted to decompression of occipital bone and dura mater of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ; group 2 also had 16 patients and in addition to the previous procedure, they were submitted to Magendie’s foramen opening e tonsils manipulation. The comparison between the groups included neurological exam and cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging during pre and postoperative periods. Results Both techniques were equivalents in terms of neurological improvement of the patients (p > 0.05, but the group 2 had more surgical complications, with relative risk of 2.45 (CI 1.55-3.86 for adverse events. Whatever the cerebrospinal fluid flow at CVJ, the patients of the group 1 achieved greater amount of flow than the group 2 (p < 0.05 during the postoperative period. Conclusion The cranial and dural decompression of the CVJ without arachnoidal violation was the best surgical intervention for treatment of CM 1, between these two compared techniques.

  12. Clusterin in human gut-associated lymphoid tissue, tonsils, and adenoids: localization to M cells and follicular dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Phebe; Kujala, Pekka; Waelput, Wim; Peters, Peter J; Cuvelier, Claude A

    2008-03-01

    The follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) overlying the follicles of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue is a key player in the initiation of mucosal immune responses. We recently reported strong clusterin expression in the FAE of murine Peyer's patches. In this study, we examined the expression of clusterin in the human gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and Waldeyer's ring. Immunohistochemistry for clusterin in human Peyer's patches, appendix and colon lymphoid follicles revealed expression in M cells and in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). Using cryo-immunogold electron microscopy in Peyer's patches, we observed cytosolic immunoreactivity in M cells and labeling in the ER/Golgi biosynthetic pathway in FDCs. In palatine tonsils and adenoids, we demonstrated clusterin expression in germinal centers and in the lymphoepithelium in the crypts where M cells are localized. In conclusion, clusterin is expressed in M cells and follicular dendritic cells at inductive sites of human mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue suggesting a role for this protein in innate immune responses. Moreover, the use of clusterin as a human M cell marker could prove to be a valuable tool in future M cell research.

  13. Mobilization of immunoglobulin (Ig)-containing plasma cells in Harderian gland, cecal tonsil and trachea of broilers vaccinated with Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrin, M; Khan, M Z I; Siddiqi, M N H; Masum, M A

    2013-06-01

    Immunohistochemical studies of Harderian gland, cecal tonsil and trachea of various groups of broiler chickens and the response of Baby Chick Ranikhet Disease Vaccines (BCRDV) on the mobilization of Igs-cells during postnatal development of organs was investigated in the Dept. of Anatomy and Histology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. In this study twelve chickens were grouped into vaccinated broilers (D14 and D28) which had received vaccines first at D3 of age and a booster dose given at D13; and non-vaccinated broilers (D1) which had not been vaccinated. In this study, it was observed that the frequency and distribution of Igs-positive cells were higher at D14 and at D28 rather than D1. Among Igs-positive cells, the IgG-positive cells were significantly higher than IgM and IgA-positive cells in the Harderian gland of D14 and D28 groups of chickens, however, in day-old chickens, the frequency of IgM-positive cells in this gland were greater. In the cecal tonsil, the frequency and distribution of IgG-positive cells were significantly higher than IgA- and IgM-positive cells both at D14 and D28 ages of chicken. On the other hand, in day-old chickens, the frequency and distribution of IgA-positive cells were insignificantly greater, followed by IgM and IgG-positive cells. In the trachea, few immunoglobulin-containing plasma cells were distributed in the subepithelial layer. IgM-positive cells were higher followed by IgG and IgA-positive cells in the trachea in D14 and D28 groups of chickens. In the same organ, IgG-positive plasma cells were greater than IgA and IgM-positive cells at one-day old. When the data for Harderian gland, cecal tonsil and trachea were compared statistically, it was observed that Igs-positive cells were statistically more common in cecal tonsils in day old chickens, and with the advancement of age, Igs-positive cells were found more in the Harderian gland. In conclusion, with the advancement of age in chickens the Harderian gland

  14. Calculations of B1 Distribution, Specific Energy Absorption Rate, and Intrinsic Signal-to-Noise Ratio for a Body-Size Birdcage Coil Loaded with Different Human Subjects at 64 and 128 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Collins, C M; Smith, M B

    2005-03-01

    A numerical model of a female body is developed to study the effects of different body types with different coil drive methods on radio-frequency magnetic ( B 1 ) field distribution, specific energy absorption rate (SAR), and intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (ISNR) for a body-size birdcage coil at 64 and 128 MHz. The coil is loaded with either a larger, more muscular male body model (subject 1) or a newly developed female body model (subject 2), and driven with two-port (quadrature), four-port, or many (ideal) sources. Loading the coil with subject 1 results in significantly less homogeneous B 1 field, higher SAR, and lower ISNR than those for subject 2 at both frequencies. This dependence of MR performance and safety measures on body type indicates a need for a variety of numerical models representative of a diverse population for future calculations. The different drive methods result in similar B 1 field patterns, SAR, and ISNR in all cases.

  15. Phytochemical-rich medicinal plant extracts suppress bacterial antigens-induced inflammation in human tonsil epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niluni M. Wijesundara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Pharyngitis is an inflammatory condition of the pharynx and associated structures commonly caused by the Group A streptococci (GAS. There is a growing interest in discovering plant-based anti-inflammatory compounds as potential alternatives to conventional drugs. This study evaluated anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemical-rich extracts prepared from 12 herbal plants using human tonsil epithelial cells (HTonEpiC in vitro. Methods The HTonEpiC were induced by a mixture of lipoteichoic acid (LTA and peptidoglycan (PGN (10 µg/mL; bacterial antigens for 4 h and then exposed to ethanol extracts (EE or aqueous extracts (AE for 20 h. The secretion of four pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Results The herbal plant extracts (≤5 µg/mL were not cytotoxic to HTonEpiC. The extracts exhibited a broad range of reduction (1.2%–92.6% of secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8, human beta defensin-2 (hBD-2, epithelial-derived neutrophil activating protein-78 (ENA-78, and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2. Both EE and AE of clove, ginger, and echinacea flower and EE from danshen root significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine production as induced by LTA and PGN in HTonEpiCs at the concentrations of 1 and 5 µg/mL. Discussion Our observations indicate that danshen root, clove, ginger, and echinacea flower extracts exhibit an anti-inflammatory effect in HTonEpiCs. The most efficacious extracts from danshen root, clove, ginger and echinacea flowers have potential to be used as natural sources for developing phytotherapeutic products in the management of painful inflammation due to streptococcal pharyngitis.

  16. The localization of the larvae of the nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe L in the pharynx of reindeer in an earlier unknown tonsil tissue

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    Claes Rehbinder

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available The localization of the larvae of the reindeer nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe L in the pharynx was investigated in 21 reindeer, 11 months old, during April, and in 5 animals during November. In reindeer, without the presence of larvae, no preformed pharyngeal pouch was found at the predilection site, dorsomedially in the pharynx, but an unpaired tronsil, tentatively named Tonsilla pharyngis dorso-medialis. In 12 of the animals investigated during April, a puch containing larvae of C. trompe was found at the predilection site, i.e. the site of the dorsomedially located tonsil. Histologically remnants of tonsil tissue was present at the opening of the pouch. In 3 animals a pouch, containing larvae, was found in the left lateral wall and in 2 animals in the right lateral wall of the pharynz between the opening of Tuba auditiva and the tonsil. In one animal 2 pouches were found, one in the tonsil tissue and one located in the right lateral wall of pharynx. In serial sections from two animals investigated during November, 1 :st instar larvae of Cephenomyia trompe were found in the crypts of the tonsills. The fact that the tonsil tissue is a predilection site for C. trompe larvae may be due to the mechanical protection the 1st instar larvae can find in the crypts. Larvae may, however, also attach to other parts of the pharyngeal mucosa. During their development the larvae penetrate the mucosa forming a pouch. The wall of this pouch consists of a naked acute granulation tissue heavily infiltrated with eosinophilic leucocytes. In connection with the healing process, starting when the larvae have left, a pouch may remain, characterized by walls of chronic granulation tissue covered by a mucous membrane. This pouch could well be misinterpreted as a preformed pouch.Lokalisationen av svalgkormflugans (Cephenemyia trompe L larver i svalget på ren i en tidigare okänd tonsillvävnad (Tonsilla pharyngis dorso-medialis.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning

  17. Effect of administration of Streptococcus salivarius K12 on the occurrence of streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillitis, scarlet fever and acute otitis media in 3 years old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, F; Colombo, M; Giuliani, M G; Danza, M L; Basile, I; Bollani, T; Conti, A M; Zanvit, A; Rottoli, A S

    2016-11-01

    Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12) is a probiotic strain strongly antagonistic to the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans. Shown to colonize the oral cavity and to be safe for human use, BLIS K12 has previously been reported to reduce pharyngo-tonsillitis episodes in children or adults known to have experienced recurrent streptococcal infection. The present study was focussed upon evaluating the role of BLIS K12 in the control of streptococcal disease and acute otitis media in children attending the first year of kindergarten. By randomization, 222 enrolled children attending the first year of kindergarten were divided into a treated group (N = 111) receiving for 6 months a daily treatment with BLIS K12 (Bactoblis®) and a control group (N = 111) who were monitored as untreated controls. During the 6 months of treatment and 3 months of follow-up, the children were evaluated for treatment tolerance, and for episodes of streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillitis, scarlet fever and acute otitis media. During the 6-month trial (N = 111 per group) the incidence of streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillitis, scarlet fever and acute otitis media was approximately 16%, 9% and 44% respectively in the treated group and 48%, 4% and 80% in the control group. During the 3-months follow-up (N = 29 per group) the corresponding rates of infection were 15%, 0% and 12% in the treated group and 26%, 6% and 36% in the controls. No apparent side effects were detected in the treated group either during treatment or follow-up. All of the enrolled children completed the study. The daily administration of BLIS K12 to children attending their first year of kindergarten was associated with a significant reduction in episodes of streptococcal pharyngitis and acute otitis media. No protection against scarlet fever was detected.

  18. Use of a novel serum ELISA method and the tonsil-carrier state for evaluation of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae distributions in pig herds with or without clinical arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elisabeth Okholm; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll; Friis, Niels Filskov

    2005-01-01

    on porcine serum following experimental Mycoplasma infections as well as by analysis of samples from one Danish herd known to be free of M. hyosynoviae and samples from two Norwegian herds without clinical suspicion of M. hyosynoviae infections since their establishment. The epidemiology of M. hyosynoviae...... determined by culture of cross-sectional samples of whole-blood (n = 238) and tonsil scrapings (n = 322), respectively. Levels of serum antibodies (n = 396) were measured by the novel indirect ELISA test. There was no significant difference in the ELISA results between the MhA and the MhC herds. Pigs...

  19. Estudo comparativo do padrão de respiração e a porcentagem de ocupação da nasofaringe pela tonsila faríngea em crianças com ou sem história de infecção pelo HIV A comparative study of the breathing pattern and amount of nasopharynx obstruction by the pharyngeal tonsil in hiv infected and non infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michella Dinah Zastrow

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi estudar a associação entre o padrão de respiração e o tamanho da tonsila faríngea em 122 crianças (60 infectadas pelo HIV e 62 sem infecção. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: As crianças foram analisadas quanto ao padrão de respiração, fluxo nasal e ocupação da tonsila faríngea em radiografias cefalométricas de perfil, através de uma análise computadorizada. RESULTADOS: O padrão de respiração de maior ocorrência nos dois grupos foi o tipo misto. A maioria das crianças apresentou tipo de respiração bucal ou mista, não havendo associação entre o tipo de respiração e presença do HIV (p=0,091. O fluxo nasal mostrou predomínio do fluxo médio nos dois grupos. As crianças sem história de infecção pelo HIV apresentaram fluxo nasal de médio a grande e a maioria das crianças infectadas pelo HIV apresentou de pouco a médio fluxo nasal de ar, havendo uma associação positiva entre o fluxo nasal e a infecção pelo HIV (pAIM: the goal of the present investigation was to study the association between breathing pattern and pharyngeal tonsil size in 122 children (60 HIV infected and 62 without such infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The children were analyzed as to their breathing pattern, nasal flow and pharyngeal tonsil obstruction seen in side cephalometric x-rays, by means of a computerized analysis. RESULTS: The pattern that most occurred in both groups was the mixed type. Most of the children presented oral or mixed type breathing and there was no association between the type of breathing and HIV presence (p=0.091. Nasal flow was mainly medium in both groups. Children without prior history of HIV infection had medium to large nasal flow and most of the HIV-infected children had medium nasal airflow. There was a positive association between nasal flow and HIV infection (p<0.0001. The average percentage of nasopharynx obstruction by the pharyngeal tonsil was high in both groups, and there was

  20. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  1. Tonsils and Adenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Health Home Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly ... Terms of Use © Copyright 2018. American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery 1650 Diagonal Rd Alexandria, ...

  2. CX3CR1 is expressed by human B lymphocytes and mediates [corrected] CX3CL1 driven chemotaxis of tonsil centrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Corcione

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fractalkine/CX(3CL1, a surface chemokine, binds to CX(3CR1 expressed by different lymphocyte subsets. Since CX(3CL1 has been detected in the germinal centres of secondary lymphoid tissue, in this study we have investigated CX(3CR1 expression and function in human naïve, germinal centre and memory B cells isolated from tonsil or peripheral blood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate unambiguously that highly purified human B cells from tonsil and peripheral blood expressed CX(3CR1 at mRNA and protein levels as assessed by quantitative PCR, flow cytometry and competition binding assays. In particular, naïve, germinal centre and memory B cells expressed CX(3CR1 but only germinal centre B cells were attracted by soluble CX(3CL1 in a transwell assay. CX(3CL1 signalling in germinal centre B cells involved PI3K, Erk1/2, p38, and Src phosphorylation, as assessed by Western blot experiments. CX(3CR1(+ germinal centre B cells were devoid of centroblasts and enriched for centrocytes that migrated to soluble CX(3CL1. ELISA assay showed that soluble CX(3CL1 was secreted constitutively by follicular dendritic cells and T follicular helper cells, two cell populations homing in the germinal centre light zone as centrocytes. At variance with that observed in humans, soluble CX(3CL1 did not attract spleen B cells from wild type mice. OVA immunized CX(3CR1(-/- or CX(3CL1(-/- mice showed significantly decreased specific IgG production compared to wild type mice. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose a model whereby human follicular dendritic cells and T follicular helper cells release in the light zone of germinal centre soluble CX(3CL1 that attracts centrocytes. The functional implications of these results warrant further investigation.

  3. Group A Streptococcus M1T1 Intracellular Infection of Primary Tonsil Epithelial Cells Dampens Levels of Secreted IL-8 Through the Action of SpyCEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia T. Soderholm

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus; GAS commonly causes pharyngitis in children and adults, with severe invasive disease and immune sequelae being an infrequent consequence. The ability of GAS to invade the host and establish infection likely involves subversion of host immune defenses. However, the signaling pathways and innate immune responses of epithelial cells to GAS are not well-understood. In this study, we utilized RNAseq to characterize the inflammatory responses of primary human tonsil epithelial (TEpi cells to infection with the laboratory-adapted M6 strain JRS4 and the M1T1 clinical isolate 5448. Both strains induced the expression of genes encoding a wide range of inflammatory mediators, including IL-8. Pathway analysis revealed differentially expressed genes between mock and JRS4- or 5448-infected TEpi cells were enriched in transcription factor networks that regulate IL-8 expression, such as AP-1, ATF-2, and NFAT. While JRS4 infection resulted in high levels of secreted IL-8, 5448 infection did not, suggesting that 5448 may post-transcriptionally dampen IL-8 production. Infection with 5448ΔcepA, an isogenic mutant lacking the IL-8 protease SpyCEP, resulted in IL-8 secretion levels comparable to JRS4 infection. Complementation of 5448ΔcepA and JRS4 with a plasmid encoding 5448-derived SpyCEP significantly reduced IL-8 secretion by TEpi cells. Our results suggest that intracellular infection with the pathogenic GAS M1T1 clone induces a strong pro-inflammatory response in primary tonsil epithelial cells, but modulates this host response by selectively degrading the neutrophil-recruiting chemokine IL-8 to benefit infection.

  4. Adenoidal size in lateral roentgenogram of skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, H. S.; Byun, Y. S.; Hahm, C. K.; Kim, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Adenoid is a kind of tonsil located in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. Enlargement of the adenoid can produce obstruction of the nasopharynx and eustachian tube. Disturbance in discharge of nasal and paranasal secretions can be a cause of chronic rhinitis, sinusitis and otitis media. The diagnosis of enlarged adenoid by inspection is difficult due to its location. In the lateral roentgenogram of the skull the anterior wall of the adenoid is sharply delineated by air in the nasopharynx. The authors measured the sizes of adenoid and nasopharynx and calculated the adenoid-nasopharyngeal ratio (AN ratio) from 1,000 simple skull lateral roentgenograms of the children between the age of 0 to 16 years. Adenoid size is gradually increasing in the children up to 9 years of age but almost uncharged in the older age group. The AN ratio is highest in the age group of 8-9 years. In the age groups above 9 years of age the AN ratio is gradually decreased due to atrophic changes of the adenoid

  5. Adenoidal size in lateral roentgenogram of skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, H. S.; Byun, Y. S.; Hahm, C. K.; Kim, J. J. [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Adenoid is a kind of tonsil located in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. Enlargement of the adenoid can produce obstruction of the nasopharynx and eustachian tube. Disturbance in discharge of nasal and paranasal secretions can be a cause of chronic rhinitis, sinusitis and otitis media. The diagnosis of enlarged adenoid by inspection is difficult due to its location. In the lateral roentgenogram of the skull the anterior wall of the adenoid is sharply delineated by air in the nasopharynx. The authors measured the sizes of adenoid and nasopharynx and calculated the adenoid-nasopharyngeal ratio (AN ratio) from 1,000 simple skull lateral roentgenograms of the children between the age of 0 to 16 years. Adenoid size is gradually increasing in the children up to 9 years of age but almost uncharged in the older age group. The AN ratio is highest in the age group of 8-9 years. In the age groups above 9 years of age the AN ratio is gradually decreased due to atrophic changes of the adenoid.

  6. Decreased IgA+ B Cells Population and IgA, IgG, IgM Contents of the Cecal Tonsil Induced by Dietary High Fluorine in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangping Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in humans and animals. The cecal tonsil is an important component of the mucosal immune system and performs important and unique immune functions. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on the quantities of IgA+ B cells in the cecal tonsil by immunohistochemistry, and the immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG and immunoglobulin M (IgM contents in the cecal tonsil by ELISA. A total of 280 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg or the same diet supplemented with 400, 800 and 1,200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II and III in the form of sodium fluoride, respectively, throughout a 42-day experimental period. The results showed that the quantities of IgA+ B cells were lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 and the IgA, IgG, and IgM contents were decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 in high fluorine groups II and III in comparison with those of control group. It was concluded that dietary fluorine, in the 800–1,200 mg/kg range, could reduce the numbers of the IgA+ B cells and immunoglobulin contents in the cecal tonsil, implying the local mucosal immune function was ultimately impacted in broilers.

  7. Idiopathic Radiation Recall Dermatitis Developing Nine Months after Cessation of Cisplatin Therapy in Treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tonsil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Melnyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To report on a suspected case of idiopathic radiation recall dermatitis in an individual nine months after radiation and chemotherapy treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the right tonsil. Radiation recall dermatitis is the development of a reaction in a previously irradiated area of skin after the administration of an aggravating medication. A review of the literature revealed several cases of radiation recall dermatitis that occur following radiation therapy and the institution of chemotherapy. Other medications have also been implicated in radiation recall dermatitis; however, this patient has not started any new medications since completion of his combined therapy. The patient developed this skin reaction in a distribution pattern identical to the area that received the highest radiation dose suggesting a possible link between radiation recall dermatitis and radiation dose. Radiation recall dermatitis is a reaction that is typically seen shortly after the reinstitution of chemotherapy during radiation therapy. This case illustrates that other medical etiologies are possible and suggests a relationship between radiation recall dermatitis and the total radiation dose an area receives.

  8. Stakeholders' views of recurrent sore throat, tonsillitis and their management: a qualitative interview study for the NAtional Trial of Tonsillectomy IN Adults (NATTINA Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, L A; Rousseau, N S; Wilson, J A; Wilkes, S; Haighton, C A

    2017-04-01

    To determine the impact of recurrent sore throats and tonsillitis in adults and stakeholder views of treatment pathways. Qualitative semistructured interview design reporting novel data from a feasibility study for a UK national trial of tonsillectomy in adults. Nine study sites linked to ear, nose and throat departments in National Health Service hospitals located across the United Kingdom. Fifteen patients, 11 general practitioners and 22 ear, nose and throat staff consented to in-depth interviews, which were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Views of stakeholder groups. Recurrent sore throats were reported to severely impact patients' family, work and social life. Ear, nose and throat staff stated that patients faced increasing barriers to secondary care service access. General practitioners were under pressure to reduce 'limited clinical value' surgical procedures. The findings from this study suggest that there is a disconnect between the attitudes of the stakeholders and the reality of recurrent sore throat, tonsillectomy procedures and service provision. More evidence for the role of tonsillectomy is needed from randomised controlled trials to determine whether it should continue to be ranked as a procedure of limited clinical effectiveness. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The effect of different physical activity levels on muscle fiber size and type distribution of lumbar multifidus. A biopsy study on low back pain patient groups and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazis, N; Papachristou, D J; Zouboulis, P; Tyllianakis, M; Scopa, C D; Megas, P

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies examining the multifidus fiber characteristics among low back pain (LBP) patients have not considered the variable of physical activity. The present study sought to investigate the muscle fiber size and type distribution of the lumbar multifidus muscle among LBP patient groups with different physical activity levels and healthy controls. Sixty-four patients were assigned to one of three groups named according to the physical activity level, determined for each patient by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. These were low (LPA), medium (MPA) and high (HPA) physical activity groups. A control group comprising of 17 healthy individuals was also recruited. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the multifidus muscle at the level L4-L5. contrast with the control group, LBP patient groups showed a significantly higher Type II fiber distribution as well as reduced diameter in both fiber types (P0.05) among LPA, MPA and HPA patient groups. Various pathological conditions were detected which were more pronounced in LBP groups compared to the control (P<0.05). Males had a larger fiber diameter compared to females for both fiber types (P<0.05). The results showed that the level of physical activity did not affect muscle fiber size and type distribution among LBP patients groups. These findings suggest that not only inactivity but also high physical activity levels can have an adverse effect on the multifidus muscle fiber characteristics.

  10. Gene expression profiling of chicken cecal tonsils and ileum following oral exposure to soluble and PLGA-encapsulated CpG ODN, and lysate of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha-Abdelaziz, Khaled; Alkie, Tamiru Negash; Hodgins, Douglas C; Yitbarek, Alexander; Shojadoost, Bahram; Sharif, Shayan

    2017-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading bacterial cause of food-borne illness in humans. Contaminated chicken meat is an important source of infection for humans. Chickens are not clinically affected by colonization, and immune responses following natural infection have limited effects on bacterial load in the gut. Induction of intestinal immune responses may possibly lead to a breakdown of the commensal relationship of chickens with Campylobacter. We have recently shown that soluble and poly D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-encapsulated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) as well as C. jejuni lysate, are effective in reducing the intestinal burden of C. jejuni in chickens; however, the mechanisms behind this protection have yet to be determined. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms of host responses conferred by these treatments. Chickens were treated orally with soluble CpG ODN, or PLGA-encapsulated CpG ODN, or C. jejuni lysate, and expression of cytokines and antimicrobial peptides was evaluated in cecal tonsils and ileum using quantitative RT-PCR. Oral administration of soluble CpG ODN upregulated the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, CXCLi2, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β4/1, IL-10 and IL-13, while treatment with PLGA-encapsulated CpG ODN upregulated the expression of IL-1β, CXCLi2, TGF-β4/1, IL-13, avian β-defensin (AvBD) 1, AvBD2 and cathelicidin 3 (CATHL-3). C. jejuni lysate upregulated the expression of IFN-γ, IL-1β, TGF-β4/1, IL-13, AvBD1, and CATHL-3. In conclusion, induction of cytokine and antimicrobial peptides expression in intestinal microenvironments may provide a means of reducing C. jejuni colonization in broiler chickens, a key step in reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cards One 3-ounce (84 grams) serving of fish is a checkbook One-half cup (40 grams) ... for the smallest size. By eating a small hamburger instead of a large, you will save about 150 calories. ...

  12. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  13. The Clinical Potential of Semisynthetic Penicillins in Acute Bacterial Otitis Media and Acute Bacterial Tonsillitis in Children in the Practice of ENT Doctor: Focus on Ospamox and Amoxsiclav®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Popovych

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide prevalence of bacterial infections of upper respiratory tract, especially in childhood, the presence of complications that threaten the health and lives of patients necessitate the prescription of a rational systemic antibiotic therapy. Given the fact that in most cases the characteristics of the bacterial spectrum as an etiologic agent of these diseases is known, penicillin antibiotics are the first line in this pathology. On the example of two clinical cases, we have considered the use of suspension Ospamox (amoxicillin and Amoxiclav® (amoxicillin clavulanate in children with acute tonsillitis and acute otitis media, which demonstrated high efficacy and safety of treatment.

  14. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  15. Size matter!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Jespersen, Andreas Maaløe; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    2015-01-01

    trash bags according to size of plates and weighed in bulk. Results Those eating from smaller plates (n=145) left significantly less food to waste (aver. 14,8g) than participants eating from standard plates (n=75) (aver. 20g) amounting to a reduction of 25,8%. Conclusions Our field experiment tests...... the hypothesis that a decrease in the size of food plates may lead to significant reductions in food waste from buffets. It supports and extends the set of circumstances in which a recent experiment found that reduced dinner plates in a hotel chain lead to reduced quantities of leftovers....

  16. Surface area and pore size characteristics of nanoporous gold subjected to thermal, mechanical, or surface modification studied using gas adsorption isotherms, cyclic voltammetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yih Horng; Davis, Jason A.; Fujikawa, Kohki; Ganesh, N. Vijaya; Demchenko, Alexei V.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms are used to investigate the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore size distribution of physically modified, thermally annealed, and octadecanethiol functionalized np-Au monoliths. We present the full adsorption-desorption isotherms for N2 gas on np-Au, and observe type IV isotherms and type H1 hysteresis loops. The evolution of the np-Au under various thermal annealing treatments was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images of both the exterior and interior of the thermally annealed np-Au show that the porosity of all free standing np-Au structures decreases as the heat treatment temperature increases. The modification of the np-Au surface with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of C18-SH (coverage of 2.94 × 1014 molecules cm−2 based from the decomposition of the C18-SH using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)), was found to reduce the strength of the interaction of nitrogen gas with the np-Au surface, as reflected by a decrease in the ‘C’ parameter of the BET equation. From cyclic voltammetry studies, we found that the surface area of the np-Au monoliths annealed at elevated temperatures followed the same trend with annealing temperature as found in the BET surface area study and SEM morphology characterization. The study highlights the ability to control free-standing nanoporous gold monoliths with high surface area, and well-defined, tunable pore morphology. PMID:22822294

  17. Exploring Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among…

  18. Aerosol Size Distributions In Auckland.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coulson, G.; Olivares, G.; Talbot, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2016), s. 23-28 E-ISSN 1836-5876 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : aerosol size distribution * particle number concentration * roadside Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  19. Size matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The shakeout in the solar cell and module industry is in full swing. While the number of companies and production locations shutting down in the Western world is increasing, the capacity expansion in the Far East seems to be unbroken. Size in combination with a good sales network has become the key to success for surviving in the current storm. The trade war with China already looming on the horizon is adding to the uncertainties. (orig.)

  20. Missing portion sizes in FFQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Halldorson, Thorhallur I.

    2015-01-01

    -nearest neighbours (KNN) were compared with a reference based on self-reported portion sizes (quantified by a photographic food atlas embedded in the FFQ). Setting: The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007–2008. Subjects: The study included 3728 adults with complete portion size data. Results: Compared...

  1. Rhizosphere size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Razavi, Bahar

    2017-04-01

    Estimation of the soil volume affected by roots - the rhizosphere - is crucial to assess the effects of plants on properties and processes in soils and dynamics of nutrients, water, microorganisms and soil organic matter. The challenges to assess the rhizosphere size are: 1) the continuum of properties between the root surface and root-free soil, 2) differences in the distributions of various properties (carbon, microorganisms and their activities, various nutrients, enzymes, etc.) along and across the roots, 3) temporal changes of properties and processes. Thus, to describe the rhizosphere size and root effects, a holistic approach is necessary. We collected literature and own data on the rhizosphere gradients of a broad range of physico-chemical and biological properties: pH, CO2, oxygen, redox potential, water uptake, various nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Fe), organic compounds (glucose, carboxylic acids, amino acids), activities of enzymes of C, N, P and S cycles. The collected data were obtained based on the destructive approaches (thin layer slicing), rhizotron studies and in situ visualization techniques: optodes, zymography, sensitive gels, 14C and neutron imaging. The root effects were pronounced from less than 0.5 mm (nutrients with slow diffusion) up to more than 50 mm (for gases). However, the most common effects were between 1 - 10 mm. Sharp gradients (e.g. for P, carboxylic acids, enzyme activities) allowed to calculate clear rhizosphere boundaries and so, the soil volume affected by roots. The first analyses were done to assess the effects of soil texture and moisture as well as root system and age on these gradients. The most properties can be described by two curve types: exponential saturation and S curve, each with increasing and decreasing concentration profiles from the root surface. The gradient based distribution functions were calculated and used to extrapolate on the whole soil depending on the root density and rooting intensity. We

  2. Abortive lytic Epstein–Barr virus replication in tonsil-B lymphocytes in infectious mononucleosis and a subset of the chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerner AM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A Martin Lerner,1 Safedin Beqaj21Department of Medicine, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, MI, USA; 2Pathology Inc, Torrance, CA, USAAbstract: A systematic 2001–2007 review of 142 chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS patients identified 106 CFS patients with elevated serum IgG antibodies to the herpesviruses Epstein–Barr virus (EBV, cytomegalovirus, or human herpesvirus (HHV 6 in single or multiple infections, with no other co-infections detected. We named these 106 patients group-A CFS. Eighty-six of these 106 group-A CFS patients (81% had elevated EBV early antibody, early antigen (diffuse, serum titers. A small group of six patients in the group-A EBV subset of CFS, additionally, had repetitive elevated-serum titers of antibody to the early lytic replication-encoded proteins, EBV dUTPase, and EBV DNA polymerase. The presence of these serum antibodies to EBV dUTPase and EBV DNA polymerase indicated EBV abortive lytic replication in these 6 CFS patients. None of 20 random control people (age- and sex-matched, with blood drawn at a commercial laboratory had elevated serum titers of antibody to EBV dUTPase or EBV DNA polymerase (P < 0.01. This finding needs verification in a larger group of EBV CFS subset patients, but if corroborated, it may represent a molecular marker for diagnosing the EBV subset of CFS. We review evidence that EBV abortive lytic replication with unassembled viral proteins in the blood may be the same in infectious mononucleosis (IM and a subset of CFS. EBV-abortive lytic replication in tonsil plasma cells is dominant in IM. No complete lytic virion is in the blood of IM or CFS patients. Complications of CFS and IM include cardiomyopathy and encephalopathy. Circulating abortive lytic-encoded EBV proteins (eg, EBV dUTPase, EBV DNA polymerase, and others may be common to IM and CFS. The intensity and duration of the circulating EBV-encoded proteins might differentiate the IM and EBV subsets of CFS

  3. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  4. Herniation of the cerebellar tonsils after suprasellar arachnoid cyst shunt: case report Herniação das tonsilas cerebelares após shunt de cisto aracnóide supra-selar: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mendonça

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the caudal dislocation of the cerebellar tonsils may occur associated with clinical conditions such as an intracranial mass lesion or Chiari I and II malformation. It may also be acquired after repeated lumbar punctures or lumboperitoneostomy. The occurrence of cerebellar herniation after derivation of intracranial arachnoid cyst is extremely rare, and there are only three cases reported in the medical literature. We present the case of a 9-year-old boy with precocious puberty and suprasellar arachnoid cyst who developed a symptomatic herniation of the cerebellar tonsils three years after a cystoperitoneostomy. The patient underwent a suboccipital craniectomy with duraplasty and partial tonsilectomy, showing afterwards, remission of the symptoms. We discussed the pathogenesis suggested in the literature.Sabe-se que o deslocamento caudal das tonsilas cerebelares pode ocorrer em associação com condições clínicas tais como: lesão expansiva intracraniana ou malformação de Chiari I e II. Pode ainda ser adquirido após repetidas punções lombares ou lomboperitoniostomia. A ocorrência de herniação cerebelar após derivação de cisto aracnóide intracraniano é evento extremamente raro, existindo apenas três casos relatados na literatura médica. O caso de menino de 9 anos de idade, com puberdade precoce e cisto aracnóide supra-selar, que desenvolveu herniação sintomática das tonsilas cerebelares três anos após cistoperitoniostomia. O paciente foi submetido a craniectomia suboccipital com plástica dural e tonsilectomia parcial, apresentando remissão dos sintomas. Discutimos a patogênese sugerida na literatura.

  5. Size makes a difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate status and trends in portion size of foods rich in fat and/or added sugars during the past decades, and to bring portion size into perspective in its role in obesity and dietary guidelines in Denmark. Data sources: Information about portion sizes of low-fat and full-fat food...... nation-wide dietary surveys and official sales statistics (Study 3). Results: Study 1: Subjects ate and drank significantly more when they chose low-fat food and meal items (milk used as a drink, sauce and sliced cold meat), compared with their counterparts who chose food and meal items with a higher fat...... content. As a result, almost the same amounts of energy and fat were consumed both ways, with the exception of sliced cold meat (energy and fat) and milk (fat). Study 2: Portion sizes of commercial energy-dense foods and beverages, and fast food meals rich in fat and/or added sugars, seem to have...

  6. Influencing factors on CPAP adherence and anatomic characteristics of upper airway in OSA subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pona; Kim, Jinil; Song, Yoon Jae; Lim, Jae Hyun; Cho, Sung Woo; Won, Tae-Bin; Han, Doo Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Rhee, Chae Seo; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2017-12-01

    Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective treatment modality, poor adherence still remains a problem for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment and there is little evidence regarding how this might be improved. This study aims to analyze the anatomic and clinical factors of OSA subjects who failed to comply with CPAP therapy.The medical records of 47 OSA subjects who received CPAP therapy as a first-line treatment modality were retrospectively reviewed. The medical records were reviewed for demographic and polysomnographic data and anatomic findings of the nasal cavity and oropharynx.24 patients who adhered to CPAP therapy and 23 patients who were nonadherent were enrolled in the study. There were no statistically significant differences in sleep parameters between CPAP-adherent patients and CPAP nonadherent subjects. Mean body mass index of CPAP nonadherent group was significantly higher than CPAP adherent group. Higher grades of septal deviation and hypertrophic change of the inferior turbinate were observed more in the CPAP nonadherent group. In addition, CPAP nonadherent subjects showed considerably bigger tonsils and higher grade palatal position comparing with the CPAP adherent subjects. Subjective discomfort including inconvenience, mouth dryness, and chest discomfort were the main problems for OSA subjects who did not comply with CPAP therapy.Excessive upper airway blockage in the nasal cavity and oropharynx was predominant in CPAP nonadherent subjects, which might cause the reported subjective discomfort that reduces CPAP compliance. Therefore, resolution of these issues is needed to enhance CPAP compliance for control of OSA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  8. Dual-window dual-bandwidth spectroscopic optical coherence tomography metric for qualitative scatterer size differentiation in tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Benjamin Chia-Meng; Chow, Tzu-Hao; Ng, Beng-Koon; Loh, Thomas Kwok-Seng

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the autocorrelation bandwidths of dual-window (DW) optical coherence tomography (OCT) k-space scattering profile of different-sized microspheres and their correlation to scatterer size. A dual-bandwidth spectroscopic metric defined as the ratio of the 10% to 90% autocorrelation bandwidths is found to change monotonically with microsphere size and gives the best contrast enhancement for scatterer size differentiation in the resulting spectroscopic image. A simulation model supports the experimental results and revealed a tradeoff between the smallest detectable scatterer size and the maximum scatterer size in the linear range of the dual-window dual-bandwidth (DWDB) metric, which depends on the choice of the light source optical bandwidth. Spectroscopic OCT (SOCT) images of microspheres and tonsil tissue samples based on the proposed DWDB metric showed clear differentiation between different-sized scatterers as compared to those derived from conventional short-time Fourier transform metrics. The DWDB metric significantly improves the contrast in SOCT imaging and can aid the visualization and identification of dissimilar scatterer size in a sample. Potential applications include the early detection of cell nuclear changes in tissue carcinogenesis, the monitoring of healing tendons, and cell proliferation in tissue scaffolds.

  9. Digital Pupillometry in Normal Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickmann, Annekatrin; Waizel, Maria; Kazerounian, Sara; Szurman, Peter; Wilhelm, Helmut; Boden, Karl T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the pupil size of normal subjects at different illumination levels with a novel pupillometer. The pupil size of healthy study participants was measured with an infrared-video PupilX pupillometer (MEye Tech GmbH, Alsdorf, Germany) at five different illumination levels (0, 0.5, 4, 32, and 250 lux). Measurements were performed by the same investigator. Ninety images were executed during a measurement period of 3 seconds. The absolute linear camera resolution was approximately 20 pixels per mm. This cross-sectional study analysed 490 eyes of 245 subjects (mean age: 51.9 ± 18.3 years, range: 6–87 years). On average, pupil diameter decreased with increasing light intensities for both eyes, with a mean pupil diameter of 5.39 ± 1.04 mm at 0 lux, 5.20 ± 1.00 mm at 0.5 lux, 4.70 ± 0.97 mm at 4 lux, 3.74 ± 0.78 mm at 32 lux, and 2.84 ± 0.50 mm at 250 lux illumination. Furthermore, it was found that anisocoria increased by 0.03 mm per life decade for all illumination levels (R2 = 0.43). Anisocoria was higher under scotopic and mesopic conditions. This study provides additional information to the current knowledge concerning age- and light-related pupil size and anisocoria as a baseline for future patient studies. PMID:28228832

  10. Attention modulates visual size adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Sylvia; Fink, Gereon R; Weidner, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined in healthy subjects (n = 16) whether size adaptation occurs at early, i.e., preattentive, levels of processing or whether higher cognitive processes such as attention can modulate the illusion. To investigate this issue, bottom-up stimulation was kept constant across conditions by using a single adaptation display containing both small and large adapter stimuli. Subjects' attention was directed to either the large or small adapter stimulus by means of a luminance detection task. When attention was directed toward the small as compared to the large adapter, the perceived size of the subsequent target was significantly increased. Data suggest that different size adaptation effects can be induced by one and the same stimulus depending on the current allocation of attention. This indicates that size adaptation is subject to attentional modulation. These findings are in line with previous research showing that transient as well as sustained attention modulates visual features, such as contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency, and influences adaptation in other contexts, such as motion adaptation (Alais & Blake, 1999; Lankheet & Verstraten, 1995). Based on a recently suggested model (Pooresmaeili, Arrighi, Biagi, & Morrone, 2013), according to which perceptual adaptation is based on local excitation and inhibition in V1, we conclude that guiding attention can boost these local processes in one or the other direction by increasing the weight of the attended adapter. In sum, perceptual adaptation, although reflected in changes of neural activity at early levels (as shown in the aforementioned study), is nevertheless subject to higher-order modulation.

  11. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  12. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    either construct elicitation mechanisms that control for risk aversion, or construct elicitation mechanisms which undertake 'calibrating adjustments' to elicited reports. We illustrate how the joint estimation of risk attitudes and subjective probabilities can provide the calibration adjustments...... that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...

  13. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  14. Associação entre hipertrofia adenotonsilar, tonsilites e crises álgicas na anemia falciforme Association between adenotonsillar hypertrophy, tonsillitis and painful crises in sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salles

    2009-06-01

    lgica no mesmo período; e não houve diferença quanto ao valor da hemoglobina anual média entre os que apresentaram e os que não apresentaram hipertrofia adenotonsilar obstrutiva.OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia; to investigate possible association between the presence of more than five episodes of tonsillitis in the last 12 months and episodes of painful crises in the same period; and to compare the mean annual hemoglobin level in children and adolescents with and without obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy. METHODS: Prospective, observational, cross-sectional study involving 85 children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia. All patients answered a questionnaire and underwent a standard otolaryngology examination, including endoscopic endonasal approach. The diagnosis of obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy was made according to the Brodsky scale. RESULTS: The prevalence of obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy was 55.3%. Obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy was associated with history of difficulty in eating (76.7 vs. 23.5%, p = 0.003, presence of more than five episodes of tonsillitis in the last 12 months (70.6 vs. 29.4%, p = 0.021, loud snoring (73.0 vs. 27.0%, p = 0.004, and sleep apnea (71.8 vs. 28.2%, p = 0.005. Patients with obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy had more episodes of recurrent upper airway tract infection (62.5 vs. 37.5; p = 0.010. The presence of more than five episodes of tonsillitis in the last 12 months was associated with episodes of painful crises (median = 12 vs. 2, p = 0.017. There was no significant difference between mean annual hemoglobin levels of patients with obstructive adenotonsilar hypertrophy vs. nonobstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy: 7.6 vs. 8.2 g/dL, p = 0.199. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy was 55.3% in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia; the presence of

  15. Moderating Effects of Cortisol on Neural-Cognitive Association in Cognitively Normal Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Way K. W. Lau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cortisol homeostasis is important for healthy brain and cognitive aging. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of serum cortisol levels in the relationship between regional brain volumes and cognitive processing speed in a group of cognitively normal elderly subjects. Forty-one healthy elderly participants were from a parallel longitudinal study. The reported data in this study reflects baseline measurements. Whole-brain anatomical scanning was performed using a 3.0 Tesla Philips Medical Systems Achieva scanner. Cognitive processing speed was assessed by the digit-symbol and symbol search tests, from the Chinese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—third edition (WAIS-III. Serum cortisol levels (sampled in the late morning were measured by ELISA kits. Whole-brain regression analysis revealed that serum cortisol levels positively predicted the white matter volumes (WMV of the right thalamus, the gray matter volumes (GMV of the left thalamus and right cerebellar tonsil, and negatively predicted the WMV and GMV of the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG in 41 healthy elderly participants. Furthermore, serum cortisol significantly moderated the relationship between the GMV of the left MTG and processing speed, as well as the GMV of the left thalamus and processing speed. This study provided the first piece of evidence supporting serum cortisol levels in moderating the relationship between regional brain volumes and processing speed in healthy elderly subjects. This observation enriches our understanding of the role of cortisol in brain morphology and cognitive functioning.

  16. Moderating Effects of Cortisol on Neural-Cognitive Association in Cognitively Normal Elderly Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Way K. W.; Leung, Mei Kei; Law, Andrew C. K.; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol homeostasis is important for healthy brain and cognitive aging. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of serum cortisol levels in the relationship between regional brain volumes and cognitive processing speed in a group of cognitively normal elderly subjects. Forty-one healthy elderly participants were from a parallel longitudinal study. The reported data in this study reflects baseline measurements. Whole-brain anatomical scanning was performed using a 3.0 Tesla Philips Medical Systems Achieva scanner. Cognitive processing speed was assessed by the digit-symbol and symbol search tests, from the Chinese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—third edition (WAIS-III). Serum cortisol levels (sampled in the late morning) were measured by ELISA kits. Whole-brain regression analysis revealed that serum cortisol levels positively predicted the white matter volumes (WMV) of the right thalamus, the gray matter volumes (GMV) of the left thalamus and right cerebellar tonsil, and negatively predicted the WMV and GMV of the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in 41 healthy elderly participants. Furthermore, serum cortisol significantly moderated the relationship between the GMV of the left MTG and processing speed, as well as the GMV of the left thalamus and processing speed. This study provided the first piece of evidence supporting serum cortisol levels in moderating the relationship between regional brain volumes and processing speed in healthy elderly subjects. This observation enriches our understanding of the role of cortisol in brain morphology and cognitive functioning. PMID:28596732

  17. Concepts in sample size determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umadevi K Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigators involved in clinical, epidemiological or translational research, have the drive to publish their results so that they can extrapolate their findings to the population. This begins with the preliminary step of deciding the topic to be studied, the subjects and the type of study design. In this context, the researcher must determine how many subjects would be required for the proposed study. Thus, the number of individuals to be included in the study, i.e., the sample size is an important consideration in the design of many clinical studies. The sample size determination should be based on the difference in the outcome between the two groups studied as in an analytical study, as well as on the accepted p value for statistical significance and the required statistical power to test a hypothesis. The accepted risk of type I error or alpha value, which by convention is set at the 0.05 level in biomedical research defines the cutoff point at which the p value obtained in the study is judged as significant or not. The power in clinical research is the likelihood of finding a statistically significant result when it exists and is typically set to >80%. This is necessary since the most rigorously executed studies may fail to answer the research question if the sample size is too small. Alternatively, a study with too large a sample size will be difficult and will result in waste of time and resources. Thus, the goal of sample size planning is to estimate an appropriate number of subjects for a given study design. This article describes the concepts in estimating the sample size.

  18. Germinant size of jack pine in relation to seed size and geographic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Yeatman

    1966-01-01

    The initial size of conifer seedlings is closely related to seed size (Hadders 1963), and seed size is a maternal characteristic that is highly subject to environmental modification (Mergen et al. 1964; Righter 1945). The effect of seed weight must be accounted for in critical studies of seedlings which attempt to attribute differences in growth to specific genetic or...

  19. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  20. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /page. It is, moreover, an index pointing to the painting/writing subject; it is a special deictic mode of painting/writing. The handwriting of the Russian avant-garde books, the poetics of handwriting, and the way handwriting is represented in poetry emphasize the way the subject (the speaking and the viewing...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  1. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  2. The remembering subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Garzón Martínez

    2015-07-01

    More concretely this article presents the idea of remembrance subjectivity that becomes converted into a political platform for reclaiming the right to recollect and change based on those recollections

  3. On English Locative Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Brůhová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses English sentences with thematic locative subjects. These subjects were detected as translation counterparts of Czech sentenceinitial locative adverbials realized by prepositional phrases with the prepositions do (into, na (on, v/ve (in, z/ze (from complemented by a noun. In the corresponding English structure, the initial scene-setting adverbial is reflected in the thematic subject, which results in the locative semantics of the subject. The sentences are analysed from syntactic, semantic and FSP aspects. From the syntactic point of view, we found five syntactic patterns of the English sentences with a locative subject (SV, SVA, SVO, SVpassA and SVCs that correspond to Czech sentences with initial locative adverbials. On the FSP level the paper studies the potential of the sentences to implement the Presentation or Quality Scale. Since it is the “semantic content of the verb that actuates the presentation semantics of the sentence” (Duškova, 2015a: 260, major attention is paid to the syntactic-semantic structure of the verb. The analysis of the semantics of the English sentences results in the identification of two semantic classes of verbs which co-occur with the English locative subject.

  4. Value of procalcitonin and interleukin-6 in diagnosis of acute tonsillitis children complicated with sepsis%降钙素原及白介素-6测定在急性扁桃体炎合并脓毒症患儿中的诊断价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志颖; 赵云红; 周沛然; 邹娜娜; 张翔

    2017-01-01

    目的 研究降钙素原及白介素-6测定在小儿急性扁桃体炎并脓毒症患儿中的诊断价值.方法 选取2013年6月-2015年7月急性扁桃体炎并脓毒症患儿86例为脓毒症组,急性扁桃体炎患儿90例为扁桃体炎组、健康儿童44例为对照组;分别对患儿进行降钙素原(PCT)、白介素-6(IL-6)、C-反应蛋白(CRP)、白细胞计数(WBC)、中性粒细胞比值(N)水平以及急性生理与慢性健康状况评分系统Ⅱ(APACHEⅡ)评分测定,比较其结果在三组中治疗前、第3天、第5天及治疗结束变化情况.结果 治疗前,脓毒症组、扁桃体炎组PC T为(14.92±3.84)ng/mL、(11.10±1.00)ng/mL、IL-6为(365.20±78.00)ng/L、(262.20±47.00)ng/L)、CRP为(19.48±2.00)mg/L、(16.20±2.32)mg/L、WBC为(18.50±7.40)×109/L、(11.60±2.40)×109/L、N为(85.00±4.70)%、(78.00±2.15)%水平以及APACHEⅡ评分(20.60±4.20)分、(14.61±2.10)分,均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);脓毒症组,治疗第3天各项指标(PCT(25.12±4.10)ng/mL、IL-6(468.20±64.00)ng/L、CRP(24.60±3.10)mg/L、WBC(22.72±2.10)×109/L、N(89.00±3.84)%水平以及APACHEⅡ评分(27.10±3.10)分,均高于治疗前;治疗第5天(PCT(13.05±2.16)ng/mL、IL-6(80.50±4.10)ng/L、CRP(14.20±3.30)mg/L、WBC(7.20±1.00)×109/L、N(89.00±3.84)%水平以及APACHEⅡ评分(14.20±3.30)分,低于治疗第3天;治疗第3天和第5天,各项指标高于扁桃体炎组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗结束,与扁桃体炎组比较,差异无统计学意义.结论 PC T及IL-6检测有助于小儿急性扁桃体炎合并脓毒症的早期诊断、病情评估和临床指导,且PCT、IL-6的截断值14.50ng/mL、365.50ng/L,能为临床早期诊断提供参考.%OBJECTIVE To study the value of procalcitonin (PCT ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in diagnosis of acute tonsillitis children complicated with sepsis .METHODS From Jun 2013 to Jul 2015 ,a total of 86 acute tonsillitis children complicated with sepsis were chosen

  5. Visuomotor Dissociation in Cerebral Scaling of Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R E; de Jong, Bauke M

    2016-01-01

    Estimating size and distance is crucial in effective visuomotor control. The concept of an internal coordinate system implies that visual and motor size parameters are scaled onto a common template. To dissociate perceptual and motor components in such scaling, we performed an fMRI experiment in which 16 right-handed subjects copied geometric figures while the result of drawing remained out of sight. Either the size of the example figure varied while maintaining a constant size of drawing (visual incongruity) or the size of the examples remained constant while subjects were instructed to make changes in size (motor incongruity). These incongruent were compared to congruent conditions. Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8) revealed brain activations related to size incongruity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, pre-SMA / anterior cingulate and anterior insula, dominant in the right hemisphere. This pattern represented simultaneous use of a 'resized' virtual template and actual picture information requiring spatial working memory, early-stage attention shifting and inhibitory control. Activations were strongest in motor incongruity while right pre-dorsal premotor activation specifically occurred in this condition. Visual incongruity additionally relied on a ventral visual pathway. Left ventral premotor activation occurred in all variably sized drawing while constant visuomotor size, compared to congruent size variation, uniquely activated the lateral occipital cortex additional to superior parietal regions. These results highlight size as a fundamental parameter in both general hand movement and movement guided by objects perceived in the context of surrounding 3D space.

  6. Visuomotor Dissociation in Cerebral Scaling of Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan R E Potgieser

    Full Text Available Estimating size and distance is crucial in effective visuomotor control. The concept of an internal coordinate system implies that visual and motor size parameters are scaled onto a common template. To dissociate perceptual and motor components in such scaling, we performed an fMRI experiment in which 16 right-handed subjects copied geometric figures while the result of drawing remained out of sight. Either the size of the example figure varied while maintaining a constant size of drawing (visual incongruity or the size of the examples remained constant while subjects were instructed to make changes in size (motor incongruity. These incongruent were compared to congruent conditions. Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8 revealed brain activations related to size incongruity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, pre-SMA / anterior cingulate and anterior insula, dominant in the right hemisphere. This pattern represented simultaneous use of a 'resized' virtual template and actual picture information requiring spatial working memory, early-stage attention shifting and inhibitory control. Activations were strongest in motor incongruity while right pre-dorsal premotor activation specifically occurred in this condition. Visual incongruity additionally relied on a ventral visual pathway. Left ventral premotor activation occurred in all variably sized drawing while constant visuomotor size, compared to congruent size variation, uniquely activated the lateral occipital cortex additional to superior parietal regions. These results highlight size as a fundamental parameter in both general hand movement and movement guided by objects perceived in the context of surrounding 3D space.

  7. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... is also subjected to psychodynamic processes. In this article, I draw upon a number of research inquiries to illustrate how psychodynamic processes influence research processes: data production, research questions and methodology, relations to informants, as well as interpretation and analysis. I further...

  8. Subject-Author Index 989..1009

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 38 2013. SUBJECT INDEX. 16S rRNA .... reticulum stress-induced neuronal death in rat brain after status ... of intestinal contraction and body size in rodents and rabbits. 391. Brain ...... Trans-generational immune memory. Plant innate ...

  9. Subjectivity of embodiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2014), s. 187-195 ISSN 1804-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Levinas * phenomenology * factivity * body * experience Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  10. Miscellaneous subjects, ch. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brussaard, P.J.; Glaudemans, P.W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Attention is paid to a variery of subjects which are related to shell model applications, e.g. the Lanczos method for matrix diagonalization, truncation methods (seniority truncation, single-particle energy truncation and diagonal energy truncation which can be used for reducing the configuration space.) Coulomb energies and spurious states are briefly discussed. Finally attention is paid to the particle-vibrator model

  11. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  12. Poverty and household size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, P.; Ravallion, M.

    1995-01-01

    The widely held view that larger families tend to be poorer in developing countries has influenced research and policy. The scope for size economies in consumption cautions against this view. The authors find that the correlation between poverty and size vanishes in Pakistan when the size elasticity

  13. Mid-size urbanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de B.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To speak of the project for the mid-size city is to speculate about the possibility of mid-size urbanity as a design category. An urbanism not necessarily defined by the scale of the intervention or the size of the city undergoing transformation, but by the framing of the issues at hand and the

  14. Vision as subjective perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reppas, J.B.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.

    1996-01-01

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey's one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: 1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.)

  15. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    of a community of social/youth workers in Copenhagen between 1987 and 2003, who developed a pedagogy through creating collectives and mobilizing young people as participants. The theoretical and practical traditions are combined in a unique methodology viewing research as a contentious modeling of prototypical......What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...

  16. The neural substrates of subjective time dilation

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Wittmann; Marc Wittmann; Marc Wittmann; Virginie Van Wassenhove; Bud Craig; Martin P Paulus; Martin P Paulus

    2010-01-01

    An object moving towards an observer is subjectively perceived as longer in duration than the same object that is static or moving away. This 'time dilation effect' has been shown for a number of stimuli that differ from standard events along different feature dimensions (e.g. color, size, and dynamics). We performed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while subjects viewed a stream of five visual events, all of which were static and of identical duration except the...

  17. The Neural Substrates of Subjective Time Dilation

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmann, Marc; van Wassenhove, Virginie; Craig, A. D. (Bud); Paulus, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    An object moving towards an observer is subjectively perceived as longer in duration than the same object that is static or moving away. This ”time dilation effect” has been shown for a number of stimuli that differ from standard events along different feature dimensions (e.g. color, size, and dynamics). We performed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, while subjects viewed a stream of five visual events, all of which were static and of identical duration exce...

  18. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  19. Interview without a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2010-01-01

    This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modalities...... for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...

  20. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  1. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  2. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  3. Intercomparison of 15 Aerodynamic Particle Size Spectrometers (APS 3321): Uncertainties in Particle Sizing and Number Size Distribution.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pfeifer, S.; Müller, T.; Weinhold, K.; Zíková, Naděžda; dos Santos, S.M.; Marinoni, A.; Bischof, O.F.; Kykal, C.; Ries, L.; Meinhardt, F.; Aalto, P.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2016), s. 1545-1551 ISSN 1867-1381 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 262254 - ACTRIS Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : counting efficiency * aerodynamic particle size spectrometers * laboratory study Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.089, year: 2016

  4. Teaching Subjectively: Interdisciplinary Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Douglas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article of linked, short essays reflecting on the experiences of five female scholars across three disciplines — law, social work and political science - draws upon Britzman’s (1991 notion of the “dialogic discourse” to explore how these professors’ sense of self is constituted through interplay with colleagues and their perceptions of students within the classroom. The authors explore the teacher/learner relationship as a dialogue within which learners and educators shape each other as they come to understand how and what they know. What the collection makes explicit is what is often only implicit, that the ways in which professors understand their practices and subjective self is central to the identity of “a professor”, which is never stable or certain, but is always a creative practice. Such practices, we argue, are best sustained through collegial reflective practices that help us make sense of ourselves and continue our work. Cet article consiste de courts essais reliés entre eux qui relatent les expériences de cinq professeures érudites qui oeuvrent dans trois disciplines différentes : le droit, le travail social et les sciences politiques. Il est basé sur la notion de « discours dialogique » de Britzman (1991 qui permet d’explorer comment la conscience de soi de ces professeures s’est constituée à travers leurs interactions avec leurs collègues et leurs perceptions des étudiants dans la salle de classe. Les auteures explorent les relations entre enseignants et apprenants sous forme de dialogues au sein desquels les apprenants et les éducateurs se façonnent les uns les autres au fur et à mesure qu’ils comprennent comment ils apprennent et ce qu’ils ont appris. Ce que la collection rend explicite est ce qui est souvent seulement implicite, à savoir que les diverses manières dont les professeurs comprennent leurs pratiques et leur moi subjectif sont au centre de l’identité d’un « professeur

  5. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  6. Sample size methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Desu, M M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important problems in designing an experiment or a survey is sample size determination and this book presents the currently available methodology. It includes both random sampling from standard probability distributions and from finite populations. Also discussed is sample size determination for estimating parameters in a Bayesian setting by considering the posterior distribution of the parameter and specifying the necessary requirements. The determination of the sample size is considered for ranking and selection problems as well as for the design of clinical trials. Appropria

  7. Sizing up countability

    OpenAIRE

    De Belder, Marijke

    2008-01-01

    SIZING UP COUNTABILITY: TOWARDS A MORE FINE-GRAINED MASS-COUNT DISTINCTION MARIJKE DE BELDER CRISSP/CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF BRUSSELS/FACULTÉS UNIVERSITAIRES SAINT-LOUIS 1. Summary Borer (2005) argues that the presence of the functional projection DivP, which divides stuff into units, yields count readings in the NP and that its absence yields mass readings. I claim, however, that countability requires not only DivP (which creates units) but also SizeP (which assigns size). The head ...

  8. Subjective quality of life and emotional pain among subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQoL-Bref), Psychache Scale (PAS) instruments were administered on subjects that consented to the study. Results: One hundred and forty four (144) subjects of equal sex distribution were studied. The mean age was 31.7±10.2 years. The highest number of subjects, ...

  9. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  10. Compressors selection and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Royce N

    2005-01-01

    This practical reference provides in-depth information required to understand and properly estimate compressor capabilities and to select the proper designs. Engineers and students will gain a thorough understanding of compression principles, equipment, applications, selection, sizing, installation, and maintenance. The many examples clearly illustrate key aspects to help readers understand the ""real world"" of compressor technology.Compressors: Selection and Sizing, third edition is completely updated with new API standards. Additions requested by readers include a new section on di

  11. Firm size and taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Chongvilaivan, Aekapol; Jinjarak, Yothin

    2010-01-01

    The scale dependence in firm growth (smaller firms grow faster) is systematically reflected in the size distribution. This paper studies whether taxes affect the equilibrium firm size distribution in a cross-country context. The main finding is that the empirical association between firm growth and corporate tax (VAT) is positive (negative), with notable differences in the response of manufacturing firms and that of the others. We draw implications for recent debate on the impact of taxes and...

  12. Pupil size in Jewish theological seminary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, G; Kesler, A; Lazar, M; Rothkoff, L

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the authors' clinical impression that pupil size among myopic Jewish theological seminary students is different from pupil size of similar secular subjects. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 28 male Jewish theological seminary students and 28 secular students or workers who were matched for age and refraction. All participants were consecutively enrolled. Scotopic and photopic pupil size was measured by means of a Colvard pupillometer. Comparisons of various parameters between the groups were performed using the two-sample t-test, Fisher exact test, a paired-sample t-test, a two-way analysis of variance, and Pearson correlation coefficients as appropriate. The two groups were statistically matched for age, refraction, and visual acuity. The seminary students were undercorrected by an average of 2.35 diopters (D), while the secular subjects were undercorrected by only 0.65 D (pwork or of apparently characteristic undercorrection of the myopia is undetermined.

  13. Self-stimulating rats combine subjective reward magnitude and subjective reward rate multiplicatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, M I; Gallistel, C R

    1998-07-01

    For rats that bar pressed for intracranial electrical stimulation in a 2-lever matching paradigm with concurrent variable interval schedules of reward, the authors found that the time allocation ratio is based on a multiplicative combination of the ratio of subjective reward magnitudes and the ratio of the rates of reward. Multiplicative combining was observed in a range covering approximately 2 orders of magnitude in the ratio of the rates of reward from about 1:10 to 10:1) and an order of magnitude change in the size of rewards. After determining the relation between the pulse frequency of stimulation and subjective reward magnitude, the authors were able to predict from knowledge of the subjective magnitudes of the rewards and the obtained relative rates of reward the subject's time allocation ratio over a range in which it varied by more than 3 orders of magnitude.

  14. Fluctuations in email size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Yoshitsugu; Musashi, Yasuo

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain fluctuations in email size. We have previously investigated the long-term correlations between email send requests and data flow in the system log of the primary staff email server at a university campus, finding that email size frequency follows a power-law distribution with two inflection points, and that the power-law property weakens the correlation of the data flow. However, the mechanism underlying this fluctuation is not completely understood. We collected new log data from both staff and students over six academic years and analyzed the frequency distribution thereof, focusing on the type of content contained in the emails. Furthermore, we obtained permission to collect "Content-Type" log data from the email headers. We therefore collected the staff log data from May 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015, creating two subdistributions. In this paper, we propose a model to explain these subdistributions, which follow log-normal-like distributions. In the log-normal-like model, email senders -consciously or unconsciously- regulate the size of new email sentences according to a normal distribution. The fitting of the model is acceptable for these subdistributions, and the model demonstrates power-law properties for large email sizes. An analysis of the length of new email sentences would be required for further discussion of our model; however, to protect user privacy at the participating organization, we left this analysis for future work. This study provides new knowledge on the properties of email sizes, and our model is expected to contribute to the decision on whether to establish upper size limits in the design of email services.

  15. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  16. Predicting incident size from limited information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englehardt, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Predicting the size of low-probability, high-consequence natural disasters, industrial accidents, and pollutant releases is often difficult due to limitations in the availability of data on rare events and future circumstances. When incident data are available, they may be difficult to fit with a lognormal distribution. Two Bayesian probability distributions for inferring future incident-size probabilities from limited, indirect, and subjective information are proposed in this paper. The distributions are derived from Pareto distributions that are shown to fit data on different incident types and are justified theoretically. The derived distributions incorporate both inherent variability and uncertainty due to information limitations. Results were analyzed to determine the amount of data needed to predict incident-size probabilities in various situations. Information requirements for incident-size prediction using the methods were low, particularly when the population distribution had a thick tail. Use of the distributions to predict accumulated oil-spill consequences was demonstrated

  17. Memory and subjective workload assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveland, L.; Hart, S.; Yeh, Y. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research suggested subjective introspection of workload is not based upon specific retrieval of information from long term memory, and only reflects the average workload that is imposed upon the human operator by a particular task. These findings are based upon global ratings of workload for the overall task, suggesting that subjective ratings are limited in ability to retrieve specific details of a task from long term memory. To clarify the limits memory imposes on subjective workload assessment, the difficulty of task segments was varied and the workload of specified segments was retrospectively rated. The ratings were retrospectively collected on the manipulations of three levels of segment difficulty. Subjects were assigned to one of two memory groups. In the Before group, subjects knew before performing a block of trials which segment to rate. In the After group, subjects did not know which segment to rate until after performing the block of trials. The subjective ratings, RTs (reaction times) and MTs (movement times) were compared within group, and between group differences. Performance measures and subjective evaluations of workload reflected the experimental manipulations. Subjects were sensitive to different difficulty levels, and recalled the average workload of task components. Cueing did not appear to help recall, and memory group differences possibly reflected variations in the groups of subjects, or an additional memory task.

  18. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence

  19. Particle size determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A specification is given for an apparatus to provide a completely automatic testing cycle to determine the proportion of particles of less than a predetermined size in one of a number of fluid suspensions. Monitoring of the particle concentration during part of the process can be carried out by an x-ray source and detector. (U.K.)

  20. Size-dependent thermoelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali R. Hadjesfandiari

    Full Text Available In this paper a consistent theory is developed for size-dependent thermoelasticity in heterogeneous anisotropic solids. This theory shows that the temperature change can create not only thermal strains, but also thermal mean curvatures in the solids. This formulation is based on the consistent size-dependent continuum mechanics in which the couple-stress tensor is skew-symmetric. Here by including scale-dependent measures in the energy and entropy equations, the general expressions for force- and couple-stresses, as well as entropy density, are obtained. Next, for the linear material the constitutive relations and governing coupled size-dependent thermoelasticity equations are developed. For linear material, one can see that the thermal properties are characterized by the classical symmetric thermal expansion tensor and the new size-dependent skew-symmetric thermal flexion tensor. Thus, for the most general anisotropic case, there are nine independent thermoelastic constants. Interestingly, for isotropic and cubic materials the thermal flexion tensor vanishes, which shows there is no thermal mean curvature

  1. Calculating Optimal Inventory Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Perez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the project is to find the optimal value for the Economic Order Quantity Model and then use a lean manufacturing Kanban equation to find a numeric value that will minimize the total cost and the inventory size.

  2. Size and Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Ringsmose, Jens

    2015-01-01

    American public gratitude than the UK. While London has been accused of losing Basra and Musa Qaleh, Copenhagen has been showered with praise and top-posts in NATO. This article explains why demonstrating how the differences in size and reputation gave rise to different expectations of the special...

  3. Green Lot-Sizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Retel Helmrich (Mathijn Jan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe lot-sizing problem concerns a manufacturer that needs to solve a production planning problem. The producer must decide at which points in time to set up a production process, and when he/she does, how much to produce. There is a trade-off between inventory costs and costs associated

  4. Human subjects and experimental irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, R.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years the public has expressed concern about the use of human subjects in scientific research. Some professional institutions have adopted codes of practice to guide them in this matter. At the University of New South Wales, where human subjects are used in teaching and research programmes, a committee ensures that high ethical standards are maintained. As the volunteer subjects do not gain any benefit themselves from the procedures, their level of risk is kept low. One type of procedure in which risk is becoming quantifiable, is the irradiation of human subjects. To assist peer review groups, the ICRP, WHO and the National Health and Medical Research Council have enunciated principles which should be followed in the irradiation of human volunteer subjects. In general the role of the Committee is advisory to protect the rights of the investigator, the subject, and the institution. Some of the inherent problems are discussed

  5. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be antecedents for subject-oriented anaphors (e.g. Maling 1984) ... 1985), it is unclear what actually determines this binding behaviour, or why subjects should ..... contexts can be unified by the fact that both functionally determine their complements. ...... Binding theory, control and pro. ... San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 179 ...

  6. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  7. Measuring the size of an earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, W.; Sipkin, S.A.; Choy, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Earthquakes range broadly in size. A rock-burst in an Idaho silver mine may involve the fracture of 1 meter of rock; the 1965 Rat Island earthquake in the Aleutian arc involved a 650-kilometer length of the Earth's crust. Earthquakes can be even smaller and even larger. If an earthquake is felt or causes perceptible surface damage, then its intensity of shaking can be subjectively estimated. But many large earthquakes occur in oceanic areas or at great focal depths and are either simply not felt or their felt pattern does not really indicate their true size.

  8. Space power subsystem sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geis, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a Space Power Subsystem Sizing program which has been developed by the Aerospace Power Division of Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The Space Power Subsystem program (SPSS) contains the necessary equations and algorithms to calculate photovoltaic array power performance, including end-of-life (EOL) and beginning-of-life (BOL) specific power (W/kg) and areal power density (W/m 2 ). Additional equations and algorithms are included in the spreadsheet for determining maximum eclipse time as a function of orbital altitude, and inclination. The Space Power Subsystem Sizing program (SPSS) has been used to determine the performance of several candidate power subsystems for both Air Force and SDIO potential applications. Trade-offs have been made between subsystem weight and areal power density (W/m 2 ) as influenced by orbital high energy particle flux and time in orbit

  9. Small size ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyranski, R.; Kiliszek, Cz.R.; Marks, J.; Sobolewski, A.; Magielko, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes some designs of the two versions ion pumps and their range operation for various magnetic fields. The first version is made with different cell size in the anode element and titanium cathode operating in magnetic field from 600 to 650 Gs and the second version with the same anode element but differential Ti/Ta cathode working in magnetic field above 1200 Gs

  10. Size effects in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrii, Oleg A; Tsirlina, Galina A

    2001-01-01

    General characteristics of size-dependent phenomena in electrochemical systems are given. Primary attention is paid to methodical achievements of nanoelectrochemistry, which is a line of research created over the last 15 years. The development of the main concepts of electrochemistry initiated by the stream of nanoscopic information is considered. The prospects for local studies of processes on charged interfaces, elementary steps of these processes and application of nanoelectrodes and related systems in interdisciplinary fields are discussed. The bibliography includes 198 references.

  11. Sizing a PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis L.; Glicksman, Robert A.

    1994-05-01

    A Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) must be able to support the image rate of the medical treatment facility. In addition the PACS must have adequate working storage and archive storage capacity required. The calculation of the number of images per minute and the capacity of working storage and of archiving storage is discussed. The calculation takes into account the distribution of images over the different size of radiological images, the distribution between inpatient and outpatient, and the distribution over plain film CR images and other modality images. The support of the indirect clinical image load is difficult to estimate and is considered in some detail. The result of the exercise for a particular hospital is an estimate of the average size of the images and exams on the system, of the number of gigabytes of working storage, of the number of images moved per minute, of the size of the archive in gigabytes, and of the number of images that are to be moved by the archive per minute. The types of storage required to support the image rates and the capacity required are discussed.

  12. Spacesuit Soft Upper Torso Sizing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, David; Splawn, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The passive sizing system consists of a series of low-profile pulleys attached to the front and back of the shoulder bearings on a spacesuit soft upper torso (SUT), textile cord or stainless steel cable, and a modified commercial ratchet mechanism. The cord/cable is routed through the pulleys and attached to the ratchet mechanism mounted on the front of the spacesuit within reach of the suited subject. Upon actuating the ratchet mechanism, the shoulder bearing breadth is changed, providing variable upper torso sizing. The active system consists of a series of pressurizable nastic cells embedded into the fabric layers of a spacesuit SUT. These cells are integrated to the front and back of the SUT and are connected to an air source with a variable regulator. When inflated, the nastic cells provide a change in the overall shoulder bearing breadth of the spacesuit and thus, torso sizing. The research focused on the development of a high-performance sizing and actuation system. This technology has application as a suit-sizing mechanism to allow easier suit entry and more accurate suit fit with fewer torso sizes than the existing EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) suit system. This advanced SUT will support NASA s Advanced EMU Evolutionary Concept of a two-sizes-fit-all upper torso for replacement of the current EMU hard upper torso (HUT). Both the passive and nastic sizing system approaches provide astronauts with real-time upper torso sizing, which translates into a more comfortable suit, providing enhanced fit resulting in improved crewmember performance during extravehicular activity. These systems will also benefit NASA by reducing flight logistics as well as overall suit system cost. The nastic sizing system approach provides additional structural redundancy over existing SUT designs by embedding additional coated fabric and uncoated fabric layers. Two sizing systems were selected to build into a prototype SUT: one active and one passive. From manned testing, it

  13. Aircrew Sizing Survey 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    nipple on men . - Procedure: Place dot over center of nipple on men . For women, ask subject to place dot over nipple . 40. Tragion, left and right...distribution unlimited. Release #88ABW-2014-5033, dated 31 October 2014. was reduced to 646 men and 708 women who were identified as falling within...Description: Circumference of the torso measured at level of nipple . Undrawn landmarks: For males, right and left thelion; for females, right and

  14. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyadath, Vani; Eagleman, David M

    2012-01-01

    Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression. Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli) followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus). We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials. Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  15. subjective approach to subjective approach to human physiological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    the only physiological variables that influence the heat balance [4]. Yao et al [2] .... between the human responses and outdoor climate. 4.1 Subjective Response ... months seem to be influenced by cloud cover rather than the altitude.

  16. Large litter sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Rutherford, K.M.D.; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some key results and conclusions from a review (Rutherford et al. 2011) undertaken regarding the ethical and welfare implications of breeding for large litter size in the domestic pig and about different ways of dealing with these implications. Focus is primarily on the direct...... possible to achieve a drop in relative piglet mortality and the related welfare problems. However, there will be a growing problem with the need to use foster or nurse sows which may have negative effects on both sows and piglets. This gives rise to new challenges for management....

  17. Subjective Evaluation of Audiovisual Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fikejz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with subjective evaluation of audiovisual signals, with emphasis on the interaction between acoustic and visual quality. The subjective test is realized by a simple rating method. The audiovisual signal used in this test is a combination of images compressed by JPEG compression codec and sound samples compressed by MPEG-1 Layer III. Images and sounds have various contents. It simulates a real situation when the subject listens to compressed music and watches compressed pictures without the access to original, i.e. uncompressed signals.

  18. The neural substrates of subjective time dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wittmann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An object moving towards an observer is subjectively perceived as longer in duration than the same object that is static or moving away. This 'time dilation effect' has been shown for a number of stimuli that differ from standard events along different feature dimensions (e.g. color, size, and dynamics. We performed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, while subjects viewed a stream of five visual events, all of which were static and of identical duration except the fourth one, which was a deviant target consisting of either a looming or a receding disc. The duration of the target was systematically varied and participants judged whether the target was shorter or longer than all other events. A time dilation effect was observed only for looming targets. Relative to the static standards, the looming as well as the receding targets induced increased activation of the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortices (the “core control network”. The decisive contrast between looming and receding targets representing the time dilation effect showed strong asymmetric activation and, specifically, activation of cortical midline structures (the “default network”. These results provide the first evidence that the illusion of temporal dilation is due to activation of areas that are important for cognitive control and subjective awareness. The involvement of midline structures in the temporal dilation illusion is interpreted as evidence that time perception is related to self-referential processing.

  19. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork...

  20. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...

  1. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  2. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  3. Subjective expected utility without preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyssou , Denis; Marchant , Thierry

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory of subjective expected utility based on primitives only involving the fact that an act can be judged either "attractive" or "unattractive". We give conditions implying that there are a utility function on the set of consequences and a probability distribution on the set of states such that attractive acts have a subjective expected utility above some threshold. The numerical representation that is obtained has strong uniqueness properties.

  4. Ecosecent:: Essence, Subject and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozachenko Hanna V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that due to multi-laterality the knowledge about security is distributed by various branches, one of which is ecosestate, within which conditions of secure functioning of socio-economic systems and methods of their provision are studied. It shows the essence of ecosecent as a component of the “state – region (branch – subject of economic activity” ecosestate vertical – a set of knowledge about economic security of subjects of economic activity. It considers reasons that cause establishment of ecosecent: practical needs and a necessity to reconsider basic concepts of the essence, limits and factors of economy. It formulates the subject of ecosecent. It considers the status of the “economic security of the subject of economic activity” notion as its state, described with a set of parameters or characteristic features as characteristics of the subject of economic activity as a condition of its activity and as a set of actions that allow ensuring or preservation of the state of security, in other words, protection of the subject of economic activity. It presents general approaches to structuring of ecosecent by activity, functional and branch features.

  5. Finite size scaling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenberg, V.

    1983-01-01

    Fischer's finite-size scaling describes the cross over from the singular behaviour of thermodynamic quantities at the critical point to the analytic behaviour of the finite system. Recent extensions of the method--transfer matrix technique, and the Hamiltonian formalism--are discussed in this paper. The method is presented, with equations deriving scaling function, critical temperature, and exponent v. As an application of the method, a 3-states Hamiltonian with Z 3 global symmetry is studied. Diagonalization of the Hamiltonian for finite chains allows one to estimate the critical exponents, and also to discover new phase transitions at lower temperatures. The critical points lambda, and indices v estimated for finite-scaling are given

  6. Morphing: A Novel Approach to Astronaut Suit Sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, Sarah; Clowers, Kurt; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2006-01-01

    The fitting of a spacesuit to an astronaut is an iterative process consisting of two parts. The first uses anthropometric data to provide an approximation of the suit components that will fit the astronaut. The second part is the subjective fitting, where small adjustments are made based on the astronaut s preference. By providing a better approximation of the correct suit components, the entire fit process time can be reduced significantly. The goals of this project are twofold: (1) To evaluate the effectiveness of the existing sizing algorithm for the Mark III Hybrid suit and (2) to determine what additional components are needed in order to provide adequate sizing for the existing astronaut population. A single subject was scanned using a 3D whole-body scanner (VITUS 3D) in the Mark III suit in eight different poses and four subjects in minimal clothing were also scanned in similar poses. The 3D external body scans of the suit and the subject are overlaid and visually aligned in a customized MATLAB program. The suit components were contracted or expanded linearly along the subjects limbs to match the subjects segmental lengths. Two independent measures were obtained from the morphing program on four subjects and compared with the existing sizing information. Two of the four subjects were in correspondence with the sizing algorithm and morphing results. The morphing outcome for a third subject, incompatible with the suit, suggested that an additional arm element at least 6 inches smaller than the existing smallest suit component would need to be acquired. The morphing result of the fourth subject, deemed incompatible with the suit using the sizing algorithm, indicated a different suit configuration which would be compatible. This configuration matched with the existing suit fit check data.

  7. Subjective sleep quality in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse-Henck, Andrea; Wirtz, Hubert; Hinz, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Poor sleep is common among patients with medical disorders. Sleep disturbances can be a cause of fatigue and poor quality of life for patients suffering from sarcoidosis. Studies on subjective sleep quality or prevalence of insomnia have not been reported so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the subjectively reported sleep quality and its relation to psychological and physical factors in sarcoidosis patients. 1197 patients from Germany diagnosed with sarcoidosis were examined using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). 802 patients (67%) had PSQI global scores >5, indicating subjectively poor quality of sleep. The mean PSQI score was 7.79 ± 4.00. Women reported a significantly inferior individual quality of sleep than men. The subjective quality of sleep was lowered significantly with increasing dyspnea for men and women. 294 patients (25%) had PSQI global scores >10 usually found in patients with clinically relevant insomnia. In this group 86% had high values for fatigue, 69% for anxiety, and 59% for depression. The prevalence of known sleep apnea was 8.7% and 15.7% for restless legs. Poor subjective sleep quality in sarcoidosis patients is about twice as common as in the general population and is associated with fatigue, anxiety, depression and dyspnea. Questions about sleep complaints should therefore be included in the management of sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of actual vs expected photodynamic therapy spot size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchod, Tushar M; Brucker, Alexander J; Liu, Chengcheng; Cukras, Catherine A; Hopkins, Tim B; Ying, Gui-Shuang

    2009-05-01

    To determine the accuracy of the photodynamic therapy (PDT) laser spot size on the retina as generated by 2 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved lasers. Prospective observational case series. Fundus photographs were taken of 1 eye of each of 10 subjects with the WinStation 4000 fundus photography system (OIS; Ophthalmic Imaging Systems, Sacramento, California, USA); disc size was calculated using OIS software. Slit-lamp photographs were taken of the PDT laser spot focused on the retina adjacent to the optic disc, using various spot sizes in combination with 3 different contact lenses and 2 different lasers. Spot size at the retina was determined by measuring the ratio of disc diameter to spot diameter in Adobe Photoshop (San Jose, California, USA) and applying this ratio to the OIS disc measurements. Spot size at the retina averaged 87% of expected spot size for the Coherent Opal laser (Coherent Inc, Santa Clara, California, USA) and 104% of expected spot size for the Zeiss Visulas laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc, Dublin, California, USA)(P = .002). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that percentage of expected spot size decreased with larger spot diameter (P = .01 for Coherent laser; P = .02 for Zeiss laser). PDT spot size at the retina appears to be consistently smaller than expected for the Coherent laser while the spot size was consistently within 10% of expected size for the Zeiss laser. The deviation from expected size increased with larger spot size using the Coherent laser.

  9. Weak Subjectivity, Trans-Subjectivity and the Power of Event

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2010), s. 391-406 ISSN 1387-2842 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Heidegger * Nietschean model of thought Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  10. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redford, J.S.

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included

  11. Subjective figures and texture perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, S W; Cavanagh, P

    1985-01-01

    A texture discrimination task using the Ehrenstein illusion demonstrates that subjective brightness effects can play an essential role in early vision. The subjectively bright regions of the Ehrenstein can be organized either as discs or as stripes, depending on orientation. The accuracy of discrimination between variants of the Ehrenstein and control patterns was a direct function of the presence of the illusory brightness stripes, being high when they were present and low otherwise. It is argued that neither receptive field structure nor spatial-frequency content can adequately account for these results. We suggest that the subjective brightness illusions, rather than being a high-level, cognitive aspect of vision, are in fact the result of an early visual process.

  12. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  13. Perceived face size in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2017-01-01

    Perceptual body size distortions have traditionally been studied using subjective, qualitative measures that assess only one type of body representation-the conscious body image. Previous research on perceived body size has typically focused on measuring distortions of the entire body and has tended to overlook the face. Here, we present a novel psychophysical method for determining perceived body size that taps into implicit body representation. Using a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC), participants were sequentially shown two life-size images of their own face, viewed upright, upside down, or tilted 90°. In one interval, the width or length dimension was varied, while the other interval contained an undistorted image. Participants reported which image most closely matched their own face. An adaptive staircase adjusted the distorted image to hone in on the image that was equally likely to be judged as matching their perceived face as the accurate image. When viewed upright or upside down, face width was overestimated and length underestimated, whereas perception was accurate for the on-side views. These results provide the first psychophysically robust measurements of how accurately healthy participants perceive the size of their face, revealing distortions of the implicit body representation independent of the conscious body image.

  14. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U.

    2007-01-01

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  15. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  16. Familial Reciprocity and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated variations in reciprocity and the impact of reciprocity on well-being in a West African society. They hypothesized that household size and income diversity encourage reciprocity, which in turn enhances subjective well-being. In empirical testing of these hypotheses the authors used the data of the Core Welfare Indicators…

  17. Size reduction machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-01-01

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users

  18. Image size invariant visual cryptography for general access structures subject to display quality constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kai-Hui; Chiu, Pei-Ling

    2013-10-01

    Conventional visual cryptography (VC) suffers from a pixel-expansion problem, or an uncontrollable display quality problem for recovered images, and lacks a general approach to construct visual secret sharing schemes for general access structures. We propose a general and systematic approach to address these issues without sophisticated codebook design. This approach can be used for binary secret images in non-computer-aided decryption environments. To avoid pixel expansion, we design a set of column vectors to encrypt secret pixels rather than using the conventional VC-based approach. We begin by formulating a mathematic model for the VC construction problem to find the column vectors for the optimal VC construction, after which we develop a simulated-annealing-based algorithm to solve the problem. The experimental results show that the display quality of the recovered image is superior to that of previous papers.

  19. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    Full Text Available Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression.Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus. We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials.Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  20. Proceedings (Mathematical Sciences) SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    SUBJECT INDEX. Abel's summation formula. Analogues of Euler and Poisson summa- tion formulae. 213 ... theorems of Wiener and Lévy on absolutely convergent Fourier series. 179. Brownian motion. Probabilistic representations of solutions to the heat equation. 321. Cesáro matrix. Necessary and sufficient conditions for.

  1. Topical subjects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertel, G.; Borsch, P.; Halaszovich, S.; Laser, M.; Paschke, M.; Richter, B.; Stein, G.; Stippler, R.; Wagner, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The report supplements and extends basic information contained in the seminar report 'Use and risk of nuclear energy' (Juel-Conf-17). The contributions deal with nuclear waste management, measures to avoid the misuse of nuclear fuels, and the properties and use of plutonium. As against the last edition, the subject 'Energy and environment' has been added. (orig.) [de

  2. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  3. Subjectivity, objectivity, and triangular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed.

  4. Teacher Negotiations of Sexual Subjectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferfolja, Tania

    2007-01-01

    Discrimination often silences and marginalizes those who do not conform to the dominant gender and (hetero)sexual discourses that operate in broader society. This discussion addresses the ways that seventeen self-identified lesbian teachers working in New South Wales (NSW) Australia negotiate their sexual subjectivities at work in order to pass or…

  5. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  6. Subjective or objective? What matters?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sunega, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2014), s. 35-43 ISSN 2336-2839 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/12/1446 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : comparative housing policy * globalisation Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  7. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…

  8. Subjectivity, individuality and singularity in children: a socially constituted subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Del Ré

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the hypothesis that Bakhtin and his Circle‟s reflections can help us think about issues involving the field of Language Acquisition, in addition to the fact that there are only a few works developed within this perspective in Brazil, in this article, we intend to discuss the notions of “subject”, “subjectivity”,“individuality” and “singularity”, drawing on Bakhtin‟s theory. Thus, in order to make this discussion clearer, we bring data from the speech of young children, from 1.8 to 3 years old, who were filmed in natural contexts interacting with their parents and relatives. From these data, we could verify, among other things, that children, as individuals who constitute themselves as subjects in and throughlanguage, bring marks to their discourse, revealing their subjectivity (through lexical, morphological, syntactic or genre choices.

  9. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  10. body composition, and subjective assessments of training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Giessing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of resistance training (RT examine methods that do not resemble typical training practices of persons participating in RT. Ecologically valid RT programs more representative of such practices are seldom compared. This study compared two such approaches to RT. Thirty participants (males, n=13; females, n=17 were randomised to either a group performing low volume ‘High Intensity Training’ (HIT; n=16 or high volume ‘Body-building’ (3ST; n=14 RT methods 2x/week for 10 weeks. Outcomes included muscular performance, body composition, and participant’s subjective assessments. Both HIT and 3ST groups improved muscular performance significantly (as indicated by 95% confidence intervals with large effect sizes (ES; 0.97 to 1.73 and 0.88 to 1.77 respectively. HIT had significantly greater muscular performance gains for 3 of 9 tested exercises compared with 3ST (p < 0.05 and larger effect sizes for 8 of 9 exercises. Body composition did not significantly change in either group. However, effect sizes for whole body muscle mass changes were slightly more favourable in the HIT group compared with the 3ST group (0.27 and -0.34 respectively in addition to whole body fat mass (0.03 and 0.43 respectively and whole body fat percentage (-0.10 and -0.44 respectively. Significant muscular performance gains can be produced using either HIT or 3ST. However, muscular performance gains may be greater when using HIT. Future research should look to identify which components of ecologically valid RT programs are primarily responsible for these differences in outcome.

  11. Subject search study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todeschini, C.

    1995-01-01

    The study gathered information on how users search the database of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS), using indicators such as Subject categories, Controlled terms, Subject headings, Free-text words, combinations of the above. Users participated from the Australian, French, Russian and Spanish INIS Centres, that have different national languages. Participants, both intermediaries and end users, replied to a questionnaire and executed search queries. The INIS Secretariat at the IAEA also participated. A protocol of all search strategies used in actual searches in the database was kept. The thought process for Russian and Spanish users is predominantly non-English and also the actual initial search formulation is predominantly non-English among Russian and Spanish users while it tends to be more in English among French users. A total of 1002 searches were executed by the five INIS centres including the IAEA. The search protocols indicate the following search behaviour: 1) free text words represent about 40% of search points on an average query; 2) descriptors used as search keys have the widest range as percentage of search points, from a low of 25% to a high of 48%; 3) search keys consisting of free text that coincides with a descriptor account for about 15% of search points; 4) Subject Categories are not used in many searches; 5) free text words are present as search points in about 80% of all searches; 6) controlled terms (descriptors) are used very extensively and appear in about 90% of all searches; 7) Subject Headings were used in only a few percent of searches. From the results of the study one can conclude that there is a greater reluctance on the part of non-native English speakers in initiating their searches by using free text word searches. Also: Subject Categories are little used in searching the database; both free text terms and controlled terms are the predominant types of search keys used, whereby the controlled terms are used more

  12. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis....... In terms of methodology it revives the themes originally launched in FOS exactly ten years ago: "Subjectivity and Reflectivity in Qualitative Research" (Breuer, Mruck and Roth 2002; Mruck and Breuer 2003). This editorial introduction presents the intellectual background of the psycho-societal methodology......, reflects on its relevance and critical perspectives in a contemporary landscape of social science, and comments the way in which an international and interdisciplinary research group has developed this approach to profane empirical research....

  13. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned......, and it is argued that it is more appropriate to consider how the relationships between the classes of items interact with the function of the dictionary....

  14. Asymptotic size determines species abundance in the marine size spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Beyer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The majority of higher organisms in the marine environment display indeterminate growth; that is, they continue to grow throughout their life, limited by an asymptotic size. We derive the abundance of species as a function of their asymptotic size. The derivation is based on size-spectrum theory......, where population structure is derived from physiology and simple arguments regarding the predator-prey interaction. Using a hypothesis of constant satiation, which states that the average degree of satiation is independent of the size of an organism, the number of individuals with a given size is found...... to be proportional to the weight raised to the power -2.05, independent of the predator/prey size ratio. This is the first time the spectrum exponent has been derived solely on the basis of processes at the individual level. The theory furthermore predicts that the parameters in the von Bertalanffy growth function...

  15. Sauropod dinosaurs evolved moderately sized genomes unrelated to body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Chris L; Brusatte, Stephen L; Stein, Koen

    2009-12-22

    Sauropodomorph dinosaurs include the largest land animals to have ever lived, some reaching up to 10 times the mass of an African elephant. Despite their status defining the upper range for body size in land animals, it remains unknown whether sauropodomorphs evolved larger-sized genomes than non-avian theropods, their sister taxon, or whether a relationship exists between genome size and body size in dinosaurs, two questions critical for understanding broad patterns of genome evolution in dinosaurs. Here we report inferences of genome size for 10 sauropodomorph taxa. The estimates are derived from a Bayesian phylogenetic generalized least squares approach that generates posterior distributions of regression models relating genome size to osteocyte lacunae volume in extant tetrapods. We estimate that the average genome size of sauropodomorphs was 2.02 pg (range of species means: 1.77-2.21 pg), a value in the upper range of extant birds (mean = 1.42 pg, range: 0.97-2.16 pg) and near the average for extant non-avian reptiles (mean = 2.24 pg, range: 1.05-5.44 pg). The results suggest that the variation in size and architecture of genomes in extinct dinosaurs was lower than the variation found in mammals. A substantial difference in genome size separates the two major clades within dinosaurs, Ornithischia (large genomes) and Saurischia (moderate to small genomes). We find no relationship between body size and estimated genome size in extinct dinosaurs, which suggests that neutral forces did not dominate the evolution of genome size in this group.

  16. Stimulus size dependence of hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Christian Johannes; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround induces a change in the perceived hue of a stimulus. This shift in hue depends on the chromatic difference between the stimulus and the surround. We investigated how chromatic induction varies with stimulus size and whether the size dependence depends on the surround hue. Subjects performed asymmetric matching of color stimuli with different sizes in surrounds of different chromaticities. Generally, induced hue shifts decreased with increasing stimulus size. This decrease was quantitatively different for different surround hues. However, when size effects were normalized to an overall induction strength, the chromatic specificity was largely reduced. The separability of inducer chromaticity and stimulus size suggests that these effects are mediated by different neural mechanisms.

  17. Pupillographic assessment of sleepiness in sleep-deprived healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, B; Wilhelm, H; Lüdtke, H; Streicher, P; Adler, M

    1998-05-01

    Spontaneous pupillary-behavior in darkness provides information about a subject's level of sleepiness. In the present work, pupil measurements in complete darkness and quiet have been recorded continuously over 11-minute period with infrared video pupillography at 25 Hz. The data have been analyzed to yield three parameters describing pupil behavior; the power of diameter variation at frequencies below 0.8 Hz (slow changes in pupil size), the pupillary unrest index, and the average pupil size. To investigate the changes of these parameters in sleep deprivation, spontaneous pupillary behavior in darkness was recorded every 2 hours in 13 healthy subjects from 19:00 to 07:00 during forced wakefulness. On each occasion, comparative subjective sleepiness was assessed with a self-rating scale (Stanford Sleepiness Scale, SSS). The power of slow pupillary oscillations (< or = 0.8 Hz) increased significantly and so did the values of SSS, while basic pupil diameter decreased significantly. Slow pupillary oscillations and SSS did not correlate well in general but high values of pupil parameters were always associated with high values in subjective rating. Our results demonstrate a strong relationship between ongoing sleep deprivation and typical changes in the frequency profiles of spontaneous pupillary oscillations and the tendency to instability in pupil size in normals. These findings suggest that the results of pupil data analysis permit an objective measurement of sleepiness.

  18. Sample size determination for mediation analysis of longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haitao; Liu, Suyu; Miao, Danmin; Yuan, Ying

    2018-03-27

    Sample size planning for longitudinal data is crucial when designing mediation studies because sufficient statistical power is not only required in grant applications and peer-reviewed publications, but is essential to reliable research results. However, sample size determination is not straightforward for mediation analysis of longitudinal design. To facilitate planning the sample size for longitudinal mediation studies with a multilevel mediation model, this article provides the sample size required to achieve 80% power by simulations under various sizes of the mediation effect, within-subject correlations and numbers of repeated measures. The sample size calculation is based on three commonly used mediation tests: Sobel's method, distribution of product method and the bootstrap method. Among the three methods of testing the mediation effects, Sobel's method required the largest sample size to achieve 80% power. Bootstrapping and the distribution of the product method performed similarly and were more powerful than Sobel's method, as reflected by the relatively smaller sample sizes. For all three methods, the sample size required to achieve 80% power depended on the value of the ICC (i.e., within-subject correlation). A larger value of ICC typically required a larger sample size to achieve 80% power. Simulation results also illustrated the advantage of the longitudinal study design. The sample size tables for most encountered scenarios in practice have also been published for convenient use. Extensive simulations study showed that the distribution of the product method and bootstrapping method have superior performance to the Sobel's method, but the product method was recommended to use in practice in terms of less computation time load compared to the bootstrapping method. A R package has been developed for the product method of sample size determination in mediation longitudinal study design.

  19. Size Matters: Individual Variation in Ectotherm Growth and Asymptotic Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B King

    Full Text Available Body size, and, by extension, growth has impacts on physiology, survival, attainment of sexual maturity, fecundity, generation time, and population dynamics, especially in ectotherm animals that often exhibit extensive growth following attainment of sexual maturity. Frequently, growth is analyzed at the population level, providing useful population mean growth parameters but ignoring individual variation that is also of ecological and evolutionary significance. Our long-term study of Lake Erie Watersnakes, Nerodia sipedon insularum, provides data sufficient for a detailed analysis of population and individual growth. We describe population mean growth separately for males and females based on size of known age individuals (847 captures of 769 males, 748 captures of 684 females and annual growth increments of individuals of unknown age (1,152 males, 730 females. We characterize individual variation in asymptotic size based on repeated measurements of 69 males and 71 females that were each captured in five to nine different years. The most striking result of our analyses is that asymptotic size varies dramatically among individuals, ranging from 631-820 mm snout-vent length in males and from 835-1125 mm in females. Because female fecundity increases with increasing body size, we explore the impact of individual variation in asymptotic size on lifetime reproductive success using a range of realistic estimates of annual survival. When all females commence reproduction at the same age, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with greater asymptotic size regardless of annual survival. But when reproduction is delayed in females with greater asymptotic size, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with lower asymptotic size when annual survival is low. Possible causes of individual variation in asymptotic size, including individual- and cohort-specific variation in size at birth and early growth, warrant further

  20. Size Matters: Individual Variation in Ectotherm Growth and Asymptotic Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Body size, and, by extension, growth has impacts on physiology, survival, attainment of sexual maturity, fecundity, generation time, and population dynamics, especially in ectotherm animals that often exhibit extensive growth following attainment of sexual maturity. Frequently, growth is analyzed at the population level, providing useful population mean growth parameters but ignoring individual variation that is also of ecological and evolutionary significance. Our long-term study of Lake Erie Watersnakes, Nerodia sipedon insularum, provides data sufficient for a detailed analysis of population and individual growth. We describe population mean growth separately for males and females based on size of known age individuals (847 captures of 769 males, 748 captures of 684 females) and annual growth increments of individuals of unknown age (1,152 males, 730 females). We characterize individual variation in asymptotic size based on repeated measurements of 69 males and 71 females that were each captured in five to nine different years. The most striking result of our analyses is that asymptotic size varies dramatically among individuals, ranging from 631–820 mm snout-vent length in males and from 835–1125 mm in females. Because female fecundity increases with increasing body size, we explore the impact of individual variation in asymptotic size on lifetime reproductive success using a range of realistic estimates of annual survival. When all females commence reproduction at the same age, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with greater asymptotic size regardless of annual survival. But when reproduction is delayed in females with greater asymptotic size, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with lower asymptotic size when annual survival is low. Possible causes of individual variation in asymptotic size, including individual- and cohort-specific variation in size at birth and early growth, warrant further investigation. PMID

  1. Vision as subjective perception; La vision, une perception subjective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reppas, J.B. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Biological Labs.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.

    1996-07-01

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey`s one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: (1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.).

  2. Size effect model for the edge strength of glass with cut and ground edge finishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandebroek, M.; Louter, C.; Caspeele, R.; Ensslen, F.; Belis, J.L.I.F.

    2014-01-01

    The edge strength of glass is influenced by the size of the surface (near the edge) which is subjected to tensile stresses. To quantify this size effect, 8 series of single layer annealed glass beam specimens (as-received glass) were subjected to in-plane four-point bending with linearly increased

  3. The discrepancy between emotional vs. rational estimates of body size, actual size, and ideal body ratings: theoretical and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J K; Dolce, J J

    1989-05-01

    Thirty-two asymptomatic college females were assessed on multiple aspects of body image. Subjects' estimation of the size of three body sites (waist, hips, thighs) was affected by instructional protocol. Emotional ratings, based on how they "felt" about their body, elicited ratings that were larger than actual and ideal size measures. Size ratings based on rational instructions were no different from actual sizes, but were larger than ideal ratings. There were no differences between actual and ideal sizes. The results are discussed with regard to methodological issues involved in body image research. In addition, a working hypothesis that differentiates affective/emotional from cognitive/rational aspects of body size estimation is offered to complement current theories of body image. Implications of the findings for the understanding of body image and its relationship to eating disorders are discussed.

  4. Size effects in shear interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    GARNIER, J

    2001-01-01

    In physical modelling (centrifuge tests, calibration chambers, laboratory tests), the size of the soil particles may not be negligible when compared to the dimensions of the models. Size effects may so disturb the response of the models and the experimental data obtained on these cannot be extended to true scale conditions. Different tests have been performed to study and quantify the size effects that may happen in shear interfaces between soils and structures : modified shear box tests, pul...

  5. On the Relationship between Pollen Size and Genome Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Knight

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we test whether genome size is a predictor of pollen size. If it were, inferences of ancient genome size would be possible using the abundant paleo-palynolgical record. We performed regression analyses across 464 species of pollen width and genome size. We found a significant positive trend. However, regression analysis using phylogentically independent contrasts did not support the correlated evolution of these traits. Instead, a large split between angiosperms and gymnosperms for both pollen width and genome size was revealed. Sister taxa were not more likely to show a positive contrast when compared to deeper nodes. However, significantly more congeneric species had a positive trend than expected by chance. These results may reflect the strong selection pressure for pollen to be small. Also, because pollen grains are not metabolically active when measured, their biology is different than other cells which have been shown to be strongly related to genome size, such as guard cells. Our findings contrast with previously published research. It was our hope that pollen size could be used as a proxy for inferring the genome size of ancient species. However, our results suggest pollen is not a good candidate for such endeavors.

  6. Subjective randomness as statistical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas L; Daniels, Dylan; Austerweil, Joseph L; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2018-06-01

    Some events seem more random than others. For example, when tossing a coin, a sequence of eight heads in a row does not seem very random. Where do these intuitions about randomness come from? We argue that subjective randomness can be understood as the result of a statistical inference assessing the evidence that an event provides for having been produced by a random generating process. We show how this account provides a link to previous work relating randomness to algorithmic complexity, in which random events are those that cannot be described by short computer programs. Algorithmic complexity is both incomputable and too general to capture the regularities that people can recognize, but viewing randomness as statistical inference provides two paths to addressing these problems: considering regularities generated by simpler computing machines, and restricting the set of probability distributions that characterize regularity. Building on previous work exploring these different routes to a more restricted notion of randomness, we define strong quantitative models of human randomness judgments that apply not just to binary sequences - which have been the focus of much of the previous work on subjective randomness - but also to binary matrices and spatial clustering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. How many subjects do I need to power my study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio R. Muñoz Navarro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a tool that helps answer the question “How many subjects do I need to power my study? We show how to determine sample size in observational epidemiological studies and provide examples of application using the statistical package Epidat, which is a shareware program developed under the auspices of the Pan American Health Organization, the Galician Board of Health and the University CES of Colombia. Examples of calculation of sample size for prevalence studies (cross-sectional, case-control studies and cohort studies are given.

  8. Size did not matter: An evolutionary account of the variation in penis size and size anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Apostolou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The human penis exhibits considerable variation in size, while a substantial proportion of the adult male population experiences size anxiety. This paper employs an evolutionary framework in order to understand this variation, as well as the concern men exhibit about the adequacy of the size of their penis. It is argued that female choice has been one important sexual selection force, responsible for shaping the size of the penis. However, this force has been relatively weak, because women do not consider the size of their partners’ penis to be the most important determinant of their sexual satisfaction. Also, in ancestral human societies, sexual satisfaction was a secondary concern, while women had limited space to exercise mate choice. The mismatch between ancestral and modern conditions, with female choice being stronger in the present than in the past, causes anxiety in men about their ability to satisfy their partners, which is also manifested in their concerns about size.

  9. Postural control in blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Oliveira, Cláudia Silva Remor de; Knabben, Rodrigo José; Domenech, Susana Cristina; Borges Junior, Noe Gomes

    2011-12-01

    To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  10. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  11. Formal Institutions and Subjective Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2010-01-01

    A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited, and inconclusive. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent...... cross-country studies on the institution-happiness association. Our findings suggest that their conclusions are qualitatively rather insensitive to the specific measure of 'happiness' used, while the associations between formal institutions and subjective well-being differ among poor and rich countries....... Separating different types of institutional quality, we find that in low-income countries the effects of economic-judicial institutions on happiness dominate those of political institutions, while analyses restricted to middle- and high-income countries show strong support for an additional beneficial effect...

  12. Abnormal Metabolite in Alcoholic Subjects,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    this study included alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver in 29. of the alcoholic subjects; diabetes mellitus in 8 and Korsakoff’s syndrome in 6...evidence of -7- Korsakoff’s syndrome and the presence or absence of 2,3-butanediol. There was, however, a suggestive correlation with independently...Gamma GT 193, SGPT 29 b 0 0.023 0.05 51a F.B. 22 M 28 0.029 0.14 b 0 ɘ.01 0.12 77 J.N.S. 52 M 0 0.027 0.11 57 JJ.S 45 m 4. 0.25 .35 Korsakoff ’s

  13. The large sample size fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Björn

    2013-06-01

    Significance in the statistical sense has little to do with significance in the common practical sense. Statistical significance is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for practical significance. Hence, results that are extremely statistically significant may be highly nonsignificant in practice. The degree of practical significance is generally determined by the size of the observed effect, not the p-value. The results of studies based on large samples are often characterized by extreme statistical significance despite small or even trivial effect sizes. Interpreting such results as significant in practice without further analysis is referred to as the large sample size fallacy in this article. The aim of this article is to explore the relevance of the large sample size fallacy in contemporary nursing research. Relatively few nursing articles display explicit measures of observed effect sizes or include a qualitative discussion of observed effect sizes. Statistical significance is often treated as an end in itself. Effect sizes should generally be calculated and presented along with p-values for statistically significant results, and observed effect sizes should be discussed qualitatively through direct and explicit comparisons with the effects in related literature. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  14. On Family Size and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armor, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques research by Rodgers, et al. (June 2000) on the impact of family size on intelligence, explaining that it applied very simple analytic techniques to a very complex question, leading to unwarranted conclusions about family size and intelligence. Loss of cases, omission of an important ability test, and failure to apply multivariate…

  15. Cell Size Regulation in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ariel

    2014-05-01

    Various bacteria such as the canonical gram negative Escherichia coli or the well-studied gram positive Bacillus subtilis divide symmetrically after they approximately double their volume. Their size at division is not constant, but is typically distributed over a narrow range. Here, we propose an analytically tractable model for cell size control, and calculate the cell size and interdivision time distributions, as well as the correlations between these variables. We suggest ways of extracting the model parameters from experimental data, and show that existing data for E. coli supports partial size control, and a particular explanation: a cell attempts to add a constant volume from the time of initiation of DNA replication to the next initiation event. This hypothesis accounts for the experimentally observed correlations between mother and daughter cells as well as the exponential dependence of size on growth rate.

  16. Hit size effectiveness in relation to the microdosimetric site size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, M.N.; Wuu, C.S.; Zaider, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of site size (that is, the diameter of the microdosimetric volume) on the hit size effectiveness function (HSEF), q(y), for several endpoints relevant in radiation protection. A Bayesian and maximum entropy approach is used to solve the integral equations that determine, given microdosimetric spectra and measured initial slopes, the function q(y). All microdosimetric spectra have been calculated de novo. The somewhat surprising conclusion of this analysis is that site size plays only a minor role in selecting the hit size effectiveness function q(y). It thus appears that practical means (e.g. conventional proportional counters) are already at hand to actually implement the HSEF as a radiation protection tool. (Author)

  17. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Corneille, Olivier; Klein, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    While larger containers have been found to increase food intake, it is unclear whether this effect is driven by container size, portion size, or their combination, as these variables are usually confounded. The study was advertised as examining the effects of snack food consumption on information processing and participants were served M&M's for free consumption in individual cubicles while watching a TV show. Participants were served (1) a medium portion of M&M's in a small (n=30) or (2) in a large container (n=29), or (3) a large portion in a large container (n=29). The larger container increased intake by 129% (199 kcal) despite holding portion size constant, while controlling for different confounding variables. This research suggests that larger containers stimulate food intake over and above their impact on portion size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Materialised Ideals Sizes and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Laitala

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s clothing industry is based on a system where clothes are made in ready-to-wear sizes and meant to fit most people. Studies have pointed out that consumers are discontent with the use of these systems: size designations are not accurate enough to find clothing that fits, and different sizes are poorly available. This article discusses in depth who these consumers are, and which consumer groups are the most dissatisfied with today’s sizing systems. Results are based on a web survey where 2834 Nordic consumers responded, complemented with eight in-depth interviews, market analysis on clothing sizes and in-store trouser size measurements. Results indicate that higher shares of the consumers who have a body out of touch with the existing beauty ideals express discontentment with the sizing systems and the poor selection available. In particular, large women, very large men, and thin, short men are those who experience less priority in clothing stores and have more difficulties in finding clothes that fit. Consumers tend to blame themselves when the clothes do not fit their bodies, while our study points out that the industry is to blame as they do not produce clothing for all customers.

  19. Subjective social status and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euteneuer, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Subjective social status (SSS) predicts health outcomes above and beyond traditional objective measures of social status, such as education, income and occupation. This review summarizes and integrates recent findings on SSS and health. Current studies corroborate associations between low SSS and poor health indicators by extending previous findings to further populations and biological risk factors, providing meta-analytic evidence for adolescents and by demonstrating that negative affect may not confound associations between SSS and self-rated health. Recent findings also highlight the relevance of SSS changes (e.g. SSS loss in immigrants) and the need to consider cultural/ethnical differences in psychological mediators and associations between SSS and health. SSS is a comprehensive measure of one's social position that is related to several poor health outcomes and risk factors for disease. Future investigation, particularly prospective studies, should extend research on SSS and health to further countries/ethnic groups, also considering additional psychological and biological mediators and dynamic aspects of SSS. Recently developed experimental approaches to manipulate SSS may also be promising.

  20. Clinical management of transsexual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho

    2014-03-01

    Transsexual subjects are individuals who have a desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by a sense of discomfort with, or inappropriateness of, one's anatomic sex, and a wish to have surgery and hormonal treatment to make one's body as congruent as possible with one's preferred sex. They seek to develop the physical characteristics of the desired gender, and should undergo an effective and safe treatment regimen. The goal of treatment is to rehabilitate the individual as a member of society in the gender he or she identifies with. Sex reassignment procedures necessary for the treatment of transsexual patients are allowed in our country, at Medical Services that have a multidisciplinary team composed of a psychologist, a social worker, a psychiatrist, an endocrinologist and surgeons (gynecologists, plastic surgeons, and urologists). Patients must be between 21 to 75 years old and in psychological and hormonal treatment for at least 2 years. Testosterone is the principal agent used to induce male characteristics in female transsexual patients, and the estrogen is the chosen hormone used to induce the female sexual characteristics in male transsexual patients. Based on our 15 years of experience, we can conclude that testosterone and estradiol treatment in physiological doses are effective and safe in female and male transsexual patients, respectively.

  1. Authentic subjectivity and social transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O'Sullivan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Holiness in the Christian tradition has often been understood in a way that devalues embodiment and practical engagement with the world of one’s time. The latter understanding, for example, led to Marx’s critique and repudiation of Christianity. Both interpretations of holiness can be understood as mistaken efforts to express the dynamism for authenticity in contextualised human subjectivity. Vatican 2 opposed both views by addressing itself to all people of good will, declaring that everyone was called to holiness, and that authentic Christian identity involved solidarity with the world of one’s time, especially those who are poor. Vatican 2, therefore, provided an authoritative faith foundation for holiness expressed through social commitment and for viewing social commitment on the part of people of good will in whatever state of life as a form of holiness. This vision was also the conviction of leading spirituality writers of the period, like Thomas Merton, and inspired liberation theologians and the Latin American Catholic bishops at their conference in Medellín a few years after the Council. The argument of this article is that the emergence and development of a non-dualist Christian spirituality is grounded methodologically in the correct appropriation of the common innate dynamism for authenticity in concrete human persons and lived spiritual experiences consistent with and capable of enhancing this dynamism.

  2. Authentic subjectivity and social transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O'Sullivan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Holiness in the Christian tradition has often been understood in a way that devalues embodiment and practical engagement with the world of one’s time. The latter understanding, for example, led to Marx’s critique and repudiation of Christianity. Both interpretations of holiness can be understood as mistaken efforts to express the dynamism for authenticity in contextualised human subjectivity. Vatican 2 opposed both views by addressing itself to all people of good will, declaring that everyone was called to holiness, and that authentic Christian identity involved solidarity with the world of one’s time, especially those who are poor. Vatican 2, therefore, provided an authoritative faith foundation for holiness expressed through social commitment and for viewing social commitment on the part of people of good will in whatever state of life as a form of holiness. This vision was also the conviction of leading spirituality writers of the period, like Thomas Merton, and inspired liberation theologians and the Latin American Catholic bishops at their conference in Medellín a few years after the Council. The argument of this article is that the emergence and development of a non-dualist Christian spirituality is grounded methodologically in the correct appropriation of the common innate dynamism for authenticity in concrete human persons and lived spiritual experiences consistent with and capable of enhancing this dynamism.

  3. Topical subjects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The controversy as regards the introduction of nuclear energy to the energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany has not subdued yet. However, the discussion has shifted from technical questions more to the field of political argumentation. In addition, questions concerning the back end cycle have come to the fore. The report at hand deals with the topical subjects of fuel reprocessing, ultimate storage of radioactive wastes, the impact of power plants in general and nuclear power plants in particular on the climate, safety and safeguard questions concerning nuclear facilities and fissionable materials, and with the properties and possibilities of plutonium. The authors tried to present technical know-how in an easy comprehensible way. Literature references enable the checking of facts and provide the possibility to deal in more detail with the matter. The seminar report is to give all those interested the opportunity to acquaint themselves with facts and know-how and to acquire knowledge on which to base a personal opinion. (orig.) [de

  4. Jurisdiction Size and Local Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Serritslew, Søren

    2011-01-01

    and problems of endogeneity. We focus on internal political efficacy, a psychological condition that many see as necessary for high-quality participatory democracy. We identify a quasiexperiment, a large-scale municipal reform in Denmark, which allows us to estimate a causal effect of jurisdiction size......Optimal jurisdiction size is a cornerstone of government design. A strong tradition in political thought argues that democracy thrives in smaller jurisdictions, but existing studies of the effects of jurisdiction size, mostly cross-sectional in nature, yield ambiguous results due to sorting effects...

  5. Missile sizing for ascent-phase intercept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, D.G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics; Salguero, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-11-01

    A computer code has been developed to determine the size of a ground-launched, multistage missile which can intercept a theater ballistic missile before it leaves the atmosphere. Typical final conditions for the inteceptor are 450 km range, 60 km altitude, and 80 sec flight time. Given the payload mass (35 kg), which includes a kinetic kill vehicle, and achievable values for the stage mass fractions (0.85), the stage specific impulses (290 sec), and the vehicle density (60 lb/ft{sup 3}), the launch mass is minimized with respect to the stage payload mass ratios, the stage burn times, and the missile angle of attack history subject to limits on the angle of attack (10 deg), the dynamic pressure (60,000 psf), and the maneuver load (200,000 psf deg). For a conical body, the minimum launch mass is approximately 1900 kg. The missile has three stages, and the payload coasts for 57 sec. A trade study has been performed by varying the flight time, the range, and the dynamic pressure Emits. With the results of a sizing study for a 70 lb payload and q{sub max} = 35,000 psf, a more detailed design has been carried out to determine heat shield mass, tabular aerodynamics, and altitude dependent thrust. The resulting missile has approximately 100 km less range than the sizing program predicted primarily because of the additional mass required for heat protection. On the other hand, launching the same missile from an aircraft increases its range by approximately 100 km. Sizing the interceptor for air launch with the same final conditions as the ground-launched missile reduces its launch mass to approximately 1000 kg.

  6. Cell size, genome size and the dominance of Angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, K. A.; Roddy, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Angiosperms are capable of maintaining the highest rates of photosynthetic gas exchange of all land plants. High rates of photosynthesis depends mechanistically both on efficiently transporting water to the sites of evaporation in the leaf and on regulating the loss of that water to the atmosphere as CO2 diffuses into the leaf. Angiosperm leaves are unique in their ability to sustain high fluxes of liquid and vapor phase water transport due to high vein densities and numerous, small stomata. Despite the ubiquity of studies characterizing the anatomical and physiological adaptations that enable angiosperms to maintain high rates of photosynthesis, the underlying mechanism explaining why they have been able to develop such high leaf vein densities, and such small and abundant stomata, is still incomplete. Here we ask whether the scaling of genome size and cell size places a fundamental constraint on the photosynthetic metabolism of land plants, and whether genome downsizing among the angiosperms directly contributed to their greater potential and realized primary productivity relative to the other major groups of terrestrial plants. Using previously published data we show that a single relationship can predict guard cell size from genome size across the major groups of terrestrial land plants (e.g. angiosperms, conifers, cycads and ferns). Similarly, a strong positive correlation exists between genome size and both stomatal density and vein density that together ultimately constrains maximum potential (gs, max) and operational stomatal conductance (gs, op). Further the difference in the slopes describing the covariation between genome size and both gs, max and gs, op suggests that genome downsizing brings gs, op closer to gs, max. Taken together the data presented here suggests that the smaller genomes of angiosperms allow their final cell sizes to vary more widely and respond more directly to environmental conditions and in doing so bring operational photosynthetic

  7. Analysis of glass fibre sizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro; Brøndsted, Povl

    2014-01-01

    Glass fibre reinforced polymer composites are widely used for industrial and engineering applications which include construction, aerospace, automotive and wind energy industry. During the manufacturing glass fibres, they are surface-treated with an aqueous solution. This process and the treated...... surfaces are called sizing. The sizing influences the properties of the interface between fibres and a matrix, and subsequently affects mechanical properties of composites. In this work the sizing of commercially available glass fibres was analysed so as to study the composition and chemical structures....... Soxhlet extraction was used to extract components of the sizing from the glass fibres. The glass fibres, their extracts and coated glass plates were analysed by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis combined with a mass spectrometer (TGA-MS), and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR...

  8. Method for sizing hollow microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

    1975-10-29

    Hollow Microspheres may be effectively sized by placing them beneath a screen stack completely immersed in an ultrasonic bath containing a liquid having a density at which the microspheres float and ultrasonically agitating the bath.

  9. Size scaling of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, O M; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-02-22

    Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as f(m)+Δf/A(γ) for increasing contact area A, with γ>0. Our main finding is that the value of f(m), controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory.

  10. Sibship Size and Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2009-01-01

    have a negative effect on educational attainment most studies cannot distinguish empirically between the CM and the RDH. In this paper I use the different theoretical predictions in the CM and RDH on the role of cognitive ability as a partial or complete mediator of the effect of sibship size......Studies on family background often explain the negative effect of sibship size on educational attainment by one of two theories: the Confluence Model (CM) or the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH). However, as both theories - for substantively different reasons - predict that sibship size should...... to distinguish the two theories and to identify a unique RDH effect on educational attainment. Using sibling data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and a random effect Instrumental Variable model I find that, in addition to a negative effect on cognitive ability, sibship size also has a strong negative...

  11. Sample size determination and power

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Thomas P, Jr

    2013-01-01

    THOMAS P. RYAN, PhD, teaches online advanced statistics courses for Northwestern University and The Institute for Statistics Education in sample size determination, design of experiments, engineering statistics, and regression analysis.

  12. Development process of subjects society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Reshetnichenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background due to defining the role of people in the development of society and the almost complete absence of scientific management processes capable of progressive development of both individuals and social communities, and nations, and civilization in general. In order to overcome inherent subjectivist methodology of knowledge, psyholohizatorskyh, hiperpolityzovanyh and utilitarian approach, the authors proposed a three-tier system of business processes of society. The conceptual core of the approach consists in the detection task as logical - mathematical laws of subjects of primary, secondary and higher levels of development, and on the mechanisms of their formation and practice. The solution of the tasks allowed the authors to reveal the structure of both the ascending and descending processes of economic society. Thus, the analysis of individual carriers upward changes as «individual», «individuality», «person» and «personality» showed conditionality determination of their activities with «anthropometric», «ethnic», «demographic» and «ideological» mechanisms. Nature as common carriers downstream changes revealed using correlative related «groups», «group «, «groups» and «communities» whose activity is due to «vitalistic», «education», «professional» and «stratification» mechanisms. To disclose the nature and organization of secondary and higher levels of economic society by the authors introduced the category of «citizen», «heneralista», «human space», «human galactic» ‘formation and development is causing «status», «Persona logical», «humanocentric», «institutional», «cluster», «kontaminatsiyni» and other mechanisms. One of the main achievements of the work, the authors consider the possibility of further development and practical implementation of new quality management processes of economic society based multimodal dialectical logic.

  13. Size and Local Democracy: the Case of Czech Municipal Representatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ryšavý, D.; Bernard, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2013), s. 833-852 ISSN 0300-3930 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/09/1779 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : local councillors * size of municipality * incumbents Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.620, year: 2013 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/03003930.2012.675329

  14. Preparation of leucite powders with controlled particle size distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, Martina; Kloužková, A.; Maixner, J.; Šatava, Vladimír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2005), s. 252-258 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/03/0031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : leucite * preparation * particle size distribution Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.463, year: 2005

  15. Adaptive evolution and effective population size in wild house mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Phifer-Rixey, M.; Bonhomme, F.; Boursot, P.; Churchill, G. A.; Piálek, Jaroslav; Tucker, P.; Nachman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 10 (2012), s. 2949-2955 ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : substitution * adaptation * evolution * effective population size * house mouse Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 10.353, year: 2012

  16. A Merging Algorithm for Aerosol Size Distribution from Multiple Instruments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondráček, Jakub; Ždímal, Vladimír; Smolík, Jiří; Lazaridis, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 199, 1-4 (2009), s. 219-233 ISSN 0049-6979 Grant - others:MTKD(XE) CT-2004-513849 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aerosols * merging particle size distribution * multilognormal model Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2009

  17. Nuclear genome size analysis of Agave tequilana Weber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palomino, G.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Méndez, I.; Rubluo, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2003), s. 37-46 ISSN 0008-7114 Grant - others:Itálie(IT) Z5038910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Flow cytometry * nuclear genome size * Agave tequilana Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.337, year: 2003

  18. Planting of different-sized tree transplants on arable soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostálek, J.; Weber, M.; Matula, S.; Frantík, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2009), s. 574-584 ISSN 1895-104X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : windbreak * growth rate * seedling size Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.915, year: 2009

  19. Blade size and weight effects in shovel design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freivalds, A; Kim, Y J

    1990-03-01

    The shovel is a basic tool that has undergone only nominal systematic design changes. Although previous studies found shovel-weight and blade-size effects of shovelling, the exact trade-off between the two has not been quantified. Energy expenditure, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion and shovelling performance were measured on five subjects using five shovels with varying blade sizes and weights to move sand. Energy expenditure, normalised to subject weight and load handled, varied quadratically with the blade-size/shovel-weight (B/W) ratio. Minimum energy cost was at B/W = 0.0676 m2/kg, which for an average subject and average load would require an acceptable 5.16 kcal/min of energy expenditure. Subjects, through the ratings of perceived exertion, also strongly preferred the lighter shovels without regard to blade size. Too large a blade or too heavy a shovel increased energy expenditure beyond acceptable levels, while too small a blade reduced efficiency of the shovelling.

  20. Effect of population size on prospect of species survival

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2006), s. 137-150 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6111303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : population * size * survival Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2006

  1. Why size really matters when sequencing plant genomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kelly, L.J.; Leitch, A.R.; Fay, M. F.; Renny-Byfield, S.; Pellicer, J.; Macas, Jiří; Leitch, I.J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 415-425 ISSN 1755-0874 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : C-value * genome assembly * genome size evolution * genome sequencing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2012

  2. Ultrasonic sizing of fatigue cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.J.

    1983-12-01

    Surface and buried fatigue cracks in steel plates have been sized using immersion probes as transmitters-receivers, angled to produce shear waves in the steel. Sizes have been estimated by identifying the ultrasonic waves diffracted from the crack tip and by measuring the time taken for a signal to travel to and from the crack tip. The effects of compression normal to a fatigue crack and of crack front curvature are discussed. Another diffraction technique, developed by UKAEA, Harwell, is reviewed

  3. Attention changes perceived size of moving visual patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton-Erxleben, Katharina; Henrich, Christian; Treue, Stefan

    2007-08-23

    Spatial attention shifts receptive fields in monkey extrastriate visual cortex toward the focus of attention (S. Ben Hamed, J. R. Duhamel, F. Bremmer, & W. Graf, 2002; C. E. Connor, J. L. Gallant, D. C. Preddie, & D. C. Van Essen, 1996; C. E. Connor, D. C. Preddie, J. L. Gallant, & D. C. Van Essen, 1997; T. Womelsdorf, K. Anton-Erxleben, F. Pieper, & S. Treue, 2006). This distortion in the retinotopic distribution of receptive fields might cause distortions in spatial perception such as an increase of the perceived size of attended stimuli. Here we test for such an effect in human subjects by measuring the point of subjective equality (PSE) for the perceived size of a neutral and an attended stimulus when drawing automatic attention to one of two spatial locations. We found a significant increase in perceived size of attended stimuli. Depending on the absolute stimulus size, this effect ranged from 4% to 12% and was more pronounced for smaller than for larger stimuli. In our experimental design, an attentional effect on task difficulty or a cue bias might influence the PSE measure. We performed control experiments and indeed found such effects, but they could only account for part of the observed results. Our findings demonstrate that the allocation of transient spatial attention onto a visual stimulus increases its perceived size and additionally biases subjects to select this stimulus for a perceptual judgment.

  4. Experimental determination of size distributions: analyzing proper sample sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffo, A; Alopaeus, V

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of various particle size distributions is a crucial aspect for many applications in the process industry. Size distribution is often related to the final product quality, as in crystallization or polymerization. In other cases it is related to the correct evaluation of heat and mass transfer, as well as reaction rates, depending on the interfacial area between the different phases or to the assessment of yield stresses of polycrystalline metals/alloys samples. The experimental determination of such distributions often involves laborious sampling procedures and the statistical significance of the outcome is rarely investigated. In this work, we propose a novel rigorous tool, based on inferential statistics, to determine the number of samples needed to obtain reliable measurements of size distribution, according to specific requirements defined a priori. Such methodology can be adopted regardless of the measurement technique used. (paper)

  5. Thin-plate spline analysis of craniofacial growth in Class I and Class II subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano; Stahl, Franka; McNamara, James A

    2007-07-01

    To compare the craniofacial growth characteristics of untreated subjects with Class II division 1 malocclusion with those of subjects with normal (Class I) occlusion from the prepubertal through the postpubertal stages of development. The Class II division 1 sample consisted of 17 subjects (11 boys and six girls). The Class I sample also consisted of 17 subjects (13 boys and four girls). Three craniofacial regions (cranial base, maxilla, and mandible) were analyzed on the lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups by means of thin-plate spline analysis at T1 (prepubertal) and T2 (postpubertal). Both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons were performed on both size and shape differences between the two groups. The results showed an increased cranial base angulation as a morphological feature of Class II malocclusion at the prepubertal developmental phase. Maxillary changes in either shape or size were not significant. Subjects with Class II malocclusion exhibited a significant deficiency in the size of the mandible at the completion of active craniofacial growth as compared with Class I subjects. A significant deficiency in the size of the mandible became apparent in Class II subjects during the circumpubertal period and it was still present at the completion of active craniofacial growth.

  6. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

  7. Objective and subjective rating of tonal noise radiated from UK wind farms: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This final report provides data on the assessment of tonal noise radiation from wind turbines in the United Kingdom. Both objective and subjective assessments of the noise pollution from various wind farms are incorporated in the study. Previous subjective tests are verified here using a larger subject and sample size compared to the initial study. The study also aims to produce an objective automatic tonal assessment procedure which identifies tones and broad band masking noise in wind farm radiated noise spectra. (UK)

  8. Thromboxane production in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Francesca; Biasucci, Luigi M; Cialdella, Pio; Liuzzo, Giovanna; Giubilato, Simona; Della Bona, Roberta; Pulcinelli, Fabio M; Iaconelli, Amerigo; Mingrone, Geltrude; Crea, Filippo

    2011-06-01

    Postmortem studies have demonstrated that morbidly obese subjects, surprisingly, have less coronary atherosclerosis than obese subjects. However, the reasons for this apparent protection from atherosclerosis are not yet clear. Thromboxane A2, a marker of platelet activation, is greater in obese subjects than in lean subjects, and this might be a clue to their increased cardiovascular risk. However, data on thromboxane A2 in morbidly obese subjects are lacking; therefore, we hypothesized that lower levels of thromboxane A2 in morbidly obese subjects might play a role in their lower atherothrombotic burden. We measured the serum levels of thromboxane B2 (TxB2), a stable metabolite of thromboxane A2, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and leptin in 17 lean subjects (body mass index [BMI] 22.9 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)), 25 obese subjects (BMI 32.6 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)), and 23 morbidly obese subjects (BMI 48.6 ± 7.1 kg/m(2)), without insulin resistance, diabetes, or overt cardiovascular disease. The serum TxB2 levels were lower in the lean subjects than in the obese subjects (p = 0.046) and in the morbidly obese subjects than in the lean and obese subjects (p = 0.015 and p lean subjects (hs-CRP, p lean subjects (p lean subjects, suggesting that reduced platelet activation could play a role in the paradoxical protection of morbidly obese subjects from atherosclerosis, despite the greater levels of leptin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Beer, Wine, Spirits and Subjective Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Morten; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mygind, K.

    1999-01-01

    To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health.......To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health....

  10. Determination of size distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshome, A.; Spartakove, A.

    1987-05-01

    The theory of a method is outlined which gives the size distribution function (SDF) of a polydispersed system of non-interacting colloidal and microscopic spherical particles, having sizes in the range 0-10 -5 cm., from a gedanken experimental scheme. It is assumed that the SDF is differentiable and the result is obtained for rotational frequency in the order of 10 3 (sec) -1 . The method may be used independently, but is particularly useful in conjunction with an alternate method described in a preceding paper. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  11. Modeling and Sizing of Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETREUS, D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with numerous challenges raised by the requirements of the modern industries for higher power and higher energy, supercapacitors study started playing an important role in offering viable solutions for some of these requirements. This paper presents the surface redox reactions based modeling in order to study the origin of high capacity of EDLC (electrical double-layer capacitor for better understanding the working principles of supercapacitors. Some application-dependent sizing methods are also presented since proper sizing can increase the efficiency and the life cycle of the supercapacitor based systems.

  12. Testicular Volume: Size Does Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Lobo, Alexander; Segovia Fuentes, Javier; Cerpa Reyes, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Testicular volume is critical for semen production and, consequently, for fertility. Hence the importance of knowing the normal size ranges and the different methods for calculating size, in order to classify patients at risk and refer them for appropriate management. Ultrasound is the first-line diagnostic method for the evaluation of testicular pathology, and it is also the best tool for estimating the volume of both testicles, bearing in mind that a testicular volume below 15 cc results in fertility problems. Although there are many causes of infertility, varicocele is undoubtedly the most important of all, because of its frequency and because it is amenable to curative surgical treatment.

  13. Size of quorum sensing communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Sams, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Ensembles of bacteria are able to coordinate their phenotypic behavior in accordance with the size, density, and growth state of the ensemble. This is achieved through production and exchange of diffusible signal molecules in a cell–cell regulatory system termed quorum sensing. In the generic....... For a disk-shaped biofilm the geometric factor is the horizontal dimension multiplied by the height, and the square of the height of the biofilm if there is significant flow above the biofilm. A remarkably simple factorized expression for the size is obtained, which separates the all-or-none ignition caused...

  14. Size matters: bigger is faster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, Sara C; O'Donnell, Patrick J; Sereno, Margaret E

    2009-06-01

    A largely unexplored aspect of lexical access in visual word recognition is "semantic size"--namely, the real-world size of an object to which a word refers. A total of 42 participants performed a lexical decision task on concrete nouns denoting either big or small objects (e.g., bookcase or teaspoon). Items were matched pairwise on relevant lexical dimensions. Participants' reaction times were reliably faster to semantically "big" versus "small" words. The results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms, including more active representations for "big" words, due to the ecological importance attributed to large objects in the environment and the relative speed of neural responses to large objects.

  15. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... bias from omitted variables, the preferred IV results indicate considerable negative effects due to larger class sizes and larger numbers of overage-for-grade peers. The latter, driven by the highly prevalent practices of grade repetition and academic redshirting, should be considered an important...

  16. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status,...

  17. Impaired hand size estimation in CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Elena; Seifert, Frank; Lanz, Stefan; Müller, Rüdiger; Maihöfner, Christian

    2011-10-01

    A triad of clinical symptoms, ie, autonomic, motor and sensory dysfunctions, characterizes complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS). Sensory dysfunction comprises sensory loss or spontaneous and stimulus-evoked pain. Furthermore, a disturbance in the body schema may occur. In the present study, patients with CRPS of the upper extremity and healthy controls estimated their hand sizes on the basis of expanded or compressed schematic drawings of hands. In patients with CRPS we found an impairment in accurate hand size estimation; patients estimated their own CRPS-affected hand to be larger than it actually was when measured objectively. Moreover, overestimation correlated significantly with disease duration, neglect score, and increase of two-point-discrimination-thresholds (TPDT) compared to the unaffected hand and to control subjects' estimations. In line with previous functional imaging studies in CRPS patients demonstrating changes in central somatotopic maps, we suggest an involvement of the central nervous system in this disruption of the body schema. Potential cortical areas may be the primary somatosensory and posterior parietal cortices, which have been proposed to play a critical role in integrating visuospatial information. CRPS patients perceive their affected hand to be bigger than it is. The magnitude of this overestimation correlates with disease duration, decreased tactile thresholds, and neglect-score. Suggesting a disrupted body schema as the source of this impairment, our findings corroborate the current assumption of a CNS involvement in CRPS. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  19. Processing subject-object ambiguities in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaan, Edith

    1997-01-01

    Various clause types in Dutch and German are at least temporarily ambiguous with respect to the order of subject and object. A number of previous studies regarding the processing of such subject-object ambiguities have reported a preference for a subject-object interpretation. This order preference

  20. Sex Education as a Transversal Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…

  1. The changing role of the subject specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cotta-Schønberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As we all know, libraries are these years rapidly undergoing change on unparalleled scale. Evidently, this applies to librarians, too, and not the least to that important category of library staff, the subject specialist. As recruiting and education of library workers differ from country to country it is difficult to give a detailed, generally valid description of the subject librarian in libraries, but I believe that you can describe an ideal model of subject librarianship as follows: Within each of the major subject disciplines covered by the library, the library should have a subject specialist preferably with a master degree or at least a bachelor degree in the particular subject discipline. The role of the subject specialist is to perform four basic functions where extensive subject knowledge is considered to be necessary: selecting and classifying books, assisting users with advanced subject inquiries, giving subject-specific courses in information retrieval, and maintaining liaison with relevant academic departments and centres. Personally, I know this system very well since I got employment in the Royal Library in Copenhagen as a subject specialist in psychology in the very month I finished my degree in psychology from the University of Copenhagen, back in 1973. The subject librarian system at the Royal Library in Copenhagen was patterned on the ideal model, as I just described it, and it was closely paralleled in the other academic libraries in Denmark, also the new university libraries which were founded in the seventies.

  2. Model catalysis by size-selected cluster deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Scott [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-11-20

    This report summarizes the accomplishments during the last four years of the subject grant. Results are presented for experiments in which size-selected model catalysts were studied under surface science and aqueous electrochemical conditions. Strong effects of cluster size were found, and by correlating the size effects with size-dependent physical properties of the samples measured by surface science methods, it was possible to deduce mechanistic insights, such as the factors that control the rate-limiting step in the reactions. Results are presented for CO oxidation, CO binding energetics and geometries, and electronic effects under surface science conditions, and for the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction, ethanol oxidation reaction, and for oxidation of carbon by water.

  3. Cognitive factors in subjective stabilization of the visual world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, B

    1981-08-01

    If an eye movement signal is fed through a galvanic mirror, to move a projected image which a subject is inspecting, prominent objects in the image may seem to jiggle or jump with the the eye when the gain is just below the threshold for detecting a jump of the entire image (Brune and Lücking 1969). We have refined and extended this observation with both naive and practiced subjects, finding results which contradict all of the current theories about the mechanism of stabilization of the visual world and suggest that cognitive factors in perception important influences on the stabilization process. Using this method with a paired photocell system to detect horizontal eye movements, some subjects saw a prominent object in the display jump slightly while the rest of the scene remained stable. The task was done first with landscape slides, then repeated with Escher prints where two sets of alternating figures completely filled the image. Subjects could concentrate on one set of forms as the "figure" and the other as the "ground", and reverse the two at will. In a majority of practiced subjects and in smaller proportion of naive subjects, motion of part of the "figure" was seen regardless of which alternative set of forms constituted it. Reversibility of the effect controlled for influence of object size, brightness, etc. in inducing the selective jump. These and related observations show that cognitive or attentional variables are as important as image properties or gain alone in determining subjective stabilization of the visual world, though current theories (inflow, outflow, cancellation, etc.) consider image position to be simple variable. Another experiment showed that image movement on the retina during saccades cannot explain saccadic suppression of displacement.

  4. Size, productivity, and international banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buch, Claudia M.; Koch, Catherine T.; Koetter, Michael

    Heterogeneity in size and productivity is central to models that explain which manufacturing firms expert. This study presents descriptive evidence on similar heterogeneity among international banks as financial services providers. A novel and detailed bank-level data set reveals the volume and mode

  5. Automated measurement of diatom size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Sarah A.; Jewson, David H.; Bixby, Rebecca J.; Nelson, Harry; McKnight, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    Size analysis of diatom populations has not been widely considered, but it is a potentially powerful tool for understanding diatom life histories, population dynamics, and phylogenetic relationships. However, measuring cell dimensions on a light microscope is a time-consuming process. An alternative technique has been developed using digital flow cytometry on a FlowCAM® (Fluid Imaging Technologies) to capture hundreds, or even thousands, of images of a chosen taxon from a single sample in a matter of minutes. Up to 30 morphological measures may be quantified through post-processing of the high resolution images. We evaluated FlowCAM size measurements, comparing them against measurements from a light microscope. We found good agreement between measurement of apical cell length in species with elongated, straight valves, including small Achnanthidium minutissimum (11-21 µm) and largeDidymosphenia geminata (87–137 µm) forms. However, a taxon with curved cells, Hannaea baicalensis (37–96 µm), showed differences of ~ 4 µm between the two methods. Discrepancies appear to be influenced by the choice of feret or geodesic measurement for asymmetric cells. We describe the operating conditions necessary for analysis of size distributions and present suggestions for optimal instrument conditions for size analysis of diatom samples using the FlowCAM. The increased speed of data acquisition through use of imaging flow cytometers like the FlowCAM is an essential step for advancing studies of diatom populations.

  6. Particle sizes from sectional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlas, Zbynek; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new statistical method for obtaining information about particle size distributions from sectional data without specific assumptions about particle shape. The method utilizes recent advances in local stereology. We show how to estimate separately from sectional data the variance due t...

  7. Variability in human body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  8. On the optimal sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1994-01-01

    The paper studies the problem of determining the number and dimensions of sizes of apparel so as to maximize profits. It develops a simple one-variable bisection search algorithm that gives the optimal solution. An example is solved interactively using a Macintosh LC and Math CAD, a mathematical...

  9. Measuring fire size in tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qihui

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of fire size Q′ has been introduced in longitudinally ventilated tunnel as the ratio of flame height to the height of tunnel. The analysis in this article has shown that Q′ controls both the critical velocity and the maximum ceiling temperature in the tunnel. Before the fire flame reaches tunnel ceiling (Q′ 1.0), Fr approaches a constant value. This is also a well-known phenomenon in large tunnel fires. Tunnel ceiling temperature shows the opposite trend. Before the fire flame reaches the ceiling, it increases very slowly with the fire size. Once the flame has hit the ceiling of tunnel, temperature rises rapidly with Q′. The good agreement between the current prediction and three different sets of experimental data has demonstrated that the theory has correctly modelled the relation among the heat release rate of fire, ventilation flow and the height of tunnel. From design point of view, the theoretical maximum of critical velocity for a given tunnel can help to prevent oversized ventilation system. -- Highlights: • Fire sizing is an important safety measure in tunnel design. • New measure of fire size a function of HRR of fire, tunnel height and ventilation. • The measure can identify large and small fires. • The characteristics of different fire are consistent with observation in real fires

  10. Pupil size tracks perceptual content and surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-04-01

    Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. ''FUR'' - one size suits all

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, M.; Que, L.; Hassan, I.M.

    2000-01-01

    This work used amalgamated data from previous projects in order to test the concept that when organ function is expressed in terms of tracer kinetics, the results are independent of patient size or gender. Dynamic gamma camera studies were analysed by measuring the rate of movement of tracers from the blood into various organs. These rates were expressed as a ''fractional uptake rate'' (FUR), which is the fraction of tracer in the blood taken up by the organ per unit time. As these values were small, it was convenient to express the FUR per million seconds. The FUR was calculated using the expression FUR = SLOPE (of Rutland-Patlak plot), multiplied by B(0) (the blood curve value back-extrapolated to time zero), and divided by the TOTAL amount of tracer injected. Data were used from adult patients between the ages of 20 and 49 years who had normal organ function. Organ/tracer groups studied were the skeletal uptake of 99m Tc-MDP, the renal uptake of 99m Tc-MAG3, the renal uptake of 99m Tc-MDP, the renal uptake of 99m Tc-DTPA, the hepatic uptake of 99m Tc-colloid, the splenic uptake of 99m Tc-colloid, and the hepatic uptake of 99m Tc-DISIDA. Each organ/tracer group was divided into three subgroups according to patient size (smallest, middle and largest), and also into subgroups according to gender. Comparison of these subgroups did not show any significant size- or gender-related differences in FUR values. It is concluded that for patients with normally functioning organs the FUR is independent of patient size or gender. Thus, the FUR is a valuable way of expressing organ function, particularly in patients with unusual or rapidly changing body size, such as children. (orig.)

  12. Effect of eating rate on binge size in Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissileff, Harry R; Zimmerli, Ellen J; Torres, Migdalia I; Devlin, Michael J; Walsh, B Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Effect of eating rate on binge size in bulimia nervosa. Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating. During binge eating episodes, patients often describe the rapid consumption of food, and laboratory studies have shown that during binges patients with BN eat faster than normal controls (NC), but the hypothesis that a rapid rate of eating contributes to the excessive intake of binge meals has not yet been experimentally tested. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of eating rate on binge size in BN, in order to determine whether binge size is mediated, in part, by rate of eating. Thirteen BN and 14 NC subjects were asked to binge eat a yogurt shake that was served at a fast rate (140g/min) on one occasion and at a slow rate (70g/min) on another. NC subjects consumed 169 g more when eating at the fast rate than when eating at the slow rate. In contrast, consumption rates failed to influence binge size in patients with BN (fast: 1205 g; slow: 1195 g). Consequently, there was a significant group by rate interaction. As expected, patients with BN consumed more overall than NC subjects (1200 g vs. 740 g). When instructed to binge in the eating laboratory, patients with BN ate equally large amounts of food at a slow rate as at a fast rate. NC subjects ate less at a slow rate. These findings indicate that in a structured laboratory meal paradigm binge size is not affected by rate of eating. PMID:17996257

  13. Mass size distribution of particle-bound water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canepari, S.; Simonetti, G.; Perrino, C.

    2017-09-01

    The thermal-ramp Karl-Fisher method (tr-KF) for the determination of PM-bound water has been applied to size-segregated PM samples collected in areas subjected to different environmental conditions (protracted atmospheric stability, desert dust intrusion, urban atmosphere). This method, based on the use of a thermal ramp for the desorption of water from PM samples and the subsequent analysis by the coulometric KF technique, had been previously shown to differentiate water contributes retained with different strength and associated to different chemical components in the atmospheric aerosol. The application of the method to size-segregated samples has revealed that water showed a typical mass size distribution in each one of the three environmental situations that were taken into consideration. A very similar size distribution was shown by the chemical PM components that prevailed during each event: ammonium nitrate in the case of atmospheric stability, crustal species in the case of desert dust, road-dust components in the case of urban sites. The shape of the tr-KF curve varied according to the size of the collected particles. Considering the size ranges that better characterize the event (fine fraction for atmospheric stability, coarse fraction for dust intrusion, bi-modal distribution for urban dust), this shape is coherent with the typical tr-KF shape shown by water bound to the chemical species that predominate in the same PM size range (ammonium nitrate, crustal species, secondary/combustion species - road dust components).

  14. Mediating effect of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Akin, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. 297 university students (157 women, 140 men; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.3) were administered the Facebook Addiction Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Facebook addiction partially mediated the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

  15. Pupil size reflects the focus of feature-based attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binda, Paola; Pereverzeva, Maria; Murray, Scott O

    2014-12-15

    We measured pupil size in adult human subjects while they selectively attended to one of two surfaces, bright and dark, defined by coherently moving dots. The two surfaces were presented at the same location; therefore, subjects could select the cued surface only on the basis of its features. With no luminance change in the stimulus, we find that pupil size was smaller when the bright surface was attended and larger when the dark surface was attended: an effect of feature-based (or surface-based) attention. With the same surfaces at nonoverlapping locations, we find a similar effect of spatial attention. The pupil size modulation cannot be accounted for by differences in eye position and by other variables known to affect pupil size such as task difficulty, accommodation, or the mere anticipation (imagery) of bright/dark stimuli. We conclude that pupil size reflects not just luminance or cognitive state, but the interaction between the two: it reflects which luminance level in the visual scene is relevant for the task at hand. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Relationships between motor unit size and recruitment threshold in older adults: implications for size principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fling, Brett W; Knight, Christopher A; Kamen, Gary

    2009-08-01

    As a part of the aging process, motor unit reorganization occurs in which small motoneurons reinnervate predominantly fast-twitch muscle fibers that have lost their innervation. We examined the relationship between motor unit size and the threshold force for recruitment in two muscles to determine whether older individuals might develop an alternative pattern of motor unit activation. Young and older adults performed isometric contractions ranging from 0 to 50% of maximal voluntary contraction in both the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. Muscle fiber action potentials were recorded with an intramuscular needle electrode and motor unit size was computed using spike-triggered averaging of the global EMG signal (macro EMG), which was also obtained from the intramuscular needle electrode. As expected, older individuals exhibited larger motor units than young subjects in both the FDI and the TA. However, moderately strong correlations were obtained for the macro EMG amplitude versus recruitment threshold relationship in both the young and older adults within both muscles, suggesting that the size principle of motor unit recruitment seems to be preserved in older adults.

  17. Higher seed size and germination rate may favour autotetraploids of Vicia cracca L. (Fabaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eliášová, A.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2014), s. 57-73 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Vicia * autotetraploid * seed size * germination Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.264, year: 2014

  18. Methods of assessing grain-size distribution during grain growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweed, Cherry J.; Hansen, Niels; Ralph, Brian

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers methods of obtaining grain-size distributions and ways of describing them. In order to collect statistically useful amounts of data, an automatic image analyzer is used, and the resulting data are subjected to a series of tests that evaluate the differences between two related...... distributions (before and after grain growth). The distributions are measured from two-dimensional sections, and both the data and the corresponding true three-dimensional grain-size distributions (obtained by stereological analysis) are collected. The techniques described here are illustrated by reference...

  19. Size effects in crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of plasticity size effects have been carried out for different problems using a developed strain gradient crystal plasticiy theory. The theory employs higher order stresses as work conjugates to slip gradients and uses higher order boundary conditions. Problems on localization...... of plastic flow in a single crystal, grain boundary effects in a bicrystal, and grain size effects in a polycrystal are studied. Single crystals containing micro-scale voids have also been analyzed at different loading conditions with focus on the stress and deformation fields around the voids, on void...... growth and interaction between neighboring voids, and on a comparison between the developed strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and a discrete dislocation plasticity theory. Furthermore, voids and rigid inclusions in isotropic materials have been studied using a strain gradient plasticity theory...

  20. Economic development and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, R J

    1991-01-01

    The demographic transition in Latin America has resulted in increased family size rather than the Western European model of reduced family size. In 1905, both fertility and mortality were high in Latin America, but mortality declined more rapidly in Latin America than in Europe. In 1905, the crude birth rate for 15 selected countries averaged 44/1000 population. Western fertility at a comparable transition point was much lower at 30/1000. Between 1905 and 1960, fertility declines were evident in Uruguay, Argentina, Cuba, and Chile. Between 1960 and 1985, fertility declines appeared in Costa Rica, Panama, Brazil, and Colombia. Fertility declines were smaller in the other Latin American countries. Crude birth rates declined markedly by 1985 but may overestimate fertility decline, which is more accurately measured by standardized birth rates. Fertility decline was evident in Argentina, Chile, and Costa Rica for standardized birth rates, survivorship ratio, and births surviving past the age of 15 years. Theoretically, families are expected to reduce family size when survivorship is assured; when mortality is 25%, only four children need be planned instead of six when mortality is 50%. A result of falling mortality is a cheaper cost of producing children, which may stimulate parents to raise bigger families. Western fertility decline has been attributed to mortality decline, urbanization, increased female labor force participation, rising wages, and more efficient contraception. Comparable economic development in Latin America has not resulted in large enough changes to encourage family size limitation. A table of fertility and economic indicators for selected countries in Latin America and Europe reflects the inverse relationship between income growth, urban growth, and growth in female educational status and fertility. The regression equation explains 60% of the variation in fertility rates among Latin American countries. Explanatory power increases to 75% when female

  1. On size effects in fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the dependence of fracture stress on size. This conclusion is based on classical energy arguments. For an in-plane scaled specimen pair, the larger the specimen the smaller the fracture stress. In contrast the same theory gives a different dependence for out-of-plane specimen and the dependence involves plane stress, strain, fracture stresses and Poisson's ratio. The objective of this paper is to examine how well these predictions are actually complied with

  2. Finite Size Scaling of Perceptron

    OpenAIRE

    Korutcheva, Elka; Tonchev, N.

    2000-01-01

    We study the first-order transition in the model of a simple perceptron with continuous weights and large, bit finite value of the inputs. Making the analogy with the usual finite-size physical systems, we calculate the shift and the rounding exponents near the transition point. In the case of a general perceptron with larger variety of inputs, the analysis only gives bounds for the exponents.

  3. Environmental sizing of smartphone batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Flipsen, S.F.J.; Geraedts, J.M.P.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Bakker, C.A.; Dafnomilis, I.; Gudadhe, A.

    2012-01-01

    Smartphone use has increased at a phenomenal pace worldwide. In 2011 more smartphones have been sold than desktop pc’s, notebooks, netbooks and tablets together. The total worldwide smartphone sales reached 472 million units in 2011, and 149 million of them were sold in the fourth quarter of 2011. The smartphone is, like almost every other mobile device, powered by batteries, limited in size and therefore capacity, which makes energy management paramount. While global demand and use of mobile...

  4. Teen Sized Humanoid Robot: Archie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Jacky; Byagowi, Ahmad; Anderson, John; Kopacek, Peter

    This paper describes our first teen sized humanoid robot Archie. This robot has been developed in conjunction with Prof. Kopacek’s lab from the Technical University of Vienna. Archie uses brushless motors and harmonic gears with a novel approach to position encoding. Based on our previous experience with small humanoid robots, we developed software to create, store, and play back motions as well as control methods which automatically balance the robot using feedback from an internal measurement unit (IMU).

  5. Tick size and stock returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Töyli, Juuso; Kaski, Kimmo

    2009-02-01

    Tick size is an important aspect of the micro-structural level organization of financial markets. It is the smallest institutionally allowed price increment, has a direct bearing on the bid-ask spread, influences the strategy of trading order placement in electronic markets, affects the price formation mechanism, and appears to be related to the long-term memory of volatility clustering. In this paper we investigate the impact of tick size on stock returns. We start with a simple simulation to demonstrate how continuous returns become distorted after confining the price to a discrete grid governed by the tick size. We then move on to a novel experimental set-up that combines decimalization pilot programs and cross-listed stocks in New York and Toronto. This allows us to observe a set of stocks traded simultaneously under two different ticks while holding all security-specific characteristics fixed. We then study the normality of the return distributions and carry out fits to the chosen distribution models. Our empirical findings are somewhat mixed and in some cases appear to challenge the simulation results.

  6. SIZE OF LIVESTOCK AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazbanela Stere

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to map the performance of Romanian farms from the perspective of livestock agricultural operations using principal component analysis technique (PCA and similarities between Romania and other countries from UE. The empirical results reveal that animal breedings farms are grouped into two categories :small and middle sized farms ; and the fact that Romania , one of Europe’s major forces in the field of livestock husbandry, has come to be one of the biggest importers of food products, although, by tradition, it is one of the continent’s countries with ideal conditions for breeding all species of animals. When clustering the countries we observ that in countries such as Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, cow farms, for example, do not exceed 10-16 heads and in Holland, England, Denmark, Belgium and France, the average farm size reaches 30-70 heads of milk cows. The cluster analysis revealed that in livestock operations, animal stock is the one that generates production, while the animal number indicates the size of the livestock unit.

  7. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-11-20

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general US population. However, our results agree with those of other...

  9. Information processing correlates of a size-contrast illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Gold

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Perception is often influenced by context. A well-known class of perceptual context effects is perceptual contrast illusions, in which proximate stimulus regions interact to alter the perception of various stimulus attributes, such as perceived brightness, color and size. Although the phenomenal reality of contrast effects is well documented, in many cases the connection between these illusions and how information is processed by perceptual systems is not well understood. Here, we use noise as a tool to explore the information processing correlates of one such contrast effect: the Ebbinghaus-Titchener size-contrast illusion. In this illusion, the perceived size of a central dot is significantly altered by the sizes of a set of surrounding dots, such that the presence of larger surrounding dots tends to reduce the perceived size of the central dot (and vise-versa. In our experiments, we first replicated previous results that have demonstrated the subjective reality of the Ebbinghaus-Titchener illusion. We then used visual noise in a detection task to probe the manner in which observers processed information when experiencing the illusion. By correlating the noise with observers’ classification decisions, we found that the sizes of the surrounding contextual elements had a direct influence on the relative weight observers assigned to regions within and surrounding the central element. Specifically, observers assigned relatively more weight to the surrounding region and less weight to the central region in the presence of smaller surrounding contextual elements. These results offer new insights into the connection between the subjective experience of size-contrast illusions and their associated information processing correlates.

  10. The economics of urban size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, W

    1971-01-01

    An aggregative economic approach to the theory of city size is presented along with some empirical findings which suggest that even the largest cities have not yet reached excessive sizes from the point of view of growth and productivity. Urban magnitude is no simple 1 dimensional phenomenon. Modern urban centers are surrounded by very large, diffuse zonal boundaries, within which there are marked variations in the proportion of firms and people associated with that center, and in the intensity of the association. In sum, population does not constitute a conventional, countable set. In general, population will be considered as the basic magnitude and as a conventionally definable number. Most approaches to city size have emphasized the presumed diseconomy of urban scale and have sought to establish that population at which costs per capita are least, regarding this as optimal. It is argued here that both the logic and the factual basis of this approach are faulty. The argument of minimum costs is insufficient in its own terms. Such an objective is reasonable only if output per capita is constant, but it appears that output per capita is an increasing function of urban size. In that case, a more sensible objective of public policy would deal with the relation of outputs and inputs, rather than only with inputs. In every country for which evidence was found, local product per capita (or some index for it, such as income or wages) rises with urban size, and where comparable figures on cost are available, these rise far more slowly if at all. Although all of the data desirable are not available for any single country, the overall pattern is clear. Possibly the most surprising element in the data is the marked decline with increasing density in Social Overhead Captial Stocks (SOCS) per capita. This runs counter to common belief that the bigger the city the more infrastructure per capita is needed and may be the result of such effects as the greater linear quantities of

  11. SUBJECTIVE MEMORY IN OLDER AFRICAN AMERICANS

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Ayotte, Brian J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Allaire, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater externalized locus of control predicted poorer subjecti...

  12. Subjective Wellbeing Among Adults with Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Browne, Jessica L; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    duration, body mass index, number of diabetes-related complications, and depression). Furthermore, adults with type 2 diabetes using insulin to manage their condition report the lowest levels of subjective wellbeing, and are also most likely to report dissatisfaction with their current health....... These findings suggest that living with diabetes, and in particular, living with type 2 diabetes and using insulin, strongly challenges the maintenance of subjective wellbeing.......This study examines the subjective wellbeing of Australian adults with diabetes who completed the Diabetes MILES—Australia survey, investigating by diabetes type and treatment, and by comparing with the subjective wellbeing of the general Australian adult population. In addition, the extent...

  13. Psychological methods of subjective risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimolong, B.

    1980-01-01

    Reactions to situations involving risks can be divided into the following parts/ perception of danger, subjective estimates of the risk and risk taking with respect to action. Several investigations have compared subjective estimates of the risk with an objective measure of that risk. In general there was a mis-match between subjective and objective measures of risk, especially, objective risk involved in routine activities is most commonly underestimated. This implies, for accident prevention, that attempts must be made to induce accurate subjective risk estimates by technical and behavioural measures. (orig.) [de

  14. Influence diagram in evaluating the subjective judgment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The author developed the idea of the subjective influence diagrams to evaluate subjective judgment. The subjective judgment of a stake holder is a primary decision making proposition. It involves a basic decision process an the individual attitude of the stake holder for his decision purpose. The subjective judgment dominates the some final decisions. A complex decision process may include the subjective judgment. An influence diagram framework is a simplest tool for analyzing subjective judgment process. In the framework, the characters of influence diagrams generate the describing the analyzing, and the evaluating of the subjective judgment. The relationship between the information and the decision, such as independent character between them, is the main issue. Then utility function is the calculating tool to evaluation, the stake holder can make optimal decision. Through the analysis about the decision process and relationship, the building process of the influence diagram identically describes the subjective judgment. Some examples are given to explain the property of subjective judgment and the analysis process

  15. Spectrum of heart diseases in children: an echocardiographic study of 1,666 subjects in a pediatric hospital, Yaounde, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelo, David; Nguefack, Félicitée; Menanga, Alain P; Ngo Um, Suzanne; Gody, Jean C; Tatah, Sandra A; Koki Ndombo, Paul O

    2016-02-01

    Children's health programs in Sub-Saharan Africa have always been oriented primarily to infectious diseases and malnutrition. We are witnessing in the early 21(st) century an epidemiological transition marked by the decline of old diseases and the identification of new diseases including heart disease. Therefore, it is necessary to describe the spectrum of these diseases in order to better prepare health workers to these new challenges. We conducted a cross-sectional study focused on heart disease diagnosed by echocardiography in children seen from January 2006 to December 2014 in a pediatric hospital of Yaounde. We collected socio-demographic data and the types of heart disease from registers, patients files as well as the electronic database of echocardiographic records. A total of 2,235 patients underwent echocardiographic examination during the study period including 1,666 subjects with heart disease. Congenital cardiopathies were found in 1,230 (73.8%) patients and acquired abnormalities in 429 (25.8%). Seven children (0.4%) had a combination of both types. Congenital heart defects (CHD) were dominated by ventricular septal defect (VSD). Acquired heart disease was mostly rheumatic valvulopathies. Dyspnea on exertion was the most frequent presenting complaint (87.6%). Discovery of a heart murmur was the principal clinical finding on physical examination (81.4%). The median age was 9 months for congenital heart disease and 132 months for acquired heart disease. As infectious diseases recede and the diagnostic facilities are improving, pediatric heart diseases occupy a more important position in the spectrum of pediatric diseases in our context. However, the ability to evoke the diagnosis remains unsatisfactory by the majority of health personnel and therefore needs to be improved. Apart from congenital heart diseases, the impact of acquired heart diseases, rheumatic valvulopathy being the highest ranking, is remarkable in pediatrics. Awareness of health

  16. Toward ideal separation by size-exclusion chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1487, 3 March (2017), s. 139-146 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC17-04258J Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24504 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : size-exclusion chromatography * separation mechanism * band broadening function Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  17. Do female newts modify thermoregulatory behavior to manipulate egg size?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Toufarová, E.; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, April (2016), s. 72-77 ISSN 0306-4565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2170; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-07140S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Amphibians * Egg size * Gravidity * Jelly coat * Mother-offspring conflict * Oviparity * Oviposition rate * Parental effect * Preferred temperature Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.157, year: 2016

  18. Font size and viewing distance of handheld smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bababekova, Yuliya; Rosenfield, Mark; Hue, Jennifer E; Huang, Rae R

    2011-07-01

    The use of handheld smart phones for written communication is becoming ubiquitous in modern society. The relatively small screens found in these devices may necessitate close working distances and small text sizes, which can increase the demands placed on accommodation and vergence. Font size and viewing distance were measured while subjects used handheld electronic devices in two separate trials. In the first study (n=129), subjects were asked to show a typical text message on their own personal phone and to hold the device "as if they were about to read a text message." A second trial was conducted in a similar manner except subjects (n=100) were asked to view a specific web page from the internet. For text messages and internet viewing, the mean font size was 1.1 M (range, 0.7 to 2.1 M) and 0.8 M (range, 0.3 to 1.4 M), respectively. The mean working distance for text messages and internet viewing was 36.2 cm (range, 17.5 to 58.0 cm) and 32.2 cm (range, 19 to 60 cm), respectively. The mean font size for both conditions was comparable with newspaper print, although some subjects viewed text that was considerably smaller. However, the mean working distances were closer than the typical near working distance of 40 cm for adults when viewing hardcopy text. These close distances place increased demands on both accommodation and vergence, which could exacerbate symptoms. Practitioners need to consider the closer distances adopted while viewing material on smart phones when examining patients and prescribing refractive corrections for use at near, as well as when treating patients presenting with asthenopia associated with nearwork. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Optometry

  19. Trends in Atmospheric Properties of Neptune-Size Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossfield, Ian; Kreidberg, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Short-period planets with sizes 2-6 Earth radii and extremely common, yet until recently few have been subjected to detailed atmospheric scrutiny. I will discuss recent efforts to discover new planets in this class suitable for atmospheric characterization, and the results of recent and ongoing atmospheric studies of these planets. I will also discuss the prospects for characterization of the large numbers of new planets expected to be found by TESS.

  20. BIRTH ORDER, FAMILY SIZE, NEUROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD JALILI

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to investigate the relationship of birth rank and family size with the incidence of neurosis in an Iranian culture, case notes of 1029 schizophrenic patients as (497 males and 532 females referred to psychiatric clinic for insured workers were studied. The incidence of neurasis appeared to be significantly more frequent among the first-half position of birth  rders in The families of 5 children and over; this bei-ng more marked-in males than in females; and the first second births comprising the lighest incidence of the illness.

  1. BIRTH ORDER, FAMILY SIZE, NEUROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    AHMAD JALILI

    1984-01-01

    In an attempt to investigate the relationship of birth rank and family size with the incidence of neurosis in an Iranian culture, case notes of 1029 schizophrenic patients as (497 males and 532 females) referred to psychiatric clinic for insured workers were studied. The incidence of neurasis appeared to be significantly more frequent among the first-half position of birth  rders in The families of 5 children and over; this bei-ng more marked-in males than in females; and the first s...

  2. Size effects on cavitation instabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2006-01-01

    growth is here analyzed for such cases. A finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity theory is applied for a power-law hardening material, and the numerical analyses are carried out for an axisymmetric unit cell containing a spherical void. In the range of high stress...... triaxiality, where cavitation instabilities are predicted by conventional plasticity theory, such instabilities are also found for the nonlocal theory, but the effects of gradient hardening delay the onset of the instability. Furthermore, in some cases the cavitation stress reaches a maximum and then decays...... as the void grows to a size well above the characteristic material length....

  3. Size Estimates in Inverse Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Di Cristo, Michele

    2014-01-06

    Detection of inclusions or obstacles inside a body by boundary measurements is an inverse problems very useful in practical applications. When only finite numbers of measurements are available, we try to detect some information on the embedded object such as its size. In this talk we review some recent results on several inverse problems. The idea is to provide constructive upper and lower estimates of the area/volume of the unknown defect in terms of a quantity related to the work that can be expressed with the available boundary data.

  4. Fundamental study on the size and inter-key spacing of numeric keys for touch screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, H; Katsuura, T; Kikuchi, Y

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the optimum size and inter-key spacing of numeric square keys for touch screens. Six male students (22-25 years old) and three female students (21-24 years old) volunteered as subjects for this experiment. Each subject took part in data entry tasks using numeric square keys of touch devices. The sizes of keys were 6, 12, 21, 30 and 39 mm and each the inter-key spacing was 0, 3, 6, 12 and 21 mm. Response times with key sizes of 6 and 12 mm were significantly slower than with key sizes of 21 and 30 mm (p touch screens should be more than 21 mm and optimum inter-key spacing should be from 3 to 6 mm. Optimum key size, however, must be selected with regard to the limitation of screen size.

  5. Prevalence and management of sore throats and tonsillitis in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Untreated or poorly treated cases can lead to recurrent episodes, absence from school and therefore the need to study the pattern and management within the boarding schools where the parental care are lacking. Aim: Health is key determinant factor for school entry, as well as an important factor in continued participation ...

  6. Difference between a Sore Throat, Strep, and Tonsillitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often called Hand, Foot, and Mouth disease ). Infectious mononucleosis (often called "Mono") can produce a sore throat, ... most young children who are infected with the mononucleosis virus have few or no symptoms. Strep Throat ...

  7. Hamartomatous Polyp of the Tonsil: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dysphagia. These are nonspecific symptoms due to mass effect. We present a case of hamartomatous polyp to stress on the benign nature of this rare lesion, clinically diagnosed as neoplasm. We want to emphasize the hamartomatous nature of this lesion with review of literature. CASE REPORT. A 17‑year‑old male patient ...

  8. Variations in Tropospheric Submicron Particle Size Distributions Across the European Continent 2008–2009

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beddows, D.C.S.; Dall’Osto, M.; Harrison, R. M.; Kulmala, M.; Asmi, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Laj, P.; Fjaeraa, A.M.; Sellegri, K.; Birmili, W.; Bukowiecki, N.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Zíková, Naděžda; Putaud, J.-P.; Marinoni, A.; Tunved, P.; Hansson, H.-C.; Feibig, M.; Kivekäs, N.; Swietlicki, E.; Lihavainen, H.; Asmi, E.; Ulevicius, V.; Aalto, P.P.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Kalivitis, N.; Kalapov, I.; Kiss, G.; de Leeuw, G.; Henzing, B.; O'Dowd, C.; Jennings, S.G.; Flentje, H.; Meinhardt, F.; Ries, L.; Denier van der Gon19, H.A.C.; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Swietlicki, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 8 (2014), s. 4327-4348 ISSN 1680-7316 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 36833 - EUCAARI; European Commission(XE) 26140 - EUSAAR Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : particle size distribution * clusters * aerosol size distribution Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.053, year: 2014

  9. Scaling of lifting forces in relation to object size in whole body lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.; Toussaint, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Subjects prepare for a whole body lifting movement by adjusting their posture and scaling their lifting forces to the expected object weight. The expectancy is based on visual and haptic size cues. This study aimed to find out whether lifting force overshoots related to object size cues disappear or

  10. Sensory specific satiety and intake: The difference between nibble- and bar-size snacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Liem, D.G.; Zandstra, E.H.; Graaf, de C.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated (1) whether consumption of a nibble-size snack, as compared to a bar-size snack, leads to more sensory specific satiety (SSS) and a lower intake; and (2) whether attention to consumption, as compared to usual consumption, leads to more SSS and a lower intake. Subjects

  11. Neuromuscular dose-response studies: determining sample size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopman, A F; Lien, C A; Naguib, M

    2011-02-01

    Investigators planning dose-response studies of neuromuscular blockers have rarely used a priori power analysis to determine the minimal sample size their protocols require. Institutional Review Boards and peer-reviewed journals now generally ask for this information. This study outlines a proposed method for meeting these requirements. The slopes of the dose-response relationships of eight neuromuscular blocking agents were determined using regression analysis. These values were substituted for γ in the Hill equation. When this is done, the coefficient of variation (COV) around the mean value of the ED₅₀ for each drug is easily calculated. Using these values, we performed an a priori one-sample two-tailed t-test of the means to determine the required sample size when the allowable error in the ED₅₀ was varied from ±10-20%. The COV averaged 22% (range 15-27%). We used a COV value of 25% in determining the sample size. If the allowable error in finding the mean ED₅₀ is ±15%, a sample size of 24 is needed to achieve a power of 80%. Increasing 'accuracy' beyond this point requires increasing greater sample sizes (e.g. an 'n' of 37 for a ±12% error). On the basis of the results of this retrospective analysis, a total sample size of not less than 24 subjects should be adequate for determining a neuromuscular blocking drug's clinical potency with a reasonable degree of assurance.

  12. Effect of microfluidization on casein micelle size of bovine milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, H.; Deeth, H.; Bhandari, B.

    2018-02-01

    The properties of milk are likely to be dependent on the casein micelle size, and various processing technologies produce particular change in the average size of casein micelles. The main objective of this study was to manipulate casein micelle size by subjecting milk to microfluidizer. The experiment was performed as a complete block randomised design with three replications. The sample was passed through the microfluidizer at the set pressure of 83, 97, 112 and 126 MPa for one, two, three, four, five and six cycles, except for the 112 MPa. The results showed that microfluidized milk has smaller size by 3% with pressure up to 126 MPa. However, at each pressure, no further reduction was observed after increasing the passed up to 6 cycles. Although the average casein micelle size was similar, elevating pressure resulted in narrower size distribution. In contrast, increasing the number of cycles had little effect on casein micelle distribution. The finding from this study can be applied for future work to characterize the fundamental and functional properties of the treated milk.

  13. Development of Subjectivity in Cadets during Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Markov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article submits the results of the research, where such personal factors as learning motivation, aggressive reactions and the choice of behavior strategy in conflict are considered as the indicators of subjectivity development. It also shows the dynamics of the subjectivity development in cadets on these indicators.

  14. Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated human resource subjects' allocation and students' academic performance in Secondary Schools in Obudu, Nigeria. The relevant variables of teachers subject was used as independent variable while the dependent variables were students' academic performance. Six hundred teachers from 20 ...

  15. Sociological theories of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSubjective well-being is no great issue in sociology; the subject is not mentioned in sociological textbooks (a notable exception is Nolan & Lenski, 2004) and is rarely discussed in sociological journals. This absence has many reasons: pragmatic, ideological, and theoretical. To begin

  16. Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in Nollywood films: the example of 30 days in Atlanta. ... Abstract. Films are subject-based and when producers set out to communicate their viewpoints, some do it flamboyantly while others take the subtle path. Unlike live theatre before it, the possibility of a virile spiral ...

  17. Introductory Programming Subject in European Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Veljko; Ivanovic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Programming is one of the basic subjects in most informatics, computer science mathematics and technical faculties' curricula. Integrated overview of the models for teaching programming, problems in teaching and suggested solutions were presented in this paper. Research covered current state of 1019 programming subjects in 715 study programmes at…

  18. Internal controls subjects at insurance companies

    OpenAIRE

    Прокопенко, Жанна Володимирівна

    2015-01-01

    The problematic issues of determining the authorities of the internal controls subjects at insurance companies have been elucidated. The list of internal controls subjects of insurer depending on the form of control as well as the purposefulness of such kind of control have been determined.

  19. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...

  20. Text and Subject Position after Althusser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Easthope

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Althusser's achievement is that he redefined Marxism. He reconceptualizes history and totality in terms of different times, construes knowledge as the outcome of a process of construction, and interprets subjectivity as an effect of ideology and unconscious processes. Unfortunately, Althusser's functionalist view of ideology claims that the subject recognizes itself as a subject because it duplicates— reflects—an absolute subject. However, Lacan's notion of the mirror stage remedies this fault. Lacan's subject always misrecognizes itself in a process of contradiction that threatens the stability of any given social order. Moreover, unlike Foucault's subject, which is limited in that subjectivity is folded back into a vaguely expanded notion of "power," this revised Althusserian subject allows careful reading of texts. The critic does not simply read against the grain; he or she exposes the multiple points of identification offered the reader. For example, Wordsworth's "The Solitary Reaper" installs the reader in multiple positions: a devotee of high culture and the national canon, a lover of the verbal signifier and its play, a consumer of confessional discourse, and a masculine "I" desiring a laboring, singing woman.

  1. USING DIDACTIC EQUIPMENT IN VOCATIONAL SUBJECTS TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    JIROUT, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Baccalaureate Work ?Using Didactic Equipment In Vocational Subjects Teaching? describes various methods of teaching and using didactic engineering in education. Theoretic part describes general aspects of using didactic engineering, teaching methods a and ways how to use didactic engineering in teaching vocational subjects. Practical part finds how students appreciate using modern didactic aids and engineering in education.

  2. Centring the Subject in Order to Educate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R. Scott

    2007-01-01

    It is important for educators to recognise that the various calls to decentre the subject--or self--should not be interpreted as necessarily requiring the removal of the subject altogether. Through the individualism of the Enlightenment the self was centred. This highly individualistic notion of the sovereign self has now been decentred especially…

  3. "Wo Es War": Psychoanalysis, Marxism, and Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Subjectivity, for Descartes, emerged when he doubted the veracity of his knowledge. Instead of truth, he counted this knowledge to be inherited myth. Cartesian subjectivity has been helpful for forming a critical education predicated on doubting ideology and hegemony. But Marx indicates a very different kind of knowledge in his analysis of…

  4. Subject/Author Index 1968-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupidura, Eva, Ed.; Kupidura, Peter, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This 25-year index contains annotations of feature articles by subject and by author. Representative subjects include basic education, development education, empowerment, human rights, lifelong education, peace education, popular education, rural development, social/political action, technological advancement, and transformative research. Articles…

  5. Thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies in euthyroid subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, Mark F.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a key enzyme in the formation of thyroid hormones and a major autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid diseases. Titers of TPO antibodies also correlate with the degree of lymphocytic infiltration in euthyroid subjects, and they are frequently present in euthyroid subjects

  6. The Anatomy of Subjective Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praag, van B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-Iayer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the

  7. Blood bactericidal activity in Hiroshima subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Hamilton, H B

    1961-03-07

    A simple screening method for blood bactericidal activity was developed for study of irradiated atomic bomb survivors and nonirradiated subjects in Hiroshima. Blood bactericidal activity was found to be a relatively constant biological phenomenon in all subjects studied. No differences in activity were detected in relationship to radiation exposure in 1945. 17 references, 6 tables.

  8. Relation between intraocular pressure and size of transverse sinuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantarci, Mecit; Onbas, Omer; Alper, Fatih; Okur, Adnan; Dane, Senol; Gumustekin, Kenan; Aslankurt, Murat; Yazici, Ahmet Taylan

    2005-01-01

    There are asymmetries in the sizes of transverse sinus and intraocular pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between the asymmetry of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressures of right and left eyes. In this study, subjects were 63 male and 42 female medical school students, aged 18-21 years (mean±SD; 19.72±0.67 years). Subjects with neurological and ophthalmologic disease, particularly dural sinus thrombosis, myopia, trauma and glaucoma, were excluded the study. Subjects were divided into five groups according to the magnitudes of the right- and left-transverse sinuses in MR venography results. There is a functional relation between intraocular pressures of the right and left eyes and asymmetry of the transverse sinus. If the transverse sinus on one side is larger and its venous drainage is greater, the intraocular pressure of the eye on this side is lower. It can be speculated that the transverse sinus size may be associated with pathogenesis of diseases with increased intraocular pressure such as glaucoma. We aim to determine the relation between the size and drainage of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma in our next study. (orig.)

  9. Normal Indian pituitary gland size on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.; Jena, A.N.; Gulati, P.K.; Marwah, R.K.; Tripathi, R.P.; Sharma, R.K.; Khanna, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The size of the pituitary gland was measured in 294 subjects, who had no known pituitary or hypothalamic disorders. Mid sagittal TIW images showing maximum dimensions of the pituitary gland, were used for measurement of the height in each age and sex group. The mean pituitary height of all the subjects in men was 5.3 mm (SD=0.9 mm), whereas in women, the mean height was 5.9 mm (SD = 1.2 mm). Beyond 10 years of age, the pituitary height measured was greater in women than in men. The gland height showed a gradual decrease with increasing age after the age of 30 years in both men and women except in the age group of 51-60 years, which showed paradoxical increase in size. The minimum gland height found in this study was 2.5 mm and the maximum, 8.8 mm. The study presents a demographic profile of pituitary gland size in north Indian subjects as measured on MR images. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Relation between intraocular pressure and size of transverse sinuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantarci, Mecit; Onbas, Omer; Alper, Fatih; Okur, Adnan [Atatuerk University, Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Dane, Senol; Gumustekin, Kenan [Atatuerk University, Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Aslankurt, Murat [Atatuerk University, Department of Ophtalmatology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Yazici, Ahmet Taylan [Beyoglu Goez Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-01-01

    There are asymmetries in the sizes of transverse sinus and intraocular pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between the asymmetry of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressures of right and left eyes. In this study, subjects were 63 male and 42 female medical school students, aged 18-21 years (mean{+-}SD; 19.72{+-}0.67 years). Subjects with neurological and ophthalmologic disease, particularly dural sinus thrombosis, myopia, trauma and glaucoma, were excluded the study. Subjects were divided into five groups according to the magnitudes of the right- and left-transverse sinuses in MR venography results. There is a functional relation between intraocular pressures of the right and left eyes and asymmetry of the transverse sinus. If the transverse sinus on one side is larger and its venous drainage is greater, the intraocular pressure of the eye on this side is lower. It can be speculated that the transverse sinus size may be associated with pathogenesis of diseases with increased intraocular pressure such as glaucoma. We aim to determine the relation between the size and drainage of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma in our next study. (orig.)

  11. Audiovisual Interval Size Estimation Is Associated with Early Musical Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kathryn Abel

    Full Text Available Although pitch is a fundamental attribute of auditory perception, substantial individual differences exist in our ability to perceive differences in pitch. Little is known about how these individual differences in the auditory modality might affect crossmodal processes such as audiovisual perception. In this study, we asked whether individual differences in pitch perception might affect audiovisual perception, as it relates to age of onset and number of years of musical training. Fifty-seven subjects made subjective ratings of interval size when given point-light displays of audio, visual, and audiovisual stimuli of sung intervals. Audiovisual stimuli were divided into congruent and incongruent (audiovisual-mismatched stimuli. Participants' ratings correlated strongly with interval size in audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisual-congruent conditions. In the audiovisual-incongruent condition, ratings correlated more with audio than with visual stimuli, particularly for subjects who had better pitch perception abilities and higher nonverbal IQ scores. To further investigate the effects of age of onset and length of musical training, subjects were divided into musically trained and untrained groups. Results showed that among subjects with musical training, the degree to which participants' ratings correlated with auditory interval size during incongruent audiovisual perception was correlated with both nonverbal IQ and age of onset of musical training. After partialing out nonverbal IQ, pitch discrimination thresholds were no longer associated with incongruent audio scores, whereas age of onset of musical training remained associated with incongruent audio scores. These findings invite future research on the developmental effects of musical training, particularly those relating to the process of audiovisual perception.

  12. Audiovisual Interval Size Estimation Is Associated with Early Musical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Mary Kathryn; Li, H Charles; Russo, Frank A; Schlaug, Gottfried; Loui, Psyche

    2016-01-01

    Although pitch is a fundamental attribute of auditory perception, substantial individual differences exist in our ability to perceive differences in pitch. Little is known about how these individual differences in the auditory modality might affect crossmodal processes such as audiovisual perception. In this study, we asked whether individual differences in pitch perception might affect audiovisual perception, as it relates to age of onset and number of years of musical training. Fifty-seven subjects made subjective ratings of interval size when given point-light displays of audio, visual, and audiovisual stimuli of sung intervals. Audiovisual stimuli were divided into congruent and incongruent (audiovisual-mismatched) stimuli. Participants' ratings correlated strongly with interval size in audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisual-congruent conditions. In the audiovisual-incongruent condition, ratings correlated more with audio than with visual stimuli, particularly for subjects who had better pitch perception abilities and higher nonverbal IQ scores. To further investigate the effects of age of onset and length of musical training, subjects were divided into musically trained and untrained groups. Results showed that among subjects with musical training, the degree to which participants' ratings correlated with auditory interval size during incongruent audiovisual perception was correlated with both nonverbal IQ and age of onset of musical training. After partialing out nonverbal IQ, pitch discrimination thresholds were no longer associated with incongruent audio scores, whereas age of onset of musical training remained associated with incongruent audio scores. These findings invite future research on the developmental effects of musical training, particularly those relating to the process of audiovisual perception.

  13. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakko, T; Murtomaa, H; Milgrom, P; Getz, T; Ramsay, D S; Coldwell, S E

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment.

  14. Scoring Rules for Subjective Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    The theoretical literature has a rich characterization of scoring rules for eliciting the subjective beliefs that an individual has for continuous events, but under the restrictive assumption of risk neutrality. It is well known that risk aversion can dramatically affect the incentives to correctly...... report the true subjective probability of a binary event, even under Subjective Expected Utility. To address this one can “calibrate” inferences about true subjective probabilities from elicited subjective probabilities over binary events, recognizing the incentives that risk averse agents have...... to distort reports. We characterize the comparable implications of the general case of a risk averse agent when facing a popular scoring rule over continuous events, and find that these concerns do not apply with anything like the same force. For empirically plausible levels of risk aversion, one can...

  15. Subject in Tractatus according to David Pears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hoseinzadeh Yazdi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Subjectivism is viewed as one of the most fundamental underpinnings of modern philosophy. In modern philosophy, subject takes up a new position in human knowledge. The formation of the concept of subject is a decisive turn with which the modern philosophy starts. Considering the centrality of subjectivism in modern philosophy, this article attempts to explain subject in Tractatus according to David Pears. A review of Wittgenstein’s earlier teachings reveals that he considers a fundamental limitation for language. The subject serves as a point of view from which the language can be understood. The subject is the presupposition of understanding. Another way of putting this would be to say that any experience is understood from a point of view which is not represented in that experience. Regarding this, it seems that earlier Wittgenstein is somehow subjectivist. This specific form of subjectivism is different from Kantian subjectivism.

  16. A living wage for research subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Trisha B

    2011-01-01

    Offering cash payments to research subjects is a common recruiting method, but this practice continues to be controversial because of its potential to compromise the protection of human subjects. Federal regulations and guidelines currently allow researchers to pay subjects for participation, but they say very little about how much researchers can pay their subjects. This paper argues that the federal regulations and guidelines should implement a standard payment formula. It argues for a wage payment model, and critically examines three candidates for a base wage: the nonfarm production wage, the FLSA minimum wage, and a living wage. After showing that the nonfarm production wage is too high to satisfy ethical criteria, and the minimum wage is too low, this paper concludes that the wage payment model with a base wage equivalent to a living wage is the best candidate for a standard payment formula in human subjects research. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  17. Lot Sizing Based on Stochastic Demand and Service Level Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hajar shirneshan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering its application, stochastic lot sizing is a significant subject in production planning. Also the concept of service level is more applicable than shortage cost from managers' viewpoint. In this paper, the stochastic multi period multi item capacitated lot sizing problem has been investigated considering service level constraint. First, the single item model has been developed considering service level and with no capacity constraint and then, it has been solved using dynamic programming algorithm and the optimal solution has been derived. Then the model has been generalized to multi item problem with capacity constraint. The stochastic multi period multi item capacitated lot sizing problem is NP-Hard, hence the model could not be solved by exact optimization approaches. Therefore, simulated annealing method has been applied for solving the problem. Finally, in order to evaluate the efficiency of the model, low level criterion has been used .

  18. Amniotic Fluid Cells Proliferation in Normal and Down Syndrome Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honcea Adina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome/Trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal anomaly, and it represents the most common congenital cause of infants’ intellectual disability. Subjects with this syndrome are affected by degenerative processes caused by accelerated aging or unknown ethyologies. In recent years, accumulating evidence revealed increased potential of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells to be used in regenerative therapy. Our aim was to assess differences in immunophenotype, cell morphology and proliferation of amniotic fluid cells from normal and Down Syndrome pregnancies using a quantitative cytometry approach. Results revealed the emergence of a population of small sized cells in Down Syndrome derived amniotic fluid cells that are readily visible upon microscopic inspection. Hence, the fluorescence–based quantitative image cytometry determinations showed a tendency of decrease in both cell and nuclei size in trisomy, with no significant modification in nuclei circularity, as measured following actin cytoskeleton and nuclei labeling. The propensity of Ki67 positive cells was found to be increased in Down Syndrome derived cells (48.92% as compared to normal specimens (28.68%. However, cells in S and G2/M cell cycle phases decreased from 32.91% to 4.49% in diseased cells. Further studies are devoted to understanding the molecular basis of the observed differences in the proliferation ability of Down Syndrome amniotic cells, in order to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of amniotic fluid stem cells for tissue regeneration in subjects with trisomy and to find correlations between amniotic cells phenotype and patient prognosis.

  19. Impact of Annular Size on Outcomes After Surgical or Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, G Michael; Chetcuti, Stanley J; Yakubov, Steven J; Patel, Himanshu J; Grossman, P Michael; Kleiman, Neal S; Heiser, John; Merhi, William; Zorn, George L; Tadros, Peter N; Petrossian, George; Robinson, Newell; Mumtaz, Mubashir; Gleason, Thomas G; Huang, Jian; Conte, John V; Popma, Jeffrey J; Reardon, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    This analysis evaluates the relationship of annular size to hemodynamics and the incidence of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) in surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) patients. The CoreValve US Pivotal High Risk Trial, described previously, compared TAVR using a self-expanding valve with SAVR. Multislice computed tomography was used to categorize TAVR and SAVR subjects according to annular perimeter-derived diameter: large (≥26 mm), medium (23 to <26 mm), and small (<23 mm). Hemodynamics, PPM, and clinical outcomes were assessed. At all postprocedure visits, mean gradients were significantly lower for TAVR compared with SAVR in small and medium size annuli (p < 0.001). Annular size was significantly associated with mean gradient after SAVR, with small annuli having the highest gradients (p < 0.05 at all timepoints); gradients were similar across all annular sizes after TAVR. In subjects receiving SAVR, the frequency of PPM was significantly associated with annular size, with small annuli having the greatest incidence. No difference in PPM incidence by annular sizing was observed with TAVR. In addition, TAVR subjects had significantly less PPM than SAVR subjects in small and medium annuli (p < 0.001), with no difference in the incidence of PPM between TAVR and SAVR in large annuli (p = 0.10). Annular size has a significant effect on hemodynamics and the incidence of PPM in SAVR subjects, not observed in TAVR subjects. With respect to annular size, TAVR results in better hemodynamics and less PPM for annuli less than 26 mm and should be strongly considered when choosing a tissue valve for small and medium size annuli. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Being Barbie: The Size of One’s Own Body Determines the Perceived Size of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoort, Björn; Guterstam, Arvid; Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A classical question in philosophy and psychology is if the sense of one's body influences how one visually perceives the world. Several theoreticians have suggested that our own body serves as a fundamental reference in visual perception of sizes and distances, although compelling experimental evidence for this hypothesis is lacking. In contrast, modern textbooks typically explain the perception of object size and distance by the combination of information from different visual cues. Here, we describe full body illusions in which subjects experience the ownership of a doll's body (80 cm or 30 cm) and a giant's body (400 cm) and use these as tools to demonstrate that the size of one's sensed own body directly influences the perception of object size and distance. These effects were quantified in ten separate experiments with complementary verbal, questionnaire, manual, walking, and physiological measures. When participants experienced the tiny body as their own, they perceived objects to be larger and farther away, and when they experienced the large-body illusion, they perceived objects to be smaller and nearer. Importantly, despite identical retinal input, this “body size effect” was greater when the participants experienced a sense of ownership of the artificial bodies compared to a control condition in which ownership was disrupted. These findings are fundamentally important as they suggest a causal relationship between the representations of body space and external space. Thus, our own body size affects how we perceive the world. PMID:21633503

  1. A Primer on Basic Effect Size Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Patricia B.; Rotou, Ourania

    The increased interest in reporting effect sizes means that it is necessary to consider what should be included in a primer on effect sizes. A review of papers on effect sizes and commonly repeated statistical analyses suggests that it is important to discuss effect sizes relative to bivariate correlation, t-tests, analysis of variance/covariance,…

  2. 7 CFR 51.1903 - Size classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.1903 Section 51.1903... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1903 Size classification. The following terms may be used for describing the size of the tomatoes in any lot...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1402 - Size classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.1402 Section 51.1402... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Size Classification § 51.1402 Size classification. Size of pecans may be specified in connection with the grade in accordance with one of the...

  4. The neural subject. Contributions to a pedagogy of possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa N. R. Gonçalves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 190 1086 Universidad de Salamanca 9 2 1333 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Research on brain functioning and development is contributing for the emergence of new understandings of cognition and learning. The understanding of the neural mechanisms determining cognition and learning and underlying consciousness formation, the relation between cognition and emotions, genetic and environment, have important implications for education (OECD, 2002, 2007; Gonçalves, 2009.  This emergent body of knowledge refers to a new perspective about the human subject which may allow us to surpass old dichotomies: reason/emotions; nature/nurture; body/mind; genetics/environment. The subject is bio-psycho-social, he is a bio-anthropological construction:  he is bimodal (Asensio, García Carrasco, Núñez Cubero, 2006; García Carrasco, 2007 or multimodal (Smith, 2005, Sapiens and Demens (Morin, 1999. As stated by Nunes  (2002, he is what is in between. In this paper I will analyse the implications of emergent theories in educational neurosciences for the understanding of the subject of education. The human subject will be characterized considering: his plasticity, his multidimensionality and his narrative capacity. I will analyse the educational implications of this perspective within the framework of a pedagogy

  5. Does screen size matter for smartphones? Utilitarian and hedonic effects of screen size on smartphone adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2014-07-01

    This study explores the psychological effects of screen size on smartphone adoption by proposing an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) that integrates an empirical comparison between large and small screens with perceived control, affective quality, and the original TAM constructs. A structural equation modeling analysis was conducted on data collected from a between-subjects experiment (N=130) in which users performed a web-based task on a smartphone with either a large (5.3 inches) or a small (3.7 inches) screen. Results show that a large screen, compared to a small screen, is likely to lead to higher smartphone adoption by simultaneously promoting both the utilitarian and hedonic qualities of smartphones, which in turn positively influence perceived ease of use of-and attitude toward-the device respectively. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  6. Screening colonoscopy for the detection of neoplastic lesions in asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, E J; Green, B; Poles, M A

    2009-08-01

    Although non-AIDS defining malignancies are rapidly increasing as HIV-infected subjects live longer, little is know about the results of screening for colonic neoplasms (adenomatous polyps and adenocarcinomas) in this population. We conducted a screening colonoscopy study to determine the prevalence of colonic neoplasms in 136 asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects >or=50 years of age and 272 asymptomatic uninfected control subjects matched for age, sex, and family history of colorectal cancer. Advanced neoplasms were defined as adenomas >or=10 mm or any adenoma, regardless of size, with villous histology, high-grade dysplasia, or adenocarcinoma. The prevalence of neoplastic lesions was significantly higher in HIV-infected subjects than in control subjects (62.5% vs 41.2%, pscreening colonoscopy should be offered to HIV-infected subjects, but the age of initiation and the optimal frequency of screening require further study.

  7. Who is the Subject in Educational Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gurdián-Fernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue, first, that the identity of the researcher has an impact not only in the way she/he invThis article explains, in the first place, that the identity of the researcher not only influences his way to do research, but also the teaching processes and, therefore, training of future researchers. Secondly, it states that schools and teachers play a central role in the construction of identities. Third, this paper emphasizes that those engaged in educational research are not released from this responsibility, so this is an invitation to reflect on the following: What are our responsibilities in the process of identity construction? Who is the subject of education? Who is the subject of educational research? How inclusive is our notion of both the educational and the empirical subjects? Through the analysis of questions on topics such us: the subject-object relationship; the subject in educational research; the contribution of subjectivity; the contribution of phenomenology; among others, this paper explains that: a the intellectual autobiography is a great potential instrument to understand the direction of a research process and b focusing on people, their history, social relationships and environment, as subjects and not just as objects of study, is an epistemological, political and ethical movement, which recognizes the subject’s action in and on the world. Finally, this paper states that qualitative researchers should not only understand who they are, they are ethically obliged to make it explicitly.

  8. Subjective versus objective assessment of breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henseler, Helga; Smith, Joanna; Bowman, Adrian; Khambay, Balvinder S; Ju, Xiangyang; Ayoub, Ashraf; Ray, Arup K

    2013-05-01

    To date breast assessment has been conducted mainly subjectively. However lately validated objective three-dimensional (3D) imaging was developed. The study aimed to assess breast reconstruction subjectively and objectively and conduct a comparison. In forty-four patients after immediate unilateral breast reconstruction with solely the extended latissimus dorsi flap the breast was captured by validated 3D imaging method and standardized 2D photography. Breast symmetry was subjectively evaluated by six experts who applied the Harris score giving a mark of 1-4 for a poor to excellent result. An error study was conducted by examination of the intra and inter-observer agreement and agreement on controls. By Procrustes analysis an objective asymmetry score was obtained and compared to the subjective assessment. The subjective assessment showed that the inter-observer agreement was good or substantial (p-value: value: fair (p-values: 0.159, 0.134, 0.099) to substantial (p-value: 0.005) intra-observer agreement. The objective assessment revealed that the reconstructed breast showed a significantly smaller volume compared to the opposite side and that the average asymmetry score was 0.052, ranging from 0.019 to 0.136. When comparing the subjective and objective method the relationship between the two scores was highly significant. Subjective breast assessment lacked accuracy and reproducibility. This was the first error study of subjective breast assessment versus an objective validated 3D imaging method based on true 3D parameters. The substantial agreement between established subjective breast assessment and new validated objective method supported the value of the later and we expect its future role to expand. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. SUBJECTIVE RESOURCESTHE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ACMEOLOGICAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ivanovna Ilyushina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the moment the subject – resources of a person. Be caused, “loss” possible resources: lack of personal self-realization, the maladjustment of the individual in a social environment, obstructed line of identity, which in some cases is accompanied by incomplete personal self-actualization and self-sufficiency. The article emphasizes the importance of the subjective component in understanding, identifying, understanding, mobilization, conservation and accumulation of resources of the individual. Man is an active Converter to your reality, where he and reality are the result of the conversion and source conversion. The author proposed the concept of “subjective resource” as a necessary factor for quality of life of the individual, achievement of tops of her self-improvement and self-development, both professionally and personally. Subjective component emphasizes the role of the individual in the conservation, transformation, accumulation, the reallocation of resources. Purpose. The subject of analysis is the awareness, understanding person own resources – the subjective resourcest. The author aims to describe the subjective resourcest as psychological and acmeological phenomenon to reveal its essence and to suggest the methodology of the study of this phenomenon, showing the importance of verbalization resources through associative image without relying on the visibility and relying on her. Methodology. The basis of the study form a General theoretical methods (theoretical analysis, including psychological analysis, generalization, systematization, system description. Results. The results of the work lies in the fact that the author has defined the concept of “subjective resourcesthe” and proposed methodology of the study. The obtained results may be of interest to improve the efficiency of the work to define the resources of the individual. The results and method of determining a subjective resource

  10. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.; Shepherd, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  11. The "child size medicines" concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nsabagasani, Xavier; Okeng, Jasper Ogwal; Mbonye, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the ‘make medicines child size’ (MMCS) campaign by urging countries to prioritize procurement of medicines with appropriate strengths for children’s age and weight and, in child-friendly formulations of rectal and flexible oral solid...... of policy provisions for the MMCS recommendations. Results For most medicines for the selected diseases, appropriate strength for children’s age and weight was addressed especially in the EMHSLU 2012. However, policy documents neither referred to ‘child size medicines’ concept nor provided for flexible oral...... health policy documents reflected limited adherence to the MMCS recommendations. This and failure to use evidence based medicines may result into treatment failure and or death. A revision of the current policies and guidelines to better reflect ‘child size’, child appropriate and evidence based...

  12. Education, Birth Order, and Family Size

    OpenAIRE

    Bagger, Jesper; Birchenall, Javier A.; Mansour, Hani; Urzua, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a general framework to analyze the trade-off between education and family size. Our framework incorporates parental preferences for birth order and delivers theoretically consistent birth order and family size effects on children's educational attainment. We develop an empirical strategy to identify these effects. We show that the coefficient on family size in a regression of educational attainment on birth order and family size does not identify the family size effect as defined...

  13. Subjective performance evaluations and employee careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Lange, Fabian; Kriechell, Ben

    Firms commonly use supervisor evaluations to assess the performance of employees who work in complex environments. Doubts persist whether their subjective nature invalidates using these performance measures to learn about careers of individuals and to inform theory in personnel economics. We...... examine personnel data from six large companies and establish how subjective ratings, interpreted as ordinal rankings of employee performances within narrowly defined peer-groups, correlate with objective career outcomes. We find many similarities across firms in how subjective ratings correlate with base...

  14. Tracheobronchial calcification in adult health study subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuya, Tatsuro; Mihara, Futoshi; Kudo, Sho; Russell, W.J.; Delongchamp, R.R.; Vaeth, M.; Hosoda, Yutaka.

    1988-04-01

    Tracheobronchial calcification is reportedly more frequent in women than in men. Ten cases of extensive tracehobronchial calcification were identified on chest radiographs of 1,152 consecutively examined Adult Health Study subjects, for a prevalence of 0.87 %. An additional 51 subjects having this coded diagnosis were identified among 11,758 members of this fixed population sample. Sixty of the 61 subjects were women. The manifestations and extent of this type of calcification and its correlations with clinical and histopathologic features, which have not been previously reported, are described here. (author)

  15. Telerobotics for dry size reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, A.J. Jr; La Valle, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Remote handling in nuclear Environmental Management (EM) programs is likely to emphasize small batch sizes in unstructured environments. Most existing robotic solutions are impractical due to cost, complexity, or reliability issues. New processes that are environmentally safe are too demanding for human operators, and require precise motion control making traditional electromechanical, hydraulic, and master/slave manipulators unacceptable. The critical missing element is a method to bridge the gap between manual operation and full automation. Rapid advances in computer technology, coupled with national laboratory research activities, has challenged PaR Systems to develop a new line of telerobotics, exploiting this technology, to enhance EM processes. Telerobotics systems permit the human operator to direct and supervise the operation of a remote robotic mechanism. The typical robotic device responds to human inputs and transfers human motion into robot motion. However, unlike teleoperation, the robotic system not only incorporates local decision making authority but can enhance input devices by; producing motion in multiple coordinate frames (e.g., base, tool, joint), automating repetitive motions, responding to real-time sensory input, and facilitating a virtual collaborative environment. The basic premise is to augment, not replace, the human operator and blend the individual abilities of each system. Humans have superior cognitive and pattern recognitive skills, while the robot is a tireless precise positioning device. To provide insight into why telerobotics is crucial to EM, this paper highlights a proposed telerobotic system for the Dry Size Reduction of contaminated components. Different design concepts, robotic control features, and networking for remote operation needed are discussed. (author)

  16. Medium-size nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelweith, L.; Lavergne, J.C.; Martinot, G.; Weiss, A.

    1977-01-01

    CEA (TECHNICATOME) has developed a range of pressurized water reactors of the type ''CAS compact'' which are adapted to civil ship propulsion, or to electric power production, combined possibly with heat production, up to outputs equivalent to 125 MWe. Nuclear plants equipped with these reactors are suitable to medium-size electric networks. Among the possible realizations, two types of plants are mentioned as examples: 1) Floating electron-nuclear plants; and 2) Combined electric power and desalting plants. The report describes the design characteristics of the different parts of a 125 MWe unit floating electro-nuclear plant: nuclear steam system CAS 3 G, power generating plant, floating platform for the whole plant. The report gives attention to the different possibilities according to site conditions (the plant can be kept floating, in a natural or artificial basin, it can be put aground, ...) and to safety and environment factors. Such unit can be used in places where there is a growing demand in electric power and fresh water. The report describes how the reactor, the power generating plant and multiflash distillation units of an electric power-desalting plant can be combined: choice of the ratio water output/electric power output, thermal cycle combination, choice of the gain ratio, according to economic considerations, and to desired goal of water output. The report analyses also some technical options, such as: choice of the extraction point of steam used as heat supply of the desalting station (bleeding a condensation turbine, or recovering steam at the exhaust of a backpressure turbine), design making the system safe. Lastly, economic considerations are dealt with: combining the production of fresh water and electric power provides usually a much better energy balance and a lower cost for both products. Examples are given of some types of installations which combine medium-size reactors with fresh water stations yielding from 10000 to 120000 m 3 per day

  17. Thin-plate spline analysis of craniofacial morphology in subjects with adenoid or tonsillar hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Michela; Ballanti, Fabiana; Polimeni, Antonella; Franchi, Lorenzo; Cozza, Paola

    2011-04-01

    To compare the skeletal features of subjects with adenoid hypertrophy with those of children with tonsillar hypertrophy using thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis. A group of 20 subjects (9 girls and 11 boys; mean age 8.4 ± 0.9 years) with adenoid hypertrophy (AG) was compared with a group of 20 subjects (10 girls and 10 boys; mean age 8.2 ± 1.1 years) with tonsillar hypertrophy (TG). Craniofacial morphology was analyzed on the lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups by means of TPS analysis. A cross-sectional comparison was performed on both size and shape differences between the two groups. AG exhibited statistically significant shape and size differences in craniofacial configuration with respect to TG. Subjects with adenoid hypertrophy showed an upward dislocation of the anterior region of the maxilla, a more downward/backward position of the anterior region of the mandibular body and an upward/backward displacement of the condylar region. Conversely, subjects with tonsillar hypertrophy showed a downward dislocation of the anterior region of the maxilla, a more upward/forward position of the anterior region of the mandibular body and a downward/forward displacement of the condylar region. Subjects with adenoid hypertrophy exhibited features suggesting a more retrognathic mandible while subjects with tonsillar hypertrophy showed features suggesting a more prognathic mandible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  19. Patterns of Subjective Deprivation in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortner, Rayman, W.; Hultsch, David F.

    1974-01-01

    Investigated the number and characteristics of adults experiencing different types of subjective deprivation, and evaluated Cantril's assertion that some of these types of deprivation are ontogenetic in nature. (DP)

  20. Interactive learning software for electrical engineering subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interactive learning software for electrical engineering subjects using MATLAB and ... Keywords: electrical engineering; MATLAB; graphic user interface (GUI); educational software. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  1. Ethical aspects of trade subject to risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gethmann, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    The paper pleads for unrestricted use of the requirement of rational risk comparison. The ethical aspects of the problem are that human beings cannot help expecting certain people to take risks and others to forsake them. Expectation of risk requires an ethical justification. Consideration of justification has of course to originate from the fact that both readiness to accept risk and also the preference system are subject to strong subjective variations. Consequently, intercession has to be made to compare the definition of subjective probability (competitiveness) and a subjective preference matrix as the basis for a rational definition of risk. General liability results first due to the fact that consistency can be expected from each individual in relation to the readiness to accept risk expected of him. According to the requirement for consistency introduced here, a readiness to accept risk may be expected of an individual which is otherwise already accepted. (orig.) [de

  2. Energy Data Base: subject categories and scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1985-03-01

    The subject scope of the Energy Data Base (EDB) encompasses all DOE-sponsored research. Broadly defined, EDB subject scope includes all technological aspects of energy production, conversion, and efficient utilization, and the economic, social, and political aspects as well. Scope notes are provided to define the extent of interest in certain subject areas, particularly areas of basic research. Cross references between categories are provided to aid both the categorization of information and its retrieval. Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system

  3. Subject related teaching in udeskole (outdoor school)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Karen Seierøe

    Subject related teaching in udeskole In this symposium, subject related teaching on a regular basis in the outdoors, known as udeskole will be described and discussed. Based on recent and ongoing research and development, the education taking the place of teaching into account of the learning...... will identify the necessity of doing research into the field, as 18,4% of all Danish schools is shown to have one or more classes working with udeskole (Barfod et al, 2016). Secondly, the subject related teaching in the outdoors will be exemplified by four research projects. First, the subject ‘Danish...... teaching in the outdoors will be supplemented with recent research upon barriers for using external learning environments ‘the open school’ in Skive Muncipiality. Closing the seminar will be a presentation of the national Danish Network UdeskoleNet and its application. Sources: Barfod, K., Ejbye-Ernst, N...

  4. Personality dimensions and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico Librán, Eliseo

    2006-05-01

    This work examines the association between personality dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) and subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is associated both with extraversion and neuroticism, and currently, neuroticism is generally considered the more important. A total of 368 students from the University of Rovira i Virgili completed the Extraversion and Neuroticism subscales of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck, Eysenck, and Barrett, 1985), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin, 1985), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen, 1988). Regression analyses revealed the personality variable of neuroticism as one of the most important correlates of subjective well-being. Regression analyses also showed that 44% of the variance of subjective well-being was accounted for by neuroticism, whereas extraversion only explained 8% of the variance.

  5. Subjective Life Horizon and Portfolio Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Spaenjers , Christophe; Spira, Sven Michael

    2013-01-01

    Using data from a U.S. household survey, we examine the empirical relation between subjective life horizon (i.e., the self-reported expectation of remaining life span) and portfolio choice. We find that equity portfolio shares are higher for investors with longer horizons, ceteris paribus, in line with theoretical predictions. This result is robust to controlling for optimism and health status, accounting for the endogeneity of equity market participation, or instrumenting subjective life hor...

  6. Are tent halls subject to property tax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Macudziński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented publication is a response to currently asked questions and interpretative doubts of taxpayers and tax authorities, namely whether tent halls are subject to property tax. General issues connected with an entity and a subject of taxation of this tax are presented herein. The answer to the question asked is then provided through the qualification of constructions works and the allocation of tent halls in the proper category of the works, with the use of the current law.

  7. PSA, subjective probability and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarotti, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    PSA is the natural way to making decisions in face of uncertainty relative to potentially dangerous plants; subjective probability, subjective utility and Bayes statistics are the ideal tools for carrying out a PSA. This paper reports that in order to support this statement the various stages of the PSA procedure are examined in detail and step by step the superiority of Bayes techniques with respect to sampling theory machinery is proven

  8. Short Term Motor-Skill Acquisition Improves with Size of Self-Controlled Virtual Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossmy, Ori; Mukamel, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Visual feedback in general, and from the body in particular, is known to influence the performance of motor skills in humans. However, it is unclear how the acquisition of motor skills depends on specific visual feedback parameters such as the size of performing effector. Here, 21 healthy subjects physically trained to perform sequences of finger movements with their right hand. Through the use of 3D Virtual Reality devices, visual feedback during training consisted of virtual hands presented on the screen, tracking subject's hand movements in real time. Importantly, the setup allowed us to manipulate the size of the displayed virtual hands across experimental conditions. We found that performance gains increase with the size of virtual hands. In contrast, when subjects trained by mere observation (i.e., in the absence of physical movement), manipulating the size of the virtual hand did not significantly affect subsequent performance gains. These results demonstrate that when it comes to short-term motor skill learning, the size of visual feedback matters. Furthermore, these results suggest that highest performance gains in individual subjects are achieved when the size of the virtual hand matches their real hand size. These results may have implications for optimizing motor training schemes.

  9. Short Term Motor-Skill Acquisition Improves with Size of Self-Controlled Virtual Hands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Ossmy

    Full Text Available Visual feedback in general, and from the body in particular, is known to influence the performance of motor skills in humans. However, it is unclear how the acquisition of motor skills depends on specific visual feedback parameters such as the size of performing effector. Here, 21 healthy subjects physically trained to perform sequences of finger movements with their right hand. Through the use of 3D Virtual Reality devices, visual feedback during training consisted of virtual hands presented on the screen, tracking subject's hand movements in real time. Importantly, the setup allowed us to manipulate the size of the displayed virtual hands across experimental conditions. We found that performance gains increase with the size of virtual hands. In contrast, when subjects trained by mere observation (i.e., in the absence of physical movement, manipulating the size of the virtual hand did not significantly affect subsequent performance gains. These results demonstrate that when it comes to short-term motor skill learning, the size of visual feedback matters. Furthermore, these results suggest that highest performance gains in individual subjects are achieved when the size of the virtual hand matches their real hand size. These results may have implications for optimizing motor training schemes.

  10. Inhalation of road dust by human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takishima, T; Nakamura, M; Sasaki, M; Miyano, M; Yamaya, M; Sasaki, H

    1987-11-01

    We measured pneumomagnetic field strength (PMFS) in 42 healthy control subjects living in districts of Northern Japan with low levels of road dust pollution and in 39 healthy subjects living in areas with high levels of road dust pollution. Suspended road dust produced by studded tires increases from 30 micrograms/m3 during the summer season to levels as high as 400 micrograms/m3 during the snow season in the downtown areas of Sendai, Japan. Road dust retained in the lungs, containing 3% iron, was magnetized from the surface of the chest wall, and PMFS was measured. Three to 5 sequential PMFS measurements were made in each subject in March and October of 1984 and 1985, and in March 1986. The PMFS in control subjects in March 1984 was 37 +/- 14 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and did not significantly differ from the PMFS in October 1984 or that in March 1985. In March 1984, the PMFS of the subjects in highly polluted areas was 95 +/- 100 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and was significantly higher than that of control subjects (p less than 0.01) and subsequently decreased in March 1985 and in March 1986, corresponding to a decrease in suspended road dust brought about by a campaign to eliminate the use of studded tires. Our findings suggest that some road dust caused by studded tires is retained in the lungs.

  11. Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noergaard Petersen, H.; Almdal, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nanotech, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kusano, Y.; Broendsted, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-09-01

    Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had amounts of bonded and physisorbed sizing similar to what has been presented in literature. An estimated sizing thickness was found to be approximately 100 nm. It is indicated that an epoxy-resin containing film former and a polyethylene oxide lubricant are present, yet no silanes or other sizing components were identified in the extractant. (Author)

  12. Subjective Vitality as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Subjective Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Satici, Begüm; Akin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the mediator and moderator effects of subjective vitality on the relationship between life satisfaction and subjective happiness were investigated. The participants were 378 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Subjective Vitality Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Subjective…

  13. Body Size Predicts Cardiac and Vascular Resistance Effects on Men's and Women's Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce M. Evans

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Key Points SummaryWe report how blood pressure, cardiac output and vascular resistance are related to height, weight, body surface area (BSA, and body mass index (BMI in healthy young adults at supine rest and standing.Much inter-subject variability in young adult's blood pressure, currently attributed to health status, may actually result from inter-individual body size differences.Each cardiovascular variable is linearly related to height, weight and/or BSA (more than to BMI.When supine, cardiac output is positively related, while vascular resistance is negatively related, to body size. Upon standing, the change in vascular resistance is positively related to size.The height/weight relationships of cardiac output and vascular resistance to body size are responsible for blood pressure relationships to body size.These basic components of blood pressure could help distinguish normal from abnormal blood pressures in young adults by providing a more effective scaling mechanism.Introduction: Effects of body size on inter-subject blood pressure (BP variability are not well established in adults. We hypothesized that relationships linking stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, and total peripheral resistance (TPR with body size would account for a significant fraction of inter-subject BP variability.Methods: Thirty-four young, healthy adults (19 men, 15 women participated in 38 stand tests during which brachial artery BP, heart rate, SV, CO, TPR, and indexes of body size were measured/calculated.Results: Steady state diastolic arterial BP was not significantly correlated with any index of body size when subjects were supine. However, upon standing, the more the subject weighed, or the taller s/he was, the greater the increase in diastolic pressure. Systolic pressure strongly correlated with body weight and height both supine and standing. Diastolic and systolic BP were more strongly related to height, weight and body surface area than to body mass

  14. Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro; Brøndsted, Povl

    2013-01-01

    Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus...... the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had...

  15. Estimation of portion size in children's dietary assessment: lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E; Adamson, A J; Anderson, A S; Barton, K L; Wrieden, W L

    2009-02-01

    Assessing the dietary intake of young children is challenging. In any 1 day, children may have several carers responsible for providing them with their dietary requirements, and once children reach school age, traditional methods such as weighing all items consumed become impractical. As an alternative to weighed records, food portion size assessment tools are available to assist subjects in estimating the amounts of foods consumed. Existing food photographs designed for use with adults and based on adult portion sizes have been found to be inappropriate for use with children. This article presents a review and summary of a body of work carried out to improve the estimation of portion sizes consumed by children. Feasibility work was undertaken to determine the accuracy and precision of three portion size assessment tools; food photographs, food models and a computer-based Interactive Portion Size Assessment System (IPSAS). These tools were based on portion sizes served to children during the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. As children often do not consume all of the food served to them, smaller portions were included in each tool for estimation of leftovers. The tools covered 22 foods, which children commonly consume. Children were served known amounts of each food and leftovers were recorded. They were then asked to estimate both the amount of food that they were served and the amount of any food leftover. Children were found to estimate food portion size with an accuracy approaching that of adults using both the food photographs and IPSAS. Further development is underway to increase the number of food photographs and to develop IPSAS to cover a much wider range of foods and to validate the use of these tools in a 'real life' setting.

  16. Algorithmic psychometrics and the scalable subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Luke

    2018-04-01

    Recent public controversies, ranging from the 2014 Facebook 'emotional contagion' study to psychographic data profiling by Cambridge Analytica in the 2016 American presidential election, Brexit referendum and elsewhere, signal watershed moments in which the intersecting trajectories of psychology and computer science have become matters of public concern. The entangled history of these two fields grounds the application of applied psychological techniques to digital technologies, and an investment in applying calculability to human subjectivity. Today, a quantifiable psychological subject position has been translated, via 'big data' sets and algorithmic analysis, into a model subject amenable to classification through digital media platforms. I term this position the 'scalable subject', arguing it has been shaped and made legible by algorithmic psychometrics - a broad set of affordances in digital platforms shaped by psychology and the behavioral sciences. In describing the contours of this 'scalable subject', this paper highlights the urgent need for renewed attention from STS scholars on the psy sciences, and on a computational politics attentive to psychology, emotional expression, and sociality via digital media.

  17. Null Subjects in European and Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Barbosa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this paper are twofold: a to provide a structural account of the effects of the informal ‘Avoid Pronoun Principle’, proposed in Chomsky (1981: 65 for the Null Subject Languages (NSLs, and b to compare, in European and Brazilian Portuguese (EP and BP, the distribution of the third person pronouns in its full and null forms, to check whether in written corpora BP incorporates signs of the ongoing loss of the null subject, largely attested in its contemporary spoken language. The strong theoretical claim is that in the Romance non-NSLs the pre-verbal subject is sitting in Spec of IP, while in the Romance NSLs it is Clitic Left-Dislocated (or is extracted by A-bar movement if it belongs to a restricted set of non-referential quantified expressions. The paper provides quantitative evidence that BP is losing the properties associated with the Null Subject Parameter. In its qualitative analysis, it shows that the contrasts between EP and BP are easily accounted for if the two derivations are assumed and if the null subjects in the two varieties are considered to be of a different nature: a pronoun in EP and a pronominal anaphor in BP.

  18. Extended Cognitive System and Epistemic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trybulec Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an extended cognitive system is central to contemporary studies of cognition. In the paper I analyze the place of the epistemic subject within the extended cognitive system. Is it extended as well? In answering this question I focus on the differences between the first and the second wave of arguments for the extended mind thesis. I argue that the position of Cognitive Integration represented by Richard Menary is much more intuitive and fruitful in analyses of cognition and knowledge than the early argument formulated by Andy Clark and David Chalmers. Cognitive Integration is compatible with virtue epistemology of John Greco’s agent reliabilism. The epistemic subject is constituted by its cognitive character composed of an integrated set of cognitive abilities and processes. Some of these processes are extended, they are a manipulation of external informational structures and, as such, they constitute epistemic practices. Epistemic practices are normative; to conduct them correctly the epistemic subject needs to obey epistemic norms embedded in the cultural context. The epistemic subject is not extended because of the casual coupling with external informational artifacts which extend his mind from inside the head and into the world. Rather, cognitive practices constitute the subject’s mind, they transform his cognitive abilities, and this is what makes the mind and epistemic subject “extended”.

  19. Longitudinal growth changes in subjects with deepbite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A

    2011-08-01

    This study was a cephalometric evaluation of the growth changes in untreated subjects with deepbite at 4 time points during their developmental ages (from the early mixed dentition to the permanent dentition, and from the prepubertal phase to young adulthood). A sample of 29 subjects with deepbite (overbite >4.5 mm) was followed longitudinally from about 9 through about 18 years of age. Dentofacial changes at 4 times, defined by the cervical vertebral maturation method, were analyzed on lateral cephalograms. Nonparametric statistical analysis was used for comparisons. Overbite improved on average by 1.3 mm between the first and last measurements; it worsened significantly during the prepubertal period, but it improved significantly at the pubertal growth spurt. From the prepubertal ages through young adulthood, overbite improved in 83% of the subjects and self-corrected in 62% of the subjects. Improvements in overbite were related to the initial amount of maxillary incisor proclination. The significant improvement in overbite during the adolescent growth spurt depended on the amount of vertical growth of the mandibular ramus and the eruption of the mandibular molars. Subjects with deepbite showed worsened occlusal conditions during the prepubertal and mixed dentition phases, but had significant improvements thereafter. Improvements in overbite cannot be predicted on the basis of skeletal vertical relationships. These results provide useful indications for appropriate orthodontic treatment timing for an increased overbite. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Shareveillance: Subjectivity between open and closed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Birchall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to question modes of sharing and watching to rethink political subjectivity beyond that which is enabled and enforced by the current data regime. It identifies and examines a ‘shareveillant’ subjectivity: a form configured by the sharing and watching that subjects have to withstand and enact in the contemporary data assemblage. Looking at government open and closed data as case studies, this article demonstrates how ‘shareveillance’ produces an anti-political role for the public. In describing shareveillance as, after Jacques Rancière, a distribution of the (digital sensible, this article posits a politico-ethical injunction to cut into the share and flow of data in order to arrange a more enabling assemblage of data and its affects. In order to interrupt shareveillance, this article borrows a concept from Édouard Glissant and his concern with raced otherness to imagine what a ‘right to opacity’ might mean in the digital context. To assert this right is not to endorse the individual subject in her sovereignty and solitude, but rather to imagine a collective political subjectivity and relationality according to the important question of what it means to ‘share well’ beyond the veillant expectations of the state.

  1. Sizing for ethnicity in multi-cultural societies: development of size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... years, and fell in the size 6/10 to size 14/38 size range. The findings of the study suggest that young South African women of African descent with a triangular body shape may experience loose fit in the upper body of garments sized according to the size specifications currently used in the South African apparel industry.

  2. The size of thyroid gland measured by scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, K. O.; Choe, Y. K.; Park, C. Y.; Choi, B. S.

    1973-01-01

    Normal size of thyroid gland in Korean male and female were aimed to study through color scanning using radioactive materials. The measurement of the size of thyroid gland is necessary not only for standardization of Korean subjects but also to the dose determination of radioactive iodine treatment and evaluation of thyroid disease. There had been no available data in regarding Korean euthyroid size in literature. In 119 subjects from the age of 19 years to 60 tears, who have normal thyroid function and no history of any thyroid disorder, the length, the width and the area of thyroid gland were measured in scan images. The weight of thyroid gland was calculated by Allen-Goodwin's formula. The thyroid scan was obtained by Picker Color Magna-Scanner, in 24 hours after ingestion of 50μCi sodium iodide 1-131. Results; In males, 16 subjects among 119 cases, the mean values were as following: length-5.1 cm, width-2.5 cm, area-9.1 cm 2 , weight-14.7 gr in right lobe, length-4.7 cm, width-2.3 cm, area-7.6 cm 2 , weight-11.1 gr in left lobe, total area-16.7 cm 2 , and total weight-25.8 gr. In females, 103 subjects among 119 cases, the mean values were as following: length-5.1 cm, width-2.4 cm, area-9.4 cm 2 , weight-15.2 gr in the right lobe, length-4.6 cm, width-2.2 cm, area-7.9 cm 2 , weight-11.6 gr in left lobe, total area-17.3 cm 2 , total weight-26.8 gr. The right lobe was larger in the above mean values of size than the left: 11% longer in length, 8% wider in width, 18% broader in area and 30% heavier in weight in mean values. The difference of sizes between two lobes was statistically significant. There was no significant difference comparison with English written literature

  3. 7 CFR 51.2559 - Size classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2559 Size classifications. (a) The size of pistachio kernels may be specified in connection with the grade in accordance with one of...

  4. Size determinations of colloidal fat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Klaus, Katrin; Steiniger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Size and size distributions of colloidal dispersions are of crucial importance for their performance and safety. In the present study, commercially available fat emulsions (Lipofundin N, Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem) were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction with adequate...... was checked with mixtures of monodisperse polystyrene nanospheres. In addition, the ultrastructure of Lipofundin N and Lipofundin MCT was investigated by cryo-electron microscopy. All different particle sizing methods gave different mean sizes and size distributions but overall, results were in reasonable...... agreement. By all methods, a larger mean droplet size (between 350 and 400 nm) as well as a broader distribution was measured for Lipofundin N compared to Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem (mean droplet size between about 280 and 320 nm). Size distributions of Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem were very similar...

  5. The NGDC Seafloor Sediment Grain Size Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGDC (now NCEI) Seafloor Sediment Grain Size Database contains particle size data for over 17,000 seafloor samples worldwide. The file was begun by NGDC in 1976...

  6. Estimating software development project size, using probabilistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating software development project size, using probabilistic techniques. ... of managing the size of software development projects by Purchasers (Clients) and Vendors (Development ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. The size of the labor wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milland, Maria; Christoffersen, Jens; Hedegaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    To assess possible associations between the size of labor units and the frequency of approved obstetric claims.......To assess possible associations between the size of labor units and the frequency of approved obstetric claims....

  8. Characterization of Extracellular Vesicles by Size-Exclusion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; He, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have recently attracted substantial attention due to the potential diagnostic and therapeutic relevance. Although a variety of techniques have been used to isolate and analyze EVs, it is still far away from satisfaction. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), which separates subjects by size, has been widely applied in protein purification and analysis. The purpose of this chapter is to show the applications of size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as methods for EV characterization of impurities or contaminants of small size, and thus for quality assay for the purity of the samples of EVs.

  9. Children's estimates of food portion size: the development and evaluation of three portion size assessment tools for use with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E; Matthews, J N S; Lloyd, J; Marshall, L; Mathers, J C; Nelson, M; Barton, K L; Wrieden, W L; Cornelissen, P; Harris, J; Adamson, A J

    2008-01-01

    A number of methods have been developed to assist subjects in providing an estimate of portion size but their application in improving portion size estimation by children has not been investigated systematically. The aim was to develop portion size assessment tools for use with children and to assess the accuracy of children's estimates of portion size using the tools. The tools were food photographs, food models and an interactive portion size assessment system (IPSAS). Children (n 201), aged 4-16 years, were supplied with known quantities of food to eat, in school. Food leftovers were weighed. Children estimated the amount of each food using each tool, 24 h after consuming the food. The age-specific portion sizes represented were based on portion sizes consumed by children in a national survey. Significant differences were found between the accuracy of estimates using the three tools. Children of all ages performed well using the IPSAS and food photographs. The accuracy and precision of estimates made using the food models were poor. For all tools, estimates of the amount of food served were more accurate than estimates of the amount consumed. Issues relating to reporting of foods left over which impact on estimates of the amounts of foods actually consumed require further study. The IPSAS has shown potential for assessment of dietary intake with children. Before practical application in assessment of dietary intake of children the tool would need to be expanded to cover a wider range of foods and to be validated in a 'real-life' situation.

  10. A Critique of Size-Related Anomalies.

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, Jonathan B

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that the size-related regularities in asset prices should not be regarded as anomalies. Indeed, the opposite result is demonstrated. Namely, a truly anomalous regularity would be if an inverse relation between size and return was not observed. We show theoretically (1) that the size-related regularities should be observed in the economy and (2) why size will in general explain the part of the cross-section of expected returns left unexplained by an incorrectly specified as...

  11. Modelling of Size Effect with Regularised Continua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Askes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlocal damage continuum and a viscoplastic damage continuum are used to model size effects. Three-point bending specimens are analysed, whereby a distinction is made between unnotched specimens, specimens with a constant notch and specimens with a proportionally scaled notch. Numerical finite element simulations have been performed for specimen sizes in a range of 1:64. Size effects are established in terms of nominal strength and compared to existing size effect models from the literature. 

  12. Size variability of handwriting in healthy Korean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji Hye; Kim, Hyanghee; Kim, Jungwan; Park, Eunjeong; Kim, Soo Ryon

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to delineate how age-related deterioration affects the handwriting of healthy elderly (HE) subjects. A total of 235 HE (54 males, 181 females) aged 57-91 years participated as subjects in the study. In order to compare the area of handwriting, we divided the participants into two groups: (i) aged 57-74 years; and (ii) aged 75-91 years. The writing stimulus was a four-syllabic word with one-to-one grapheme-to-phoneme correspondence. The size of each syllable in the target word was measured using a software program. Alignment of the word to baseline was assessed using a multiple-choice checklist. As compared with handwriting by the younger group, the older group showed greater variability in the size of the written syllables within the word (P = 0.023). The handwriting was characterized by unequal size among syllables and non-perpendicular alignment, which could be explained by several factors. First, the variability might have resulted from irregular fine movement motor control in older adults. Second, the deterioration of visual feedback and visuomotor integration in normal aging might have affected handwriting performance. In conclusion, variability of handwriting can be sensitive in predicting the aging process. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Ports: Definition and study of types, sizes and business models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Roa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the world today there are thousands of port facilities of different types and sizes, competing to capture some market share of freight by sea, mainly. This article aims to determine the type of port and the most common size, in order to find out which business model is applied in that segment and what is the legal status of the companies of such infrastructure.Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this goal, we develop a research on a representative sample of 800 ports worldwide, which manage 90% of the containerized port loading. Then you can find out the legal status of the companies that manage them.Findings: The results indicate a port type and a dominant size, which are mostly managed by companies subject to a concession model.Research limitations/implications: In this research, we study only those ports that handle freight (basically containerized, ignoring other activities such as fishing, military, tourism or recreational.Originality/value: This is an investigation to show that the vast majority of the studied segment port facilities are governed by a similar corporate model and subject to pressure from the markets, which increasingly demand efficiency and service. Consequently, we tend to concession terminals to private operators in a process that might be called privatization, but in the strictest sense of the term, is not entirely realistic because the ownership of the land never ceases to be public

  14. Subjective video quality comparison of HDTV monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, G.; Lim, C.; Lee, S.; Lee, C.

    2009-01-01

    HDTV broadcasting services have become widely available. Furthermore, in the upcoming IPTV services, HDTV services are important and quality monitoring becomes an issue, particularly in IPTV services. Consequently, there have been great efforts to develop video quality measurement methods for HDTV. On the other hand, most HDTV programs will be watched on digital TV monitors which include LCD and PDP TV monitors. In general, the LCD and PDP TV monitors have different color characteristics and response times. Furthermore, most commercial TV monitors include post-processing to improve video quality. In this paper, we compare subjective video quality of some commercial HD TV monitors to investigate the impact of monitor type on perceptual video quality. We used the ACR method as a subjective testing method. Experimental results show that the correlation coefficients among the HDTV monitors are reasonable high. However, for some video sequences and impairments, some differences in subjective scores were observed.

  15. Coping with subjectivity in vulnerability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renis, T.A.; Cardwell, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Vulnerability assessment models are widely used to systematically evaluate the performance of complex safeguards systems against a variety of threats. These models require varying levels of detail and input data about the physical design of a facility and its safeguards operations and procedures. However, to evaluate safeguards effectiveness and give a performance rating, these models require additional performance data reflecting probabilities of detection, assessment, interruption, and neutralization, as well as the associated times for various adversary scenarios. These data may be attained from equipment design specifications, laboratory testing, expert judgment, or component testing. Regardless of how these data are obtained, they are inherently subjective. This paper addresses the uses of various vulnerability assessment models and the nature of subjectivity in those models. The paper also describes methods for coping with subjective data

  16. Microvascular retinopathy in subjects without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Kessel, Line; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2012-01-01

    Purpose:  Retinal vascular lesions such as microaneurysms and haemorrhages, while typical of diabetic retinopathy, are also seen in subjects without diabetes where they are associated with elevated cardiovascular mortality. In theory, these lesions could be a consequence of past hyperglycaemia. We...... examined the prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy, including lens fluorescence, a biomarker of cumulative life-time glycaemia in adults without diabetes. Methods:  Cross-sectional population-based study of 711 subjects without diabetes (WHO 1999 criteria) aged 30-60 years, including oral glucose...... tolerance testing, clinical and laboratory examinations, non-invasive ocular lens fluorometry and seven-field fundus photography. Results:  Retinopathy was present in 8.3% (CI(95) 6.3-10.3%) of subjects. Higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p = 0.032), increasing body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.014) and wider...

  17. Do Class Size Effects Differ across Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analysing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enrolled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class size cap that creates exogenous variation in…

  18. Size effects in foams : Experiments and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekoglu, C.; Gibson, L. J.; Pardoen, T.; Onck, P. R.

    Mechanical properties of cellular solids depend on the ratio of the sample size to the cell size at length scales where the two are of the same order of magnitude. Considering that the cell size of many cellular solids used in engineering applications is between 1 and 10 mm, it is not uncommon to

  19. Size Effects on the Strength of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xiaoxu

    2014-01-01

    The grain size effect and the specimen size effect on the strength of metals are briefly reviewed with respect to their history and current status of research. It is revealed that the fundamental strengthening mechanisms responsible for these two types of size effect are to increase the resistanc...

  20. Prevention of the Portion Size Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Versluis (Iris)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAn increase in the portion size leads to an increase in energy intake, a phenomenon which is also referred to as the portion size effect. The increase in portion sizes in recent years is regarded as an important contributor to the increase in the prevalence of obesity. Hence, the aim