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Sample records for subjective task values

  1. An instrument to assess subjective task value beliefs regarding the decision to pursue postgraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Murawski, Matthew M

    2014-02-12

    To develop and validate an instrument to assess subjective ratings of the perceived value of various postgraduate training paths followed using expectancy-value as a theoretical framework; and to explore differences in value beliefs across type of postgraduate training pursued and type of pharmacy training completed prior to postgraduate training. A survey instrument was developed to sample 4 theoretical domains of subjective task value: intrinsic value, attainment value, utility value, and perceived cost. Retrospective self-report methodology was employed to examine respondents' (N=1,148) subjective task value beliefs specific to their highest level of postgraduate training completed. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used to evaluate and validate value belief constructs. Intrinsic, attainment, utility, cost, and financial value constructs resulted from exploratory factor analysis. Cross-validation resulted in a 26-item instrument that demonstrated good model fit. Differences in value beliefs were noted across type of postgraduate training pursued and pharmacy training characteristics. The Postgraduate Training Value Instrument demonstrated evidence of reliability and construct validity. The survey instrument can be used to assess value beliefs regarding multiple postgraduate training options in pharmacy and potentially inform targeted recruiting of individuals to those paths best matching their own value beliefs.

  2. Task value profiles across subjects and aspirations to physical and IT-related sciences in the United States and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Angela; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2012-11-01

    Two independent studies were conducted to extend previous research by examining the associations between task value priority patterns across school subjects and aspirations toward the physical and information technology- (IT-) related sciences. Study 1 measured task values of a sample of 10th graders in the United States (N = 249) across (a) physics and chemistry, (b) math, and (c) English. Study 2 measured task values of a sample of students in the second year of high school in Finland (N = 351) across (a) math and science, (b) Finnish, and (c) the arts and physical education. In both studies, students were classified into groups according to how they ranked math and science in relation to the other subjects. Regression analyses indicated that task value group membership significantly predicted subsequent aspirations toward physical and IT-related sciences measured 1-2 years later. The task value groups who placed the highest priority on math and science were significantly more likely to aspire to physical and IT-related sciences than were the other groups. These findings provide support for the theoretical assumption regarding the predictive role of intraindividual hierarchical patterns of task values for subsequent preferences and choices suggested by the Eccles [Parsons] (1983) expectancy-value model.

  3. Expectancy of Success, Subjective Task-Value, and Message Frame in the Appraisal of Value-Promoting Messages Made Prior to a High-Stakes Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Symes, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has examined how subjective task-value and expectancy of success influence the appraisal of value-promoting messages used by teachers prior to high-stakes examinations. The aim of this study was to examine whether message-frame (gain or loss-framed messages) also influences the appraisal of value-promoting messages. Two hundred…

  4. The effect of varying task difficulty on subjective workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y.-Y.; Wickens, C. D.; Hart, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of different difficulty distribution patterns on subjective workload, and the presence of a primacy/recency effect in subjective ratings are examined. Eight subjects performed the perceptual central processing required for response selection and manual target acquisition for response execution. The reaction time, movement time, and the percent of correct pattern matching and arithmetic equations are analyzed. The data reveal that subjective rating is unaffected by different task difficulty and no primacy/recency effects are observed in subjective ratings. It is concluded that subjective workload reflects the experience of an ongoing integration process.

  5. EFFECTIVENESS OF MOTOR TASK INTERFERENCE DURING GAIT IN SUBJECTS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya ShankerTedla

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, was to evaluated the effectiveness of motor task and cognitive task interference while walking to improve gait parameters of subjects with Parkinson’s disease. Methods: In this Randomized Controlled trial, 30 subjects with Parkinson’s disease of age group between 50and 70 years randomly divided into two groups. The first group had motor task interference, and the second group had calculation task interference while walking along with conventional physical therapy. Gait parameters recorded as outcome measures. Both the groups received 1-hour training for three weeks for one month. Results: As per the paired t-test values, there was significant (p<0.001 improvement in the gait parameters for both the group's pre and post training. Motor task interference showed better improvements than calculation-task interference group among subjects with Parkinson’s disease in all the gait parameters measured with a p-value less than 0.001. Conclusion: To improve the gait parameters for mild to moderately disabled patients with Parkinson’s disease, the dual task training by using motor task while gait training along with conventional Physical Therapy will be more useful than using cognitive task.

  6. Biochemical reference values in elderly black subjects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-01

    Sep 1, 1990 ... clinical chemistry investigations. Most of the reference values corresponded to values for the same age groups in the. Western world. There was no age-related rise in the alkaline phosphatase values, which suggested absence of occult. Paget's disease. Reference values for serum total protein and.

  7. An opportunity cost model of subjective effort and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzban, Robert; Duckworth, Angela; Kable, Joseph W; Myers, Justus

    2013-12-01

    Why does performing certain tasks cause the aversive experience of mental effort and concomitant deterioration in task performance? One explanation posits a physical resource that is depleted over time. We propose an alternative explanation that centers on mental representations of the costs and benefits associated with task performance. Specifically, certain computational mechanisms, especially those associated with executive function, can be deployed for only a limited number of simultaneous tasks at any given moment. Consequently, the deployment of these computational mechanisms carries an opportunity cost--that is, the next-best use to which these systems might be put. We argue that the phenomenology of effort can be understood as the felt output of these cost/benefit computations. In turn, the subjective experience of effort motivates reduced deployment of these computational mechanisms in the service of the present task. These opportunity cost representations, then, together with other cost/benefit calculations, determine effort expended and, everything else equal, result in performance reductions. In making our case for this position, we review alternative explanations for both the phenomenology of effort associated with these tasks and for performance reductions over time. Likewise, we review the broad range of relevant empirical results from across sub-disciplines, especially psychology and neuroscience. We hope that our proposal will help to build links among the diverse fields that have been addressing similar questions from different perspectives, and we emphasize ways in which alternative models might be empirically distinguished.

  8. Value Reappraisal as a Conceptual Model for Task-Value Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acee, Taylor W.; Weinstein, Claire Ellen; Hoang, Theresa V.; Flaggs, Darolyn A.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss task-value interventions as one type of relevance intervention and propose a process model of value reappraisal whereby task-value interventions elicit cognitive-affective responses that lead to attitude change and in turn affect academic outcomes. The model incorporates a metacognitive component showing that students can intentionally…

  9. Processes Involving Perceived Instructional Support, Task Value, and Engagement in Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Gwen C.; Gutierrez, Antonio P.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations among perceived instructional support (provision of relevance and involvement), subjective task value beliefs (utility, attainment, and intrinsic value), and engagement (behavioral and emotional) over the course of a semester for graduate students enrolled in an introductory research…

  10. Selected component failure rate values from fusion safety assessment tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1998-09-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

  11. Selected Component Failure Rate Values from Fusion Safety Assessment Tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    1998-09-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

  12. Differences in Multitask Resource Reallocation After Change in Task Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matton, Nadine; Paubel, Pierre; Cegarra, Julien; Raufaste, Eric

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to characterize multitask resource reallocation strategies when managing subtasks with various assigned values. When solving a resource conflict in multitasking, Salvucci and Taatgen predict a globally rational strategy will be followed that favors the most urgent subtask and optimizes global performance. However, Katidioti and Taatgen identified a locally rational strategy that optimizes only a subcomponent of the whole task, leading to detrimental consequences on global performance. Moreover, the question remains open whether expertise would have an impact on the choice of the strategy. We adopted a multitask environment used for pilot selection with a change in emphasis on two out of four subtasks while all subtasks had to be maintained over a minimum performance. A laboratory eye-tracking study contrasted 20 recently selected pilot students considered as experienced with this task and 15 university students considered as novices. When two subtasks were emphasized, novices focused their resources particularly on one high-value subtask and failed to prevent both low-value subtasks falling below minimum performance. On the contrary, experienced people delayed the processing of one low-value subtask but managed to optimize global performance. In a multitasking environment where some subtasks are emphasized, novices follow a locally rational strategy whereas experienced participants follow a globally rational strategy. During complex training, trainees are only able to adjust their resource allocation strategy to subtask emphasis changes once they are familiar with the multitasking environment. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  13. Characterizing “fibrofog”: Subjective appraisal, objective performance, and task-related brain activity during a working memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Walitt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subjective experience of cognitive dysfunction (“fibrofog” is common in fibromyalgia. This study investigated the relation between subjective appraisal of cognitive function, objective cognitive task performance, and brain activity during a cognitive task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Sixteen fibromyalgia patients and 13 healthy pain-free controls completed a battery of questionnaires, including the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ, a measure of self-perceived cognitive difficulties. Participants were evaluated for working memory performance using a modified N-back working memory task while undergoing Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD fMRI measurements. Fibromyalgia patients and controls did not differ in working memory performance. Subjective appraisal of cognitive function was associated with better performance (accuracy on the working memory task in healthy controls but not in fibromyalgia patients. In fibromyalgia patients, increased perceived cognitive difficulty was positively correlated with the severity of their symptoms. BOLD response during the working memory task did not differ between the groups. BOLD response correlated with task accuracy in control subjects but not in fibromyalgia patients. Increased subjective cognitive impairment correlated with decreased BOLD response in both groups but in different anatomic regions. In conclusion, “fibrofog” appears to be better characterized by subjective rather than objective impairment. Neurologic correlates of this subjective experience of impairment might be separate from those involved in the performance of cognitive tasks.

  14. Subject, object and tasks of the marketing audit

    OpenAIRE

    Fayzulayeva, K.

    2009-01-01

    In the article issues of the marketing audit theory are considered. Views of different authors on the tasks and objects of the marketing audit and marketing control are suggested. Objectives and principles of marketing audit performing are determined.

  15. Response effort discounts the subjective value of rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryoji

    2014-09-01

    Factors associated with obtaining a reward, such as a temporal delay in receiving the reward, can influence the subjective value of the reward. Cognitive as well as physical response effort is also known to influence choice behaviors. The present study used hypothetical situations to assess whether response effort affects the subjective value of rewards. The results demonstrated that increasing response effort increases the amount of money that participants are willing to forgo to avoid engaging in work. An exponential as well as hyperbolic function provided a good fit for such discounting. The findings suggest that response effort discounts the subjective value of a reward as a function of its amount. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Subjectivity and values in medicine: the case of Canguilhem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Peter

    2003-08-01

    Theories of health and disease which oppose evaluative and descriptive claims or opt for one or the other in defining fundamental concepts err, it is argued, due to an oversimplified conception of both the science of medicine and the art of clinical judgment. The work of Georges Canguilhem on the biological dimensions of value and subjectivity is explored. I conclude that he avoids the falsehoods of (a) neutral, pure fact-based medical science, and (b) cultural, arbitrary notions of value.

  17. Separateness Representations in a Sculpting Task: Revealing Maternal Subjective Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat Or, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This study explored mothers' separateness representations via a clay sculpting task assigned to 24 mothers of preschool children aged 21 months to 4 years. Each participant created a clay sculpture of herself and her child, followed by a semi-structured interview about the sculpting experience and the meaning of the sculpture. Qualitative analyses…

  18. Lacan, Subjectivity and the Task of Mathematics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of subjectivity in the context of mathematics education research. It introduces the psychoanalyst and theorist Jacques Lacan whose work on subjectivity combined Freud's psychoanalytic theory with processes of signification as developed in the work of de Saussure and Peirce. The paper positions Lacan's subjectivity…

  19. The Use of Consciousness-Raising Tasks in Learning and Teaching of Subject-Verb Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idek, Sirhajwan; Fong, Lee Lai; Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the use of two types of Consciousness-Raising (CR) tasks in learning Subject-Verb Agreement (SVA). The sample consisted of 28 Form 2 students who were divided into two groups. Group 1 was assigned with Grammaticality Judgment (GJ) tasks and Group 2 received Sentence Production (SP) tasks for eight weeks. Learners were given…

  20. Interactions of task and subject variables among continuous performance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Colin B; Rapport, Mark D; Chung, Kyong-Mee

    2005-04-01

    Contemporary models of working memory suggest that target paradigm (TP) and target density (TD) should interact as influences on error rates derived from continuous performance tests (CPTs). The present study evaluated this hypothesis empirically in a typically developing, ethnically diverse sample of children. The extent to which scores based on different combinations of these task parameters showed different patterns of relationship to age, intelligence, and gender was also assessed. Four continuous performance tests were derived by combining two target paradigms (AX and repeated letter target stimuli) with two levels of target density (8.3% and 33%). Variations in mean omission (OE) and commission (CE) error rates were examined within and across combinations of TP and TD. In addition, a nested series of structural equation models was utilized to examine patterns of relationship among error rates, age, intelligence, and gender. Target paradigm and target density interacted as influences on error rates. Increasing density resulted in higher OE and CE rates for the AX paradigm. In contrast, the high density condition yielded a decline in OE rates accompanied by a small increase in CEs using the repeated letter CPT. Target paradigms were also distinguishable on the basis of age when using OEs as the performance measure, whereas combinations of age and intelligence distinguished between density levels but not target paradigms using CEs as the dependent measure. Different combinations of target paradigm and target density appear to yield scores that are conceptually and psychometrically distinguishable. Consequently, developmentally appropriate interpretation of error rates across tasks may require (a) careful analysis of working memory and attentional resources required for successful performance, and (b) normative data bases that are differently stratified with respect to combinations of age and intelligence.

  1. Motor preparatory activity in posterior parietal cortex is modulated by subjective absolute value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Asha; Lindner, Axel; Kagan, Igor; Andersen, Richard A

    2010-08-03

    For optimal response selection, the consequences associated with behavioral success or failure must be appraised. To determine how monetary consequences influence the neural representations of motor preparation, human brain activity was scanned with fMRI while subjects performed a complex spatial visuomotor task. At the beginning of each trial, reward context cues indicated the potential gain and loss imposed for correct or incorrect trial completion. FMRI-activity in canonical reward structures reflected the expected value related to the context. In contrast, motor preparatory activity in posterior parietal and premotor cortex peaked in high "absolute value" (high gain or loss) conditions: being highest for large gains in subjects who believed they performed well while being highest for large losses in those who believed they performed poorly. These results suggest that the neural activity preceding goal-directed actions incorporates the absolute value of that action, predicated upon subjective, rather than objective, estimates of one's performance.

  2. Do dual tasks have an added value over single tasks for balance assessment in fall prevention programs? A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, A; Ufkes, T; Skelton, D A; Lundin-Olsson, L; Zijlstra, W

    2008-01-01

    The Prevention of Falls Network Europe (ProFaNE) aims to bring together European researchers and clinicians to focus on the development of effective falls prevention programs for older people. One of the objectives is to identify suitable balance assessment tools. Assessment procedures that combine a balance task with a cognitive task may be relevant since part of all falls occurs during dual-task performance of walking or other balance activities. To evaluate whether dual-task balance assessments are more sensitive than single balance tasks in predicting falls and detecting changes in balance performance after fall interventions. A systematic literature search was performed in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PsycINFO and Cochrane. Articles were selected according to the following inclusion criteria: (1) population: older adults (mean age > or =65 years), (2) assessment tool: dual task combining gait or other balance task with a cognitive task, (3) design: prospective or retrospective data collection of falls, or intervention study. Analysis of papers focused on measures of predictive ability or sensitivity-to-change for both tasks during dual-task performance as well as for the single balance and cognitive task. Out of 114 dual-task studies in older people, 19 articles matched the inclusion criteria. Fourteen studies had sample sizes of 60 subjects or less; the studied populations, task combinations as well as other methodological aspects varied. None of the articles reported the same statistical measures for both tasks during dual-task performance as well as single balance and cognitive task. In two studies with prospective data collection of falls, higher odds ratios were found for the dual compared to the single balance task. Upon the available literature, conclusions for an added value of dual balance tasks for fall prediction or assessing fall intervention effects cannot be made due to incomplete comparisons of single and dual balance tasks

  3. Effort provides its own reward: endeavors reinforce subjective expectation and evaluation of task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zheng, Jiehui; Meng, Liang

    2017-04-01

    Although many studies have investigated the relationship between the amount of effort invested in a certain task and one's attitude towards the subsequent reward, whether exerted effort would impact one's expectation and evaluation of performance feedback itself still remains to be examined. In the present study, two types of calculation tasks that varied in the required effort were adopted, and we resorted to electroencephalography to probe the temporal dynamics of how exerted effort would affect one's anticipation and evaluation of performance feedback. In the high-effort condition, a more salient stimulus-preceding negativity was detected during the anticipation stage, which was accompanied with a more salient FRN/P300 complex (a more positive P300 and a less negative feedback-related negativity) in response to positive outcomes in the evaluation stage. These results suggested that when more effort was invested, an enhanced anticipatory attention would be paid toward one's task performance feedback and that positive outcomes would be subjectively valued to a greater extent.

  4. BOLD subjective value signals exhibit robust range adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Karin M; Kable, Joseph W

    2014-12-03

    Many theories of decision making assume that choice options are assessed along a common subjective value (SV) scale. The neural correlates of SV are widespread and reliable, despite the wide variation in the range of values over which decisions are made (e.g., between goods worth a few dollars, in some cases, or hundreds of dollars, in others). According to adaptive coding theories (Barlow, 1961), an efficient value signal should exhibit range adaptation, such that neural activity maintains a fixed dynamic range, and the slope of the value response varies inversely with the range of values within the local context. Although monkey data have demonstrated range adaptation in single-unit correlates of value (Padoa-Schioppa, 2009; Kobayashi et al., 2010), whether BOLD value signals exhibit similar range adaptation is unknown. To test for this possibility, we presented human participants with choices between a fixed immediate and variable delayed payment options. Across two conditions, the delayed options' SVs spanned either a narrow or wide range. SV-tracking activity emerged in the posterior cingulate, ventral striatum, anterior cingulate, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Throughout this network, we observed evidence consistent with the predictions of range adaptation: the SV response slope increased in the narrow versus wide range, with statistically significant slope changes confirmed for the posterior cingulate and ventral striatum. No regions exhibited a reliably increased BOLD activity range in the wide versus narrow condition. Our observations of range adaptation present implications for the interpretation of BOLD SV responses that are measured across different contexts or individuals. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3316533-11$15.00/0.

  5. Perceptions of Classroom Assessment Tasks: An Interplay of Gender, Subject Area, and Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharusi, Hussain Ali; Al-Hosni, Salim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates students' perceptions of classroom assessment tasks as a function of gender, subject area, and grade level. Data from 2753 students on Dorman and Knightley's (2006) Perceptions of Assessment Tasks Inventory (PATI) were analyzed in a MANOVA design. Results showed that students tended to hold positive perceptions of their…

  6. Objectifying the Subjective: Building Blocks of Metacognitive Experiences in Conflict Tasks : Objectifying The Subjective

    OpenAIRE

    Questienne, Laurence; Atas; Burle, Boris; Gevers, Wim

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Metacognitive appraisals are essential for optimizing our information processing. In conflict tasks, metacognitive appraisals can result from different inter-related features (e.g. motor activity, visual awareness, response speed, etc.). Thanks to an original approach combining behavioral and electromyographic measures, the current study objectified the contribution of three features (reaction time, motor hesitation with and without response competition, and visual con...

  7. A multilevel approach to relating subjective workload to performance after shifts in task demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mracek, Derek L; Arsenault, Matthew L; Day, Eric Anthony; Hardy, Jay H; Terry, Robert A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this laboratory experiment was to demonstrate how taking a longitudinal, multilevel approach can be used to examine the dynamic relationship between subjective workload and performance over a given period of activity involving shifts in task demand. Subjective workload and conditions of the performance environment are oftentimes examined via cross-sectional designs without distinguishing within-from between-person effects. Given the dynamic nature of performance phenomena, multilevel designs coupled with manipulations of task demand shifts are needed to better model the dynamic relationships between state and trait components of subjective workload and performance. With a sample of 75 college students and a computer game representing a complex decision-making environment, increases and decreases in task demand were counterbalanced and subjective workload and performance were measured concurrently in regular intervals within performance episodes. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Both between- and especially within-person effects were dynamic. Nevertheless, at both levels of analysis, higher subjective workload reflected performance problems, especially more downstream from increases in task demand. As a function of cognitive-energetic processes, shifts in task demand are associated with changes in how subjective workload is related to performance over a given period of activity. Multilevel, longitudinal approaches are useful for distinguishing and examining the dynamic relationships between state and trait components of subjective workload and performance. The findings of this research help to improve the understanding of how a sequence of demands can exceed a performer's capability to respond to further demands.

  8. Relationships among motivation (self-efficacy and task value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that four motivational constructs (self-efficacy, intrinsic value, attainment value and cost), and four writing strategy categories (metacognitive, cognitive, affective and effort regulation) were significantly related to writing performance. The study also found that intrinsic value and self-efficacy contributed ...

  9. Assessment of dual tasking has no clinical value for fall prediction in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, K.; Esselink, R.A.J.; Weiss, A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Bloem, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the value of dual-task performance for the prediction of falls inpatients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Two hundred sixty three patients with PD (H&Y 1-3, 65.2 +/- 7.9 years)walked two times along a 10-m trajectory, both under single-task and dual-task

  10. Changes in Self-Efficacy and Task Value in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether course content self-efficacy, online technologies self-efficacy, and task value change over the course of a semester. Sixty-nine participating students from four classes provided data through two instruments: (1) the self-efficacy instrument and (2) the task value instrument. Students' self-efficacy…

  11. Interaction between Task Values and Self-Efficacy on Maladaptive Achievement Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeesoo; Bong, Mimi; Kim, Sung-il

    2014-01-01

    We tested the interaction between task value and self-efficacy on defensive pessimism, academic cheating, procrastination and self-handicapping among 574 Korean 11th graders in the context of English as a foreign language. We hypothesised that perceiving high value in tasks or domains for which self-efficacy was low would pose a threat to…

  12. EEG-response consistency across subjects in an active oddball task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Höller

    Full Text Available The active oddball paradigm is a candidate task for voluntary brain activation. Previous research has focused on group effects, and has largely overlooked the potential problem of interindividual differences. Interindividual variance causes problems with the interpretation of group-level results. In this study we want to demonstrate the degree of consistency in the active oddball task across subjects, in order to answer the question of whether this task is able to reliably detect conscious target processing in unresponsive patients. We asked 18 subjects to count rare targets and to ignore frequent standards and rare distractors in an auditory active oddball task. Event-related-potentials (ERPs and time-frequency data were analyzed with permutation-t-tests on a single subject level. We plotted the group-average ERPs and time-frequency data, and evaluated the numbers of subjects showing significant differences between targets and distractors in certain time-ranges. The distinction between targets/distractors and standards was found to be significant in the time-range of the P300 in all participants. In contrast, significant differences between targets and distractors in the time-range of the P3a/b were found in 8 subjects, only. By including effects in the N1 and in a late negative component there remained 2 subjects who did not show a distinction between targets and distractors in the ERP. While time-frequency data showed prominent effects for target/distractor vs. standard, significant differences between targets and distractors were found in 2 subjects, only. The results suggest that time-frequency- and ERP-analysis of the active oddball task may not be sensitive enough to detect voluntary brain activation in unresponsive patients. In addition, we found that time-frequency analysis was even less informative than ERPs about the subject's task performance. Despite suggesting the use of more sensitive paradigms and/or analysis techniques, the

  13. Subjective Scoring of Divergent Thinking: Examining the Reliability of Unusual Uses, Instances, and Consequences Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The present research examined the reliability of three types of divergent thinking tasks (unusual uses, instances, consequences/implications) and two types of subjective scoring (an average across all responses vs. the responses people chose as their top-two responses) within a latent variable framework, using the maximal-reliability "H"…

  14. Objectifying the Subjective: Building Blocks of Metacognitive Experiences in Conflict Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Questienne, Laurence; Atas, Anne; Burle, Boris; Gevers, Wim

    2017-11-20

    Metacognitive appraisals are essential for optimizing our information processing. In conflict tasks, metacognitive appraisals can result from different interrelated features (e.g., motor activity, visual awareness, response speed). Thanks to an original approach combining behavioral and electromyographic measures, the current study objectified the contribution of three features (reaction time [RT], motor hesitation with and without response competition, and visual congruency) to the subjective experience of urge-to-err in a priming conflict task. Both RT and motor hesitation with response competition were major determinants of metacognitive appraisals. Importantly, motor hesitation in absence of response competition and visual congruency had limited effect. Because science aims to rely on objectivity, subjective experiences are often discarded from scientific inquiry. The current study shows that subjectivity can be objectified. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Lateralization effects during semantic and rhyme judgement tasks in deaf and hearing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Murielle; Leybaert, Jacqueline

    2003-11-01

    A visual hemifield experiment investigated hemispheric specialization among hearing children and adults and prelingually, profoundly deaf youngsters who were exposed intensively to Cued Speech (CS). Of interest was whether deaf CS users, who undergo a development of phonology and grammar of the spoken language similar to that of hearing youngsters, would display similar laterality patterns in the processing of written language. Semantic, rhyme, and visual judgement tasks were used. In the visual task no VF advantage was observed. A RVF (left hemisphere) advantage was obtained for both the deaf and the hearing subjects for the semantic task, supporting Neville's claim that the acquisition of competence in the grammar of language is critical in establishing the specialization of the left hemisphere for language. For the rhyme task, however, a RVF advantage was obtained for the hearing subjects, but not for the deaf ones, suggesting that different neural resources are recruited by deaf and hearing subjects. Hearing the sounds of language may be necessary to develop left lateralised processing of rhymes.

  16. Assessment of dual tasking has no clinical value for fall prediction in Parkinson’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aner Weiss; Rianne Esselink; Alexander Geurts; Roy Kessels; Bastiaan Bloem; Katrijn Smulders

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the value of dual-task performance for the prediction of falls inpatients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Two hundred sixty three patients with PD (H&Y 1–3, 65.2 ± 7.9 years)walked two times along a 10-m trajectory, both under single-task and dual-task

  17. Reward-based training of recurrent neural networks for cognitive and value-based tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H Francis; Yang, Guangyu R; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2017-01-01

    Trained neural network models, which exhibit features of neural activity recorded from behaving animals, may provide insights into the circuit mechanisms of cognitive functions through systematic analysis of network activity and connectivity. However, in contrast to the graded error signals commonly used to train networks through supervised learning, animals learn from reward feedback on definite actions through reinforcement learning. Reward maximization is particularly relevant when optimal behavior depends on an animal’s internal judgment of confidence or subjective preferences. Here, we implement reward-based training of recurrent neural networks in which a value network guides learning by using the activity of the decision network to predict future reward. We show that such models capture behavioral and electrophysiological findings from well-known experimental paradigms. Our work provides a unified framework for investigating diverse cognitive and value-based computations, and predicts a role for value representation that is essential for learning, but not executing, a task. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21492.001 PMID:28084991

  18. Biochemical reference values in elderly black subjects | Bester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical reference values for the black age group of ≥ 65 years were determined from the black urban population of the Orange Free State. Biochemical investigations performed were those included in the Sequential Multiple Analyser Computer profile because it includes the 20 most requested clinical chemistry ...

  19. Neuromuscular control of scapula muscles during a voluntary task in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C M; Søgaard, Karen; Chreiteh, S S

    2013-01-01

    Imbalance of neuromuscular activity in the scapula stabilizers in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome (SIS) is described in restricted tasks and specific populations. Our aim was to compare the scapular muscle activity during a voluntary movement task in a general population with and w......Imbalance of neuromuscular activity in the scapula stabilizers in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome (SIS) is described in restricted tasks and specific populations. Our aim was to compare the scapular muscle activity during a voluntary movement task in a general population...... with and without SIS (n=16, No-SIS=15). Surface electromyography was measured from Serratus anterior (SA) and Trapezius during bilateral arm elevation (no-load, 1kg, 3kg). Mean relative muscle activity was calculated for SA and the upper (UT) and lower part of trapezius (LWT), in addition to activation ratio...... and time to activity onset. In spite of a tendency to higher activity among SIS 0.10-0.30 between-group differences were not significant neither in ratio of muscle activation 0.80-0.98 nor time to activity onset 0.53-0.98. The hypothesized between-group differences in neuromuscular activity of Trapezius...

  20. Subject-independent modeling and representation data on the formation and distribution of innovative value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Aleksey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating an innovation environment is shown in the context of interaction of economic agents in the creation and consumption of innovative value-based infrastructure approach. The problem of the complexity of collecting heterogeneous data on the formation and distribution of innovative value in the conditions of the dynamic nature of the research object and the environment is formulated. An information model providing a subject-independent representation of data on innovation value flows is proposed and allows to automate the processes of data collection and analysis with the minimization of time costs. The article was prepared in the course of carrying out research work within the framework of the project part of the state task in the field of scientific activity in accordance with the assignment 26.2758.2017 / 4.6 for 2017-2019. on the topic “System for analyzing the formation and distribution of the value of innovative products based on the infrastructure concept”.

  1. Chinese Preservice Teachers’ Professional Identity Links with Education Program Performance: The Roles of Task Value Belief and Learning Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Hawk, Skyler T.; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Professional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers’ career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education) and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning motivation, extrinsic learning motivation, and performance in the education program. Grade-point average (GPA) of courses (both subject and pedagogy courses) was examined as an indicator of performance, and questionnaires were used to measure the remaining variables. Data from 606 preservice teachers in the first 3 years of a teacher-training program indicated that: (1) variables in this research were all significantly correlated with each other, except the correlation between intrinsic learning motivation and program performance; (2) professional identity was positively linked to task value belief, intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivations, and program performance in a structural equation model (SEM); (3) task value belief was positively linked to intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivation; (4) higher extrinsic (but not intrinsic) learning motivation was associated with increased program performance; and (5) task value belief and extrinsic learning motivation were significant mediators in the model. PMID:27199810

  2. Chinese Preservice Teachers' Professional Identity Links with Education Program Performance: The Roles of Task Value Belief and Learning Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Hawk, Skyler T; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Professional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers' career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education) and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning motivation, extrinsic learning motivation, and performance in the education program. Grade-point average (GPA) of courses (both subject and pedagogy courses) was examined as an indicator of performance, and questionnaires were used to measure the remaining variables. Data from 606 preservice teachers in the first 3 years of a teacher-training program indicated that: (1) variables in this research were all significantly correlated with each other, except the correlation between intrinsic learning motivation and program performance; (2) professional identity was positively linked to task value belief, intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivations, and program performance in a structural equation model (SEM); (3) task value belief was positively linked to intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivation; (4) higher extrinsic (but not intrinsic) learning motivation was associated with increased program performance; and (5) task value belief and extrinsic learning motivation were significant mediators in the model.

  3. Chinese preservice teachers’ professional identity links with education program performance: The roles of task value belief and learning motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eZhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractProfessional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers’ career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning motivation, extrinsic learning motivation, and performance in the education program. Grade-point average (GPA of courses (both subject and pedagogy courses was examined as an indicator of performance, and questionnaires were used to measure the remaining variables. Data from 606 preservice teachers in the first three years of a teacher-training program indicated that: (1 variables in this research were all significantly correlated with each other, except the correlation between intrinsic learning motivation and program performance; (2 professional identity was positively linked to task value belief, intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivations, and program performance in a structural equation model (SEM; (3 task value belief was positively linked to intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivation; (4 higher extrinsic (but not intrinsic learning motivation was associated with increased program performance; and (5 task value belief and extrinsic learning motivation were significant mediators in the model.

  4. A new task scheduling algorithm based on value and time for cloud platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Ling; Zhang, Lichen

    2017-08-01

    Tasks scheduling, a key part of increasing resource utilization and enhancing system performance, is a never outdated problem especially in cloud platforms. Based on the value density algorithm of the real-time task scheduling system and the character of the distributed system, the paper present a new task scheduling algorithm by further studying the cloud technology and the real-time system: Least Level Value Density First (LLVDF). The algorithm not only introduces some attributes of time and value for tasks, it also can describe weighting relationships between these properties mathematically. As this feature of the algorithm, it can gain some advantages to distinguish between different tasks more dynamically and more reasonably. When the scheme was used in the priority calculation of the dynamic task scheduling on cloud platform, relying on its advantage, it can schedule and distinguish tasks with large amounts and many kinds more efficiently. The paper designs some experiments, some distributed server simulation models based on M/M/C model of queuing theory and negative arrivals, to compare the algorithm against traditional algorithm to observe and show its characters and advantages.

  5. Measuring Cognitive Task Demands Using Dual-Task Methodology, Subjective Self-Ratings, and Expert Judgments: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Gilabert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the usefulness of dual-task methodology, self-ratings, and expert judgments in assessing task-generated cognitive demands as a way to provide validity evidence for manipulations of task complexity. The participants were 96 students and 61 English as a second language (ESL) teachers. The students, 48 English native speakers and…

  6. Parental influences on students' self-concept, task value beliefs, and achievement in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senler, Burcu; Sungur, Semra

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: firstly, to investigate the grade level (elementary and middle school) and gender effect on students' motivation in science (perceived academic science self-concept and task value) and perceived family involvement, and secondly to examine the relationship among family environment variables (fathers' educational level, mothers' educational level, and perceived family involvement), motivation, gender and science achievement in elementary and middle schools. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) showed that elementary school students have more positive science self-concept and task value beliefs compared to middle school students. Moreover, elementary school students appeared to perceive more family involvement in their schooling. Path analyses also suggested that family involvement was directly linked to elementary school students' task value and achievement. Also, in elementary school level, significant relationships were found among father educational level, science self-concept, task value and science achievement. On the other hand, in middle school level, family involvement, father educational level, and mother educational level were positively related to students' task value which is directly linked to students' science achievement. Moreover, mother educational level contributed to science achievement through its effect on self-concept.

  7. Are normal decision-makers sensitive to changes in value contrast under uncertainty? Evidence from the Iowa Gambling Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    We-Kang Lee

    Full Text Available The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT developed by Bechara et al. in 1994 is used to diagnose patients with Ventromedial Medial Prefrontal Cortex (VMPFC lesions, and it has become a landmark in research on decision making. According to Bechara et al., the manipulation of progressive increments of monetary value can normalize the performance of patients with VMPFC lesions; thus, they developed a computerized version of the IGT. However, the empirical results showed that patients' performances did not improve as a result of this manipulation, which suggested that patients with VMPFC lesions performed myopically for future consequences. Using the original version of the IGT, some IGT studies have demonstrated that increments of monetary value significantly influence the performance of normal subjects in the IGT. However, other research has resulted in inconsistent findings. In this study, we used the computerized IGT (1X-IGT and manipulated the value contrast of progressive increments (i.e., by designing the 10X-IGT, which contained 10 times of progressive increment to investigate the influence of value contrast on the performance of normal subjects. The resulting empirical observations indicated that the value contrast (1X- vs. 10X-IGT of the progressive increment had no effect on the performance of normal subjects. This study also provides a discussion of the issue of value in IGT-related studies. Moreover, we found the "prominent deck B phenomenon" in both versions of the IGT, which indicated that the normal subjects were guided mostly by the gain-loss frequency, rather than by the monetary value contrast. In sum, the behavioral performance of normal subjects demonstrated a low correlation with changes in monetary value, even in the 10X-IGT.

  8. L-theanine and caffeine improve task switching but not intersensory attention or subjective alertness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einöther, Suzanne J L; Martens, Vanessa E G; Rycroft, Jane A; De Bruin, Eveline A

    2010-04-01

    Tea ingredients L-theanine and caffeine have repeatedly been shown to deliver unique cognitive benefits when consumed in combination. The current randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study compared a combination of L-theanine (97 mg) and caffeine (40 mg) to a placebo on two attention tasks and a self-report questionnaire before, and 10 and 60 min after consumption. The combination of L-theanine and caffeine significantly improved attention on a switch task as compared to the placebo, while subjective alertness and intersensory attention were not improved significantly. The results support previous evidence that L-theanine and caffeine in combination can improve attention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. fMRI data from Korean, Chinese and English subjects in a word rhyming judgment task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Cao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the description of data information from a visual word rhyming judgment task in native Korean, native Chinese and native English speakers. You will find fMRI data information including experimental design, MRI protocol, and brain activation results from a conjunction analysis of the three groups of subjects. Other results from the same study were published in “How does language distance between L1 and L2 affect the L2 brain network? An fMRI study of Korean–Chinese–English trilinguals” (Kim et al., 2015 [1].

  10. Emotional Stroop task: effect of word arousal and subject anxiety on emotional interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Thomas; Mériau, Katja; Heekeren, Hauke R; van der Meer, Elke

    2009-05-01

    Inconsistent findings regarding the emotional Stroop effect in healthy subjects may be explained by confounding effects of stimulus valence and arousal, as well as individual differences in anxiety. We examined reaction time data in a healthy sample using the emotional Stroop task while carefully matching arousal level of positive and negative words. Independent of valence, emotional relative to neutral words elicited emotional interference, indicating that arousal determines emotional interference. Independent of valence, emotional words were better re-called and recognized than neutral words. Individual differences in state anxiety were associated with emotional interference, that is, emotional interference was enhanced in subjects with high state anxiety. There was no influence of trait anxiety. These findings indicate that word arousal produces emotional interference independent of valence. State anxiety exacerbates interference of emotional words by further biasing attention towards emotionally salient stimuli.

  11. Entering into dialogue about the mathematical value of contextual mathematising tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Caroline; Chin, Sze Looi; Moala, John Griffith; Choy, Ban Heng

    2017-06-01

    Our project seeks to draw attention to the rich mathematical thinking that is generated when students work on contextual mathematising tasks. We use a design-based research approach to create ways of reporting that raise the visibility of this rich mathematical thinking while retaining and respecting its complexity. These reports will be aimed for three classroom stakeholders: (1) students, who wish to reflect on and enhance their mathematical learning; (2) teachers, who wish to integrate contextual mathematising tasks into their teaching practice and (3) researchers, who seek rich tasks for generating observable instances of mathematical thinking and learning. We anticipate that these reports and the underlying theoretical framework for creating them will contribute to greater awareness of and appreciation for the mathematical value of contextual mathematising tasks in learning, teaching and research.

  12. Evaluating the subject-performed task effect in healthy older adults: relationship with neuropsychological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An enhancement in recall of simple instructions is found when actions are performed in comparison to when they are verbally presented – the subject-performed task (SPT effect. This enhancement has also been found with older adults. However, the reason why older adults, known to present a deficit in episodic memory, have a better performance for this type of information remains unclear. In this article, we explored this effect by comparing the performance on the SPT task with the performance on other tasks, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms that may explain this effect. Objective: We hypothesized that both young and older adult groups should show higher recall in SPT compared with the verbal learning condition, and that the differences between age groups should be lower in the SPT condition. We aimed to explore the correlations between these tasks and known neuropsychological tests, and we also measured source memory for the encoding condition. Design: A mixed design was used with 30 healthy older adults, comparing their performance with 30 healthy younger adults. Each participant was asked to perform 16 simple instructions (SPT condition and to only read the other 16 instructions (Verbal condition – VT. The test phase included a free recall task. Participants were also tested with a set of neuropsychological measures (speed of processing, working memory and verbal episodic memory. Results: The SPT effect was found for both age groups; but even for SPT materials, group differences in recall persisted. Source memory was found to be preserved for the two groups. Simple correlations suggested differences in correlates of SPT performance between the two groups. However, when controlling for age, the SPT and VT tasks correlate with each other, and a measure of episodic memory correlated moderately with both SPT and VT performance. Conclusions: A strong effect of SPT was observed for all but one, which still displayed the

  13. Valuing STEM majors: The role of occupational-academic ego-identity status and task values in STEM persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Anthony C.

    Students who initially choose STEM majors frequently switch to non-STEM majors. Additionally, there are national concerns over the paucity of homegrown scientists, and college is a potentially critical period when many potential scientists are lost. The aim of this study was to examine, over the course of a semester, the role of identity formation and motivation in students' intent to leave a STEM major. Participants included 363 diverse undergraduate science students enrolled in chemistry II. Measures of achieved ego-identity status, competency beliefs, task values, perceived costs, interest, self-efficacy, chemistry II grades, and intent to leave a STEM major were given over four waves of data collection. Regression analysis and cross-lagged path analysis were the primary analytical methods. Results revealed that achieved ego-identity status significantly predicted competency beliefs, values/interest, and effort costs; however, achieved ego-identity status was not related to opportunity or psychological costs. Competency beliefs of the major was a significant predictor of chemistry II grades, and values and effort cost were significant predictors of intent to leave STEM. Opportunity cost was only significantly related to intent to leave STEM at the end of the semester and psychological cost was not significantly related to students' intent to leave STEM. These results provide evidence for theorized relationships between identity formation, competency beliefs, task values, and perceived costs. Furthermore, perceived cost was demonstrated to be a multi-dimensional construct with important implications for students' intent to leave STEM.

  14. Development and Confirmatory Factory Analysis of the Achievement Task Value Scale for University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yu-Chiung; Lin, Hsiao-Fang; Lin, Chin-Wen

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the study were (a) to develop a scale to measure university students' task value and (b) to use confirmatory factor analytic techniques to investigate the construct validity of the scale. The questionnaire items were developed based on theoretical considerations and the final version contained 38 items divided into 4 subscales.…

  15. Implementation of a Performance Task for Developing the Value of Love of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktepe, Vedat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the love of nature performance task on the opinions and attitudes of 4th grade primary school students at the Science and Art center towards their value of love of nature. The mixed method was used by means of both quantitative and qualitative research models. The experimental group…

  16. Evaluation of subjective image quality in relation to diagnostic task for cone beam computed tomography with different fields of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofthag-Hansen, Sara; Thilander-Klang, Anne; Gröndahl, Kerstin

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate subjective image quality for two diagnostic tasks, periapical diagnosis and implant planning, for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using different exposure parameters and fields of view (FOVs). Examinations were performed in posterior part of the jaws on a skull phantom with 3D Accuitomo (FOV 3 cm×4 cm) and 3D Accuitomo FPD (FOVs 4 cm×4 cm and 6 cm×6 cm). All combinations of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80 kV and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 mA with a rotation of 180° and 360° were used. Dose-area product (DAP) value was determined for each combination. The images were presented, displaying the object in axial, cross-sectional and sagittal views, without scanning data in a random order for each FOV and jaw. Seven observers assessed image quality on a six-point rating scale. Intra-observer agreement was good (κw=0.76) and inter-observer agreement moderate (κw=0.52). Stepwise logistic regression showed kV, mA and diagnostic task to be the most important variables. Periapical diagnosis, regardless jaw, required higher exposure parameters compared to implant planning. Implant planning in the lower jaw required higher exposure parameters compared to upper jaw. Overall ranking of FOVs gave 4 cm×4 cm, 6 cm×6 cm followed by 3 cm×4 cm. This study has shown that exposure parameters should be adjusted according to diagnostic task. For this particular CBCT brand a rotation of 180° gave good subjective image quality, hence a substantial dose reduction can be achieved without loss of diagnostic information. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The amblyopic eye in subjects with anisometropia show increased saccadic latency in the delayed saccade task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej ePerdziak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The term amblyopia is used to describe reduced visual function in one eye (or both eyes, though not so often which cannot be fully improved by refractive correction and explained by the organic cause observed during regular eye examination. This developmental disorder of spatial vision affects about 2-5% of the population and is associated with abnormal visual experience (e.g. anisometropia, strabismus during infancy or early childhood. Several studies have shown prolongation of saccadic latency time in amblyopic eye. In our opinion, study of saccadic latency in the context of central vision deficits assessment, should be based on central retina stimulation. For this reason, we proposed saccade delayed task. It requires inhibitory processing for maintaining fixation on the central target until it disappears – what constitutes the GO signal for saccade. The experiment consisted of 100 trials for each eye and was performed under two viewing conditions: monocular amblyopic / non-dominant eye and monocular dominant eye. We examined saccadic latency in 16 subjects (mean age 30±11 years with anisometropic amblyopia (two subjects had also microtropia and in 17 control subjects (mean age 28±8 years. Participants were instructed to look at central (fixation target and when it disappears, to make the saccade toward the periphery (10 deg as fast as possible, either left or the right target. The study results have proved the significant difference in saccadic latency between the amblyopic (mean 262±48 ms and dominant (mean 237±45 ms eye, in anisometropic group. In the control group, the saccadic latency for dominant (mean 226±32ms and non-dominant (mean 230±29 ms eye was not significantly different.By the use of LATER (Linear Approach to the Threshold with Ergodic Rate decision model we interpret our findings as a decrease in accumulation of visual information acquired by means of central (affected retina in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia.

  18. On the almost inconceivable misunderstandings concerning the subject of value-free social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald

    2013-12-01

    A value judgment says what is good or bad, and value-free social science simply means social science free of value judgments. Yet many sociologists regard value-free social science as undesirable or impossible and readily make value judgments in the name of sociology. Often they display confusion about such matters as the meaning of value-free social science, value judgments internal and external to social science, value judgments as a subject of social science, the relevance of objectivity for value-free social science, and the difference between the human significance of social science and value-free social science. But why so many sociologists are so value-involved - and generally so unscientific - is sociologically understandable: The closest and most distant subjects attract the least scientific ideas. And during the past century sociologists have become increasingly close to their human subject. The debate about value-free social science is also part of an epistemological counterrevolution of humanists (including many sociologists) against the more scientific social scientists who invaded and threatened to expropriate the human subject during the past century. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  19. Taking Teacher Education to Task: Exploring the Role of Faculty Education in Promoting Values and Moral Education of Task-Based Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Gabriel C. Delariarte

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available - This study aimed to determine the taking teacher education to task: exploring the role of teacher education in promoting values and moral education of task-based language teaching in the college of education of West Visayas State University Calinog-Campus for the school year 2012-2013. Descriptive research method was utilized in the study. The findings revealed that the respondents perceived highly observable Teachers’ role in promoting values and moral education of task-based language teaching; the entire group of respondents has perceived highly observable Teachers’ role in promoting values and moral education of task-based language teaching; both male and female respondent have perceived a highly observable Teachers’ role in promoting values and moral education of task-based language teaching; all age brackets have perceived a highly observable Teachers’ role in promoting values and moral education of task-based language teaching except 19 to 20 brackets that perceived very highly observable Teachers’ role in promoting values and moral education of taskbased language teaching. Finally, there is no significant difference in the perceived teacher’s role in promoting values and moral education of task-based language teaching when classified as to sex and age.

  20. Cognitive processes affect the gait of subjects with Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease in dual tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Christofoletti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relation between gait parameters and cognitive impairments in subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD and Alzheimer’s disease (AD during the performance of dual tasks. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 126 subjects divided into three groups: Parkinson group (n = 43, Alzheimer group (n = 38, and control group (n = 45. The subjects were evaluated using the Timed Up and Go test administered with motor and cognitive distracters. Gait analyses consisted of cadence and speed measurements, with cognitive functions being assessed by the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery and the Clock Drawing Test. Statistical procedures included mixed-design analyses of variance to observe the gait patterns between groups and tasks and the linear regression model to investigate the influence of cognitive functions in this process. A 5% significant level was adopted. Results Regarding the subjects’ speed, the data show a significant difference between group vs task interaction (p = 0.009, with worse performance of subjects with PD in motor dual task and of subjects with AD in cognitive dual task. With respect to cadence, no statistical differences was seen between group vs task interaction (p = 0.105, showing low interference of the clinical conditions on such parameter. The linear regression model showed that up to 45.79%, of the variance in gait can be explained by the interference of cognitive processes. Conclusion Dual task activities affect gait pattern in subjects with PD and AD. Differences between groups reflect peculiarities of each disease and show a direct interference of cognitive processes on complex tasks.

  1. Neural mechanisms underlying contextual dependency of subjective values: converging evidence from monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abitbol, Raphaëlle; Lebreton, Maël; Hollard, Guillaume; Richmond, Barry J; Bouret, Sébastien; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2015-02-04

    A major challenge for decision theory is to account for the instability of expressed preferences across time and context. Such variability could arise from specific properties of the brain system used to assign subjective values. Growing evidence has identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) as a key node of the human brain valuation system. Here, we first replicate this observation with an fMRI study in humans showing that subjective values of painting pictures, as expressed in explicit pleasantness ratings, are specifically encoded in the VMPFC. We then establish a bridge with monkey electrophysiology, by comparing single-unit activity evoked by visual cues between the VMPFC and the orbitofrontal cortex. At the neural population level, expected reward magnitude was only encoded in the VMPFC, which also reflected subjective cue values, as expressed in Pavlovian appetitive responses. In addition, we demonstrate in both species that the additive effect of prestimulus activity on evoked activity has a significant impact on subjective values. In monkeys, the factor dominating prestimulus VMPFC activity was trial number, which likely indexed variations in internal dispositions related to fatigue or satiety. In humans, prestimulus VMPFC activity was externally manipulated through changes in the musical context, which induced a systematic bias in subjective values. Thus, the apparent stochasticity of preferences might relate to the VMPFC automatically aggregating the values of contextual features, which would bias subsequent valuation because of temporal autocorrelation in neural activity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/352308-13$15.00/0.

  2. RESEARCHES ON THE ACTIVITY OF SOME ENZYMES WITH DIAGNOSIS VALUE IN SUBJECTS SUFFERING FROM HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Mirela Amariei

    2012-06-01

    deviations from the physiologically normal values were noticed, all the other investigated subjects show values higher than the superior limit of the reference interval while, statistically, the values of the seric enzymes are highly significant (p<0.001, with the exception of those of aspartat-aminotransferase (in the 71-86 years group and of Ȗ-glutamyl- transferase (the 41-50 year group, which are insignificant.

  3. The sentence verification task: a reliable fMRI protocol for mapping receptive language in individual subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuan, Ana; Avila, Cesar [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain); Forn, Cristina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Rodriguez-Pujadas, Aina; Garcia-Porcar, Maria [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Belloch, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Eresa, Servicio de Radiologia, Valencia (Spain); Villanueva, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    To test the capacity of a sentence verification (SV) task to reliably activate receptive language areas. Presurgical evaluation of language is useful in predicting postsurgical deficits in patients who are candidates for neurosurgery. Productive language tasks have been successfully elaborated, but more conflicting results have been found in receptive language mapping. Twenty-two right-handed healthy controls made true-false semantic judgements of brief sentences presented auditorily. Group maps showed reliable functional activations in the frontal and temporoparietal language areas. At the individual level, the SV task showed activation located in receptive language areas in 100% of the participants with strong left-sided distributions (mean lateralisation index of 69.27). The SV task can be considered a useful tool in evaluating receptive language function in individual subjects. This study is a first step towards designing the fMRI task which may serve to presurgically map receptive language functions. (orig.)

  4. Optimizing preprocessing and analysis pipelines for single-subject fMRI: 2. Interactions with ICA, PCA, task contrast and inter-subject heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Nathan W; Yourganov, Grigori; Oder, Anita; Tam, Fred; Graham, Simon J; Strother, Stephen C

    2012-01-01

    A variety of preprocessing techniques are available to correct subject-dependant artifacts in fMRI, caused by head motion and physiological noise. Although it has been established that the chosen preprocessing steps (or "pipeline") may significantly affect fMRI results, it is not well understood how preprocessing choices interact with other parts of the fMRI experimental design. In this study, we examine how two experimental factors interact with preprocessing: between-subject heterogeneity, and strength of task contrast. Two levels of cognitive contrast were examined in an fMRI adaptation of the Trail-Making Test, with data from young, healthy adults. The importance of standard preprocessing with motion correction, physiological noise correction, motion parameter regression and temporal detrending were examined for the two task contrasts. We also tested subspace estimation using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Results were obtained for Penalized Discriminant Analysis, and model performance quantified with reproducibility (R) and prediction metrics (P). Simulation methods were also used to test for potential biases from individual-subject optimization. Our results demonstrate that (1) individual pipeline optimization is not significantly more biased than fixed preprocessing. In addition, (2) when applying a fixed pipeline across all subjects, the task contrast significantly affects pipeline performance; in particular, the effects of PCA and ICA models vary with contrast, and are not by themselves optimal preprocessing steps. Also, (3) selecting the optimal pipeline for each subject improves within-subject (P,R) and between-subject overlap, with the weaker cognitive contrast being more sensitive to pipeline optimization. These results demonstrate that sensitivity of fMRI results is influenced not only by preprocessing choices, but also by interactions with other experimental design factors. This paper outlines a

  5. High and low schizotypal female subjects do not differ in spatial memory abilities in a virtual reality task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Montes, José Manuel; Noguera, Carmen; Alvarez, Dolores; Ruiz, Marina; Cimadevilla Redondo, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Schizotypy is a psychological construct related to schizophrenia. The exact relationship between both entities is not clear. In recent years, schizophrenia has been associated with hippocampal abnormalities and spatial memory problems. The aim of this study was to determine possible links between high schizotypy (HS) and low schizotypy (LS) and spatial abilities, using virtual reality tasks. We hypothesised that the HS group would exhibit a lower performance in spatial memory tasks than the LS group. Two groups of female students were formed according to their score on the ESQUIZO-Q-A questionnaire. HS and LS subjects were tested on two different tasks: the Boxes Room task, a spatial memory task sensitive to hippocampal alterations and a spatial recognition task. Data showed that both groups mastered both tasks. Groups differed in personality features but not in spatial performance. These results provide valuable information about the schizotypy-schizophrenia connections. Schizotypal subjects are not impaired on spatial cognition and, accordingly, the schizotypy-schizophrenia relationship is not straightforward.

  6. Adolescent-perceived parent and teacher overestimation of mathematics ability: Developmental implications for students' mathematics task values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniewosz, Burkhard; Watt, Helen M G

    2017-07-01

    This study examines whether and how student-perceived parents' and teachers' overestimation of students' own perceived mathematical ability can explain trajectories for adolescents' mathematical task values (intrinsic and utility) controlling for measured achievement, following expectancy-value and self-determination theories. Longitudinal data come from a 3-cohort (mean ages 13.25, 12.36, and 14.41 years; Grades 7-10), 4-wave data set of 1,271 Australian secondary school students. Longitudinal structural equation models revealed positive effects of student-perceived overestimation of math ability by parents and teachers on students' intrinsic and utility math task values development. Perceived parental overestimations predicted intrinsic task value changes between all measurement occasions, whereas utility task value changes only were predicted between Grades 9 and 10. Parental influences were stronger for intrinsic than utility task values. Teacher influences were similar for both forms of task values and commenced after the curricular school transition in Grade 8. Results support the assumptions that the perceived encouragement conveyed by student-perceived mathematical ability beliefs of parents and teachers, promote positive mathematics task values development. Moreover, results point to different mechanisms underlying parents' and teachers' support. Finally, the longitudinal changes indicate transition-related increases in the effects of student-perceived overestimations and stronger effects for intrinsic than utility values. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Predictive value of testing random urine sample to detect microalbuminuria in diabetic subjects during outpatient visit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhanick, B; Berrut, G; Chameau, A M; Hallar, M; Bled, F; Chevet, B; Vergely, J; Rohmer, V; Fressinaud, P; Marre, M

    1992-01-01

    The predictive value of random urine sample during outpatient visit to predict persistent microalbuminuria was studied in 76 Type 1, insulin-dependent diabetic subjects, 61 Type 2, non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects, and 72 Type 2, insulin-treated diabetic subjects. Seventy-six patients attended outpatient clinic during morning, and 133 during afternoon. Microalbuminuria was suspected if Urinary Albumin Excretion (UAE) exceeded 20 mg/l. All patients were hospitalized within 6 months following outpatient visit, and persistent microalbuminuria was assessed then if UAE was between 30 and 300 mg/24 h on 2-3 occasions in 3 urines samples. Of these 209 subjects eighty-three were also screened with Microbumintest (Ames-Bayer), a semi-quantitative method. Among the 209 subjects, 71 were positive both for microalbuminuria during outpatient visit and a persistent microalbuminuria during hospitalization: sensitivity 91.0%, specificity 83.2%, concordance 86.1%, and positive predictive value 76.3% (chi-squared test: 191; p less than 10(-4)). Data were not different for subjects examined on morning, or on afternoon. Among the 83 subjects also screened with Microbumintest, 22 displayed both a positive reaction and a persistent microalbuminuria: sensitivity 76%, specificity 81%, concordance 80%, and positive predictive value 69% (chi-squared test: 126; p less than 10(-4)). Both types of screening appeared equally effective during outpatient visit. Hence, a persistent microalbuminuria can be predicted during an outpatient visit in a diabetic clinic.

  8. Decrease in heart rate variability response to task is related to anxiety and depressiveness in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinba, Toshikazu; Kariya, Nobutoshi; Matsui, Yasue; Ozawa, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that heart rate variability (HRV) measurement is useful in investigating the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders. The present study further examined its usefulness in evaluating the mental health of normal subjects with respect to anxiety and depressiveness. Heart rate (HR) and HRV were measured tonometrically at the wrist in 43 normal subjects not only in the resting condition but also during a task (random number generation) to assess the responsiveness. For HRV measurement, high-frequency (HF; 0.15-0.4 Hz) and low-frequency (LF; 0.04-0.15 Hz) components of HRV were obtained using MemCalc, a time series analysis technique that combines a non-linear least square method with maximum entropy method. For psychological evaluation of anxiety and depressiveness, two self-report questionnaires were used: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). No significant relation was observed between HR and HRV indices, and the psychological scores both in the resting and task conditions. By task application, HF decreased, and LF/HF and HR increased, and significant correlation with psychological scores was found in the responsiveness to task measured by the ratio of HRV and HR indices during the task to that at rest (task/rest ratio). A positive relationship was found between task/rest ratio for HF, and STAI and SDS scores. Task/rest ratio of HR was negatively correlated with STAI-state score. Decreased HRV response to task application is related to anxiety and depressiveness. Decreased autonomic responsiveness could serve as a sign of psychological dysfunction.

  9. Applying an expectancy-value model to study motivators for work-task based information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard, Karen Tølbøl; Skov, Mette

    2015-01-01

    for interpersonal and internal sources increased when the task had high-value motivation or low-expectancy motivation or both. Research limitations/implications: The study is based on a relatively small sample and considers only one motivation theory. This should be addressed in future research along...... with a broadening of the studied group to involve other professions than municipality consultants. Originality/value: Motivational theories from the field of psychology have been used sparsely in studies of information seeking. This study operationalises and verifies such a theory based on a theoretical adaptation......Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to operationalise and verify a cognitive motivation model that has been adapted to information seeking. The original model was presented within the field of psychology. Design/methodology/approach: An operationalisation of the model is presented based...

  10. Anticipatory Emotions in Decision Tasks: Covert Markers of Value or Attentional Processes?

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C.; Maddox, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Anticipatory emotions precede behavioral outcomes and provide a means to infer interactions between emotional and cognitive processes. A number of theories hold that anticipatory emotions serve as inputs to the decision process and code the value or risk associated with a stimulus. We argue that current data do not unequivocally support this theory. We present an alternative theory whereby anticipatory emotions reflect the outcome of a decision process and serve to ready the subject for new i...

  11. Measuring Cognitive Load during Simulation-Based Psychomotor Skills Training: Sensitivity of Secondary-Task Performance and Subjective Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A.; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance…

  12. Evaluating auditory stream segregation of SAM tone sequences by subjective and objective psychoacoustical tasks, and brain activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena-Vanessa eDollezal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Auditory stream segregation refers to a segregated percept of signal streams with different acoustic features. Different approaches have been pursued in studies of stream segregation. In psychoacoustics, stream segregation has mostly been investigated with a subjective task asking the subjects to report their percept. Few studies have applied an objective task in which stream segregation is evaluated indirectly by determining thresholds for a percept that depends on whether auditory streams are segregated or not. Furthermore, both perceptual measures and physiological measures of brain activity have been employed but only little is known about their relation. How the results from different tasks and measures are related is evaluated in the present study using examples relying on the ABA- stimulation paradigm that apply the same stimuli. We presented A and B signals that were sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM tones providing purely temporal, spectral or both types of cues to evaluate perceptual stream segregation and its physiological correlate. Which types of cues are most prominent was determined by the choice of carrier and modulation frequencies (fmod of the signals. In the subjective task subjects reported their percept and in the objective task we measured their sensitivity for detecting time-shifts of B signals in an ABA- sequence. As a further measure of processes underlying stream segregation we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. SAM tone parameters were chosen to evoke an integrated (1-stream, a segregated (2-stream or an ambiguous percept by adjusting the fmod difference between A and B tones (∆fmod. The results of both psychoacoustical tasks are significantly correlated. BOLD responses in fMRI depend on ∆fmod between A and B SAM tones. The effect of ∆fmod, however, differs between auditory cortex and frontal regions suggesting differences in representation related to the degree of perceptual ambiguity of

  13. MECHANISM FOR DESIGNING COMPETENCE-ORIENTED TASKS IN VARIOUS ACADEMIC SUBJECTS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya M. Zhukova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to develop a mechanism for designing competence-oriented tasks in various academic subjects and requirements for its implementation in higher educational establishments. Methods. The authors conducted a theoretical analysis of philosophical, psychological and pedagogical literature sources on the research issues to implement the objectives of the study; Russian and foreign educational experience on the use of study tasks in the study process is studied and summarized; educational and syllabus documentation and training materials are analyzed (syllabi, textbooks, manuals, task and exercise books, etc.; normative documents are studied (State Educational Standards, Federal State Educational Standards, Main Syllabi, curricula, instructional acts, etc.. Empirical research methods involve observation, testing, questioning, modeling, peer review, pedagogical experiment and statistical interpretation of the study results. The study was carried out from 2007 to 2012 in the Engineering-Pedagogical Faculty of Moscow State Agroengineering Goryachkin University. 240 students were engaged in the pedagogical experiment. The following Moscow colleges provided facilities for the peer review of the list and solution frequency of vocational education tasks by secondary vocational school teachers: Colleges of Civil Engineering No 1 and No 12, Small Business College No 48, Polytechnic College No 13, Printing and Publishing College No 56, and Electromechanical College No 55. Results. The research findings demonstrate that the competence-oriented tasks are shown as an integrative didactic unit of professional competence development. Its functions, classification, and structural components are given. The mechanism of designing competence-oriented tasks in various academic subjects is developed and tested. The proposed mechanism is an invariant for academic and teaching staff of educational establishments at all levels of professional

  14. Chinese Preservice Teachers' Professional Identity Links with Education Program Performance: The Roles of Task Value Belief and Learning Motivations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Yan; Hawk, Skyler T; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    .... This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning motivation, extrinsic learning motivation, and performance in the education program...

  15. Predicting surgical skill from the first N seconds of a task: value over task time using the isogony principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Anna; Lendvay, Thomas S; Sweet, Robert M; Kowalewski, Timothy M

    2017-07-01

    Most evaluations of surgical workflow or surgeon skill use simple, descriptive statistics (e.g., time) across whole procedures, thereby deemphasizing critical steps and potentially obscuring critical inefficiencies or skill deficiencies. In this work, we examine off-line, temporal clustering methods that chunk training procedures into clinically relevant surgical tasks or steps during robot-assisted surgery. Features calculated from the isogony principle are used to train four common machine learning algorithms from dry-lab laparoscopic data gathered from three common training exercises. These models are used to predict the binary or ternary skill level of a surgeon. K-fold and leave-one-user-out cross-validation are used to assess the accuracy of the generated models. It is shown that the proposed scalar features can be trained to create 2-class and 3-class classification models that map to fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery skill level with median 85 and 63% accuracy in cross-validation, respectively, for the targeted dataset. Also, it is shown that the 2-class models can discern class at 90% of best-case mean accuracy with only 8 s of data from the start of the task. Novice and expert skill levels of unobserved trials can be discerned using a state vector machine trained with parameters based on the isogony principle. The accuracy of this classification comes within 90% of the classification accuracy from observing the full trial within 10 s of task initiation on average.

  16. Measuring cognitive load during simulation-based psychomotor skills training: sensitivity of secondary-task performance and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-12-01

    As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance (signal detection rate, SDR and recognition reaction time, RRT) as measures of CL. In phase 1 of the study, novice learners and expert surgeons attempted a visual-monitoring task under two conditions: single-task (monitoring a virtual patient's heart-rate) and dual-task (tying surgical knots on a bench-top simulator while monitoring the virtual patient's heart-rate). Novices demonstrated higher mental effort and inferior secondary-task performance on the dual-task compared to experts (RRT 1.76 vs. 0.73, p = 0.012; SDR 0.27 vs. 0.97, p instructional design research are discussed.

  17. Bayesian multi-task learning for decoding multi-subject neuroimaging data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquand, A.F.; Brammer, M.; Williams, S.C.; Doyle, O.M.

    2014-01-01

    Decoding models based on pattern recognition (PR) are becoming increasingly important tools for neuroimaging data analysis. In contrast to alternative (mass-univariate) encoding approaches that use hierarchical models to capture inter-subject variability, inter-subject differences are not typically

  18. The dynamics of interaction of reflexive subjects operating with the two-valued versus many-valued logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Koji; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we aim to approach a model of interacting subjects with the opposite types of reflexion that belong to the Western (W) and Eastern (E) reflexive modes according to Vladimir Lefebvre (1992). The model represents an expansion of the previously developed model of the Double Homunculus (Sawa and Igamberdiev, 2016) that describes reflexive agents as holding "the image of the self in the image of the self". A dialogue model between the two homunculus agents estimating their own reflexion in the opposite ways (generating the two-valued versus many-valued logic and loosely approximated as belonging to the W and E Lefebvre's types) is evolved. At the same time, the argument also unveils the relationship between a difference equation which is the key notion of the model and an emergence of logic. This can be a powerful tool for describing intercommunication of reflexive agents in the social environment as well as interactions between the entire social systems of different types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Distraction and task engagement: How interesting and boring information impact driving performance and subjective and physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrey, William J; Lesch, Mary F; Garabet, Angela; Simmons, Lucinda; Maikala, Rammohan

    2017-01-01

    As more devices and services are integrated into vehicles, drivers face new opportunities to perform additional tasks while driving. While many studies have explored the detrimental effects of varying task demands on driving performance, there has been little attention devoted to tasks that vary in terms of personal interest or investment-a quality we liken to the concept of task engagement. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of task engagement on driving performance, subjective appraisals of performance and workload, and various physiological measurements. In this study, 31 participants (M = 37 yrs) completed three driving conditions in a driving simulator: listening to boring auditory material; listening to interesting material; and driving with no auditory material. Drivers were simultaneously monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy, heart monitoring and eye tracking systems. Drivers exhibited less variability in lane keeping and headway maintenance for both auditory conditions; however, response times to critical braking events were longer in the interesting audio condition. Drivers also perceived the interesting material to be less demanding and less complex, although the material was objectively matched for difficulty. Drivers showed a reduced concentration of cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin when listening to interesting material, compared to baseline and boring conditions, yet they exhibited superior recognition for this material. The practical implications, from a safety standpoint, are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Value and probability coding in a feedback-based learning task utilizing food rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricomi, Elizabeth; Lempert, Karolina M

    2015-01-01

    For the consequences of our actions to guide behavior, the brain must represent different types of outcome-related information. For example, an outcome can be construed as negative because an expected reward was not delivered or because an outcome of low value was delivered. Thus behavioral consequences can differ in terms of the information they provide about outcome probability and value. We investigated the role of the striatum in processing probability-based and value-based negative feedback by training participants to associate cues with food rewards and then employing a selective satiety procedure to devalue one food outcome. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined brain activity related to receipt of expected rewards, receipt of devalued outcomes, omission of expected rewards, omission of devalued outcomes, and expected omissions of an outcome. Nucleus accumbens activation was greater for rewarding outcomes than devalued outcomes, but activity in this region did not correlate with the probability of reward receipt. Activation of the right caudate and putamen, however, was largest in response to rewarding outcomes relative to expected omissions of reward. The dorsal striatum (caudate and putamen) at the time of feedback also showed a parametric increase correlating with the trialwise probability of reward receipt. Our results suggest that the ventral striatum is sensitive to the motivational relevance, or subjective value, of the outcome, while the dorsal striatum codes for a more complex signal that incorporates reward probability. Value and probability information may be integrated in the dorsal striatum, to facilitate action planning and allocation of effort. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Inculcation Nation Character Values Through Islamic Religious Education Subject In Public Senior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustiani Yustiani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cases of cheating, promiscuity, making sordid video student in the classroom are the phenomena of decline in character education at the school. In this sense, character education is essential to emphasized. This research uses qualitative approach, by applying design research CIPP model (Context, Input, Process, and Product. In context of building the nation character values at the school will success on condition that it is accompanied with system and climate supported by each school. One of supporting system and climate is the headmaster's policies on the regulation that support the implementation of character education, and this policy should be supported by infrastructure of the school. The input aspect that determines inculcation of nation character values in these both schools is the quality of the school resources including headmaster, teachers, educational staffs, students, and education infrastructures. From the aspects of process, inculcation nation character values on these schools is implemented through the integration of the Islamic religious education subject and culture of the school. Syllabus and RPP on subjects of Islamic religious education in State Senior High School 1 Kudus and State Senior High School 1 Jepara have already been insightful with the education of nation character. The aspects of product from internalization of cultural values and nation character are embodied in attitudes and behaviors of the students at school and society.

  2. The tolerance and nutritional value of two microfungal foods in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udall, J N; Lo, C W; Young, V R; Scrimshaw, N S

    1984-08-01

    The tolerance of human subjects to two microfungal food products was studied in separate double-blind cross-over studies. As an addition to the subject's usual diets, cookies with and without 20 g of a product from Fusarium graminearium were fed to a group of 100 individuals daily. In a second study, cupcakes with and without 10 g of Paecilomyces variotii were given daily to 50 individuals. Mild rashes possibly related to one of the microfungal food products occurred in two individuals fed P variotii. Except for a decrease in serum cholesterol during the F graminearium study, no significant changes were noted in 17 serum constituents. During nutritive value studies, digestibility, biological value, and net protein utilization were calculated for the two microfungal proteins and for milk. The values for milk were 95, 85, and 80%, respectively. The values for F graminearium were 78, 84, and 65%, respectively. For P variotii corresponding figures were 81, 67, and 54%. On the basis of these results both microfungal foods may be deemed safe for human consumption at the levels tested.

  3. Correlation between spirometry values and pulmonary artery pressure in young healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Alon; Benderly, Michal; Prokupetz, Alex; Gordon, Barak; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is frequently associated with parenchymal lung disease. We evaluated the association between spirometry values and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) in young subjects without lung disease : We studied applicants to the Israeli Air Force, who undergo routine evaluation that includes resting spirometry and echocardiography. Applicants with overt lung disease were excluded. All echocardiographic studies performed in the years 1994 through 2010 (n = 6,598) were screened, and files that included PASP and spirometry values were analyzed for the association between PASP and FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow, and forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the FVC maneuver. Of the 647 air force applicants who underwent echocardiography in which PASP was measurable and had spirometry data, 607 (94%) were male, and their average age was 18.16 ± 0.73 years. Mean PASP was 26.4 ± 5.2 mm Hg (range 10-41 mm Hg). None of the spirometry values significantly correlated with PASP. PASP in young healthy subjects is not significantly associated with spirometry values. Lung mechanics probably do not contribute significantly to PASP in this population.

  4. The Implementation Of Character Education Values In Integrated Physical Education Subject In Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suherman Ayi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of this research emphasizes on the implementation of character building values through physical education learning in elementary school. The effort in developing this character building practice is essential to be done in order to tackle moral and character crises, which already occur in both individual and collective levels reflected in educational institution from elementary school to higher education. Hence, to form culture and national character, educational program and process are inseparable from environmental factor including the values of society, culture, and humanity. Physical education subject that is based on 2013 Curriculum has significant difference compared to the previous physical education subject. This is due to the fact that integrated physical education has its own uniqueness in terms of planning, systematic implementation, and instructional medium. This research aims at producing guidance in implementing character values integrated in physical education in elementary school. The method used in this research is research and development (R&D method, which includes preliminary research, model designing, limited trial, and extensive trial, as well as validation and dissemination. The findings of the research show that character values can be implemented in physical education in elementary schools in Sumedang Regency.

  5. Subjective interpretation, laboratory error and the value of forensic DNA evidence: three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W C

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses two factors that may profoundly affect the value of DNA evidence for proving that two samples have a common source: uncertainty about the interpretation of test results and the possibility of laboratory error. Three case studies are presented to illustrate the importance of the analyst's subjective judgments in interpreting some RFLP-based forensic DNA tests. In each case, the likelihood ratio describing the value of DNA evidence is shown to be dramatically reduced by uncertainty about the scoring of bands and the possibility of laboratory error. The article concludes that statistical estimates of the frequency of matching genotypes can be a misleading index of the value of DNA evidence, and that more adequate indices are needed. It also argues that forensic laboratories should comply with the National Research Council's recommendation that forensic test results be scored in a blind or objective manner.

  6. Variance decomposition for single-subject task-based fMRI activity estimates across many sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Chen, Gang; Nichols, Thomas E; Bandettini, Peter A

    2017-07-01

    Here we report an exploratory within-subject variance decomposition analysis conducted on a task-based fMRI dataset with an unusually large number of repeated measures (i.e., 500 trials in each of three different subjects) distributed across 100 functional scans and 9 to 10 different sessions. Within-subject variance was segregated into four primary components: variance across-sessions, variance across-runs within a session, variance across-blocks within a run, and residual measurement/modeling error. Our results reveal inhomogeneous and distinct spatial distributions of these variance components across significantly active voxels in grey matter. Measurement error is dominant across the whole brain. Detailed evaluation of the remaining three components shows that across-session variance is the second largest contributor to total variance in occipital cortex, while across-runs variance is the second dominant source for the rest of the brain. Network-specific analysis revealed that across-block variance contributes more to total variance in higher-order cognitive networks than in somatosensory cortex. Moreover, in some higher-order cognitive networks across-block variance can exceed across-session variance. These results help us better understand the temporal (i.e., across blocks, runs and sessions) and spatial distributions (i.e., across different networks) of within-subject natural variability in estimates of task responses in fMRI. They also suggest that different brain regions will show different natural levels of test-retest reliability even in the absence of residual artifacts and sufficiently high contrast-to-noise measurements. Further confirmation with a larger sample of subjects and other tasks is necessary to ensure generality of these results. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Adolescent-Perceived Parent and Teacher Overestimation of Mathematics Ability: Developmental Implications for Students' Mathematics Task Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniewosz, Burkhard; Watt, Helen M. G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines whether and how student-perceived parents' and teachers' overestimation of students' own perceived mathematical ability can explain trajectories for adolescents' mathematical task values (intrinsic and utility) controlling for measured achievement, following expectancy-value and self-determination theories. Longitudinal data…

  8. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  9. The Effect of Different Attentional Focus Instructions during Finger Movement Tasks in Healthy Subjects: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Rossettini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available External focus of attention (EFA and internal focus of attention (IFA represent commonly used strategies to instruct subjects during exercise. Several studies showed EFA to be more effective than IFA to improve motor performance and learning. To date the role of these strategies on motor performance during finger movement was less studied. The objective of the study was to investigate motor performance, patient’s preference induced by IFA and EFA, and the focus during control condition. Ten healthy right-handed participants performed a finger movement task in control, EFA, and IFA conditions (counterbalanced. Errors, patient’s preference, and type of attentional focus spontaneously adopted during the control condition were recorded. EFA determined less error (p<0.01 compared to control and IFA. Participants preferred EFA against IFA and control condition. In the control group 10% of subjects adopted a purely EFA, 70% of subjects adopted a purely IFA, and 20% of subjects adopted a mixture of the two foci. Our results confirm that EFA is more effective than IFA and control in finger movement task. Due its clinical relevance, the interaction between attention and finger movement should be further investigated.

  10. Task-related oxygen uptake and symptoms during activities of daily life in CHF patients and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruit, Martijn A; Wouters, Emiel F M; Eterman, Rose-Mieke A; Meijer, Kenneth; Wagers, Scott S; Stakenborg, Koen H P; Uszko-Lencer, Nicole H M K

    2011-08-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have a significantly lower peak aerobic capacity compared to healthy subjects, and, may therefore experience more inconvenience during the performance of domestic activities of daily life (ADLs). To date, the extent to which task-related oxygen uptake, heart rate, ventilation and symptoms during the performance of ADLs in CHF patients is different than in healthy subjects remains uncertain. General demographics, pulmonary function, body composition and peak aerobic capacity were assessed in 23 CHF outpatients and 20 healthy peers. In addition, the metabolic requirement of five simple self-paced domestic ADLs was assessed using a mobile oxycon. Task-related oxygen uptake (ml/min) was similar or lower in CHF patients compared to healthy subjects. In contrast, patients with CHF performing ADLs consumed oxygen at a higher proportion of their peak aerobic capacity than healthy subjects (p CHF experience use a higher proportion of their peak aerobic capacity, peak ventilation and peak heart rate during the performance of simple self-paced domestic ADL than their healthy peers. These findings represent a necessary step in improving our understanding of improving what troubles patients the most-not being able to do the things that they could when they were healthy.

  11. Identification of changes in kinematics and electromyographic parameters during dual-task gait: a comparative study between young and elderly female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Zamfolini Hallal

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction : Falls during gait are one of the leading causes of death and injuries in elderly adults. Objective : This study aimed to compare the performance of young (YG and elderly (EG adults during dual-task gait (using a traffic light simulator according to kinematics and electromyographic parameters. Materials and methods : 17 young and 18 elderly physically fit female subjects participated in this study. The volunteers walked on a treadmill under two different conditions: normal gait (M1 and dual-task gait (M2. We recorded EMG signals from the rectus femoris (RF, vastus medialis (VM, vastus lateralis (VL, biceps femoris (BF, tibialis anterior (TA, gastrocnemius lateralis (GL and soleus (SO. The following kinematic data were obtained: step length, step time and self-selected velocity. Data analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's, Mann-Whitney, T-student tests and T-student for independent samples. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results : For both groups, there was greater muscle activation of the RF, VM, VL, BF and SO during M2 than during M1. The YG showed lower muscle activation of the RF, VM, BF and SO during M2 when compared to EG. The EG had smaller step length than the YG. The step length values detected during M1 were higher than the ones collected during M2. During M2, the YG showed higher step time compared to the EG. Elderly subjects walked at a lower self-selected velocity than young subjects. Conclusions : Our findings suggest that dual-task gait modify the neuromuscular behavior in elderly subjects, increasing the risk of falls.

  12. Serum thyroglobulin reference values according to NACB criteria in healthy subjects with normal thyroid ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Luca; Imperiali, Mauro; Ferrari, Anna; Palumbo, Alessia; Furlani, Lino; Graziani, Maria Stella; Castello, Roberto

    2012-01-26

    The present study was undertaken to establish serum thyroglobulin (Tg) normal reference values in a large group of healthy subjects. Four hundred and thirty-eight non-smoking healthy subjects were selected to assess the Tg reference values (209 males, 229 non-pregnant females, age 34.7±13.1 years). Inclusion criteria were: no personal or familial history of thyroid disease, thyrotropin levels from 0.5 to 2.00 mUI/L, negative thyroperoxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies. In addition, the patients had a normal size thyroid (females ≤18 mL, males ≤25 mL) without nodules on the thyroid ultrasound (TUS). According to National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) criteria the Tg results were transformed to a logarithmic scale and reference ranges were calculated as mean±2 SD. Serum Tg was measured on the Beckman Coulter UniCel DxI 800 automated platform by the simultaneous 1-step immunoenzymatic Access Thyroglobulin assay (Beckmann-Coulter SA, Nyon, Switzerland). Serum Tg levels were higher in females than in males (p=0.0022). Accordingly, gender-specific reference values were calculated (i.e., males: 1.40-29.2 ng/mL; females: 1.50-38.5 ng/mL). To the best of the authors' knowledge, the first reference interval study for Tg that integrates NACB criteria and TUS assessment for the selection of the reference population is provided here.

  13. Less adrenergic response to mental task during verapamil compared to amlodipine treatment in hypertensive subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevre, K; Lefrandt, JD; Eide, [No Value; Smit, AJ; Rostrup, M

    2001-01-01

    We compared the effects of amlodipine and verapamil slow release on autonomic responses to a 5-min mental arithmetic test (MST) in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Twenty subjects received 8 weeks of verapamil slow release 240 mg or amlodipine 10 mg in a double-blind crossover design,

  14. An EMG-driven exoskeleton hand robotic training device on chronic stroke subjects: task training system for stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, N S K; Tong, K Y; Hu, X L; Fung, K L; Wei, X J; Rong, W; Susanto, E A

    2011-01-01

    An exoskeleton hand robotic training device is specially designed for persons after stroke to provide training on their impaired hand by using an exoskeleton robotic hand which is actively driven by their own muscle signals. It detects the stroke person's intention using his/her surface electromyography (EMG) signals from the hemiplegic side and assists in hand opening or hand closing functional tasks. The robotic system is made up of an embedded controller and a robotic hand module which can be adjusted to fit for different finger length. Eight chronic stroke subjects had been recruited to evaluate the effects of this device. The preliminary results showed significant improvement in hand functions (ARAT) and upper limb functions (FMA) after 20 sessions of robot-assisted hand functions task training. With the use of this light and portable robotic device, stroke patients can now practice more easily for the opening and closing of their hands at their own will, and handle functional daily living tasks at ease. A video is included together with this paper to give a demonstration of the hand robotic system on chronic stroke subjects and it will be presented in the conference. © 2011 IEEE

  15. Lower limb muscle activation during the sit-to-stand task in subjects who have had a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudente, Cecília; Rodrigues-de-Paula, Fátima; Faria, Christina D C M

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare electromyographic activities between and within the paretic and nonparetic lower limb muscles during the sit-to-stand (STS) task in subjects with hemiparesis as a result of stroke. This is a cross-sectional study. All monitored muscles of both lower limbs remained active during most of the sit-to-stand task; the muscles were activated before the seat-off and reached the maximum peak of electromyographic activity after the seat-off (P limb, the nonparetic limb exhibited earlier activation of the hamstrings (P muscles of the nonparetic lower limb (P ≥ 0.053), whereas the tibialis anterior of the paretic lower limb was activated before the hamstring and the soleus (P ≤ 0.015). These results illustrate that muscle activation of both limbs during the sit-to-stand task was impaired but in a higher level in the paretic side. Neuromuscular coordination abnormalities were observed in both lower limbs. The paretic limb was unable to recruit the muscles at the proper time and to achieve the amplitude for executing the sit-to-stand task, whereas significant compensations occurred on the nonparetic side.

  16. The human subthalamic nucleus encodes the subjective value of reward and the cost of effort during decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zénon, Alexandre; Duclos, Yann; Carron, Romain; Witjas, Tatiana; Baunez, Christelle; Régis, Jean; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Brown, Peter; Eusebio, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour entails the capacity to select actions as a function of their energy cost and expected value and the disruption of this faculty is now viewed as a possible cause of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Indirect evidence points to the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus—the most common target for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease—in cost-benefit computation. However, this putative function appears at odds with the current view that the subthalamic nucleus is important for adjusting behaviour to conflict. Here we tested these contrasting hypotheses by recording the neuronal activity of the subthalamic nucleus of patients with Parkinson’s disease during an effort-based decision task. Local field potentials were recorded from the subthalamic nucleus of 12 patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (mean age 63.8 years ± 6.8; mean disease duration 9.4 years ± 2.5) both OFF and ON levodopa while they had to decide whether to engage in an effort task based on the level of effort required and the value of the reward promised in return. The data were analysed using generalized linear mixed models and cluster-based permutation methods. Behaviourally, the probability of trial acceptance increased with the reward value and decreased with the required effort level. Dopamine replacement therapy increased the rate of acceptance for efforts associated with low rewards. When recording the subthalamic nucleus activity, we found a clear neural response to both reward and effort cues in the 1–10 Hz range. In addition these responses were informative of the subjective value of reward and level of effort rather than their actual quantities, such that they were predictive of the participant’s decisions. OFF levodopa, this link with acceptance was weakened. Finally, we found that these responses did not index conflict, as they did not vary as a function of the distance from indifference in the acceptance decision. These findings show

  17. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle value proposition study. Phase 1, task 2, select value proposition/business model for further study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    The objective of Task 2 is to identify the combination of value propositions that is : believed to be achievable by 2030 and collectively hold promise for a sustainable : PHEV market by 2030. This deliverable outlines what the project team (with inpu...

  18. The Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of a Dual-Tasking Paradigm in a Memory Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Malene Schjnning; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Siersma, Volkert; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers; Hoegh, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Daily living requires the ability to perform dual-tasking. As cognitive skills decrease in dementia, performing a cognitive and motor task simultaneously become increasingly challenging and subtle gait abnormalities may even be present in pre-dementia stages. Therefore, a dual-tasking paradigm, such as the Timed Up and Go-Dual Task (TUG-DT), may be useful in the diagnostic assessment of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic ability of a dual-tasking paradigm in patients with MCI or mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to evaluate the association between the dual-tasking paradigm and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers. The study is a prospective cohort study conducted in a clinical setting in two memory clinics. Eighty-six patients were included (28 MCI, 17 AD, 41 healthy controls (HC)). The ability to perform dual-tasking was evaluated by the TUG-DT. Patients underwent a standardized diagnostic assessment and were evaluated to determine progression yearly. ROC curve analysis illustrated a high discriminative ability of the dual-tasking paradigm in separating MCI patients from HC (AUC: 0.78, AUC: 0.82) and a moderate discriminative ability in separating MCI from AD (AUC: 0.73, AUC: 0.55). Performance discriminated clearly between all groups (p paradigm for progression and rate of cognitive decline. A moderately strong correlation between the dual-tasking paradigm and CSF AD biomarkers was observed. In our study, we found that patients with MCI and mild AD have increasing difficulties in dual-tasking compared to healthy elderly. Hence, the dual-tasking paradigm may be a potential complement in the diagnostic assessment in a typical clinical setting.

  19. Participant Withdrawal as a Function of Hedonic Value of Task and Time of Semester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellone, John A.; Navarick, Douglas J.; Mendoza, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduates participating in experiments late in the semester generally perform more poorly on demanding tasks and withdraw more often than those participating early. To investigate effects of task aversiveness, some participants were instructed to choose brief cartoon reinforcement with a long time-out while others were instructed to choose…

  20. Subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis definition in Hill-type model predicts higher muscle forces in dynamic tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Gerus

    Full Text Available Neuromusculoskeletal models are a common method to estimate muscle forces. Developing accurate neuromusculoskeletal models is a challenging task due to the complexity of the system and large inter-subject variability. The estimation of muscles force is based on the mechanical properties of tendon-aponeurosis complex. Most neuromusculoskeletal models use a generic definition of the tendon-aponeurosis complex based on in vitro test, perhaps limiting their validity. Ultrasonography allows subject-specific estimates of the tendon-aponeurosis complex's mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of subject-specific mechanical properties of the tendon-aponeurosis complex on a neuromusculoskeletal model of the ankle joint. Seven subjects performed isometric contractions from which the tendon-aponeurosis force-strain relationship was estimated. Hopping and running tasks were performed and muscle forces were estimated using subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis and generic tendon properties. Two ultrasound probes positioned over the muscle-tendon junction and the mid-belly were combined with motion capture to estimate the in vivo tendon and aponeurosis strain of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle. The tendon-aponeurosis force-strain relationship was scaled for the other ankle muscles based on tendon and aponeurosis length of each muscle measured by ultrasonography. The EMG-driven model was calibrated twice - using the generic tendon definition and a subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis force-strain definition. The use of subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis definition leads to a higher muscle force estimate for the soleus muscle and the plantar-flexor group, and to a better model prediction of the ankle joint moment compared to the model estimate which used a generic definition. Furthermore, the subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis definition leads to a decoupling behaviour between the muscle fibre and muscle-tendon unit

  1. The application of subjective job task analysis techniques in physically demanding occupations: evidence for the presence of self-serving bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Bates, Benjamin; Billing, Daniel C; Caputi, Peter; Carstairs, Greg L; Linnane, Denise; Middleton, Kane

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if perceptions of physically demanding job tasks are biased by employee demographics and employment profile characteristics including: age, sex, experience, length of tenure, rank and if they completed or supervised a task. Surveys were administered to 427 Royal Australian Navy personnel who characterised 33 tasks in terms of physical effort, importance, frequency, duration and vertical/horizontal distance travelled. Results showed no evidence of bias resulting from participant characteristics, however participants who were actively involved in both task participation and supervision rated these tasks as more important than those involved only in the supervision of that task. This may indicate self-serving bias in which participants that are more actively involved in a task had an inflated perception of that task's importance. These results have important implications for the conduct of job task analyses, especially the use of subjective methodologies in the development of scientifically defensible physical employment standards. Practitioner Summary: To examine the presence of systematic bias in subjective job task analysis methodologies, a survey was conducted on a sample of Royal Australian Navy personnel. The relationship between job task descriptions and participant's demographic and job profile characteristics revealed the presence of self-serving bias affecting perceptions of task importance.

  2. Locus of Control, Self-Efficacy, and Task Value as Predictors of Learning Outcome in an Online University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young Ju; Lim, Kyu Yon; Kim, Jiyeon

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the predictors of learner satisfaction, achievement and persistence in an online university located in South Korea. The specific predictors were learners' locus of control, self-efficacy, and task value, and the mediating effects of learner satisfaction and achievement were also tested. Structural equation modeling (SEM)…

  3. The change in perceived motor competence and motor task values during elementary school : Gender and motor performance differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, J.J.; van der Net, J.; Jak, S.; Helders, P.J.M.; Jongmans, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in motor activities is essential for social interaction and life satisfaction in children. Self-perceptions and task values have a central position in why children do or do not participate in (motor) activities. Investigating developmental changes in motor self-perceptions and motor

  4. The change in perceived motor competence and motor task values during elementary school : A longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, Johannes J; van der Net, Janjaap; Jak, Suzanne; Helders, Paul J M; Jongmans, Marian J

    Participation in motor activities is essential for social interaction and life satisfaction in children. Self-perceptions and task values have a central position in why children do or do not participate in (motor) activities. Investigating developmental changes in motor self-perceptions and motor

  5. Measurement properties and feasibility of clinical tests to assess sit-to-stand/stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with neurological disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula F. S. Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Subjects with neurological disease (ND usually show impaired performance during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks, with a consequent reduction in their mobility levels. OBJECTIVE: To determine the measurement properties and feasibility previously investigated for clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit in subjects with ND. METHOD: A systematic literature review following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol was performed. Systematic literature searches of databases (MEDLINE/SCIELO/LILACS/PEDro were performed to identify relevant studies. In all studies, the following inclusion criteria were assessed: investigation of any measurement property or the feasibility of clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with ND published in any language through December 2012. The COSMIN checklist was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included. The measurement properties/feasibility were most commonly investigated for the five-repetition sit-to-stand test, which showed good test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient:ICC=0.94-0.99 for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and dementia. The ICC values were higher for this test than for the number of repetitions in the 30-s test. The five-repetition sit-to-stand test also showed good inter/intra-rater reliabilities (ICC=0.97-0.99 for stroke and inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.99 for subjects with Parkinson disease and incomplete spinal cord injury. For this test, the criterion-related validity for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and incomplete spinal cord injury was, in general, moderate (correlation=0.40-0.77, and the feasibility and safety were good for subjects with Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS: The five-repetition sit-to-stand test was used more often in subjects with ND, and most of the measurement

  6. Measuring Mentalizing Ability: A Within-Subject Comparison between an Explicit and Implicit Version of a Ball Detection Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel D Nijhof

    Full Text Available The concept of mentalizing has been widely studied, but almost exclusively through tasks with explicit instructions. Recent studies suggest that people also mentalize on a more implicit level. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has directly contrasted the effects of implicit and explicit mentalizing processes on an implicit dependent measure within-subjects. We implemented this by using two versions of an object detection task, differing only on secondary catch questions. We hypothesized that if explicit mentalizing relies on complementary processes beyond those underlying implicit mentalizing, this would be reflected in enhanced belief effects in the explicit version. Twenty-eight healthy adults watched movies in which, during the first phase, both they themselves and another agent formed a belief about the location of a ball, and although irrelevant, these beliefs could influence their ball detection reaction times in the second phase. After this response phase, there were occasional catch questions that were different for the explicit and implicit task version. Finally, self-report measures of autism spectrum disorder (ASD symptomatology were included, as the literature suggests that ASD is related to a specific deficit in implicit mentalizing. Both in the explicit and implicit version, belief conditions had a significant effect on reaction times, with responses being slower when neither the participant nor the other agent expected the ball to be present compared to all other conditions. Importantly, after the implicit version, participants reported no explicit mentalizing awareness. In our neurotypical sample, ASD symptoms were not found to correlate with either explicit or implicit mentalizing. In conclusion, the reaction time patterns in the explicit and implicit version of the task show strikingly similar effects of mentalizing, indicating that participants processed beliefs to the same extent regardless of whether they

  7. Measuring Mentalizing Ability: A Within-Subject Comparison between an Explicit and Implicit Version of a Ball Detection Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Annabel D; Brass, Marcel; Bardi, Lara; Wiersema, Jan R

    2016-01-01

    The concept of mentalizing has been widely studied, but almost exclusively through tasks with explicit instructions. Recent studies suggest that people also mentalize on a more implicit level. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has directly contrasted the effects of implicit and explicit mentalizing processes on an implicit dependent measure within-subjects. We implemented this by using two versions of an object detection task, differing only on secondary catch questions. We hypothesized that if explicit mentalizing relies on complementary processes beyond those underlying implicit mentalizing, this would be reflected in enhanced belief effects in the explicit version. Twenty-eight healthy adults watched movies in which, during the first phase, both they themselves and another agent formed a belief about the location of a ball, and although irrelevant, these beliefs could influence their ball detection reaction times in the second phase. After this response phase, there were occasional catch questions that were different for the explicit and implicit task version. Finally, self-report measures of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology were included, as the literature suggests that ASD is related to a specific deficit in implicit mentalizing. Both in the explicit and implicit version, belief conditions had a significant effect on reaction times, with responses being slower when neither the participant nor the other agent expected the ball to be present compared to all other conditions. Importantly, after the implicit version, participants reported no explicit mentalizing awareness. In our neurotypical sample, ASD symptoms were not found to correlate with either explicit or implicit mentalizing. In conclusion, the reaction time patterns in the explicit and implicit version of the task show strikingly similar effects of mentalizing, indicating that participants processed beliefs to the same extent regardless of whether they mentalized explicitly or

  8. Using sound-taste correspondences to enhance the subjective value of tasting experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Van Ee, Raymond; Rychtarikova, Monika; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris; Persoone, Dominique; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate's taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop's own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food's identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations.

  9. Subjective education in analytic training: drawing on values from the art academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Mary

    2008-11-01

    Kernberg and others have observed that psychoanalytic education has tended to promote the acquisition of theoretical knowledge and clinical technique within an atmosphere of indoctrination rather than of exploration. As a corrective, he proposed four models that correspond to values in psychoanalytic education: the art academy, the technical trade school, the religious seminary and the university. He commended models of the university and art academy to our collective attention because of their combined effectiveness in providing for the objective and subjective education of candidates: the university model for its capacity to provide a critical sense of a wide range of theories in an atmosphere tolerating debate and difference, and the art academy model for its capacity to facilitate the expression of individual creativity. In this paper, I will explore the art academy model for correspondences between artistic and analytic trainings that can enhance the development of the creative subjectivity of psychoanalytic candidates. I will draw additional correspondences between analytic and artistic learning that can enhance psychoanalytic education.

  10. The impact of reading self-efficacy and task value on reading comprehension scores in different item formats

    OpenAIRE

    Solheim, Oddny Judith

    2011-01-01

    This is an electronic version of an article published as Solheim, O.J. (2011) The Impact of Reading Self-Efficacy and Task Value on Reading Comprehension Scores in Different Item Formats. Reading Psychology , 32(1), pp. 1-27. The article is available at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02702710903256601#.UuJ9frSUlaQ. It has been hypothesized that students with low self-efficacy will struggle with complex reading tasks in assessment situations. In this study we examined whether per...

  11. Reexamining the validity and reliability of the clinical version of the Iowa gambling task: Evidence from a normal subject group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung eLin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Over past decade, the Iowa gambling task (IGT has been utilized to test various decision deficits induced by neurological damage or psychiatric disorders. The IGT has recently been standardized for identifying 13 different neuropsychological disorders. Neuropsychological patients choose bad decks frequently, and normal subjects prefer good EV decks. However, the IGT has several validity and reliability problems. Some research groups have pointed out that the validity of IGT is influenced by the personality and emotional state of subjects. Additionally, several other studies have proposed that the prominent deck B phenomenon (PDB phenomenon – that is, normal subjects preferring bad deck B – may be the most serious problem confronting IGT validity. Specifically, deck B offers a high frequency of gains but negative EV. In the standard IGT administration, choice behavior can be understood with reference to gain-loss frequency (GLF rather than inferred future consequences (EV, the basic assumption of IGT. Furthermore, using two different criteria (basic assumption vs. professional norm results in significantly different classification results. Therefore, we recruited 72 normal subjects to test the validity and reliability of IGT. Each subject performed three runs of the computer-based clinical IGT version. The PDB phenomenon has been observed to a significant degree in the first and second stages of the clinical IGT version. Obviously, validity, reliability and the practice effect were unstable between two given stages. The present form of the clinical IGT version has only one stage, so its use should be reconsidered for examining normal decision makers; results from patient groups must also be interpreted with great care. GLF could be the main factor to be considered in establishing the constructional validity and reliability of the clinical IGT version.

  12. The oxytocin receptor (OXTR contributes to prosocial fund allocations in the dictator game and the social value orientations task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Israel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Economic games observe social decision making in the laboratory that involves real money payoffs. Previously we have shown that allocation of funds in the Dictator Game (DG, a paradigm that illustrates costly altruistic behavior, is partially determined by promoter-region repeat region variants in the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor gene (AVPR1a. In the current investigation, the gene encoding the related oxytocin receptor (OXTR was tested for association with the DG and a related paradigm, the Social Values Orientation (SVO task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Association (101 male and 102 female students using a robust-family based test between 15 single tagging SNPs (htSNPs across the OXTR was demonstrated with both the DG and SVO. Three htSNPs across the gene region showed significant association with both of the two games. The most significant association was observed with rs1042778 (p = 0.001. Haplotype analysis also showed significant associations for both DG and SVO. Following permutation test adjustment, significance was observed for 2-5 locus haplotypes (p<0.05. A second sample of 98 female subjects was subsequently and independently recruited to play the dictator game and was genotyped for the three significant SNPs found in the first sample. The rs1042778 SNP was shown to be significant for the second sample as well (p = 0.004, Fisher's exact test. CONCLUSIONS: The demonstration that genetic polymorphisms for the OXTR are associated with human prosocial decision making converges with a large body of animal research showing that oxytocin is an important social hormone across vertebrates including Homo sapiens. Individual differences in prosocial behavior have been shown by twin studies to have a substantial genetic basis and the current investigation demonstrates that common variants in the oxytocin receptor gene, an important element of mammalian social circuitry, underlie such individual differences.

  13. Task 5. Grid interconnection of building integrated and other dispersed photovoltaic power systems. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: power value and capacity value of PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppi, F.

    2002-02-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the power value and capacity value of photovoltaic power systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and dispersed PV power systems. This report summarises the results of a study aimed to assess the benefits that may be obtained when distributed PV production systems are present in a low-voltage grid. The basic aspects concerning the power-value and those related to the capacity-value are discussed. Data obtained from simulations are presented and discussed. A simple concept shows that great variation occurs if varying load patterns are taken into account. The power-value of PV generation in the grid varies instant by instant depending on the current level of power production and on the surrounding load conditions. Although the three case-studies considered do not cover all the possibilities of coupling between PV and loads, the results obtained show a good differentiation among users with PV production which leads to interesting conclusions.

  14. Pedagogical Values of Mobile-Assisted Task-Based Activities to Enhance Speaking Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Safdari, Nastaran

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of online mobile-assisted task-based activities on improving Iranian intermediate English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' speaking skills. To achieve the purpose of the study, 90 intermediate language learners were selected ranging between 13 to 16 years old and divided into three…

  15. Neural signals of selective attention are modulated by subjective preferences and buying decisions in a virtual shopping task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Nobuhiko; Mushtaq, Faisal; Shee, Dexter; Lim, Xue Li; Mortazavi, Matin; Watabe, Motoki; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether well-known neural markers of selective attention to motivationally-relevant stimuli were modulated by variations in subjective preference towards consumer goods in a virtual shopping task. Specifically, participants viewed and rated pictures of various goods on the extent to which they wanted each item, which they could potentially purchase afterwards. Using the event-related potentials (ERP) method, we found that variations in subjective preferences for consumer goods strongly modulated positive slow waves (PSW) from 800 to 3000 milliseconds after stimulus onset. We also found that subjective preferences modulated the N200 and the late positive potential (LPP). In addition, we found that both PSW and LPP were modulated by subsequent buying decisions. Overall, these findings show that well-known brain event-related potentials reflecting selective attention processes can reliably index preferences to consumer goods in a shopping environment. Based on a large body of previous research, we suggest that early ERPs (e.g. the N200) to consumer goods could be indicative of preferences driven by unconditional and automatic processes, whereas later ERPs such as the LPP and the PSW could reflect preferences built upon more elaborative and conscious cognitive processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The responses of subjective feeling, task performance ability, cortisol and HRV for the various types of floor impact sound: a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seok Hyeon Yun; Sang Jin Park; Chang Sun Sim; Joo Hyun Sung; Ahra Kim; Jang Myeong Lee; Sang Hyun Lee; Jiho Lee

    2017-01-01

    ...) may have the different effects on the human’s body and mind. The purpose of this study is to assess the responses of subjective feeling, task performance ability, cortisol and HRV for the various types of floor impact...

  17. Are low-value care measures up to the task? : A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E.F.; Struijs, Jeroen N.; Heijink, Richard; Hendrikx, R.J.P.; Baan, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing low-value care is a core component of healthcare reforms in many Western countries. A comprehensive and sound set of low-value care measures is needed in order to monitor low-value care use in general and in provider-payer contracts. Our objective was to review the scientific

  18. A Single-Subject Study of the Effects of Time on Task and Time of Day on Productivity and Achievement in a Dysgraphic Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    A single-subject study of the effects of time on task and time of day on written productivity in a dysgraphic learning-disabled fourth grader revealed that continuous adult direction increased time on task; that concurrent achievement gains using standardized tests accrued; and that enhanced writing productivity was evident in the afternoon.…

  19. Attentional Selection Can Be Predicted by Reinforcement Learning of Task-relevant Stimulus Features Weighted by Value-independent Stickiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcarras, Matthew; Ardid, Salva; Kaping, Daniel; Everling, Stefan; Womelsdorf, Thilo

    2016-02-01

    Attention includes processes that evaluate stimuli relevance, select the most relevant stimulus against less relevant stimuli, and bias choice behavior toward the selected information. It is not clear how these processes interact. Here, we captured these processes in a reinforcement learning framework applied to a feature-based attention task that required macaques to learn and update the value of stimulus features while ignoring nonrelevant sensory features, locations, and action plans. We found that value-based reinforcement learning mechanisms could account for feature-based attentional selection and choice behavior but required a value-independent stickiness selection process to explain selection errors while at asymptotic behavior. By comparing different reinforcement learning schemes, we found that trial-by-trial selections were best predicted by a model that only represents expected values for the task-relevant feature dimension, with nonrelevant stimulus features and action plans having only a marginal influence on covert selections. These findings show that attentional control subprocesses can be described by (1) the reinforcement learning of feature values within a restricted feature space that excludes irrelevant feature dimensions, (2) a stochastic selection process on feature-specific value representations, and (3) value-independent stickiness toward previous feature selections akin to perseveration in the motor domain. We speculate that these three mechanisms are implemented by distinct but interacting brain circuits and that the proposed formal account of feature-based stimulus selection will be important to understand how attentional subprocesses are implemented in primate brain networks.

  20. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 2: Select Value Propositions/Business Model for Further Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.

    2008-04-01

    The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Propositions Workshop held in Washington, D.C. in December 2007 served as the Task 1 Milestone for this study. Feedback from all five Workshop breakout sessions has been documented in a Workshop Summary Report, which can be found at www.sentech.org/phev. In this report, the project team compiled and presented a comprehensive list of potential value propositions that would later serve as a 'grab bag' of business model components in Task 2. After convening with the Guidance and Evaluation Committee and other PHEV stakeholders during the Workshop, several improvements to the technical approach were identified and incorporated into the project plan to present a more realistic and accurate case study and evaluation. The assumptions and modifications that will have the greatest impact on the case study selection process in Task 2 are described in more detail in this deliverable. The objective of Task 2 is to identify the combination of value propositions that is believed to be achievable by 2030 and collectively hold promise for a sustainable PHEV market by 2030. This deliverable outlines what the project team (with input from the Committee) has defined as its primary scenario to be tested in depth for the remainder of Phase 1. Plans for the second and third highest priority/probability business scenarios are also described in this deliverable as proposed follow up case studies in Phase 2. As part of each case study description, the proposed utility system (or subsystem), PHEV market segment, and facilities/buildings are defined.

  1. Predictive value of "Marsh 1" type histology in subjects with suspected cealic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Raffaella; Capone, Pietro; Imperatore, Nicola; De Stefano, Giuliano; Gerbino, Nicolò; Leo, Maria; Caporaso, Nicola; Rispo, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    The diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) is based on histology in combination with anti-tissue transglutaminase (a-tTG) and anti-endomysial antibodies (EMAs). The increase of intraepithelial lymphocytes defines the Marsh 1 histology that appears not to be specific for CD. To explore the positive predictive value (PPV) and clinical relevance of Marsh 1 histology in suspected CD. We carried out an observational prospective study including all consecutive subjects with a Marsh 1 histology. All patients were tested for a-tTG and EMAs. Diagnosis of potential CD was defined in the presence of Marsh 1 with positive a-tTG and EMAs. Patients were investigated for symptoms, CD familial aggregation, other diseases, and current medication. Sixty-three patients with Marsh 1 were included. Diagnosis of potential CD was made in 23 subjects (36%), so that Marsh 1 histology showed a PPV of 36%. With regard to familial aggregation, patients with potential CD showed a higher frequency of familiarity for CD (60.8% vs. 15.0%; p < 0.01). No significant difference was detected between CD and non-CD in terms of intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. We also documented the presence of conditions other than CD in the remaining population: 7 patients (17.5%) with immuno-mediated diseases while 5 patients (12.5%) showed Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. About medication, 3 patients (7.5%) were on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, while another 4 (10%) patients were being treated with other drugs. The Marsh 1 type histology is not specific for CD and it can also be associated with immuno-mediated disorders, HP infection, and drugs.

  2. Subjects' skill and biphasic effects of met-enkephalin upon the acquisition and retention of a perceptual motor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woosley, E A; Chara, P J

    1988-06-01

    The effects of met-enkephalin on the acquisition and retention over 10 days of a perceptual motor skill were investigated. Mice were randomly assigned to either one of two experimental groups (1-mg or 3-mg injections per 1-kg of body weight of met-enkephalin) or one of two control groups (dH2O injections). During the acquisition phase of the study, they were separated into "slow" and "fast" learners on the basis of their skill in negotiating a water maze. The results indicated an inhibitory effect of met-enkephalin in the 3-mg condition in the retention phase of the experiment. Subjects' skill was not implicated as a critical factor in retention of this simple task.

  3. A Health Economics Approach to US Value Assessment Frameworks-Introduction: An ISPOR Special Task Force Report [1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Peter J; Willke, Richard J; Garrison, Louis P

    2018-02-01

    Concerns about rising spending on prescription drugs and other areas of health care have led to multiple initiatives in the United States designed to measure and communicate the value of pharmaceuticals and other technologies for decision making. In this section we introduce the work of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Special Task Force on US Value Assessment Frameworks formed to review relevant perspectives and appropriate approaches and methods to support the definition and use of high-quality value frameworks. The Special Task Force was part of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Initiative on US Value Assessment Frameworks, which enlisted the expertise of leading health economists, concentrating on what the field of health economics can provide to help inform the development and use of value assessment frameworks. We focus on five value framework initiatives: the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. These entities differ in their missions, scope of activities, and methodological approaches. Because they are gaining visibility and some traction in the United States, it is essential to scrutinize whether the frameworks use approaches that are transparent as well as conceptually and methodologically sound. Our objectives were to describe the conceptual bases for value and its use in decision making, critically examine existing value frameworks, discuss the importance of sound conceptual underpinning, identify key elements of value relevant to specific decision contexts, and recommend good practice in value definition and implementation as well as areas for further research. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc

  4. Value and probability coding in a feedback-based learning task utilizing food rewards

    OpenAIRE

    Tricomi, Elizabeth; Karolina M Lempert

    2014-01-01

    For the consequences of our actions to guide behavior, the brain must represent different types of outcome-related information. For example, an outcome can be construed as negative because an expected reward was not delivered or because an outcome of low value was delivered. Thus behavioral consequences can differ in terms of the information they provide about outcome probability and value. We investigated the role of the striatum in processing probability-based and value-based negative feedb...

  5. Measuring low-value care along the continuum of care; are they up to the task?

    OpenAIRE

    Frouke de Vries, Eline; Jeroen N. Struijs; Heijink, Richard; Hendrikx, Roy JP; Baan, Caroline A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Reducing low-value care is a core component of health care reforms in many countries. A sound set of low-value care measures is needed in order to evaluate these reforms, to monitor low-value care use in general and in alternative payer-provider contracts. Our objective was to review the scientific literature on low-value care measurement, aiming to assess the scope along the continuum of care and the quality of current measures.Methods: A systematic review was performed for the...

  6. Are low-value care measures up to the task? A systematic review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, Eline F.; Jeroen N. Struijs; Heijink, Richard; Hendrikx, Roy J. P.; Baan, Caroline A

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing low-value care is a core component of healthcare reforms in many Western countries. A comprehensive and sound set of low-value care measures is needed in order to monitor low-value care use in general and in provider-payer contracts. Our objective was to review the scientific literature on low-value care measurement, aiming to assess the scope and quality of current measures. Methods A systematic review was performed for the period 2010?2015. We assessed the scope of low-v...

  7. Using Sound-Taste Correspondences to Enhance the Subjective Value of Tasting Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eReinoso Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate’s taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented to four different groups in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop’s own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food’s identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations.

  8. Chinese preservice teachers’ professional identity links with education program performance: The roles of task value belief and learning motivations

    OpenAIRE

    Yan eZhang; Skyler eHawk; Xiaohui eZhang; Hongyu eZHAO

    2016-01-01

    AbstractProfessional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers’ career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education) and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic ...

  9. Chinese Preservice Teachers’ Professional Identity Links with Education Program Performance: The Roles of Task Value Belief and Learning Motivations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; Hawk, Skyler T.; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Professional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers’ career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education) and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning...

  10. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Ae; Song, Chorong; Oh, Yun-Ah; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Son, Ki-Cheol

    2017-09-20

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD) method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS). Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln) ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2-3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  11. When unconscious rewards boost cognitive task performance inefficiently: the role of consciousness in integrating value and attainability information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedelius, Claire M.; Veling, Harm; Aarts, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that high vs. low value rewards improve cognitive task performance independent of whether they are perceived consciously or unconsciously. However, efficient performance in response to high value rewards also depends on whether or not rewards are attainable. This raises the question of whether unconscious reward processing enables people to take into account such attainability information. Building on a theoretical framework according to which conscious reward processing is required to enable higher level cognitive processing, the present research tested the hypothesis that conscious but not unconscious reward processing enables integration of reward value with attainability information. In two behavioral experiments, participants were exposed to mask high and low value coins serving as rewards on a working memory (WM) task. The likelihood for conscious processing was manipulated by presenting the coins relatively briefly (17 ms) or long and clearly visible (300 ms). Crucially, rewards were expected to be attainable or unattainable. Requirements to integrate reward value with attainability information varied across experiments. Results showed that when integration of value and attainability was required (Experiment 1), long reward presentation led to efficient performance, i.e., selectively improved performance for high value attainable rewards. In contrast, in the short presentation condition, performance was increased for high value rewards even when these were unattainable. This difference between the effects of long and short presentation time disappeared when integration of value and attainability information was not required (Experiment 2). Together these findings suggest that unconsciously processed reward information is not integrated with attainability expectancies, causing inefficient effort investment. These findings are discussed in terms of a unique role of consciousness in efficient allocation of effort to cognitive control

  12. Exploring inter-task transfer following a CO-OP approach with four children with DCD: A single subject multiple baseline design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capistran, Julie; Martini, Rose

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach has been shown to be effective for improving the performance of tasks worked on in therapy and the use of cognitive strategies. No study to date seems to have explored its effectiveness for improving performance of untrained tasks (inter-task transfer) in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). This study aimed to determine whether CO-OP leads to improved performance in an untrained task. A single-subject design with multiple baselines across skills was adopted, with three replications. Four children with DCD (7-12years) received 10 sessions of CO-OP intervention where each child worked on three tasks during therapy sessions and a fourth task was identified, but not worked on, to verify inter-task transfer. Task performance was rated over four phases (baseline, intervention, post-intervention, follow-up) using the Performance Quality Rating Scale (PQRS-OD). Graphed data was statistically analyzed using a two or three standard deviation band method. Significant improvement was obtained for 11 of 12 tasks worked on during therapy and for two of the four untrained tasks. These results indicate that the effectiveness of CO-OP to improve untrained tasks in children merit further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Illegitimate tasks associated with higher cortisol levels among male employees when subjective health is relatively low: an intra-individual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Maria U; Meier, Laurenz L; Jacobshagen, Nicola; Kälin, Wolfgang; Elfering, Achim; Hennig, Jürgen; Semmer, Norbert K

    2013-05-01

    Illegitimate tasks refer to tasks that do not conform to what can appropriately be expected from an employee. Violating role expectations, they constitute "identity-stressors", as one's professional role tends to become part of one's identity. The current study investigated the impact of illegitimate tasks on salivary cortisol. We analyzed data on an intra-individual level, that is, by examining fluctuations in illegitimate tasks and cortisol within individuals. Furthermore, we investigated the moderating role of perceived health, expecting that illegitimate tasks evoke stronger reactions when perceived health is relatively poor. Illegitimate tasks, salivary cortisol, and perceived health were assessed in each of three waves (time lag: 6 months) in a sample of 104 male employees. Data were analyzed by multilevel analysis using group mean centering. Controlling for social stressors, work interruptions, and emotional stability, the experience of more illegitimate tasks was associated with increased cortisol release if personal health resources were low compared to one's mean value of perceived health. Results cannot be explained by inter-individual differences. This is the first study showing that illegitimate tasks predict a biological indicator of stress, thus confirming and extending previous research on illegitimate tasks. The moderating role of perceived health confirms its importance as a personal resource, implying augmented vulnerability when perceived health is below its usual value. It is plausible to assume that increased stress reactions due to relatively poor health may further weaken available personal resources. Both avoiding illegitimate tasks and restoring personal health seem to be crucial.

  14. Trunk and pelvic coordination at various walking speeds during an anterior load carriage task in subjects with and without chronic low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tackhoon; Chai, Eunsu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the coordination patterns of the trunk and pelvis in the transverse plane between healthy subjects and patients with chronic low back pain during an anterior load carriage task at various walking speeds. [Subjects] Ten healthy subjects and 10 patients with chronic low back pain performed an anterior carriage task with a load of 10% body weight at walking speeds of 3.5, 4.5, or 5.5?km/h. [Methods] The trunk and pelvic kinematics were measured by using a motion ana...

  15. Are low-value care measures up to the task? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Eline F; Struijs, Jeroen N; Heijink, Richard; Hendrikx, Roy J P; Baan, Caroline A

    2016-08-18

    Reducing low-value care is a core component of healthcare reforms in many Western countries. A comprehensive and sound set of low-value care measures is needed in order to monitor low-value care use in general and in provider-payer contracts. Our objective was to review the scientific literature on low-value care measurement, aiming to assess the scope and quality of current measures. A systematic review was performed for the period 2010-2015. We assessed the scope of low-value care recommendations and measures by categorizing them according to the Classification of Health Care Functions. Additionally, we assessed the quality of the measures by 1) analysing their development process and the level of evidence underlying the measures, and 2) analysing the evidence regarding the validity of a selected subset of the measures. Our search yielded 292 potentially relevant articles. After screening, we selected 23 articles eligible for review. We obtained 115 low-value care measures, of which 87 were concentrated in the cure sector, 25 in prevention and 3 in long-term care. No measures were found in rehabilitative care and health promotion. We found 62 measures from articles that translated low-value care recommendations into measures, while 53 measures were previously developed by institutions as the National Quality Forum. Three measures were assigned the highest level of evidence, as they were underpinned by both guidelines and literature evidence. Our search yielded no information on coding/criterion validity and construct validity for the included measures. Despite this, most measures were already used in practice. This systematic review provides insight into the current state of low-value care measures. It shows that more attention is needed for the evidential underpinning and quality of these measures. Clear information about the level of evidence and validity helps to identify measures that truly represent low-value care and are sufficiently qualified to fulfil

  16. Normal controlled attenuation parameter values: a prospective study of healthy subjects undergoing health checkups and liver donors in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Young Eun; Jung, Kyu Sik; Kim, Kwang Joon; Joo, Dong Jin; Kim, Beom Kyung; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Kim, Seung Up

    2015-01-01

    The controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a noninvasive method of assessing hepatic steatosis. We defined the normal range of CAP values in healthy subjects and evaluated the associated factors. CAP values were measured in a cohort of healthy subjects who were screened as living liver transplantation donors and those who underwent health checkups. Subjects with current or a history of chronic liver disease, abnormalities on liver-related laboratory tests, or fatty liver on ultrasonography or biopsy were excluded. The mean age of the 264 recruited subjects (131 males and 133 females; 76 potential liver donors and 188 subjects who had undergone health checkups) was 49.2 years. The mean CAP value was 224.8 ± 38.7 dB/m (range 100.0-308.0 dB/m), and the range of normal CAP values (5th-95th percentiles) was 156.0-287.8 dB/m. The mean CAP value was significantly higher in the health checkup than in the potential liver donor group (227.5 ± 42.0 vs. 218.2 ± 28.3 dB/m, P = 0.040). CAP values did not differ significantly according to gender or age in either group (all P > 0.05). In a multivariate linear regression analysis, body mass index (β = 0.271, P = 0.024) and triglyceride levels (β = 0.348, P = 0.008) were found to be independently associated with CAP values. We determined the normal range of CAP values and found that body mass index and triglyceride levels were associated with the CAP values of healthy subjects.

  17. fMRI differences between subjects with low and high responses to alcohol during a stop signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A; Tapert, Susan; Matthews, Scott C; Paulus, Martin P; Tolentino, Neil J; Smith, Tom L; Trim, Ryan S; Hall, Shana; Simmons, Alan

    2012-01-01

    A low level of response (i.e., a low LR) to alcohol is a genetically influenced phenotype that predicts later alcoholism. While the low LR reflects, at least in part, a low brain response to alcohol, the physiological underpinnings of the low LR have only recently been addressed. Forty-nine drinking but not yet alcoholic matched pairs of 18- to 25-year-old subjects (N = 98; 53% women) with low and high LRs as established in separate alcohol challenges were evaluated in 2 event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions (placebo and approximately 0.7 ml/kg of alcohol) while performing a validated stop signal task. The high and low LR groups had identical blood alcohol levels during the alcohol session. Significant high versus low LR group and LR group × condition effects were observed in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during error and inhibitory processing, despite similar LR group performance on the task. In most clusters with significant (corrected p 1,344 μl) LR group × alcohol/placebo condition interactions, the low LR group demonstrated relatively less, whereas the high LR group demonstrated more, error and inhibition-related activation after alcohol compared with placebo. This is one of the first fMRI studies to demonstrate significant differences between healthy groups with different risks of a future life-threatening disorder. The results may suggest a brain mechanism that contributes to how a low LR might enhance the risk of future heavy drinking and alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Prognostic value of high sensitive C-reactive protein in subjects with silent myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette; Intzilakis, Theodoros; Binici, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    . High-sensitive CRP and 48-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring were performed. The primary endpoint was the combined endpoint of death and myocardial infarction. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 76 months. Seventy-seven subjects (11.4%) had SMI. The combined endpoint occurred in 26% of the subjects...

  19. Anticipatory Emotions in Decision Tasks: Covert Markers of Value or Attentional Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2009-01-01

    Anticipatory emotions precede behavioral outcomes and provide a means to infer interactions between emotional and cognitive processes. A number of theories hold that anticipatory emotions serve as inputs to the decision process and code the value or risk associated with a stimulus. We argue that current data do not unequivocally support this…

  20. Girls and Science Careers: The Role of Altruistic Values and Attitudes about Scientific Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgram, Erica S.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies examined the roles of altruistic values, egalitarianism, self-efficacy, and perceptions of utility in shaping children's interest in scientific fields. In Study 1, middle school girls attending an intervention program ("n"=617) heard presentations by female scientists (expected to increase egalitarianism), engaged in hands-on science…

  1. Values and Subjective Mental Health in America: A Social Adaptation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Lynn R.; And Others

    Although surveys of mental health involve some controversy, a significant relationship between values and mental health appears to exist. To study the adaption of individuals with alternative values to their psychological worlds, over 2,000 adults identified their most important values. Alcohol abuse, drug abuse, dizziness, anxiety, and general…

  2. Functional knee brace use by non-injured subjects while performing an anaerobic capacity task: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishiraj, N; Taunton, J E; Lloyd-Smith, R; Niven, B; Regan, W; Woollard, R

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate if performance was hindered in non-injured braced athletes during an anaerobic task. If performance was affected, could accommodation to wearing a knee brace occur and thus decreasing performance hindrance concern while using a functional knee brace (FKB). A 2x3 non-braced (NBr) and braced repeated measure factorial design. Five healthy athletes completed all testing. Subjects performed the Repeated High Intensity Shuttle Test (RHIST) over six days (three days NBr and three days braced). Running times were recorded each testing day to determine performance measures and percent fatigue levels while using a FKB and if accommodation to FKB use was possible. Non significant (F1,4=1.42, P=0.299) faster group mean performance time, was recorded for braced subjects relative to the non-braced condition. Although relatively faster performance levels were noted during the braced testing conditions during days 1 and 3 compared to the non-braced condition, these results were also not significant (F2,8=2.82, P=0.118). Lower percent fatigue level was recorded during all three braced days compared to non-braced days. Further, a tendency for accommodation to knee brace trend use was noted as the percentage performance difference between the two conditions had decreased by the last day of testing. Use of a knee brace did not hinder performance once accommodation to using the knee brace occurred and fatigue was not a factor while using a knee brace. Additional research, using a larger sample size and longer testing duration, is required to confirm the potential accommodation trend.

  3. Comparison between subjects with long- and short-allele carriers in the BOLD signal within amygdala during emotional tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Shamil; Siadat, Mohamad R.; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2012-03-01

    Emotional tasks may result in a strong blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the amygdala in 5- HTTLRP short-allele. Reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-amygdala connectivity in short-allele provides a potential mechanistic account for the observed increase in amygdala activity. In our study, fearful and threatening facial expressions were presented to two groups of 12 subjects with long- and short-allele carriers. The BOLD signals of the left amygdala of each group were averaged to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the model parameters to elucidate the underlying hemodynamic mechanism. Our results showed a positive BOLD signal in the left amygdala for short-allele individuals, and a negative BOLD signal in the same region for long-allele individuals. This is due to the fact that short-allele is associated with lower availability of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and this leads to an increase of serotonin (5-HT) concentration in the cACC-amygdala synapse.

  4. Defining Elements of Value in Health Care-A Health Economics Approach: An ISPOR Special Task Force Report [3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakdawalla, Darius N; Doshi, Jalpa A; Garrison, Louis P; Phelps, Charles E; Basu, Anirban; Danzon, Patricia M

    2018-02-01

    The third section of our Special Task Force report identifies and defines a series of elements that warrant consideration in value assessments of medical technologies. We aim to broaden the view of what constitutes value in health care and to spur new research on incorporating additional elements of value into cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). Twelve potential elements of value are considered. Four of them-quality-adjusted life-years, net costs, productivity, and adherence-improving factors-are conventionally included or considered in value assessments. Eight others, which would be more novel in economic assessments, are defined and discussed: reduction in uncertainty, fear of contagion, insurance value, severity of disease, value of hope, real option value, equity, and scientific spillovers. Most of these are theoretically well understood and available for inclusion in value assessments. The two exceptions are equity and scientific spillover effects, which require more theoretical development and consensus. A number of regulatory authorities around the globe have shown interest in some of these novel elements. Augmenting CEA to consider these additional elements would result in a more comprehensive CEA in line with the "impact inventory" of the Second Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Possible approaches for valuation and inclusion of these elements include integrating them as part of a net monetary benefit calculation, including elements as attributes in health state descriptions, or using them as criteria in a multicriteria decision analysis. Further research is needed on how best to measure and include them in decision making. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Engaging science in a climate of values: tools for animal scientists tasked with addressing ethical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croney, C C; Anthony, R

    2010-04-01

    In the United States, escalating concerns about current farm animal science and production methods have resulted not only in increased food animal protection policies, but also in animal welfare legislation. Animal scientists and industry leaders are apprehensive that such policies may be driven primarily by emotion and a lack of scientific understanding, and thus may have unforeseen consequences. However, decisions about animal care, and particularly animal welfare, cannot be made solely on the basis of science because the potential effects on producers, animals, and concerned citizens and the implications for the environment and on food prices must also be considered. Balancing the interests and values of all stakeholders in regard to animal welfare problems has presented a considerable challenge. Ethical accounting processes, such as the Ethical Matrix and the ethics assessment process by Campbell, offer models to combine socioethical concerns with relevant factual information, thereby facilitating decision making that is ethically responsible and that offers viable solutions. A case study is used to illustrate application of the ethics assessment process by Campbell that includes identification of the ethical problems, the embedded values, the relevant facts, and moral tests that can be applied. Awareness of these emerging ways of examining ethics that offer real solutions to conflicts of interests and not merely "one size fits all" answers should be an asset to animal and poultry scientists.

  6. An Overview of Value, Perspective, and Decision Context-A Health Economics Approach: An ISPOR Special Task Force Report [2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Pauly, Mark V; Willke, Richard J; Neumann, Peter J

    2018-02-01

    The second section of our Special Task Force builds on the discussion of value and perspective in the previous article of the report by 1) defining a health economics approach to the concept of value in health care systems; 2) discussing the relationship of value to perspective and decision context, that is, how recently proposed value frameworks vary by the types of decisions being made and by the stakeholders involved; 3) describing the patient perspective on value because the patient is a key stakeholder, but one also wearing the hat of a health insurance purchaser; and 4) discussing how value is relevant in the market-based US system of mixed private and public insurance, and differs from its use in single-payer systems. The five recent value frameworks that motivated this report vary in the types of decisions they intend to inform, ranging from coverage, access, and pricing decisions to those defining appropriate clinical pathways and to supporting provider-clinician shared decision making. Each of these value frameworks must be evaluated in its own decision context for its own objectives. Existing guidelines for cost-effectiveness analysis emphasize the importance of clearly specifying the perspective from which the analysis is undertaken. Relevant perspectives may include, among others, 1) the health plan enrollee, 2) the patient, 3) the health plan manager, 4) the provider, 5) the technology manufacturer, 6) the specialty society, 7) government regulators, or 8) society as a whole. A valid and informative cost-effectiveness analysis could be conducted from the perspective of any of these stakeholders, depending on the decision context. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE LEGAL SUBJECT OF THE OFFENSE AND THE CONCEPT OF SOCIAL VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DRĂGHICI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The society does not have to be a mere observer of reality; it should have an initiative and it should take measures in order to ensure the common good. It is very important to have in mind that, besides the criminal law, the church is another entity that protects social values. From this angle, they represent what we want, seek, cherish and love. The valuation criteria depend on the value assessment of the members of the society, on their conscience and, not least, on their degree of culture. The society categorizes as social values all those criteria on which it depends for its existence, development and sustainability.

  8. Same task, same observers, different values: the problem with visual assessment of breast density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Jamie C.; Walshaw, Lani; Wilson, Mary; Seed, Sita; Barr, Nicky; Beetles, Ursula; Boggis, Caroline; Bundred, Sara; Gadde, Soujanya; Lim, Yit; Whiteside, Sigrid; Evans, D. Gareth; Howell, Anthony; Astley, Susan M.

    2013-03-01

    The proportion of radio-opaque fibroglandular tissue in a mammographic image of the breast is a strong and modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Subjective, area-based estimates made by expert observers provide a simple and efficient way of measuring breast density within a screening programme, but the degree of variability may render the reliable identification of women at increased risk impossible. This study examines the repeatability of visual assessment of percent breast density by expert observers. Five consultant radiologists and two breast physicians, all with at least two years' experience in mammographic density assessment, were presented with 100 digital mammogram cases for which they had estimated density at least 12 months previously. Estimates of percent density were made for each mammographic view and recorded on a printed visual analogue scale. The level of agreement between the two sets of estimates was assessed graphically using Bland-Altman plots. All but one observer had a mean difference of less than 6 percentage points, while the largest mean difference was 14.66 percentage points. The narrowest 95% limits of agreement for the differences were -11.15 to 17.35 and the widest were -13.95 to 40.43. Coefficients of repeatability ranged from 14.40 to 38.60. Although visual assessment of breast density has been shown to be strongly associated with cancer risk, the lack of agreement shown here between repeat assessments of the same images by the same observers questions the reliability of using visual assessment to identify women at high risk or to detect moderate changes in breast density over time.

  9. Prognostic value of the morning blood pressure surge in 5645 subjects from 8 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hansen, Tine W

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on the prognostic significance of the morning blood pressure surge (MS) produced inconsistent results. Using the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcome, we analyzed 5645 subjects (mean age: 53.0 years; 54.0% women) randomly...

  10. Ability Self-Concepts and Subjective Value in Literacy: Joint Trajectories from Grades 1 through 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Isabelle; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Vida, Mina N.

    2010-01-01

    Because literacy skills are critical for most academic subject matters, researchers have become increasingly interested in understanding children's motivation in this domain as a way to increase academic success. In this study, we extend previous work by looking at the heterogeneity of children's motivational changes in literacy across Grades…

  11. Sural/radial nerve amplitude ratio: reference values in healthy subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, B.U.; Alfen, N. van; Bor, J.A.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The sural/radial nerve amplitude ratio (SRAR) has been proposed as a sensitive indicator of early-stage axonal polyneuropathy. However, previous studies did not take into account the effect of sex differences or different calculating methods. To obtain reference values and information on the

  12. Walking ability after stroke in patients from Argentina: predictive values of two tests in subjects with subacute hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Marcelo Andrés; Portela, Manuel; Gianella, Matias; Freixes, Orestes; Fernández, Sergio Anibal; Rivas, Maria Elisa; Tanga, Cristobal Osvaldo; Olmos, Lisandro Emilio; Rubel, Ivan Federico

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the predictive values of the trunk control test (TCT) and functional ambulation category (FAC) for independent walking up to 6 months post stroke. [Subjects] Twenty-seven subjects with hemiplegia secondary to a unilateral hemisphere stroke were included. [Methods] The protocol was started at 45 days post stroke, with the TCT and FAC as walking predictors. At 90, 120, and 180 days post stroke, the subjects’ independent walking ability was assessed by using the Wald test. [Results] The TCT was identified as an independent predictor of ambulation at 90, 120, and 180 days. Subjects who scored ≥ 49 in the initial test had 93.8% probability of achieving independent gait at 6 months. The FAC proved that 100% of the subjects who scored 2 at 45 days post stroke walked independently at 90 days, 100% of the subjects who scored 1 walked independently at 120 days, and only 33.3% of the subjects who scored 0 walked independently at 180 days. [Conclusion] The TCT and FAC can predict independent walking at 45 days post stroke. In subjects with FAC 0, the TCT should be used to predict patients who will be able to walk independently. PMID:26504338

  13. "The value of the soul." The discourses of management as modes of subjectivity at work.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Beatriz Soria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the main guidelines, questions and hypotheses that traverse the recent work of Marcela B. Zangaro, called "Subjectivity and work. A Foucauldian reading of management", edited by Herramienta. The book, as its title indicates, dives for two fundamental topics of modernity: the modes of subjectification and labor issues. The author, from a critical perspective, links the input matrix from the Foucauldian and other aspects of the New Sociology of Capitalism and Critical Discourse Analysis. Since this articulation, she analyzes a broad set of discourses of management, understanding them as a technology of power, a technology of self, which organizes the bodies and emotions of the workers. In this sense, the text becomes a valuable input to understand the practices of subjectivity in the context of the many changes that have experienced the world of work in recent decades. These mutations can only be examined in the light of the new forms of organization and capital accumulation, complainant labor force, in its broadest sense, such as physical and mental abilities present in the body and embodiment of the workers.

  14. Prognostic value of ambulatory heart rate revisited in 6928 subjects from 6 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine Willum; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence relating mortality and morbidity to heart rate remains inconsistent. We performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 6928 subjects (not on beta-blockers; mean age: 56.2 years; 46.5% women) enrolled in prospective population studies in Denmark, Belgium, Japan, Sweden......, Uruguay, and China. We computed standardized hazard ratios for heart rate, while stratifying for cohort, and adjusting for blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. Over 9.6 years (median), 850, 325, and 493 deaths accrued for total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality......, respectively. The incidence of fatal combined with nonfatal end points was 805, 363, 439, and 324 for cardiovascular, stroke, cardiac, and coronary events, respectively. Twenty-four-hour heart rate predicted total (hazard ratio: 1.15) and noncardiovascular (hazard ratio: 1.18) mortality but not cardiovascular...

  15. The Prognostic Value of Ambulatory Heart Rate Revisited in 6928 Subjects from 6 Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine Willum; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence relating mortality and morbidity to heart rate remains inconsistent. We performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 6928 subjects (not on β-blockers; mean age: 56.2 years; 46.5% women) enrolled in prospective population studies in Denmark, Belgium, Japan, Sweden, Uruguay......, and China. We computed standardized hazard ratios for heart rate, while stratifying for cohort, and adjusting for blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. Over 9.6 years (median), 850, 325, and 493 deaths accrued for total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality, respectively....... The incidence of fatal combined with nonfatal end points was 805, 363, 439, and 324 for cardiovascular, stroke, cardiac, and coronary events, respectively. Twenty-four-hour heart rate predicted total (hazard ratio: 1.15) and noncardiovascular (hazard ratio: 1.18) mortality but not cardiovascular mortality...

  16. Developmental changes and gender effects on motivational constructs based on the expectancy-value model in Czech and United States students regarding learning of science, mathematics, and other subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun-Mi

    This study employed American and Czech student samples to investigate the motivational constructs used in Eccles and Wigfield's (1983) expectancy-value model. To predict achievement behavior, the model specifies relationships among expectancy for-success and task value, task-specific self-concept, perception of task-difficulty, perceptions of social environment, and interpretations and attributions for past events in relation to the social world. Czech and American students (n = 1,145) in grades 4--12 were the participants in this study. The causal relationships among the constructs were tested to investigate structural similarities and differences in the models for both countries. This study also explored developmental changes, gender, and national differences in the students' motivational beliefs for these motivational constructs: Expectancy for Success, Intrinsic Interest Value, Task-specific Self-concept, Perception of Task-difficulty, and Perceived Vocational Gender Dominance for science, mathematics, and other school subjects. The findings indicated that, for both countries, with respect to changes over grade level, compared to the younger students, the older students showed lower motivational beliefs for most subject areas except reading. However, the Czech students in grades 6--8 showed more positive motivational beliefs in life science and social studies than did the Czech students in other grade levels. In comparing genders, the male students exhibited more positive motivational beliefs in physical science than did the female students, and female students showed more positive motivational beliefs in reading than did the male students. For life science, the Czech female students rated Intrinsic Interest Value and Task-specific Self-concept higher than did their peer male students. The American students' motivational beliefs in reading were more positive than were Czech students', and the Czech students held more positive motivational beliefs in life

  17. Interactive effects of carbon footprint information and its accessibility on value and subjective qualities of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Kamada, Akiko; Masuda, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Masako; Goto, Sho-ichi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Cai, Dongsheng; Oka, Takashi; Dan, Ippeita

    2010-10-01

    We aimed to explore the interactive effects of the accessibility of information and the degree of carbon footprint score on consumers' value judgments of food products. Participants (n=151, undergraduate students in Japan) rated their maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for four food products varying in information accessibility (active-search or read-only conditions) and in carbon footprint values (low, middle, high, or non-display) provided. We also assessed further effects of information accessibly and carbon footprint value on other product attributes utilizing the subjective estimation of taste, quality, healthiness, and environmental friendliness. Results of the experiment demonstrated an interactive effect of information accessibility and the degree of carbon emission on consumer valuation of carbon footprint-labeled food. The carbon footprint value had a stronger impact on participants' WTP in the active-search condition than in the read-only condition. Similar to WTP, the results of the subjective ratings for product qualities also exhibited an interactive effect of the two factors on the rating of environmental friendliness for products. These results imply that the perceived environmental friendliness inferable from a carbon footprint label contributes to creating value for a food product.

  18. Comparison of the effects of various types anaerobic trainings in subjects with body mass index values over 25

    OpenAIRE

    Achtarová, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Title: Comparison of the effects of various types anaerobic trainings in subjects with body mass index values over 25 Abstract This thesis describes the mechanisms of anaerobic training, especially focused on high interval training, defines the basic concepts associated with anaerobic activity and focuses on workouts that have excellent benefits for the human body. The core theme of this thesis are HIIT workouts - High Intensity Interval Training, which relate to concepts such as EPOC effect ...

  19. fMRI abnormalities in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during a working memory task in manic, euthymic and depressed bipolar subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Jennifer; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Foland, Lara C.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Altshuler, Lori L.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychological studies of subjects with bipolar disorder suggest impairment of working memory not only in acute mood states, but also while subjects are euthymic. Using fMRI to probe working memory regions in bipolar subjects in different mood states, we sought to determine the functional neural basis for these impairments. Typical working memory areas in normal populations include dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9/46) and the posterior parietal cortex (BA40). We evaluated the activatio...

  20. The Differential Outcomes Effect in Normal Human Adults Using a Concurrent-Task Within-Subjects Design and Sensory Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Leh Woon; Overmier, J. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The differential outcomes effect is a phenomenon where use of a choice-unique outcome for each type of correct choice in a conditional discrimination task increases rate of learning and overall accuracy, as compared to the traditional use of a single, common outcome for all types of correct choices. This phenomenon was successfully demonstrated…

  1. Review of Recent US Value Frameworks-A Health Economics Approach: An ISPOR Special Task Force Report [6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, Richard J; Neumann, Peter J; Garrison, Louis P; Ramsey, Scott D

    2018-02-01

    The sixth section of our Special Task Force (STF) report reviews and comments on recent US-oriented value assessment frameworks, specifically those published by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, the Institute for Clinical and Economic Research, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. We review published commentaries that address the validity, reliability, and conceptual underpinnings of these frameworks. We find common themes of critique regarding the strengths and limitations across frameworks. Particular shortcomings of some frameworks pose greater threats to their face validity and utility compared with others. The most significant limitations include lack of clear perspective (e.g., patient vs. health plan) and poor transparency in accounting for costs and benefits. We then review how each framework adheres to core STF recommendations, with particular emphasis on whether the framework can be used to support coverage decisions by health insurers, and whether it adheres to core principles of cost-effectiveness analysis. The Institute for Clinical and Economic Research framework most closely adheres to core STF recommendations. Others have significant limitations that vary widely from framework to framework. We also review how the frameworks follow STF recommendations for addressing potentially relevant issues beyond cost-effectiveness analysis - for example, equity in resource allocation and patient heterogeneity. Finally, we review whether and how each framework uses value thresholds and addresses affordability concerns. We conclude with suggestions for further research, particularly in the areas of testing the measurement and use of novel elements of value and deliberative processes. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Dampening Effects of Perceived Teacher Enthusiasm on Class-Related Boredom: The Mediating Role of Perceived Autonomy Support and Task Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guanyu; Yao, Meilin; Zhang, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Class-related boredom is commonly experienced by students and it has an impact on their learning engagement and achievements. Previous research has found that perceived teacher enthusiasm might contribute to reducing students’ class-related boredom. However, the mechanism through which perceived teacher enthusiasm affects class-related boredom remains unexplored. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of perceived autonomy support and task value in the relationship between teacher enthusiasm and class-related boredom. College students (N = 734) completed questionnaires on perceived teacher enthusiasm, boredom proneness, perceived task difficulty, perceived autonomy support, perceived task value, and class-related boredom. Results showed that after controlling for the effects of demographic variables, boredom proneness, and perceived task difficulty, both perceived autonomy support and task value fully mediated the relationship between perceived teacher enthusiasm and class-related boredom. These findings suggest that students who perceive more teacher enthusiasm might perceive more autonomy support and task value, which in turn reduce the students’ class-related boredom. Limitations in the present study have also been discussed. PMID:28367134

  3. Task Dependence, Tissue Specificity, and Spatial Distribution of Widespread Activations in Large Single-Subject Functional MRI Datasets at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Hoy, Colin W; Handwerker, Daniel A; Roopchansingh, Vinai; Inati, Souheil J; Saad, Ziad S; Cox, Robert W; Bandettini, Peter A

    2015-12-01

    It was recently shown that when large amounts of task-based blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) data are combined to increase contrast- and temporal signal-to-noise ratios, the majority of the brain shows significant hemodynamic responses time-locked with the experimental paradigm. Here, we investigate the biological significance of such widespread activations. First, the relationship between activation extent and task demands was investigated by varying cognitive load across participants. Second, the tissue specificity of responses was probed using the better BOLD signal localization capabilities of a 7T scanner. Finally, the spatial distribution of 3 primary response types--namely positively sustained (pSUS), negatively sustained (nSUS), and transient--was evaluated using a newly defined voxel-wise waveshape index that permits separation of responses based on their temporal signature. About 86% of gray matter (GM) became significantly active when all data entered the analysis for the most complex task. Activation extent scaled with task load and largely followed the GM contour. The most common response type was nSUS BOLD, irrespective of the task. Our results suggest that widespread activations associated with extremely large single-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets can provide valuable information about the functional organization of the brain that goes undetected in smaller sample sizes. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. A method for predicting the risk of virtual crashes in a simulated driving task using behavioural and subjective drowsiness measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Atsuo; Naitoh, Kensuke; Karwowski, Waldemar

    2017-05-01

    This study proposed a procedure for predicting the point in time with high risk of virtual crash using a control chart methodology for behavioural measures during a simulated driving task. Tracking error, human back pressure, sitting pressure and horizontal and vertical neck bending angles were measured during the simulated driving task. The time with a high risk of a virtual crash occurred in 9 out of 10 participants. The time interval between the successfully detected point in time with high risk of virtual crash and the point in time of virtual crash ranged from 80 to 324 s. The proposed procedure for predicting the point in time with a high risk of a crash is promising for warning drivers of the state of high risk of crash. Practitioner Summary: Many fatal crashes occur due to drowsy driving. We proposed a method to predict the point in time with high risk of virtual crash before such a virtual crash occurs. This is done using behavioural measures during a simulated driving task. The effectiveness of the method is also demonstrated.

  5. [Ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive subjects. Definition of reference values as a function of age by the Spacelabs instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagny, J Y; Delva, R; Aouizerate, M; Chatellier, G; Battaglia, C; Devriès, C; Plouin, P F; Corvol, P; Ménard, J

    1987-10-10

    For a finer assessment, by repeated blood pressure (BP) measurements, of the cardiovascular risk associated with BP levels, new instruments have been developed which provide multiple reading during periods of activity. However, the lack of epidemiological studies makes it necessary to determine reference ambulatory BP levels by another method. Twelve-hour recordings were taken with the Spacelabs instrument in 130 volunteers (45% males) aged from 20 to 90 years during their various activities. Mean systolic and diastolic BP values +/- SD were calculated per age-groups of 10 years each. That this sample was representative of the general population was confirmed by the fact that BP fluctuations and variations according to age and sex in these 130 subjects were identical with those observed in the population of an entire town (Framingham). The concept of hypertension, as defined by ambulatory BP recordings, is discussed. This study provides, for the first time, reference ambulatory BP values according to age and sex, measured in normotensive subjects with the Spacelabs instrument. These values constitute a preliminary step indispensable to evaluate this technique in hypertensive patients.

  6. Additive prognostic value of subjective assessment with respect to clinical cardiological data in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majani, Giuseppina; Pierobon, Antonia; Pinna, Gian Domenico; Giardini, Anna; Maestri, Roberto; La Rovere, Maria Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Health-related quality of life tools that better reflect the unique subjective perception of heart failure (HF) are needed for patients with this disorder. The aim of this study was to explore whether subjective satisfaction of HF patients about daily life may provide additional prognostic information with respect to clinical cardiological data. One hundred and seventy-eight patients (age 51 ± 9 years) with moderate to severe HF [New York Heart Association (NYHA) class 2.0 ± 0.7; left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 29 ± 8%] in stable clinical condition underwent a standard clinical evaluation and compiled the Satisfaction Profile (SAT-P) questionnaire focusing on subjective satisfaction with daily life. Cox regression analysis was used to assess whether SAT-P factors (psychological functioning, physical functioning, work, sleep/eating/leisure, social functioning) had any prognostic value. Forty-six cardiac deaths occurred during a median of 30 months. Patients who died had higher NYHA class, more depressed left ventricular function, reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP), increased heart rate (HR), and worse biochemistry (all p patients who died (p = 0.003). Using the best subset selection procedure, resistance to physical fatigue (RPF) was selected from among the items of the PF factor. RPF showed independent predictive value when entered into a prognostic model including NYHA class, LVEF, SBP, and HR with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.86 per 10 units increase (95% CI 0.75-0.98, p = 0.02). Patients' dissatisfaction with physical functioning is associated with reduced long-term survival, after adjustment for known risk factors in HF. Given its user-friendly structure, simplicity, and significant prognostic value, the RPF score may represent a useful instrument in clinical practice.

  7. Effects of Force Load, Muscle Fatigue, and Magnetic Stimulation on Surface Electromyography during Side Arm Lateral Raise Task: A Preliminary Study with Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of force load, muscle fatigue, and extremely low-frequency (ELF magnetic stimulation on surface electromyography (SEMG signal features during side arm lateral raise task. SEMG signals were recorded from 18 healthy subjects on the anterior deltoid using a BIOSEMI ActiveTwo system during side lateral raise task (with the right arm 90 degrees away from the body with three different loads on the forearm (0 kg, 1 kg, and 3 kg; their order was randomized between subjects. The arm maintained the loads until the subject felt exhausted. The first 10 s recording for each load was regarded as nonfatigue status and the last 10 s before the subject was exhausted was regarded as fatigue status. The subject was then given a five-minute resting between different loads. Two days later, the same experiment was repeated on every subject, and this time the ELF magnetic stimulation was applied to the subject’s deltoid muscle during the five-minute rest period. Three commonly used SEMG features, root mean square (RMS, median frequency (MDF, and sample entropy (SampEn, were analyzed and compared between different loads, nonfatigue/fatigue status, and ELF stimulation and no stimulation. Variance analysis results showed that the effect of force load on RMS was significant (p0.05. In comparison with nonfatigue status, for all the different force loads with and without ELF stimulation, RMS was significantly larger at fatigue (all p<0.001 and MDF and SampEn were significantly smaller (all p<0.001.

  8. Prefrontal Activity and Connectivity with the Basal Ganglia during Performance of Complex Cognitive Tasks Is Associated with Apathy in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Leonardo; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Taurisano, Paolo; Amico, Graziella; Quarto, Tiziana; Antonucci, Linda Antonella; Barulli, Maria Rosaria; Mancini, Marina; Gelao, Barbara; Ferranti, Laura; Popolizio, Teresa; Bertolino, Alessandro; Blasi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Convergent evidence indicates that apathy affects cognitive behavior in different neurological and psychiatric conditions. Studies of clinical populations have also suggested the primary involvement of the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia in apathy. These brain regions are interconnected at both the structural and functional levels and are deeply involved in cognitive processes, such as working memory and attention. However, it is unclear how apathy modulates brain processing during cognition and whether such a modulation occurs in healthy young subjects. To address this issue, we investigated the link between apathy and prefrontal and basal ganglia function in healthy young individuals. We hypothesized that apathy may be related to sub-optimal activity and connectivity in these brain regions. Three hundred eleven healthy subjects completed an apathy assessment using the Starkstein's Apathy Scale and underwent fMRI during working memory and attentional performance tasks. Using an ROI approach, we investigated the association of apathy with activity and connectivity in the DLPFC and the basal ganglia. Apathy scores correlated positively with prefrontal activity and negatively with prefrontal-basal ganglia connectivity during both working memory and attention tasks. Furthermore, prefrontal activity was inversely related to attentional behavior. These results suggest that in healthy young subjects, apathy is a trait associated with inefficient cognitive-related prefrontal activity, i.e., it increases the need for prefrontal resources to process cognitive stimuli. Furthermore, apathy may alter the functional relationship between the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia during cognition.

  9. Effect of Postural Control Demands on Early Visual Evoked Potentials during a Subjective Visual Vertical Perception Task in Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Tzu; Meng, Ling-Fu; Chang, Chun-Ju; Lai, Po-Liang; Lung, Chi-Wen; Chern, Jen-Suh

    2017-01-01

    Subjective visual vertical (SVV) judgment and standing stability were separately investigated among patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Although, one study has investigated the central mechanism of stability control in the AIS population, the relationships between SVV, decreased standing stability, and AIS have never been investigated. Through event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study examined the effect of postural control demands (PDs) on AIS central mechanisms related to SVV judgment and standing stability to elucidate the time-serial stability control process. Thirteen AIS subjects (AIS group) and 13 age-matched adolescents (control group) aged 12-18 years were recruited. Each subject had to complete an SVV task (i.e., the modified rod-and-frame [mRAF] test) as a stimulus, with online electroencephalogram recording being performed in the following three standing postures: feet shoulder-width apart standing, feet together standing, and tandem standing. The behavioral performance in terms of postural stability (center of pressure excursion), SVV (accuracy and reaction time), and mRAF-locked ERPs (mean amplitude and peak latency of the P1, N1, and P2 components) was then compared between the AIS and control groups. In the behavioral domain, the results revealed that only the AIS group demonstrated a significantly accelerated SVV reaction time as the PDs increased. In the cerebral domain, significantly larger P2 mean amplitudes were observed during both feet shoulder-width-apart standing and feet together standing postures compared with during tandem standing. No group differences were noted in the cerebral domain. The results indicated that (1) during the dual-task paradigm, a differential behavioral strategy of accelerated SVV reaction time was observed in the AIS group only when the PDs increased and (2) the decrease in P2 mean amplitudes with the increase in the PD levels might be direct evidence of the competition for central

  10. Effect of Postural Control Demands on Early Visual Evoked Potentials during a Subjective Visual Vertical Perception Task in Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tzu Chang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Subjective visual vertical (SVV judgment and standing stability were separately investigated among patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Although, one study has investigated the central mechanism of stability control in the AIS population, the relationships between SVV, decreased standing stability, and AIS have never been investigated. Through event-related potentials (ERPs, the present study examined the effect of postural control demands (PDs on AIS central mechanisms related to SVV judgment and standing stability to elucidate the time-serial stability control process. Thirteen AIS subjects (AIS group and 13 age-matched adolescents (control group aged 12–18 years were recruited. Each subject had to complete an SVV task (i.e., the modified rod-and-frame [mRAF] test as a stimulus, with online electroencephalogram recording being performed in the following three standing postures: feet shoulder-width apart standing, feet together standing, and tandem standing. The behavioral performance in terms of postural stability (center of pressure excursion, SVV (accuracy and reaction time, and mRAF-locked ERPs (mean amplitude and peak latency of the P1, N1, and P2 components was then compared between the AIS and control groups. In the behavioral domain, the results revealed that only the AIS group demonstrated a significantly accelerated SVV reaction time as the PDs increased. In the cerebral domain, significantly larger P2 mean amplitudes were observed during both feet shoulder-width-apart standing and feet together standing postures compared with during tandem standing. No group differences were noted in the cerebral domain. The results indicated that (1 during the dual-task paradigm, a differential behavioral strategy of accelerated SVV reaction time was observed in the AIS group only when the PDs increased and (2 the decrease in P2 mean amplitudes with the increase in the PD levels might be direct evidence of the competition for

  11. Cognitive performance and perceived effort in speech processing tasks: effects of different noise backgrounds in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsby, Birgitta; Hällgren, Mathias; Lyxell, Björn; Arlinger, Stig

    2005-03-01

    Cognitive tests of speech understanding were administered (presented as text, or in auditory or audiovisual modality) and perceived effort was rated. This was done in four background conditions: in silence, and in three types of noise (S/N=+10 dB) varying in temporal structure and meaningfulness. Four groups of 12 subjects each (young/elderly with normal hearing and young/elderly with hearing impairment) participated. The presence of noise had a negative effect on accuracy and speed of performance in the speech processing tasks, and resulted in higher scores of perceived effort, even when the stimuli were presented as text. Differences in performance between noise conditions existed. In the subjective scores, the noise with temporal variations, but without meaningful content, was the most disruptive of the three noise conditions. In the objective scores the hearing-impaired subjects showed poorer results in noise with temporal variations. The elderly subjects were more distracted by noise with temporal variations, and especially by noise with meaningful content. In noise, all subjects, particularly those with impaired hearing, were more dependent upon visual cues than in the quiet condition.

  12. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, Jorge [LABS and Rede D' Or Hospitais, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Neuroimagem e Neurologia do Comportamento; Eslinger, Paul J. [Pensylvania State Univ. (United States). College of Medicine. Div. of Neurology and Behavioral Science; The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PN (United States); Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de [Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (UNI-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Gaffree e Guinle]. E-mail: neuropsychiatry@hotmail.com

    2001-09-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  13. Probing the Unique Contributions of Self-Concept, Task Values, and Their Interactions Using Multiple Value Facets and Multiple Academic Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Jiesi; Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W.; Kelava, Augustin; Gaspard, Hanna; Brandt, Holger; Cambria, Jenna; Flunger, B.; Dicke, Anna Lena; Häfner, Isabelle; Brisson, Brigitte Maria; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on expectancy-value theory, the present study examined the unique contributions of the four major value beliefs and self-concept on achievement, self-reported effort, and teacher-rated behavioral engagement in mathematics. In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of self-concept

  14. Event-related potentials reveal task-dependence and inter-individual differences in negation processing during silent listening and explicit truth-value evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, C; Kissler, J

    2014-09-26

    In sentences such as dogs cannot fly/bark, evaluation of the truth-value of the sentence is assumed to appear after the negation has been integrated into the sentence structure. Moreover negation processing and truth-value processing are considered effortful processes, whereas processing of the semantic relatedness of the words within sentences is thought to occur automatically. In the present study, modulation of event-related brain potentials (N400 and late positive potential, LPP) was investigated during an implicit task (silent listening) and active truth-value evaluation to test these theoretical assumptions and determine if truth-value evaluation will be modulated by the way participants processed the negated information implicitly prior to truth-value verification. Participants first listened to negated sentences and then evaluated these sentences for their truth-value in an active evaluation task. During passive listening, the LPP was generally more pronounced for targets in false negative (FN) than true negative (TN) sentences, indicating enhanced attention allocation to semantically-related but false targets. N400 modulation by truth-value (FN>TN) was observed in 11 out of 24 participants. However, during active evaluation, processing of semantically-unrelated but true targets (TN) elicited larger N400 and LPP amplitudes as well as a pronounced frontal negativity. This pattern was particularly prominent in those 11 individuals, whose N400 modulation during silent listening indicated that they were more sensitive to violations of the truth-value than to semantic priming effects. The results provide evidence for implicit truth-value processing during silent listening of negated sentences and for task dependence related to inter-individual differences in implicit negation processing. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Differences in Intellectual Challenge of Writing Tasks among Higher and Lower Value-Added English Language Arts Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Chandra; Brown, Michelle T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Writing is an essential literacy skill; however, public school students often receive inadequate writing instruction, particularly as they move into middle and high school. However, research has shown that the nature of writing tasks assigned can impact writing development and student achievement measured by standardized assessments.…

  16. Liver Stiffness Values Are Lower in Pediatric Subjects than in Adults and Increase with Age: A Multifrequency MR Elastography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchell, Emily; Jugé, Lauriane; Hatt, Alice; Sinkus, Ralph; Bilston, Lynne E

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To determine if healthy hepatic mechanical properties differ between pediatric and adult subjects at magnetic resonance (MR) elastography. Materials and Methods Liver shear moduli in 24 healthy pediatric participants (13 children aged 5-14 years [seven boys, six girls] and 11 adolescents aged 15-18 years [six boys, five girls]) and 10 healthy adults (aged 22-36 years [five men, five women]) were obtained with 3-T MR elastography at 28, 56, and 84 Hz. Relationships between shear moduli and age were assessed with Spearman correlations. Differences between age groups were determined with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparisons tests. Results Liver stiffness values (means ± standard deviations) were significantly lower in children and adolescents than in adults at 56 Hz (children, 2.2 kPa ± 0.3; adolescents, 2.2 kPa ± 0.2; adults, 2.6 kPa ± 0.3; analysis of variance, P = .009) and 84 Hz (children, 5.6 kPa ± 0.8; adolescents, 6.5 kPa ± 1.2; adults, 7.8 kPa ± 1.2; analysis of variance, P = .0003) but not at 28 Hz (children, 1.2 kPa ± 0.2; adolescents, 1.3 kPa ± 0.3; adults, 1.2 kPa ± 0.2; analysis of variance, P = .40). At 56 and 84 Hz, liver stiffness increased with age (Spearman correlation, r = 0.38 [P = .03] and r = 0.54 [P = .001], respectively). Stiffness varied less with frequency in children and adolescents than in adults (analysis of variance, P = .0009). No significant differences were found in shear moduli at 28, 56, or 84 Hz or frequency dependence between children and adolescents (P = .38, P = .99, P = .14, and P = .30, respectively, according to Tukey tests). Conclusion Liver stiffness values are lower and vary less with frequency in children and adolescents than in adults. Stiffness increases with age during normal development and approaches adult values during adolescence. Comparing pediatric liver stiffness to adult baseline values to detect pediatric liver mechanical abnormalities may not allow detection of mild

  17. The Math–Biology Values Instrument: Development of a Tool to Measure Life Science Majors’ Task Values of Using Math in the Context of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sarah E.; Runyon, Christopher; Aikens, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    In response to calls to improve the quantitative training of undergraduate biology students, there have been increased efforts to better integrate math into biology curricula. One challenge of such efforts is negative student attitudes toward math, which are thought to be particularly prevalent among biology students. According to theory, students’ personal values toward using math in a biological context will influence their achievement and behavioral outcomes, but a validated instrument is needed to determine this empirically. We developed the Math–Biology Values Instrument (MBVI), an 11-item college-level self-­report instrument grounded in expectancy-value theory, to measure life science students’ interest in using math to understand biology, the perceived usefulness of math to their life science career, and the cost of using math in biology courses. We used a process that integrates multiple forms of validity evidence to show that scores from the MBVI can be used as a valid measure of a student’s value of math in the context of biology. The MBVI can be used by instructors and researchers to help identify instructional strategies that influence math–biology values and understand how math–biology values are related to students’ achievement and decisions to pursue more advanced quantitative-based courses. PMID:28747355

  18. The value sphere of native and newcomer youth in their subjective assessment of the environment of a megalopolis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruzhkova, O. V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, in the Russian Federation more and more attention is being paid to the quality of human capital. The innovative future of the country as a whole and its regions in particular depends on having young people with an active lifestyle, a high level of education, and a desire to be included in the development process of their country, region, city, or town. In most regions of the Russian Federation, programs and projects are supported that promote the self-actualization of young people and create conditions to ensure a full and rich life for the younger generation. But, despite these measures, as well as major government funding, the process of active internal migration and the outflow of talented young people from provincial areas into the central regions, as well as from rural to urban settlements, lead to the significant negative skewing of socioeconomic development in the regions of the Russian Federation. Thus, these are the issues: which characteristics of life in a megalopolis are valuable and attractive to young people and are there differences in the images of a big city held by native young people and newcomers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of the value-sense and need-motivational spheres of native and newcomer youth in a megalopolis as well as to reveal the specifics of their images of a contemporary megalopolis. A comprehensive study conducted in Ekaterinburg among young people in the senior classes of secondary schools, colleges, and universities, as well as among young working men and women (N = 1108; ages 17-25, disclosed the base values in the subjective evaluation of the environment of a megalopolis by native and newcomer youth. In accordance with the objectives of the study, the sample was divided into two contrasting groups: native residents of Ekaterinburg (living there since birth 437; newcomer residents of Ekaterinburg (living there fewer than 3 years who were actively adapting

  19. Assessment of T1, T1ρ, and T2 values of the ulnocarpal disc in healthy subjects at 3 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Isabel; Bender, Benjamin; Grözinger, Gerd; Luz, Oliver; Pohmann, Rolf; Erb, Michael; Schick, Fritz; Martirosian, Petros

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement clinically feasible imaging techniques for determination of T1, T1ρ, and T2 values of the ulnocarpal disc and to assess those values in a cohort of asymptomatic subjects at 3 tesla. Resulting values were compared between different age groups, since former histological findings of the ulnocarpal disc indicated frequent early degenerative changes of this tissue starting in the third decade of life, even in asymptomatic subjects. Twenty-seven healthy subjects were included in this study. T1 measurements were performed using 3D spoiled gradient-echo (GRE) sequence with variable flip angle. A series of T1ρ and T2-weighted images was acquired by a 3D GRE sequence after suitable magnetization preparation. T1,T1ρ, and T2 maps of the ulnocarpal disc were calculated pixel-wise. Representative mean values from extended regions were analysed. Mean T1 values of the ulnocarpal disc ranged from 722 ms in a 39 year-old subject to 1264 ms in a 65 year-old subject, T1ρ ranged from 9.2 ms (26 year-old subject) to 25.9 ms (65 year-old subject). Calculated T2 values showed a large range from 4.1 ms to 22.3 ms. T1ρ and T1 values tended to increase with age (p<0.05), whereas T2 did not. MR relaxometry of the ulnocarpal disc is feasible, and T1,T1ρ, and T2 values show modest variance in asymptomatic subjects. The potential of relaxation mapping to reveal relevant structural changes in patients has to be investigated in further studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparison of abdominal muscle thickness changes after a lifting task in subjects with and without chronic low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Hoseinpoor, Tahere; Kahrizi, Sedighe; Mobini, Bahram; Naji, Mohsen

    2015-03-01

    Using ultrasound imaging, the abdominal muscles' response to the back extensor muscle fatigue was assessed in subjects with chronic low-back pain (CLBP). Lumbar muscle fatigue is a common occurrence among workers. Alteration in motor coordination is one consequence of muscular fatigue. According to previous studies, CLBP subjects use their back and abdominal muscles in different ways, but questions remain about abdominal muscle responses to back muscle fatigue in CLBP patients. Thirteen CLBP patients and 15 healthy subjects participated in this study. The thickness of abdominal muscles-including transverse abdominis (TrA), internal oblique abdominis (IO), and external oblique abdominis (EO) muscles-was measured in standing position with and without axial loads before and after a lifting fatigue task. The results reveal a significant difference for the main effects of group on percentage of change in TrA thickness (F = 8.9, p = .004). Percentage of change in thickness of TrA was 10% greater in the CLBP group. Although IO thickness displayed greater percentage of change in the CLBP group, the difference between groups was not significant. Abdominal muscle behavior changes with back-muscle fatigue in both healthy and CLBP subjects, but responses were more exaggerated in CLBP patients. Ultrasound imaging technique can provide critical information about the effect of fatigue on spinal muscle activation and consequently about the stability of the spine. As a more applicable and easy technique, ergonomists can use ultrasound imaging in musculoskeletal system assessment in worker populations in future studies. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  1. The Math?Biology Values Instrument: Development of a Tool to Measure Life Science Majors? Task Values of Using Math in the Context of Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Sarah E.; Runyon, Christopher; Aikens, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    In response to calls to improve the quantitative training of undergraduate biology students, there have been increased efforts to better integrate math into biology curricula. One challenge of such efforts is negative student attitudes toward math, which are thought to be particularly prevalent among biology students. According to theory, students? personal values toward using math in a biological context will influence their achievement and behavioral outcomes, but a validated instrument is ...

  2. Low diagnostic value of fasting and post-methionine load homocysteine tests. A study in Dutch subjects with homocysteine test indications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; van Doormaal, J J; Reijngoud, D J; Muskiet, F A J

    BACKGROUND: Homocysteine is a cardiovascular disease risk factor. We investigated, both in subjects with past plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) test indications and healthy adults, the diagnostic value of a fasting (tHcy) (f-tHcy) and the added value of a post-methionine-load tHcy (postload-tHcy).

  3. THE СREATIVE TASKS DURING THE PRACTICAL SESSIONS OF LITERARY SUBJECTS AS THE MEANS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CREATIVITY OF FUTURE LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Shcherbatiuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes the methodology of using a number of creative tasks for working with students of Philology Department during the practical sessions of literary subjects. The tasks are focused on designing the creative qualities of future language and literature teachers: imagination, inspiration, initiative, noncommonality, extraordinary nature, his/her own point of view. At present, the students perceive the learning process as something fixed, which necessarily must be studied and passed. They will not think critically, as long as the teacher does not create creative atmosphere to facilitate the active involvement of students into the learning process. And one should allow them to freely speculate, dream up. Each person has the potential of skills, and the tasks of modern teacher are developing these skills and managing the process of the development. Therefore, the main purpose of organization of practical session is to be able to encounter the students’ intellectual forces, to cause them to work, to create a favorable pedagogical environment for their formation and simultaneously to shape the identity of a young person, his/her outlook. Organizing the practical training one should find a way to students’ minds and doesn`t give them ready knowledge but to ensure them to acquire knowledge themselves trying to search, establish dependences, and patterns. They should be engaged in creative dialogue with cultural texts and nourish their own personal position. The problem of creativity is complex and multifaceted. Since ancient times it has been in the scholars’ and philosophers’ field of view (Plato, Aristotle, Hegel, Pestalozzi, etc.. Basic issues of a creative individual are disclosed in the works by A. Luk, Ia. Ponomarev, A. Matiushkin, P. Enhelmeier, V. Moliako, O. Amatev, E. Belkina, A. Bohush, N. Vetluhina, N. Havrish, O. Dronova and others. However, the growing relevance and educational significance of this issue

  4. EEG-Based Quantification of Cortical Current Density and Dynamic Causal Connectivity Generalized across Subjects Performing BCI-Monitored Cognitive Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristos Courellis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of dynamic causal interactions among brain regions constitutes an important component of conducting research and developing applications in experimental and translational neuroscience. Furthermore, cortical networks with dynamic causal connectivity in brain-computer interface (BCI applications offer a more comprehensive view of brain states implicated in behavior than do individual brain regions. However, models of cortical network dynamics are difficult to generalize across subjects because current electroencephalography (EEG signal analysis techniques are limited in their ability to reliably localize sources across subjects. We propose an algorithmic and computational framework for identifying cortical networks across subjects in which dynamic causal connectivity is modeled among user-selected cortical regions of interest (ROIs. We demonstrate the strength of the proposed framework using a “reach/saccade to spatial target” cognitive task performed by 10 right-handed individuals. Modeling of causal cortical interactions was accomplished through measurement of cortical activity using (EEG, application of independent component clustering to identify cortical ROIs as network nodes, estimation of cortical current density using cortically constrained low resolution electromagnetic brain tomography (cLORETA, multivariate autoregressive (MVAR modeling of representative cortical activity signals from each ROI, and quantification of the dynamic causal interaction among the identified ROIs using the Short-time direct Directed Transfer function (SdDTF. The resulting cortical network and the computed causal dynamics among its nodes exhibited physiologically plausible behavior, consistent with past results reported in the literature. This physiological plausibility of the results strengthens the framework's applicability in reliably capturing complex brain functionality, which is required by applications, such as diagnostics and BCI.

  5. Relationships among Middle School Students' Expectancy Beliefs, Task Values, and Health-Related Fitness Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Sun, Haichun; Dai, Jun; Griffin, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to identify gender and body weight differences in Chinese adolescents' perceived expectancy value (EV) motivation in their physical education (PE) class. The study also explored the relationship between EV and adolescents' health-related fitness performances. Method: A group of seventh and eighth graders (N =…

  6. How Stable Are Value-Added Estimates across Years, Subjects and Student Groups? What We Know Series: Value-Added Methods and Applications. Knowledge Brief 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susanna; Candelaria, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Value-added models measure teacher performance by the test score gains of their students, adjusted for a variety of factors such as the performance of students when they enter the class. The measures are based on desired student outcomes such as math and reading scores, but they have a number of potential drawbacks. One of them is the…

  7. Connection and Disconnection: Value of the Analyst’s Subjectivity in Elucidating Meaning in a Psychoanalytic Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hueso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on pivotal concepts of psychoanalytic practice and theory, applied to a single case study to create new meanings. Drawing from the concepts of transference, countertransference, and projective identification, the author presents the notion that the researcher’s subjective reactions are created and induced by the subject of study precisely because this is one, and sometimes the only way available to the subject to communicate something that is out of its full awareness. In essence, some unconscious material can be expressed nonverbally by the subject by means of provoking visceral and bodily reactions in the researcher, or in some cases, psychic imagery such as dreams or fantasies. The material can be meaningfully interpreted by the researcher by receiving, containing, and sorting through these inchoate emotional reactions within self.

  8. Spinal fMRI during proprioceptive and tactile tasks in healthy subjects: activity detected using cross-correlation, general linear model and independent component analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valsasina, P.; Agosta, F.; Filippi, M. [Scientific Institute Ospedale San Raffaele, Neuroimaging Research Unit, Milan (Italy); Caputo, D. [Scientific Institute Fondazione Don Gnocchi, Department of Neurology, Milan (Italy); Stroman, P.W. [Queen' s University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Functional MRI (fMRI) of the spinal cord is able to provide maps of neuronal activity. Spinal fMRI data have been analyzed in previous studies by calculating the cross-correlation (CC) between the stimulus and the time course of every voxel and, more recently, by using the general linear model (GLM). The aim of this study was to compare three different approaches (CC analysis, GLM and independent component analysis (ICA)) for analyzing fMRI scans of the cervical spinal cord. We analyzed spinal fMRI data from healthy subjects during a proprioceptive and a tactile stimulation by using two model-based approaches, i.e., CC analysis between the stimulus shape and the time course of every voxel, and the GLM. Moreover, we applied independent component analysis, a model-free approach which decomposes the data in a set of source signals. All methods were able to detect cervical cord areas of activity corresponding to the expected regions of neuronal activations. Model-based approaches (CC and GLM) revealed similar patterns of activity. ICA could identify a component correlated to fMRI stimulation, although with a lower statistical threshold than model-based approaches, and many components, consistent across subjects, which are likely to be secondary to noise present in the data. Model-based approaches seem to be more robust for estimating task-related activity, whereas ICA seems to be useful for eliminating noise components from the data. Combined use of ICA and GLM might improve the reliability of spinal fMRI results. (orig.)

  9. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α shows predictive value as a risk marker for subjects and sites vulnerable to bone loss in a longitudinal model of aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Daniel H; Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Tischio-Bereski, Debbie; Ferrandiz, Javier; Godboley, Dipti; Furgang, David; Gunsolley, John; Best, Al

    2014-01-01

    Improved diagnostics remains a fundamental goal of biomedical research. This study was designed to assess cytokine biomarkers that could predict bone loss (BL) in localized aggressive periodontitis. 2,058 adolescents were screened. Two groups of 50 periodontally healthy adolescents were enrolled in the longitudinal study. One group had Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), the putative pathogen, while the matched cohort did not. Cytokine levels were assessed in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Participants were sampled, examined, and radiographed every 6 months for 2-3 years. Disease was defined as radiographic evidence of BL. Saliva and GCF was collected at each visit, frozen, and then tested retrospectively after detection of BL. Sixteen subjects with Aa developed BL. Saliva from Aa-positive and Aa-negative healthy subjects was compared to subjects who developed BL. GCF was collected from 16 subjects with BL and from another 38 subjects who remained healthy. GCF from BL sites in the 16 subjects was compared to healthy sites in these same subjects and to healthy sites in subjects who remained healthy. Results showed that cytokines in saliva associated with acute inflammation were elevated in subjects who developed BL (i.e., MIP-1α MIP-1β IL-α, IL-1β and IL-8; psites were below that level (Specificity); whereas, 93% of sites with BL were higher (Sensitivity), with comparable Predictive Values of 98%; psite vulnerability to BL.

  10. Prognostic value of reading-to-reading blood pressure variability over 24 hours in 8938 subjects from 11 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine W; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies, of which several were underpowered, the relation between cardiovascular outcome and blood pressure (BP) variability was inconsistent. We followed health outcomes in 8938 subjects (mean age: 53.0 years; 46.8% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations. At baseline, we asses...

  11. Additional Value of CSF Amyloid-beta(40) Levels in the Differentiation between FTLD and Control Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, N.A.; Kester, M.I.; van der Flier, W.M.; Veerhuis, R.; Berkhof, J.; Twaalfhoven, H.A.M.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Scheltens, P.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the additional value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β {1-40} (Aβ {40}) next to amyloid-β {1-42} (β {42}), total tau (Tau), and tau phosphorylated at threonine-181 (pTau) to distinguish patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and controls,

  12. Short-Term Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Task-Related Training on Upper Extremity Function, Spasticity, and Grip Strength in Subjects with Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Chang-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training on arm function, spasticity, and grip strength in subjects with poststroke hemiplegia. Forty-five subjects with poststroke were randomly allocated to 3 groups, each with 15 subjects as follows: control group, whole-body vibration group, and whole-body vibration plus task-related training group. Outcome was evaluated by clinical evaluation and measurements of the grip strength before and 4 weeks after intervention. Our results show that there was a significantly greater increase in the Fugl-Meyer scale, maximal grip strength of the affected hand, and grip strength normalized to the less affected hand in subjects undergoing the whole-body vibration training compared with the control group after the test. Furthermore, there was a significantly greater increase in the Wolf motor function test and a decrease in the modified Ashworth spasticity total scores in subjects who underwent whole-body vibration plus task-related training compared with those in the other 2 groups after the test. The findings indicate that the use of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training has more benefits on the improvement of arm function, spasticity, and maximal grip strength than conventional upper limb training alone or with whole-body vibration in people with poststroke hemiplegia.

  13. Arm rehabilitation in post stroke subjects: A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of myoelectrically driven FES applied in a task-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Johanna; Thorsen, Rune; Aprile, Irene; Galeri, Silvia; Spannocchi, Giovanna; Beghi, Ettore; Bianchi, Elisa; Montesano, Angelo; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Motor recovery of persons after stroke may be enhanced by a novel approach where residual muscle activity is facilitated by patient-controlled electrical muscle activation. Myoelectric activity from hemiparetic muscles is then used for continuous control of functional electrical stimulation (MeCFES) of same or synergic muscles to promote restoration of movements during task-oriented therapy (TOT). Use of MeCFES during TOT may help to obtain a larger functional and neurological recovery than otherwise possible. Multicenter randomized controlled trial. Eighty two acute and chronic stroke victims were recruited through the collaborating facilities and after signing an informed consent were randomized to receive either the experimental (MeCFES assisted TOT (M-TOT) or conventional rehabilitation care including TOT (C-TOT). Both groups received 45 minutes of rehabilitation over 25 sessions. Outcomes were Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-UE) scores and Disability of the Arm Shoulder and Hand questionnaire. Sixty eight subjects completed the protocol (Mean age 66.2, range 36.5-88.7, onset months 12.7, range 0.8-19.1) of which 45 were seen at follow up 5 weeks later. There were significant improvements in both groups on ARAT (median improvement: MeCFES TOT group 3.0; C-TOT group 2.0) and FMA-UE (median improvement: M-TOT 4.5; C-TOT 3.5). Considering subacute subjects (time since stroke < 6 months), there was a trend for a larger proportion of improved patients in the M-TOT group following rehabilitation (57.9%) than in the C-TOT group (33.2%) (difference in proportion improved 24.7%; 95% CI -4.0; 48.6), though the study did not meet the planned sample size. This is the first large multicentre RCT to compare MeCFES assisted TOT with conventional care TOT for the upper extremity. No adverse events or negative outcomes were encountered, thus we conclude that MeCFES can be a safe adjunct to rehabilitation that could promote recovery of

  14. Arm rehabilitation in post stroke subjects: A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of myoelectrically driven FES applied in a task-oriented approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Jonsdottir

    Full Text Available Motor recovery of persons after stroke may be enhanced by a novel approach where residual muscle activity is facilitated by patient-controlled electrical muscle activation. Myoelectric activity from hemiparetic muscles is then used for continuous control of functional electrical stimulation (MeCFES of same or synergic muscles to promote restoration of movements during task-oriented therapy (TOT. Use of MeCFES during TOT may help to obtain a larger functional and neurological recovery than otherwise possible.Multicenter randomized controlled trial.Eighty two acute and chronic stroke victims were recruited through the collaborating facilities and after signing an informed consent were randomized to receive either the experimental (MeCFES assisted TOT (M-TOT or conventional rehabilitation care including TOT (C-TOT. Both groups received 45 minutes of rehabilitation over 25 sessions. Outcomes were Action Research Arm Test (ARAT, Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-UE scores and Disability of the Arm Shoulder and Hand questionnaire.Sixty eight subjects completed the protocol (Mean age 66.2, range 36.5-88.7, onset months 12.7, range 0.8-19.1 of which 45 were seen at follow up 5 weeks later. There were significant improvements in both groups on ARAT (median improvement: MeCFES TOT group 3.0; C-TOT group 2.0 and FMA-UE (median improvement: M-TOT 4.5; C-TOT 3.5. Considering subacute subjects (time since stroke < 6 months, there was a trend for a larger proportion of improved patients in the M-TOT group following rehabilitation (57.9% than in the C-TOT group (33.2% (difference in proportion improved 24.7%; 95% CI -4.0; 48.6, though the study did not meet the planned sample size.This is the first large multicentre RCT to compare MeCFES assisted TOT with conventional care TOT for the upper extremity. No adverse events or negative outcomes were encountered, thus we conclude that MeCFES can be a safe adjunct to rehabilitation that could promote recovery

  15. Towards a satiety map of common foods: Associations between perceived satiety value of 100 foods and their objective and subjective attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Nicola J; James Stubbs, R; Finlayson, Graham

    2015-12-01

    Hunger is one of the main reasons given by people experiencing problems in managing their weight. Identifying the types and properties of foods that enhance satiety may help consumers improve appetite control and weight management. However the attributes of foods associated with their perceived satiety value have been largely unexamined. The current research examined a range of objective and subjective attributes of foods and sought to map them onto ratings of their perceived satiety value. Participants (n=1127) rated 100 individual food images, through online surveys, based on subjective (e.g. perceived energy content, control over eating, healthiness, palatability) and objective (e.g. actual energy content, macronutrient composition, cost/kcal) attributes. Perceived satiety value was quantified from ratings of how filling each food was judged to be. Results showed that when controlling for perceived total energy content, perceived satiety value was associated with lower energy density (r=-.74), lower %fat (r=-.47), higher %protein (r=.31) and higher cost (r=.48). In terms of subjective attributes, perceived satiety value was associated with greater healthiness (r=.90), weight management (r=.91), frequency of consumption (r=.58) and greater control over eating (r=.76). Linear regression models indicated that the objective attributes of energy density, %fat, fibre content, %carbohydrate and cost (R(2)=.69) and the subjective attribute of utility for weight management and frequency of consumption (R(2)=.83) accounted for the most variance in the perceived satiety value of food. These findings may help towards a 'satiety map' of the diet with implications for public health promotion and the development of satiety enhancing foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α shows predictive value as a risk marker for subjects and sites vulnerable to bone loss in a longitudinal model of aggressive periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Fine

    Full Text Available Improved diagnostics remains a fundamental goal of biomedical research. This study was designed to assess cytokine biomarkers that could predict bone loss (BL in localized aggressive periodontitis. 2,058 adolescents were screened. Two groups of 50 periodontally healthy adolescents were enrolled in the longitudinal study. One group had Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, the putative pathogen, while the matched cohort did not. Cytokine levels were assessed in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF. Participants were sampled, examined, and radiographed every 6 months for 2-3 years. Disease was defined as radiographic evidence of BL. Saliva and GCF was collected at each visit, frozen, and then tested retrospectively after detection of BL. Sixteen subjects with Aa developed BL. Saliva from Aa-positive and Aa-negative healthy subjects was compared to subjects who developed BL. GCF was collected from 16 subjects with BL and from another 38 subjects who remained healthy. GCF from BL sites in the 16 subjects was compared to healthy sites in these same subjects and to healthy sites in subjects who remained healthy. Results showed that cytokines in saliva associated with acute inflammation were elevated in subjects who developed BL (i.e., MIP-1α MIP-1β IL-α, IL-1β and IL-8; p<0.01. MIP-1α was elevated 13-fold, 6 months prior to BL. When MIP-1α levels were set at 40 pg/ml, 98% of healthy sites were below that level (Specificity; whereas, 93% of sites with BL were higher (Sensitivity, with comparable Predictive Values of 98%; p<0.0001; 95% C.I. = 42.5-52.7. MIP-1α consistently showed elevated levels as a biomarker for BL in both saliva and GCF, 6 months prior to BL. MIP-1α continues to demonstrate its strong candidacy as a diagnostic biomarker for both subject and site vulnerability to BL.

  17. A Health Economics Approach to US Value Assessment Frameworks-Summary and Recommendations of the ISPOR Special Task Force Report [7].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Neumann, Peter J; Willke, Richard J; Basu, Anirban; Danzon, Patricia M; Doshi, Jalpa A; Drummond, Michael F; Lakdawalla, Darius N; Pauly, Mark V; Phelps, Charles E; Ramsey, Scott D; Towse, Adrian; Weinstein, Milton C

    2018-02-01

    This summary section first lists key points from each of the six sections of the report, followed by six key recommendations. The Special Task Force chose to take a health economics approach to the question of whether a health plan should cover and reimburse a specific technology, beginning with the view that the conventional cost-per-quality-adjusted life-year metric has both strengths as a starting point and recognized limitations. This report calls for the development of a more comprehensive economic evaluation that could include novel elements of value (e.g., insurance value and equity) as part of either an "augmented" cost-effectiveness analysis or a multicriteria decision analysis. Given an aggregation of elements to a measure of value, consistent use of a cost-effectiveness threshold can help ensure the maximization of health gain and well-being for a given budget. These decisions can benefit from the use of deliberative processes. The six recommendations are to: 1) be explicit about decision context and perspective in value assessment frameworks; 2) base health plan coverage and reimbursement decisions on an evaluation of the incremental costs and benefits of health care technologies as is provided by cost-effectiveness analysis; 3) develop value thresholds to serve as one important input to help guide coverage and reimbursement decisions; 4) manage budget constraints and affordability on the basis of cost-effectiveness principles; 5) test and consider using structured deliberative processes for health plan coverage and reimbursement decisions; and 6) explore and test novel elements of benefit to improve value measures that reflect the perspectives of both plan members and patients. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The subjective value of probabilistic outcomes: Impact of reward magnitude on choice with uncertain rewards in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoratto, Francesca; Laviola, Giovanni; Adriani, Walter

    2016-03-23

    Interest is rising for animal modelling of Gambling disorder (GD), which is rapidly emerging as a mental health concern. In the present study, we assessed gambling proneness in male Wistar-Han rats using the "Probabilistic Delivery Task" (PDT). This operant protocol is based on choice between either certain, small amounts of food (SS) or larger amounts of food (LLL) delivered (or not) depending on a given (and progressively decreasing) probability. Here, we manipulated the ratio between large and small reward size to assess the impact of different magnitudes on rats' performance. Specifically, we drew a comparison between threefold (2 vs 6 pellets) and fivefold (1 vs 5 pellets) sizes. As a consequence, the "indifferent point" (IP, at which either choice is mathematically equivalent in terms of total foraging) was at 33% and 20% probability of delivery, respectively. Animals tested with the sharper contrast (i.e. fivefold ratio) exhibited sustained preference for LLL far beyond the IP, despite high uncertainty and low payoff, which rendered LLL a sub-optimal option. By contrast, animals facing a slighter contrast (i.e. threefold ratio) were increasingly disturbed by progressive rarefaction of rewards, as expressed by enhanced inadequate nose-poking: this was in accordance with their prompt shift in preference to SS, already shown around the IP. In conclusion, a five-folded LLL-to-SS ratio was not only more attractive, but also less frustrating than a three-folded one. Thus, a profile of gambling proneness in the PDT is more effectively induced by marked contrast between alternative options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The value of the acoustic voice quality index as a measure of dysphonia severity in subjects speaking different languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryn, Youri; De Bodt, Marc; Barsties, Ben; Roy, Nelson

    2014-06-01

    The Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI) is a relatively new clinical method to quantify dysphonia severity. Since it partially relies on continuous speech, its performance may vary with voice-related phonetic differences and thus across languages. The present investigation therefore assessed the AVQI's performance in English, Dutch, German, and French. Fifty subjects were recorded reading sentences in the four languages, as well as producing a sustained vowel. These recordings were later edited to calculate the AVQI. The samples were also perceptually rated on overall dysphonia severity by three experienced voice clinicians. The AVQI's cross-linguistic concurrent validity and diagnostic precision were assessed. The results support earlier data, and confirm good cross-linguistic validity and diagnostic accuracy. Although no statistical differences were observed between languages, the AVQI performed better in English and German and less well in French. These results validate the AVQI as a potentially robust and objective dysphonia severity measure across languages.

  20. Trial-by-trial changes in a priori informational value of external cues and subjective expectancies in human auditory attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Antonio; Gómez, Carlos M

    2011-01-01

    Preparatory activity based on a priori probabilities generated in previous trials and subjective expectancies would produce an attentional bias. However, preparation can be correct (valid) or incorrect (invalid) depending on the actual target stimulus. The alternation effect refers to the subjective expectancy that a target will not be repeated in the same position, causing RTs to increase if the target location is repeated. The present experiment, using the Posner's central cue paradigm, tries to demonstrate that not only the credibility of the cue, but also the expectancy about the next position of the target are changed in a trial by trial basis. Sequences of trials were analyzed. The results indicated an increase in RT benefits when sequences of two and three valid trials occurred. The analysis of errors indicated an increase in anticipatory behavior which grows as the number of valid trials is increased. On the other hand, there was also an RT benefit when a trial was preceded by trials in which the position of the target changed with respect to the current trial (alternation effect). Sequences of two alternations or two repetitions were faster than sequences of trials in which a pattern of repetition or alternation is broken. Taken together, these results suggest that in Posner's central cue paradigm, and with regard to the anticipatory activity, the credibility of the external cue and of the endogenously anticipated patterns of target location are constantly updated. The results suggest that Bayesian rules are operating in the generation of anticipatory activity as a function of the previous trial's outcome, but also on biases or prior beliefs like the "gambler fallacy".

  1. Assessment of Divergent Thinking by means of the Subjective Top-Scoring Method: Effects of the Number of Top-Ideas and Time-on-Task on Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Mathias; Mühlmann, Caterina; Jauk, Emanuel; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2014-01-01

    Divergent thinking tasks are commonly used as indicators of creative potential, but traditional scoring methods of ideational originality face persistent problems such as low reliability and lack of convergent and discriminant validity. Silvia et al. (2008) have proposed a subjective top-2 scoring method, where participants are asked to select their two most creative ideas, which then are evaluated for creativity. This method was found to avoid problems with discriminant validity, and to outperform other scoring methods in terms of convergent validity. These findings motivate a more general, systematic analysis of the subjective top-scoring method. Therefore, this study examined how reliability and validity of the originality and fluency scores depend on the number of top-ideas and on time-on-task. The findings confirm that subjective top-scoring avoids the confounding of originality with fluency. The originality score showed good internal consistency, and evidence of reliability was found to increase as a function of the number of top-ideas and of time-on-task. Convergent validity evidence, however, was highest for a time-on-task of about 2 to 3 minutes and when using a medium number of about three top-ideas. Reasons for these findings are discussed together possible limitations of this study and future directions. The article also presents some general recommendations for the assessment of divergent thinking with the subjective top-scoring method. PMID:24790683

  2. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 3: Technical Requirements and Procedure for Evaluation of One Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Ziegler, Richard E [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Smith, Richard L [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL; Brooks, Daniel L [ORNL; Wiegman, Herman [GE Global Research; Miller, Nicholas [GE; Marano, Dr. Vincenzo [Ohio State University

    2008-07-01

    In Task 2, the project team designed the Phase 1 case study to represent the 'baseline' plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) fleet of 2030 that investigates the effects of seventeen (17) value propositions (see Table 1 for complete list). By creating a 'baseline' scenario, a consistent set of assumptions and model parameters can be established for use in more elaborate Phase 2 case studies. The project team chose southern California as the Phase 1 case study location because the economic, environmental, social, and regulatory conditions are conducive to the advantages of PHEVs. Assuming steady growth of PHEV sales over the next two decades, PHEVs are postulated to comprise approximately 10% of the area's private vehicles (about 1,000,000 vehicles) in 2030. New PHEV models introduced in 2030 are anticipated to contain lithium-ion batteries and be classified by a blended mileage description (e.g., 100 mpg, 150 mpg) that demonstrates a battery size equivalence of a PHEV-30. Task 3 includes the determination of data, models, and analysis procedures required to evaluate the Phase 1 case study scenario. Some existing models have been adapted to accommodate the analysis of the business model and establish relationships between costs and value to the respective consumers. Other data, such as the anticipated California generation mix and southern California drive cycles, have also been gathered for use as inputs. The collection of models that encompasses the technical, economic, and financial aspects of Phase 1 analysis has been chosen and is described in this deliverable. The role of PHEV owners, utilities (distribution systems, generators, independent system operators (ISO), aggregators, or regional transmission operators (RTO)), facility owners, financing institutions, and other third parties are also defined.

  3. Value of the individual components subject training gymnasts according to the survey of coaches with different skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Andreeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : assess the significance of the individual components subject training gymnasts according to the survey of coaches with different skills. Material : two groups of coaches with different qualifications (n = 40. The first group of coaches -, experience from 1 to 10 years (n = 20; the second group - work experience from 11 to 25 years (n = 20. Gymnasts preliminary stage of basic training. Coaches are asked to answer 15 questions. Results : the content of questioning coaches gymnastics shows the relevance of the basic problems of technical training of young gymnasts (throwing and catching objects. The most difficult exercises in the training and improvement are throws and catches the ball (coefficient of concordance W = 0,814. The necessity of the development and use of new techniques for analyzing sports equipment exercises with the ball, learning and improving them. Conclusions : basic technical training and preparedness of gymnasts to perform exercises with objects represent a problem that is solved enough in theory and practice gymnastics.

  4. Age and sex corrected normal reference values of T1, T2 T2* and ECV in healthy subjects at 3T CMR.

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Clotilde; Slimani, Alisson; Meester, Christophe De; Amzulescu, Mihaela Silvia; Pasquet, Agnes; Vancraeynest, David; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; Gerber, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Myocardial T1, T2 and T2* imaging techniques become increasingly used in clinical practice. While normal values for T1, T2 and T2* times are well established for 1.5 Tesla (T) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), data for 3T remain scarce. Therefore we sought to determine normal reference values relative to gender and age and day to day reproducibility for native T1, T2, T2* mapping and extracellular volume (ECV) at 3T in healthy subjects.

  5. The value of structured data elements from electronic health records for identifying subjects for primary care clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateya, Mohammad B; Delaney, Brendan C; Speedie, Stuart M

    2016-01-11

    An increasing number of clinical trials are conducted in primary care settings. Making better use of existing data in the electronic health records to identify eligible subjects can improve efficiency of such studies. Our study aims to quantify the proportion of eligibility criteria that can be addressed with data in electronic health records and to compare the content of eligibility criteria in primary care with previous work. Eligibility criteria were extracted from primary care studies downloaded from the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio. Criteria were broken into elemental statements. Two expert independent raters classified each statement based on whether or not structured data items in the electronic health record can be used to determine if the statement was true for a specific patient. Disagreements in classification were discussed until 100 % agreement was reached. Statements were also classified based on content and the percentages of each category were compared to two similar studies reported in the literature. Eligibility criteria were retrieved from 228 studies and decomposed into 2619 criteria elemental statements. 74 % of the criteria elemental statements were considered likely associated with structured data in an electronic health record. 79 % of the studies had at least 60 % of their criteria statements addressable with structured data likely to be present in an electronic health record. Based on clinical content, most frequent categories were: "disease, symptom, and sign", "therapy or surgery", and "medication" (36 %, 13 %, and 10 % of total criteria statements respectively). We also identified new criteria categories related to provider and caregiver attributes (2.6 % and 1 % of total criteria statements respectively). Electronic health records readily contain much of the data needed to assess patients' eligibility for clinical trials enrollment. Eligibility criteria content categories identified by our study can be

  6. Appreciation: individual differences in finding value and meaning as a unique predictor of subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Mitchel G; Fagley, N S

    2005-02-01

    Adler (2002; Adler & Fagley, 2001) argued that being appreciative facilitates and enhances feelings of well-being and life satisfaction, as well as feelings of connection to what we have, to what we experience, and to life itself. In addition, expressing appreciation to others is believed to build social bonds. Although appreciation is viewed as a disposition, it is also viewed as something people can learn over time, making it an especially valuable construct to measure. Appreciating something (e.g. an event, a person, a behavior, an object) involves noticing and acknowledging its value and meaning and feeling a positive emotional connection to it. We defined eight aspects of appreciation and developed scales to measure them: a focus on what one has ("Have" Focus), Awe, Ritual, Present Moment, Self/Social Comparison, Gratitude, Loss/Adversity, Interpersonal. Scores on the subscales may be totaled to yield a score representing one's overall degree of appreciation (or level of appreciativeness) (coefficient alpha=.94). We also developed an 18-item short form (coefficient alpha=.91) that correlates .95 with scores on the long form. The scales correlated in predicted ways with measures of life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. More importantly, appreciation was significantly related to life satisfaction and positive affect, even after the effects of optimism, spirituality, and emotional self-awareness had been statistically controlled.

  7. The effect of proprioceptive knee bracing on knee stability during three different sport related movement tasks in healthy subjects and the implications to the management of Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzlíková, I; Richards, J; Tomsa, M; Chohan, A; May, K; Smékal, D; Selfe, J

    2016-07-01

    Proprioceptive knee braces have been shown to improve knee mechanics, however much of the work to date has focused on tasks such as slow step down tasks rather than more dynamic sporting tasks. This study aimed to explore if such improvements in stability may be seen during faster sports specific tasks as well as slower tasks. Twelve subjects performed a slow step down, single leg drop jump and pivot turn jump with and without a silicone web brace. 3D kinematics of the knee were collected using a ten camera Qualisys motion analysis system. Reflective markers were placed on the foot, shank, thigh and pelvis using the Calibrated Anatomical Systems Technique. A two way ANOVA with repeated measures was performed with post-hoc pairwise comparison to explore the differences between the two conditions and three tasks. Significant differences were seen in the knee joint angles and angular velocities in the sagittal, coronal and transverse planes between the tasks. The brace showed a reduction in knee valgum and internal rotation across all tasks, with the most notable effect during the single leg drop jump and pivot turn jump. The transverse plane also showed a significant reduction in the external rotation knee angular velocity when wearing the brace. The brace influenced the knee joint kinematics in coronal and transverse planes which confirms that such braces can have a significant effect on knee control during dynamic tasks. Further studies are required exploring the efficacy of proprioceptive braces in athletic patient cohort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students’ motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women’s underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices. PMID:25741292

  9. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students' motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women's underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices.

  10. Math Achievement is Important, but Task Values are Critical, Too: Examining the Intellectual and Motivational Factors Leading to Gender Disparities in STEM Careers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingte eWang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some STEM occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1 which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2 whether students’ motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in twelfth grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women’s underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices.

  11. A coordinate-based ALE functional MRI meta-analysis of brain activation during verbal fluency tasks in healthy control subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The processing of verbal fluency tasks relies on the coordinated activity of a number of brain areas, particularly in the frontal and temporal lobes of the left hemisphere. Recent studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural networks subserving verbal fluency functions have yielded divergent results especially with respect to a parcellation of the inferior frontal gyrus for phonemic and semantic verbal fluency. We conducted a coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on brain activation during the processing of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tasks involving 28 individual studies with 490 healthy volunteers. Results For phonemic as well as for semantic verbal fluency, the most prominent clusters of brain activation were found in the left inferior/middle frontal gyrus (LIFG/MIFG) and the anterior cingulate gyrus. BA 44 was only involved in the processing of phonemic verbal fluency tasks, BA 45 and 47 in the processing of phonemic and semantic fluency tasks. Conclusions Our comparison of brain activation during the execution of either phonemic or semantic verbal fluency tasks revealed evidence for spatially different activation in BA 44, but not other regions of the LIFG/LMFG (BA 9, 45, 47) during phonemic and semantic verbal fluency processing. PMID:24456150

  12. Alteration of time perception in young and elderly people during jigsaw puzzle tasks with different complexities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Yuko; Hoshiyama, Minoru

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the relationship between time perception during tasks and subjective feelings in young and elderly people. Simple and complex jigsaw puzzles were given to healthy young and elderly subjects. The subjects were asked to estimate the time they had taken to complete the tasks after performing them. The ratio of the subjective to actual duration of time, the duration judgment ratio (DJR), and the relationship between the DJR and the subjective feelings during the tasks were analysed. The elderly group required a significantly longer time than the younger group for both tasks, and both elderly and young subjects estimated a longer time than the actual time to complete the tasks. The effect of the tasks on the DJR was significant, and the value was higher for the 24-piece than 54-piece task in both groups. The DJR was smaller in subjects with "much interest" than in those with "little interest" in the 24-piece task, but there was no difference in the 54-piece task. The results indicate that time perception was modulated by subjective feelings during the task, as well as by the age and task complexity. Because the goal and the result of the task may modulate time perception during it, time perception while actually performing the task may differ from that after completing it. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Reference values of one-point carotid stiffness parameters determined by carotid echo-tracking and brachial pulse pressure in a large population of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriz, Olga; Aboyans, Victor; Minisini, Rosalba; Magne, Julien; Bertin, Nicole; Pirisi, Mario; Bossone, Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    Arterial stiffness can predict cardiovascular events, and the aim of this study was to produce age- and sex-specific reference values for echo-tracking carotid stiffness in healthy subjects. A total of 900 subjects (500 males, mean age 45.8±19 years) were enrolled. Common carotid artery stiffness and compliance, using a high-definition echo-tracking ultrasound system, were evaluated. To compare stiffness parameters across the different age groups, individual scores were transformed into T-scores, indicating how many standard deviation (s.d.) units an individual's score was above or below the mean that was observed in the group including same-sex individuals aged 36 to 44 years. Carotid stiffness was similar among genders, except compliance, which was lower in women (Pparameters increased significantly with age, but the opposite occurred for compliance. The T-score was found to increase significantly across all age groups, with a steeper increase in stiffness around the age of 60 years in women. For each T-score s.d., the corresponding carotid absolute values for arterial stiffness and compliance were obtained. In a multivariate model, carotid stiffness parameters were constantly and independently associated with age, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, heart rate and body mass index. Our study provides a normogram of carotid arterial stiffness and compliance indices obtained with the echo-tracking method in a large population of healthy subjects stratified by gender and age that can be used in clinical practice.

  14. Exploring Changes in Valued Action in the Presence of Chronic Debilitating Pain in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Youth - A Single-Subject Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemani, Mike K; Olsson, Gunnar L; Holmström, Linda; Wicksell, Rikard K

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to improve the understanding of processes of change in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for youth with chronic debilitating pain by exploring the relation between individual change patterns in pain intensity and valued activities. Method: A single-subject design across three adolescents suffering from longstanding debilitating pain was utilized. Pain intensity and participation in valued activities were rated daily. Visual analysis of the graphed data was performed to evaluate the effects of the intervention, and the relationship between pain intensity and values-based activity. Results: The graphed data illustrated that pain levels did not decrease from the baseline period to the follow-up period. In contrast, compared to baseline ratings values oriented behaviors increased from the start of treatment to the follow-up period. Conclusion: Results illustrate that increases in values-based behavior may occur without corresponding decreases in pain, and warrant further research on change processes in ACT for youth suffering from chronic pain.

  15. All-day performance variations in normal and narcoleptic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, R; Montplaisir, J

    1986-01-01

    This study compared the performance of narcoleptic and control subjects on one psychomotor task, examined the recuperative power of naps in narcoleptic subjects, and evaluated the respective recuperative values of REM and NREM sleep. Ten untreated narcoleptic and eight control subjects repeatedly responded to a choice reaction time task during days with and days without napping. Narcoleptic subjects exhibited low performance levels relative to control subjects on all variables. Napping improved the performance of narcoleptic subjects except for the number of long latency (reaction time greater than 1,000 ms) responses. Finally, performance, particularly on accuracy measures, was better, although not significantly, after NREM naps when compared with REM naps.

  16. White matter organization in relation to upper limb motor control in healthy subjects: exploring the added value of diffusion kurtosis imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooijers, J; Leemans, A; Van Cauter, S; Sunaert, S; Swinnen, S P; Caeyenberghs, K

    2014-09-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characterizes white matter (WM) microstructure. In many brain regions, however, the assumption that the diffusion probability distribution is Gaussian may be invalid, even at low b values. Recently, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) was suggested to more accurately estimate this distribution. We explored the added value of DKI in studying the relation between WM microstructure and upper limb coordination in healthy controls (N = 24). Performance on a complex bimanual tracking task was studied with respect to the conventional DTI measures (DKI or DTI derived) and kurtosis metrics of WM tracts/regions carrying efferent (motor) output from the brain, corpus callosum (CC) substructures and whole brain WM. For both estimation models, motor performance was associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) of the CC-genu, CC-body, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and whole brain WM (r s range 0.42-0.63). Although DKI revealed higher mean, radial and axial diffusivity and lower FA than DTI (p motor performance was associated with increased mean and radial kurtosis and kurtosis anisotropy (r s range 0.43-0.55). In conclusion, DKI provided additional information, but did not show increased sensitivity to detect relations between WM microstructure and bimanual performance in healthy controls.

  17. The video head impulse test (vHIT of semicircular canal function – age dependent normative values of VOR gain in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Andrew McGarvie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Hypothesis. The video Head Impulse Test (vHIT is now widely used to test the function of each of the six semicircular canals individually by measuring the eye rotation response to an abrupt head rotation in the plane of the canal. The main measure of canal adequacy is the ratio of the eye movement response to the head movement stimulus i.e. the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR. However there is a need for normative data about how VOR gain is affected by age and also by head velocity, to allow the response of any particular patient to be compared to response of healthy subjects in their age range. In this study we determined for all six semicircular canals, normative values of VOR gain, for each canal across a range of head velocities, for healthy subjects in each decade of life.Study Design. The VOR gain was measured for all canals across a range of head velocities for at least 10 healthy subjects in decade age bands: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89. Methods. The compensatory eye movement response to a small, unpredictable, abrupt head rotation (head impulse was measured by the ICS Impulse prototype system. The same operator delivered every impulse to every subject. Results. VOR gain decreased at high head velocities, but was largely unaffected by age into the 80-89 year age group. There were some small but systematic differences between the two directions of head rotation, which appear to be largely due to the fact that in this study only the right eye was measured. The results are considered in relation to recent evidence about the effect of age on VOR performance.Conclusion. These normative values allow the results of any particular patient to be compared to the values of healthy people in their age range and so allow, for example, detection of whether a patient has a bilateral vestibular loss. VOR gain, as measured directly by the eye movement response to head rotation, seems largely unaffected by

  18. Diabetes mellitus defined by hemoglobin A1c value: Risk characterization for incidence among Japanese subjects in the JPHC Diabetes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masayuki; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Yumi; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Inoue, Manami; Kadowaki, Takashi; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2011-10-07

    Aims/Introduction:  Although several risk factors for type 2 diabetes have been identified, most of them have been identified in studies on Western populations, and they should be evaluated in a Japanese population. In 2010, new diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were released and its use in epidemiological studies has many advantages. The aim of the present study was to evaluate risk factors for type 2 diabetes defined based on HbA1c values in a Japanese population.   A total of 9223 subjects (3076 men and 6147 women) were followed up for 5 years. Diabetes was defined based on self-report or HbA1c value. Risk factors for diabetes were evaluated as odds ratios adjusted for potential confounding factors by logistic regression.   During the 5-year follow-up period, we documented 518 incident cases of diabetes (232 men and 286 women). Of the 518 incident cases, 310 cases were diagnosed by HbA1c alone. Among the men, age, smoking (both past smoking and current smoking) and family history of diabetes significantly increased the risk of diabetes. Among the women, body mass index, family history of diabetes and hypertension significantly increased the risk of diabetes. These results did not change markedly after adjustment for the baseline HbA1c values, and the baseline HbA1c value itself was a significant risk factor for diabetes mellitus.   Known risk factors for diabetes established in Western populations also increased the risk of diabetes in a Japanese population defined on the basis of HbA1c values. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.2011.00119.x, 2011).

  19. The valuation system: a coordinate-based meta-analysis of BOLD fMRI experiments examining neural correlates of subjective value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartra, Oscar; McGuire, Joseph T; Kable, Joseph W

    2013-08-01

    Numerous experiments have recently sought to identify neural signals associated with the subjective value (SV) of choice alternatives. Theoretically, SV assessment is an intermediate computational step during decision making, in which alternatives are placed on a common scale to facilitate value-maximizing choice. Here we present a quantitative, coordinate-based meta-analysis of 206 published fMRI studies investigating neural correlates of SV. Our results identify two general patterns of SV-correlated brain responses. In one set of regions, both positive and negative effects of SV on BOLD are reported at above-chance rates across the literature. Areas exhibiting this pattern include anterior insula, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, dorsal and posterior striatum, and thalamus. The mixture of positive and negative effects potentially reflects an underlying U-shaped function, indicative of signal related to arousal or salience. In a second set of areas, including ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior ventral striatum, positive effects predominate. Positive effects in the latter regions are seen both when a decision is confronted and when an outcome is delivered, as well as for both monetary and primary rewards. These regions appear to constitute a "valuation system," carrying a domain-general SV signal and potentially contributing to value-based decision making. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The predictive value of self-rated health in the presence of subjective memory complaints on permanent nursing home placement in elderly primary care patients over 4-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    self-rated health (SRH) predicts nursing home (NH) placement; subjective memory complaints (SMC) too. However, the predictive value of SRH in the presence of SMC is unclear.......self-rated health (SRH) predicts nursing home (NH) placement; subjective memory complaints (SMC) too. However, the predictive value of SRH in the presence of SMC is unclear....

  1. A prepared speech in front of a pre-recorded audience: subjective, physiological, and neuroendocrine responses to the Leiden Public Speaking Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenberg, P Michiel; Bokhorst, Caroline L; Miers, Anne C; Sumter, Sindy R; Kallen, Victor L; van Pelt, Johannes; Blöte, Anke W

    2009-10-01

    This study describes a new public speaking protocol for youth. The main question asked whether a speech prepared at home and given in front of a pre-recorded audience creates a condition of social-evaluative threat. Findings showed that, on average, this task elicits a moderate stress response in a community sample of 83 12- to 15-year-old adolescents. During the speech, participants reported feeling more nervous and having higher heart rate and sweatiness of the hands than at baseline or recovery. Likewise, physiological (heart rate and skin conductance) and neuroendocrine (cortisol) activity were higher during the speech than at baseline or recovery. Additionally, an anticipation effect was observed: baseline levels were higher than recovery levels for most variables. Taking the anticipation and speech response together, a substantial cortisol response was observed for 55% of participants. The findings indicate that the Leiden Public Speaking Task might be particularly suited to investigate individual differences in sensitivity to social-evaluative situations.

  2. Age and sex corrected normal reference values of T1, T2 T2* and ECV in healthy subjects at 3T CMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Clotilde; Slimani, Alisson; de Meester, Christophe; Amzulescu, Mihaela; Pasquet, Agnès; Vancraeynest, David; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; Gerber, Bernhard L

    2017-09-21

    Myocardial T1, T2 and T2* imaging techniques become increasingly used in clinical practice. While normal values for T1, T2 and T2* times are well established for 1.5 Tesla (T) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), data for 3T remain scarce. Therefore we sought to determine normal reference values relative to gender and age and day to day reproducibility for native T1, T2, T2* mapping and extracellular volume (ECV) at 3T in healthy subjects. After careful exclusion of cardiovascular abnormality, 75 healthy subjects aged 20 to 90 years old (mean 56 ± 19 years, 47% women) underwent left-ventricular T1 (3-(3)-3-(3)-5 MOLLI)), T2 (8 echo- spin echo-imaging) and T2 * (8 echo gradient echo imaging) mapping at 3T CMR (Philips Ingenia 3T and computation of extracellular volume after administration of 0.2 mmol/kg Gadovist). Inter- and intra-observer reproducibility was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Day to day reproducibility was assessed in 10 other volunteers. Mean myocardial T1 at 3T was 1122 ± 57 ms, T2 52 ± 6 ms, T2* 24 ± 5 ms and ECV 26.6 ± 3.2%. T1 (1139 ± 37 vs 1109 ± 73 ms, p T1 (r = 0.40, p T1, 7% for T2, 11% for T2* and 11.5% for ECV). We provide normal myocardial T2, T2*,T1 and ECV reference values for 3T CMR which are significantly different from those reported at 1.5 Tesla CMR. Myocardial T1 and ECV values are gender and age dependent. Measurement had high inter and intra-observer reproducibility and good day-to-day reproducibility.

  3. Normative values for CT-based texture analysis of vertebral bodies in dual X-ray absorptiometry-confirmed, normally mineralized subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannil, Manoj; Eberhard, Matthias; Becker, Anton S.; Alkadhi, Hatem; Guggenberger, Roman [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Schoenenberg, Denise; Osterhoff, Georg [University Hospital Zurich, Division of Trauma Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Frey, Diana P. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Rheumatology, Zurich (Switzerland); Konukoglu, Ender [Computer Vision Laboratory, Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-11-15

    To develop age-, gender-, and regional-specific normative values for texture analysis (TA) of spinal computed tomography (CT) in subjects with normal bone mineral density (BMD), as defined by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and to determine age-, gender-, and regional-specific differences. In this retrospective, IRB-approved study, TA was performed on sagittal CT bone images of the thoracic and lumbar spine using dedicated software (MaZda) in 141 individuals with normal DXA BMD findings. Numbers of female and male subjects were balanced in each of six age decades. Three hundred and five TA features were analyzed in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae using free-hand regions-of-interest. Intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients were calculated for determining intra- and inter-observer agreement of each feature. Further dimension reduction was performed with correlation analyses. The TA features with an ICC < 0.81 indicating compromised intra- and inter-observer agreement and with Pearson correlation scores r > 0.8 with other features were excluded from further analysis for dimension reduction. From the remaining 31 texture features, a significant correlation with age was found for the features mean (r = -0.489, p < 0.001), variance (r = -0.681, p < 0.001), kurtosis (r = 0.273, p < 0.001), and WavEnLL{sub s}4 (r = 0.273, p < 0.001). Significant differences were found between genders for various higher-level texture features (p < 0.001). Regional differences among the thoracic spine, thoracic-lumbar junction, and lumbar spine were found for most TA features (p < 0.021). This study established normative values of TA features on CT images of the spine and showed age-, gender-, and regional-specific differences in individuals with normal BMD as defined by DXA. (orig.)

  4. Normative Values for Intertrial Variability of Motor Responses to Nerve Root and Transcranial Stimulation: A Condition for Follow-Up Studies in Individual Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Troni

    Full Text Available Intertrial variability (ITV of motor responses to peripheral (CMAP and transcranial (MEP stimulation prevents their use in follow-up studies. Our purpose was to develop strategies to reduce and measure CMAP and MEP ITV to guide long-term monitoring of conduction slowing and conduction failure of peripheral and central motor pathway in the individual patient.Maximal compound muscle action potentials to High Voltage Electrical Stimulation (HVES of lumbo-sacral nerve roots (r-CMAP and activated, averaged motor evoked potentials (MEPs to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS using double cone coil were recorded from 10 proximal and distal muscle districts of lower limbs. The procedure was repeated twice, 1-2 days apart, in 30 subjects, including healthy volunteers and clinically stable multiple sclerosis patients, using constant stimulating and recording sites and adopting a standardized procedure of voluntary activation. ITV for latency and area indexes and for the ratio between MEP and r-CMAP areas (a-Ratio was expressed as Relative Intertrial Variation (RIV, 5th-95th percentile. As an inverse correlation between the size of area and ITV was found, raw ITV values were normalized as a function of area to make them comparable with one another.All RIV values for latencies were significantly below the optimum threshold of ± 10%, with the exception of r-CMAP latencies recorded from Vastus Lateralis muscle. RIVs for a-Ratio, the most important index of central conduction failure, ranged from a maximum of -25.3% to +32.2% (Vastus Medialis to a minimum of -15.0% to + 17.4% (Flexor Hallucis Brevis.The described procedure represents an effort to lower as much as possible variability of motor responses in serial recording; the reported ITV normative values are the necessary premise to detect significant changes of motor conduction slowing and failure in the individual patient in follow-up studies.

  5. Normative Values for Intertrial Variability of Motor Responses to Nerve Root and Transcranial Stimulation: A Condition for Follow-Up Studies in Individual Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malucchi, Simona; Capobianco, Marco; Sperli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Objective Intertrial variability (ITV) of motor responses to peripheral (CMAP) and transcranial (MEP) stimulation prevents their use in follow-up studies. Our purpose was to develop strategies to reduce and measure CMAP and MEP ITV to guide long-term monitoring of conduction slowing and conduction failure of peripheral and central motor pathway in the individual patient. Methods Maximal compound muscle action potentials to High Voltage Electrical Stimulation (HVES) of lumbo-sacral nerve roots (r-CMAP) and activated, averaged motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) using double cone coil were recorded from 10 proximal and distal muscle districts of lower limbs. The procedure was repeated twice, 1–2 days apart, in 30 subjects, including healthy volunteers and clinically stable multiple sclerosis patients, using constant stimulating and recording sites and adopting a standardized procedure of voluntary activation. ITV for latency and area indexes and for the ratio between MEP and r-CMAP areas (a-Ratio) was expressed as Relative Intertrial Variation (RIV, 5th-95th percentile). As an inverse correlation between the size of area and ITV was found, raw ITV values were normalized as a function of area to make them comparable with one another. Results All RIV values for latencies were significantly below the optimum threshold of ± 10%, with the exception of r-CMAP latencies recorded from Vastus Lateralis muscle. RIVs for a-Ratio, the most important index of central conduction failure, ranged from a maximum of -25.3% to +32.2% (Vastus Medialis) to a minimum of -15.0% to + 17.4% (Flexor Hallucis Brevis). Conclusions The described procedure represents an effort to lower as much as possible variability of motor responses in serial recording; the reported ITV normative values are the necessary premise to detect significant changes of motor conduction slowing and failure in the individual patient in follow-up studies. PMID:27182973

  6. Autonomous Reactive Mission Scheduling and Task-Path Planning Architecture for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Zadeh, Somaiyeh Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) should carry out complex tasks in a limited time interval. Since existing AUVs have limited battery capacity and restricted endurance, they should autonomously manage mission time and the resources to perform effective persistent deployment in longer missions. Task assignment requires making decisions subject to resource constraints, while tasks are assigned with costs and/or values that are budgeted in advance. Tasks are distributed in a particular oper...

  7. Normative values of spino-pelvic sagittal alignment, balance, age, and health-related quality of life in a cohort of healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Masashi; Hatsushikano, Shun; Shimoda, Haruka; Ono, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Kei

    2016-11-01

    To elucidate the normative values of whole body sagittal alignment and balance of a healthy population in the standing position; and to clarify the relationship among the alignment, balance, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and age. Healthy Japanese adult volunteers [n = 126, mean age 39.4 years (20-69), M/F = 30/96] with no history of spinal disease were enrolled in a cross-sectional cohort study. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire was administered and subjects were scanned from the center of the acoustic meati (CAM) to the feet while standing on a force plate to determine the gravity line (GL), and the distance between CAM and GL (CAM-GL) was measured in the sagittal plane. Standard X-ray parameters were measured from the head to the lower extremities. ODI was compared among age groups stratified by decade. Correlations were investigated by simple linear regression analysis. Ideal lumbar lordosis was investigated using the least squares method. The present study yielded normative values for whole standing sagittal alignment including head and lower extremities in a cohort of 126 healthy adult volunteers, comparable to previous reports and thus a formula for ideal lumbar lordosis was deduced: LL = 32.9 + 0.60 × PI - 0.23 × age. There was a tendency of positive correlation between McGregor slope, thoracic kyphosis, PT, and age. SVA, T1 pelvic angle, sacrofemoral angle, knee flexion angle, and ankle flexion angle, but not CAM-GL, increased with age, suggesting that the spinopelvic alignment changes with age, but standing whole body alignment is compensated for to preserve a horizontal gaze. ODI tended to increase from the 40s in the domain of pain intensity, personal care, traveling, and total score. ODI weakly, but significantly positively correlated with age and PI-LL. Whole body standing alignment even in healthy subjects gradually deteriorates with age, but is compensated to preserve a horizontal gaze. HRQOL is also

  8. Elements of kitchen toxicology to exploit the value of traditional (African) recipes: The case of Egusi Okra meal in the diet of HIV+/AIDS subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Mazzanti, Francesca; Achu, Mercy Bih; Pouokam, Guy Bertrand; Fokou, Elie

    2017-01-01

    The Egusi Okra soup is a traditional African meal that is considered of high nutritional value and protective against weight loss. We introduce the concept of "kitchen toxicology" to analyse the recipe of the Egusi Okra soup and highlight possible mitigation measures for toxic and/or antinutritional effects in the wide spectrum of health and nutritional needs of HIV+/AIDS subjects. In particular, we focus on toxicants (environmental contaminants, process contaminants, substances leaching from food contact materials) dysregulating the immune status, as well as on interactions between nutrients, contaminants, and/or antinutrients which may lead to secondary/conditioned nutritional deficiencies or imbalances; in their turn, these can modulate the ability to cope with toxicants, and increase nutritional requirements. Recommendations are given for practices preserving the Egusi Okra soup from such risk factors, identifying points of particular attention during meal preparation, from purchase of raw ingredients through to food handling, cooking, storage, and consumption. The Egusi Okra soup is discussed in the context of a diet that is asked to mitigate complications (weight loss, opportunistic infections) and support antiretroviral therapy in African countries with high HIV/AIDS prevalence. The paper discusses how nutritional interventions benefit of the integration of kitchen toxicology practices in everyday life. Toxicological risk assessment is crucial to understand the history and status of the person exposed to or affected by infectious diseases.

  9. Elements of kitchen toxicology to exploit the value of traditional (African recipes: The case of Egusi Okra meal in the diet of HIV+/AIDS subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Frazzoli

    Full Text Available The Egusi Okra soup is a traditional African meal that is considered of high nutritional value and protective against weight loss. We introduce the concept of “kitchen toxicology” to analyse the recipe of the Egusi Okra soup and highlight possible mitigation measures for toxic and/or antinutritional effects in the wide spectrum of health and nutritional needs of HIV+/AIDS subjects. In particular, we focus on toxicants (environmental contaminants, process contaminants, substances leaching from food contact materials dysregulating the immune status, as well as on interactions between nutrients, contaminants, and/or antinutrients which may lead to secondary/conditioned nutritional deficiencies or imbalances; in their turn, these can modulate the ability to cope with toxicants, and increase nutritional requirements. Recommendations are given for practices preserving the Egusi Okra soup from such risk factors, identifying points of particular attention during meal preparation, from purchase of raw ingredients through to food handling, cooking, storage, and consumption. The Egusi Okra soup is discussed in the context of a diet that is asked to mitigate complications (weight loss, opportunistic infections and support antiretroviral therapy in African countries with high HIV/AIDS prevalence. The paper discusses how nutritional interventions benefit of the integration of kitchen toxicology practices in everyday life. Toxicological risk assessment is crucial to understand the history and status of the person exposed to or affected by infectious diseases. Keywords: Traditional diet, Malnutrition, Food safety, Weight loss, Immune system, Dysmetabolic diseases, Clinical toxicology, Nutrition security

  10. Acute effects of 3G mobile phone radiations on frontal haemodynamics during a cognitive task in teenagers and possible protective value of Om chanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Hemant; N K, Manjunath; Varambally, Shivarama; Mooventhan, A; Bista, Suman; Singh, Deepeshwar; Chhabra, Harleen; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; T M, Srinivasan; H R, Nagendra

    2016-06-01

    Mobile phone induced electromagnetic field (MPEMF) as well as chanting of Vedic mantra 'OM' has been shown to affect cognition and brain haemodynamics, but findings are still inconclusive. Twenty right-handed healthy teenagers (eight males and 12 females) in the age range of 18.25 ± 0.44 years were randomly divided into four groups: (1) MPONOM (mobile phone 'ON' followed by 'OM' chanting); (2) MPOFOM (mobile phone 'OFF' followed by 'OM' chanting); (3) MPONSS (mobile phone 'ON' followed by 'SS' chanting); and (4) MPOFSS (mobile phone 'OFF' followed by 'SS' chanting). Brain haemodynamics during Stroop task were recorded using a 64-channel fNIRS device at three points of time: (1) baseline, (2) after 30 min of MPON/OF exposure, and (3) after 5 min of OM/SS chanting. RM-ANOVA was applied to perform within- and between-group comparisons, respectively. Between-group analysis revealed that total scores on incongruent Stroop task were significantly better after OM as compared to SS chanting (MPOFOM vs MPOFSS), pre-frontal activation was significantly lesser after OM as compared to SS chanting in channel 13. There was no significant difference between MPON and MPOF conditions for Stroop performance, as well as brain haemodynamics. These findings need confirmation through a larger trial in future.

  11. Lower Leg Injury Reference Values and Risk Curves from Survival Analysis for Male and Female Dummies: Meta-analysis of Postmortem Human Subject Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A; Banerjee, Anjishnu

    2015-01-01

    Derive lower leg injury risk functions using survival analysis and determine injury reference values (IRV) applicable to human mid-size male and small-size female anthropometries by conducting a meta-analysis of experimental data from different studies under axial impact loading to the foot-ankle-leg complex. Specimen-specific dynamic peak force, age, total body mass, and injury data were obtained from tests conducted by applying the external load to the dorsal surface of the foot of postmortem human subject (PMHS) foot-ankle-leg preparations. Calcaneus and/or tibia injuries, alone or in combination and with/without involvement of adjacent articular complexes, were included in the injury group. Injury and noninjury tests were included. Maximum axial loads recorded by a load cell attached to the proximal end of the preparation were used. Data were analyzed by treating force as the primary variable. Age was considered as the covariate. Data were censored based on the number of tests conducted on each specimen and whether it remained intact or sustained injury; that is, right, left, and interval censoring. The best fits from different distributions were based on the Akaike information criterion; mean and plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained; and normalized confidence interval sizes (quality indices) were determined at 5, 10, 25, and 50% risk levels. The normalization was based on the mean curve. Using human-equivalent age as 45 years, data were normalized and risk curves were developed for the 50th and 5th percentile human size of the dummies. Out of the available 114 tests (76 fracture and 38 no injury) from 5 groups of experiments, survival analysis was carried out using 3 groups consisting of 62 tests (35 fracture and 27 no injury). Peak forces associated with 4 specific risk levels at 25, 45, and 65 years of age are given along with probability curves (mean and plus and minus 95% confidence intervals) for PMHS and normalized data applicable to

  12. A Report of Research Conducted Under MARAD Task S-11 of the Ship Producibility Research Program to Determine the Value of Standard Structural Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    significant economic value in ships with deep web frames, where frequent and arbitrary use of large brackets may greatly add to shipbuilding employed...members requiring the application of large and costly tripping brackets, such as deep web frames, are generally symmetric sectionS for which guidelines...have been formulated. 5.4 LATERAL BUCKLING OF FLANGES Stiffeners having deep webs and heavy flanges may trip due to Euler buckling of the flange about

  13. Task Engagement and Attentional Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gerald; Warm, Joel S; Smith, Andrew P

    2017-02-01

    Two studies tested multivariate models of relationships between subjective task engagement and vigilance. The second study included a stress factor (cold infection). Modeling tested relationships between latent factors for task engagement and vigilance, and the role of engagement in mediating effects of cold infection. Raja Parasuraman's research on vigilance identified several key issues, including the roles of task factors, arousal processes, and individual differences, within the framework of resource theory. Task engagement is positively correlated with performance on various attentional tasks and may serve as a marker for resource availability. In the first study, 229 participants performed simultaneous and successive vigilance tasks. In the second study, 204 participants performed a vigilance task and a variable-foreperiod simple reaction-time task on two separate days. On the second day, 96 participants performed while infected with a naturally occurring common cold. Task engagement was assessed in both studies. In both studies, vigilance decrement in hit rate was observed, and task performance led to loss of task engagement. Cold infection also depressed both vigilance and engagement. Fitting structural equation models indicated that simultaneous and successive tasks should be represented by separate latent factors (Study 1), and task engagement fully mediated the impact of cold infection on vigilance but not reaction time (Study 2). Modeling individual differences in task engagement elucidates the role of resources in vigilance and underscores the relevance of Parasuraman's vision of the field. Assessment of task engagement may support diagnostic monitoring of operators performing tasks requiring vigilance.

  14. Using Academic Journals to Help Students Learn Subject Matter Content, Develop and Practice Critical Reasoning Skills, and Reflect on Personal Values in Food Science and Human Nutrition Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Crosetti, Lea M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that students learn best when they use a wide variety of techniques to understand the information of the discipline, be it visual, auditory, discussion with others, metacognition, hands-on activities, or writing about the subject. We report in this article the use of academic journals not only as an aid for students to learn…

  15. Predictive Value of Kushida Index and Acoustic Pharyngometry for the Evaluation of Upper Airway in Subjects With or Without Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hae Young; Grunstein, Ronald R; Yee, Brendon

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic pharyngometry is a relatively new noninvasive method that quantifies geometrically complexed pharyngeal dimensions. Our study aimed to investigate the predictability and usefulness of acoustic pharyngometry in diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and we developed a prospective clinical trial in 16 subjects without apnea and 54 subjects with apnea. All seventy subjects received polysomnography (PSG) to assess the sleep architecture, including breathing and the degree of apnea hypopnea index. Acoustic pharyngometry was performed in four body positions (sitting, supine, right and left lateral) while awake with tidal breathing in addition to morphometric measurements (Kushida index) of oral cavity. This study shows that the cross-sectional area and volume of the upper airway is smaller in the supine position than any other positions. As well, the oropharyngeal junction area of the supine position is the most predictive parameter to discriminate between subjects with or without OSA. Acoustic pharyngometry can be a clinically useful tool for localizing the narrowed portion of the upper airway and predicting obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:15483340

  16. Working with Group-Tasks and Group Cohesiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Khoirul

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring the connection between the use of group task and group cohesiveness. This study is very important because the nature of the learner's success is largely determined by the values of cooperation, interaction, and understanding of the learning objectives together. Subjects of this study are 28 students on the course…

  17. Particular Features of Interrelation of Motivation, Values and Sense of Life's Meaning as Subjective Factors of Individualizing Trajectory in the System of Continuous Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodchikov, Dmitry P.; Sharov, Anton A.; Tolstykh, Anastasia ?.; Kholopova, Ekaterina S.; Krivtsov, Artem I.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem under study is based on the fact that, as regards methodological and theoretical aspects, the problem of value and motivational sphere is poorly elaborated regarding the interrelation between professional education and professional activity and on the empirical level there is no clear understanding of how the sense of…

  18. Predictive value of pharmacokinetics-adjusted phenotypic susceptibility on response to ritonavir-enhanced protease inhibitors (PIs) in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects failing prior PI therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, Joseph J; Park, Jeong-Gun; Haubrich, Richard; Aweeka, Francesca; Bastow, Barbara; Pakes, Gary E; Yu, Song; Wu, Hulin; Richman, Douglas D

    2009-06-01

    The activities of protease inhibitors in vivo may depend on plasma concentrations and viral susceptibility. This nonrandomized, open-label study evaluated the relationship of the inhibitory quotient (IQ [the ratio of drug exposure to viral phenotypic susceptibility]) to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load (VL) change for ritonavir-enhanced protease inhibitors (PIs). Subjects on PI-based regimens replaced their PIs with ritonavir-enhanced indinavir (IDV/r) 800/200 mg, fosamprenavir (FPV/r) 700/100 mg, or lopinavir (LPV/r) 400/200 mg twice daily. Pharmacokinetics were assessed at day 14; follow-up lasted 24 weeks. Associations between IQ and VL changes were examined. Fifty-three subjects enrolled, 12 on IDV/r, 33 on FPV/r, and 8 on LPV/r. Median changes (n-fold) (FC) of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) to the study PI were high. Median 2-week VL changes were -0.7, -0.1, and -1.0 log(10) for IDV/r, FPV/r, and LPV/r. With FPV/r, correlations between the IQ and the 2-week change in VL were significant (Spearman's r range, -0.39 to -0.50; P PI-experienced subjects with highly resistant HIV-1, short-term VL responses to RTV-enhanced FPV/r correlated best with baseline susceptibility. The IQ improved correlation in analyses of all arms where a greater range of virologic responses was observed.

  19. General Lack of Correlations between Age and Signs of the Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects with Non-diabetic Fasting Glucose Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Harry G; Mrvichin, Nate; Clouatre, Dallas; Bagchi, Debasis; Preuss, Jeffrey M; Perricone, Nicholas V; Swaroop, Anand; Kaats, Gilbert R

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance and advancing age are well-recognized risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Recent reports indicate that fasting glucose levels in non-diabetic patients correlate appropriately with the development of certain elements in metabolic syndrome, which suggest a cause-effect relationship with insulin resistance. The present investigation assessed whether a significant association exists between chronological age and various elements of metabolic syndrome in this same group of subjects possessing non-diabetic fasting glucose levels. Baseline data were taken from 288 subjects (age 17-87 years) with fasting glucose levels ≤ 125 mg/dl. Correlations between chronological age and different metabolic parameters were assessed to determine any statistically significant relationships and compare these with previously demonstrated metabolic parameters. With the exception of systolic blood pressure, the following correlations between age and components of metabolic syndrome were not significant or even significant in the opposite direction compared to those found in the same population using fasting glucose as the independent variable: body weight, body fat, diastolic blood pressure, white blood cell count (WBC)/neutrophil count, and circulating levels of insulin, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Although systolic blood pressure still increased, it was to a lesser extent than might be expected. In the present investigation, a cross-sectional analysis was carried out over a wide age range of subjects. It is noteworthy that fasting glucose levels and the other major elements of metabolic syndrome did not change significantly with advancing age. These results demonstrate that decreasing insulin resistance and fasting glucose levels may be an important way to overcome the adverse effects and perturbations of advancing age

  20. Heart rate variability and cognitive processing: The autonomic response to task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Casado, Antonio; Perales, José C; Cárdenas, David; Sanabria, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated variations in heart rate variability (HRV) as a function of cognitive demands. Participants completed an execution condition including the psychomotor vigilance task, a working memory task and a duration discrimination task. The control condition consisted of oddball versions (participants had to detect the rare event) of the tasks from the execution condition, designed to control for the effect of the task parameters (stimulus duration and stimulus rate) on HRV. The NASA-TLX questionnaire was used as a subjective measure of cognitive workload across tasks and conditions. Three major findings emerged from this study. First, HRV varied as a function of task demands (with the lowest values in the working memory task). Second, and crucially, we found similar HRV values when comparing each of the tasks with its oddball control equivalent, and a significant decrement in HRV as a function of time-on-task. Finally, the NASA-TLX results showed larger cognitive workload in the execution condition than in the oddball control condition, and scores variations as a function of task. Taken together, our results suggest that HRV is highly sensitive to overall demands of sustained attention over and above the influence of other cognitive processes suggested by previous literature. In addition, our study highlights a potential dissociation between objective and subjective measures of mental workload, with important implications in applied settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Diabetes mellitus defined by hemoglobin A1c value: Risk characterization for incidence among Japanese subjects in the JPHC Diabetes Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Masayuki; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Yumi; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Inoue, Manami; Kadowaki, Takashi; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction:  Although several risk factors for type 2 diabetes have been identified, most of them have been identified in studies on Western populations, and they should be evaluated in a Japanese population. In 2010, new diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were released and its use in epidemiological studies has many advantages. The aim of the present study was to evaluate risk factors for type 2 diabetes defined based on HbA1c values in a J...

  2. Walking Stroop carpet: an innovative dual-task concept for detecting cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrochon, A; Kemoun, G; Watelain, E; Berthoz, A

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have reported the potential value of the dual-task concept during locomotion in clinical evaluation because cognitive decline is strongly associated with gait abnormalities. However, current dual-task tests appear to be insufficient for early diagnosis of cognitive impairment. Forty-nine subjects (young, old, with or without mild cognitive impairment) underwent cognitive evaluation (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery, five-word test, Stroop, clock-drawing) and single-task locomotor evaluation on an electronic walkway. They were then dual-task-tested on the Walking Stroop carpet, which is an adaptation of the Stroop color-word task for locomotion. A cluster analysis, followed by an analysis of variance, was performed to assess gait parameters. Cluster analysis of gait parameters on the Walking Stroop carpet revealed an interaction between cognitive and functional abilities because it made it possible to distinguish dysexecutive cognitive fragility or decline with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 94%. Locomotor abilities differed according to the group and dual-task conditions. Healthy subjects performed less well on dual-tasking under reading conditions than when they were asked to distinguish colors, whereas dysexecutive subjects had worse motor performances when they were required to dual task. The Walking Stroop carpet is a dual-task test that enables early detection of cognitive fragility that has not been revealed by traditional neuropsychological tests or single-task walking analysis.

  3. Walking Stroop carpet: an innovative dual-task concept for detecting cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrochon, A; Kemoun, G; Watelain, E; Berthoz, A

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported the potential value of the dual-task concept during locomotion in clinical evaluation because cognitive decline is strongly associated with gait abnormalities. However, current dual-task tests appear to be insufficient for early diagnosis of cognitive impairment. Methods Forty-nine subjects (young, old, with or without mild cognitive impairment) underwent cognitive evaluation (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery, five-word test, Stroop, clock-drawing) and single-task locomotor evaluation on an electronic walkway. They were then dual-task-tested on the Walking Stroop carpet, which is an adaptation of the Stroop color–word task for locomotion. A cluster analysis, followed by an analysis of variance, was performed to assess gait parameters. Results Cluster analysis of gait parameters on the Walking Stroop carpet revealed an interaction between cognitive and functional abilities because it made it possible to distinguish dysexecutive cognitive fragility or decline with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 94%. Locomotor abilities differed according to the group and dual-task conditions. Healthy subjects performed less well on dual-tasking under reading conditions than when they were asked to distinguish colors, whereas dysexecutive subjects had worse motor performances when they were required to dual task. Conclusion The Walking Stroop carpet is a dual-task test that enables early detection of cognitive fragility that has not been revealed by traditional neuropsychological tests or single-task walking analysis. PMID:23682211

  4. A Task Taxonomy for Temporal Graph Visualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerracher, Natalie; Kennedy, Jessie; Chalmers, Kevin

    2015-10-01

    By extending and instantiating an existing formal task framework, we define a task taxonomy and task design space for temporal graph visualisation. We discuss the process involved in their generation, and describe how the design space can be 'sliced and diced' into multiple overlapping task categories, requiring distinct visual techniques for their support. The approach addresses deficiencies in the task literature, offering domain independence, greater task coverage, and unambiguous task specification. The taxonomy and design space capture tasks for temporal graphs, and also static graphs, multivariate graphs, and graph comparison, and will be of value in the design and evaluation of temporal graph visualisation systems.

  5. Mental fatigue and task control : Planning and preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorist, MM; Klein, Martin; Nieuwenhuis, S; De Jong, R; Mulder, G; Meijman, TF

    The effects of mental fatigue on planning and preparation for future actions were examined, using a task switching paradigm. Fatigue was induced by "time on task," with subjects performing a switch task continuously for 2 hr. Subjects had to alternate between tasks on every second trial, so that a

  6. The rs553668 polymorphism of the ADRA2A gene predicts the worsening of fasting glucose values in a cohort of subjects without diabetes. A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, S; Cassader, M; Cavallo-Perin, P; Durazzo, M; Rosato, R; Gambino, R

    2012-04-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human ADRA2A gene have been associated with increased risk of Type 2 diabetes. The associations between the rs553668 polymorphism and fasting glucose concentrations both cross-sectionally and longitudinally after 6-year follow-up were evaluated in an adult Caucasian population-based cohort. From a cohort of 1658 individuals, after excluding patients with diabetes, those who died and those whose blood samples were not available for genotyping, data of 1345 individuals were analysed. Subjects homozygous for the A allele showed significantly increased baseline fasting glucose values and a significant worsening of fasting glucose (β = 0.48; 95% CI 0.10-0.86) and insulin secretion (β =-20.75; -32.67 to -8.82 for homeostasis model assessment for β-cell function) at follow-up by using generalized estimating equations. Incidence of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes was almost twofold higher in subjects homozygous for the A allele (respectively: incident impaired fasting glucose 7.6-8.2, 16.1%, incident diabetes 1.7-2.3, 3.2% in GG, AG, AA carriers). Our results suggested that the rs553668 polymorphism is associated with glucose worsening in subjects without diabetes at baseline. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  7. Subject Sensitive Invariantism: In Memoriam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Subject sensitive invariantism is the view that whether a subject knows depends on what is at stake for that subject: the truth-value of a knowledge-attribution is sensitive to the subject's practical interests. I argue that subject sensitive invariantism cannot accept a very plausible principle for

  8. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from...... the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects...

  9. Development of an Inventory of Learning Tasks for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The subjects rated each listed task on a 3-point Likert Scale, according to the instructional importance attached to each task. 50 top tasks were reported. It was suggested that teachers should on their own determine the instructional sequence of the tasks or be assisted to so. The card catalogue approach to task sequencing ...

  10. Using Perceptrons to Explore the Reorientation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Michael R. W.; Kelly, Debbie M.; Spetch, Marcia L.; Dupuis, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The reorientation task is a paradigm that has been used extensively to study the types of information used by humans and animals to navigate in their environment. In this task, subjects are reinforced for going to a particular location in an arena that is typically rectangular in shape. The subject then has to find that location again after being…

  11. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  12. Usage of fMRI for pre-surgical planning in brain tumor and vascular lesion patients: Task and statistical threshold effects on language lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi N. Nadkarni

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that the type of task and the applied statistical threshold influence LI and that the threshold effects on LI may be task-specific. Thus identifying critical functional regions and computing LIs should be conducted on an individual subject basis, using a continuum of threshold values with different tasks to provide the most accurate information for surgical planning to minimize post-operative language deficits.

  13. Pressões respiratórias máximas: valores encontrados e preditos em indivíduos saudáveis Maximal respiratory pressures: actual and predicted values in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VF Parreira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os valores encontrados de pressões respiratórias máximas (pressão inspiratória máxima-PImáx e pressão expiratória máxima-PEmáx em uma amostra de indivíduos saudáveis de Minas Gerais com valores preditos pelas equações propostas por Neder et al.³. MÉTODOS: Por meio de um manovacuômetro analógico, foram estudados 100 indivíduos saudáveis (54 mulheres, 46 homens, com idade entre 20-80 anos, recrutados no estado de Minas Gerais - Brasil. A análise estatística foi realizada com testes paramétricos ou não-paramétricos, dependendo da distribuição das variáveis, considerando significativo pOBJECTIVE: To compare actual values for maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP found in a sample of healthy individuals from the State of Minas Gerais (Brazil with the values predicted from the equations put forward by Neder et al.³. METHOD: Using an analog manovacuometer, 100 healthy subjects (54 women and 46 men aged 20-80 years old were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using parametric or non-parametric tests, depending on the distribution of the variables, and p< 0.05 was considered to be significant. RESULTS: For MIP in women, the mean of the actual values was significantly lower than the mean of the predicted values (68.24 ± 29.48 vs. 86.53 ± 8.76; p= 0.000 and there was a moderate and significant correlation (r= 0.557; p< 0.000. For MIP in men, no significant difference was observed between the actual and predicted values (104.67 ± 42.66 vs. 116.78 ± 14.02; p= 0.055 and there was a low and non-significant correlation (r= 0.236; p= 0.115. For MEP in women, there was no significant difference between the actual and predicted values (80.37 ± 33.32 vs. 85.88 ± 10.90; p= 0.164 and there was a low and non-significant correlation (r= 0.149; p= 0.283. For MEP in men, the mean of the actual values was significantly higher than the mean of the predicted values (142.28 ± 43

  14. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  15. Reestablishing Clinical Psychology's Subjective Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Peter Hume

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (see record 2006-05893-001) entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The Task Force is to be commended for their report valuing evidence from "clinical expertise" on a par with "research data" (p. 272) in guiding psychological practices. The current author…

  16. Task Content Familiarity, Task Type and Efficacy of Recasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Andrea; Han, ZhaoHong

    2006-01-01

    The role of recasts has been the subject of an increasing number of second language acquisition (SLA) studies in recent years, as has been the role of tasks. Few studies, nevertheless, exist that investigate the interaction between the two. The present study makes a preliminary excursion into this unexplored domain by examining the impact of two…

  17. Hypothesis Testing in Wason's Selection Task: Social Exchange Cheating Detection or Task Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Klar, Yechiel

    1996-01-01

    Two studies explored the relation of task understanding to performance in the Wason selection tasks, in which subjects successfully solve tasks involving either social exchange situations or cheating detection content and perspective. Findings indicate that previous results (Gigerenzer and Hug, 1992) could be attributed to three general properties…

  18. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency and the regu...... attempted to answer this question by investigating what the use of the term `value' leads to in ethical discourses, i.e., what moral implications it has for ethics to focus on the concept of value....... parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What...... is the value of value for morality and ethics?To make things a bit more precise, we can make use of the common distinction between ethics and morality, i.e. that morality is the immediate, collective and unconscious employment of morals, whereas ethics is the systematic, individual and conscious reflections...

  19. The Advantages of Normalizing Electromyography to Ballistic Rather than Isometric or Isokinetic Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suydam, Stephen M; Manal, Kurt; Buchanan, Thomas S

    2017-07-01

    Isometric tasks have been a standard for electromyography (EMG) normalization stemming from anatomic and physiologic stability observed during contraction. Ballistic dynamic tasks have the benefit of eliciting maximum EMG signals for normalization, despite having the potential for greater signal variability. It is the purpose of this study to compare maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) to nonisometric tasks with increasing degrees of extrinsic variability, ie, joint range of motion, velocity, rate of contraction, etc., to determine if the ballistic tasks, which elicit larger peak EMG signals, are more reliable than the constrained MVIC. Fifteen subjects performed MVIC, isokinetic, maximum countermovement jump, and sprint tasks while EMG was collected from 9 muscles in the quadriceps, hamstrings, and lower leg. The results revealed the unconstrained ballistic tasks were more reliable compared to the constrained MVIC and isokinetic tasks for all triceps surae muscles. The EMG from sprinting was more reliable than the constrained cases for both the hamstrings and vasti. The most reliable EMG signals occurred when the body was permitted its natural, unconstrained motion. These results suggest that EMG is best normalized using ballistic tasks to provide the greatest within-subject reliability, which beneficially yield maximum EMG values.

  20. Pre-task music improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirmaul, B P; Dos Santos, R V; Da Silva Neto, L V

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-task music on swimming performance and other psychological variables. A randomized counterbalanced within-subjects (experimental and control condition) design was employed. Eighteen regional level male swimmers performed two 200-m freestyle swimming time trials. Participants were exposed to either 5 minutes of self-selected music (pre-task music condition) or 5 minutes of silence (control condition) and, after 1 minute, performed the swimming task. Swimming time was significantly shorter (-1.44%) in the pre-task music condition. Listening to pre-task music increased motivation to perform the swimming task, while arousal remained unchanged. While fatigue increased after the swimming task in both conditions, vigor, ratings of perceived exertion and affective valence were unaltered. It is concluded, for the first time, that pre-task music improves swimming performance.

  1. On nonepistemic values in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgaertner, Bert; Holthuijzen, Wieteke

    2017-02-01

    Conservation biology is a uniquely interdisciplinary science with strong roots in ecology, but it also embraces a value-laden and mission-oriented framework. This combination of science and values causes conservation biology to be at the center of critique regarding the discipline's scientific credibility-especially the division between the realms of theory and practice. We identify this dichotomy between seemingly objective (fact-based) and subjective (value-laden) practices as the measure-value dichotomy, whereby measure refers to methods and analyses used in conservation biology (i.e., measuring biodiversity) and value refers to nonepistemic values. We reviewed and evaluated several landmark articles central to the foundation of conservation biology and concepts of biodiversity with respect to their attempts to separate measures and values. We argue that the measure-value dichotomy is false and that conservation biology can make progress in ways unavailable to other disciplines because its practitioners are tasked with engaging in both the realm of theory and the realm of practice. The entanglement of measures and values is by no means a weakness of conservation biology. Because central concepts such as biodiversity contain both factual and evaluative aspects, conservation biologists can make theoretical progress by examining, reviewing, and forming the values that are an integral part of those concepts. We suggest that values should be included and analyzed with respect to the methods, results, and conclusions of scientific work in conservation biology. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Devising Principles of Design for Numeracy Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Vince; Forgasz, Helen; Goos, Merrilyn; Bennison, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Numeracy is a fundamental component of the Australian National Curriculum as a General Capability identified in each F-10 subject. In this paper, we consider the principles of design necessary for the development of numeracy tasks specific to subjects other than mathematics--in this case, the subject of English. We explore the nature of potential…

  3. Some hematological parameters and the prognostic values of CD4, CD8 and total lymphocyte counts and CD4/CD8 cell count ratio in healthy HIV sero-negative, healthy HIV sero-positive and AIDS subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Didia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study attempts to determine normal values of CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8 ratio, total WBC and differential counts, hematocrit and total lymphocyte count (TLC in healthy HIV sero-negative and sero-positive subjects, and to assess the prognostic significance of these parameters in these subjects as compared to AIDS subjects.METHODS: A total of 300 subjects (147 M, 153 F aged between 17 and 71 years were recruited into the study. Subjects were separated according to sex and divided into three groups: Group A: healthy HIV sero-negative subjects; Group B: healthy HIV sero-positive newly diagnosed ART-naïve subjects; and Group C: AIDS subjects. CD4 and CD8 counts were determined by flow cytometry; hematocrit was determined using Hawksley micro-capillary tubes; total WBC and differential counts were determined manually with the improved Neubauer counting chamber; and TLC was obtained by multiplying the percentage of lymphocytes by the total WBC count.RESULTS: For male subjects, significant differences were found in CD4 count, CD4/CD8 count ratio, hematocrit, total WBC and TLC, whereas for female subjects, significant differences were found only in CD4 and CD4/CD8 count ratio in the three groups of subjects. In both sexes, however, these parameters were found to be highest in healthy HIV sero-negative subjects and lowest in AIDS subjects, with HIV sero-positive subjects having intermediate values. CONCLUSION: The results confirm previous reports that the CD4 count and CD4/CD8 count ratio are fairly reliable indicators of the progression of HIV infection. In addition, the results also apparently suggest that the prognostic value of CD8 count is limited and that of TLC possibly sex-dependent. The results could be of importance in our environment since previous reports have been relatively scarce.

  4. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  5. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Harrison, Martínez-Correa and Swarthout [2013] found that the binary lottery procedure works robustly to induce risk neutrality when subjects are given one risk task defined over...... objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...

  6. What Value "Value Added"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  7. The effect of simultaneously performed cognitive task and physical exercise on pressure pain threshold and tolerance in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye GÜNDOĞDU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the alterations of the pain threshold and tolerance after single, or dual task in athletes. Twenty male athletes and twenty non - athletic, recreationally active college students were participated in the study. Subjects w ere asked to perform Harvard step test (single task, and cognitive task was concurrent performance of an arithmetic task while performing Harvard step test. Pressure pain threshold (PPT and pressure pain tolerance (PPTO were assessed from muscle, tendon , bone and myofascial region from the dominant thigh by using a digital algometer. All measurements were repeated at rest, or following single and dual task. Results are presented as mean + standart deviation. Data were analyzed by using repeated measures of ANOVA test. A level of p<0.05 was accepted statistical significant. Athletes had higher PPT and PPTO measurements from muscle and myofascial region of thigh at rest. PPT and PPTO values were increased after single, or dual task in sedentary subjects, w hile athletic subjects had increased muscle and myofascial PPT and PPTO values after dual task. In conclusion, our results supports the notion that cognitive functions may interact the pain processing at rest, or following exercise in athletes.

  8. Chunking in task sequences modulates task inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M; Gade, Miriam

    2006-04-01

    In a study of the formation of representations of task sequences and its influence on task inhibition, participants first performed tasks in a predictable sequence (e.g., ABACBC) and then performed the tasks in a random sequence. Half of the participants were explicitly instructed about the predictable sequence, whereas the other participants did not receive these instructions. Task-sequence learning was inferred from shorter reaction times (RTs) in predictable relative to random sequences. Persisting inhibition of competing tasks was indicated by increased RTs in n- 2 task repetitions (e.g., ABA) compared with n- 2 nonrepetitions (e.g., CBA). The results show task-sequence learning for both groups. However, task inhibition was reduced in predictable relative to random sequences among instructed-learning participants who formed an explicit representation of the task sequence, whereas sequence learning and task inhibition were independent in the noninstructed group. We hypothesize that the explicit instructions led to chunking of the task sequence, and that n- 2 repetitions served as chunk points (ABA-CBC), so that within-chunk facilitation modulated the inhibition effect.

  9. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy Subjects Aged 3 to 93 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Kinematics is recommended for the quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in healthy subjects. Three hundred and seventy healthy subjects, aged 3-93 years, participated in the study. They performed two unidirectional and two geometrical tasks ten consecutive times with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-six kinematic indices were computed for the four tasks. For the four tasks, nineteen of the computed kinematic indices showed an age effect. Seventeen indices (the accuracy, speed and smoothness indices and the reproducibility of the accuracy, speed and smoothness) improved in young subjects aged 3-30 years, showed stabilization in adults aged 30-60 years and declined in elderly subjects aged 60-93 years. Additionally, for both geometrical tasks, the speed index exhibited a decrease throughout life. Finally, a principal component analysis provided the relations between the kinematic indices, tasks and subjects' age. This study is the first to assess age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in subjects aged 3-93 years.

  10. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject-oriented anaphors 27 and it holds little explanatory value. At best, EPP ensures that the highest argument will move to subject position. The final property I will discuss here is the fact that, in some languages (e.g. Icelandic and. Dutch), there is a subset of ...

  11. Intellectual productivity under task ambient lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Hirotake; Kanagawa, Hidehiro; Shimamura, Yuta; Uchiyama, Kosuke; Miyagi, Kazune; Obayashi, Fumiaki; Shimoda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A subjective experiment was conducted to evaluate intellectual productivity in three lighting conditions: (a) conventional ambient lighting, (b) task ambient lighting with normal colour temperature (5000 K), and (c) task ambient lighting with high colour temperature (6200 K). In the experiment, cognitive tasks were given to 24 participants. The concentration time ratio, which is a quantitative and objective evaluation index of the degree of concentration, was measured. The results showed that...

  12. Mind Wandering in Text Comprehension under Dual-Task Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eDixon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments, subjects responded to on-task probes while reading under dual-task conditions. The secondary task was to monitor the text for occurrences of the letter e. In Experiment 1, reading comprehension was assessed with a multiple-choice recognition test; in Experiment 2, subjects recalled the text. In both experiments, the secondary task replicated the well-known missing-letter effect in which detection of e’s was less effective for the word the. Letter detection was also more effective when subjects were on task, but this effect did not interact with the missing-letter effect. Comprehension was assessed in both the dual-task conditions and in a control single-task conditions. In the single-task conditions, both recognition (Experiment 1 and recall (Experiment 2 was better when subjects were on task, replicating previous research on mind wandering. Surprisingly, though, comprehension under dual-task conditions only showed an effect of being on task when measured with recall; there was no effect on recognition performance. Our interpretation of this pattern of results is that subjects generate their response to on-task probes on the basis of a retrospective assessment of the contents of working memory. Further, we argue that under dual-task conditions, the contents of working memory is not related to the reading processes required for accurate recognition performance. These conclusions have implications for models of text comprehension and for the interpretation of on-task probe responses.

  13. Effects of task and category membership on representation stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Manetta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the within-subject stability of 150 participants who performed both a sorting task and a property-generation task over multiple sessions, focusing on three concrete concept categories (food, animals and bathroom products. We hypothesized that (1 the within-subject stability would be higher in the sorting task than in the property-generation task and (2 the nature of the category would influence both the within-subject stability of the classification groups in the sorting task and the properties generated to define these groups. The results show that the within-subject stability of conceptual representations depends both on the task and on the nature of the category. The stability of the representations was greater in the sorting task than in the property-generation task and in the food category. These results are discussed from a longitudinal perspective.

  14. Improving Closing Task Completion in a Drugstore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fante, Rhiannon; Davis, Ora L.; Kempt, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    A within-subject ABAB reversal design was utilized to investigate the effects of graphic feedback and goal setting on employee closing task completion. Goal setting was contingent upon baseline performance and graphic feedback was posted weekly. It was found that goal setting and graphic feedback improved employee closing task completion.…

  15. Dual-task interference with equal task emphasis: graded capacity sharing or central postponement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthruff, Eric; Pashler, Harold E.; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    Most studies using the psychological refractory period (PRP) design suggest that dual-task performance is limited by a central bottleneck. Because subjects are usually told to emphasize Task 1, however, the bottleneck might reflect a strategic choice rather than a structural limitation. To evaluate the possibility that central operations can proceed in parallel, albeit with capacity limitations, we conducted two dual-task experiments with equal task emphasis. In both experiments, subjects tended to either group responses together or respond to one task well before the other. In addition, stimulus-response compatibility effects were roughly constant across stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). At the short SOA, compatibility effects also carried over onto response times for the other task. This pattern of results is difficult to reconcile with the possibility that subjects share capacity roughly equally between simultaneous central operations. However, this pattern is consistent with the existence of a structural central bottleneck.

  16. Tolerability to prolonged lifting tasks. A validation of the recommended limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, P; Bazzini, G

    1997-01-01

    Prolonged physical exertion is subjectively regulated by the perception of effort. This preliminary study was conducted to validate the use of subjective perceptions of effort in assessing objectively tolerable workloads for prolonged lifting tasks. Ten healthy male subjects tested their maximal lifting capacity (MLC) on a lift dynamometer (LidoLift, Loredan Biomed., West Sacramento, CA) and underwent incremental and 30-minute endurance lifting tests. Cardiorespiratory parameters were monitored with an oxygen uptake analyzer, mechanical parameters were calculated using a computerized dynamometer. Ratings of perceived exertion were given on Borg's 10-point scale. Physiological responses to repetitive lifting were matched with subjective perceptions. A single-variable statistical regression for power functions was performed to obtain the individual "iso-perception" curves as functions of the mechanical work exerted. We found that the "iso-perception" curve corresponding to a "moderate" perception of effort may represent the individual "tolerance threshold" for prolonged lifting tasks, since physiological responses at this level of intensity did not change significantly and the respiratory exchange ratio was less than one. The individually tolerable weight for lifting tasks lasting 30 min has been expressed as a percentage of the isoinertial MLC value and compared with the currently recommended limits for prolonged lifting tasks (Italian legislation D.L. 626/94). On the basis of our preliminary results a "tolerance threshold" of 20% MLC has been proposed for prolonged lifting tasks.

  17. Moral Values and Science Teaching: A Malaysian School Curriculum Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sok Khim

    Implicit in teaching science has been the teaching of a set of values. However, its presence has remained unacknowledged because of assumptions made that its products are value-free and that work of science involves positive values. Malaysian schools have introduced a set of noble values to be taught as a subject called moral education while at the same time expecting all subjects, including the sciences to actively inculcate these noble values in their lessons. A search for values related to science included studies from science education curriculums, studies by scientists and philosophers of science, feminist and Indian critics of science. These values could be categorized into four categories representing epistemological values, supporting values, societal and moral values and power-oriented values. While some categories compliment each other, others are in contention. This paper argues for the inclusion of societal and moral values in the science classrooms. A compassionate scientist should be a reality. The task for Malaysian science educators is to find a way to raise awareness of these values.

  18. Sward structure and nutritive value of tanzania guineagrass subjected to rotational stocking managements Estrutura do pasto e valor nutritivo do capim-tanzânia submetido a estratégias de pastejo rotativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelson dos Santos Difante

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the sward structure and nutritive value of Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia subjected to rotational stocking managements characterised by a common pre-grazing condition of 95% canopy light interception (LI and two post-grazing residues, 25 and 50 cm. Treatments (95/25, 95/50 - LI/residue were assigned to experimental units (groups of six 2500 m² paddocks per treatment according to a complete randomised block design, with two replications. The variables measured corresponded to: canopy light interception, pre and post-grazing sward height, herbage mass and pre and post-grazing morphological composition, herbage bulk density, herbage accumulation and nutritive value (including to IVOMD of the morphological components. Pre-grazing herbage mass did not differ between residues, although the herbage accumulation rate was higher for the 50 than the 25 cm (164.9 and 90.6 kg/ha.day DM, respectively. Post-grazing herbage mass values were higher for the 50 cm residue and were characterised by a higher proportion of leaf blade in relation to the 25 cm treatment, which presented a higher proportion of dead material. On average, the contents of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and lignin in acid detergent (LAD as well as the values of the "in vitro" organic matter digestibility (IVOMD were similar for both treatments. Crude protein and IVOMD decreased and NDF and LAD increased from top to the bottom of the sward, indicating grazing intensity as an important variable for promoting adjustments in the grazing efficiency and nutritive value of the consumed herbage by the grazing animals.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a estrutura e o valor nutritivo de pastos de Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia sob regime de desfolhação intermitente submetido a duas intensidades de desfolhação e a duas alturas de resíduo (25 e 50 cm associadas à condição pré-pastejo definida por 95% de

  19. Multi-task evolutionary shaping without pre-specified representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, M.; Whiteson, S.; Branke, J.

    2010-01-01

    Shaping functions can be used in multi-task reinforcement learning (RL) to incorporate knowledge from previously experienced tasks to speed up learning on a new task. So far, researchers have pre-specified a separate representation for shaping and value functions in multi-task settings. However, no

  20. Effect of practice and span length on the dual-task coordination executive test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwan R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The measure "mu", proposed as an index of the ability to coordinate concurrent box-crossing (BC and digit-span (DS tasks in the dual task (DT, should reflect the capacity of the executive component of the working memory system. We investigated the effect of practice in BC and of a change in the digit span on mu by adding previous practice trials in BC and diminishing, maintaining or increasing the digit sequence length. The mu behavior was evaluated throughout three trials of the test. Reported strategies in digit tasks were also analyzed. Subjects with diminished span showed the best performance in DT due to a stable performance in DS and BC in the single- and dual-task conditions. These subjects also showed a more stable performance throughout trials. Subjects with diminished span tended to employ effortless strategies, whereas subjects with increased span employed effort-requiring strategies and showed the lowest means of mu. Subjects with initial practice trials showed the best performance in BC and the most differentiated performance between the single- and dual-task conditions in BC. The correlation coefficient between the mu values obtained in the first and second trials was 0.814 for subjects with diminished span and practice trials in BC. It seems that the within-session practice in BC and the performance variability in DS affect the reliability of the index mu. To control these factors we propose the introduction of previous practice trials in BC and a modification of the current method to determine the digit sequence length. This proposal should contribute to the development of a more reliable method to evaluate the executive capacity of coordination in the dual-task paradigm.

  1. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  2. Hemispheric asymmetries in reading Korean: task matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, J; Park, K

    1997-06-01

    Native Korean readers were studied in a visual half-field paradigm. Subjects were to make speeded judgments on Hangul (syllabic) and Hanzza (logographic) scripts based on phonetic or visual properties of the stimuli. A task by visual field interaction was obtained indicating that, for both scripts, responses on the phonetic task were faster in the right visual field, whereas no visual field differences were found on the visual task. Script type did not interact with visual field. The results support a task-based account of hemispheric differences in verbal processing.

  3. Components of competitor priming in task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teskey, Morgan L; Masson, Michael E J

    2017-11-01

    Executing an action in response to a stimulus is thought to result in the creation of an event code that integrates stimulus and action features (Allport, 1987; Hommel in Visual Cognition 5: 183-216, 1998). When switching between tasks, competitor priming occurs if a distractor stimulus cues the retrieval of a previously established event code in which that distractor is bound to a competing task, creating a source of interference with the current task whereby the observer is encouraged to apply the competing task to the distractor. We propose a second aspect of competitor priming: the misapplication of the retrieved competing task to the target stimulus. We report two task-switching experiments in which tasks applied to picture-word compound stimuli were manipulated to create conditions in which this second aspect of competitor priming could be revealed and distinguished from other sources of task- and stimulus-based priming. A substantial increase in competitor priming was observed when subjects switched between tasks that required very different processing operations and the competing task was highly relevant to the target stimulus. These results are consistent with our claim that competitor priming can result from applying the competing task either to the distractor that cued it or to the target stimulus.

  4. Caffeine improves anticipatory processes in task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieges, Zoë; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G; Lorist, Monicque M; Richard Ridderinkhof, K

    2006-08-01

    We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials (e.g. AB) compared to task-repeat trials (e.g. BB); mixing costs refer to longer RTs in task-repeat trials compared to single-task trials. In a double-blind, within-subjects experiment, two caffeine doses (3 and 5mg/kg body weight) and a placebo were administered to 18 coffee drinkers. Both caffeine doses reduced switch costs compared to placebo. Event-related brain potentials revealed a negative deflection developing within the preparatory interval, which was larger for switch than for repeat trials. Caffeine increased this switch-related difference. These results suggest that coffee consumption improves task-switching performance by enhancing anticipatory processing such as task set updating, presumably through the neurochemical effects of caffeine on the dopamine system.

  5. Driver's glance behaviour and secondary tasks; Einfluss von Nebenaufgaben auf das Fahrerblickverhalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweigert, M. [BMW Group Forschung und Technik, Muenchen (Germany); Bubb, H. [TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Ergonomie

    2003-07-01

    This paper contains a proposal for the evaluation of drivers' glance behavior, focussing on the influence of secondary tasks during driving. In general, an evaluation can only be achieved by regarding the quality of a task completion, which can be calculated by a comparison of a measured, actual value or behavior and a defined target value or behavior. Due to this definition, a target glance behavior is defined by so called continous and situational visual tasks. As opposed to continuous visual tasks, situational visual tasks contain a concrete description for a target glance behavior. A field trial (N=30) showed, that the subjects' glance behavior fulfilled most of the defined visual tasks when driving without a secondary task. Driving with secondary tasks leads to an increasing subjects' reliance on the correct driving of the other road users, shown by decreasing visual monitoring. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Untersuchung behandelt die Bewertung des Blickverhaltens von Fahrzeugfuehrern, wobei das Hauptaugenmerk auf dem Einfluss von Zusatzaufgaben liegt, die waehrend der Fahrt zu bearbeiten sind. Eine Bewertung ist immer eng mit dem Begriff der Qualitaet verknuepft, wobei ein Ist-Wert mit einem vorgegebenen Soll-Wert zu vergleichen ist. Nur wenn die Abweichung zwischen Soll und Ist gering ist, ist die Qualitaet hoch und die Bewertung somit positiv. Bei der Definition eines Soll-Blickverhaltens wird hier zwischen kontinuierlichen und situativen visuellen Aufgaben unterschieden. Letztere beinhalten konkrete Forderungen an das Fahrerblickverhalten in bestimmten Situationen, waehrend sich die Vorgabe eines Soll-Werts fuer kontinuierliche Aufgaben einer genauen Quantifizierung weitestgehend entzieht. Im Feldversuch (N=30) konnte gezeigt werden, dass bei den Fahrten ohne Zusatzaufgabenbearbeitung (Referenzbedingung) die definierten visuellen Aufgaben zum Grossteil erfuellt werden. Ist der Fahrer jedoch durch Zusatzaufgaben beansprucht, verlaesst er

  6. ADAPTIVE OUTPUT CONTROL: SUBJECT MATTER, APPLICATION TASKS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Bobtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive output control for parametric and functionally uncertain plants is considered. Application examples illustrating the practical use of the discussed theory are given along with the mathematical formulation of the problem. A brief review of adaptive output control methods, by both linear and non-linear systems, is presented and an extensive bibliography, in which the reader will find a detailed description of the specific algorithms and their properties, is represented. A new approach to the output control problem - a method of consecutive compensator - is considered in detail.

  7. Knowledge discovery in databases of biomechanical variables: application to the sit to stand motor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Della Croce, Ugo; Starita, Antonina; Benvenuti, Francesco; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2004-10-29

    ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND : The interpretation of data obtained in a movement analysis laboratory is a crucial issue in clinical contexts. Collection of such data in large databases might encourage the use of modern techniques of data mining to discover additional knowledge with automated methods. In order to maximise the size of the database, simple and low-cost experimental set-ups are preferable. The aim of this study was to extract knowledge inherent in the sit-to-stand task as performed by healthy adults, by searching relationships among measured and estimated biomechanical quantities. An automated method was applied to a large amount of data stored in a database. The sit-to-stand motor task was already shown to be adequate for determining the level of individual motor ability. METHODS : The technique of search for association rules was chosen to discover patterns as part of a Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) process applied to a sit-to-stand motor task observed with a simple experimental set-up and analysed by means of a minimum measured input model. Selected parameters and variables of a database containing data from 110 healthy adults, of both genders and of a large range of age, performing the task were considered in the analysis. RESULTS : A set of rules and definitions were found characterising the patterns shared by the investigated subjects. Time events of the task turned out to be highly interdependent at least in their average values, showing a high level of repeatability of the timing of the performance of the task. CONCLUSIONS : The distinctive patterns of the sit-to-stand task found in this study, associated to those that could be found in similar studies focusing on subjects with pathologies, could be used as a reference for the functional evaluation of specific subjects performing the sit-to-stand motor task.

  8. Knowledge discovery in databases of biomechanical variables: application to the sit to stand motor task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benvenuti Francesco

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interpretation of data obtained in a movement analysis laboratory is a crucial issue in clinical contexts. Collection of such data in large databases might encourage the use of modern techniques of data mining to discover additional knowledge with automated methods. In order to maximise the size of the database, simple and low-cost experimental set-ups are preferable. The aim of this study was to extract knowledge inherent in the sit-to-stand task as performed by healthy adults, by searching relationships among measured and estimated biomechanical quantities. An automated method was applied to a large amount of data stored in a database. The sit-to-stand motor task was already shown to be adequate for determining the level of individual motor ability. Methods The technique of search for association rules was chosen to discover patterns as part of a Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD process applied to a sit-to-stand motor task observed with a simple experimental set-up and analysed by means of a minimum measured input model. Selected parameters and variables of a database containing data from 110 healthy adults, of both genders and of a large range of age, performing the task were considered in the analysis. Results A set of rules and definitions were found characterising the patterns shared by the investigated subjects. Time events of the task turned out to be highly interdependent at least in their average values, showing a high level of repeatability of the timing of the performance of the task. Conclusions The distinctive patterns of the sit-to-stand task found in this study, associated to those that could be found in similar studies focusing on subjects with pathologies, could be used as a reference for the functional evaluation of specific subjects performing the sit-to-stand motor task.

  9. Many-valued logic and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollina, D A; Squires, N K

    1998-07-01

    In previous experiments on event-related potentials (ERPs) during linguistic judgments, the subjects' decisions have been categorical (e.g., true vs false). In this experiment, more realistic variations in truth value and subject certainty were used. Thirty-eight naive undergraduates read a story about a fictional murder. ERPs were recorded as the subjects rated the strength of their beliefs about statements relating to suspects in the crime. Because no subject was sure which of the suspects was guilty of committing the crime, binary (true-false) category judgments were inappropriate. Three components of the ERP waveforms were affected by the experimental manipulations. An early positive component was largest to sentences concerning the suspect considered most likely to have committed the crime. A subsequent broad posterior positivity (LPC) also showed significant sentence-type differences, but it was larger to sentences considered probable--whether they were true or false--than to more ambiguous sentences. A third ERP component (N400) was negative at midline electrode sites and peaked at approximately 420 ms. Subjects' truth-value judgments had no effect on the N400. N400 was, however, affected by the subject's task. It was more negative when subjects made graded judgments about truth value than when they made binary true-false judgments. Overall, naturalistic judgments of sentence validity produced a variety of brain responses that reflected different aspects of linguistic decision making.

  10. Project Tasks in Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1998-01-01

    Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...

  11. Management: tasks, responsibilities, practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drucker, Peter Ferdinand

    1974-01-01

    Drucker looks at management from a task orientated point of view. In Part I he looks at management first from the outside and studies the dimensions of the tasks and the requirements to each of them...

  12. Task assignment and coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching from a manager, the junior employee only has information about his past performance. Based on his past performance, a talented junior who has performed a difficult task sometimes decides to leave the...

  13. Prevalence and prognostic value of CSF markers of Alzheimer's disease pathology in patients with subjective cognitive impairment or mild cognitive impairment in the DESCRIPA study: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.J.; Verhey, F.; Knol, D.L.; Scheltens, P.; Wahlund, L.O.; Freund-Levi, Y.; Tsolaki, M.; Minthon, L.; Wallin, A.K.; Hampel, H.; Burger, K.; Pirttila, T.; Soininen, H.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Verbeek, M.M.; Spiru, L.; Blennow, K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is common in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) without dementia, but the prevalence of AD pathology in patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI) is unknown. AD is

  14. Task assignment and coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching

  15. Flight deck task management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    This report documents the work undertaken in support of Volpe Task Order No. T0026, Flight Deck Task Management. The objectives of this work effort were to: : 1) Develop a specific and standard definition of task management (TM) : 2) Conduct a ...

  16. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  17. Speech task effects on acoustic measure of fundamental frequency in Cantonese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Estella P-M; Lam, Nina L-N

    2015-12-01

    Speaking fundamental frequency (F0) is a voice measure frequently used to document changes in vocal performance over time. Knowing the intra-subject variability of speaking F0 has implications on its clinical usefulness. The present study examined the speaking F0 elicited from three speech tasks in Cantonese-speaking children. The study also compared the variability of speaking F0 elicited from different speech tasks. Fifty-six vocally healthy Cantonese-speaking children (31 boys and 25 girls) aged between 7.0 and 10.11 years participated. For each child, speaking F0 was elicited using speech tasks at three linguistic levels (sustained vowel /a/ prolongation, reading aloud a sentence and passage). Two types of variability, within-session (trial-to-trial) and across-session (test-retest) variability, were compared across speech tasks. Significant differences in mean speaking F0 values were found between speech tasks. Mean speaking F0 value elicited from sustained vowel phonations was significantly higher than those elicited from the connected speech tasks. The variability of speaking F0 was higher in sustained vowel prolongation than that in connected speech. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Task type and incidental L2 vocabulary learning: Repetition versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of task type on incidental L2 vocabulary learning. The different tasks investigated in this study differed in terms of repetition of encounters and task involvement load. In a within-subjects design, 72 Iranian learners of English practised 18 target words in three exercise conditions: three ...

  19. Test-retest reliability of stride time variability while dual tasking in healthy and demented adults with frontotemporal degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrmann Francois R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although test-retest reliability of mean values of spatio-temporal gait parameters has been assessed for reliability while walking alone (i.e., single tasking, little is known about the test-retest reliability of stride time variability (STV while performing an attention demanding-task (i.e., dual tasking. The objective of this study was to examine immediate test-retest reliability of STV while single and dual tasking in cognitively healthy older individuals (CHI and in demented patients with frontotemporal degeneration (FTD. Methods Based on a cross-sectional design, 69 community-dwelling CHI (mean age 75.5 ± 4.3; 43.5% women and 14 demented patients with FTD (mean age 65.7 ± 9.8 years; 6.7% women walked alone (without performing an additional task; i.e., single tasking and while counting backward (CB aloud starting from 50 (i.e., dual tasking. Each subject completed two trials for all the testing conditions. The mean value and the coefficient of variation (CoV of stride time while walking alone and while CB at self-selected walking speed were measured using GAITRite® and SMTEC® footswitch systems. Results ICC of mean value in CHI under both walking conditions were higher than ICC of demented patients with FTD and indicated perfect reliability (ICC > 0.80. Reliability of mean value was better while single tasking than dual tasking in CHI (ICC = 0.96 under single-task and ICC = 0.86 under dual-task, whereas it was the opposite in demented patients (ICC = 0.65 under single-task and ICC = 0.81 under dual-task. ICC of CoV was slight to poor whatever the group of participants and the walking condition (ICC Conclusions The immediate test-retest reliability of the mean value of stride time in single and dual tasking was good in older CHI as well as in demented patients with FTD. In contrast, the variability of stride time was low in both groups of participants.

  20. Brain correlates of subjective freedom of choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filevich, Elisa; Vanneste, Patricia; Brass, Marcel; Fias, Wim; Haggard, Patrick; Kühn, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The subjective feeling of free choice is an important feature of human experience. Experimental tasks have typically studied free choice by contrasting free and instructed selection of response alternatives. These tasks have been criticised, and it remains unclear how they relate to the subjective feeling of freely choosing. We replicated previous findings of the fMRI correlates of free choice, defined objectively. We introduced a novel task in which participants could experience and report a graded sense of free choice. BOLD responses for conditions subjectively experienced as free identified a postcentral area distinct from the areas typically considered to be involved in free action. Thus, the brain correlates of subjective feeling of free action were not directly related to any established brain correlates of objectively-defined free action. Our results call into question traditional assumptions about the relation between subjective experience of choosing and activity in the brain’s so-called voluntary motor areas. PMID:24021855

  1. Unsupervised segmentation of task activated regions in fmRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Rasmus; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2015-01-01

    of task activated functional units in multi-subject fMRI data that exploits that regions of task activation are consistent across subjects and can be more reliably inferred than regions that are not activated. We develop a non-parametric Gaussian mixture model that apriori assumes activations are smooth...

  2. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  3. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  4. Characterization of Task-free and Task-performance Brain States via Functional Connectome Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin; Guo, Lei; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Tuo; Zhu, Dajiang; Li, Kaiming; Chen, Hanbo; Lv, Jinglei; Jin, Changfeng; Zhao, Qun; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Tianming

    2013-01-01

    Both resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) and task-based fMRI (T-fMRI) have been widely used to study the functional activities of the human brain during task-free and task-performance periods, respectively. However, due to the difficulty in strictly controlling the participating subject's mental status and their cognitive behaviors during R-fMRI/T-fMRI scans, it has been challenging to ascertain whether or not an R-fMRI/T-fMRI scan truly reflects the participant's functional brain states during task-...

  5. fNIRS derived hemodynamic signals and electrodermal responses in a sequential risk-taking task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holper, Lisa; ten Brincke, Robert H W; Wolf, Martin; Murphy, Ryan O

    2014-04-04

    The study measured cortical hemodynamic signals and peripheral correlates of decision makers during a dynamic risky task, the Just One More task (JOM), in which the risky decision entails choosing whether to incrementally increase accumulated earnings at the risk of ruin (going bust ending up with nothing). Twenty subjects participated in multiple instantiations of this task in which the probability of ruin and size of the stakes varied. Physiological correlates were simultaneously quantified by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and electrodermal activity (EDA). First, in the task decision phase (i.e., when subjects are contemplating options before making a choice) probability of ruin had a dissociating effect on fNIRS and EDA. fNIRS derived DLPFC hemodynamic signals reflected a subjective value signal, correlating positively with individual risk attitude. Contrary, EDA reflected the probability of ruin in terms of a common affective measure, irrespective of individuals׳ risk attitude. Second, during the task outcome phase (i.e., the time after subjects have made a choice and observed the outcomes) fNIRS and EDA revealed opposite patterns. While fNIRS derived DLPFC hemodynamic signals were larger in response to gains, EDA signals were larger in response to losses; both patterns were statistically independent of individual risk attitude. Lastly, fNIRS derived DLPFC hemodynamic signals in the decision phase correlated positively with the mean round earnings, providing a measure of the quality of the individual decision-making performance. Together with the positive correlation with individual risk attitude, our findings indicate that fNIRS signals, but not EDA, could be taken as a useful method for studying individual risk attitude and task performance in dynamic risky decision-making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The added value of virtual reality technology and force feedback for surgical training simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Grosdemouge, C; Arikatla, V S; Ahn, W; Sankaranarayanan, G; De, S; Jones, D; Schwaitzberg, S; Cao, C G L

    2012-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery requires more specialized training of the surgeons than traditional open surgery. The Virtual Basic Laparoscopic Surgical Trainer (VBLaST) is being developed as a virtual version of the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Skills (FLS) trainer. This study assessed the current haptic and virtual reality (VR) technology of a virtual peg transfer task of the VBLaST, based on the subjective preference of surgeons and their objective task performance measures. Twenty-one surgical residents, fellows and attendings performed a peg-transfer task in the FLS and the VBLaST. Each subject performed 10 trials on each simulator. Results showed that subjects performed significantly better on the FLS than on the VBLaST. Subjects showed a significant learning effect on both simulators, but with an accelerated improvement on the VBLaST. Even so, 81% of the subjects preferred the FLS over the VBLaST for surgical training which could be attributed to the novelty of the VR technology and existing deficiencies of the haptic interface. Despite the subjective preference for the physical simulator, the performance results indicate an added value of VR and haptics in surgical training, which is expected to be demonstrated in more surgically relevant tasks such as suturing and knot-tying.

  7. Inferring Beliefs as Subjectively Imprecise Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2012-01-01

    . The experimental task consists of a series of standard lottery choices in which the subject is assumed to use conventional risk attitudes to select one lottery or the other and then a series of betting choices in which the subject is presented with a range of bookies offering odds on the outcome of some event...

  8. Walking Stroop carpet: an innovative dual-task concept for detecting cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrochon A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A Perrochon,1,2,5 G Kemoun,1,2 E Watelain,3,4 A Berthoz51ISIS, Research Institute on Handicap and Aging, Paris; 2Université de Poitiers, Laboratoire Mobilité, Vieillissement et Exercice (MOVE, EA 6314, 3Université de Valenciennes, LAMIH, UMR CNRS 8201, 4Université Sud Toulon Var, HandiBio, EA 4322, La Garde, 5LPPA, UMR CNRS 7152, Collège de France, Paris, FranceBackground: Several studies have reported the potential value of the dual-task concept during locomotion in clinical evaluation because cognitive decline is strongly associated with gait abnormalities. However, current dual-task tests appear to be insufficient for early diagnosis of cognitive impairment.Methods: Forty-nine subjects (young, old, with or without mild cognitive impairment underwent cognitive evaluation (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery, five-word test, Stroop, clock-drawing and single-task locomotor evaluation on an electronic walkway. They were then dual-task-tested on the Walking Stroop carpet, which is an adaptation of the Stroop color–word task for locomotion. A cluster analysis, followed by an analysis of variance, was performed to assess gait parameters.Results: Cluster analysis of gait parameters on the Walking Stroop carpet revealed an interaction between cognitive and functional abilities because it made it possible to distinguish dysexecutive cognitive fragility or decline with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 94%. Locomotor abilities differed according to the group and dual-task conditions. Healthy subjects performed less well on dual-tasking under reading conditions than when they were asked to distinguish colors, whereas dysexecutive subjects had worse motor performances when they were required to dual task.Conclusion: The Walking Stroop carpet is a dual-task test that enables early detection of cognitive fragility that has not been revealed by traditional neuropsychological tests or single-task walking analysis

  9. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  10. Academic Procrastination in Linking Motivation and Achievement-Related Behaviours: A Perspective of Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Fan, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships among college students' achievement motivation (subjective task value and academic self-efficacy), academic procrastination (delay and missing deadlines) and achievement-related behaviours (effort and persistence). More specifically, the study investigated the mediating role…

  11. Neurobiology of value integration: when value impacts valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soyoung Q; Kahnt, Thorsten; Rieskamp, Jörg; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2011-06-22

    Everyday choice options have advantages (positive values) and disadvantages (negative values) that need to be integrated into an overall subjective value. For decades, economic models have assumed that when a person evaluates a choice option, different values contribute independently to the overall subjective value of the option. However, human choice behavior often violates this assumption, suggesting interactions between values. To investigate how qualitatively different advantages and disadvantages are integrated into an overall subjective value, we measured the brain activity of human subjects using fMRI while they were accepting or rejecting choice options that were combinations of monetary reward and physical pain. We compared different subjective value models on behavioral and neural data. These models all made similar predictions of choice behavior, suggesting that behavioral data alone are not sufficient to uncover the underlying integration mechanism. Strikingly, a direct model comparison on brain data decisively demonstrated that interactive value integration (where values interact and affect overall valuation) predicts neural activity in value-sensitive brain regions significantly better than the independent mechanism. Furthermore, effective connectivity analyses revealed that value-dependent changes in valuation are associated with modulations in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex-amygdala coupling. These results provide novel insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of human decision making involving the integration of different values.

  12. Nervous Facilitation in Cardiodynamic Response of Exercising Athletes to Superimposed Mental Tasks: Implications in Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocco, Filippo; Crisafulli, Antonio; Milia, Raffaele; Marongiu, Elisabetta; Mura, Roberto; Roberto, Silvana; Todde, Francesco; Concu, Daniele; Melis, Salvatore; Velluzzi, Fernanda; Loviselli, Andrea; Concu, Alberto; Melis, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Motor commands to perform exercise tasks may also induce activation of cardiovascular centres to supply the energy needs of the contracting muscles. Mental stressors per se may also influence cardiovascular homeostasis. We investigated the cardiovascular response of trained runners simultaneously engaged in mental and physical tasks to establish if aerobically trained subjects could develop, differently from untrained ones, nervous facilitation in the brain cardiovascular centre. Methods : Cardiovascular responses of 8 male middle-distance runners (MDR), simultaneously engaged in mental (colour-word interference test) and physical (cycle ergometer exercise) tasks, were compared with those of 8 untrained subjects. Heart rate, cardiac (CI) and stroke indexes were assessed by impedance cardiography while arterial blood pressures were assessed with a brachial sphygmomanometer. Results : Only in MDR simultaneous engagement in mental and physical tasks induced a significant CI increase which was higher (p<0.05) than that obtained on summing CI values from each task separately performed. Conclusion : Aerobic training, when performed together with a mental effort, induced a CI oversupply which allowed a redundant oxygen delivery to satisfy a sudden fuel demand from exercising muscles by utilizing aerobic sources of ATP, thus shifting the anaerobic threshold towards a higher work load. From data of this study it may also be indirectly stated that, in patients with major depressive disorder, the promotion of regular low-intensity exercise together with mental engagement could ameliorate the perceived physical quality of life, thus reducing their heart risk associated with physical stress.

  13. Relevance theory explains the selection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, D; Cara, F; Girotto, V

    1995-10-01

    We propose a general and predictive explanation of the Wason Selection Task (where subjects are asked to select evidence for testing a conditional "rule"). Our explanation is based on a reanalysis of the task, and on Relevance Theory. We argue that subjects' selections in all true versions of the Selection Task result from the following procedure. Subjects infer from the rule directly testable consequences. They infer them in their order of accessibility, and stop when the resulting interpretation of the rule meets their expectations of relevance. Subjects then select the cards that may test the consequences they have inferred from the rule. Order of accessibility of consequences and expectations of relevance vary with rule and context, and so, therefore, does subjects' performance. By devising appropriate rule-context pairs, we predict that correct performance can be elicited in any conceptual domain. We corroborate this prediction with four experiments. We argue that past results properly reanalyzed confirm our account. We discuss the relevance of the Selection Task to the study of reasoning.

  14. Neural efficiency as a function of task demands☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Beate; Benedek, Mathias; Jauk, Emanuel; Bergner, Sabine; Koschutnig, Karl; Sommer, Markus; Ischebeck, Anja; Spinath, Birgit; Arendasy, Martin; Bühner, Markus; Freudenthaler, Heribert; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2014-01-01

    The neural efficiency hypothesis describes the phenomenon that brighter individuals show lower brain activation than less bright individuals when working on the same cognitive tasks. The present study investigated whether the brain activation–intelligence relationship still applies when more versus less intelligent individuals perform tasks with a comparable person-specific task difficulty. In an fMRI-study, 58 persons with lower (n = 28) or respectively higher (n = 30) intelligence worked on simple and difficult inductive reasoning tasks having the same person-specific task difficulty. Consequently, less bright individuals received sample-based easy and medium tasks, whereas bright subjects received sample-based medium and difficult tasks. This design also allowed a comparison of lower versus higher intelligent individuals when working on the same tasks (i.e. sample-based medium task difficulty). In line with expectations, differences in task performance and in brain activation were only found for the subset of tasks with the same sample-based task difficulty, but not when comparing tasks with the same person-specific task difficulty. These results suggest that neural efficiency reflects an (ability-dependent) adaption of brain activation to the respective task demands. PMID:24489416

  15. India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks · India's Telecom Story is now well known · Indian Operators become an enviable force · At the same time · India Amongst the Leaders · Unfinished Tasks as Operators · LightGSM ON: Innovation for Rural Area from Midas ... The Consortium Approach … What more will it take to obtain Tech ...

  16. Shifting tasks in telecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2017-01-01

    with focus on shifting tasks was undertaken. Furthermore, the method of ‘Interview to double’ was used the analytical ambition being to explore the becoming of tasks and relations. Analytically the study draws predominantly on Stars notion of ‘infrastructure’. Infrastructure is seen as human and non...

  17. Physiological Synchronization in a Vigilance Dual Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    The synchronization of autonomic arousal levels and other physio-logical responses between people is a potentially important component of work team performance, client-therapist relationships, and other types of human interaction. This study addressed several problems: What statistical models are viable for identifying synchronization for loosely coupled human systems? How is the level of synchronization related to psychosocial variables such as empathy, subjective ratings of workload, and actual performance? Participants were 70 undergraduates who worked in pairs on a vigilance dual task in which they watched a virtual reality security camera, rang a bell when they saw the target intruder, and completed a jig-saw puzzle. Event rates either increased or decreased during the 90 min work period. The average R2 values for each person were .66, .66, .62, and .53 for the linear autoregressive model, linear autoregressive model with a synchronization component, the nonlinear autoregressive model, and the nonlinear autoregressive model with a synchronization component, respectively. All models were more accurate at a lag of 20 sec compared to 50 sec or customized lag lengths. Although the linear models were more accurate overall, the nonlinear synchronization parameters were more often related to psychological variables and performance. In particular, greater synchronization was observed with the nonlinear model when the target event rate increased, compared to when it decreased, which was expected from the general theory of synchronization. Nonlinear models were also more effective for uncovering inhibitory or dampening relationships between the co-workers as well as mutually excitatory relationships. Future research should explore the comparative model results for tasks that induce higher levels of synchronization and involve different types of internal group coordination.

  18. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    the light source as far from the bottom edge as possible. The main results of the project show opportunities for energy savings in an office environment by reducing the installed power for the general lighting by applying a task light with a wide light distribution across the desk area , providing high...... illuminance uniformity . There is still work to be done on the prototype to optimize the energy consumption of the task light and measures need to be taken to minimize glare from the task light as well as reflected glare . The lamp head adjustment possibilities regarding tilting and turning result in problems...... to all objects on the desk than the two traditional reference task lights with LED retrofit light bulbs . By utilising this new type of task light, the energy consumption by general lighting can be reduced by approximately 40 % by fully exploiting the lower illuminance levels required by lighting...

  19. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...... introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...

  20. Task Description Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  1. RESCALE: Voxel-specific task-fMRI scaling using resting state fluctuation amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalcher, Klaudius; Boubela, Roland N.; Huf, Wolfgang; Biswal, Bharat B.; Baldinger, Pia; Sailer, Uta; Filzmoser, Peter; Kasper, Siegfried; Lamm, Claus; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Moser, Ewald; Windischberger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The BOLD signal measured in fMRI studies depends not only on neuronal activity, but also on other parameters like tissue vascularization, which may vary between subjects and between brain regions. A correction for variance from vascularization effects can thus lead to improved group statistics by reducing inter-subject variability. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) as determined in a resting-state scan has been shown to be dependent on vascularization. Here we present a correction method termed RESCALE (REsting-state based SCALing of parameter Estimates) that uses local information to compute a voxel-wise scaling factor based on the correlation structure of fALFF and task activation parameter estimates from within a cube of 3 × 3 × 3 surrounding that voxel. The scaling method was used on a visuo-motor paradigm and resulted in a consistent increase in t-values in all task-activated cortical regions, with increases in peak t-values of 37.0% in the visual cortex and 12.7% in the left motor cortex. The RESCALE method as proposed herein can be easily applied to all task-based fMRI group studies provided that resting-state data for the same subject group is also acquired. PMID:23266702

  2. Values and Decision Making in Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakomski, Gabriele

    1987-01-01

    Argues against the current trends in giving importance to subjective values in educational administration, particularly the argument that attention to subjective values can overcome the perceived irrelevance of scientific administration and organization theory and help administrators make better decisions. (MD)

  3. Value Investing

    OpenAIRE

    Kubínyi, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis deals with value investing in the form defined by Benjamin Graham. In clarifying the theoretical aspects, particular attention is given to an intrinsic value of stocks and to its calculation methods. A way to overcome the deficiencies in the two most widely used models of calculation is introduced. It is value screening, which by defining of certain criteria makes an assumption of undervalued stocks. Then the investment approach of the most successful investor, Warren B...

  4. Assessing the role of reward in task selection using a reward-based voluntary task switching paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, David A; Arrington, Catherine M

    2017-09-26

    People exhibit a remarkable ability to both maintain controlled focus on executing a single task and flexibly shift between executing several tasks. Researchers studying human multitasking have traditionally focused on the cognitive control mechanisms that allow for such stable and flexible task execution, but there has been a recent interest in how cognitive control mechanisms drive the decision of task selection. The present research operationalizes a foraging analogy to investigate what factors drive the decision to either exploit task repetitions or explore task switches. A novel paradigm-reward-based voluntary task switching-ascribes point values to tasks where the overall goal is to accumulate points as quickly as possible. The reward structure generally rewards switching tasks, thereby juxtaposing the motivation to gain increased reward (by exploring task switches) against the motivation to perform quickly (by exploiting task repetitions). Results suggest that people are highly sensitive to changes in both reward and effort demands when making task selections, and that the task selection process is efficient and flexible. We argue that a cost-benefit mechanism might underlie decisions in multitasking contexts, whereby people compute task selections based on both the reward available for selecting a task and the effort necessary to execute a task.

  5. Effort - Final technical report on task 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Henningsen, Poul; Eriksen, Morten

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The objective of task 3 is to determine data...... on the tool/workpiece interface conditions. The task includes the following four sub-tasks: Subtask 3.1 Simulative testing of friction in cold forming Subtask 3.2 Simulative testing of friction in warm and hot forming Subtask 3.3 Validation of measured friction values by process tests Subtask 3.4 Heat...

  6. Schedulability analysis of dependent probabilistic real-time tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Amor, Slim; Maxim, Dorin,; Cucu-Grosjean, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The complexity of modern architectures has increased the timing variability of programs (or tasks). In this context, new approaches based on probabilistic methods are proposed to decrease the pessimism by associating probabilities to the worst case values of the programs (tasks) time execution. In this paper, we extend the original work of Chetto et al. [7] on precedence constrained tasks to the case of tasks with worst case execution times described by probability dis...

  7. 2014 Texas Military Value Task Force: Preparing for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    lines, waste management, or access to fiber optic cables. 1 The National Defense Authorization Act states that “the Secretary may enter into an...support existing partnerships and pursue new partnerships. Installations may want to examine host-tenant agreements for fair recuperations of tenant...Texas has an abundance of capacity for renewable energy.1 Many installations have the space for large solar arrays and some host renewable waste to

  8. Styles, Strategies & Tasks: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnrod, Urarat; Darasawang, Pornapit; Singhasiri, Wareesiri

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aims at investigating the relationship among cognitive styles, learning strategies and task. In order to determine the dominant cognitive styles of the subjects, questionnaires designed by Kolb (2005) were distributed to 778 engineering students. From the data analysis, it was found that two cognitive…

  9. The value of value congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey R; Cable, Daniel M

    2009-05-01

    Research on value congruence has attempted to explain why value congruence leads to positive outcomes, but few of these explanations have been tested empirically. In this article, the authors develop and test a theoretical model that integrates 4 key explanations of value congruence effects, which are framed in terms of communication, predictability, interpersonal attraction, and trust. These constructs are used to explain the process by which value congruence relates to job satisfaction, organizational identification, and intent to stay in the organization, after taking psychological need fulfillment into account. Data from a heterogeneous sample of employees from 4 organizations indicate that the relationships that link individual and organizational values to outcomes are explained primarily by the trust that employees place in the organization and its members, followed by communication, and, to a lesser extent, interpersonal attraction. Polynomial regression analyses reveal that the relationships emanating from individual and organizational values often deviated from the idealized value congruence relationship that underlies previous theory and research. The authors' results also show that individual and organizational values exhibited small but significant relationships with job satisfaction and organizational identification that bypassed the mediators in their model, indicating that additional explanations of value congruence effects should be pursued in future research. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa

  11. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.

  12. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  13. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  14. Task-Driven Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhenyu

    2000-01-01

    .... They will want to use the resources to perform computing tasks. Today's computing infrastructure does not support this model of computing very well because computers interact with users in terms of low level abstractions...

  15. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    Civil servants conduct the work which makes welfare states functions on an everyday bases: Police men police, school teachers teach, and tax inspectors inspect. Focus in this paper is on the core tasks of tax inspectors. The paper argues that their core task of securing the collection of revenue...... has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...

  16. Math-related career aspirations and choices within Eccles et al.'s expectancy-value theory of achievement-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauermann, Fani; Tsai, Yi-Miau; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2017-08-01

    Which occupation to pursue is one of the more consequential decisions people make and represents a key developmental task. Yet the underlying developmental processes associated with either individual or group differences in occupational choices are still not well understood. This study contributes toward filling this gap, focusing in particular on the math domain. We examined two aspects of Eccles et al.'s (1983) expectancy-value theory of achievement-related behaviors: (a) the reciprocal associations between adolescents' expectancy and subjective task value beliefs and adolescents' career plans and (b) the multiplicative association between expectancies and values in predicting occupational outcomes in the math domain. Our analyses indicate that adolescents' expectancy and subjective task value beliefs about math and their math- or science-related career plans reported at the beginning and end of high school predict each other over time, with the exception of intrinsic interest in math. Furthermore, multiplicative associations between adolescents' expectancy and subjective task value beliefs about math predict math-related career attainment approximately 15 years after graduation from high school. Gender differences emerged regarding career-related beliefs and career attainment, with male students being more likely than female to both pursue and attain math-related careers. These gender differences could not be explained by differences in beliefs about math as an academic subject. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Gait analysis in demented subjects: Interests and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Beauchet

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Olivier Beauchet1, Gilles Allali2, Gilles Berrut3, Caroline Hommet4, Véronique Dubost5, Frédéric Assal21Department of Geriatrics, Angers University Hospital, France; 2Department of Neurology, Geneva University Hospital, France; 3Department of Geriatrics, Nantes University Hospital, France; 4Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Tours University Hospital, France; 5Department of Geriatrics, Dijon University Hospital, FranceAbstract: Gait disorders are more prevalent in dementia than in normal aging and are related to the severity of cognitive decline. Dementia-related gait changes (DRGC mainly include decrease in walking speed provoked by a decrease in stride length and an increase in support phase. More recently, dual-task related changes in gait were found in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and non-Alzheimer dementia, even at an early stage. An increase in stride-to-stride variability while usual walking and dual-tasking has been shown to be more specific and sensitive than any change in mean value in subjects with dementia. Those data show that DRGC are not only associated to motor disorders but also to problem with central processing of information and highlight that dysfunction of temporal and frontal lobe may in part explain gait impairment among demented subjects. Gait assessment, and more particularly dual-task analysis, is therefore crucial in early diagnosis of dementia and/or related syndromes in the elderly. Moreover, dual-task disturbances could be a specific marker of falling at a pre-dementia stage.Keywords: gait, prediction of dementia, risk of falling, older adult

  18. Quantitative physics tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Snětinová, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Title: Quantitative Physics Tasks Author: Mgr. Marie Snětinová Department: Department of Physics Education Supervisor of the doctoral thesis: doc. RNDr. Leoš Dvořák, CSc., Department of Physics Education Abstract: The doctoral thesis concerns with problem solving in physics, especially on students' attitudes to solving of quantitative physics tasks, and various methods how to develop students' problem solving skills in physics. It contains brief overview of the theoretical framework of proble...

  19. Performing Task Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    . Here cross-professional coordination of work was done by scheduled communication twice a day. When we proposed a way for further integration of tasks through an all-inclusive team organization, we were met with resistance. We use the study to discuss whether relational coordination theory is able to do...... away with differences regarding task definitions and working conditions as well as professional knowledge hierarchies and responsibilities for parts and wholes....

  20. Measuring Competitiveness; Trade in Goods or Tasks?

    OpenAIRE

    Tamim Bayoumi; Mika Saito; Jarkko Turunen

    2013-01-01

    With global supply chains, any value added or production task can be traded as part of goods. This means that competitiveness can be measured either in terms of “tasks” (Bems and Johnson, 2012), or goods, but with goods prices reflecting the cost of tasks embedded in those goods. We show that when measuring competitiveness in goods, the formula used in computing the real effective exchange rates at the IMF (Bayoumi, Lee, and Jayanthi, 2005) needs to be expressed in terms of the price of value...

  1. Reproducibility of single-subject functional connectivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J S; Ferguson, M A; Lopez-Larson, M; Yurgelun-Todd, D

    2011-03-01

    Measurements of resting-state functional connectivity have increasingly been used for characterization of neuropathologic and neurodevelopmental populations. We collected data to characterize how much imaging time is necessary to obtain reproducible quantitative functional connectivity measurements needed for a reliable single-subject diagnostic test. We obtained 100 five-minute BOLD scans on a single subject, divided into 10 sessions of 10 scans each, with the subject at rest or while watching video clips of cartoons. These data were compared with resting-state BOLD scans from 36 healthy control subjects by evaluating the correlation between each pair of 64 small spheric regions of interest obtained from a published functional brain parcellation. Single-subject and group data converged to reliable estimates of individual and population connectivity values proportional to 1 / sqrt(n). Dramatic improvements in reliability were seen by using ≤25 minutes of imaging time, with smaller improvements for additional time. Functional connectivity "fingerprints" for the individual and population began diverging at approximately 15 minutes of imaging time, with increasing reliability even at 4 hours of imaging time. Twenty-five minutes of BOLD imaging time was required before any individual connections could reliably discriminate an individual from a group of healthy control subjects. A classifier discriminating scans during which our subject was resting or watching cartoons was 95% accurate at 10 minutes and 100% accurate at 15 minutes of imaging time. An individual subject and control population converged to reliable different functional connectivity profiles that were task-modulated and could be discriminated with sufficient imaging time.

  2. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to cognitive tasks: effects of task factors and RSA indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Thérèse J M; van Boxtel, Anton; Westerink, Joyce H D M

    2014-05-01

    Many studies show that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) decreases while performing cognitive tasks. However, there is uncertainty about the role of contaminating factors such as physical activity and stress-inducing task variables. Different methods to quantify RSA may also contribute to variable results. In 83 healthy subjects, we studied RSA responses to a working memory task requiring varying levels of cognitive control and a perceptual attention task not requiring strong cognitive control. RSA responses were quantified in the time and frequency domain and were additionally corrected for differences in mean interbeat interval and respiration rate, resulting in eight different RSA indices. The two tasks were clearly differentiated by heart rate and facial EMG reference measures. Cognitive control induced inhibition of RSA whereas perceptual attention generally did not. However, the results show several differences between different RSA indices, emphasizing the importance of methodological variables. Age and sex did not influence the results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Typicality of words produced on a semantic fluency task in amnesic mild cognitive impairment: linguistic analysis and risk of conversion to dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Maria Gabriella; Marra, Camillo; Spinelli, Pietro; Caprara, Alessia; Scaricamazza, Eugenia; Castelli, Diana; Canulli, Serena; Gainotti, Guido; Quaranta, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Semantic and, to a lesser extent, phonological verbal fluency tasks are impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Furthermore, both fluency tasks have been considered as possible markers of conversion from aMCI to AD. Up to recent years, the use of fluency tasks has been limited to word count, but, more recently, linguistic variables, such as word frequency, age of acquisition, familiarity, and typicality, have also been considered. In particular, attention has been focused on typicality of words produced on semantic verbal fluency tasks, because the tendency to produce only the more typical members of various categories points to an impoverishment of semantic memory. The aim of our study was to compare in aMCI, AD, and control subjects a lexical (word frequency) and a lexical-semantic variable (item typicality) in a semantic verbal fluency task, and to evaluate the possible value of these variables in predicting conversion from aMCI to AD during a 2 years follow-up period. We found no difference in mean typicality of words produced by aMCI and AD subjects whereas both groups produced words of higher mean typicality than control subjects. Furthermore, to assess the relationship between typicality values and risk of conversion to AD, the aMCI group was split in two subgroups, including subjects who obtained a mean typicality value lower or higher than the median value of the whole aMCI group. Consistent with our hypothesis, conversion to AD was significantly more frequent in high typicality than in low typicality subjects.

  4. Rethinking volitional control over task choice in multitask environments: use of a stimulus set selection strategy in voluntary task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, Catherine M; Weaver, Starla M

    2015-01-01

    Under conditions of volitional control in multitask environments, subjects may engage in a variety of strategies to guide task selection. The current research examines whether subjects may sometimes use a top-down control strategy of selecting a task-irrelevant stimulus dimension, such as location, to guide task selection. We term this approach a stimulus set selection strategy. Using a voluntary task switching procedure, subjects voluntarily switched between categorizing letter and number stimuli that appeared in two, four, or eight possible target locations. Effects of stimulus availability, manipulated by varying the stimulus onset asynchrony between the two target stimuli, and location repetition were analysed to assess the use of a stimulus set selection strategy. Considered across position condition, Experiment 1 showed effects of both stimulus availability and location repetition on task choice suggesting that only in the 2-position condition, where selection based on location always results in a target at the selected location, subjects may have been using a stimulus set selection strategy on some trials. Experiment 2 replicated and extended these findings in a visually more cluttered environment. These results indicate that, contrary to current models of task selection in voluntary task switching, the top-down control of task selection may occur in the absence of the formation of an intention to perform a particular task.

  5. Single subject fMRI test-retest reliability metrics and confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Storkey, Amos J; Bastin, Mark E; Whittle, Ian; Pernet, Cyril

    2013-04-01

    While the fMRI test-retest reliability has been mainly investigated from the point of view of group level studies, here we present analyses and results for single-subject test-retest reliability. One important aspect of group level reliability is that not only does it depend on between-session variance (test-retest), but also on between-subject variance. This has partly led to a debate regarding which reliability metric to use and how different sources of noise contribute to between-session variance. Focusing on single subject reliability allows considering between-session only. In this study, we measured test-retest reliability in four behavioural tasks (motor mapping, covert verb generation, overt word repetition, and a landmark identification task) to ensure generalisation of the results and at three levels of data processing (time-series correlation, t value variance, and overlap of thresholded maps) to understand how each step influences the other and how confounding factors influence reliability at each of these steps. The contributions of confounding factors (scanner noise, subject motion, and coregistration) were investigated using multiple regression and relative importance analyses at each step. Finally, to achieve a fuller picture of what constitutes a reliable task, we introduced a bootstrap technique of within- vs. between-subject variance. Our results show that (i) scanner noise and coregistration errors have little contribution to between-session variance (ii) subject motion (especially correlated with the stimuli) can have detrimental effects on reliability (iii) different tasks lead to different reliability results. This suggests that between-session variance in fMRI is mostly caused by the variability of underlying cognitive processes and motion correlated with the stimuli rather than technical limitations of data processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TASK AVERSIVENESS AND ACADEMIC PROCRASTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magvirasari Lestari Linra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic procrastination occurs when certain tasks are considered unpleasant, an unpleasant task and the usual delayed them is the task of writing, reading, studying for the exam, meetings, and administrative. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of the task aversiveness with academic procrastination. Subject of the study were 100 students out of a population of 516 students of the Faculty of Psychology class of 2012-2014. The method used in this research is quantitative by using Spearman rho as data analysis techniques. The research instrument consists of academic procrastination scale and the scale of the task aversiveness. Based on the results of correlation is known that there is a positive relationship between task aversiveness with academic procrastination with a correlation coefficient r = 0.508; p = 0.000. The results showed that of the 100 students of the Faculty of Psychology University of Makassar has a degree of relationship between task aversiveness with academic procrastination is on the very low category (25, 8%. Area / types of tasks delayed is not necessarily an unpleasant task and otherwise unpleasant task may not be postponed. Area task the highest level of aversive and delays are areas the task of writing and reading. This study illustrates that academic procrastination can be lowered by a change in the mindset of an unpleasant task.

  7. The Value of Value Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Christensen, Jesper

    behavior. This paper attempt to test such a claim. This is done via unique and privileged access to top-level managers in a Fortune 250 company. This company is special in having very well-defined, long-running values that are in opposition to a narrowly defined homo-economics rationality. These values...... involving vignettes and games. Their results were compared to their actual knowledge of the content of the company corporate values. The results were tested against hypotheses on expected rational behavior and a control group consisting of similar level managers from other companies. This study makes...... and anecdotally true surprisingly little hard evidence has been produced either for or against. This study attempts to rectify this. The study claims that for corporate values to matter they must at least align, and potentially alter, employee decision-making hence their concept of optimality and rational...

  8. Production Task Queue Optimization Based on Multi-Attribute Evaluation for Complex Product Assembly Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian-Hui; Mo, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The production task queue has a great significance for manufacturing resource allocation and scheduling decision. Man-made qualitative queue optimization method has a poor effect and makes the application difficult. A production task queue optimization method is proposed based on multi-attribute evaluation. According to the task attributes, the hierarchical multi-attribute model is established and the indicator quantization methods are given. To calculate the objective indicator weight, criteria importance through intercriteria correlation (CRITIC) is selected from three usual methods. To calculate the subjective indicator weight, BP neural network is used to determine the judge importance degree, and then the trapezoid fuzzy scale-rough AHP considering the judge importance degree is put forward. The balanced weight, which integrates the objective weight and the subjective weight, is calculated base on multi-weight contribution balance model. The technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) improved by replacing Euclidean distance with relative entropy distance is used to sequence the tasks and optimize the queue by the weighted indicator value. A case study is given to illustrate its correctness and feasibility.

  9. The Effect of Task Type and Pre-task Planning Condition on the Accuracy of Intermediate EFL Learners' Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyeed Mohammad Alavi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Task-based language teaching, which requires learners to transact tasks resembling their real life language needs, demands language learners to perform planning at different stages of their learning. Since various types of tasks can be used in task-based instruction, the present study examined the effect of task types and various participatory structures during pre-task planning on the quality of learners' writing performance, (i.e., accuracy. Towards this end, 120 intermediate EFL students were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups and one control group. While the experimental groups were subjected to different pre-task planning conditions, (i.e., individual, pair, and group, the control group performed tasks without any planning. During the treatment, they experienced task modeling, presentation and completion. A factorial design was followed in the present study, and the collected data were analyzed through ANOVAs that revealed task type and pre-task planning condition influenced the writing accuracy of the participants in a way that resulted in greater accuracy in the decision-making task in the experimental groups, thereby ensuring the effectiveness of the treatment in mitigating the long-standing problem of EFL learners in achieving higher levels of accuracy when a specific task type is concerned.

  10. Correlation of subjective slipperiness judgements with quantitative COF (Coefficient Of Friction) measurements for structural steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purswell, Jerry L.; Schlegel, Robert E.

    1988-06-01

    When there is no simple or accurate procedure for measuring the coefficient of friction (COF) at a job site, workers and/or supervisors involved must make subjective judgments about the slipperiness of the walking and climbing surfaces and in turn decide whether the surface presents a safe or an unsafe condition for work. This project was designed to determine whether these subjective judgment calls did in fact agree with the COF measurements obtained using a mechanical device. It was noted that the coatings chosen for study were subject to a polishing factor by the boot soles during the trials, causing the COF values to become lower as the trials continued. Poor correlation was obtained between subjective ratings of slipperiness and the COF values measured before the trials began. A relatively high correlation was obtained between subjective ratings and the COF values measured after the trials had been completed. A difference was noted in the subjective ratings for the effects of water on a coating for column climbing, but not for walking a beam, suggesting the effects of water on a coating are related to the type of task being performed in steel erection. An increase in the measured COF was noted for all of the coatings when they were wet as compared to the dry condition. The importance of clean shoe soles was clearly demonstrated.

  11. Upper Extremity Kinematics and Muscle Activation Patterns in Subjects With Facioscapulohumeral Dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, Arjen; Murgia, Alessio; Cup, Edith H.; Verstegen, Paul P.; Meijer, Kenneth; de Groot, Imelda J.

    Objective: To compare the kinematics and muscle activity of subjects with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) and healthy control subjects during the performance of standardized upper extremity tasks. Design: Exploratory case-control study. Setting: A movement laboratory. Participants: Subjects

  12. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  13. Board Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses recent calls to narrow the micro–macro gap in management research (Bamberger, 2008), by incorporating a macro-level context variable (country) in exploring micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Following the integrated model proposed by Forbes and Milliken (1999), we...... identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings...... influence board tasks, and how the context moderates the relationship between processes and tasks. Our hypotheses are tested on a survey-based dataset of 535 medium-sized and large industrial firms in Italy and Norway, which are considered to substantially differ along legal and cultural dimensions...

  14. Intermanual Transfer of Learning in a Fine Manual Skill Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Regina de Almeida Batista

    Full Text Available Abstract Intermanual Transfer of Learning (IMTL is the ability to learn a certain skill in an easier way with one hand after that skill has been learnt by the opposite hand(1. This research aimed to investigate IMTL in a Fine Manual Dexterity (FMD task in subjects presenting different Hand Preference (HP. The sample comprised 882 right and left-handers, both genders, aged 6 to 95 years old. The Dutch Handedness Questionnaire(2 was used to assess HP and the Purdue Pegboard Test(3 evaluated FMD. Direction and intensity of HP, Direction of Transfer (DT, gender, age and nationality were analyzed. IMTL changed according to DT and age, tending to be asymmetric, holding high values in the direction of Non-Preferred Hand (NPH to Preferred Hand (PH. Children had got a higher IMTL rather than youngsters, adults and old adults with significant differences in adults.

  15. Working memory performance and thalamus microstructure in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, F; Caltagirone, C; Spalletta, G

    2010-12-01

    Research on the neural basis of working memory (WM) has generally focused on cortical regions, specifically frontal and parietal areas. Comparatively, evidence of a possible involvement of deep gray matter structures, that are parts of cortico-cortical circuits linking anterior and posterior cortical areas, is far less clear. The goal of the present study is to test the hypothesis that individual structural variations within deep gray matter structures may affect the cortical networks involved in WM. To this aim, a large sample (n=181) of healthy subjects underwent a high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scan protocol. Data of micro- (mean diffusivity, MD) and macro- (volume) structural variations of six bilateral deep gray matter structures (thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, hippocampus, amygdala and pallidum) and lateral ventriculi volume were analyzed in association with score in a WM (the so-called n-back task) and other neuropsychological tasks. Results showed that increased MD of bilateral thalami was the only structural parameter that significantly correlated with reduced WM performance. In particular, a voxel-by-voxel analysis revealed that the greater percentage of voxels showing significant anticorrelation between WM score and MD values were localized in those thalamic nuclei projecting to prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices. Results highlight the specific involvement of thalamus microstructure, not volume, in modulating WM performance, possibly by regulating the connections among cortical areas that are recruited during WM tasks. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 48 CFR 2052.216-73 - Accelerated task order procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accelerated task order procedures. 2052.216-73 Section 2052.216-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY... the work, the contractor shall proceed with performance of the task order subject to the monetary...

  17. Physical Education-in-CLIL tasks. Determining tasks characteristics through the analysis of the diaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Coral Mateu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the characteristics of Physical Education-in-CLIL (PE-in-CLIL tasks. CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning is a teaching approach which uses foreign language as a tool to enhance the subject learning process. We connect PE-in-CLIL with key competences and we introduce the CLIL 4Cs framework. We establish the aims of the study, that is; to describe the features of tasks which are most suitable to PE-in-CLIL and identify integrated tasks which appeal most to learners. We use Action-Research and we collect data through diaries. The participants of the study were twenty-six learners of 5th grade of primary school. We described the strategies of rigour and quality applied and we analysed data using a qualitative data analysis software programme (NVivo. In the results, we identify both the tasks that appeal to students and the tasks that are developed successfully. In the conclusions, we provide teaching guidelines to plan successful PE-in-CLIL tasks that appeal to students. At this point, we emphasise tasks that combined both cooperative learning and oracy with motor activity and games. We also declare the necessity of incorporating scaffolding strategies in order to accommodate students’ linguistic needs and facilitate tasks development. Future CLIL research possibilities emerge in the Physical Education field of work.

  18. Humans Integrate Monetary and Liquid Incentives to Motivate Cognitive Task Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Marianne Yee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unequivocal that a wide variety of incentives can motivate behavior. However, few studies have explicitly examined whether and how different incentives are integrated in terms of their motivational influence. The current study examines the combined effects of monetary and liquid incentives on cognitive processing, and whether appetitive and aversive incentives have distinct influences. We introduce a novel task paradigm, in which participants perform cued task-switching for monetary rewards that vary parametrically across trials, with liquid incentives serving as post-trial performance feedback. Critically, the symbolic meaning of the liquid was held constant (indicating successful reward attainment, while liquid valence was blocked. In the first experiment, monetary rewards combined additively with appetitive liquid feedback to improve subject task performance. Aversive liquid feedback counteracted monetary reward effects in low monetary reward trials, particularly in a subset of participants who tended to avoid responding under these conditions. Self-report motivation ratings predicted behavioral performance above and beyond experimental effects. A follow-up experiment replicated the predictive power of motivation ratings even when only appetitive liquids were used, suggesting that ratings reflect idiosyncratic subjective values of, rather than categorical differences between, the liquid incentives. Together, the findings indicate an integrative relationship between primary and secondary incentives and potentially dissociable influences in modulating motivational value, while informing hypotheses regarding candidate neural mechanisms.

  19. Humans Integrate Monetary and Liquid Incentives to Motivate Cognitive Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Debbie M.; Krug, Marie K.; Allen, Ariel Z.; Braver, Todd S.

    2016-01-01

    It is unequivocal that a wide variety of incentives can motivate behavior. However, few studies have explicitly examined whether and how different incentives are integrated in terms of their motivational influence. The current study examines the combined effects of monetary and liquid incentives on cognitive processing, and whether appetitive and aversive incentives have distinct influences. We introduce a novel task paradigm, in which participants perform cued task-switching for monetary rewards that vary parametrically across trials, with liquid incentives serving as post-trial performance feedback. Critically, the symbolic meaning of the liquid was held constant (indicating successful reward attainment), while liquid valence was blocked. In the first experiment, monetary rewards combined additively with appetitive liquid feedback to improve subject task performance. Aversive liquid feedback counteracted monetary reward effects in low monetary reward trials, particularly in a subset of participants who tended to avoid responding under these conditions. Self-report motivation ratings predicted behavioral performance above and beyond experimental effects. A follow-up experiment replicated the predictive power of motivation ratings even when only appetitive liquids were used, suggesting that ratings reflect idiosyncratic subjective values of, rather than categorical differences between, the liquid incentives. Together, the findings indicate an integrative relationship between primary and secondary incentives and potentially dissociable influences in modulating motivational value, while informing hypotheses regarding candidate neural mechanisms. PMID:26834668

  20. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  1. Task Specific Tremors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Joseph H

    2015-07-01

    A patient reported bilateral hand tremors when writing but not with other tasks. These "task specific" tremors are considered subcategories of essential tremor. Primary writing tremor, in which the tremor occurs only with writing, is probably the most common. The important teaching point is that the "standard" tremor assessment, watching the patient holding a sustained posture and touching his finger to the examiner's and then back to the nose is not adequate. Patients should be tested doing the activity that causes them the most difficulty.

  2. Diagnostic value of postprandial triglyceride testing in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihas, Constantinos; Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2011-01-01

    Triglycerides (TGs) are measured in studies evaluating changes in non-fasting lipid profiles after a fat tolerance test (FTT); however, the optimal timing for TG measurements after the oral fat load is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate how non-fasting TG levels vary after an oral FTT...

  3. A rodent version of the Iowa Gambling Task: 7 years of progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud eVan Den Bos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT subjects need to find a way to earn money in a context of variable wins and losses, conflicting short-term and long-term pay-off, and uncertainty of outcomes. In 2006, we published the first rodent version of the IGT (r-IGT; Behavior Research Methods 38, 470-478. Here, we discuss emerging ideas on the involvement of different prefrontal-striatal networks in task-progression in the r-IGT, as revealed by our studies thus far. The emotional system, encompassing, among others, the orbitofrontal cortex, infralimbic cortex and nucleus accumbens (shell and core area, may be involved in assessing and anticipating the value of different options in the early stages of the task, i.e. as animals explore and learn task contingencies. The cognitive control system, encompassing, among others, the prelimbic cortex and dorsomedial striatum, may be involved in instrumental goal-directed behaviour in later stages of the task, i.e. as behaviour towards long-term options is strengthened (reinforced and behaviour towards long-term poor options is weakened (punished. In addition, we suggest two directions for future research: (1 the role of the internal state of the subject in decision-making, and (2 studying differences in task-related costs. Overall, our studies have contributed to understanding the interaction between the emotional system and cognitive control system as crucial to navigating human and non-human animals alike through a world of variable wins and losses, conflicting short-term and long-term pay-offs, and uncertainty of outcomes.

  4. The disease-subject as a subject of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottow Andrea R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the distinction between living body and lived body, we describe the disease-subject as representing the impact of disease on the existential life-project of the subject. Traditionally, an individual's subjectivity experiences disorders of the body and describes ensuing pain, discomfort and unpleasantness. The idea of a disease-subject goes further, representing the lived body suffering existential disruption and the possible limitations that disease most probably will impose. In this limit situation, the disease-subject will have to elaborate a new life-story, a new character or way-of-being-in-the-world, it will become a different subject. Health care professionals need to realize that patients are not mere observers of their body, for they are immersed in a reassesment of values, relationships, priorities, perhaps even life-plans. Becoming acquainted with literature's capacity to create characters, modify narratives and depict life-stories in crisis, might sharpen physicians' hermeneutic acumen and make them more receptive to the quandaries of disease-subjects facing major medical and existential decisions in the wake of disruptive disease.

  5. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  6. Simple Plans or Sophisticated Habits? State, Transition and Learning Interactions in the Two-Step Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Akam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed 'two-step' behavioural task promises to differentiate model-based from model-free reinforcement learning, while generating neurophysiologically-friendly decision datasets with parametric variation of decision variables. These desirable features have prompted its widespread adoption. Here, we analyse the interactions between a range of different strategies and the structure of transitions and outcomes in order to examine constraints on what can be learned from behavioural performance. The task involves a trade-off between the need for stochasticity, to allow strategies to be discriminated, and a need for determinism, so that it is worth subjects' investment of effort to exploit the contingencies optimally. We show through simulation that under certain conditions model-free strategies can masquerade as being model-based. We first show that seemingly innocuous modifications to the task structure can induce correlations between action values at the start of the trial and the subsequent trial events in such a way that analysis based on comparing successive trials can lead to erroneous conclusions. We confirm the power of a suggested correction to the analysis that can alleviate this problem. We then consider model-free reinforcement learning strategies that exploit correlations between where rewards are obtained and which actions have high expected value. These generate behaviour that appears model-based under these, and also more sophisticated, analyses. Exploiting the full potential of the two-step task as a tool for behavioural neuroscience requires an understanding of these issues.

  7. Shared Value

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Mette; Kampmann, Hack; Nielsen, Michalis; Larsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates the kind of value being presented when two seemingly different organisations - Red Bull and The Royal Theatre (Det Kongelige Teater) comes together to collaborate and present the Red Bull Cliff Diving 2015 series in Copenhagen in June 2015. The project draws on theories on Axiology, Experience Economy, Branding and Content Marketing, Culture Theory and Public Private Partnerships, all in relation to Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimers’ theory of “Cultural Industry: En...

  8. Objective assessment of laparoscopic skills: dual-task approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, Adam T; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Panton, Ormond Neely; Qayumi, Karim

    2012-12-01

    Assessment of surgical performance is often accomplished with traditional methods that often provide only subjective data. Trainees who perform well on a simulator in a controlled environment may not perform well in a real operating room environment with distractions. This project uses the ideas of dual-task methodology and applies them to the assessment of performance of laparoscopic surgical skills. The level of performance on distracting secondary tasks while trying to perform a primary task becomes an indirect but objective measure of the surgical skill of the trainee. Nine surgery residents and 6 experienced laparoscopic surgeons performed 3 primary tasks on a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator (camera position, grasping, and cholecystectomy) while being distracted by 3 secondary tasks (counting beeps, selective responses, and mental arithmetic). Completion time and error rates were recorded for each combination of tasks. When performed separately, time to completion and error rates for primary and secondary tasks were similar for learners and experts. When performing the tasks simultaneously, learners had more errors than experts. Error rates increased for learners when distracting tasks became more difficult or required more attention. Expert surgeons maintained consistent error rates despite the increasing difficulty of task combinations. The use of dual-task methodology may help trainers to identify which surgical trainees require more preparation before entering the real operating room environment. Expert surgeons are capable of maintaining performance levels on a primary task in the face of distractions that may occur in the operating room.

  9. Definition of Liquidation Property Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Lingaitis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the interrelation of market and liquidation value of the appraisal subject. It was established that the approach of “break-even” sale of a subject at liquidation value, which is predominating in the literature sources, shows the results essentially different from the ratio of the prices of free and accelerated sales that can be observed on the market. The article offers an alternative approach to definition of market value coefficient, which considers switching to liquidation value. This approach is based on functional dependence of the coefficient on the ratio of limited and unlimited period of exposition.

  10. Task 1 quarternary tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    Activities on the task of quarternary tectonics for the Yucca Mountain Site investigations are described. Technical topics include: A preliminary reveiw of Bare Mountain Trench; A preliminary detailed lineament map of the Southwestern part of the proposed repository; A discussion on the 1994 Double Spring Flat, Nevada earthquake; and evidence for temporal clustering.

  11. Theory of choice in bandit, information sampling and foraging tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B Averbeck

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Decision making has been studied with a wide array of tasks. Here we examine the theoretical structure of bandit, information sampling and foraging tasks. These tasks move beyond tasks where the choice in the current trial does not affect future expected rewards. We have modeled these tasks using Markov decision processes (MDPs. MDPs provide a general framework for modeling tasks in which decisions affect the information on which future choices will be made. Under the assumption that agents are maximizing expected rewards, MDPs provide normative solutions. We find that all three classes of tasks pose choices among actions which trade-off immediate and future expected rewards. The tasks drive these trade-offs in unique ways, however. For bandit and information sampling tasks, increasing uncertainty or the time horizon shifts value to actions that pay-off in the future. Correspondingly, decreasing uncertainty increases the relative value of actions that pay-off immediately. For foraging tasks the time-horizon plays the dominant role, as choices do not affect future uncertainty in these tasks.

  12. Theory of choice in bandit, information sampling and foraging tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbeck, Bruno B

    2015-03-01

    Decision making has been studied with a wide array of tasks. Here we examine the theoretical structure of bandit, information sampling and foraging tasks. These tasks move beyond tasks where the choice in the current trial does not affect future expected rewards. We have modeled these tasks using Markov decision processes (MDPs). MDPs provide a general framework for modeling tasks in which decisions affect the information on which future choices will be made. Under the assumption that agents are maximizing expected rewards, MDPs provide normative solutions. We find that all three classes of tasks pose choices among actions which trade-off immediate and future expected rewards. The tasks drive these trade-offs in unique ways, however. For bandit and information sampling tasks, increasing uncertainty or the time horizon shifts value to actions that pay-off in the future. Correspondingly, decreasing uncertainty increases the relative value of actions that pay-off immediately. For foraging tasks the time-horizon plays the dominant role, as choices do not affect future uncertainty in these tasks.

  13. The effectiveness of robotic training depends on motor task characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Rappo, Nicole; Riener, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Previous research suggests that the effectiveness of robotic training depends on the motor task to be learned. However, it is still an open question which specific task's characteristics influence the efficacy of error-modulating training strategies. Motor tasks can be classified based on the time characteristics of the task, in particular the task's duration (discrete vs. continuous). Continuous tasks require movements without distinct beginning or end. Discrete tasks require fast movements that include well-defined postures at the beginning and the end. We developed two games, one that requires a continuous movement-a tracking task-and one that requires discrete movements-a fast reaching task. We conducted an experiment with thirty healthy subjects to evaluate the effectiveness of three error-modulating training strategies-no guidance, error amplification (i.e., repulsive forces proportional to errors) and haptic guidance-on self-reported motivation and learning of the continuous and discrete games. Training with error amplification resulted in better motor learning than haptic guidance, besides the fact that error amplification reduced subjects' interest/enjoyment and perceived competence during training. Only subjects trained with error amplification improved their performance after training the discrete game. In fact, subjects trained without guidance improved the performance in the continuous game significantly more than in the discrete game, probably because the continuous task required greater attentional levels. Error-amplifying training strategies have a great potential to provoke better motor learning in continuous and discrete tasks. However, their long-lasting negative effects on motivation might limit their applicability in intense neurorehabilitation programs.

  14. Learning Contextual Reward Expectations for Value Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Francesco; Chew, Benjamin; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2018-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that subjective value is adapted to the statistics of reward expected within a given temporal context. However, how these contextual expectations are learned is poorly understood. To examine such learning, we exploited a recent observation that participants performing a gambling task adjust their preferences as a function of context. We show that, in the absence of contextual cues providing reward information, an average reward expectation was learned from recent past experience. Learning dependent on contextual cues emerged when two contexts alternated at a fast rate, whereas both cue-independent and cue-dependent forms of learning were apparent when two contexts alternated at a slower rate. Motivated by these behavioral findings, we reanalyzed a previous fMRI data set to probe the neural substrates of learning contextual reward expectations. We observed a form of reward prediction error related to average reward such that, at option presentation, activity in ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra and ventral striatum correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with the actual and predicted value of options. Moreover, an inverse correlation between activity in ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (but not striatum) and predicted option value was greater in participants showing enhanced choice adaptation to context. The findings help understanding the mechanisms underlying learning of contextual reward expectation.

  15. Active controllers and the time duration to learn a task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repperger, D. W.; Goodyear, C.

    1986-01-01

    An active controller was used to help train naive subjects involved in a compensatory tracking task. The controller is called active in this context because it moves the subject's hand in a direction to improve tracking. It is of interest here to question whether the active controller helps the subject to learn a task more rapidly than the passive controller. Six subjects, inexperienced to compensatory tracking, were run to asymptote root mean square error tracking levels with an active controller or a passive controller. The time required to learn the task was defined several different ways. The results of the different measures of learning were examined across pools of subjects and across controllers using statistical tests. The comparison between the active controller and the passive controller as to their ability to accelerate the learning process as well as reduce levels of asymptotic tracking error is reported here.

  16. Communities and Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salice, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Within the debate on the ontology of social groups, a prominent view holds that, if one wants to know what a group is and how a group is created or constituted, one has to look at the internal or subjective conditions that either the group’s members or the group as such have to fulfill. This idea...... unitiva” or the unifying virtue that values can exert over individuals and which might bring them to constitute a group....

  17. Psychological Issues in Online Adaptive Task Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, N. M.; Rouse, W. B.; Ward, S. L.; Frey, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Adaptive aiding is an idea that offers potential for improvement over many current approaches to aiding in human-computer systems. The expected return of tailoring the system to fit the user could be in the form of improved system performance and/or increased user satisfaction. Issues such as the manner in which information is shared between human and computer, the appropriate division of labor between them, and the level of autonomy of the aid are explored. A simulated visual search task was developed. Subjects are required to identify targets in a moving display while performing a compensatory sub-critical tracking task. By manipulating characteristics of the situation such as imposed task-related workload and effort required to communicate with the computer, it is possible to create conditions in which interaction with the computer would be more or less desirable. The results of preliminary research using this experimental scenario are presented, and future directions for this research effort are discussed.

  18. Nonlinear analysis of saccade speed fluctuations during combined action and perception tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, C; Astefanoaei, C; Pretegiani, E; Optican, L; Creanga, D; Rufa, A; Cristescu, C P

    2014-07-30

    Saccades are rapid eye movements used to gather information about a scene which requires both action and perception. These are usually studied separately, so that how perception influences action is not well understood. In a dual task, where the subject looks at a target and reports a decision, subtle changes in the saccades might be caused by action-perception interactions. Studying saccades might provide insight into how brain pathways for action and for perception interact. We applied two complementary methods, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and Lempel-Ziv complexity index to eye peak speed recorded in two experiments, a pure action task and a combined action-perception task. Multifractality strength is significantly different in the two experiments, showing smaller values for dual decision task saccades compared to simple-task saccades. The normalized Lempel-Ziv complexity index behaves similarly i.e. is significantly smaller in the decision saccade task than in the simple task. Compared to the usual statistical and linear approaches, these analyses emphasize the character of the dynamics involved in the fluctuations and offer a sensitive tool for quantitative evaluation of the multifractal features and of the complexity measure in the saccades peak speeds when different brain circuits are involved. Our results prove that the peak speed fluctuations have multifractal characteristics with lower magnitude for the multifractality strength and for the complexity index when two neural pathways are simultaneously activated, demonstrating the nonlinear interaction in the brain pathways for action and perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparisons of population subgroups performance on a keyboard psychomotor task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleford, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Response time and pass/fail data were obtained from 163 subjects performing a psychomotor task. The basic task comprised a random five digit number briefly displayed to the subject at the start of each trail, and the keyboard on which the subject was to enter the number as fast as he could accurately do so after the display was extinguished. Some tests were run with the addition of a secondary task which required the subject to respond to a displayed light appearing at a random time. Matched pairs of subjects were selected from the group to analyze the effects of age, sex, intelligence, prior keyboard skill, and drinking habits. There was little or no effect due to age or drinking habits. Differences in response time were: average IQ subjects faster than low IQ subjects by 0.5 to 0.6 sec; subjects with prior keyboard skill faster by 0.4 to 0.5 sec; and female subjects faster by 0.2 to 0.3 sec. These effects were generally insensitive to the presence of the secondary task.

  20. Inspection times, the change task, and the rapid-response selection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M J; Newton, E J

    2001-11-01

    Three experiments are reported, which are based upon the Wason four-card selection task inspection time paradigm, in which subjects solve computer-presented trials while using a mouse to indicate the card currently under consideration. Evans (1996) had shown that selected cards were inspected for longer than non-selected cards, and this was taken as support for the existence of pre-conscious heuristic processes that direct attention towards relevant aspects of a problem. However, Roberts (1998b) suggested that this inspection time effect is artefactual, due to task format induced biases. Experiment 1 utilized a "change" task: Cards were presented either as selected or not selected, and subjects changed these where necessary. This demonstrated an association between card selection and inspection time independently of one between the act of response and inspection time. Experiment 2 utilized a standard selection task, but subjects either responded within 2 s of each card presentation, or made selections with no time pressure. The curtailment of thinking time increased matching behaviour--more cards matching the terms in the rules were selected--and was replicated in Experiment 3 using a within-subjects design. Overall, the data support Evans' heuristic-analytic framework albeit with some caveats.

  1. Chronic Low Back Pain in Women: Muscle Activation during Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fernanda G; Carmo, Carolina M; Fracini, América C; Pereira, Rita R P; Takara, Kelly S; Tanaka, Clarice

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the activities of the trunk and hip muscles in chronic low back pain (CLBP) women and asymptomatic subjects during the kneeling to half-kneeling task. [Subjects] Twenty-nine CLBP women and thirty asymptomatic subjects (C) participated in this study. [Methods] Electromyography activity (EMG) of the obliquus internus abdominis (OI), the lumbar erector spinae (LES) and the gluteus medius (GM) muscles was recorded bilaterally. The peak amplitude, the time of peak amplitude and the integrated linear envelope EMG for each muscle were obtained. [Results] The C group bilateral OI and GM muscles displayed higher peak amplitudes and earlier times of peak amplitude. They also had higher integrated linear envelope EMG values. The CLBP group bilateral LES muscles had higher peak amplitudes and earlier times of peak amplitude. They also showed an increased integrated linear envelope EMG values. [Conclusion] The CLBP women activate the LES muscles in the kneeling to half-kneeling task, showing different patterns of motor planning activity. PMID:24409022

  2. A two-part mixed effects model for cigarette purchase task data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Luo, Xianghua; Chu, Haitao; Le, Chap T; Epstein, Leonard H; Thomas, Janet L

    2016-11-01

    The Cigarette Purchase Task is a behavioral economic assessment tool designed to measure the relative reinforcing efficacy of cigarette smoking across different prices. An exponential demand equation has become a standard model for analyzing purchase task data, but its utility is compromised by its inability to accommodate values of zero consumption. We propose a two-part mixed effects model that keeps the same exponential demand equation for modeling nonzero consumption values, while providing a logistic regression for the binary outcome of zero versus nonzero consumption. Therefore, the proposed model can accommodate zero consumption values and retain the features of the exponential demand equation at the same time. As a byproduct, the logistic regression component of the proposed model provides a new demand index, the "derived breakpoint", for the price above which a subject is more likely to be abstinent than to be smoking. We apply the proposed model to data collected at baseline from college students (N = 1,217) enrolled in a randomized clinical trial utilizing financial incentives to motivate tobacco cessation. Monte Carlo simulations showed that the proposed model provides better fits than an existing model. We note that the proposed methodology is applicable to other purchase task data, for example, drugs of abuse. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  3. Prognostic value of posteromedial cortex deactivation in mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Petrella

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal subjects deactivate specific brain regions, notably the posteromedial cortex (PMC, during many tasks. Recent cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data suggests that deactivation during memory tasks is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD. The goal of this study was to prospectively determine the prognostic significance of PMC deactivation in mild cognitive impairment (MCI.75 subjects (34 MCI, 13 AD subjects and 28 controls underwent baseline fMRI scanning during encoding of novel and familiar face-name pairs. MCI subjects were followed longitudinally to determine conversion to AD. Regression and analysis of covariance models were used to assess the effect of PMC activation/deactivation on conversion to dementia as well as in the longitudinal change in dementia measures. At longitudinal follow up of up to 3.5 years (mean 2.5+/-0.79 years, 11 MCI subjects converted to AD. The proportion of deactivators was significantly different across all groups: controls (79%, MCI-Nonconverters (73%, MCI-converters (45%, and AD (23% (p<0.05. Mean PMC activation magnitude parameter estimates, at baseline, were negative in the control (-0.57+/-0.12 and MCI-Nonconverter (-0.33+/-0.14 groups, and positive in the MCI-Converter (0.37+/-0.40 and AD (0.92+/-0.30 groups. The effect of diagnosis on PMC deactivation remained significant after adjusting for age, education and baseline Mini-Mental State Exam (p<0.05. Baseline PMC activation magnitude was correlated with change in dementia ratings from baseline.Loss of physiological functional deactivation in the PMC may have prognostic value in preclinical AD, and could aid in profiling subgroups of MCI subjects at greatest risk for progressive cognitive decline.

  4. Value concepts and value based collaboration in building projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2005-01-01

    Value has in recent years become a popular term in management theory and practice in general as well as in economic theory and architectural management. This paper attempts to clarify the various uses and meanings of concepts of value/values. Six different value concepts are identified. The ori......-gin and use of value concepts in classic and modern economic theory and in management theory is outlined. The question of objectivity and subjectivity is discussed in relation to economic value and customer value. Value creation is put in relation to development in products and processes and a number...... of design strategies are identified. The concept and methods of value based management and collaboration is discussed in this context. The paper is mainly theoretical and based on work during a MBA study in 2002-04 as well as many years of experience as building client and facilities manager....

  5. Gaze Behavior While Operating a Complex Instrument Control Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalicinski, Michael; Steinberg, Fabian; Dalecki, Marc; Bock, Otmar

    2016-07-01

    The recent developments of technology in almost all areas of industrial processing, workplace, smart homes, mobility, media, and communication change humans' everyday life environment and behavioral responses in numerous ways. Our main objective in this study was to determine whether subjects' operator performance in a complex sensorimotor task is associated with their gaze behavior. In two experiments subjects operated a complex control task. To this end they watched multiple displays, made strategic decisions, and used multiple actuators to maximize their virtual earnings from operating a virtual power plant. In Experiment 1 we compared gaze behavior during the tasks with respect to operator performance in two different age groups (young vs. old), and in Experiment 2 in two different gravity conditions (normal vs. microgravity). We found gaze pattern changed in older subjects as well as in microgravity. Older adults and subjects in microgravity looked longer at areas that are less relevant for task success. Most importantly, these changes in gaze pattern accounted for the effects of age and microgravity and on total earnings in the instrument-control task. In conclusion, age- and gravity-related changes of gaze behavior show a similar pattern. Gaze behavior seems to play an important role in complex control tasks and might predict alterations of operational performance. Kalicinski M, Steinberg F, Dalecki M, Bock O. Gaze behavior while operating a complex instrument control task. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(7):646-651.

  6. Spontaneous eyeblinks are correlated with responses during the Stroop task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihoon Oh

    Full Text Available The timing and frequency of spontaneous eyeblinking is thought to be influenced by ongoing internal cognitive or neurophysiological processes, but how precisely these processes influence the dynamics of eyeblinking is still unclear. This study aimed to better understand the functional role of eyeblinking during cognitive processes by investigating the temporal pattern of eyeblinks during the performance of attentional tasks. The timing of spontaneous eyeblinks was recorded from 28 healthy subjects during the performance of both visual and auditory versions of the Stroop task, and the temporal distributions of eyeblinks were estimated in relation to the timing of stimulus presentation and vocal response during the tasks. We found that the spontaneous eyeblink rate increased during Stroop task performance compared with the resting rate. Importantly, the subjects (17/28 during the visual Stroop, 20/28 during the auditory Stroop were more likely to blink before a vocal response in both tasks (150-250 msec and the remaining subjects were more likely to blink soon after the vocal response (200-300 msec, regardless of the stimulus type (congruent or incongruent or task difficulty. These findings show that spontaneous eyeblinks are closely associated with responses during the performance of the Stroop task on a short time scale and suggest that spontaneous eyeblinks likely signal a shift in the internal cognitive or attentional state of the subjects.

  7. Features or tasks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    In this paper for the Workshop on Human-computer interaction and e-learning, NordiCHI 2002, the author argues that in developing innovative E-learning systems, especially if constructivist pedagogy is to be applied, it will be useful to model the user interface on the often complex tasks that the...... that the user has to perform rather than just focusing on technical features (and adapting system use to them).......In this paper for the Workshop on Human-computer interaction and e-learning, NordiCHI 2002, the author argues that in developing innovative E-learning systems, especially if constructivist pedagogy is to be applied, it will be useful to model the user interface on the often complex tasks...

  8. Task-specific disruption of perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Aaron R; Yamagishi, Noriko; Werner, Birgit; Goda, Naokazu; Kawato, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Takeo

    2005-10-11

    For more than a century, the process of stabilization has been a central issue in the research of learning and memory. Namely, after a skill or memory is acquired, it must be consolidated before it becomes resistant to disruption by subsequent learning. Although it is clear that there are many cases in which learning can be disrupted, it is unclear when learning something new disrupts what has already been learned. Herein, we provide two answers to this question with the demonstration that perceptual learning of a visual stimulus disrupts or interferes with the consolidation of a previously learned visual stimulus. In this study, we trained subjects on two different hyperacuity tasks and determined whether learning of the second task disrupted that of the first. We first show that disruption of learning occurs between visual stimuli presented at the same orientation in the same retinotopic location but not for the same stimuli presented at retinotopically disparate locations or different orientations at the same location. Second, we show that disruption from stimuli in the same retinotopic location is ameliorated if the subjects wait for 1 h before training on the second task. These results indicate that disruption, at least in visual learning, is specific to features of the tasks and that a temporal delay of 1 h can stabilize visual learning. This research shows that visual learning is susceptible to disruption and elucidates the processes by which the brain can consolidate learning and thus protect what is learned from being overwritten.

  9. Behavioral Task Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    methods included task analysis as a critical phase in developing instruction and training. Mon- temerlo and Tennyson (1976) noted that from 1951 to 1976...designed. The trend in the U.S . Department of Defense toward extensive procedural documentation noted by Montemerlo and Tennyson (1976) has not...M. Gagne’ (Ed.), Psychological principles in system development (pp. 187-228). New York: Holt. Montemerlo, M. D., & Tennyson , M. E. (1975

  10. Task Inventory Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    Orientation , Training and Team Performance Research Area 7, Peace Time Task Analysis and Its Relation to War Time Conditions Research Area 8. Worker...January jar jaw jay jelly jellyfish jerk jig job jockey join joke joking jolly journey joy(ful) joyous judge jug juice juicy July...straight swept soil squash strange(r) swift sold squeak strap swim soldier squeeze straw swimming sole squirrel strawberry swing some stable

  11. Operationally Responsive Tasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    RESPONSIVE TASKING by Aaron C. Bass September 2011 Thesis Advisor: Alan D. Scott Second Reader: Mark Rhoades THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT...September 2011 Author: Aaron C. Bass Approved by: Alan D. Scott Thesis Advisor Mark M. Rhoades Second Reader Rudy...web.cs.gc.cuny.edu/~mjohnson/pubs/algosensors.pdf. [34] D. Pizzocaro, M. Johnson, H. Rowaihy, S. Chalmers , A. Preece, A. Bar- Noy, and T. La Porta, “A Knapsack

  12. IMAGE INTERPRETATION TASK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to a research requirement of the Department of the Army, an extensive exploratory survey of human factors problems in image in...imagery. (2) How can the Army best utilize its available human resources to cope with ever increasing variety of image types and at the same time...experiments conduct ed to date within each of four subtask areas encompassed by the research program of the Image Interpretation Task.

  13. Hand preference on unimanual and bimanual tasks in strepsirrhines: The case of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Hopkins, William D

    2016-08-01

    Assessing manual lateralization in non-human primates could be an optimal way to understand the adaptive value of this asymmetry in humans. Though many studies have investigated hand preferences in Old and New World monkeys and apes, fewer studies have considered manual lateralization in strepsirrhines, especially in experimental tasks. This study investigated hand preferences for a unimanual and a bimanual task of 17 captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), housed at Parco Natura Viva (VR), Italy. The effect of age on handedness has been also investigated. The lemurs were tested on a unimanual task, in which subjects were restricted to using one hand to retrieve the food inside an apparatus, and on a bimanual task, in which lemurs had to use one hand to keep the apparatus door open while reaching with the other hand to retrieve the food inside it. At the population-level, our results revealed an asymmetrical hand use distribution, in particular a bias toward a right hand preference for food reaching in both the unimanual and the bimanual tasks. Furthermore, at the individual-level, the bimanual task seems to elicit a greater hand preference than the unimanual task. Results of this study underline the importance of experimental tasks in determining hand preference in strepsirrhines. Furthermore, as bimanual tasks elicited a stronger degree of lateralization, they appear to be more suited to investigate manual laterality. Finally, findings from this study highlight the presence of a right hand preference in ring-tailed lemurs, shedding new light on the evolution of human right handedness. Am. J. Primatol. 78:851-860, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mobile Thread Task Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Estlin, Tara A.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Mobile Thread Task Manager (MTTM) is being applied to parallelizing existing flight software to understand the benefits and to develop new techniques and architectural concepts for adapting software to multicore architectures. It allocates and load-balances tasks for a group of threads that migrate across processors to improve cache performance. In order to balance-load across threads, the MTTM augments a basic map-reduce strategy to draw jobs from a global queue. In a multicore processor, memory may be "homed" to the cache of a specific processor and must be accessed from that processor. The MTTB architecture wraps access to data with thread management to move threads to the home processor for that data so that the computation follows the data in an attempt to avoid L2 cache misses. Cache homing is also handled by a memory manager that translates identifiers to processor IDs where the data will be homed (according to rules defined by the user). The user can also specify the number of threads and processors separately, which is important for tuning performance for different patterns of computation and memory access. MTTM efficiently processes tasks in parallel on a multiprocessor computer. It also provides an interface to make it easier to adapt existing software to a multiprocessor environment.

  15. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  16. Fair Value or Market Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  17. 以TIMSS 資料檢視能力信念與任務價值對臺灣八年級學生數學成就之影響 Using Trends in Mathematics and Science Study to Investigate the Effects of Ability Beliefs and Task Values on Eighth-Grader Mathematics Achievements in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳敏瑜 Min-Yu Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available 本研究使用國際數學與科學成就趨勢調查(Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, TIMSS)2007年臺灣八年級學生的資料,以期望價值理論為架構,先進行能力信念與價值相關構面及題項的信度與效度分析,接續探討這些構面對數學成就之影響,並以多群組結構方程模型分析男、女生模型之差異。研究發現,數學能力信念、實用與內在價值三構面及其對應的題項都有良好的信度與效度,三構面中以能力信念的預測力最高,能解釋數學成就約三成六的變異量。男、女生模型在因素負荷量、題項截距、路徑係數及因素變異數/共變異數上皆具跨性別不變性,不過,在構面平均數上,男生的數學能力信念、實用與內在價值的平均數都顯著較女生高,且以在能力信念的差異最大。最後依據結果提出實務應用及未來研究上的建議。 Based on expectancy-value theory, we applied trends in mathematics and science study (TIMSS data to investigate the reliability and validity of items relating to ability beliefs and task values, examine their effects on mathematical achievements, and test gender invariance in the proposed models by using multiple-group structural equation modeling. The results supported a three-factor solution reflecting ability beliefs, utility values, and intrinsic values. These factors and corresponding items all possessed strong reliability and validity. Among the three factors, ability beliefs exerted the strongest effect on mathematical achievements, explaining 36% of the variance of mathematical achievements. Gender invariance evidence was exhibited in the factor loadings, item intercepts, path coefficients, and factor variance/covariance. However, comparisons of latent factor means suggested that boys had significantly high mean scores regarding ability beliefs, utility values, and intrinsic values. Finally

  18. [An item response theory analysis of the four-card selection task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kuninori

    2009-12-01

    The four-card selection task (Wason, 1966) is one of the best known tasks used in the literatures of human reasoning. This article analyzes this selection task by using item response theory (Lord & Novick, 1968). Japanese undergraduates (N = 323) responded six types of the Wason's selection tasks including indicative task (Wason, 1966), beer task (Griggs & Cox, 1982), and cassava task (Cosmides, 1989). An exploratory categorical factor analysis revealed a one factor structure of the six tasks. The results of an analysis using a two-parameter logistic model indicated that the indicative tasks were similar to the beer task and the cassava task in terms of the discrimination parameter, and that the relative difficulty between the tasks would varied according to the value of the ability parameter estimated by the two-parameter logistic model.

  19. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  20. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  1. Effect of dual tasks on balance ability in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gui Bin; Park, Eun Cho

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of training using dual tasks on balance ability in stroke patients. [Subjects] Forty stroke patients were divided into a dual-task training group (N = 20) and a single task training group (N = 20) randomly. [Methods] The subjects in the single-task traing group stood in a comfortable position, faced a therapist, then threw a Swiss ball back and forth. They then performed balance training in which they raised and lowered their ankles while facing forward or moved objects from one table to another. The DTG performed dual tasks, which involved performing a task on an unstable surface using a balance pad. Both groups received training 30 min per day, five times per week, for eight weeks. [Results] The DTG showed significant increases in weight distribution rate, anterior limit of stability, posterior limit of stability, and BBS scores compared with the STG. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, dual-task training and single-task training were effective in improving balance in stroke patients, dual task training is more effective for increasing balance ability.

  2. Creating single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dixon, Mark R; Jackson, James W; Small, Stacey L; Horner-King, Mollie J; Lik, Nicholas Mui Ker; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    .... The task analyses were evaluated using a between-subjects design that compared the graphing skills of 22 behavior-analytic graduate students using Excel 2007 and either the Carr and Burkholder...

  3. Effects of baseline task position on apparent activation in functional imaging of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyer, Valerie; Buck, Alfred; Schnider, Armin

    2006-01-01

    Brain activation dissociates during the repeated performance of memory tasks with decreasing medial temporal and increasing orbitofrontal activation. The impact of such adaptations on a baseline task is unknown. In this study, we used H2(15)O positron emission tomography (PET) in two groups of subjects performing a continuous recognition task and a baseline task. The group performing the baseline task after the main task showed significant medial temporal activation in the subtraction (recognition task-baseline). The group performing the baseline task at the beginning showed right orbitofrontal activation. These differences appeared to result primarily from different activations during the baseline task. It thus appears that the temporal context of a baseline task may fundamentally alter cognitive requirements and substantially influence apparent brain activation during a memory task. We suggest that the automatic filtration of memories according to their relevance for ongoing reality, a capacity mediated by the orbitofrontal cortex, is one such influence on apparent activation.

  4. Career Decidedness as a Predictor of Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthayakumar, Ramya; Schimmack, Ulrich; Hartung, Paul J.; Rogers, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Forming, pursing, and achieving life tasks constitute important determinants of subjective well-being (SWB). A principal life task for emerging adults involves deciding about career goals. Prior research indicates that depression predicts SWB and may be linked to lower levels of career decidedness. We tested whether or not career decidedness…

  5. Valuing vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  6. Subject-verb number (disagreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Isac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses cases of number mismatches between subjects and verbs. The main proposal is that subject-verb agreement is not in number but in a different feature, that we call Cardinality. Cardinality is a feature of DPs that is computed on the basis of number features and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP. The “computation” of the Cardinality feature proceeds internal to the feature matrix of one lexical item - the D. The values of the number and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP are transferred to the D by means of a feature checking mechanism and the value of the Cardinality feature is then derived from these.

  7. Image enhancement of digital periapical radiographs according to diagnostic tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    his study was performed to investigate the effect of image enhancement of periapical radiographs according to the diagnostic task. Eighty digital intraoral radiographs were obtained from patients and classified into four groups according to the diagnostic tasks of dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical lesions, and endodontic files. All images were enhanced differently by using five processing techniques. Three radiologists blindly compared the subjective image quality of the original images and the processed images using a 5-point scale. There were significant differences between the image quality of the processed images and that of the original images (P<0.01) in all the diagnostic task groups. Processing techniques showed significantly different efficacy according to the diagnostic task (P<0.01). Image enhancement affects the image quality differently depending on the diagnostic task. And the use of optimal parameters is important for each diagnostic task.

  8. Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Procedural Task Training of Remote Payload Operations at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, James; Noneman, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) encode and apply the subject matter and teaching expertise of experienced instructors to provide students with individualized instruction automatically. ITSs complement training simulators by providing automated instruction when it is not economical or feasible to dedicate an instructor to each student during training simulations. Despite their proven training effectiveness and favorable operating cost, however, relatively few ITSs are in use. This is largely because it is usually costly and difficult to encode the task knowledge used by the ITS to evaluate the student's actions and assess the student's performance. Procedural tasks are tasks for which there exist procedures, guidelines, and strategies that determine the correct set of steps to be taken within each situation. To lower the cost and difficulty of creating tutoring systems for procedural task training, Stottler Henke Associates, Inc. (SHAI) worked closely with the Operations Training Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop the Task Tutor Toolkit (T (exp 3)), a generic tutoring system shell and scenario authoring tool. The Task Tutor Toolkit employs a case-based reasoning approach where the instructor creates a procedure template that specifies the range of student actions that are "correct" within each scenario. Because each procedure template is specific to a single scenario, the system can employ relatively simple reasoning methods to represent a correct set of actions and assess student performance. This simplicity enables a non-programmer to specify task knowledge quickly and easily by via graphical user interface, using a "demonstrate, generalize, and annotate" paradigm, that recognizes the range of possible valid actions and infers principles understood (or misunderstood) by the student when those actions are carried out. The Task Tutor Toolkit was also designed to be modular and general, so that it can be interfaced with a wide range of

  9. Task Dominance Determines Backward Inhibition in Task Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Jost

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Switching between tasks is assumed to be accompanied by inhibiting currently irrelevant, but competing tasks. A dominant task that strongly interferes with performing a weaker task may receive especially strong inhibition. We tested this prediction by letting participants switch among three tasks that differ in dominance: a location discrimination task with strong stimulus–response bindings (responding with left-hand and right-hand button presses to stimuli presented left or right to the fixation cross was combined with a color/pattern and a shape discrimination task, for which stimulus–response mappings were arbitrary (e.g., left-hand button press mapped to a red stimulus. Across three experiments, the dominance of the location task was documented by faster and more accurate responses than in the other tasks. This even held for incompatible stimulus–response mappings (i.e., right-hand response to a left-presented stimulus and vice versa, indicating that set-level compatibility (i.e., “dimension overlap” was sufficient for making this location task dominant. As a behavioral marker for backward inhibition, we utilized n-2 repetition costs that are defined by higher reaction times for a switch back to a just abandoned and thus just inhibited task (ABA sequence than for a switch to a less recently inhibited task (CBA, n-2 non-repetition. Reliable n-2 task repetition costs were obtained for all three tasks. Importantly, these costs were largest for the location task, suggesting that inhibition indeed was stronger for the dominant task. This finding adds to other evidence that the amount of inhibition is adjusted in a context-sensitive way.

  10. Effects of varied doses of psilocybin on time interval reproduction in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Jirí; Wittmann, Marc; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2008-04-11

    Action of a hallucinogenic substance, psilocybin, on internal time representation was investigated in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies: Experiment 1 with 12 subjects and graded doses, and Experiment 2 with 9 subjects and a very low dose. The task consisted in repeated reproductions of time intervals in the range from 1.5 to 5s. The effects were assessed by parameter kappa of the 'dual klepsydra' model of internal time representation, fitted to individual response data and intra-individually normalized with respect to initial values. The estimates kappa were in the same order of magnitude as in earlier studies. In both experiments, kappa was significantly increased by psilocybin at 90 min from the drug intake, indicating a higher loss rate of the internal duration representation. These findings are tentatively linked to qualitative alterations of subjective time in altered states of consciousness.

  11. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  12. Effect of Spatial Smoothing on Task fMRI ICA and Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince

    2018-01-01

    Spatial smoothing is a widely used preprocessing step in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. In this work, we report on the spatial smoothing effect on task-evoked fMRI brain functional mapping and functional connectivity. Initially, we decomposed the task fMRI data into a collection of components or networks by independent component analysis (ICA). The designed task paradigm helps identify task-modulated ICA components (highly correlated with the task stimuli). For the ICA-extracted primary task component, we then measured the task activation volume at the task response foci. We used the task timecourse (designed) as a reference to order the ICA components according to the task correlations of the ICA timecourses. With the re-ordered ICA components, we calculated the inter-component function connectivity (FC) matrix (correlations among the ICA timecourses). By repeating the spatial smoothing of fMRI data with a Gaussian smoothing kernel with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of {1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35} mm, we measured the spatial smoothing effects. Our results show spatial smoothing reveals the following effects: (1) It decreases the task extraction performance of single-subject ICA more than that of multi-subject ICA; (2) It increases the task volume of multi-subject ICA more than that of single-subject ICA; (3) It strengthens the functional connectivity of single-subject ICA more than that of multi-subject ICA; and (4) It impacts the positive-negative imbalance of single-subject ICA more than that of multi-subject ICA. Our experimental results suggest a 2~3 voxel FWHM spatial smoothing for single-subject ICA in achieving an optimal balance of functional connectivity, and a wide range (2~5 voxels) of FWHM for multi-subject ICA.

  13. Quarternary tectonics, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.W.

    1993-09-30

    Activities conducted for the evaluation of the geology and seismotectonics stability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes continued. Tasks concerned with quaternary tectonics include: scheduling of photography of Little Skull Mountain area; the collection and dating of rock varnish samples from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area for carbon 14 AMS and cation-ratio analysis; collection of samples for thermoluminescence dating from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area; mapping of the northern area of Crater Flat; and surveying of the May 17, 1993 Eureka the Valley earthquake area.

  14. The effects in humans of rapid loss of body mass on a boxing-related task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M S; Dyson, R; Hale, T; Harrison, J H; McManus, P

    2000-09-01

    The physiological effects of strategies for a rapid loss of body mass immediately before weighing-in for competition in weight-governed sports are unclear. This study examined the effects of a 3%-4% loss in body mass on a boxing-related task. Seven novice amateur boxers completed three 3 min rounds of simulated boxing on a prototype boxing ergometer in an euhydrated state (E-trial) and after exercise-induced thermal dehydration (D-trial). All subjects lost body mass following dehydration-mean body mass fell 3.8 (SD +/- 0.3)% [77.3 (SD +/- 11.3) to 74.4 (SD +/- 10.7) kg, PPV) were inconsistent. Four subjects suffered reductions in PV between 15% and 30%, one subject maintained his E-trial value and two recorded an increase. The D-trial mean PV value was 8.0 (SD +/- 17.2)% lower but this fall was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Analysis of D-trial boxing performance showed one subject maintained his performance over the two trials and a second improved 17.8%. A two-way ANOVA (condition x time) with repeated measures on both factors showed no significant main effect differences for condition (F1,6 = 3.93 P>0.05), time (F1.83,48 = 1.12, P>0.05) or interaction between them (F1.93,48, P>0.05). Furthermore, neither heart rate nor blood lactate responses in the boxing task differed between trials. These data were affected by the small sample. Power and effect size analysis using eta(2) procedure and removing the outlier data produced a mean fall in boxing performance of 26.8%. However, some subjects appeared able to resist the deleterious effects of a rapid loss of body mass prior to competition and further research is needed to explain the mechanisms under-pinning this ability.

  15. Cognitive task effects on gait stability following concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Robert D; van Donkelaar, Paul; Chou, Li-Shan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how two different types of concurrent tasks affect gait stability in patients with concussion and how balance is maintained. Fourteen individuals suffering from a grade II concussion and 14 matched controls performed a single task of level walking and two types of concurrent tasks during level walking: a discrete reaction time task and a continuous sequential question and answer task. Common gait spatial/temporal measurements, whole-body center of mass motion, and the center of pressure trajectory were recorded. Concussed individuals demonstrated differences in gait while performing single-task level walking and while being challenged with a more difficult secondary task compared to normal controls. Concussed individuals adopted a slower, more conservative gait strategy to maintain stability, but still exhibited signs of instability with center of mass deviations in the coronal plane increasing by 13% during the question and answer dual-task and 26% more than control subjects. Trends of attentional deficits were present with the question and answer task, while the reaction time task seemed to help concussed individuals be more alert to their gait and stability. Recommendations for a sensitive testing protocol of deficits following concussion are explained.

  16. Measuring Multi-tasking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Bunting, 2001), antisaccade tasks (Kane, Bleckley, Conway, & Engle, 2001), and Stroop tasks (Kane & Engle, 2003). These attention-control tasks...departments of hospitals care for individuals who have cancer or who have other medical problems requiring surgery, respectively. Patients may be very...competition, and task set to Stroop interference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 47-70. Lansman, M., Poltrock, S., & Hunt, E. (1983

  17. Emotional intelligence and stress in medical students performing surgical tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sonal; Russ, Stephanie; Petrides, K V; Sirimanna, Pramudith; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Darzi, Ara; Sevdalis, Nick

    2011-10-01

    Poor stress management skills can compromise performance in the operating room, particularly in inexperienced trainees. Little is known about individual differences in managing stress. This study aimed to explore the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) and objective and subjective measures of stress in medical students faced with unfamiliar surgical tasks. Seventeen medical undergraduates completed an unfamiliar laparoscopic task on a simulator during January to April 2008. Subjective stress before, during (retrospectively), and after the task was measured using the self-report State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Objective stress was measured using continuous heart rate (HR) monitoring. Participants also completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire short form (TEIQue-SF). The authors computed scores for global trait EI and the TEIQue-SF four factors and carried out descriptive and correlational analyses. The highest levels of subjective stress were reported during the task and correlated positively with trait EI as well as with the trait EI factors of well-being and emotionality. Objective stress (mean HR) during the task was positively related to the sociability factor of trait EI. Higher trait EI scores were also associated with better after-task recovery from stress experienced during the task. Students with higher trait EI are more likely to experience stress during unfamiliar surgical scenarios but are also more likely to recover better compared with their lower-trait-EI peers. Trait EI has implications for the design of effective stress management training tailored to individual needs and potential applications to surgical trainee selection and development.

  18. [Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, H-J; Schmidt, O; Ritsche, A

    2014-11-01

    Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement is limited by various factors. The main factors affecting reproducibility include the characteristics of the measurement method and of the subject and the examiner. This article presents the results of a study on this topic, focusing on the reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes. The results of previous studies are not all presented in the same way by the respective authors and cannot be fully standardized without consulting the original scientific data. To the extent that they are comparable, the results of our study largely correspond largely with those of previous investigations: During repeated subjective refraction measurement, 95% of the deviation from the mean value was approximately ±0.2 D to ±0.65 D for the spherical equivalent and cylindrical power. The reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes is limited, even under ideal conditions. Correct assessment of refraction results is only feasible after identifying individual variability. Several measurements are required. Refraction cannot be measured without a tolerance range. The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental).

  19. Agile Values and Their Implementation in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Schön

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today agile approaches are often used for the development of digital products. Since their development in the 90s, Agile Methodologies, such as Scrum and Extreme Programming, have evolved. Team collaboration is strongly influenced by the values and principles of the Agile Manifesto. The values and principles described in the Agile Manifesto support the optimization of the development process. In this article, the current operation is analyzed in Agile Product Development Processes. Both, the cooperation in the project team and the understanding of the roles and tasks will be analyzed. The results are set in relation to the best practices of Agile Methodologies. A quantitative questionnaire related to best practices in Agile Product Development was developed. The study was carried out with 175 interdisciplinary participants from the IT industry. For the evaluation of the results, 93 participants were included who have expertise in the subject area Agile Methodologies. On one hand, it is shown that the collaborative development of product-related ideas brings benefits. On the other hand, it is investigated which effect a good understanding of the product has on decisions made during the implementation. Furthermore, the skillset of product managers, the use of pair programming, and the advantages of cross-functional teams are analyzed.

  20. Principles of Communicative Task Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    The use of the learning task as a basic planning and instructional tool for communicative second language instruction is discussed, and considerations and procedures for designing such tasks are outlined. A task is defined as a piece of classroom work that involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing, or interacting in the target…

  1. Task-oriented rehabilitation robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Choi, Younggeun; Winstein, Carolee; Gordon, James

    2012-11-01

    Task-oriented training is emerging as the dominant and most effective approach to motor rehabilitation of upper extremity function after stroke. Here, the authors propose that the task-oriented training framework provides an evidence-based blueprint for the design of task-oriented robots for the rehabilitation of upper extremity function in the form of three design principles: skill acquisition of functional tasks, active participation training, and individualized adaptive training. The previous robotic systems that incorporate elements of task-oriented trainings are then reviewed. Finally, the authors critically analyze their own attempt to design and test the feasibility of a TOR robot, ADAPT (Adaptive and Automatic Presentation of Tasks), which incorporates the three design principles. Because of its task-oriented training-based design, ADAPT departs from most other current rehabilitation robotic systems: it presents realistic functional tasks in which the task goal is constantly adapted, so that the individual actively performs doable but challenging tasks without physical assistance. To maximize efficacy for a large clinical population, the authors propose that future task-oriented robots need to incorporate yet-to-be developed adaptive task presentation algorithms that emphasize acquisition of fine motor coordination skills while minimizing compensatory movements.

  2. TASK: Let's Have a Party!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, James

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a creative way to demystify contemporary art for students. TASK is artist Oliver Herring's creation, where participants actively interpret instructions found on little pieces of paper--what he calls "tasks." An art classroom has all the key ingredients for a TASK event: (1) people; (2) materials; (3) space;…

  3. Mechanisms of neural reorganization in chronic stroke subjects after virtual reality training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, S; Bagce, H; Qiu, Q; Fluet, G; Merians, A; Adamovich, S; Tunik, E

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates patterns of brain reorganization in chronic stroke subjects after two weeks of robot-assisted arm and hand training in virtual reality (VR). Four subjects were studied with event-related fMRI while doing simple paretic hand finger movements before (double baseline) and after training. Bilateral hand movements were recorded and used to provide real-time feedback to subjects during scanning to eliminate performance confounds on fMRI results. The kinematic parameters of each movement were also used in the general linear model with the BOLD signal to investigate training-induced changes in neuromotor coupling. Univariate analysis showed an increase in BOLD signal in the ipsilesional hemisphere in two subjects and a decrease in activity in the other two subjects. Seed voxel based functional connectivity analysis revealed an increase in connectivity between ipsilesional motor cortex and bilateral sensorimotor cortex during finger movements in all four subjects. Hemispheric laterality index values showed a tendency to decrease reflecting a reduction in the over-dominance of the contralesional hemisphere. The study is novel in terms of 1) tracking finger movement during a motor task in the scanner, 2) monitoring motor performance during the experiment and 3) giving online visual feedback of subjects' movement. This pilot study introduces a novel approach to study neural plasticity by combining measures of regional intensity, interregional interactions (using functional connectivity analysis and hemispheric laterality index), and modulation in the strength of neuromotor coupling.

  4. Blinking and tear break-up during four visual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himebaugh, Nikole L; Begley, Carolyn G; Bradley, Arthur; Wilkinson, Jenni A

    2009-02-01

    This study investigates the relationship between blinking, tear film break-up, and ocular symptoms for normal and dry eye subjects performing four different visual tasks. Sixteen control and sixteen dry eye subjects performed four visual tasks (looking straight ahead, watching a movie, identifying rapidly changing letters, and playing a computer game) while blink patterns and fluorescein images of the tear film were videotaped. Pre and posttesting symptom questionnaires, querying the intensity of nine symptoms of ocular irritation, were completed by all subjects. Blink rate and blink amplitude were computed from digitized videos. The percentage of tear film break-up before the blink was calculated. Dry eye subjects had a significantly higher blink rate (p = 0.017, t-test). Both groups blinked significantly less during the game and letter tasks (p break-up in normal subjects was typically inferior; whereas dry eye subjects showed more tear break-up centrally and superiorly. Real-time video recording of tear break-up and blink behavior pointed to complex interaction between the two. Dry eye subjects shifted more toward intense ocular symptoms at posttesting (p break-up during normal visual tasks may explain the increased level of ocular discomfort symptoms reported at the end of the day, particularly in dry eye patients.

  5. Subjective Narcosis Assessment Scale: measuring the subjective experience of nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Charles H; Meintjes, W A J

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of subjective experiences and objective measures of neuropsychological performance during hyperbaric exposure has received less attention in the literature, in part due to the shortage of available and appropriately standardized measures. This study aimed to describe the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Subjective High Assessment Scale when used in the hyperbaric context, by exploring internal reliability, factor structure, associations with psychological variables and simple cognitive delayed recall, and the effect of task focus on the recall of subjective experience. Seventy qualified divers completed dry hyperbaric chamber dives to 607.95 kPa, and completed ratings of their subjective experiences. Some also completed a delayed recall task and psychological measures prior to their dives. The scale displayed good internal consistency, with four meaningful factors emerging. It showed some significant but small associations with trait anxiety and transient mood states, and a small to moderate correlation with recall performance. There was no significant effect of task focus on self-report of subjective experiences. The modified scale, renamed the Subjective Narcosis Assessment Scale here, has useful psychometric properties, and promising potential for future use.

  6. Developmental dynamics between mathematical performance, task motivation, and teachers' goals during the transition to primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunola, Kaisa; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2006-03-01

    It has been suggested that children's learning motivation and interest in a particular subject play an important role in their school performance, particularly in mathematics. However, few cross-lagged longitudinal studies have been carried out to investigate the prospective relationships between academic achievement and task motivation. Moreover, the role that the classroom context plays in this development is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental dynamics of maths-related motivation and mathematical performance during children's transition to primary school. The role of teachers' pedagogical goals and classroom characteristics on this development was also investigated. A total of 196 Finnish children were examined four times: (0) in October during their preschool year; (1) in October and (2) April during their first grade of primary school; and (3) in October during their second grade. Children's mathematical performance was tested at each measurement point. Task motivation was examined at measurement points 2, 3, and 4 using the Task-value scale for children. First-grade teachers were interviewed in November about their pedagogical goals and classroom characteristics. The results showed that children's mathematical performance and related task motivation formed a cumulative developmental cycle: a high level of maths performance at the beginning of the first grade increased subsequent task motivation towards mathematics, which further predicted a high level of maths performance at the beginning of the second grade. The level of maths-related task motivation increased in those classrooms where the teachers emphasized motivation or self-concept development as their most important pedagogical goal.

  7. Enabling task-based information prioritization via semantic web encodings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, James R.

    2016-05-01

    Modern Soldiers rely upon accurate and actionable information technology to achieve mission objectives. While increasingly rich sensor networks for Areas of Operation (AO) can offer many directions for aiding Soldiers, limitations are imposed by current tactical edge systems on the rate that content can be transmitted. Furthermore, mission tasks will often require very specific sets of information which may easily be drowned out by other content sources. Prior research on Quality and Value of Information (QoI/VoI) has aimed to define ways to prioritize information objects based on their intrinsic attributes (QoI) and perceived value to a consumer (VoI). As part of this effort, established ranking approaches for obtaining Subject Matter Expert (SME) recommendations, such as the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) have been considered. However, limited work has been done to tie Soldier context - such as descriptions of their mission and tasks - back to intrinsic attributes of information objects. As a first step toward addressing the above challenges, this work introduces an ontology-backed approach - rooted in Semantic Web publication practices - for expressing both AHP decision hierarchies and corresponding SME feedback. Following a short discussion on related QoI/VoI research, an ontology-based data structure is introduced for supporting evaluation of Information Objects, using AHP rankings designed to facilitate information object prioritization. Consistent with alternate AHP approaches, prioritization in this approach is based on pairwise comparisons between Information Objects with respect to established criteria, as well as on pairwise comparison of the criteria to assess their relative importance. The paper concludes with a discussion of both ongoing and future work.

  8. The impact of fear words in a secondary task on complex motor performance: a dual-task climbing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alexander L; Draper, Nick; Helton, William S

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between emotion and motor action has been previously examined using relatively simple motor tasks. However, there has been limited research using more complex physical tasks. One such complex physical task is high-angle climbing. In this experiment, we examined the performance of climbers in a dual climbing and word memory task, in which they were asked to recall fear-related or neutral words after the climb, as well as single-task performance. Climbing distance, efficiency, and word recall all significantly decreased in the dual-task conditions, relative to the single tasks. Climbing distance and efficiency also decreased in the fear word dual task, relative to the neutral word memory dual task. Subjective measures of performance indicated that climbers were aware of impaired climbing performance in the dual tasks, relative to the climbing-only condition, but that they were not aware of the increased impairment caused by the fear words. These findings have important theoretical and practical implications, particularly in occupational settings requiring climbing-like operations, such as fire-fighting and search and rescue.

  9. Learning and Relative Performance on Two and Three Dimensional Visual Cue Perceptual-Motor Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glad, Harold L.

    This study evaluates the relationships that exist between three types of visual and perceptual-motor tasks (coincidence-anticipation, tracking with rotary pursuit, and a unique two-dimensional discrete motor task) and investigates the nature of learning demonstrated by the subjects on each of the three tasks. Thirty male students were given 20…

  10. The Effects of Describing Antecedent Stimuli and Performance Criteria in Task Analysis Instruction for Graphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner, Bryan C.; Fienup, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Task analyses are ubiquitous to applied behavior analysis interventions, yet little is known about the factors that make them effective. Numerous task analyses have been published in behavior analytic journals for constructing single-subject design graphs; however, learner outcomes using these task analyses may fall short of what could be…

  11. Effects of caffeine on anticipatory control processes : Evidence from a cued task-switch paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieges, Zoe; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Plat, Nynke-Boudien; Ridderinkhof, Richard

    Effects of caffeine on task switching were studied using ERPs in a cued task-switch paradigm. The need for advance preparation was manipulated by varying the number of task-set aspects that required switching. In a double-blind, within-subjects experiment, caffeine reduced shift costs compared to

  12. The influence of different doses of caffeine on visual task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorist, MM; Snel, J; Ruijter, J

    1999-01-01

    Tn this study the influence of caffeine as an energy-increasing substance on visual information processing was examined. Subjects were presented with a dual-task consisting of two choice reaction time tasks. In addition, one of the tasks was presented at two levels of difficulty, influencing the

  13. A dynamic 3D biomechanical evaluation of the load on the low back during different patient-handling tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotte, J H; Essendrop, M; Hansen, A F; Schibye, B

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the low-back loading during common patient-handling tasks. Ten female health care workers without formal training in patient handling performed nine patient-handling tasks including turning, lifting and repositioning a male stroke patient. The low-back loading was quantified by net moment, compression, and shear forces at the L4/L5 joint, measured muscle activity (EMG) in erector spinae muscles and rate of perceived exertion (RPE; Borg scale). The experiments were videotaped with a 50Hz video system using five cameras, and the ground and bedside reaction forces of the health care worker were recorded by means of force platforms and force transducers on the bed. The biomechanical load was calculated using a dynamic 3D seven-segment model of the lower part of the body, and the forces at the L4/L5 joint were estimated by a 14 muscles cross-sectional model of the low back (optimisation procedure). Compression force and torque showed high task dependency whereas the EMG data and the RPE values were more dependent on the subject. The peak compression during two tasks involving lifting the patient (4132/4433N) was significantly higher than all other tasks. Four tasks involving repositioning the patient in the bed (3179/3091/2932/3094N) did not differ, but showed higher peak compression than two tasks turning the patient in the bed (1618/2197N). Thus, in this study the patient-handling tasks could be classified into three groups-characterised by lifting, repositioning or turning-with different levels of peak net torque and compression at the L4/L5 joint.

  14. Skill-related task structures, explicitness, and accountability: relationships with student achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, S; Kulinna, P H; Crull, G

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine relationships of task structures, explicitness, and accountability with student achievement in physical education. The subjects were teachers of 10 physical education classes and their 202 students. Each class participated in instruction that was videotaped, and the students were pre- and posttested. Videotapes were coded to collect data on each skill-related task including the task presentation time, skill being taught, explicitness of the task presentation, primary and secondary accountability systems used, level of student participation, and total task time. Among the many results, for the volleyball forearm pass, significant relationships were found for the total number of tasks and time spent in tasks when expectations included outcome, situation, and criteria-product. For the volleyball underhand serve, significant relationships were found for the total number of tasks and time spent in tasks when accountability included teacher feedback with follow-up and monitoring of off-task behavior.

  15. Comparative analysis of cognitive tasks for modeling mental workload with electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taeho; Kim, Miyoung; Hwangbo, Minsu; Oh, Eunmi

    2014-01-01

    Previous electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have shown that cognitive workload can be estimated by using several types of cognitive tasks. In this study, we attempted to characterize cognitive tasks that have been used to manipulate workload for generating classification models. We carried out a comparative analysis between two representative types of working memory tasks: the n-back task and the mental arithmetic task. Based on experiments with 7 healthy subjects using Emotiv EPOC, we compared the consistency, robustness, and efficiency of each task in determining cognitive workload in a short training session. The mental arithmetic task seems consistent and robust in manipulating clearly separable high and low levels of cognitive workload with less training. In addition, the mental arithmetic task shows consistency despite repeated usage over time and without notable task adaptation in users. The current study successfully quantifies the quality and efficiency of cognitive workload modeling depending on the type and configuration of training tasks.

  16. Effects of lighting and task parameters on visual acuity and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halonen, L.

    1993-12-31

    Lighting and task parameters and their effects on visual acuity and visual performance are dealt with. The parameters studied are target contrast, target size and subject`s age; and also adaptation luminance, luminance ratio between task and its surrounding and temporal change in luminances are studied. Experiments were carried out to examine the effects of luminance and light spectrum on visual acuity. Young normally sighted, older and low vision people participated in the measurements. In the young and older subject groups the visual acuity remained unchanged at contrasts 0.93 and 0.63 at the luminance range of 15-630 cd/m{sub 2}. The results show that at contrasts 0.03-0.93 young and older subjects` visual acuity remained unchanged in the luminance range of 105-630 cd/m{sub 2}. In the low vision group, the changes in luminances between 25-860 cd/m{sub 2} did not have significant effects on visual acuity measured at high contrast 0.93, at low contrast, slight individual changes were found. The colour temperature of the light sources was altered between 2900-9500 K in the experiment. In the groups of the older, young and low vision subjects the light spectrum did not have significant effects on visual acuity, except for two retinitis pigmentosa subjects. On the basis of the visual acuity experiments, a three dimensional visual acuity model (VA-HUT) has been developed. The model predicts visual acuity as a function of luminance, target contrast and observer age. On the basis of visual acuity experiments visual acuity reserve values have been calculated for different text sizes

  17. Pulmonary function studies in Gujarati subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N M; Mavlankar, M G; Kulkarni, P K; Kashyap, S K

    1992-01-01

    In this study a multiple regression equation for prediction of ventilatory pulmonary function tests (FVC, FEV1%, FEF25-75% and PEFR) is developed in average healthy non-smoker male and female Gujarati subjects. The average adult female values showed a reduction varying from 21.0 to 29.0% compared to adult male subjects. There is a deviation of the present study values from other studies in Indian subjects and values from European studies are higher than the present values. This study demonstrated that the present regression equation is the most ideal and appropriate for prediction of pulmonary function values in Gujarati subjects either for assessing physical fitness in normal subjects or for determining the pattern of ventilatory impairment in respiratory disease patients. The pulmonary function values assessed by substituting the average age, height and weight of females in male regression equation revealed lower values in females ranging from 14.0 to 19.0% attributable only due to difference in sex.

  18. Intensity resolution and subjective magnitude in psychophysical scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L M; Armstrong, J; Golestani, N

    1996-07-01

    Several successful theories of psychophysical judgment imply that exponents of power functions in scaling tasks should covary with measures of intensity resolution such as d' in the same tasks, whereas the prevailing metatheory of ideal psychophysical scaling asserts the independence of the two. In a direct test of this relationship, three prominent psychophysical scaling paradigms were studied: category judgment without an identification function, absolute magnitude estimation, and cross-modality matching with light intensity as the response continuum. Separate groups of subjects for each scaling paradigm made repeated judgments of the loudnesses of the pure tones that constituted each of two stimulus ensembles. The narrow- and wide-range ensembles shared six identical stimulus intensities in the middle of each set. Intensity resolution, as measured by d'-like distances, of these physically identical stimuli was significantly worse for the wide-range set for all three methods. Exponents of power functions fitted to geometric mean responses, and in magnitude estimation and cross-modality matching the geometric mean responses themselves, were also significantly smaller in the wide-range condition. The variation of power function exponents, and of psychophysical scale values, for stimulus intensities that were identical in the two stimulus sets with the intensities of other members of the ensembles is inconsistent with the metatheory on which modern psychophysical scaling practice is based, although it is consistent with other useful approaches to measurement of psychological magnitudes.

  19. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT FOR THE SUBJECT TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Elizabeth Barrera-del Castillo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work is described the proposal of a model of semi-presence educational intervention for the subject, "Teaching of Mathematics in basic education", corresponding to the fourth semester of Special Education Bachelor's Degree, Plan 2004, of the Specializing Teaching School of the State of Sinaloa (ENEES, that attend the desirable characteristics of the graduates in the effective and efficient use of the technological tools, disciplinary competences, collaborative work and digital competences which are developed through the adaptation and the use of the model proposed. In this task, it is attended the digital literacy too, that the society of knowledge demands; firstly in function of the personal development needs, and then to respond to the actual educational context. The model of educational intervention defined in this task contributes to the interaction of teachers and students with technological background, collaborative work, groups of study, material and activities for each topic to develop. It was used the e-Collaborative Learning Sistema Integral Colaborativo para la Educación sin Barreras (SICEB implemented by the Secretary of Public Education and Culture (SEPyC, in which various types of learning objects are integrated among synchronized and unsynchronized activities. The proposed model is given through the defined criteria by the e-pedagogy which involves concepts such as quality, values and efficiency with support of the Learning Technologies and Knowledge (TAC.

  20. Creating single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R; Jackson, James W; Small, Stacey L; Horner-King, Mollie J; Lik, Nicholas Mui Ker; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the publication of Carr and Burkholder's (1998) technical article on how to construct single-subject graphs using Microsoft Excel. Over the course of the past decade, the Excel program has undergone a series of revisions that make the Carr and Burkholder paper somewhat difficult to follow with newer versions. The present article provides task analyses for constructing various types of commonly used single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007. The task analyses were evaluated using a between-subjects design that compared the graphing skills of 22 behavior-analytic graduate students using Excel 2007 and either the Carr and Burkholder or newly developed task analyses. Results indicate that the new task analyses yielded more accurate and faster graph construction than the Carr and Burkholder instructions.

  1. Effect of task-oriented activities on hand functions, cognitive functions and self-expression of elderly patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Bo-Young; Bang, Yo-Soon; Hwang, Min-Ji; Oh, Eun-Ju

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates the effects of task-oriented activities on hand function, cognitive function, and self-expression of the elderly with dementia, and then identify the influencing factors on self-expression in sub-factors of dependent variables. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly persons were divided into two groups: intervention group (n=20) and control group (n=20). The interventions were applied to the subjects 3 times a week, 50 minutes per each time, for a total of five weeks. We measured the jamar hand dynamometer test for grip strength, the jamar hydraulic pinch gauge test for prehension test, nine-hole pegboard test for coordination test, and Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment-Geriatric Population for cognitive function, and self-expression rating scale for self-expression test. [Results] The task-oriented activities promoted hand function, cognitive function (visual perception, spatial perception, visuomotor organization, attention & concentration) and self-expression of the elderly with early dementia, and the factors influencing the self-expression were cognitive function (visual perception) and hand function (coordination). The study showed that the task-oriented program enabled self-expression by improving hand function and cognitive function. [Conclusion] This study suggested that there should be provided the task-oriented program for prevention and treatment of the elderly with early dementia in the clinical settings and it was considered that results have a value as basic data that can be verified relationship of hand function, cognitive function, and self-expression.

  2. Constrained Task Assignment and Scheduling On Networks of Arbitrary Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Justin Patrick

    This dissertation develops a framework to address centralized and distributed constrained task assignment and task scheduling problems. This framework is used to prove properties of these problems that can be exploited, develop effective solution algorithms, and to prove important properties such as correctness, completeness and optimality. The centralized task assignment and task scheduling problem treated here is expressed as a vehicle routing problem with the goal of optimizing mission time subject to mission constraints on task precedence and agent capability. The algorithm developed to solve this problem is able to coordinate vehicle (agent) timing for task completion. This class of problems is NP-hard and analytical guarantees on solution quality are often unavailable. This dissertation develops a technique for determining solution quality that can be used on a large class of problems and does not rely on traditional analytical guarantees. For distributed problems several agents must communicate to collectively solve a distributed task assignment and task scheduling problem. The distributed task assignment and task scheduling algorithms developed here allow for the optimization of constrained military missions in situations where the communication network may be incomplete and only locally known. Two problems are developed. The distributed task assignment problem incorporates communication constraints that must be satisfied; this is the Communication-Constrained Distributed Assignment Problem. A novel distributed assignment algorithm, the Stochastic Bidding Algorithm, solves this problem. The algorithm is correct, probabilistically complete, and has linear average-case time complexity. The distributed task scheduling problem addressed here is to minimize mission time subject to arbitrary predicate mission constraints; this is the Minimum-time Arbitrarily-constrained Distributed Scheduling Problem. The Optimal Distributed Non-sequential Backtracking Algorithm

  3. Professional Values in University Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar M. Casares García

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the key functions of universities is professional training. Performing professional tasks properly calls for not only acquisition of the appropriate technical competences, but also the development of ethical values. In order to adjust to the needs of society and students, university education should offer an integrated development model, which, in addition to technical and cognitive competences, also plans for the inclusion of personal and moral growth.

  4. Illegitimate tasks as a source of work stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmer, Norbert K; Jacobshagen, Nicola; Meier, Laurenz L; Elfering, Achim; Beehr, Terry A; Kälin, Wolfgang; Tschan, Franziska

    2015-01-02

    Illegitimate tasks represent a task-level stressor derived from role and justice theories within the framework of "Stress-as-Offense-to-Self" (SOS; Semmer, Jacobshagen, Meier, & Elfering, 2007). Tasks are illegitimate if they violate norms about what an employee can properly be expected to do, because they are perceived as unnecessary or unreasonable; they imply a threat to one's professional identity. We report three studies testing associations between illegitimate tasks and well-being/strain. In two cross-sectional studies, illegitimate tasks predicted low self-esteem, feelings of resentment towards one's organization and burnout, controlling for role conflict, distributive injustice and social stressors in Study 1, and for distributive and procedural/interactional justice in Study 2. In Study 3, illegitimate tasks predicted two strain variables (feelings of resentment towards one's organization and irritability) over a period of two months, controlling for initial values of strain. Results confirm the unique contribution of illegitimate tasks to well-being and strain, beyond the effects of other predictors. Moreover, Study 3 demonstrated that illegitimate tasks predicted strain, rather than being predicted by it. We therefore conclude that illegitimate tasks represent an aspect of job design that deserves more attention, both in research and in decisions about task assignments.

  5. Dynamic, continuous multitasking training leads to task-specific improvements but does not transfer across action selection tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Angela D.; Filmer, Hannah L.; Naughtin, Claire K.; Dux, Paul E.

    2017-12-01

    The ability to perform multiple tasks concurrently is an ever-increasing requirement in our information-rich world. Despite this, multitasking typically compromises performance due to the processing limitations associated with cognitive control and decision-making. While intensive dual-task training is known to improve multitasking performance, only limited evidence suggests that training-related performance benefits can transfer to untrained tasks that share overlapping processes. In the real world, however, coordinating and selecting several responses within close temporal proximity will often occur in high-interference environments. Over the last decade, there have been notable reports that training on video action games that require dynamic multitasking in a demanding environment can lead to transfer effects on aspects of cognition such as attention and working memory. Here, we asked whether continuous and dynamic multitasking training extends benefits to tasks that are theoretically related to the trained tasks. To examine this issue, we asked a group of participants to train on a combined continuous visuomotor tracking task and a perceptual discrimination task for six sessions, while an active control group practiced the component tasks in isolation. A battery of tests measuring response selection, response inhibition, and spatial attention was administered before and immediately after training to investigate transfer. Multitasking training resulted in substantial, task-specific gains in dual-task ability, but there was no evidence that these benefits generalized to other action control tasks. The findings suggest that training on a combined visuomotor tracking and discrimination task results in task-specific benefits but provides no additional value for untrained action selection tasks.

  6. The skill components of a therapeutic chopsticks task and their relationship with hand function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H M; Chang, J J

    1999-12-01

    Chopsticks are the primary tools used for eating and the physical movements of control are familiar to Chinese people. Chopsticks are easy to obtain in most rehabilitative settings. Occupational therapists often guide patients to practice miscellaneous chopsticks tasks to increase hand function in any case. The objective of this study was to investigate the skill components of the therapeutic chopsticks task and their relationship with hand function tests, and to identify clinical value. Eighty normal subjects (41 males and 39 females) whose age ranged from 17 to 26 years old participated in this study. Five standard hand function tests including three dexterity tests [Minnesota Rate of Manipulation Test (MRMT), Purdue Pegboard Test, and O'Connor Tweezer Dexterity Test (OTDT)], and two strength tests (Jamar Handgrip Test, and Pinchometer Test) were chosen to measure the dexterity and strength of hands. Additionally, the Test of Chopsticks Manipulation (TCM) was designed and used to assess the chopsticks manipulation skills. Subjects were tested with all the hand function tests and TCM in a random sequence. Results of six tests were obtained for each subject. Factor analysis showed that the skill components of TCM should be categorized into the "dexterity" component. In addition, a significant relationship (p < 0.05) was only seen between TCM and OTDT, there was no significant correlation between TCM and the other hand function tests. Findings in this study are valuable in setting the rehabilitation programs for patients with dexterity problems.

  7. Impact of social value orientation on negotiator cognition and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Van Lange, P.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Examined the influence of social value orientations on negotiator cognition and behavior. 133 Dutch undergraduates participated in an assessment of social value orientation and a negotiation task. Consistent with predictions, prosocials, relative to individualists and competitors, exhibited lower

  8. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  9. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  10. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  11. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  12. Evaluation of pliers' grip spans in the maximum gripping task and sub-maximum cutting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Min; Kong, Yong-Ku

    2016-12-01

    A total of 25 males participated to investigate the effects of the grip spans of pliers on the total grip force, individual finger forces and muscle activities in the maximum gripping task and wire-cutting tasks. In the maximum gripping task, results showed that the 50-mm grip span had significantly higher total grip strength than the other grip spans. In the cutting task, the 50-mm grip span also showed significantly higher grip strength than the 65-mm and 80-mm grip spans, whereas the muscle activities showed a higher value at 80-mm grip span. The ratios of cutting force to maximum grip strength were also investigated. Ratios of 30.3%, 31.3% and 41.3% were obtained by grip spans of 50-mm, 65-mm, and 80-mm, respectively. Thus, the 50-mm grip span for pliers might be recommended to provide maximum exertion in gripping tasks, as well as lower maximum-cutting force ratios in the cutting tasks.

  13. Feature Multi-Selection among Subjective Features

    OpenAIRE

    Sabato, Sivan; Kalai, Adam

    2013-01-01

    When dealing with subjective, noisy, or otherwise nebulous features, the "wisdom of crowds" suggests that one may benefit from multiple judgments of the same feature on the same object. We give theoretically-motivated `feature multi-selection' algorithms that choose, among a large set of candidate features, not only which features to judge but how many times to judge each one. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach for linear regression on a crowdsourced learning task of predicting...

  14. Cultural influences on the measurement of subjective mental workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Addie; Widyanti, Ari

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive ergonomics is well entrenched in North American and most European work environments, where systems and products are designed with the capabilities and limitations of the user in mind. A prominent technique for analysing task demands is subjective mental workload measurement. Subjective

  15. What Software to Use in the Teaching of Mathematical Subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berežný, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We can consider two basic views, when using mathematical software in the teaching of mathematical subjects. First: How to learn to use specific software for the specific tasks, e. g., software Statistica for the subjects of Applied statistics, probability and mathematical statistics, or financial mathematics. Second: How to learn to use the…

  16. Effect of multi axis vibration and subject postures on sketching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedentary activities such as reading, writing, sketching, etc. are affected due to the train vibrations. Therefore, the present study investigates the extent of perceived difficulty and distortion in a sketching task by seated subjects in two postures under low frequency, multi axial random vibrations. Thirty male voluntary subjects ...

  17. Effects of Stress on Judgment and Decision Making in Dynamic Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    The procedures are detailed below. All procedures were planned and carried out in consultation with a research meteorologist, familiar with the...received over time. 43 Page 25 Verbal Protocols Examples of the verbalizations are provided in Appendix A. The protocolo indicate that during...as a familiar task to the subjects (low task complexity) with a relatively easy task structure (the step-by-step procedure given to the subjects in

  18. Thoughts on Earned Value Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pido, Kelle

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concepts of Earned Value reporting and Earned Value Metrics (EVM) and the implementation for the Constellation Program. EVM is used to manage both the contract and civil service workforce, and used as a measure of contractor costs and performance. The Program EVM is not as useful for Level of Effort tasking, for either contractor, or civil service employees. Some issues and concerns in reference to EVM and the process for the use of EVM for Mission assurance are reviewed,

  19. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  20. The effects of monetary and social rewards on task performance in children and adolescents: liking is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demurie, Ellen; Roeyers, Herbert; Baeyens, Dieter; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2012-12-01

    The current study compared the effects of reward anticipation on task performance in children and adolescents (8-16 years old) using monetary and various social rewards. Eighty-five typically developing children undertook the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Of these 44 also undertook the Social Incentive Delay (SID-basic) task where social reward was operationalized as a smiling face and spoken compliments. Forty-one children participated in the SID-plus where points were added to a pictogram with written compliments. In a preparatory validation study participants were asked howmuch they liked the SID-basic rewards.Results showed that there was an effect of reward size on accuracy and RT in both the MID task and SID-plus, but not SID-basic. Subjective value of the SID-basic rewards was rated higher with hypothesized increasing reward intensity. In conclusion, although the social rewards in SID-basic were liked by children andadolescents in the validation study, they had no effect on the behaviour. Only when points were added (SID-plus), anticipated social reward affected task performance. Thus our results highlight (i) the difference between likeability andreinforcing quality and (ii) the need for a quantifiable element to rewards for themto be reinforcing for children. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Effect of music tempo on task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, C; Moss, S

    1989-12-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of music tempo on task performance. In Study 1, 44 undergraduate business students were asked to be "workers" in a stock market project by collecting closing stock prices and calculating the percentage of change in the price from week to week. Subjects were randomly divided into groups such that they either listened to fast-paced music while they worked, to slow-paced music, or to no music. Analyses of variance and covariance were conducted on both the quantity and quality of the subjects' work, using music listening habits as a covariate. There were no differences in either the quantity or quality of the work produced by the groups. There were some methodological concerns regarding Study 1, so a second study was conducted. The 70 undergraduate business students in Study 2 completed the same task under the same music conditions as in Study 1. Analyses of variance indicated women performed significantly better than men, performance was significantly higher in the rock condition than in the heartbeat condition, and subjects in the rock condition had a significantly higher perceived level of distraction by the music.

  2. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  3. Eye blink frequency during different computer tasks quantified by electrooculography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotte, J H; Nøjgaard, J K; Jørgensen, L V; Christensen, K B; Sjøgaard, G

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate electrooculography (EOG) as an automatic method to measure the human eye blink frequency (BF) during passive and interactive computer tasks performed at two screen heights. Ten healthy subjects (5 males and 5 females) participated in the study in a 23 degrees C temperature and 30-35% relative humidity controlled simulated office environment. Each test subject completed a 2 x 10 min active task of computer work and a 3 x 10 min passive task of watching a film on a video display unit (VDU). Both tasks included two viewing angles: standard (the monitors' upper edge was in the same height as the subjects' eyes) and low (lowered by 25 degrees). EOG signals were recorded with two Ag/AgCl surface electrodes positioned above and below the right eye, and a reference electrode was placed behind the ear. The experiments were video filmed, and eye blinks were counted manually from the video recordings and compared to the EOG measurements. The method showed a high validity to detect blinks during computer work: 95.4% of the blinks were retrieved by the EOG method and very few artefacts from eye movements were erroneously classified as eye blinks (2.4%). By use of the EOG method, the computer task was found to significantly decrease the BF by 69% compared to the passive task (P < 0.001), and a small decrease (12-14%) was found by lowering the viewing angle by 25 degrees.

  4. Performance of visually guided tasks using simulated prosthetic vision and saliency-based cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, N.; Itti, L.; Humayun, M.; Weiland, J.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the benefits provided by a saliency-based cueing algorithm to normally sighted volunteers performing mobility and search tasks using simulated prosthetic vision. Approach. Human subjects performed mobility and search tasks using simulated prosthetic vision. A saliency algorithm based on primate vision was used to detect regions of interest (ROI) in an image. Subjects were cued to look toward the directions of these ROI using visual cues superimposed on the simulated prosthetic vision. Mobility tasks required the subjects to navigate through a corridor, avoid obstacles and locate a target at the end of the course. Two search task experiments involved finding objects on a tabletop under different conditions. Subjects were required to perform tasks with and without any help from cues. Results. Head movements, time to task completion and number of errors were all significantly reduced in search tasks when subjects used the cueing algorithm. For the mobility task, head movements and number of contacts with objects were significantly reduced when subjects used cues, whereas time was significantly reduced when no cues were used. The most significant benefit from cues appears to be in search tasks and when navigating unfamiliar environments. Significance. The results from the study show that visually impaired people and retinal prosthesis implantees may benefit from computer vision algorithms that detect important objects in their environment, particularly when they are in a new environment.

  5. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  6. Reflexivity, mediations and education. The subject and the interaction with audiovisual screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Zabala Sandoval

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thinking about massive media is a task that should opt for a complex conception of its effects. Also, the importance in the process of constitution of the subject in their social environment. Specially, television that is a source of particular and group ways of seeing in the world and being part of it. Which at the same time, allows us to look back on it, giving rise to processes of identification and construction of social and daily realities. As well as, deal with the world from basic socialization processes in the education of subjects and subjectivities. Thus, it is interesting to understand, the interaction between the subject and the television screen from the critical approach of reception that proposes to understand the interaction of diverse institutional, situational and contextual mediations that make possible to understand the reception as a changing process. Process in which the subject is active, who negotiates senses, positions, values, and perceptions with the massive media of communication. Therefore, it is a way to study educational processes, reflection, and social construction of realities, which purpose is not only to prohibit the media consumption or think of massive media as products sections while alienating reality; but also, the intention is to perceive that television, as massive media, is a fundamental part of the current socializing process; thus, it is necessary, to propose alternative forms in order to understand the structure/production of the subject, as well as other forms of reading and interact with these commercial and educational contents.

  7. The effect of reinforcer magnitude on probability and delay discounting of experienced outcomes in a computer game task in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Anna K; Hunt, Maree J; Macaskill, Anne C; Harper, David N

    2015-09-01

    Delay and uncertainty of receipt both reduce the subjective value of reinforcers. Delay has a greater impact on the subjective value of smaller reinforcers than of larger ones while the reverse is true for uncertainty. We investigated the effect of reinforcer magnitude on discounting of delayed and uncertain reinforcers using a novel approach: embedding relevant choices within a computer game. Participants made repeated choices between smaller, certain, immediate outcomes and larger, but delayed or uncertain outcomes while experiencing the result of each choice. Participants' choices were generally well described by the hyperbolic discounting function. Smaller numbers of points were discounted more steeply than larger numbers as a function of delay but not probability. The novel experiential choice task described is a promising approach to investigating both delay and probability discounting in humans. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. Set-based Tasks within the Singularity-robust Multiple Task-priority Inverse Kinematics Framework: General Formulation, Stability Analysis and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe eMoe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inverse kinematics algorithms are commonly used in robotic systems to transform tasks to joint references, and several methods exist to ensure the achievement of several tasks simultaneously. The multiple task-priority inverse kinematicsframework allows tasks to be considered in a prioritized order by projecting task velocities through the nullspaces of higherpriority tasks. This paper extends this framework to handle setbased tasks, i.e. tasks with a range of valid values, in addition to equality tasks, which have a specific desired value. Examples of set-based tasks are joint limit and obstacle avoidance. The proposed method is proven to ensure asymptotic convergence of the equality task errors and the satisfaction of all high-priority set-based tasks. The practical implementation of the proposed algorithm is discussed, and experimental results are presented where a number of both set-based and equality tasks have been implemented on a 6 degree of freedom UR5 which is an industrial robotic arm from Universal Robots. The experiments validate thetheoretical results and confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Linking task analysis to information relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Francis T; Sethumadhavan, Arathi; Crutchfield, Jerry

    2008-10-01

    The main objective of this study is to present a methodology for computing information relevance. Relevance is a pervasive term used in several domains, such as pragmatics, information science, and psychology. Quantifying the relevance of information can be helpful in effective display design. Displays should be designed so that the more relevant information is more easily accessed. This procedure focuses on computing the relevance of a piece of information by taking into account three aspects of tasks that use the information: the number of different tasks that make use of the information, the frequency of occurrence of those tasks, and the criticality of those tasks. The methodology can be used to compute the aggregate relevance of a piece of information for a particular component of a system or for the entire system. This methodology was illustrated using the domain of air traffic control (ATC). In support of the validity of the methodology, we were able to confirm the value of weather information and traffic information in ATC towers. The method can be used to derive information relevance, a characteristic of information that has implications for display design for any domain. Designers can use information about aggregate relevance to design information displays that feature the most relevant information.

  10. Alternative performance metrics and target values for the CID2013 database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, T.; Nuutinen, M.; Radun, J.; Leisti, T.; Häkkinen, J.

    2015-01-01

    An established way of validating and testing new image quality assessment (IQA) algorithms have been to compare how well they correlate with subjective data on various image databases. One of the most common measures is to calculate linear correlation coefficient (LCC) and Spearman's rank order correlation coefficient (SROCC) against the subjective mean opinion score (MOS). Recently, databases with multiply distorted images have emerged 1,2. However with multidimensional stimuli, there is more disagreement between observers as the task is more preferential than that of distortion detection. This reduces the statistical differences between image pairs. If the subjects cannot distinguish a difference between some of the image pairs, should we demand any better performance with IQA algorithms? This paper proposes alternative performance measures for the evaluation of IQA's for the CID2013 database. One proposed alternative performance measure is root-mean-square-error (RMSE) value for the subjective data as a function of the number of observers. The other alternative performance measure is the number of statistical differences between image pairs. This study shows that after 12 subjects the RMSE value saturates around the level of three, meaning that a target RMSE value for an IQA algorithm for CID2013 database should be three. In addition, this study shows that the state-of-the-art IQA algorithms found the better image from the image pairs with a probability of 0.85 when the image pairs with statistically significant differences were taken into account.

  11. The decision to engage cognitive control is driven by expected reward-value: neural and behavioral evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Dixon

    Full Text Available Cognitive control is a fundamental skill reflecting the active use of task-rules to guide behavior and suppress inappropriate automatic responses. Prior work has traditionally used paradigms in which subjects are told when to engage cognitive control. Thus, surprisingly little is known about the factors that influence individuals' initial decision of whether or not to act in a reflective, rule-based manner. To examine this, we took three classic cognitive control tasks (Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, Go/No-Go task and created novel 'free-choice' versions in which human subjects were free to select an automatic, pre-potent action, or an action requiring rule-based cognitive control, and earned varying amounts of money based on their choices. Our findings demonstrated that subjects' decision to engage cognitive control was driven by an explicit representation of monetary rewards expected to be obtained from rule-use. Subjects rarely engaged cognitive control when the expected outcome was of equal or lesser value as compared to the value of the automatic response, but frequently engaged cognitive control when it was expected to yield a larger monetary outcome. Additionally, we exploited fMRI-adaptation to show that the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC represents associations between rules and expected reward outcomes. Together, these findings suggest that individuals are more likely to act in a reflective, rule-based manner when they expect that it will result in a desired outcome. Thus, choosing to exert cognitive control is not simply a matter of reason and willpower, but rather, conforms to standard mechanisms of value-based decision making. Finally, in contrast to current models of LPFC function, our results suggest that the LPFC plays a direct role in representing motivational incentives.

  12. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  13. The Effect of Task Duration on Event-Based Prospective Memory: A Multinomial Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Tang, Weihai; Liu, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    Remembering to perform an action when a specific event occurs is referred to as Event-Based Prospective Memory (EBPM). This study investigated how EBPM performance is affected by task duration by having university students ( n = 223) perform an EBPM task that was embedded within an ongoing computer-based color-matching task. For this experiment, we separated the overall task's duration into the filler task duration and the ongoing task duration. The filler task duration is the length of time between the intention and the beginning of the ongoing task, and the ongoing task duration is the length of time between the beginning of the ongoing task and the appearance of the first Prospective Memory (PM) cue. The filler task duration and ongoing task duration were further divided into three levels: 3, 6, and 9 min. Two factors were then orthogonally manipulated between-subjects using a multinomial processing tree model to separate the effects of different task durations on the two EBPM components. A mediation model was then created to verify whether task duration influences EBPM via self-reminding or discrimination. The results reveal three points. (1) Lengthening the duration of ongoing tasks had a negative effect on EBPM performance while lengthening the duration of the filler task had no significant effect on it. (2) As the filler task was lengthened, both the prospective and retrospective components show a decreasing and then increasing trend. Also, when the ongoing task duration was lengthened, the prospective component decreased while the retrospective component significantly increased. (3) The mediating effect of discrimination between the task duration and EBPM performance was significant. We concluded that different task durations influence EBPM performance through different components with discrimination being the mediator between task duration and EBPM performance.

  14. Correlates of academic procrastination: discomfort, task aversiveness, and task capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, N; Marshevsky, S; Sadeh, C

    1995-03-01

    The relationships among five aspects of academic procrastination--behavioral delay, personal upset about the delay, task aversiveness, task capability, and the desire to reduce behavioral delay--were investigated in 10th-grade Israeli students (N = 195). Upset about delay was weakly related to delay itself, and--unlike delay--was strongly related to perceived capability to perform academic tasks and to the desire to change delaying behavior. Students delayed more on academic tasks labeled unpleasant than pleasant, were neutral in between, and were correspondingly more upset about the former than the latter. They more frequently acknowledged reasons for academic procrastination that were less threatening to their self-image (e.g., problems in time management) than reasons that were more threatening (e.g., lack of ability). Interest in reducing delay is related more to self-perceived ability to handle tasks than to time spent procrastinating or reasons given for procrastinating.

  15. Assessing the Effects of Momentary Priming on Memory Retention During an Interference Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    A memory aid, that used brief (33ms) presentations of previously learned information (target words), was assessed on its ability to reinforce memory for target words while the subject was performing an interference task. The interference task required subjects to learn new words and thus interfered with their memory of the target words. The brief presentation (momentary memory priming) was hypothesized to refresh the subjects memory of the target words. 143 subjects, in a within subject design, were given a 33ms presentation of the target memory words during the interference task in a treatment condition and a blank 33ms presentation in the control condition. The primary dependent measure, memory loss over the interference trial, was not significantly different between the two conditions. The memory prime did not appear to hinder the subjects performance on the interference task. This paper describes the experiment and the results along with suggestions for future research.

  16. Value Driven Information Processing and Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Report Value Driven Information Processing and Fusion Award Number: W911NF1210383 Biao Chen ( PI ) Phone: (315)443-3332 Email: bichen@syr.edu Syracuse...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The objective of the project is to develop a general framework for value driven decentralized information processing...information value metrics as called for by different inference tasks. Major theoretical breakthroughs have been obtained under this effort

  17. Modeling Network Interdiction Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    allow professionals and families to stay in touch through voice or video calls. Power grids provide electricity to homes , offices, and recreational...instances using IBMr ILOGr CPLEXr Optimization Studio V12.6. For each instance, two solutions are deter- mined. First, the MNDP-a model is solved with no...three values: 0.25, 0.50, or 0.75. The DMP-a model is solved for the various random network instances using IBMr ILOGr CPLEXr Optimization Studio V12.6

  18. The influence of trial order on learning from reward vs. punishment in a probabilistic categorization task: experimental and computational analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A; Gluck, Mark A; Herzallah, Mohammad M; Myers, Catherine E

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that trial ordering affects cognitive performance, but this has not been tested using category-learning tasks that differentiate learning from reward and punishment. Here, we tested two groups of healthy young adults using a probabilistic category learning task of reward and punishment in which there are two types of trials (reward, punishment) and three possible outcomes: (1) positive feedback for correct responses in reward trials; (2) negative feedback for incorrect responses in punishment trials; and (3) no feedback for incorrect answers in reward trials and correct answers in punishment trials. Hence, trials without feedback are ambiguous, and may represent either successful avoidance of punishment or failure to obtain reward. In Experiment 1, the first group of subjects received an intermixed task in which reward and punishment trials were presented in the same block, as a standard baseline task. In Experiment 2, a second group completed the separated task, in which reward and punishment trials were presented in separate blocks. Additionally, in order to understand the mechanisms underlying performance in the experimental conditions, we fit individual data using a Q-learning model. Results from Experiment 1 show that subjects who completed the intermixed task paradoxically valued the no-feedback outcome as a reinforcer when it occurred on reinforcement-based trials, and as a punisher when it occurred on punishment-based trials. This is supported by patterns of empirical responding, where subjects showed more win-stay behavior following an explicit reward than following an omission of punishment, and more lose-shift behavior following an explicit punisher than following an omission of reward. In Experiment 2, results showed similar performance whether subjects received reward-based or punishment-based trials first. However, when the Q-learning model was applied to these data, there were differences between subjects in the reward

  19. Pre-stimulus EEG effects related to response speed, task switching and upcoming response hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, Thomas Edward; Lindsen, Job Pieter; de Jong, Ritske

    2006-04-01

    The task-switching paradigm provides an opportunity to study whether oscillatory relations in neuronal activity are involved in switching between and maintaining task sets. The EEG of subjects performing an alternating runs [Rogers, R.D., Monsell, S., 1995. Costs of a predictable switch between simple cognitive tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 124, 207-231] task-switching task was analyzed using event-related potentials, the lateralized readiness potential, instantaneous amplitude and the phase-locking value [Lachaux, J.P., Rodriguez, E., Martinirie, J., Varela, F.J., 1999. Measuring phase synchrony in brain signals. Human Brain Mapping 8, 194-208]. The two tasks differed in the relevant modality (visual versus auditory) and the hand with which responses were to be given. The mixture model [de Jong, R., 2000. An intention driven account of residual switch costs. In: Monsell, S., Driver, J. (Eds.), Attention and Performance XVII: Cognitive Control. MIT Press, Cambridge] was used to assign pre-stimulus switch probabilities to switch trials based on reaction time; these probabilities were used to create a fast-slow distinction between trials on both switch and hold trials. Results showed both time- and time-frequency-domain effects, during the intervals preceding stimuli, of switching versus maintenance, response speed of the upcoming stimulus, and response hand. Of potential importance for task-switching theory were interactions between reaction time by switch-hold trial type that were found for a frontal slow negative potential and the lateralized readiness potential during the response-stimulus interval, indicating that effective preparation for switch trials involves different anticipatory activity than for hold trials. Theta-band oscillatory activity during the pre-stimulus period was found to be higher when subsequent reaction times were shorter, but this response speed effect did not interact with trial type. The response hand of the upcoming

  20. Short-term cardiovascular effects of mental tasks : physiology, experiments and computer simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roon, Arie Matthijs van

    1998-01-01

    Performing a mental task has effects on the cardiovascular system. The magnitude of these cardiovascular changes are related to task difficulty. To quantify these changes, heart rate and blood pressure are measured during rest and task conditions. Mean values as well as the variability of heart rate

  1. Simultaneity, Sequentiality, and Speed: Organizational Messages about Multiple-Task Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Keri K.; Cho, Jaehee K.; Ballard, Dawna I.

    2012-01-01

    Workplace norms for task completion increasingly value speed and the ability to accomplish multiple tasks at once. This study situates this popularized issue of multitasking within the context of chronemics scholarship by addressing related issues of simultaneity, sequentiality, and speed. Ultimately, we consider 2 multiple-task completion…

  2. The influence of age on learning a locomotor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hedel, H J A; Dietz, V

    2004-09-01

    Knowledge about locomotor task performance and learning in the elderly is important in optimizing rehabilitation strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between young and elderly subjects in the acquisition and performance of a precision locomotor task, with full and restricted vision. The subjects walked on a treadmill and had to step as low as possible over an obstacle, without touching it. They received acoustic warning and feedback signals, indicating obstacle appearance and foot clearance, respectively. Full vision was provided during the first two runs and became restricted during the third run. The number of obstacle hits and adaptations in foot clearance, leg muscle activity, range of motion of leg joints and swing phase duration were assessed. With vision, the performance improved in both groups. Restricted vision reduced the task accuracy in both the young and the elderly. However, only the young subjects regained optimal foot clearance with practice. Elderly subjects rely more on visual control when acquiring and performing a precision locomotor task. We suggest that this is due to an impaired function of proprioceptive feedback mechanisms, which can replace visual information in young subjects. In the elderly, therapeutical attention should be directed towards optimizing the use of the remaining proprioceptive inputs.

  3. Basal functional connectivity within the anterior temporal network is associated with performance on declarative memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Natalina; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Barbeau, Emmanuel; Soulier, Elisabeth; Guye, Maxime; Didic, Mira; Felician, Olivier

    2011-09-15

    Spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at rest, exhibit a temporally coherent activity thought to reflect functionally relevant networks. Antero-mesial temporal structures are the site of early pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease and have been shown to be critical for declarative memory. Our study aimed at exploring the functional impact of basal connectivity of an anterior temporal network (ATN) on declarative memory. A heterogeneous group of subjects with varying performance on tasks assessing memory was therefore selected, including healthy subjects and patients with isolated memory complaint, amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using Independent Component Analysis on resting-state fMRI, we extracted a relevant anterior temporal network (ATN) composed of the perirhinal and entorhinal cortex, the hippocampal head, the amygdala and the lateral temporal cortex extending to the temporal pole. A default mode network and an executive-control network were also selected to serve as control networks. We first compared basal functional connectivity of the ATN between patients and control subjects. Relative to controls, patients exhibited significantly increased functional connectivity in the ATN during rest. Specifically, voxel-based analysis revealed an increase within the inferior and superior temporal gyrus and the uncus. In the patient group, positive correlations between averaged connectivity values of ATN and performance on anterograde and retrograde object-based memory tasks were observed, while no correlation was found with other evaluated cognitive measures. These correlations were specific to the ATN, as no correlation between performance on memory tasks and the other selected networks was found. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that basal connectivity inside the ATN network has a functional role in

  4. Value-driven ERM: making ERM an engine for simultaneous value creation and value protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celona, John; Driver, Jeffrey; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Enterprise risk management (ERM) began as an effort to integrate the historically disparate silos of risk management in organizations. More recently, as recognition has grown of the need to cover the upside risks in value creation (financial and otherwise), organizations and practitioners have been searching for the means to do this. Existing tools such as heat maps and risk registers are not adequate for this task. Instead, a conceptually new value-driven framework is needed to realize the promise of enterprise-wide coverage of all risks, for both value protection and value creation. The methodology of decision analysis provides the means of capturing systemic, correlated, and value-creation risks on the same basis as value protection risks and has been integrated into the value-driven approach to ERM described in this article. Stanford Hospital and Clinics Risk Consulting and Strategic Decisions Group have been working to apply this value-driven ERM at Stanford University Medical Center. © 2011 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  5. Learners’ L1 Use in a Task-based Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Rui; Du, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades, strong theoretical and pedagogical arguments have been made advocating for task-based activities in the language-learning context. However, many teachers have been reluctant to in- corporate task-based activities into their teaching practices due to concerns about learners......’ extensive L1 use and off-task talk. Informed by sociocultural theory, this study explored the extent to which L1s and their func- tions were used when performing tasks. The subjects were beginner-level lower-secondary school learners of Chinese. The data shows that learners have a high amount of L1 use......, but with only a very small amount oc- curring for off-task talk across tasks. L1 use mainly occurred in learners’ efforts to mediate completion of the tasks. The findings highlight the role of L1 in foreign language learning and suggest that L1 use is associated with a number of factors, such as task types...

  6. Cosmetology Series. Duty Task List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for three occupations in the cosmetology series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  7. The task of landscape ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, A.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Smidt, de J.; Wassen, M.

    2007-01-01

    This final chapter is a personal reflection of the authors on this book. To find an answer to the question what the task is of landscape ecology, we split the question in two parts. The first past of the question is about science for society: what is the task of landscape ecology in a changing

  8. Human-System task integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Defence research programme Human-System Task Integration aims at acquiring knowledge for the optimal cooperation between human and computer, under the following constraints: freedom of choice in decisions to automate and multiple, dynamic task distributions. This paper

  9. Science 102: This Month's Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This task asks readers to figure out why when you stir a cup of hot liquid and tap on the side of the cup with a spoon, the pitch of sound starts low and ends up high. The solution to last month's tasks relating to the circumference of the Earth and how many stars are in the (visible) sky is also presented.

  10. SPARED RECOGNITION CAPACITY IN ELDERLY AND CLOSED-HEAD-INJURY SUBJECTS WITH CLINICAL MEMORY DEFICITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, J.M.; Berg, I.J.; Deelman, B.G.

    This study describes the performance of three groups of subjects on a pictorial forced-recognition task, the Hundred Pictures Test. The aim was to determine whether subjects with memory deficits (elderly and closed-head-injured subjects) would perform as well as healthy young subjects, both on

  11. [The characteristics of cortical interactions in high and low verbal creative subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, I V; Vol'f, N V; Razumnikova, O M

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of cortical interactions depending on level of creative achievements were investigated in 40 right-handed subjects (22 men and 18 women). The subjects were divided into the two groups with high and low ability by the originality score median split. EEG was recorded in rest and during task performance (the verbal creative task "Cognitive synthesis"). EEG coherence was computed in the six frequency range from 4 to 30 Hz. Total values of coherence for each of 16 sites, calculated separately for intrahemispheric and interhemispheric connections were analyzed. It was revealed that subjects with higher originality scores (OS) in comparison to low original ones were characterized by decreased the theta 1.2 rhythms interhemispheric coherence, that was expressed in the frontal cortex, and increased beta1-rhythm interhemispheric coherence in the occipital and temporoparietal regions of the brain. The obtained results are discussed from the point of view of the contribution of the right and left hemispheres of the brain to processes "top-down" and "bottom-up" regulation during creative thinking.

  12. Caffeine improves anticipatory processes in task switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieges, Zoe; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials

  13. The Effect of Task Duration on Event-Based Prospective Memory: A Multinomial Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Remembering to perform an action when a specific event occurs is referred to as Event-Based Prospective Memory (EBPM. This study investigated how EBPM performance is affected by task duration by having university students (n = 223 perform an EBPM task that was embedded within an ongoing computer-based color-matching task. For this experiment, we separated the overall task’s duration into the filler task duration and the ongoing task duration. The filler task duration is the length of time between the intention and the beginning of the ongoing task, and the ongoing task duration is the length of time between the beginning of the ongoing task and the appearance of the first Prospective Memory (PM cue. The filler task duration and ongoing task duration were further divided into three levels: 3, 6, and 9 min. Two factors were then orthogonally manipulated between-subjects using a multinomial processing tree model to separate the effects of different task durations on the two EBPM components. A mediation model was then created to verify whether task duration influences EBPM via self-reminding or discrimination. The results reveal three points. (1 Lengthening the duration of ongoing tasks had a negative effect on EBPM performance while lengthening the duration of the filler task had no significant effect on it. (2 As the filler task was lengthened, both the prospective and retrospective components show a decreasing and then increasing trend. Also, when the ongoing task duration was lengthened, the prospective component decreased while the retrospective component significantly increased. (3 The mediating effect of discrimination between the task duration and EBPM performance was significant. We concluded that different task durations influence EBPM performance through different components with discrimination being the mediator between task duration and EBPM performance.

  14. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  15. Selective attention to task-irrelevant emotional distractors is unaffected by the perceptual load associated with a foreground task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hindi Attar

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that emotionally arousing stimuli are preferentially processed in the human brain. Whether or not this preference persists under increased perceptual load associated with a task at hand remains an open question. Here we manipulated two possible determinants of the attentional selection process, perceptual load associated with a foreground task and the emotional valence of concurrently presented task-irrelevant distractors. As a direct measure of sustained attentional resource allocation in early visual cortex we used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs elicited by distinct flicker frequencies of task and distractor stimuli. Subjects either performed a detection (low load or discrimination (high load task at a centrally presented symbol stream that flickered at 8.6 Hz while task-irrelevant neutral or unpleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS flickered at a frequency of 12 Hz in the background of the stream. As reflected in target detection rates and SSVEP amplitudes to both task and distractor stimuli, unpleasant relative to neutral background pictures more strongly withdrew processing resources from the foreground task. Importantly, this finding was unaffected by the factor 'load' which turned out to be a weak modulator of attentional processing in human visual cortex.

  16. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  17. Desynchronization of Theta-Phase Gamma-Amplitude Coupling during a Mental Arithmetic Task in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Won Kim

    Full Text Available Theta-phase gamma-amplitude coupling (TGC measurement has recently received attention as a feasible method of assessing brain functions such as neuronal interactions. The purpose of this electroencephalographic (EEG study is to understand the mechanisms underlying the deficits in attentional control in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD by comparing the power spectra and TGC at rest and during a mental arithmetic task.Nineteen-channel EEGs were recorded from 97 volunteers (including 53 subjects with ADHD from a camp for hyperactive children under two conditions (rest and task performance. The EEG power spectra and the TGC data were analyzed. Correlation analyses between the Intermediate Visual and Auditory (IVA continuous performance test (CPT scores and EEG parameters were performed.No significant difference in the power spectra was detected between the groups at rest and during task performance. However, TGC was reduced during the arithmetic task in the ADHD group compared with the normal group (F = 16.70, p < 0.001. The TGC values positively correlated with the IVA CPT scores but negatively correlated with theta power.Our findings suggest that desynchronization of TGC occurred during the arithmetic task in ADHD children. TGC in ADHD children is expected to serve as a promising neurophysiological marker of network deactivation during attention-demanding tasks.

  18. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  19. EFFORTS Sub-task report on task 4.1: Experimental Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Bay, Niels

    1998-01-01

    Task 4.1 is a sub-task of task 4: Physical modelling validation. In sub-task 4.1 the existing experimental techniques has been conditioned to the tasks ahead in physical modelling.......Task 4.1 is a sub-task of task 4: Physical modelling validation. In sub-task 4.1 the existing experimental techniques has been conditioned to the tasks ahead in physical modelling....

  20. Interference between postural control and spatial vs. non-spatial auditory reaction time tasks in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Redfern, Mark S; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether spatial aspects of an information processing task influence dual-task interference. Two groups (Older/Young) of healthy adults participated in dual-task experiments. Two auditory information processing tasks included a frequency discrimination choice reaction time task (non-spatial task) and a lateralization choice reaction time task (spatial task). Postural tasks included combinations of standing with eyes open or eyes closed on either a fixed floor or a sway-referenced floor. Reaction times and postural sway via center of pressure were recorded. Baseline measures of reaction time and sway were subtracted from the corresponding dual-task results to calculate reaction time task costs and postural task costs. Reaction time task cost increased with eye closure (p = 0.01), sway-referenced flooring (p < 0.0001), and the spatial task (p = 0.04). Additionally, a significant (p = 0.05) task x vision x age interaction indicated that older subjects had a significant vision X task interaction whereas young subjects did not. However, when analyzed by age group, the young group showed minimal differences in interference for the spatial and non-spatial tasks with eyes open, but showed increased interference on the spatial relative to non-spatial task with eyes closed. On the contrary, older subjects demonstrated increased interference on the spatial relative to the non-spatial task with eyes open, but not with eyes closed. These findings suggest that visual-spatial interference may occur in older subjects when vision is used to maintain posture.