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Sample records for subjective sleep improvements

  1. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves subjective sleep quality in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chou-Chin; Huang, Hui-Chuan; Yang, Mei-Chen; Lee, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Chun-Yao; Wu, Yao-Kuang

    2014-10-01

    Poor sleep quality is often reported among patients with COPD. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is beneficial in improving exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, its benefit in terms of sleep quality in patients with COPD remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PR on sleep quality of patients with COPD. Thirty-four subjects with COPD were studied. All subjects participated in a 12-week (2 sessions/week) hospital-based out-patient PR study. Baseline and post-PR status were evaluated by spirometry, a sleep questionnaire (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), a disease-specific questionnaire of HRQOL (St George Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ]), cardiopulmonary exercise testing, respiratory muscle strength, and the Borg dyspnea scale. Mean FEV1/FVC in the subjects was 0.49 ± 0.13, and the mean FEV1 was 1.06 ± 0.49 L/min (49.7 ± 18.0% of predicted). After PR, the PSQI score decreased from 9.41 ± 4.33 to 7.82 ± 3.90 (P 5 also decreased (85.3-64.7%, P = .006). There were significant improvements in HRQOL (SGRQ, P = .003), exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake, P rate, P sleep quality, along with concurrent improvements in HRQOL and exercise capacity. PR is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment to improve sleep quality in patients with COPD and should be part of their clinical management. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. Broadband Sound Administration Improves Sleep Onset Latency in Healthy Subjects in a Model of Transient Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Ludovico Messineo; Ludovico Messineo; Ludovico Messineo; Luigi Taranto-Montemurro; Scott A. Sands; Scott A. Sands; Melania D. Oliveira Marques; Melania D. Oliveira Marques; Ali Azabarzin; David Andrew Wellman

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundInsomnia is a major public health problem in western countries. Previous small pilot studies showed that the administration of constant white noise can improve sleep quality, increase acoustic arousal threshold, and reduce sleep onset latency. In this randomized controlled trial, we tested the effect of surrounding broadband sound administration on sleep onset latency, sleep architecture, and subjective sleep quality in healthy subjects.MethodsEighteen healthy subjects were studied ...

  3. Broadband Sound Administration Improves Sleep Onset Latency in Healthy Subjects in a Model of Transient Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messineo, Ludovico; Taranto-Montemurro, Luigi; Sands, Scott A; Oliveira Marques, Melania D; Azabarzin, Ali; Wellman, David Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Insomnia is a major public health problem in western countries. Previous small pilot studies showed that the administration of constant white noise can improve sleep quality, increase acoustic arousal threshold, and reduce sleep onset latency. In this randomized controlled trial, we tested the effect of surrounding broadband sound administration on sleep onset latency, sleep architecture, and subjective sleep quality in healthy subjects. Eighteen healthy subjects were studied with two overnight sleep studies approximately one week apart. They were exposed in random order to normal environmental noise (40.1 [1.3] dB) or to broadband sound administration uniformly distributed in the room by two speakers (46.0 [0.9] dB). To model transient insomnia, subjects went to bed ("lights out") 90 min before usual bedtime. Broadband sound administration reduced sleep onset latency to stage 2 sleep (time from lights out to first epoch of non-rapid eye movement-sleep stage 2) (19 [16] vs. 13 [23] min, p = 0.011; median reduction 38% baseline). In a subgroup reporting trouble initiating sleep at home (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index section 2 score ≥ 1), sound administration improved subjective sleep quality (p = 0.037) and the frequency of arousals from sleep (p = 0.03). In an experimental model of transient insomnia in young healthy individuals, broadband sound administration significantly reduced sleep onset latency by 38% compared to normal environmental noise. These findings suggest that broadband sound administration might be helpful to minimize insomnia symptoms in selected individuals.

  4. Broadband Sound Administration Improves Sleep Onset Latency in Healthy Subjects in a Model of Transient Insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Messineo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInsomnia is a major public health problem in western countries. Previous small pilot studies showed that the administration of constant white noise can improve sleep quality, increase acoustic arousal threshold, and reduce sleep onset latency. In this randomized controlled trial, we tested the effect of surrounding broadband sound administration on sleep onset latency, sleep architecture, and subjective sleep quality in healthy subjects.MethodsEighteen healthy subjects were studied with two overnight sleep studies approximately one week apart. They were exposed in random order to normal environmental noise (40.1 [1.3] dB or to broadband sound administration uniformly distributed in the room by two speakers (46.0 [0.9] dB. To model transient insomnia, subjects went to bed (“lights out” 90 min before usual bedtime.ResultsBroadband sound administration reduced sleep onset latency to stage 2 sleep (time from lights out to first epoch of non-rapid eye movement-sleep stage 2 (19 [16] vs. 13 [23] min, p = 0.011; median reduction 38% baseline. In a subgroup reporting trouble initiating sleep at home (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index section 2 score ≥ 1, sound administration improved subjective sleep quality (p = 0.037 and the frequency of arousals from sleep (p = 0.03.ConclusionIn an experimental model of transient insomnia in young healthy individuals, broadband sound administration significantly reduced sleep onset latency by 38% compared to normal environmental noise. These findings suggest that broadband sound administration might be helpful to minimize insomnia symptoms in selected individuals.

  5. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...... with antipsychotics. All participants gradually tapered the use of benzodiazepines after randomization to add-on treatment with melatonin versus placebo. Here we report a subsample of 23 patients undergoing sleep recordings (one-night polysomnography) and 55 patients participating in subjective sleep quality ratings....... Melatonin had no effect on objective sleep efficiency, but significantly improved self-reported sleep quality. Reduced benzodiazepine dosage at the 24-week follow-up was associated with a significantly decreased proportion of stage 2 sleep. These results indicate that prolonged-release melatonin has some...

  6. Does subjective sleep quality improve by a walking intervention? A real-world study in a Japanese workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hikaru; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Yoshimura, Reiji; Nakamura, Jun

    2016-10-24

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a 4-week walking intervention on subjective sleep quality. A prospective open-label study. A total of 490 healthy workers were included in the study. The 490 participants were divided into a group of 214 participants with exercise habits (exercising group, EG) and a group of 276 participants without exercise habits (non-EG). A walking intervention with a target of walking 10 000 steps daily for 4 weeks. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire was administered twice (before the start and after the end of the study). Overall, the walking intervention improved the participants' PSQI global score, sleep latency (minutes), sleep duration (hours), perceived sleep quality factor and daily disturbance factor. Among the EG participants, the walking intervention significantly improved the PSQI global score and perceived sleep quality. Among the non-EG participants, the walking intervention significantly improved the PSQI global score, sleep latency, sleep duration and perceived sleep quality. A walking intervention might reduce the sleep latency and increase total sleep duration in working persons without exercise habits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Prolonged release melatonin for improving sleep in totally blind subjects: a pilot placebo-controlled multicenter trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Roth,1 Tali Nir,2 Nava Zisapel2,3 1Henry Ford Sleep Disorders Center, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Neurim Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Tel Aviv, Israel; 3Department of Neurobiology Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Introduction: Melatonin, secreted by the pineal gland during the night phase, is a regulator of the biological clock and sleep tendency. Totally blind subjects frequently report severe, periodic sleep problems, with 50%–75% of cases displaying non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder (N24HSWD due to inability to synchronize with the environmental day–night cycle. Melatonin immediate-release preparations are reportedly effective in N24HSWD. Here, we studied the efficacy and safety of prolonged-release melatonin (PRM, a registered drug for insomnia, for sleep disorders in totally blind subjects living in normal social environments. The primary endpoint was demonstration of clinically meaningful effects on sleep duration (upper confidence interval [CI] limit >20 minutes whether significant or not to allow early decision-making on further drug development in this indication. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov registry – NCT00972075. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled proof-of-principle study, 13 totally blind subjects had 2 weeks' placebo run-in, 6 weeks' randomized (1:1 PRM (Circadin® or placebo nightly, and 2 weeks' placebo run-out. Outcome measures included daily voice recorded sleep diary, Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC, WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5, and safety. Results: Mean nightly sleep duration improved by 43 minutes in the PRM and 16 minutes in the placebo group (mean difference: 27 minutes, 95% CI: -14.4 to 69 minutes; P=0.18; effect size: 0.82 meeting the primary endpoint. Mean sleep latency decreased by 29 minutes with PRM over placebo (P=0.13; effect size: 0.92 and nap duration decreased in the PRM but not placebo group. The variability in sleep onset/offset and

  8. Subjective Sleep Experience During Shuttle Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Slack, Kelley; Locke, James; Patterson, Holly; Faulk, Jeremy; Keeton, Kathryn; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    It is now known that for many astronauts, sleep is reduced in spaceflight. Given that sleep is intimately tied to performance, safety, health, and well being, it is important to characterize factors that hinder sleep in space, so countermeasures can be implemented. Lessons learned from current spaceflight can be used to inform the development of space habitats and mitigation strategies for future exploration missions. The purpose of this study was to implement a survey and one-on-one interviews to capture Shuttle flyers' subjective assessment of the factors that interfered with a "good nights sleep" during their missions. Strategies that crewmembers reported using to improve their sleep quality during spaceflight were also discussed. Highlights from the interview data are presented here.

  9. Does sleep improve memory organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi eTakeuchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep can integrate information into existing memory networks, look for common patterns and distill overarching rules, or simply stabilize and strengthen the memory exactly as it was learned. Recent research has shown that sleep facilitates abstraction of gist information as well as integration across multiple memories, insight into hidden solutions, and even the ability to make creative connections between distantly related ideas and concepts. To investigate the effect of sleep on memory organization, thirty-five normal volunteers were randomly assigned either to the sleep (n=17 or wake group (n=18. The sleep subjects performed the Japanese Verbal Learning Test (JVLT, a measure of learning and memory, three times in the evening, and slept. On the following morning (9 hours later, they were asked to recall the words on the list. The wake subjects took the same test in the morning, and were asked to recall the words in the same time interval as in the sleep group. The Semantic Clustering Ratio (SCR, divided by the total number of words recalled, was used as an index of memory organization. Our main interest was whether the sleep subjects elicit a greater increase in this measure from the third to the fourth assessments. Time-by-group interaction effect on SCR was not significant between the sleep group and wake group as a whole. Meanwhile, the change in the SCR between the third and fourth trials was negatively correlated with duration of nocturnal waking in the sleep group, but not other sleep indices. Based on this observation, further analysis was conducted for subjects in the sleep group who awoke nocturnally for less than 60 minutes for comparison with the wake group. A significant time-by-group interaction was noted; these good-sleepers showed a significantly greater improvement in the memory index compared with the wake subjects. These results provide the first suggestion that sleep may enhance memory organization, which requires further

  10. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  11. Predictors of improvement in subjective sleep quality reported by older adults following group-based cognitive behavior therapy for sleep maintenance and early morning awakening insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kennaway, David J

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment for insomnia. However, individualized administration is costly and often results in substantial variability in treatment response across individual patients, particularly so for older adults. Group-based administration has demonstrated impressive potential for a brief and inexpensive answer to the effective treatment of insomnia in the older population. It is important to identify potential predictors of response to such a treatment format to guide clinicians when selecting the most suitable treatment for their patients. The aim of our study was to identify factors that predict subjective sleep quality of older adults following group-based administration of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Eighty-six adults (41 men; mean age, 64.10 y; standard deviation [SD], 6.80) with sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia were selected from a community-based sample to participate in a 4-week group-based treatment program of CBT-I. Participants were required to complete 7-day sleep diaries and a comprehensive battery of questionnaires related to sleep quality and daytime functioning. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to identify factors predicting subjective sleep quality immediately following treatment and at 3-month follow-up. Sleep diaries reported average nightly sleep efficiency (SE), which was used as the outcome measure of sleep quality. Participants with the greatest SE following treatment while controlling for pretreatment SE were relatively younger and had more confidence in their ability to sleep at pretreatment. These characteristics may be useful to guide clinicians when considering the use of a group-based CBT-I for sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia in older adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Sleep Hygiene Education on Subjective Sleep Quality and Academic Performance

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    Erkan Sahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sleep problems are common in students with one third of university students reporting insufficient sleep. It is known that sleep quality and daytime sleepiness cause decrasing academic performans. For this reason we aimed to investigate the effects of a sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance of first year medical students. Material and Method: Self-reported sleep data and academic performance of 131 first grade medical students were collected. To all students enrolled Pittsburg Sleep Quality Scale in the assessment of sleep quality and Epworth Sleepiness Scale for assessment of daytime sleepiness in the evaluation.The students were divided into two subgroups and the intervention group received a 30 minute structured sleep hygiene education. Global academic performance was assessed by grade point average at the end of the year. Results: Mean Pittsburgh sleep quality index score of the students was 7.9±3.5 and 106 (82.8% of then had a score %u22655.After intervention, .the worse the initial sleep quality, the more improvement by the sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance. Discussion: An education on sleep hygiene might improve subjective sleep quality and academic performance of medical students.

  13. Evening dietary tryptophan improves post-sleep behavioral and brain measures of memory function in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, C.R.; Jonkman, L.M.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Deutz, N.E.P.

    2006-01-01

    Brain serotonin function has been implicated in the control of sleep and sleep related memory dysfunctions are attributed to deficient brain serotonin activity. Depletion of the serotonin precursor tryptophan reduces brain serotonin function and is found to cause sleep abnormalities and cognitive

  14. ASSESSING SUBJECTIVE SLEEP QUALITY IN SENIORS

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    Iveta Kukliczová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed at assessing the quality of sleep in seniors. Another objective was to determine the impact of gender, age, type of residence and taking sleeping medication on the quality of sleep. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: Data were collected using the standardized Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaire. The sample comprised 146 seniors living in the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. The survey was conducted from January 2014 to the end of October 2014 in a long-term chronic care department of a selected hospital, two retirement homes and among seniors living in their own homes. Results: Thirty-five (24% seniors had their global PSQI scores of 5 (i.e. the highest score indication good sleep quality or less. The remaining 111 (76% participants were shown to suffer from impaired sleep quality as their global PSQI scores were 6 or higher. There were statistically significant differences in component scores between seniors with the global PSQI scores of 5 or less and those with higher scores. The best quality of sleep was observed in females, seniors in the 65–74 age category and those sharing their own homes with their spouses or partners. Conclusion: Subjective sleep quality assessment varies significantly with respect to gender, age, type of residence and use of sleeping medication. Keywords: sleep quality, PSQI, subjective assessment, senior.

  15. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: Associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Daniel B.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement rep...

  16. [Objective and subjective measures of sleep of shift-working nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Lee, Bumsuk; Tozato, Fusae; Gennai, Kazuko; Shiihara, Yasufumi

    2014-01-01

    To objectively evaluate sleep quality of shift-working nurses, we used an Actiwatch 2, a watch-like actigraphy device designed to measure sleep and wakefulness based on the amount of movement. Subjective sleep quality was also assessed using the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire. Nineteen shift-working nurses wore the Actiwatch 2 for 5 days. The monitoring began with 2 days of the morning shift, which were followed by a 16-hour night shift and a rest day. Sleep recordings were obtained four times: night sleep after the second morning shift ("sleep 1"), napping on the night shift ("nap 1"), daytime napping after the night shift ("nap 2") and night sleep after the night shift ("sleep 2"). Actiwatch 2 sleep measures include sleep onset latency, snooze time, sleep efficiency, and percent sleep. In addition, the perceived quality of sleep was obtained using five questions of the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire. Objective and subjective sleep quality were compared between different sleep/nap times: sleep 1 vs. sleep 2, and nap 1 vs. nap 2. Percent sleep of sleep 2 was higher than that of sleep 1. In almost all responses to the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire, the perceived quality of sleep on sleep 2 was better than those of sleep 1, and that of nap 2 was better than nap 1. A significant negative correlation was found between the perceived sleep quality of nap 2 and the characteristics of participants (age, number of children, and length of career). There were positive correlations between the perceived sleep quality of sleep and percent sleep, and between the perceived sleep quality of nap and sleep efficiency. Moreover, the perceived sleep quality of nap 2 tended to decrease in participants whose bedtime deviated from the mean value on morning shift days and the rest day. We found that perceived sleep quality is related to percent sleep, and that the perceived sleep quality of nap is related to sleep efficiency. The results suggest that improving

  17. Does sleep improve memory organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masashi; Furuta, Hisakazu; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Suzuki, Michio; Ochiai, Yoko; Hosokawa, Munehito; Matsui, Mie; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep can integrate information into existing memory networks, look for common patterns and distil overarching rules, or simply stabilize and strengthen the memory exactly as it was learned. Recent research has shown that sleep facilitates abstraction of gist information as well as integration across multiple memories, insight into hidden solutions, and even the ability to make creative connections between distantly related ideas and concepts. To investigate the effect of sleep on memory organization, 35 normal volunteers were randomly assigned either to the sleep (n = 17) or wake group (n = 18). The sleep subjects performed the Japanese Verbal Learning Test (JVLT), a measure of learning and memory, three times in the evening, and slept. On the following morning (9 h later), they were asked to recall the words on the list. The wake subjects took the same test in the morning, and were asked to recall the words in the same time interval as in the sleep group. The semantic clustering ratio (SCR), divided by the total number of words recalled, was used as an index of memory organization. Our main interest was whether the sleep subjects elicit a greater increase in this measure from the third to the fourth assessments. Time × Group interaction effect on SCR was not significant between the sleep group and wake group as a whole. Meanwhile, the change in the SCR between the third and fourth trials was negatively correlated with duration of nocturnal waking in the sleep group, but not other sleep indices. Based on this observation, further analysis was conducted for subjects in the sleep group who awoke nocturnally for memory index compared with the wake subjects. These results provide the first suggestion that sleep may enhance memory organization, which requires further study.

  18. Subjective sleep quality in urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Alimohamad; Farhadi, Mohammad; Kamrava, Seyed Kamran; Ghalehbaghi, Babak; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2012-02-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among adult populations and can have a significant effect on daytime activities. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of sleep problems and subjective sleep quality in the adult population of Tehran, Iran. From an urban community of Tehran, a random sample of 3400 adult men and women were selected by a cross-sectional design. Using the Persian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), subjects were interviewed face-to-face. There were 3114 completed questionnaires returned and analyzed. The mean age of the subjects was 43.57 (± SD 17.5) years. Overall 37% (95% CI: 35-39) of the population were categorized as poor sleepers. The PSQI > 5 showed 27% were males versus 35% among females. The global PSQI scores ranged from 4.20 ± 2.67 to 5.60 ± 3.74 for males and 5.03 ± 3.00 to 7.97 ± 4.31 for females by age groups. The difference across age groups for global PSQI score was significant in females (P rate of sleep complaints in this population-based study was high. Females, older adults, widows and separated couple were the most important risk factors for sleep disturbances.

  19. Habitual sleep durations and subjective sleep quality predict white matter differences in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakh Khalsa

    2017-06-01

    inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Improved sleep quality was positively correlated with FA in left caudate nucleus, white matter tracts to the left orbito-frontal region, the left anterior cingulum bundle and the white matter tracts associated with the right operculum and insula, and negatively correlated with MD in left orbito-frontal white matter and the left anterior cingulum bundle. Our findings suggest that reduced cumulative total sleep time (cTST and poorer subjective sleep quality are associated with subtle white matter micro-architectural changes. The regions we identified as being related to habitual sleep patterns were restricted to the frontal and temporal lobes, and the functions they support are consistent with those which have previously been demonstrated as being affected by short sleep durations (e.g., attention, cognitive control, memory. Examining how inter-individual differences in brain structure are related to habitual sleep patterns could help to shed light on the mechanisms by which sleep habits are associated with brain function, behaviour and cognition, as well as potentially the networks and systems responsible for variations in sleep patterns themselves.

  20. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Subjective Sleep Measures in Children: Self-Report

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin, Andrea M.; Bashore, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recently published a consensus statement on the recommended number of hours of sleep in infants and children. The AASM expert panel identified seven health categories in children influenced by sleep duration, a component of sleep quality. For optimal health and general function, children require a certain number of hours of sleep each night. Limited data exist to subjectively assess sleep in this population. Practitioners must evaluate overall sle...

  2. Sleep extension improves neurocognitive functions in chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Eliane A; Piaggi, Paolo; Dsurney, John; de Jonge, Lilian; Zhao, Xiong-ce; Mattingly, Megan S; Ramer, Angela; Gershengorn, Janet; Csako, Gyorgy; Cizza, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation and obesity, are associated with neurocognitive impairments. Effects of sleep deprivation and obesity on cognition are unknown, and the cognitive long-term effects of improvement of sleep have not been prospectively assessed in short sleeping, obese individuals. To characterize neurocognitive functions and assess its reversibility. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center. A cohort of 121 short-sleeping (Sleep extension (468±88 days) with life-style modifications. Neurocognitive functions, sleep quality and sleep duration. At baseline, 44% of the individuals had an impaired global deficit score (t-score 0-39). Impaired global deficit score was associated with worse subjective sleep quality (p = 0.02), and lower urinary dopamine levels (p = 0.001). Memory was impaired in 33%; attention in 35%; motor skills in 42%; and executive function in 51% of individuals. At the final evaluation (N = 74), subjective sleep quality improved by 24% (psleep duration increased by 11% by questionnaires (psleep quality and sleep efficiency, urinary free cortisol and dopamine and plasma total ghrelin accounted for 1/5 of the variability in global cognitive function. Drop-out rate. Chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals exhibit substantial neurocognitive deficits that are partially reversible upon improvement of sleep in a non-pharmacological way. These findings have clinical implications for large segments of the US population. www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898. NIDDK protocol 06-DK-0036.

  3. Subjective sleep disturbances and quality of life in chronic tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, J; Graco, M; Brown, D J; Schembri, R; Berlowitz, D J

    2015-08-01

    This is a cross-sectional survey. The objective of this study was to evaluate the subjective sleep disturbances and quality of life in chronic tetraplegia. This study was conducted in a community sample from Victoria, Australia. People with tetraplegia were mailed a survey battery including the following: demographic questions; Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS); Basic Nordic Sleepiness Questionnaire; Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ); Multivariate Apnoea Prediction Index and Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) Questionnaire. Scores were compared with the best available normative data. A total of 163 of 424 (38%) surveys were returned (77% male; 39% sensory and motor complete; mean age±s.d.=46±14 years; mean years since injury=11±8 years). The AQoL health utility score (0.31±0.29) was significantly lower than published population norms. FOSQ total (17.55±2.57) and KSS (3.93±2.27) scores were no different from the best available population data. People with tetraplegia reported worse sleep habits, symptoms and quality than a normal population, as indicated on 17 of 21 questions on the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis found that greater injury severity (coefficient (95% CI)=0.14 (0.10, 0.18)), increasing age (-0.004 (-0.008, -0.001)) and worse sleep symptoms (-0.005 (-0.009, -0.0003)) were all significantly associated with reduced quality of life. People with chronic tetraplegia experience more subjective sleep problems and worse quality of life than their able-bodied counterparts. Quality of life is related to injury severity, age and sleep symptoms. Treating the sleep disorders experienced by people living with tetraplegia has the potential to improve their health and well-being.

  4. No Effects of Successful Bidirectional SMR Feedback Training on Objective and Subjective Sleep in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsch, Olaf; Wilschut, Ellen S; Arns, Martijn; Bottenheft, Charelle; Valk, Pierre J L; Vermetten, Eric H G J M

    2017-10-31

    There is a growing interest in the application of psychophysiological signals in more applied settings. Unidirectional sensory motor rhythm-training (SMR) has demonstrated consistent effects on sleep. In this study the main aim was to analyze to what extent participants could gain voluntary control over sleep-related parameters and secondarily to assess possible influences of this training on sleep metrics. Bidirectional training of SMR as well as heart rate variability (HRV) was used to assess the feasibility of training these parameters as possible brain computer interfaces (BCI) signals, and assess effects normally associated with unidirectional SMR training such as the influence on objective and subjective sleep parameters. Participants (n = 26) received between 11 and 21 training sessions during 7 weeks in which they received feedback on their personalized threshold for either SMR or HRV activity, for both up- and down regulation. During a pre- and post-test a sleep log was kept and participants used a wrist actigraph. Participants were asked to take an afternoon nap on the first day at the testing facility. During napping, sleep spindles were assessed as well as self-reported sleep measures of the nap. Although the training demonstrated successful learning to increase and decrease SMR and HRV activity, no effects were found of bidirectional training on sleep spindles, actigraphy, sleep diaries, and self-reported sleep quality. As such it is concluded that bidirectional SMR and HRV training can be safely used as a BCI and participants were able to improve their control over physiological signals with bidirectional training, whereas the application of bidirectional SMR and HRV training did not lead to significant changes of sleep quality in this healthy population.

  5. The role of perceived sleep norms in subjective sleep appraisals and sleep-related illness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, Mazheruddin M; Lewis, Jerome A; Hamilton, James C; Tutek, Joshua; Emert, Sarah E; Witte, Tricia H; Lichstein, Kenneth L

    2017-06-23

    The present investigation sought to extend extant research on subjective sleep complaints by examining their relation to perceived sleep norms. Results from two studies showed that individuals' distress and illness behavior in response to symptoms of fatigue and non-restorative sleep was influenced by their perceptions of peer norms for those symptoms. Individuals who believed they experienced a greater degree of fatigue and non-restorative sleep than their peers reported more distress arising from those symptoms, and were also more likely to seek social support and medical treatment for them. Furthermore, participants who scored higher in neuroticism were more likely to believe they experienced worse fatigue and non-restorative sleep than their peers, and thus reported higher symptom-related distress, and higher likelihood of engaging in illness behaviors. These results provide preliminary evidence of the clinical relevance of perceived norms in the way individuals respond to and manage sleep related problems.

  6. Improving sleep quality interventions among menopausal women with sleep disturbances in Taiwan: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Chin; Tsao, Lee-Ing; Lin, Mei-Hsiang

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of improving sleep quality interventions in menopausal women with sleep disturbance. Sleep disturbances are an extensive and common problem among menopausal women. There is an increased trend in the use of non-pharmacological methods to alleviate sleep disturbances. Studies that have implemented two or more non-pharmacological strategies for menopausal women are scant. A repeat measurement with a randomized assignment was conducted. A total of 59 menopausal women with sleep disturbance were recruited and randomly assigned to experimental (n = 29) and control (n = 30) groups. Participants in the experimental group received four 2-hour improving sleep quality activities, whereas the control group received regular greeting calls. Sleep quality was measured prior to intervention, and on the 5th and 8th weeks by using the Pittsburg's Sleep Quality Index, and Actiwatch was worn before and during the 8 weeks of intervention. Generalized estimating equation was used to analyze data. The results revealed that subjective sleep quality had significant main effect in group and time. The findings of the objective measurement showed that participants in the experimental group had significantly shorter frequency of awakening time and increased sleep efficiency. The improving sleep quality intervention is a healthy and cost-effective method to improve sleep quality in community-dwelling menopausal women with sleep disturbance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Subjective Sleep Measures in Children: Self-Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Andrea M; Bashore, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recently published a consensus statement on the recommended number of hours of sleep in infants and children. The AASM expert panel identified seven health categories in children influenced by sleep duration, a component of sleep quality. For optimal health and general function, children require a certain number of hours of sleep each night. Limited data exist to subjectively assess sleep in this population. Practitioners must evaluate overall sleep quality not simply sleep duration. The purpose of this article is to provide a mini-review of the self-report sleep measures used in children. The authors individually completed a review of the literature for this article via an independent review followed by collaborative discussion. The subjective measures included in this mini-review have been used in children, but not all measures have reported psychometrics. Several tools included in this mini-review measure subjective sleep in children but with limited reliabilities or only preliminary psychometrics. Accurate measurement of self-reported sleep in children is critical to identify sleep problems in this population and further detect associated health problems. Ongoing studies are warranted to establish reliable and valid measures of self-reported sleep in children to accurately detect health problems associated with poor sleep quality. This mini-review of the literature is an important first step to identify the most reliable subjective sleep measures in children.

  8. Sleeping problems in Chinese illicit drug dependent subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinsong; Liao, Yanhui; He, Haoyu; Deng, Qijian; Zhang, Guanbai; Qi, Chang; Cui, Hangtao; Jiao, Bin; Yang, Mei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chen, Xiaogang; Hao, Wei; Liu, Tieqiao

    2015-02-19

    Illicit drug use/dependence has been recognized as a major problem. Clinical studies demonstrate that poor sleep quality is associated with increased frequency of drug use and relapse. However, few studies have addressed the issue of sleep quality among illicit drug dependent subjects. This cross-sectional study explored sleep quality in drug dependent subjects in China. We studied 2178 illicit drug dependent subjects from drug rehabilitation centres in Changsha and 2236 non-drug-using subjects, all of whom completed the self-report Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). We found that the prevalence of sleep disturbance was much higher in drug users (68.5%, PSQI >5; specifically, 80.24% in heroin users, 54.16% in methamphetamine users and 81.98% in ketamine users with PSQI >5) than non-users (26.4%, PSQI >5). Drug users had approximately twice the sleep latency than nondrug users (37.7 minutes V.S 18.4 minutes). Although drug users and non-users reported similar sleep duration (about 7.4 hours), drug users showed poorer subjective sleep quality and habitual sleep efficiency. They reported more sleep disturbance and need for sleep medications, more daytime dysfunction and poorer subjective sleep quality compared with nondrug users. The total PSQI score positively correlated with the duration of drug use (rp = 0.164, p sleep problems and cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and duration of drug use. Poor sleep quality is common among illicit drug dependent subjects. Long-term substance users had more sleep problems. Future research aiming at quantifying the benefits of treatment interventions should not neglect the influence of sleep problems. Gaining more insight into the impact of sleep quality on the addiction treatment could also help to target future intervention measures more effectively.

  9. Subjective sleep quality and sleep duration of patients in a psychiatric hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Matthias J; Olschinski, Christiane; Kundermann, Bernd; Cabanel, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Sleep complaints and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in patients with psychiatric disorders. During hospitalization the patients? condition may be even worse but little is known about the subjective sleep quality in psychiatric hospitals. Thus, we have investigated subjective sleep quality and mean sleep duration in patients with different psychiatric disorders at the end of hospitalization. For a period of one year, inpatients of a psychiatric hospital with diagnosis of substance use...

  10. Subjective sleep complaints indicate objective sleep problems in psychosomatic patients: a prospective polysomnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linden M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael Linden,1,2 Marie Dietz,1 Christian Veauthier,3 Ingo Fietze3 1Research Group Psychosomatic Rehabilitation, Charité University Medicine Berlin, 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Rehabilitation Centre Seehof, Teltow, 3Interdisciplinary Center of Sleep Medicine, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Objective: To elucidate the relationship between subjective complaints and polysomnographical parameters in psychosomatic patients.Method: A convenience sample of patients from a psychosomatic inpatient unit were classified according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI as very poor sleepers (PSQI >10, n=80 and good sleepers (PSQI <6, n=19. They then underwent a polysomnography and in the morning rated their previous night’s sleep using a published protocol (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin morning protocol [MP].Results: In the polysomnography, significant differences were found between very poor and good sleepers according to the PSQI with respect to sleep efficiency and time awake after sleep onset. When comparing objective PSG and subjective MP, the polysomnographical sleep onset latency was significantly positively correlated with the corresponding parameters of the MP: the subjective sleep onset latency in minutes and the subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency (very short, short, normal, long, very long were positively correlated with the sleep latency measured by polysomnography. The polysomnographical time awake after sleep onset (in minutes was positively correlated with the subjective time awake after sleep onset (in minutes, evaluation of time awake after sleep onset (seldom, normal often, and subjective restfulness. The polysomnographical total sleep time (TST was positively correlated with the subjective TST. Conversely, the polysomnographical TST was negatively correlated with the evaluation of TST (high polysomnographical TST was correlated with the subjective

  11. Differentiation chronic post traumatic stress disorder patients from healthy subjects using objective and subjective sleep-related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasian, Masoud; Jamalabadi, Hamidreza; Abedini, Mina; Ghadami, Mohammad R; Sepehry, Amir A; Knight, David C; Khazaie, Habibolah

    2017-05-22

    Sleep disturbance is common in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, prior work has demonstrated that there are inconsistencies between subjective and objective assessments of sleep disturbance in PTSD. Therefore, we investigated whether subjective or objective sleep assessment has greater clinical utility to differentiate PTSD patients from healthy subjects. Further, we evaluated whether the combination of subjective and objective methods improves the accuracy of classification into patient versus healthy groups, which has important diagnostic implications. We recruited 32 chronic war-induced PTSD patients and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects to participate in this study. Subjective (i.e. from three self-reported sleep questionnaires) and objective sleep-related data (i.e. from actigraphy scores) were collected from each participant. Subjective, objective, and combined (subjective and objective) sleep data were then analyzed using support vector machine classification. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for subjective variables were 89.2%, 89.3%, and 89%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for objective variables were 65%, 62.3%, and 67.8%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the aggregate variables (combination of subjective and objective variables) were 91.6%, 93.0%, and 90.3%, respectively. Our findings indicate that classification accuracy using subjective measurements is superior to objective measurements and the combination of both assessments appears to improve the classification accuracy for differentiating PTSD patients from healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of aging on sleep architecture in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorffner, Georg; Vitr, Martin; Anderer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents normative data on healthy sleep, as measured by polysomnography (PSG), from "supernormal" subjects across the age range from 20 to about 90 years. The data originates from the SIESTA project database established in the late 1990s. While that data has been published and used in research in many ways, the novelty of the current analysis is (a) the focus on normative data following the latest sleep staging standard (AASM 2012), and (b) the results after narrowing down the data set by excluding outliers due to disturbed sleep pattern that can occur in a sleep lab and are thus not examples of "normal" sleep. Results demonstrate interesting dependencies of sleep architecture on age, in particular a reduction in total sleep time and changes in sleep stage distributions toward lighter sleep, which differ in detail between the two genders.

  13. Comparison of Subjective and Objective Sleep Estimations in Patients with Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp S. Ritter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies have described but not formally tested discrepancies between subjective and objective measures of sleep. Study Objectives. To test the hypothesis that patients with bipolar disorder display a systematic bias to underestimate sleep duration and overestimate sleep latency. Methods. Actimetry was used to assess sleep latency and duration in 49 euthymic participants (bipolar = 21; healthy controls = 28 for 5–7 days. Participants simultaneously recorded estimated sleep duration and sleep latency on a daily basis via an online sleep diary. Group differences in the discrepancy between subjective and objective parameters were calculated using t-tests and corrected for multiple comparisons. Results. Patients with bipolar disorder significantly underestimated their sleep duration but did not overestimate their sleep latency compared to healthy controls. Conclusions. Studies utilizing diaries or questionnaires alone in patients with bipolar disorders may systematically underestimate sleep duration compared to healthy controls. The additional use of objective assessment methods such as actimetry is advisable.

  14. Poor sleep maintenance and subjective sleep quality are associated with postpartum maternal depression symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eliza M; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Stickgold, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Women are at increased risk of developing mood disorders during the postpartum period, and poor postpartum sleep may be a modifiable risk factor for the development of depression. This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between sleep variables and postpartum depression symptoms using wrist actigraphy and self-report surveys. Twenty-five healthy primiparous women were recruited from their outpatient obstetricians' offices from July 2009 through March 2010. Subjects wore wrist actigraphs for 1 week during the third trimester of pregnancy and again during the 2nd, 6th, 10th, and 14th weeks postpartum while completing sleep logs and sleep surveys. Subjective assessments of mood were collected at the end of each actigraph week. Subjective sleep assessments were strongly predictive of depression severity scores as measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) across all weeks (p sleep maintenance, such as sleep fragmentation, sleep efficiency, and wake time after sleep onset, were also significantly correlated with EPDS scores postpartum. However, there was no relationship between nocturnal sleep duration and EPDS scores. This study provides additional evidence that poor sleep maintenance as measured by wrist actigraphy, rather than lesser amounts of sleep, is associated with EPDS scores during the postpartum period and that subjective assessments of sleep may be more accurate predictors of postpartum depression symptoms than wrist actigraphy. It also supports the hypothesis that disrupted sleep may contribute to the development and extent of postpartum depression symptoms.

  15. Galantamine improves sleep quality in patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naharci, Mehmet Ilkin; Ozturk, Ahmet; Yasar, Halit; Cintosun, Umit; Kocak, Necmettin; Bozoglu, Ergun; Tasci, Ilker; Doruk, Huseyin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influences of cholinesterase inhibitors on sleep pattern and sleep disturbance. A total of 87 mild to moderate stage dementia patients who were not on cholinesterase enzyme inhibitor and memantine treatment were included in the study. The dementia patients were treated with donepezil, galantamine or rivastigmine, depending on the preference of the clinician. Fifty-five dementia patients (63.2 %) completed the study. Twenty-three elderly subjects, who had normal cognitive functions, were included in the study as the control group. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used for evaluating the sleep quality at the beginning and at the final assessment. The improvement in sleep quality was better with regard to changes in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores with galantamine treatment compared to the donepezil and the control groups. A significant decrease in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores was detected in the galantamine group after treatment. Although statistically not significant, rivastigmine decreased and donepezil increased the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores after treatment. Dementia patients who had a poor sleep quality (n: 36), the rate of improvement in sleep disturbance was 81.8 % in the galantamine group, 75 % in the rivastigmine, and 50 % in the donepezil group. Galantamine may be the first choice of cholinesterase inhibitor in mild to moderate dementia patients in terms of improving sleep quality.

  16. Sleep enhances nocturnal plasma ghrelin levels in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzaja, Andrea; Dalal, Mira A; Himmerich, Hubertus; Uhr, Manfred; Pollmächer, Thomas; Schuld, Andreas

    2004-06-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been shown to promote slow-wave sleep (SWS, non-REM sleep stages 3 and 4). Plasma levels of ghrelin are dependent on food intake and increase in sleeping subjects during the early part of the night. It is unknown whether sleep itself affects ghrelin levels or whether circadian networks are involved. Therefore, we studied the effect of sleep deprivation on nocturnal ghrelin secretion. In healthy male volunteers, plasma levels of ghrelin, cortisol, and human growth hormone (hGH) were measured during two experimental sessions of 24 h each: once when the subjects were allowed to sleep between 2300 and 0700 and once when they were kept awake throughout the night. During sleep, ghrelin levels increased during the early part of the night and decreased in the morning. This nocturnal increase was blunted during sleep deprivation, and ghrelin levels increased only slightly until the early morning. Ghrelin secretion during the first hours of sleep correlated positively with peak hGH concentrations. We conclude that the nocturnal increase in ghrelin levels is more likely to be caused by sleep-associated processes than by circadian influences. During the first hours of sleep, ghrelin might promote sleep-associated hGH secretion and contribute to the promotion of SWS.

  17. Improving sleep: outcomes from a worksite healthy sleep program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Mark W; Hazelton, Angela C; Moore, Wendy R; Jenkins, Sarah M; Clark, Matthew M; Hagen, Philip T

    2015-01-01

    Unhealthy and inadequate sleep is a common and significant problem impacting absenteeism, presenteeism, health, and productivity. This study aimed at analyzing the effect of a worksite-based healthy sleep program. Retrospective analysis of 53 adult members of a worksite wellness center who participated in an 8-week healthy sleep program and completed pre- and postintervention health behavior questionnaires. Following the intervention participants felt significantly more rested, more confident in their ability to deal with sleep problems, and more knowledgeable about sleep. In addition, they reported a reduction in their stress level, improved quality of life, and increase energy level. These results support the effectiveness of worksite programs designed to promote healthy sleep. Future randomized studies are needed to further investigate the effectiveness and optimal delivery of healthy sleep promotion.

  18. Subjectively impaired bed mobility in Parkinson disease affects sleep efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, M.; Sloun, R.J. van; Pevernagie, D.A.; Arends, J.B.; Cluitmans, P.J.; Bloem, B.R.; Overeem, S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired bed mobility (IBM) may be an important reason for the high prevalence of sleep insomnia in Parkinson disease (PD). Here we assessed the influence of subjectively IBM on both subjective and objective sleep parameters in insomnia PD patients with (PD+IBM) and without (PD-IBM)

  19. A "Sleep 101" Program for College Students Improves Sleep Hygiene Knowledge and Reduces Maladaptive Beliefs about Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Jacqueline D; Nash, Christina O; Walsh, Colleen M; Culnan, Elizabeth; Horsey, Sarah; Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Sensitizing young adults about sleep hygiene knowledge and helpful sleep attitudes may have the potential to instill long-lasting healthy sleep practices. Towards these ends, evaluation of psychoeducational program "Sleep 101" tailored to college students was undertaken. Following two weeks of sleep-log recordings, participants were randomly assigned to a Sleep 101 (experimental) condition or a sleep monitoring (control) condition. The Sleep 101 condition was comprised of two 90-minute workshops aimed to educate students about healthy sleep practices, helpful thoughts about sleep, and ways to improve sleep. The sleep monitoring group received a sleep hygiene handout and completed sleep logs for the study duration. Sleep 101 participants endorsed fewer maladaptive beliefs and attitudes about sleep, increased sleep hygiene knowledge, and reduced sleep onset latency compared to the sleep monitoring participants. Brief psychoeducational courses may be a cost-effective way to alleviate current, and/or prevent future, sleep problems in young adults.

  20. Effects on subjective and objective alertness and sleep in response to evening light exposure in older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, M; Scheuermaier, K D; Zhang, R; Dunne, S P; Guzik, A M; Silva, E J; Ronda, J M; Duffy, J F

    2011-10-31

    Evening bright light exposure is reported to ameliorate daytime sleepiness and age-related sleep complaints, and also delays the timing of circadian rhythms. We tested whether evening light exposure given to older adults with sleep-wake complaints would delay the timing of their circadian rhythms with respect to their sleep timing, thereby reducing evening sleepiness and improving subsequent sleep quality. We examined the impact of evening light exposure from two different light sources on subjective alertness, EEG activity during wakefulness, and sleep stages. Ten healthy older adults with sleep complaints (mean age=63.3 years; 6F) participated in a 13-day study. After three baseline days, circadian phase was assessed. On the evening of days 5-8 the subjects were exposed for 2h to either polychromatic blue-enriched white light or standard white fluorescent light, and on the following day circadian phase was re-assessed. Subjects were allowed to leave the laboratory during all but the two days when the circadian phase assessment took place. Evening assessments of subjective alertness, and wake and sleep EEG data were analyzed. Subjective alertness and wake EEG activity in the alpha range (9.75-11.25 Hz) were significantly higher during light exposures when compared to the pre-light exposure evening (plight exposures produced circadian phase shifts and significantly prolonged latency to rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep for both light groups (plight exposures was negatively correlated with REM sleep duration (plight exposure could benefit older adults with early evening sleepiness, without negatively impacting the subsequent sleep episode. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sleep extension improves neurocognitive functions in chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane A Lucassen

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation and obesity, are associated with neurocognitive impairments. Effects of sleep deprivation and obesity on cognition are unknown, and the cognitive long-term effects of improvement of sleep have not been prospectively assessed in short sleeping, obese individuals.To characterize neurocognitive functions and assess its reversibility.Prospective cohort study.Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center.A cohort of 121 short-sleeping (<6.5 h/night obese (BMI 30-55 kg/m(2 men and pre-menopausal women.Sleep extension (468±88 days with life-style modifications.Neurocognitive functions, sleep quality and sleep duration.At baseline, 44% of the individuals had an impaired global deficit score (t-score 0-39. Impaired global deficit score was associated with worse subjective sleep quality (p = 0.02, and lower urinary dopamine levels (p = 0.001. Memory was impaired in 33%; attention in 35%; motor skills in 42%; and executive function in 51% of individuals. At the final evaluation (N = 74, subjective sleep quality improved by 24% (p<0.001, self-reported sleep duration increased by 11% by questionnaires (p<0.001 and by 4% by diaries (p = 0.04, and daytime sleepiness tended to improve (p = 0.10. Global cognitive function and attention improved by 7% and 10%, respectively (both p = 0.001, and memory and executive functions tended to improve (p = 0.07 and p = 0.06. Serum cortisol increased by 17% (p = 0.02. In a multivariate mixed model, subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency, urinary free cortisol and dopamine and plasma total ghrelin accounted for 1/5 of the variability in global cognitive function.Drop-out rate.Chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals exhibit substantial neurocognitive deficits that are partially reversible upon improvement of sleep in a non-pharmacological way. These findings have clinical implications for large segments of the US population.www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898

  2. Effects of pregabalin on subjective sleep disturbance symptoms during withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Gabriel; Bobes, Julio; Cervera, Gaspar; Terán, Antonio; Pérez, María; López-Gómez, Vanessa; Rejas, Javier

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of pregabalin as a tapering therapy on the subjective sleep quality of patients who underwent a benzodiazepine withdrawal program in routine medical practice. Secondary analysis of a 12-week prospective, open noncontrolled study carried out in patients who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for benzodiazepine dependence. Sleep was evaluated with the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS Sleep Scale). 282 patients were included in the analysis. Mean (±SD) pregabalin dose was 315 ± 166 mg/day at the end of the trial. We observed a significant and clinically relevant improvement in sleep outcomes at the endpoint, with a total score reduction from 55.8 ± 18.9 to 25.1 ± 18.0 at week 12 (i.e. a 55% reduction). Similar findings were apparent using the six dimensions of the MOS Sleep Scale. Moderate correlations were observed between the MOS Sleep summary index and sleep domains, and there were improvements in anxiety symptoms and disease severity. These findings suggest that pregabalin may improve subjective sleep quality in patients who underwent a benzodiazepine withdrawal program. This effect appears to be partly independent of improvements in symptoms of anxiety or withdrawal. However, controlled studies are needed to establish the magnitude of the effect of pregabalin. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Subjective sleep quality, unstimulated sexual arousal, and sexual frequency

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    Rui Costa

    Full Text Available Introduction: REM sleep deprivation increases unstimulated erections in rats, and total sleep deprivation increases erections during audiovisual sexual stimulation in men, but the effects of sleep problems on human unstimulated sexual arousal are unknown. Objective: We examined the associations of subjective sleep quality with unstimulated sexual arousal, satisfaction with sex life, and sexual frequency and desire over the past month. Methods: 275 Portuguese (169 women reported their anxiety, sexual arousal and sexual desire during a resting state, and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the sexual satisfaction subscale of the LiSat scale, the Desire dimensions of the Female Sexual Function Index (women only and International Index of Erectile Function (men only. They additionally reported how many days in the past month they engaged in penile-vaginal intercourse, noncoital sex, and masturbation. Salivary testosterone (T was assayed by luminescence immunoassays. Results: Poorer sleep quality correlated with greater unstimulated sexual arousal in men with higher T levels and in women with higher T levels not taking oral contraceptives. In women with lower T, poorer subjective sleep quality correlated with greater sexual dissatisfaction. In both sexes, sleep quality was uncorrelated with sexual desire and sexual frequency over the past month. Discussion: Consistently with other studies in humans and animals, the findings are congruent with the notion that lack of sleep can increase sexual arousal, but not sexual frequency. T might play a role in the sexual arousal caused by lack of appropriate sleep.

  4. Sleep improves memory: the effect of sleep on long term memory in early adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Trudeau Potkin

    Full Text Available Sleep plays an important role in the consolidation of memory. This has been most clearly shown in adults for procedural memory (i.e. skills and procedures and declarative memory (e.g. recall of facts. The effects of sleep and memory are relatively unstudied in adolescents. Declarative memory is important in school performance and consequent social functioning in adolescents. This is the first study to specifically examine the effects of normal sleep on auditory declarative memory in an early adolescent sample. Given that the majority of adolescents do not obtain the recommended amount of sleep, it is critical to study the cognitive effects of normal sleep. Forty male and female normal, healthy adolescents between the ages of ten and fourteen years old were randomly assigned to sleep and no sleep conditions. Subjects were trained on a paired-associate declarative memory task and a control working memory task at 9 am, and tested at night (12 hours later without sleep. The same number of subjects was trained at 9 pm and tested 9 am following sleep. An increase of 20.6% in declarative memory, as measured by the number correct in a paired-associate test, following sleep was observed compared to the group which was tested at the same time interval without sleep (p<0.03. The performance on the control working memory task that involved encoding and memoranda manipulation was not affected by time of day or relationship to sleep. Declarative memory is significantly improved by sleep in a sample of normal adolescents.

  5. Nightmare disorder, dream anxiety, and subjective sleep quality in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiz, Umit B; Basoglu, Cengiz; Ebrinc, Servet; Cetin, Mesut

    2008-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine the rate of nightmare disorder (ND) and to determine the levels of dream anxiety and subjective sleep quality in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Another aim was to determine whether dream anxiety was associated with childhood trauma, dissociative experiences, and subjective sleep disturbance in BPD patients. Finally, the hypothesis as to whether BPD patients with ND exhibited a more severe clinical profile than those without ND, was also tested. A total of 88 borderline patients and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Van Dream Anxiety Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Dissociative Experiences Scale, and Traumatic Experiences Checklist. Subjects with codiagnoses that could affect sleep were not included. BPD patients suffered a significantly greater rate of nightmares, elevated levels of dream anxiety, and disturbed sleep quality than did controls. In the borderline group, heightened dream anxiety was correlated with higher rates of early traumatic experiences and dissociative symptoms, and impaired sleep quality. Furthermore, borderline patients with ND exhibited greater psychopathology as compared to those without ND in terms of several clinical characteristics. The present study provides support for a strong association between BPD, distressing nightmares, and subjective sleep quality. Recognition and management of dream and sleep disturbances in BPD patients might lead to improvements in their global clinical picture.

  6. Subjective Mood in Young Unmedicated Depressed Women under High and Low Sleep Pressure Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Birchler-Pedross

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal mood variations are one of the core symptoms in depression, and total sleep deprivation (SD can induce rapid, short-lasting clinical improvement in depressed patients. Here, we investigated if differential sleep pressure conditions impact on subjective mood levels in young women with major depressive disorder (MDD without sleep disturbances, and in healthy controls. Eight healthy and eight MDD women underwent 40-h SD (high sleep pressure and 40-h multiple NAP (low sleep pressure protocols under constant routine conditions during which subjective mood was assessed every 30-min. MDD women rated overall significantly worse mood than controls, with minimal values for both groups during the biological night (ca. 4 a.m., under high and low sleep pressure conditions. During SD, nighttime mood ratings in MDD women were lower than in controls and partially recovered during the second day of SD, but never attained control levels. The degree of this diurnal time-course in mood under SD correlated positively with sleep quality in MDD women. Our data indicate that MDD women without sleep disturbances did not exhibit a SD-induced antidepressant response, suggesting that the mood enhancement response to sleep deprivation might be related to the co-existence of sleep disturbances, which is an association that remains to be fully established.

  7. Subjective Mood in Young Unmedicated Depressed Women under High and Low Sleep Pressure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchler-Pedross, Angelina; Frey, Sylvia; Götz, Thomas; Brunner, Patrick; Knoblauch, Vera; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Chellappa, Sarah L.; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Diurnal mood variations are one of the core symptoms in depression, and total sleep deprivation (SD) can induce rapid, short-lasting clinical improvement in depressed patients. Here, we investigated if differential sleep pressure conditions impact on subjective mood levels in young women with major depressive disorder (MDD) without sleep disturbances, and in healthy controls. Eight healthy and eight MDD women underwent 40-h SD (high sleep pressure) and 40-h multiple NAP (low sleep pressure) protocols under constant routine conditions during which subjective mood was assessed every 30-min. MDD women rated overall significantly worse mood than controls, with minimal values for both groups during the biological night (ca. 4 a.m.), under high and low sleep pressure conditions. During SD, nighttime mood ratings in MDD women were lower than in controls and partially recovered during the second day of SD, but never attained control levels. The degree of this diurnal time-course in mood under SD correlated positively with sleep quality in MDD women. Our data indicate that MDD women without sleep disturbances did not exhibit a SD-induced antidepressant response, suggesting that the mood enhancement response to sleep deprivation might be related to the co-existence of sleep disturbances, which is an association that remains to be fully established. PMID:27941666

  8. Pregabalin Improves Fibromyalgia-related Sleep Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Thomas; Bhadra-Brown, Pritha; Pitman, Verne W; Resnick, E Malca

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effect of pregabalin on wake and sleep bout parameters. A post hoc analysis of polysomnography data from a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study investigating the effect of pregabalin (150 to 450 mg/d) and placebo on sleep in fibromyalgia (FM). Eligible patients had FM and sleep-maintenance problems, including wake after sleep onset ≥45 minutes and total sleep time (TST) 3.0 to 6.5 hours, but no other sleep/circadian rhythm disorders. Polysomnography was performed for 2 consecutive nights (screening, post-treatment). Wake and sleep bout duration and frequency were derived; a "bout"=consecutive 30-s epochs of sleep or wake. Of 119 patients randomized (103 [87%] female), data were available for 103 treated with pregabalin and 106 with placebo. Pregabalin versus placebo treatment decreased mean±SD number of wake/sleep bouts (33.24±1.33 vs. 36.85±1.32; difference: -3.61 [95% confidence interval, -6.03, -1.18]; P=0.0039) and increased sleep bout duration (15.25±0.63 vs. 11.58±0.62 min; +3.67 min [2.22, 5.12 min]; PPregabalin decreased mean duration of wake bouts versus placebo (3.41±0.55 vs. 3.94±0.55 min; -0.53 min [-1.06, -0.002 min]; P=0.0493). An exploratory correlation analysis of treatment effects found stage 1 sleep was negatively correlated with wake and sleep bout duration and positively with wake/sleep bout number; slow wave sleep (%total sleep time) was positively correlated with wake and sleep bout duration and negatively with wake/sleep bout number. Pregabalin improved sleep parameters characteristic of disturbed sleep in FM, by preventing awakenings and increasing sleep bout duration. These effects are reflected in, and correlated with, a decrease in "light sleep" (stage 1) and an increase in "deep sleep" (slow wave sleep).

  9. Exercise to improve sleep in insomnia: exploration of the bidirectional effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Kelly Glazer; Reid, Kathryn J; Zee, Phyllis C

    2013-08-15

    Exercise improves sleep quality, mood, and quality of life among older adults with insomnia. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the daily bidirectional relationships between exercise and sleep in a sample of women with insomnia. Participants included 11 women (age M = 61.27, SD 4.15) with insomnia who engaged in 30 min of aerobic exercise 3 times per week. Self-reported sleep quality was assessed at baseline and at 16 weeks. Sleep and exercise logs and wrist activity were collected continuously. Sleep variables included subjective sleep quality and objective measures recorded via wrist actigraphy (sleep onset latency [SOL], total sleep time [TST], sleep efficiency [SE], wake after sleep onset [WASO], and fragmentation index [FI]). Age, subjective sleep quality, TST, SOL, and physical fitness at baseline were tested as moderators of the daily effects. TST, SE, and self-reported global sleep quality improved from baseline to 16 weeks (p values exercise session duration (p exercise was not associated with subjective or objective sleep variables during the corresponding night. However, participants had shorter exercise duration following nights with longer SOL (p exercise duration (p exercise was stronger in participants who had shorter TST at baseline. Results suggest that sleep influences next day exercise rather than exercise influencing sleep. The relationship between TST and next day exercise was stronger for those with shorter TST at baseline. These results suggest that improving sleep may encourage exercise participation.

  10. Shift Work: Improving Daytime Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Good daytime sleep is possible, though, if shift work is a necessary part of your work life. To promote better sleep during the day: ... Take naps. Napping late in the day before work might help you make up your sleep debt. ...

  11. Shift Work: Improving Daytime Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than before you go to sleep. Don't use nicotine or alcohol near bedtime. If these tips don't help, consult your doctor or a sleep specialist. With Eric J. Olson, M.D. Sleep deprivation and deficiency. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. ...

  12. Subjective sleep disturbance in Chinese adults with epilepsy: Associations with affective symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yeru; Zhang, Mengmeng; Wang, Yu; Wang, Lanlan; Xu, Xiangjun; Xiao, Gairong; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Nong

    2017-09-01

    . Depressive- and anxiety-related symptoms independently exert an adverse effect on the subjective sleep quality and insomnia of patients. In addition, seizure control, partial seizures, and the duration of epilepsy affect the quality of sleep and insomnia in patients, but seem less powerful predictors of sleep quality and insomnia than affective symptoms. Early identification and treatment of affective symptoms is of great importance in improving the sleep quality and insomnia of patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Let's talk about sleep: a systematic review of psychological interventions to improve sleep in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Anja; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2018-02-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence in college students. Insomnia, nightmares and impaired sleep quality lead to several mental health issues, as well as impaired academic performance. Although different sleep programmes exist, a systematic overview comparing their effectiveness is still missing. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of psychological interventions to improve sleep in college students. Seven databases were searched from November to December 2016 (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cinahl, Cochrane Library, PubMed, OpenSigle). The search string included search terms from three different topics: sleep, intervention and college students. Outcome measures included subjective as well as objective measures and focused on sleep, sleep-related and mental health variables. Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. They were assigned to four intervention categories: (1) sleep hygiene, (2) cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), (3) relaxation, mindfulness and hypnotherapy and (4) other psychotherapeutic interventions. Fifteen studies were randomized controlled trials. While sleep hygiene interventions provided small to medium effects, the CBTs showed large effects. The variability of the effect sizes was especially large in the relaxation category, ranging from very small to very large effect sizes. Other psychotherapeutic interventions showed medium effects. CBT approaches provided the best effects for the improvement of different sleep variables in college students. Five studies included insomnia patients. The other three intervention categories also showed promising results with overall medium effects. In the future, CBT should be combined with relaxation techniques, mindfulness and hypnotherapy. Furthermore, the interventions should broaden their target group and include more sleep disorders. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Short-Term Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Subjective and Actigraphy-Assessed Sleep Parameters in Severely Depressed Inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Hoogerhoud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep disturbances are a key feature of major depression. Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT may improve polysomnography-assessed sleep characteristics, but its short-term effects on actigraphy-assessed and subjective sleep characteristics are unknown. We therefore aimed to assess the effects of ECT on subjective and objective sleep parameters in a proof-of-principle study. Methods. We assessed subjective and objective sleep parameters in 12 severely depressed patients up to 5 consecutive days during their ECT course, corresponding to a total of 43 nights (including 19 ECT sessions. The 12 patients were 83% female and on average 62 (standard deviation (SD 14 years old and had an average MADRS score of 40 at baseline (SD 21. Results. Subjective and objective sleep parameters were not directly affected by ECT. The subjective sleep efficiency parameter was similar on the day after ECT and other days. ECT did not affect the number of errors in the Sustained Attention to Response Task. Patients subjectively underestimated their total sleep time by 1.4 hours (P<0.001 compared to actigraphy-assessed sleep duration. Conclusion. ECT did not affect subjective and actigraphy-assessed sleep in the short term. Depressed patients profoundly underestimated their sleep duration.

  15. Comparison of subjective sleep and fatigue in breast- and bottle-feeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobback, Els; Behaeghel, Katoesjka; Hanoulle, Ignace; Delesie, Liesbeth; Loccufier, Anne; Van Holsbeeck, Ann; Vogelaers, Dirk; Mariman, An

    2017-04-01

    Artificial milk supplementation remains a popular practice in spite of the well documented and indisputable advantages of breast feeding for both mother and child. However, the association between maternal sleep, fatigue and feeding method is understudied and remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether perceived sleep and fatigue differ between breast- and bottle feeding post partum women. In addition, the relationship between subjective sleep characteristics and fatigue is examined. Post partum women (four to 16 weeks) filled out a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). Sixty-one within the past week exclusively breast- and 44 exclusively bottle-feeding mothers were included. The first group showed better subjective sleep quality, but lower habitual sleep efficiency as measured by the PSQI. Global PSQI, as well as subjective fatigue and global CIS, did not differ between the two groups. Significant positive correlations were found between global CIS and the number of night feeds and global PSQI. However, only global PSQI significantly predicted global CIS in relation to the number of night feeds. Within a general pattern of deteriorated sleep quality, breast-feeding women showed better subjective sleep quality, but lower habitual sleep efficiency, between four and fourteen weeks after childbirth. However, the PSQI component scores compensated for each other, resulting in absence of any difference in global PSQI sleep quality between the two groups. Global PSQI significantly predicted global CIS, resulting in an absence of any difference in post partum fatigue according to feeding method. Midwives and nurses should, together with the parents, continue to focus on exploring ways to improve maternal sleep quality and to reduce postnatal fatigue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Subjective Perception of Sleep, but not its Objective Quality, is Associated with Immediate Postpartum Mood Disturbances in Healthy Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Milgrom, Jeannette; Ericksen, Jennifer; Trinder, John

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated whether there was a relationship between disrupted sleep and postpartum mood disturbances in women during the week after delivery. Design: Sleep and mood were measured during the third trimester (Time-1) and one week postpartum (Time-2) in a 2-stage longitudinal design. Setting: Participants were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a regional Melbourne hospital. Participants: Forty-four healthy women at low risk for postpartum depression. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy and subjective sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; mood was assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Sleep and mood questionnaires were administered at Time-1 and Time-2. Wrist actigraphy was collected for one week at both times. After delivery, both objective and subjective nighttime sleep significantly worsened with decreased total sleep time and sleep efficiency, while daytime napping behavior significantly increased. On average, mood improved across all scales after delivery, although 45.95% of the sample experienced deterioration of mood. Regression analyses showed little relationship between Time-1 and Time-2 objective nighttime sleep, and postpartum mood. Variables that related to both Time-1 and Time-2 subjective perception of sleep, including subjective nighttime sleep, sleep-related daytime dysfunction, and daytime napping behavior, were significant predictors of postpartum mood. Conclusions: The perception of poor sleep, and the conscious awareness of its impact during wake-time, might share a stronger relationship with the occurrence of immediate postpartum mood disturbances than actual sleep quality and quantity. Citation: Bei B; Milgrom J; Ericksen J; Trinder J. Subjective perception of sleep, but not its objective quality, is associated with immediate postpartum mood disturbances in

  17. Cardiac autonomic control and complexity during sleep are preserved after chronic sleep restriction in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobaldini, Eleonora; Covassin, Naima; Calvin, Andrew; Singh, Prachi; Bukartyk, Jan; Wang, Shiang; Montano, Nicola; Somers, Virend K

    2017-04-01

    Acute sleep deprivation (SD) alters cardiovascular autonomic control (CAC) and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders. However, the effects of partial SD on CAC are unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of partial SD on CAC during sleep. We randomized seventeen healthy subjects to a restriction group (RES, n = 8, subjects slept two-thirds of normal sleep time based on individual habitual sleep duration for 8 days and 8 nights) or a Control group (CON, n = 9, subjects were allowed to sleep their usual sleep time). Attended polysomnographic (PSG) studies were performed every night; a subset of them was selected for the analysis at baseline (day 3-D3), the first night after sleep restriction (day 5-D5), at the end of sleep restriction period (day 11-D11), and at the end of recovery phase (day 14-D14). We extracted electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration from the PSG and divided into wakefulness (W), nonrapid eye movements (REM) sleep (N2 and N3) and REM sleep. CAC was evaluated by means of linear spectral analysis, nonlinear symbolic analysis and complexity indexes. In both RES and CON groups, sympathetic modulation decreased and parasympathetic modulation increased during N2 and N3 compared to W and REM at D3, D5, D11, D14. Complexity analysis revealed a reduction in complexity during REM compared to NREM sleep in both DEP and CON After 8 days of moderate SD, cardiac autonomic dynamics, characterized by decreased sympathetic, and increased parasympathetic modulation, and higher cardiac complexity during NREM sleep, compared to W and REM, are preserved. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  18. Improving activity in adults with diabetes and coexisting obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasens, Eileen R; Korytkowski, Mary; Sereika, Susan M; Burke, Lora E; Drumheller, Oliver J; Strollo, Patrick J

    2014-03-01

    This study in participants with type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea evaluated changes in activity, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness after 4 weeks of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). This pilot study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Sleep apnea was quantified with an overnight sleep study. Sleep quality was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, vigor and fatigue with the Profiles of Mood States, subjective activity with the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, and objective activity with the Bodymedia SenseWear Armband. Subjects were randomized to either CPAP (n = 12) or sham-devices (n = 11). The intervention group had reduced apneas and hypopneas, daytime sleepiness, and fatigue; they also had improved sleep quality and increased objective activity and vigor. The study suggested that treatment of obstructive sleep apnea results in a modest improvement of activity in persons with type 2 diabetes.

  19. Automatic detection of REM sleep in subjects without atonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul; Nikolic, Miki

    2012-01-01

    hypnogram. In this study a full automatic REM sleep detector, using the EOG and EEG channels, is proposed. Based on statistical features, combined with subject specific feature scaling and post-processing of the classifier output, it was possible to obtain an mean accuracy of 0.96 with a mean sensititvity......Idiopathic Rapid-Rye-Movement (REM) sleep Behavior Disorder (iRBD) is a strong early marker of Parkinson's Disease and is characterized by REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) and increased phasic muscle activity. Current proposed methods for detecting RSWA assume the presence of a manually scored...

  20. Improving sleep for patients in acute hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Christine; Flood, David; Brittin, Andy; Miles, Jane

    2015-03-11

    Sleep is important to health and recovery from illness, but is known to be difficult in hospital. This article describes a quality improvement project conducted on 18 wards in acute hospitals. Patients reported sleeping an average of five hours per night, and 47% (352/749) rated their sleep quality as good or excellent in hospital. Individualised ward action plans were implemented. At follow up, disturbance by noise and light had fallen significantly and 69% (540/783) of patients rated their sleep as good or excellent, 22% more than before the intervention (Psleep.

  1. When a gold standard isn't so golden: Lack of prediction of subjective sleep quality from sleep polysomnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Katherine A; Hirshman, Jason; Hernandez, Beatriz; Stefanick, Marcia L; Hoffman, Andrew R; Redline, Susan; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Stone, Katie; Friedman, Leah; Zeitzer, Jamie M

    2017-02-01

    Reports of subjective sleep quality are frequently collected in research and clinical practice. It is unclear, however, how well polysomnographic measures of sleep correlate with subjective reports of prior-night sleep quality in elderly men and women. Furthermore, the relative importance of various polysomnographic, demographic and clinical characteristics in predicting subjective sleep quality is not known. We sought to determine the correlates of subjective sleep quality in older adults using more recently developed machine learning algorithms that are suitable for selecting and ranking important variables. Community-dwelling older men (n=1024) and women (n=459), a subset of those participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study and the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures study, respectively, completed a single night of at-home polysomnographic recording of sleep followed by a set of morning questions concerning the prior night's sleep quality. Questionnaires concerning demographics and psychological characteristics were also collected prior to the overnight recording and entered into multivariable models. Two machine learning algorithms, lasso penalized regression and random forests, determined variable selection and the ordering of variable importance separately for men and women. Thirty-eight sleep, demographic and clinical correlates of sleep quality were considered. Together, these multivariable models explained only 11-17% of the variance in predicting subjective sleep quality. Objective sleep efficiency emerged as the strongest correlate of subjective sleep quality across all models, and across both sexes. Greater total sleep time and sleep stage transitions were also significant objective correlates of subjective sleep quality. The amount of slow wave sleep obtained was not determined to be important. Overall, the commonly obtained measures of polysomnographically-defined sleep contributed little to subjective ratings of prior-night sleep quality

  2. Subjective sleep quality in stable neuromuscular patients under non-invasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimanno, Grazia; Misuraca, Angela; Purrazzella, Giuseppina; Greco, Francesca; Marrone, Oreste

    2014-10-01

    Patients with neuromuscular diseases improve their sleep when treated with noninvasive ventilation (NIV), but their sleep architecture during NIV may still be disturbed by side effects of NIV or inadequacy of the ventilator setting. Little is known about subjective sleep quality during NIV. The aims of this study were to evaluate subjective sleep quality of stable neuromuscular patients under long-term NIV by using Pittsburgh questionnaire (PSQI), and to assess its possible determinants. Fifty stable neuromuscular patients under long-term NIV were administered PSQI and underwent polysomnography. Arterial blood gases, forced vital capacity, and respiratory muscular strength were measured. Thirty-three patients had global PSQI ≥ 5 and were classified as bad sleepers. Good and poor sleepers differed in age (P = 0.005), base excess (BE) (P = 0.02), NIV inspiratory pressure (P = 0.04), %N1 (P = 0.0006), and %N3 sleep stage (P = 0.02). Percent N3 duration and Arousal/Awakening Index were correlated with rate of patient-ventilator asynchronies (r = -0.41 and 0.37, respectively, P sleep quality is often poor in neuromuscular patients under long-term NIV. Amount of slow wave sleep and chronic hypoventilation resulting in increased BE are independent predictors of subjective sleep quality. Since inadequate NIV setting or application can influence sleep structure and alveolar ventilation, great care should be paid to the setting and the correct application of NIV to ensure a better subjective sleep quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Subjective and objective napping and sleep in older adults: are evening naps "bad" for nighttime sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautovich, Natalie D; McCrae, Christina S; Rowe, Meredeth

    2008-09-01

    To compare objective and subjective measurements of napping and to examine the relationship between evening napping and nocturnal sleep in older adults. For 12 days, participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries. Community. One hundred individuals who napped, aged 60 to 89 (including good and poor sleepers with typical age-related medical comorbidities). Twelve days of sleep diary and actigraphy provided subjective and objective napping and sleep data. Evening naps (within 2 hours of bedtime) were characteristic of the sample, with peak nap time occurring between 20:30 and 21:00 (average nap time occurred between 14:30 and 15:00). Two categories of nappers were identified: those who took daytime and evening naps and daytime-only. No participants napped during the evening only. Day-and-evening nappers significantly underreported evening napping and demonstrated lower objectively measured sleep onset latencies (20.0 vs 26.5 minutes), less wake after sleep onset (51.4 vs 72.8 minutes), and higher sleep efficiencies (76.8 vs 82%) than daytime-only nappers. Day and evening napping was prevalent in this sample of community-dwelling good and poor sleepers but was not associated with impaired nocturnal sleep. Although the elimination or restriction of napping is a common element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, these results suggest that a uniform recommendation to restrict or eliminate napping (particularly evening napping) may not meet the needs of all older individuals with insomnia.

  4. Associations between subjective sleep quality and brain volume in Gulf War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L; Mohlenhoff, Brian S; Weiner, Michael W; Neylan, Thomas C

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether subjective sleep quality is associated with brain volume independent of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Cross-sectional. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center. One hundred forty-four Gulf War Veterans (mean age 45 years; range: 31-70 years; 14% female). None. Total cortical, lobar gray matter, and hippocampal volumes were quantified from 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance images using Freesurfer version 4.5. Subjective sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Multiple linear regressions were used to determine the association of sleep quality with total and regional brain volumes. The global PSQI score was positively correlated with lifetime and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and current depressive symptoms (P sleep quality. Poorer subjective sleep quality was associated with reduced total cortical and regional frontal lobe volumes independent of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Future work will be needed to examine if effective treatment of disturbed sleep leads to improved structural and functional integrity of the frontal lobes.

  5. Gabapentin enacarbil in subjects with moderate to severe primary restless legs syndrome with and without severe sleep disturbance: an integrated analysis of subjective and novel sleep endpoints from two studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogan RK

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Richard K Bogan,1 Aaron Ellenbogen,2 Philip M Becker,3 Clete Kushida,4 Eric Ball,5 William G Ondo,6 Christine K Caivano,7 Sarah Kavanagh71SleepMed, Columbia, SC, 2Quest Research Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 3Sleep Medicine Associates of Texas, Dallas, TX, 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford Center for Human Sleep Research, Stanford, CA, 5Walla Walla Clinic, Walla Walla, WA, 6University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, 7Global Regulatory Affairs (CKC* and Neurosciences MDC (SK, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA*Development Sciences department at the time of the analysisPurpose: The aim of the study reported here was assessment of subjective and novel sleep endpoints, according to sleep disturbance severity at baseline, in adult subjects with moderate to severe primary restless legs syndrome (RLS treated with gabapentin enacarbil (GEn 1200 mg or placebo.Methods: Integrated analysis of two 12-week randomized trials in subjects with RLS was undertaken. Sleep outcomes from the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS Sleep Scale and the Post Sleep Questionnaire were evaluated. Novel sleep endpoints derived from the 24-Hour RLS Symptom Diary were compared with similar endpoints derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Diary (PghSD. Subjects were divided into two subgroups based on their level of sleep disturbance (responses to item 4 of the International Restless Legs Scale at baseline. Data were analyzed using a last observation carried forward approach.Results: The modified intent-to-treat population comprised 427 subjects (GEn 1200 mg, n = 223; placebo, n = 204. GEn significantly improved all MOS Sleep Scale domain scores from baseline compared with placebo (P < 0.05 in both subgroups. Compared with placebo, GEn-treated subjects with very severe to severe sleep disturbance reported higher overall sleep quality, fewer nighttime awakenings, and fewer hours awake per night due to RLS

  6. Assessing sleep consciousness within subjects using a serial awakening paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eSiclari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dreaming - a particular form of consciousness that occurs during sleep - undergoes major changes in the course of the night. We aimed to outline state-dependent features of consciousness using a paradigm with multiple serial awakenings/questionings that allowed for within as well as between subject comparisons. Seven healthy participants who spent 44 experimental study nights in the laboratory were awakened by a computerized sound at 15-30 minute intervals, regardless of sleep stage, and questioned for the presence or absence of sleep consciousness. Recall without content (‘I was experiencing something but do not remember what’ was considered separately. Subjects had to indicate the content of the most recent conscious experience prior to the alarm sound and to estimate its duration and richness. We also assessed the degree of thinking and perceiving, self- and environment-relatedness and reflective consciousness of the experiences. Of the 778 questionings, 5% were performed during wakefulness, 2% in stage N1, 42% in N2, 33% in N3 and 17% in rapid eye movement (REM sleep. Recall with content was reported in 34% of non-REM and in 77% of REM sleep awakenings. Sleep fragmentation inherent to the study design appeared to only minimally affect the recall of conscious experiences. Each stage displayed a unique combination of characteristic features of sleep consciousness. In conclusion, our serial awakening paradigm allowed us to collect a large and representative sample of conscious experiences across states of being. It represents a time-efficient method for the study of sleep consciousness that may prove particularly advantageous when combined with techniques such as functional MRI and high-density EEG.

  7. Effects of Between- and Within-Subject Variability on Autonomic Cardiorespiratory Activity during Sleep and Their Limitations on Sleep Staging: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xi; Haakma, Reinder; Leufkens, Tim R. M.; Fonseca, Pedro; Aarts, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic cardiorespiratory activity changes across sleep stages. However, it is unknown to what extent it is affected by between- and within-subject variability during sleep. As it is hypothesized that the variability is caused by differences in subject demographics (age, gender, and body mass index), time, and physiology, we quantified these effects and investigated how they limit reliable cardiorespiratory-based sleep staging. Six representative parameters obtained from 165 overnight heartbeat and respiration recordings were analyzed. Multilevel models were used to evaluate the effects evoked by differences in sleep stages, demographics, time, and physiology between and within subjects. Results show that the between- and within-subject effects were found to be significant for each parameter. When adjusted by sleep stages, the effects in physiology between and within subjects explained more than 80% of total variance but the time and demographic effects explained less. If these effects are corrected, profound improvements in sleep staging can be observed. These results indicate that the differences in subject demographics, time, and physiology present significant effects on cardiorespiratory activity during sleep. The primary effects come from the physiological variability between and within subjects, markedly limiting the sleep staging performance. Efforts to diminish these effects will be the main challenge. PMID:26366167

  8. Recurrence analysis of the EEG during sleep accurately identifies subjects with mental health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, David E; Punjabi, Naresh M; Kim, Paul Y; Frilot, Clifton; Marino, Andrew A

    2014-12-30

    Analysis of brain recurrence (ABR) is a novel computational method that uses two variables for sleep depth and two for sleep fragmentation to quantify temporal changes in non-random brain electrical activity. We postulated that ABR of the sleep-staged EEG could identify an EEG signature specific for the presence of mental health symptoms. Using the Mental Health Inventory Questionnaire (MHI-5) as ground truth, psychological distress was assessed in a study cohort obtained from the Sleep Heart Health Study. Subjects with MHI-5 50. Sixteen ABR markers derived from the EEG were analyzed using linear discriminant analysis to identify marker combinations that reliably classified individual subjects. A biomarker function computed from 12 of the markers accurately classified the subjects based on their MHI-5 scores (AUROC=82%). Use of additional markers did not improve classification accuracy. Subgroup analysis (20 highest and 20 lowest MHI-5 scores) improved classification accuracy (AUROC=89%). Biomarker values for individual subjects were significantly correlated with MHI-5 score (r=0.36, 0.54 for N=68, 40, respectively). ABR of EEGs obtained during sleep successfully classified subjects with regard to the severity of mental health symptoms, indicating that mood systems were reflected in brain electrical activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  10. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sam- ple of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  11. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, A.; Krabbendam, L.; Dekker, S.; Lee, N.; Groot, R. de; Jolles, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  12. Subjective perception of sleep, but not its objective quality, is associated with immediate postpartum mood disturbances in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Milgrom, Jeannette; Ericksen, Jennifer; Trinder, John

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated whether there was a relationship between disrupted sleep and postpartum mood disturbances in women during the week after delivery. Sleep and mood were measured during the third trimester (Time-1) and one week postpartum (Time-2) in a 2-stage longitudinal design. Participants were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a regional Melbourne hospital. Forty-four healthy women at low risk for postpartum depression. N/A. Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy and subjective sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; mood was assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Sleep and mood questionnaires were administered at Time-1 and Time-2. Wrist actigraphy was collected for one week at both times. After delivery, both objective and subjective nighttime sleep significantly worsened with decreased total sleep time and sleep efficiency, while daytime napping behavior significantly increased. On average, mood improved across all scales after delivery, although 45.95% of the sample experienced deterioration of mood. Regression analyses showed little relationship between Time-1 and Time-2 objective nighttime sleep, and postpartum mood. Variables that related to both Time-1 and Time-2 subjective perception of sleep, including subjective nighttime sleep, sleep-related daytime dysfunction, and daytime napping behavior, were significant predictors of postpartum mood. The perception of poor sleep, and the conscious awareness of its impact during wake-time, might share a stronger relationship with the occurrence of immediate postpartum mood disturbances than actual sleep quality and quantity.

  13. Subjective Sleep Complaints in Pediatric Depression: A Controlled Study and Comparison with EEG Measures of Sleep and Waking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocci, Michele A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Ryan, Neal D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Children with major depressive disorder (MDD) often complain of sleep disturbances; however, polysomnographic studies have failed to find objective evidence of these disturbances. This article examines subjective sleep reports of children with MDD and healthy controls focusing on comparing subjective and objective sleep measures.…

  14. The effects of glycine on subjective daytime performance in partially sleep-restricted healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto eBannai

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of the general population suffers from insomnia. Given that insomnia causes many problems, amelioration of the symptoms is crucial. Recently, we found that a nonessential amino acid, glycine subjectively and objectively improves sleep quality in humans who have difficulty sleeping. We evaluated the effects of glycine on daytime sleepiness, fatigue and performances in sleep-restricted healthy subjects. Sleep was restricted to 25% less than the usual sleep time for three consecutive nights. Before bedtime, 3 g of glycine or placebo were ingested, sleepiness and fatigue were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS and a questionnaire, and performance were estimated by personal computer (PC performance test program on the following day. In subjects given glycine, the VAS data showed a significant reduction in fatigue and a tendency toward reduced sleepiness. These observations were also found via the questionnaire, indicating that glycine improves daytime sleepiness and fatigue induced by acute sleep restriction. PC performance test revealed significant improvement in psychomotor vigilance test. We also measured plasma melatonin and the expression of circadian-modulated genes expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN to evaluate the effects of glycine on circadian rhythms. Glycine did not show significant effects on plasma melatonin concentrations during either the dark or light period. Moreover, the expression levels of clock genes such as Bmal1 and Per2 remained unchanged. However, we observed a glycine-induced increase in the neuropeptides arginine vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the light period. Although no alterations in the circadian clock itself were observed, our results indicate that glycine modulated SCN function. Thus, glycine modulates certain neuropeptides in the SCN and this phenomenon may indirectly contribute to improving the occasional sleepiness and fatigue induced by sleep

  15. Effects of moderate-intensity exercise on polysomnographic and subjective sleep quality in older adults with mild to moderate sleep complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Abby C; Pruitt, Leslie A; Woo, Sandra; Castro, Cynthia M; Ahn, David K; Vitiello, Michael V; Woodward, Steven H; Bliwise, Donald L

    2008-09-01

    This study sought to determine the 12-month effects of exercise increases on objective and subjective sleep quality in initially inactive older persons with mild to moderate sleep complaints. A nonclinical sample of underactive adults 55 years old or older (n=66) with mild to moderate chronic sleep complaints were randomly assigned to a 12-month program of primarily moderate-intensity endurance exercise (n=36) or a health education control program (n=30). The main outcome measure was polysomnographic sleep recordings, with additional measures of subjective sleep quality, physical activity, and physical fitness. Directional hypotheses were tested. Using intent-to-treat methods, at 12 months exercisers, relative to controls, spent significantly less time in polysomnographically measured Stage 1 sleep (between-arm difference=2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-4.0; p=003), spent more time in Stage 2 sleep (between-arm difference=3.2, 95% CI, 0.6-5.7; p=.04), and had fewer awakenings during the first third of the sleep period (between-arm difference=1.0, 95% CI, 0.39-1.55; p=.03). Exercisers also reported greater 12-month improvements relative to controls in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) sleep disturbance subscale score (p=.009), sleep diary-based minutes to fall asleep (p=.01), and feeling more rested in the morning (p=.02). Compared with general health education, a 12-month moderate-intensity exercise program that met current physical activity recommendations for older adults improved some objective and subjective dimensions of sleep to a modest degree. The results suggest additional areas for investigation in this understudied area.

  16. Severity of sleep-disordered breathing improves following parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Natalie; Blyton, Diane M; Hennessy, Annemarie; Sullivan, Colin E

    2005-06-01

    Changes in sleep-disordered breathing associated with late pregnancy have not previously been systematically investigated; however, a number of case reports indicate exacerbation of obstructive sleep apnea in late pregnancy, often in association with maternal hypertension. We aimed to compare the severity of sleep-disordered breathing and associated maternal blood-pressure responses in late pregnancy with the nonpregnant state. Case-controlled, longitudinal study of sleep-disordered breathing during late pregnancy and postpartum. Ten women referred for suspected sleep-disordered breathing during the third trimester of pregnancy. None. Full overnight polysomnography and continuous systemic blood pressure were measured during the third trimester of pregnancy and 3 months following delivery. Parameters of sleep-disordered breathing, including apnea hypopnea index and minimum overnight arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation, were compared between antenatal and postnatal studies. An improvement in both apnea-hypopnea index and minimum arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation occurred consistently in all subjects postnatally. In non-rapid eye movement sleep, mean apnea-hypopnea index was reduced from 63 +/- 15 per hour antenatally to 18 +/- 4 per hour postnatally (P = .03), and in rapid eye movement sleep, from 64 +/- 11 per hour to 22 +/- 4 per hour (P = .002). Minimum arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation was increased from 86% +/- 2% antenatally to 91% +/- 1% postnatally (P = .01). Arterial blood-pressure responses to apnea peaked at 170 to 180 mm Hg antenatally, while they only peaked at 130 to 140 mm Hg postnatally. This study indicates that late pregnancy may be associated with increased severity of sleep-disordered breathing and associated blood-pressure responses.

  17. Sleep Duration of Inpatients With a Depressive Disorder: Associations With Age, Subjective Sleep Quality, and Cognitive Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Matthias J; Olschinski, Christiane; Kundermann, Bernd; Cabanel, Nicole

    2017-02-01

    Sleep complaints and sleep disturbances are common in depression; however, the association of sleep duration and subjective sleep quality has been rarely investigated. Thus, subjective sleep quality and sleep duration were analyzed in depressed inpatients. Questionnaire data comprising clinical and sleep-related questions were sampled over a one-year period from adult inpatients with depressive syndromes. Sleep duration and items related to sleep quality were analyzed by means of group comparisons (sleep duration categories) and correlation analyses. Data of 154 patients (age 58.2±17.0 years, 63.6% women) were analyzed. Mean sleep duration was 7.2±2.1 h (16.9% of patients were below and 7.1% above age-specific recommendations), 25-40% of patients reported almost always daytime sleepiness, non-restorative sleep, attention deficits, or memory complaints with significant correlations between all variables (Pdepression, and both were associated with poor sleep quality and subjectively impaired cognitive functions. Clinicians should be aware of these relationships. During hospitalization, a more individualized sleep-wake schedule should be applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Melatonin acutely improves the neuroendocrine architecture of sleep in blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Stefan; Smolnik, Rüdiger; Herms, Markus; Born, Jan; Fehm, Horst L

    2003-11-01

    In blind individuals, the absence of light cues results in disturbances of sleep and sleep-related neuroendocrine patterns. The Zeitgeber influence of light on the timing of sleep is assumed to be mediated by melatonin, a hormone of the pineal gland, whose secretion is inhibited by light and enhanced during darkness. Here, we investigated whether a single administration of melatonin improves sleep and associated neuroendocrine patterns in blind individuals. In a double-blind crossover study, 12 totally blind subjects received 5 mg melatonin and placebo orally 1 h before bedtime starting at 2300 h. The dose used enhanced blood melatonin concentrations to clearly supraphysiological levels. Melatonin increased total sleep time and sleep efficiency (P blind individuals the single administration of a clearly pharmacological dose of melatonin can improve sleep function by synchronizing in time the inhibition of pituitary-adrenal activity with central nervous sleep processes.

  19. Validation of a novel automatic sleep spindle detector with high performance during sleep in middle aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Christensen, Julie A. E.; Kempfner, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Many of the automatic sleep spindle detectors currently used to analyze sleep EEG are either validated on young subjects or not validated thoroughly. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a fast and reliable sleep spindle detector with high performance in middle aged subjects....... An automatic sleep spindle detector using a bandpass filtering approach and a time varying threshold was developed. The validation was done on sleep epochs from EEG recordings with manually scored sleep spindles from 13 healthy subjects with a mean age of 57.9 ± 9.7 years. The sleep spindle detector reached...... a mean sensitivity of 84.6 % and a mean specificity of 95.3 %. The sleep spindle detector can be used to obtain measures of spindle count and density together with quantitative measures such as the mean spindle frequency, mean spindle amplitude, and mean spindle duration....

  20. Effects of sleep deprivation on nocturnal cytokine concentrations in depressed patients and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voderholzer, Ulrich; Fiebich, Bernd L; Dersch, Rick; Feige, Bernd; Piosczyk, Hannah; Kopasz, Marta; Riemann, Dieter; Lieb, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported alterations of cytokine and cytokine-receptor concentrations in psychiatric patient populations, including patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, study results are conflicting, and possible causes for these abnormalities are unknown. Since sleep deprivation may induce a rapid improvement of mood in depressed patients, the authors investigated the impact of total sleep deprivation (TSD) for one night, and subsequent recovery sleep, on nocturnal concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1-receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) in 15 unmedicated patients with MDD and 16 healthy volunteers. Whereas IL-6 levels normalized again during the recovery night in depressed patients, they were still elevated in control subjects. Serum levels of IL-1RA were higher in depressed patients than in controls, but were not affected by TSD. During recovery sleep, IL-1RA levels increased as compared with the preceding TSD night only in controls. Responders (N=8) differed from nonresponders (N=7) to TSD with regard to IL-1RA, which increased significantly during TSD in responders only. Sleep deprivation therefore seems to significantly affect cytokine levels in both depressed patients and healthy subjects, but does so in different ways. Sleep disturbances in depressed patients could account for the increased levels of cytokines found in these patients in several previous studies. The interaction between antidepressant effects of TSD and alterations of cytokines warrants further investigation.

  1. Objective and subjective sleep during pregnancy: links with depressive and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkovich, Ella; Tikotzky, Liat; Manber, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this paper are to study the associations between objective and subjective sleep in pregnant women, to examine which specific aspects of women's sleep are associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms and to test the moderating role of depressive and anxiety symptoms in the relations between objective and subjective sleep. The sample included 148 pregnant women. Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy for five nights at the participants' home, and subjective sleep was measured with the Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale and anxiety symptoms with the Beck anxiety inventory. Significant associations were found between the subjective sleep measures and the depressive and anxiety scores, but there were no significant associations between actigraphic sleep measures and the depressive and anxiety scores. Depressive and anxiety scores emerged as significant moderators of the links between objective and subjective sleep. The findings suggest that emotional distress (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms severity) during pregnancy is associated with subjective sleep disturbances but not with objective sleep disturbances. Importantly, only among women with higher levels of emotional distress was subjective sleep quality associated with objective sleep quality. These findings may suggest that women with higher levels of emotional distress are not necessarily biased in their perception of sleep quality. However, they may perceive fragmented sleep as more detrimental to their wellbeing.

  2. Sleep laboratory studies in restless legs syndrome patients as compared with normals and acute effects of ropinirole. 1. Findings on objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletu, B; Gruber, G; Saletu, M; Brandstätter, N; Hauer, C; Prause, W; Ritter, K; Saletu-Zyhlarz, G

    2000-01-01

    Although the restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder with a relatively high prevalence rate (8% in Austria) and leads to insomnia and excessive daytime tiredness, there is a paucity of sleep laboratory data concerning objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate 12 untreated RLS patients as compared with 12 normal controls and subsequently measure the acute effects of 0.5 mg ropinirole (Requip((R))) - a nonergoline dopamine agonist - as compared with placebo. In 3 nights (adaptation, placebo, ropinirole night) sleep induction, maintenance and architecture were measured objectively by polysomnography, subjective sleep and awakening quality were assessed by self-rating scales and visual-analog scales, and objective awakening quality was evaluated by a psychometric test battery. In polysomnography, RLS patients demonstrated, as compared with normal controls, a decreased total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficacy, increased wakefulness during the total sleep period and frequency of nocturnal awakenings, increased sleep stage S1, decreased S2 and increased stage shifts. Subjective sleep quality tended to decrease, and morning well-being, mood, affectivity and wakefulness were deteriorated. In the noopsyche, fine motor activity and reaction time performance were deteriorated. Ropinirole 0.5 mg induced, as compared with placebo, an increase in TST, sleep efficacy, S2 sleep and stage shifts. In the morning, somatic complaints increased slightly, while fine motor activity and reaction time performance improved. Our findings suggest a key-lock principle in the diagnosis/treatment of RLS and a dopaminergic mechanism in its pathogenesis, which is supported by the data on periodic leg movements during sleep and arousals of the subsequent paper. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Assessment of subjective sleep quality in iron deficiency anaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HAD) scale and pittsburgh sleep quality index. (PSQI). ... sleeping. Conclusion: IDA affects sleep quality irrespective of psychological symptoms such as depression and anxiety. ..... sleep: genetics, cellular physiology and subcortical net- works.

  4. Subjective but Not Actigraphy-Defined Sleep Predicts Next-Day Fatigue in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Prospective Daily Diary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Charlotte; Wearden, Alison J.; Fairclough, Gillian; Emsley, Richard A.; Kyle, Simon D.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study aimed to (1) examine the relationship between subjective and actigraphy-defined sleep, and next-day fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); and (2) investigate the potential mediating role of negative mood on this relationship. We also sought to examine the effect of presleep arousal on perceptions of sleep. Methods: Twenty-seven adults meeting the Oxford criteria for CFS and self-identifying as experiencing sleep difficulties were recruited to take part in a prospective daily diary study, enabling symptom capture in real time over a 6-day period. A paper diary was used to record nightly subjective sleep and presleep arousal. Mood and fatigue symptoms were rated four times each day. Actigraphy was employed to provide objective estimations of sleep duration and continuity. Results: Multilevel modelling revealed that subjective sleep variables, namely sleep quality, efficiency, and perceiving sleep to be unrefreshing, predicted following-day fatigue levels, with poorer subjective sleep related to increased fatigue. Lower subjective sleep efficiency and perceiving sleep as unrefreshing predicted reduced variance in fatigue across the following day. Negative mood on waking partially mediated these relationships. Increased presleep cognitive and somatic arousal predicted self-reported poor sleep. Actigraphy-defined sleep, however, was not found to predict following-day fatigue. Conclusions: For the first time we show that nightly subjective sleep predicts next-day fatigue in CFS and identify important factors driving this relationship. Our data suggest that sleep specific interventions, targeting presleep arousal, perceptions of sleep and negative mood on waking, may improve fatigue in CFS. Citation: Russell C, Wearden AJ, Fairclough G, Emsley RA, Kyle SD. Subjective but not actigraphy-defined sleep predicts next-day fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome: a prospective daily diary study. SLEEP 2016;39(4):937–944. PMID:26715232

  5. Subjective sleep, burden, depression, and general health among caregivers of veterans poststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittman, Maude; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Findley, Kim

    2009-02-01

    The purposes of this article are to explore and describe subjective sleep experiences of informal caregivers of stroke survivors and to explore the relationships between subjective sleep experiences, caregiver burden, depression, and health to provide a broader portrait of the role that sleep plays in the stroke caregiving experience. A total of 276 caregivers and veterans participated in the study. Results indicate a greater risk of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale) among caregivers who sleep less, have difficulty achieving daytime enthusiasm, use sleep medications, and have poor sleep quality. Caregivers who sleep less have difficulty achieving daytime enthusiasm and are at greater risk of poor health. Greater caregiver burden was associated with less sleep and use of sleep medications. This descriptive analysis demonstrates the important relationship between sleep, depression, health, and burden and can lead to interventions to diagnose and treat sleep difficulties in caregivers.

  6. Impaired Sleep Mediates the Negative Effects of Training Load on Subjective Well-Being in Female Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Brickson, Stacey

    2018-02-01

    Although increased training load (TL) and impaired sleep are associated with decreases in subjective well-being in adult athletes, these relationships among female youth athletes are unclear. It is unknown whether the effects of sleep and TL on well-being are independent or whether alterations in sleep mediate the effects of TL on subjective well-being. Sleep and TL exert independent effects on subjective well-being among youth athletes, although alterations in sleep mediate a significant portion of the effect of TL on well-being in female youth athletes. Prospective cohort study. Level 4. A total of 65 female soccer athletes (age range, 13-18 years) were monitored for 1 year. Daily TL was determined by session rating of perceived exertion and converted to z-scores. Every morning, participants recorded sleep duration in hours and rated stress, mood, fatigue, and soreness on a scale from -3 to +3 (worst to best). Linear mixed-effects models and mediation analysis were used to evaluate the independent effects of TL and sleep on well-being. Average sleep duration was 7.9 ± 1.4 hours during the study period. In the multivariable model, TL and sleep duration were independently associated with fatigue (TL: β = -0.19, P < 0.001; sleep: β = 0.15, P < 0.001), mood (TL: β = -0.030, P = 0.014; sleep: β = 0.13, P < 0.001), stress (TL: β = -0.055, P = 0.001; sleep: β = 0.13, P < 0.001), and soreness (TL: β = -0.31, P < 0.001; sleep: β = 0.022, P = 0.042). Sleep duration mediated a significant portion of the effect of TL on mood (26.8%, P < 0.001), fatigue (12.6%, P < 0.001), and stress (24.5%, P < 0.001). Among female youth athletes, decreased sleep duration and increased TL are independently associated with impairments of subjective well-being. In addition, decreased sleep mediates a significant portion of the negative effect of increases in TL on subjective well-being. Monitoring and promoting sleep among female adolescent athletes may significantly improve

  7. The effectiveness of acupuncture on the sleep quality of elderly with dementia: a within-subjects trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Timothy; Leung, Ping Chung; Wing, Yun Kwok; Ip, Isaac; Wong, Bel; Ho, Daniel Wai Hung; Wong, Wai Ming; Ho, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Elderly with dementia are often afflicted with sleep problems. Recent studies have suggested that acupuncture may be a feasible alternative to traditional sleep medicine for treating sleep disturbance. This study investigated the effectiveness of acupuncture on sleep quality of elderly with dementia. Nineteen elders with dementia were followed through a control period and an acupuncture treatment period, each lasting 6 weeks. Outcome measures were subjects' sleep quality and cognitive function. Sleep parameters were recorded by wrist actigraphy. Cognitive function was assessed by the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog). Pretests and posttests were conducted immediately before and after the control and treatment periods. Changes in the outcome measures between control and treatment periods were compared. Wilcoxon signed rank tests revealed that the subjects gained significantly more resting time and total sleep time in the treatment period than in the control period (P efficiency was observed. Improvement in cognitive function was not statistically significant. A total of 86% of the subjects completed the treatment regime. Results reveal that acupuncture was effective in improving some domains of sleep quality of elderly with dementia, and the subjects showed acceptance towards the intervention. Strengths and limitations of the present study as well as suggestions for further studies were considered.

  8. Disturbed subjective sleep characteristics in adult patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, M.; Donga, E.; van Dijk, J. G.; Lammers, G. J.; van Kralingen, K. W.; Dekkers, O. M.; Corssmit, E. P. M.; Romijn, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Decreased sleep duration and/or impaired sleep quality negatively influence glucoregulation. The aim of this study was to assess subjective sleep characteristics in patients with type 1 diabetes, to relate sleep characteristics to long-term glycaemic control and to assess possible risk factors for

  9. Hypnotic Relaxation and Yoga to Improve Sleep and School Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Michelle M.; Smith, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Sleep insufficiency, defined as inadequate sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness, has been linked with students' learning and behavioral outcomes at school. However, there is limited research on interventions designed to improve the sleep of school-age children. In order to promote more interest on this critical topic, we…

  10. Associations between poor subjective prenatal sleep quality and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Elaine K H; Tan, Joyce; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mai; Teoh, Oon-Hoe; Goh, Daniel Y T; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P

    2016-09-15

    Symptoms of depression and anxiety are common during pregnancy and the postnatal period. A risk factor for mood disorders is poor sleep quality. In this study we investigate the effects of poor subjective prenatal sleep quality on postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms, independent of prenatal depression or anxiety, amongst pregnant women in the general population. We analysed data from a subset of women taking part in a prospective cohort study, Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes. The participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory between 26 and 28 weeks of pregnancy (Time 1) and at 3 months postpartum (Time 2), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at Time 1. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between subjective prenatal sleep quality and postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms, while adjusting for prenatal depressive/anxiety symptoms and education. Although borderline-high depressive/anxiety symptoms were the strongest predictors of postnatal depressive/anxiety, independent of this, poor subjective sleep quality during pregnancy was also associated with borderline-high postnatal depressive symptoms, but not with postnatal anxiety. Sleep quality and prenatal/postnatal mood were derived from self-reported questionnaires, which may be more susceptible to bias. Although treatment of symptoms of prenatal depression and anxiety will be the most important for reducing postnatal depression and anxiety, in addition to that, future studies may explore treatments improving prenatal sleep quality, particularly for women with antenatal depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stimulation of the brain with radiofrequency electromagnetic field pulses affects sleep-dependent performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Murbach, Manuel; Dürr, Roland; Schmid, Marc Ralph; Kuster, Niels; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2013-09-01

    Sleep-dependent performance improvements seem to be closely related to sleep spindles (12-15 Hz) and sleep slow-wave activity (SWA, 0.75-4.5 Hz). Pulse-modulated radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF, carrier frequency 900 MHz) are capable to modulate these electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of sleep. The aim of our study was to explore possible mechanisms how RF EMF affect cortical activity during sleep and to test whether such effects on cortical activity during sleep interact with sleep-dependent performance changes. Sixteen male subjects underwent 2 experimental nights, one of them with all-night 0.25-0.8 Hz pulsed RF EMF exposure. All-night EEG was recorded. To investigate RF EMF induced changes in overnight performance improvement, subjects were trained for both nights on a motor task in the evening and the morning. We obtained good sleep quality in all subjects under both conditions (mean sleep efficiency > 90%). After pulsed RF EMF we found increased SWA during exposure to pulse-modulated RF EMF compared to sham exposure (P sleep period. Spindle activity was not affected. Moreover, subjects showed an increased RF EMF burst-related response in the SWA range, indicated by an increase in event-related EEG spectral power and phase changes in the SWA range. Notably, during exposure, sleep-dependent performance improvement in the motor sequence task was reduced compared to the sham condition (-20.1%, P = 0.03). The changes in the time course of SWA during the exposure night may reflect an interaction of RF EMF with the renormalization of cortical excitability during sleep, with a negative impact on sleep-dependent performance improvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of different types of exercise on sleep quality of elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, José M T; Lima, Leandra G; Campos, Giulliard O; Bertani, Rodrigo F; Moriguti, Júlio C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2016-09-01

    There are still many gaps in research concerning the effect of different physical training modalities on sleep quality in the elderly population. Thus, the objective of the present study was to compare the quality of sleep of hypertensive elderly subjects submitted to two types of training (ie, aerobic exercise alone or combined aerobic and resistance training). Participants aged 60-75 years were randomized to three groups: aerobic group (AG), combined aerobic and resistance group (ARG), and control untrained group (CG). Training lasted ten consecutive weeks with 30 uninterrupted sessions. The actigraph (Actiwatch Minimitter Company, INC - Sunriver, OR, USA) was placed on the non-dominant wrist and activities were monitored continuously while being recorded at one minute intervals. The participants kept the device for a period of 96 hours before the first and last training sessions. There was a reduction in sleep fragmentation index of 18.9 for AG and 13 for ARG (p sleep efficacy was improved in the exercise groups, with a 5.6% increase for AG (p = 0.02) and a 6.1% increase for ARG (p = 0.01). After training, percentage of minutes motionless was increased by 8.2% for AG and by 6.9% for ARG (p sleep quality. A reduction in total activity score during sleep was observed for AG and ARG (p exercise performed for ten weeks similarly improved sleep quality, thus reducing the fragmentation index, the percentage of minutes in motion and total activity score, and increasing sleep efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Moderate Exercise Plus Sleep Education Improves Self-Reported Sleep Quality, Daytime Mood, and Vitality in Adults with Chronic Sleep Complaints: A Waiting List-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gebhart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that physical exercise can contribute to better sleep quality. This study investigates the six-week influence of a combined intervention on self-rated sleep quality, daytime mood, and quality of life. A nonclinical sample of 114 adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining of sleep complaints participated in the study. The intervention group of 70 adults underwent moderate physical exercise, conducted weekly, plus sleep education sessions. Improvements among participants assigned to the intervention group relative to the waiting-list control group (n=44 were noted for subjective sleep quality, daytime mood, depressive symptoms and vitality. Derived from PSQI subscores, the intervention group reported increased sleep duration, shortened sleep latency, fewer awakenings after sleep onset, and overall better sleep efficiency compared to controls. The attained scores were well sustained and enhanced over a time that lasted through to the follow-up 18 weeks later. These findings have implications in treatment programs concerning healthy lifestyle approaches for adults with chronic sleep complaints.

  14. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    OpenAIRE

    Annemarie eBoschloo; Lydia eKrabbendam; Sanne eDekker; Lee, Nikki C.; Renate ede Groot; Jelle eJolles

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-repor...

  15. Subjective sensation on sleep, fatigue, and thermal comfort in winter shelter-analogue settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kazuki; Mochizuki, Yosuke; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Nabeshima, Yuki

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to examine sleep in shelter-analogue settings in winter to determine the subjective sensation and environmental conditions in evacuation shelters. Twelve young healthy students took part in the sleep study of two nights for seven hours from Midnight to 7 AM in the gymnasium. One night the subject used a pair of futons and on the other the subject used the emergency supplies of four blankets and a set of portable partitions. During the night, air temperature, humidity and air velocity were measured in the area around the sleeping subjects. Sleep parameters measured by actigraphy, skin temperature, microclimate temperature, rectal temperature, and the heart rates of the subjects were continuously measured and recorded during the sleeping period. The subjects completed questionnaires regarding their thermal comfort and subjective sleep before and after the sleep. The subjects felt more coldness on their head and peripheral parts of the body using the emergency blankets than the futon during the sleep. Moreover, fatigue was felt more on the lower back and lower extremities from using emergency blankets than the futon after sleep. However, the sleep efficiency index and subjective sleep evaluation by OSA questionnaire did not reveal any good correlationship. The emergency supplies should be examined for their suitability to provide comfortable and healthy sleep in the shelter-analogue settings.

  16. Sleep Quality Improvement During Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsawh, Holly J; Bomyea, Jessica; Stein, Murray B; Cissell, Shadha H; Lang, Ariel J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of sleep complaints among individuals with anxiety disorders, few prior studies have examined whether sleep quality improves during anxiety treatment. The current study examined pre- to posttreatment sleep quality improvement during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder (PD; n = 26) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 24). Among sleep quality indices, only global sleep quality and sleep latency improved significantly (but modestly) during CBT. Sleep quality improvement was greater for treatment responders, but did not vary by diagnosis. Additionally, poor baseline sleep quality was independently associated with worse anxiety treatment outcome, as measured by higher intolerance of uncertainty. Additional intervention targeting sleep prior to or during CBT for anxiety may be beneficial for poor sleepers.

  17. Subjective but Not Actigraphy-Defined Sleep Predicts Next-Day Fatigue in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Prospective Daily Diary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Charlotte; Wearden, Alison J; Fairclough, Gillian; Emsley, Richard A; Kyle, Simon D

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (1) examine the relationship between subjective and actigraphy-defined sleep, and next-day fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); and (2) investigate the potential mediating role of negative mood on this relationship. We also sought to examine the effect of presleep arousal on perceptions of sleep. Twenty-seven adults meeting the Oxford criteria for CFS and self-identifying as experiencing sleep difficulties were recruited to take part in a prospective daily diary study, enabling symptom capture in real time over a 6-day period. A paper diary was used to record nightly subjective sleep and presleep arousal. Mood and fatigue symptoms were rated four times each day. Actigraphy was employed to provide objective estimations of sleep duration and continuity. Multilevel modelling revealed that subjective sleep variables, namely sleep quality, efficiency, and perceiving sleep to be unrefreshing, predicted following-day fatigue levels, with poorer subjective sleep related to increased fatigue. Lower subjective sleep efficiency and perceiving sleep as unrefreshing predicted reduced variance in fatigue across the following day. Negative mood on waking partially mediated these relationships. Increased presleep cognitive and somatic arousal predicted self-reported poor sleep. Actigraphy-defined sleep, however, was not found to predict following-day fatigue. For the first time we show that nightly subjective sleep predicts next-day fatigue in CFS and identify important factors driving this relationship. Our data suggest that sleep specific interventions, targeting presleep arousal, perceptions of sleep and negative mood on waking, may improve fatigue in CFS. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Noninvasive Ventilation Improves Sleep in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Prospective Polysomnographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijsen, Bart; Buyse, Bertien; Belge, Catharina; Robberecht, Wim; Van Damme, Philip; Decramer, Marc; Testelmans, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: To evaluate the effects of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) on sleep in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) after meticulous titration with polysomnography (PSG). Methods: In this prospective observational study, 24 ALS patients were admitted to the sleep laboratory during 4 nights for in-hospital NIV titration with PSG and nocturnal capnography. Questionnaires were used to assess subjective sleep quality and quality of life (QoL). Patients were readmitted after one month. Results: In the total group, slow wave sleep and REM sleep increased and the arousal-awakening index improved. The group without bulbar involvement (non-bulbar) showed the same improvements, together with an increase in sleep efficiency. Nocturnal oxygen and carbon dioxide levels improved in the total and non-bulbar group. Except for oxygen saturation during REM sleep, no improvement in respiratory function or sleep structure was found in bulbar patients. However, these patients showed less room for improvement. Patient-reported outcomes showed improvement in sleep quality and QoL for the total and non-bulbar group, while bulbar patients only reported improvements in very few subscores. Conclusions: This study shows an improvement of sleep architecture, carbon dioxide, and nocturnal oxygen saturation at the end of NIV titration and after one month of NIV in ALS patients. More studies are needed to identify the appropriate time to start NIV in bulbar patients. Our results suggest that accurate titration of NIV by PSG improves sleep quality. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 511. Citation: Vrijsen B, Buyse B, Belge C, Robberecht W, Van Damme P, Decramer M, Testelmans D. Noninvasive ventilation improves sleep in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a prospective polysomnographic study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):559–566. PMID:25766713

  19. The effectiveness of acupuncture on the sleep quality of elderly with dementia: a within-subjects trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Kwok,1,2 Ping Chung Leung,3 Yun Kwok Wing,4 Isaac Ip,2 Bel Wong,2 Daniel Wai Hung Ho,2 Wai Ming Wong,3 Florence Ho2 1Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Hong Kong; 3Institute of Chinese Medicine, 4Department of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Purpose: Elderly with dementia are often afflicted with sleep problems. Recent studies have suggested that acupuncture may be a feasible alternative to traditional sleep medicine for treating sleep disturbance. This study investigated the effectiveness of acupuncture on sleep quality of elderly with dementia. Patients and methods: Nineteen elders with dementia were followed through a control period and an acupuncture treatment period, each lasting 6 weeks. Outcome measures were subjects' sleep quality and cognitive function. Sleep parameters were recorded by wrist actigraphy. Cognitive function was assessed by the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale – Cognitive (ADAS-Cog. Pretests and posttests were conducted immediately before and after the control and treatment periods. Changes in the outcome measures between control and treatment periods were compared. Results: Wilcoxon signed rank tests revealed that the subjects gained significantly more resting time and total sleep time in the treatment period than in the control period (P < 0.05. A nonsignificant trend for improvement in sleep efficiency was observed. Improvement in cognitive function was not statistically significant. A total of 86% of the subjects completed the treatment regime. Conclusion: Results reveal that acupuncture was effective in improving some domains of sleep quality of elderly with dementia, and the subjects showed acceptance towards the intervention. Strengths and limitations of the present study as well as suggestions for further studies were considered. Keywords: acupuncture, sleep disturbance, patients

  20. Patients previously treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas have disturbed sleep characteristics, circadian movement rhythm, and subjective sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermasz, N R; Joustra, S D; Donga, E; Pereira, A M; van Duinen, N; van Dijk, M; van der Klaauw, A A; Corssmit, E P M; Lammers, G J; van Kralingen, K W; van Dijk, J G; Romijn, J A

    2011-05-01

    Fatigue and excessive sleepiness have been reported after treatment of nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMA). Because these complaints may be caused by disturbed nocturnal sleep, we evaluated objective sleep characteristics in patients treated for NFMA. We conducted a controlled cross-sectional study. We studied 17 patients (8 women; mean age, 54 yr) in remission of NFMA during long-term follow-up (8 yr; range, 1-18 yr) after surgery (n = 17) and additional radiotherapy (n = 5) without comorbidity except for hypopituitarism and 17 controls matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Sleep was assessed by nocturnal polysomnography, sleep and diurnal movement patterns by actigraphy, and quality of life and subjective sleep characteristics by questionnaires. Compared to controls, patients had reduced sleep efficiency, less rapid eye movement sleep, more N1 sleep, and more awakenings in the absence of excessive apnea or periodic limb movements. Actigraphy revealed a longer sleep duration and profound disturbances in diurnal movement patterns, with more awakenings at night and less activity during the day. Patients scored higher on fatigue and reported impaired quality of life. Patients previously treated for NFMA suffer from decreased subjective sleep quality, disturbed distribution of sleep stages, and disturbed circadian movement rhythm. These observations indicate that altered sleep characteristics may be a factor contributing to impaired quality of life and increased fatigue in patients treated for NFMA.

  1. Enhanced slow wave sleep and improved sleep maintenance after gaboxadol administration during seven nights of exposure to a traffic noise model of transient insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, D-J; Stanley, N; Lundahl, J; Groeger, J A; Legters, A; Trap Huusom, A K; Deacon, S

    2012-08-01

    Slow wave sleep (SWS) has been reported to correlate with sleep maintenance, but whether pharmacological enhancement of SWS also leads to improved sleep maintenance is not known. Here we evaluate the time-course of the effects of gaboxadol, an extra-synaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist, on SWS, sleep maintenance, and other sleep measures in a traffic noise model of transient insomnia. After a placebo run-in, 101 healthy subjects (20-78 y) were randomized to gaboxadol (n = 50; 15 mg in subjects model caused some disruption of sleep initiation and maintenance, with greatest effects on N1. Compared with placebo, gaboxadol increased SWS and slow wave activity throughout N1 to N7 (p maintenance and subjective sleep quality under placebo and gaboxadol (p maintenance.

  2. Subjective sleep characteristics associated with anxiety and depression in older adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Olivier; Lorrain, Dominique; Belleville, Geneviève; Grenier, Sébastien; Préville, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Sleep complaints are often associated with anxiety and depression, but the specific complaints related to each syndrome are poorly characterized, especially in older adults. The objective was to identify subjective sleep characteristics specific to anxiety and depression in this population. A random sample of 2393 individuals aged 65 years or older was used. Anxiety and depression were categorized using DSM-V criteria for phobias, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, unspecified anxiety disorder, major depressive episode, and depressive episode with insufficient symptoms. Subjective sleep characteristics were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Logistic regression models predicting anxiety or depression were used to determine the independent sleep characteristics associated with each syndrome adjusting for age, sex, education level, cognitive functioning, anxiolytic/sedative/hypnotic use, antidepressants use, subjective health, chronic diseases, cardiovascular conditions, and anxiety or depression (as appropriate). Nearly all Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index subscales were significantly associated with anxiety, but these subscales shared variance and only sleep duration in hours, sleep disturbance score, and daytime functioning score were independently related to anxiety. Within these significant subscales, the main specific sleep complaints associated with anxiety were daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances related to coughing/snoring, feeling cold, and bad dreams. The use of sleeping medication was the only specific sleep characteristic associated with depression. These results suggest that in older adults, symptoms of short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances are independently related to anxiety while the use of sleep medication is independently associated to depression. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Frequent nocturnal awakening in children: prevalence, risk factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liwen; Ren, Jiwei; Shi, Lei; Jin, Xinming; Yan, Chonghuai; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming; Li, Shenghui

    2014-07-30

    Nocturnal awakening is the most frequent insomnia complaint in the general population. In contrast to a growing knowledge based on adults, little is known about its prevalence, correlated factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness in children. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and the correlate factors of frequent nocturnal awakening (FNA) among Chinese school-aged children. Furthermore, the associations of FNA with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness were examined. A random sample of 20,505 children aged 5.00 to 11.92 years old (boys: 49.5% vs. girls: 50.5%) participated in a cross-sectional survey, which was conducted in eight cities of China. Parent-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, sleep perception, and potential influential factors of FNA from six domains. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed. The prevalence of FNA was 9.8% (10.0% for boys vs. 8.9% for girls) in our sampled children. The prominent FNA-related factors inclued biological health problems, such as overweight/obesity (OR = 1.70), chronic pain during night (OR = 2.47), and chronic respiratory condition (OR = 1.23), poor psychosocial condition, such as poor mental and emotional functioning (OR = 1.34), poor sleep hygiene, such as frequently doing exciting activities before bedtime (OR = 1.24) and bedtime resistance (OR = 1.42), and parents' history of insomnia (OR = 1.31). FNA was associated with subjective poor sleep quality (OR = 1.24), subjective insufficient sleep (OR = 1.21), and daytime sleepiness (OR = 1.35). FNA was associated with poor sleep and daytime sleepiness. Compared to sleep environment and family susceptibility, chronic health problems, poor psychosocial condition, and poor sleep hygiene had greater impact on FNA, indicating childhood FNA could be partly prevented by health promotion, by psychological intervention, and by

  4. Reduced Slow-Wave Rebound during Daytime Recovery Sleep in Middle-Aged Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortune, Marjolaine; Gagnon, Jean-François; Latreille, Véronique; Vandewalle, Gilles; Martin, Nicolas; Filipini, Daniel; Doyon, Julien; Carrier, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Cortical synchronization during NREM sleep, characterized by electroencephalographic slow waves (SW 75 µV), is strongly related to the number of hours of wakefulness prior to sleep and to the quality of the waking experience. Whether a similar increase in wakefulness length leads to a comparable enhancement in NREM sleep cortical synchronization in young and older subjects is still a matter of debate in the literature. Here we evaluated the impact of 25-hours of wakefulness on SW during a daytime recovery sleep episode in 29 young (27y ±5), and 34 middle-aged (51y ±5) subjects. We also assessed whether age-related changes in NREM sleep cortical synchronization predicts the ability to maintain sleep during daytime recovery sleep. Compared to baseline sleep, sleep efficiency was lower during daytime recovery sleep in both age-groups but the effect was more prominent in the middle-aged than in the young subjects. In both age groups, SW density, amplitude, and slope increased whereas SW positive and negative phase duration decreased during daytime recovery sleep compared to baseline sleep, particularly in anterior brain areas. Importantly, compared to young subjects, middle-aged participants showed lower SW density rebound and SW positive phase duration enhancement after sleep deprivation during daytime recovery sleep. Furthermore, middle-aged subjects showed lower SW amplitude and slope enhancements after sleep deprivation than young subjects in frontal and prefrontal derivations only. None of the SW characteristics at baseline were associated with daytime recovery sleep efficiency. Our results support the notion that anterior brain areas elicit and may necessitate more intense recovery and that aging reduces enhancement of cortical synchronization after sleep loss, particularly in these areas. Age-related changes in the quality of wake experience may underlie age-related reduction in markers of cortical synchronization enhancement after sustained wakefulness. PMID

  5. Reduced slow-wave rebound during daytime recovery sleep in middle-aged subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolaine Lafortune

    Full Text Available Cortical synchronization during NREM sleep, characterized by electroencephalographic slow waves (SW 75 µV, is strongly related to the number of hours of wakefulness prior to sleep and to the quality of the waking experience. Whether a similar increase in wakefulness length leads to a comparable enhancement in NREM sleep cortical synchronization in young and older subjects is still a matter of debate in the literature. Here we evaluated the impact of 25-hours of wakefulness on SW during a daytime recovery sleep episode in 29 young (27 y ± 5, and 34 middle-aged (51 y ± 5 subjects. We also assessed whether age-related changes in NREM sleep cortical synchronization predicts the ability to maintain sleep during daytime recovery sleep. Compared to baseline sleep, sleep efficiency was lower during daytime recovery sleep in both age-groups but the effect was more prominent in the middle-aged than in the young subjects. In both age groups, SW density, amplitude, and slope increased whereas SW positive and negative phase duration decreased during daytime recovery sleep compared to baseline sleep, particularly in anterior brain areas. Importantly, compared to young subjects, middle-aged participants showed lower SW density rebound and SW positive phase duration enhancement after sleep deprivation during daytime recovery sleep. Furthermore, middle-aged subjects showed lower SW amplitude and slope enhancements after sleep deprivation than young subjects in frontal and prefrontal derivations only. None of the SW characteristics at baseline were associated with daytime recovery sleep efficiency. Our results support the notion that anterior brain areas elicit and may necessitate more intense recovery and that aging reduces enhancement of cortical synchronization after sleep loss, particularly in these areas. Age-related changes in the quality of wake experience may underlie age-related reduction in markers of cortical synchronization enhancement after

  6. What does the sleeping brain say? Syntax and semantics of sleep talking in healthy subjects and in parasomnia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Gay, Frederick; Baldayrou, Etienne; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Gayraud, Frederique; Devevey, Alain

    2017-10-05

    Speech is a complex function in humans, but the linguistic characteristics of sleep talking are unknown. We analyzed sleep-associated speech in adults, mostly (92%) during parasomnias. The utterances recorded during night-time video-polysomnography were analyzed for number of words, propositions and speech episodes, frequency, gaps and pauses (denoting turn-taking in the conversation), lemmatization, verbosity, negative/imperative/interrogative tone, first/second person, politeness and abuse. The 232 subjects (aged 49.5 ± 20 y old; 41% women; 129 with rapid eye movement [REM] sleep behavior disorder and 87 with sleepwalking/sleep terrors, 15 healthy subjects and 1 patient with sleep apnea speaking in non-REM sleep) uttered 882 speech episodes, containing 59% non-verbal utterance (mumbles, shouts, whispers, laughs) and 3349 understandable words. The most frequent word was "No": negations represented 21.4% of clauses (more in non-REM sleep). Interrogations were found in 26% of speech episodes (more in non-REM sleep), and subordinate clauses were found in 12.9% of speech episode. As many as 9.7% of clauses contained profanities (more in non-REM sleep). Verbal abuse lasted longer in REM sleep and was mostly directed towards insulting or condemning someone, whereas swearing predominated in non-REM sleep. Men sleep-talked more than women and used a higher proportion of profanities. Apparent turn-taking in the conversation respected the usual language gaps. Sleep talking parallels awake talking for syntax, semantics and turn- taking in conversation, suggesting that the sleeping brain can function at a high level. Language during sleep is mostly a familiar, tensed conversation with inaudible others, suggestive of conflicts.

  7. Subjective-Objective Sleep Discrepancy in Older Adults With MCI and Subsyndromal Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Gebara, Marie Anne; Kho, Terry; Butters, Meryl A; Gildengers, Ariel G; Albert, Steven M; Dew, Mary Amanda; Erickson, Kirk I; Reynolds, Charles F; Karp, Jordan F

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the prevalence and correlates of discrepancies between self-reported sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objective sleep efficiency (actigraphy) in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subsyndromal depression. This was a secondary analysis of a clincial trial with 59 adults aged 60 years and older with MCI and subsyndromal depression. We included baseline data on participants' subjective sleep quality, objective sleep efficiency, depressive symptoms, insomnia diagnosis, and cognitive functioning. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index subjective sleep quality and actigraphy-measured sleep efficiency were not significantly correlated ( r = -.06; P = .64), with 61% of participants having subjective-objective sleep discrepancies. Correlates of subjective-objective sleep discrepancy included the presence of an insomnia diagnosis and impaired memory, particularly delayed memory. These findings are important because subjective underestimation of symptoms in older adults with memory impairments may result in sleep disturbances going unrecognized in clinical practice; on the other hand, an insomnia disorder may be a possible remediable contribution to subjective overestimation of sleep disturbances.

  8. Subjective and objective assessment of sleep in adolescents with mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, See Wan; Fales, Jessica; Palermo, Tonya M

    2015-06-01

    There is increased recognition that sleep problems may develop in children and adolescents after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, few studies have utilized both subjective and objective measures to comprehensively assess sleep problems in the pediatric population following the acute post-TBI period. The aims of this study were to compare sleep in adolescents with mTBI to healthy adolescents using subjective and objective measures, and to identify the clinical correlates associated with sleep problems. One hundred adolescents (50 adolescents with mTBI recruited from three to twelve months post-injury and 50 healthy adolescents) completed questionnaires assessing sleep quality, depression, and pain symptoms, and underwent 10 day actigraphic assessment of sleep patterns. Adolescents with mTBI reported poorer sleep quality and demonstrated significantly shorter actigraphic-measured sleep duration, poorer sleep efficiency, and more wake time after onset of sleep, compared with healthy adolescents (all, padolescents, poorer self-reported sleep quality was predicted by greater depressive symptoms. Poorer actigraphic sleep efficiency was predicted by membership in the mTBI group after controlling for age, sex, depressive symptoms, and presence of pain. Our findings suggest that adolescents may experience subjective and objective sleep disturbances up to one year following mTBI. These findings require further replication in larger samples. Additionally, research is needed to identify possible mechanisms for poor sleep in youth with mTBI.

  9. Protein ingestion before sleep improves postexercise overnight recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Res, Peter T; Groen, Bart; Pennings, Bart; Beelen, Milou; Wallis, Gareth A; Gijsen, Annemie P; Senden, Joan M G; VAN Loon, Luc J C

    2012-08-01

    The role of nutrition in modulating postexercise overnight recovery remains to be elucidated. We assessed the effect of protein ingestion immediately before sleep on digestion and absorption kinetics and protein metabolism during overnight recovery from a single bout of resistance-type exercise. Sixteen healthy young males performed a single bout of resistance-type exercise in the evening (2000 h) after a full day of dietary standardization. All subjects were provided with appropriate recovery nutrition (20 g of protein, 60 g of CHO) immediately after exercise (2100 h). Thereafter, 30 min before sleep (2330 h), subjects ingested a beverage with (PRO) or without (PLA) 40 g of specifically produced intrinsically [1-C]phenylalanine-labeled casein protein. Continuous intravenous infusions with [ring-H5]phenylalanine and [ring-H2]tyrosine were applied with blood and muscle samples collected to assess protein digestion and absorption kinetics, whole-body protein balance and mixed muscle protein synthesis rates throughout the night (7.5 h). During sleep, casein protein was effectively digested and absorbed resulting in a rapid rise in circulating amino acid levels, which were sustained throughout the remainder of the night. Protein ingestion before sleep increased whole-body protein synthesis rates (311 ± 8 vs 246 ± 9 μmol·kg per 7.5 h) and improved net protein balance (61 ± 5 vs -11 ± 6 μmol·kg per 7.5 h) in the PRO vs the PLA experiment (P sleep is effectively digested and absorbed, thereby stimulating muscle protein synthesis and improving whole-body protein balance during postexercise overnight recovery.

  10. Effects of acute morning and evening exercise on subjective and objective sleep quality in older individuals with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yuko; Sasai-Sakuma, Taeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effects of acute morning or evening exercise on nocturnal sleep in individuals with two subjective insomnia symptoms: difficulty in initiating sleep (DIS), and early morning awakening (EMA), separately for the first vs the second halves of the night. Older individuals (55-65 years old) with DIS (N = 15) or EMA (N = 15) and age- and sex-matched controls (N = 13) participated in this non-randomized crossover study. Participants were assigned to two exercise conditions (morning exercise and evening exercise) in counterbalanced order following the baseline condition with a two-week interval between conditions. A single session of aerobic step exercise was performed during each exercise condition. Nocturnal polysomnography was carried out to evaluate objective sleep quality. Patient global impression of change scale scores for nocturnal sleep were obtained to subjectively evaluate the different groups. Acute physical exercise did not improve subjective sleep quality. Morning exercise decreased the number of stage shifts over the whole night. The arousal index and the number of stage shifts were decreased especially during the second half of the night in all groups. Furthermore, morning exercise decreased the number of wake stages during the second half of the night in the DIS group, but not in the EMA group. Acute morning exercise can improve nocturnal sleep quality in individuals with difficulty initiating sleep, especially during the later part of the night. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Gradients Exist for Sleep in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrin, Denise C.; McGrath, Jennifer J.; Quon, Elizabeth C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Socioeconomic position (SEP) is inversely associated with many health outcomes, yielding a socioeconomic gradient in health. In adults, low SEP is associated with short sleep duration, poorer sleep quality, and difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep. Relatively little is known about this relation in youth. The aim of the present study was to examine whether socioeconomic gradients exist for various sleep indices among a healthy sample of children and adolescents. Method Participants took part in the larger Healthy Heart Project and included 239 youth (69.6% Caucasian; 45.6% female), aged 8–17 years (M =12.6, SD =1.9). Parental income and education were used to measure objective SEP. The Subjective Social Status Scale-Youth Version was used to measure subjective SEP. Sleep duration, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and sleep disturbances were assessed through self- and parent-report. Results In children, objective SEP was related with sleep duration (β =.35, p <.01), although subjective SEP was related with daytime sleepiness (βavg =.33, p <.01) and parent-reported sleep duration (β =.23, p <.05). In adolescents, subjective SEPwas related with sleep quality (β =.28, p <.01) and parent-reported sleep duration (β = −.18, p <.05), even after controlling for objective SEP. Conclusions Socioeconomic gradients were observed for multiple sleep measures in youth. Objective parental SEP was related with sleep complaints (e.g., sleep disturbances), and subjective SEP was related with sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. Findings suggest sleep may be one pathway underlying the socioeconomic gradient in health. Future research should aim to elucidate how distinct sleep constructs may explain how socioeconomic status “gets under the skin” to affect health. PMID:23730721

  12. Sleep improvement with levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel infusion in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibetti, M; Rizzone, M; Merola, A; Angrisano, S; Rizzi, L; Montanaro, E; Cicolin, A; Lopiano, L

    2013-05-01

    Sleep disorders are common in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Nocturnal akinesia and sleep fragmentation frequently coexist with daytime sleepiness, influencing daytime functioning. Levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) infusion has been shown to improve motor complications in advanced PD, and preliminary findings suggest that sleep might improve following LCIG infusion. To analyze the impact of LCIG infusion on sleep symptoms and daytime sleepiness in patients with PD. Twelve consecutive patients with PD completed the PD-Sleep-Scale-version-2 (PDSS-2) and the Epworth-Sleepiness-Scale (ESS) at baseline and after 2-4 months of LCIG treatment. Activities of daily living, motor symptoms and complications were assessed with the Unified-PD-rating-Scale section II, III, and IV. Nocturnal sleep improved substantially in all patients switched to LCIG infusion. PDSS-2 total score and subscores for 'Disturbed sleep', 'Motor symptoms at night', and 'PD symptoms at night' were significantly reduced. ESS measures of daytime sleepiness also improved. Motor complications and activities of daily living improved significantly with LCIG. Subjective measures of sleep quality and daytime sleepiness improve in patients with advanced PD undergoing LCIG infusion. Further studies with a larger number of patients and polysomnographic recordings are needed to confirm the beneficial effect on sleep and clarify the underlying mechanisms. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Effectiveness of sleep education programs to improve sleep hygiene and/or sleep quality in college students: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Shellene K; Francis-Jimenez, Coleen M; Knibbs, Melida Delcina; Umali, Ismael L; Truglio-Londrigan, Marie

    2016-09-01

    Sleep health is essential for overall health, quality of life and safety. Researchers have found a reduction in the average hours of sleep among college students. Poor sleep has been associated with deficits in attention, reduction in academic performance, impaired driving, risk-taking behaviors, depression, impaired social relationships and poorer health. College students may have limited knowledge about sleep hygiene and the behaviors that supports sleep health, which may lead to poor sleep hygiene behavior. To identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of sleep education programs in improving sleep hygiene knowledge, sleep hygiene behavior and/or sleep quality versus traditional strategies. All undergraduate or graduate college students, male or female, 18 years and older and of any culture or ethnicity. Formal sleep education programs that included a curriculum on sleep hygiene behavior. Educational delivery methods that took place throughout the participants' college experience and included a variety of delivery methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental studies. Sleep hygiene knowledge, sleep hygiene behavior and/or sleep quality. Literature including published and unpublished studies in the English language from January 1, 1980 through August 17, 2015. A search of CINAHL, CENTRAL, EMBASE, Academic Search Complete, PsychINFO, Healthsource: Nursing/Academic edition, ProQuest Central, PubMed and ERIC were conducted using identified keywords and indexed terms. A gray literature search was also performed. Quantitative papers were assessed by two reviewers using critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI). Data were extracted using the JBI-MAStARI data extraction tool. Data extracted included interventions, populations, study methods and outcomes of significance to the review question and objectives. Meta

  14. Improved sleep MRI at 3 tesla in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Lewis K; Holbrook, Andrew B; Capasso, Robson; Kushida, Clete A; Powell, Nelson B; Fischbein, Nancy J; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2013-11-01

    To describe a real-time MR imaging platform for synchronous, multi-planar visualization of upper airway collapse in obstructive sleep apnea at 3 Tesla (T) to promote natural sleep with an emphasis on lateral wall visualization. A real-time imaging platform was configured for sleep MR imaging which used a cartesian, partial k-space gradient-echo sequence with an inherent temporal resolution of 3 independent slices every 2 s. Combinations of axial, mid-sagittal, and coronal scan planes were acquired. The system was tested in five subjects with polysomnography-proven obstructive sleep apnea during sleep, with synchronous acquisition of respiratory effort and combined oral-nasal airflow data. Sleep was initiated and maintained to allow demonstration of sleep-induced, upper airway collapse as illustrated in two subjects when using a real-time, sleep MR imaging platform at 3T. Lateral wall collapse could not be visualized on mid-sagittal imaging alone and was best characterized on multiplanar coronal and axial imaging planes. Our dedicated sleep MR imaging platform permitted an acoustic environment of constant "white noise" which was conducive to sleep onset and sleep maintenance in obstructive sleep apnea patients at 3T. Apneic episodes, specifically the lateral walls, were more accurately characterized with synchronous, multiplanar acquisitions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Sleep-hygiene Education Improves Sleep Indices in Elite Female Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Shannon; Driller, Matthew W.

    2017-01-01

    The importance of sleep in providing psychophysiological recovery in elite athletes is often overlooked. In other populations (eg shift workers and adolescent students), sleep hygiene education may serve to acutely improve sleep indices. However, this is yet to be examined in an elite athlete...... setting. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a sleep hygiene education session on sleep indices in elite athletes. The study involved 26 elite female netball athletes performing one week of baseline sleep monitoring (PRE), followed by a sleep hygiene education session......; 22.3 ± 39.9 minutes, p=0.01) PRE to POST sleep hygiene education session, the difference associated with a small effect (ES: 0.39). A significant improvement PRE to POST was found for WV (p=0.03), and for WED (p=0.03). There were no significant differences for SE%, SL, TTB, WE, SOV, SOT, WT...

  16. Sleep in healthy elderly subjects: a 24-hour ambulatory polysomnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, G L; Placidi, F; Diomedi, M; Maschio, M; Silvestri, G; Scalise, A; Marciani, M G

    1996-04-01

    It is still debated whether the deterioration of the sleep pattern, frequently reported by elderly subjects, is due only to aging per se. Other factors associated with aging or modifications of biological rhythms could also be involved. Elderly subjects frequently complain of daytime sleepiness, but it is not clear whether this actually represents a return to a polyphasic structure of sleep, or only a consequence of a disturbed night sleep. Ten healthy, independent and active elderly subjects (age > 72 years) were elevated by means of 24-hour ambulatory polysomnography. Findings of nocturnal sleep were compared with sleep of the same group in the 24-hour period and with sleep of young healthy controls. We observed a fragmentation of nocturnal sleep, but a fairly good representation of stages and a preservation of cyclicity. Except for three cases, with early or late times of sleep onset and wake-up, sleep disruption did not seem to be related to modification of circadian rhythms. Only three subjects presented undesired daytime naps, whereas the others either did not show daytime sleep at all, or were used to having their siesta after lunch since their young adulthood. In normal aging, daytime sleep does not constitute a social problem. Ambulatory polysomnography is a valid alternative to laboratory recordings in the identification of daytime sleep.

  17. Comparison of Resistance and Chair Yoga Training on Subjective Sleep Quality in MCI Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Karydaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-rated sleep disorders are common in older adults, resulting in various health problems. Two types of exercise are suggested as an affordable and accessible non-pharmacological treatment and are being compared and discussed. Objectives: This randomized, controlled, 12-week trial investigates the effects of different types of exercise (resistance vs chair yoga training on subjective sleep quality, in women with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. Methods: In order to measure cognitive function, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE was used. Forty nine participants enrolled in the study were randomized to a resistance training program (n=16, or a chair yoga program (n=15, or a control group (n=18. All participants engaged in cognitive activities. Results: At baseline, PSQI scores for CYG, RTG and CG (8.2±5.1, 6.1±4.3, 7.4±4.1, respectively and MMSE (28.3±1.4, 27.8±1.2, 28.0±2.3, respectively did not differ statistically between the three groups (F2,46= 1.993, p= 0.143. After the intervention, a significant improvement in PSQI total score was noted in resistance training group (t=2.335, df15, p=0.03. Conclusions: There were no significant differences between groups before and after test for the PSQI subscale scores (sleep onset latency (h, time spent in bed before sleep (min, morning waking up (h and sleep duration (h. No significant difference was found in PSQI subscales scores within each group. This study proposes that resistance training is an effective treatment approach to improve sleep quality in women with mild cognitive impairment.

  18. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie eBoschloo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-reported school performance. Sleep quality on the other hand – as a measure of (uninterrupted sleep and/or problems falling asleep or waking up – predicted parent-reported school performance. Self- and parent-reported school performance correlated only moderately with school grades. So it turns out that the measures used to measure either sleep or school performance impacts whether or not a relation is found. Further research on sleep and school performance should take this into account. The findings do underscore the notion that sleep in adolescence can be important for learning. They are compatible with the hypothesis that a reduced sleep quality can give rise to sleepiness in the first hours at school which results in lower school performance. This notion could have applied value in counseling adolescents and their parents in changing adolescents’ sleep behavior.

  19. Subjective Sleepiness and Sleep Quality in Adolescents are Related to Objective and Subjective Measures of School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; de Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness - "I feel sleepy during the first hours at school" - appeared to predict both school grades and self-reported school performance. Sleep quality on the other hand - as a measure of (un)interrupted sleep and/or problems falling asleep or waking up - predicted parent-reported school performance. Self- and parent-reported school performance correlated only moderately with school grades. So it turns out that the measures used to measure either sleep or school performance impacts whether or not a relation is found. Further research on sleep and school performance should take this into account. The findings do underscore the notion that sleep in adolescence can be important for learning. They are compatible with the hypothesis that a reduced sleep quality can give rise to sleepiness in the first hours at school which results in lower school performance. This notion could have applied value in counseling adolescents and their parents in changing adolescents' sleep behavior.

  20. Effects of Sleep Hygiene Education on Subjective Sleep Quality and Academic Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Şahin, Erkan Melih

    .... It is known that sleep quality and daytime sleepiness cause decrasing academic performans. For this reason we aimed to investigate the effects of a sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance of first year medical students...

  1. What subjective experiences determine the perception of falling asleep during sleep onset period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Ming; Han, Huei-Ya; Yang, Ming-Hsin; Su, Wei-Chen; Lane, Timothy

    2010-12-01

    Sleep onset is associated with marked changes in behavioral, physiological, and subjective phenomena. In daily life though subjective experience is the main criterion in terms of which we identify it. But very few studies have focused on these experiences. This study seeks to identify the subjective variables that reflect sleep onset. Twenty young subjects took an afternoon nap in the laboratory while polysomnographic recordings were made. They were awakened four times in order to assess subjective experiences that correlate with the (1) appearance of slow eye movement, (2) initiation of stage 1 sleep, (3) initiation of stage 2 sleep, and (4) 5 min after the start of stage 2 sleep. A logistic regression identified control over and logic of thought as the two variables that predict the perception of having fallen asleep. For sleep perception, these two variables accurately classified 91.7% of the cases; for the waking state, 84.1%. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Sleep Hygiene Education on Subjective Sleep Quality and Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan Sahin

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Sleep problems are common in students with one third of university students reporting insufficient sleep. It is known that sleep quality and daytime sleepiness cause decrasing academic performans. For this reason we aimed to investigate the effects of a sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance of first year medical students. Material and Method: Self-reported sleep data and academic performance of 131 first grade medical students were collected. To all students e...

  3. Subjective Sleepiness and Sleep Quality in Adolescents are Related to Objective and Subjective Measures of School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – “I feel sleepy during the first hours at school” – appeared to predict both school grades and self-repo...

  4. Protective effects of exercise training on endothelial dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvet, Fabien; Arnal, Pierrick J; Tardo-Dino, Pierre Emmanuel; Drogou, Catherine; Van Beers, Pascal; Bougard, Clément; Rabat, Arnaud; Dispersyn, Garance; Malgoyre, Alexandra; Leger, Damien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-04-01

    Sleep loss is a risk factor for cardiovascular events mediated through endothelial dysfunction. To determine if 7weeks of exercise training can limit cardiovascular dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation (TSD) in healthy young men. 16 subjects were examined during 40-h TSD, both before and after 7weeks of interval exercise training. Vasodilatation induced by ACh, insulin and heat (42°C) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were assessed before TSD (controlday), during TSD, and after one night of sleep recovery. Biomarkers of endothelial activation, inflammation, and hormones were measured from morning blood samples. Before training, ACh-, insulin- and heat-induced vasodilatations were significantly decreased during TSD and recovery as compared with the control day, with no difference after training. Training prevented the decrease of ACh-induced vasodilation related to TSD after sleep recovery, as well as the PWV increase after TSD. A global lowering effect of training was found on HR values during TSD, but not on blood pressure. Training induces the decrease of TNF-α concentration after TSD and prevents the increase of MCP-1 after sleep recovery. Before training, IL-6 concentrations increased. Cortisol and testosterone decreased after TSD as compared with the control day, while insulin and E-selectin increased after sleep recovery. No effect of TSD or training was found on CRP and sICAM-1. In healthy young men, a moderate to high-intensity interval training is effective at improving aerobic fitness and limiting vascular dysfunction induced by TSD, possibly through pro-inflammatory cytokine responses.(ClinicalTrial:NCT02820649). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Levothyroxine improves subjective sleepiness in a euthyroid patient with narcolepsy without cataplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Danielle L; Spector, Andrew R

    2014-11-15

    We discuss the use of levothyroxine for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and prolonged nocturnal sleep time in a euthyroid patient with narcolepsy. After failure of first-line narcolepsy treatments, a 48-year-old female began levothyroxine (25 mcg/day). After 12 weeks of treatment, the patient was evaluated for improvement in total sleep time and subjective daytime sleepiness assessed by Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). At baseline, ESS score was 16 and total sleep time averaged 16 h/day. After 12 weeks, ESS was 13 and reported total sleep time was 13 h/day. Levothyroxine improved EDS and total sleep time in a euthyroid patient with narcolepsy without cataplexy after 12 weeks without side effects. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  6. Sleep quality and obesity in young subjects: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Y; Doi, S A R; Mamun, A A

    2016-11-01

    To assess the effect of poor sleep quality on Overweight/Obesity (Ow/Ob) in young subjects, and explore if this association is independent of sleep duration. Pubmed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases were searched for papers on sleep quality and overweight/obesity, focusing on children, adolescents, and young adults. Studies based on subjects with medical/psychological problems or published in languages other than English were excluded. Quality effects model was used to pool studies for meta-analysis. Findings from the systematic review suggest a link between poor sleep quality and Ow/Ob in young subjects. Pooled estimate (from 26,553 subjects) suggest a role of inadequate sleep (including both short duration and poor quality) in Ow/Ob (OR: 1.27 95% CI: 1.05-1.53). Sub-group-analyses suggest considerably higher odds of Ow/Ob (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.24-1.72) in young subjects with poor sleep quality (independent of duration). Poor sleep quality seems to be associated with Ow/Ob, and some studies indicate this association to be independent of duration. Therefore, considering only sleep duration might not help in disentangling sleep-obesity association. However, this review is mostly composed of cross-sectional studies. Therefore, a causal link or the stability of the sleep quality and Ow/Ob association could not be established. © 2016 World Obesity.

  7. Objective but not subjective sleep predicts memory in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuoto, Marina G; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2016-08-01

    Research on the relationship between habitual sleep patterns and memory performance in older adults is limited. No previous study has used objective and subjective memory measures in a large, older-aged sample to examine the association between sleep and various domains of memory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between objective and subjective measures of sleep with memory performance in older adults, controlling for the effects of potential confounds. One-hundred and seventy-three community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89 years in Victoria, Australia completed the study. Objective sleep quality and length were ascertained using the Actiwatch 2 Mini-Mitter, while subjective sleep was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Memory was indexed by tests of retrospective memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised), working memory (n-back, 2-back accuracy) and prospective memory (a habitual button pressing task). Compared with normative data, overall performance on retrospective memory function was within the average range. Hierarchical regression was used to determine whether objective or subjective measures of sleep predicted memory performances after controlling for demographics, health and mood. After controlling for confounds, actigraphic sleep indices (greater wake after sleep onset, longer sleep-onset latency and longer total sleep time) predicted poorer retrospective (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.016) and working memory (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.047). In contrast, subjective sleep indices did not significantly predict memory performances. In community-based older adults, objectively-measured, habitual sleep indices predict poorer memory performances. It will be important to follow the sample longitudinally to determine trajectories of change over time. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Total sleep time in Muslim football players is reduced during Ramadan: a pilot study on the standardized assessment of subjective sleep-wake patterns in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    Ramadan is a period in which Muslims fast during daylight hours and is associated with disturbances in sleep-wake behaviour and adverse effects on physical and mental health in normal volunteers. Studies using athletes are rare and remain equivocal as to whether Ramadan influences sleep-wake patterns. Notably, the standardized assessment of subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in athletes has not been established. This study employed the Arabic version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale in nine football players aged 20-35 years (mean ± s: 26 ± 4) one week before and during the last week of Ramadan. Compliance rates with self-administration were high (71%) and the results demonstrated a robust decline in total sleep time (before Ramadan: 6.6 ± 2 h; at the end of Ramadan: 5.3 ± 1 h; P effect size 0.81). Compared with previous research, the study questionnaires offer improved methodology, including less time constraints plus standardization in scoring. Thus, this study demonstrates a framework for greater reproducibility and reliability in the assessment of subjective sleep-wake patterns in athletes before and during Ramadan.

  9. Sleep quality and obesity in young subjects: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima, Y.; Doi, S.A.R.; Mamun, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of poor sleep quality on Overweight/Obesity (Ow/Ob) in young subjects, and explore if this association is independent of sleep duration. Pubmed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases were searched for papers on sleep quality and overweight/obesity, focusing on children, adolescents, and young adults. Studies based on subjects with medical/psychological problems or published in languages other than English were excluded. Quality effects model was used to pool studies for meta-anal...

  10. Sleep Promotion Program for Improving Sleep Behaviors in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Bindu; Bellipady, Sumanth Shetty; Bhat, Shrinivasa Undaru

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of this pilot trial was to determine the efficacy of sleep promotion program to adapt it for the use of adolescents studying in various schools of Mangalore, India, and evaluate the feasibility issues before conducting a randomized controlled trial in a larger sample of adolescents. Methods. A randomized controlled trial design with stratified random sampling method was used. Fifty-eight adolescents were selected (mean age: 14.02 ± 2.15 years; intervention group, n = 34; control group, n = 24). Self-report questionnaires, including sociodemographic questionnaire with some additional questions on sleep and activities, Sleep Hygiene Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire, and PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scale, were used. Results. Insufficient weekday-weekend sleep duration with increasing age of adolescents was observed. The program revealed a significant effect in the experimental group over the control group in overall sleep quality, sleep onset latency, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and emotional and overall distress. No significant effect was observed in sleep hygiene and other sleep parameters. All target variables showed significant correlations with each other. Conclusion. The intervention holds a promise for improving the sleep behaviors in healthy adolescents. However, the effect of the sleep promotion program treatment has yet to be proven through a future research. This trial is registered with ISRCTN13083118.

  11. Sleep Promotion Program for Improving Sleep Behaviors in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu John

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The purpose of this pilot trial was to determine the efficacy of sleep promotion program to adapt it for the use of adolescents studying in various schools of Mangalore, India, and evaluate the feasibility issues before conducting a randomized controlled trial in a larger sample of adolescents. Methods. A randomized controlled trial design with stratified random sampling method was used. Fifty-eight adolescents were selected (mean age: 14.02 ± 2.15 years; intervention group, n=34; control group, n=24. Self-report questionnaires, including sociodemographic questionnaire with some additional questions on sleep and activities, Sleep Hygiene Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire, and PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scale, were used. Results. Insufficient weekday-weekend sleep duration with increasing age of adolescents was observed. The program revealed a significant effect in the experimental group over the control group in overall sleep quality, sleep onset latency, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and emotional and overall distress. No significant effect was observed in sleep hygiene and other sleep parameters. All target variables showed significant correlations with each other. Conclusion. The intervention holds a promise for improving the sleep behaviors in healthy adolescents. However, the effect of the sleep promotion program treatment has yet to be proven through a future research. This trial is registered with ISRCTN13083118.

  12. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Chouchou

    Full Text Available The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers. Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1 placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2 pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3 REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated.

  13. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchou, Florian; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Rainville, Pierre; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers). Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1) placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2) pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3) REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated.

  14. Amber lenses to block blue light and improve sleep: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Kimberly; Phelps, James R

    2009-12-01

    All light is not equal: blue wavelengths are the most potent portion of the visible electromagnetic spectrum for circadian regulation. Therefore, blocking blue light could create a form of physiologic darkness. Because the timing and quantity of light and darkness both affect sleep, evening use of amber lenses to block blue light might affect sleep quality. Mood is also affected by light and sleep; therefore, mood might be affected by blue light blockade. In this study, 20 adult volunteers were randomized to wear either blue-blocking (amber) or yellow-tinted (blocking ultraviolet only) safety glasses for 3 h prior to sleep. Participants completed sleep diaries during a one-week baseline assessment and two weeks' use of glasses. Outcome measures were subjective: change in overall sleep quality and positive/negative affect. Results demonstrated that sleep quality at study outset was poorer in the amber lens than the control group. Two- by three-way ANOVA revealed significant (p sleep over the three weeks and experimental condition. At the end of the study, the amber lens group experienced significant (p sleep quality relative to the control group and positive affect (p = .005). Mood also improved significantly relative to controls. A replication with more detailed data on the subjects' circadian baseline and objective outcome measures is warranted.

  15. School-based sleep education program improves sleep and academic performance of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Bergmame, Lana; Fontil, Laura; Paquin, Soukaina

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based sleep education program aimed at improving the sleep and academic performance of school-age children. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we created a school-based sleep education program, "Sleep for Success"™ (SFS), composed of four distinct modules that addressed the children, their family and community, the school staff, and decision makers within the school setting. Implementation was carried out in three elementary schools. Seventy-one students participated in the evaluation of the program. The effectiveness of the SFS program was evaluated using non-randomized controlled before-and-after study groups (intervention and control) assessed over two time points (pre- and post-program implementation). Before (baseline) and after implementation, sleep and academic performance were measured using actigraphy and report card marks, respectively. In the intervention group, true sleep was extended by 18.2 min per night, sleep efficiency improved by 2.3%, and sleep latency was shortened by 2.3 min, and report card grades in mathematics and English improved significantly. No changes were noted in the control group. Participation in the sleep education program was associated with significant improvements in children's sleep and academic performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvement of mood and sleep alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder patients by eye movement desensitization and reprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboni, Mara R; Alonso, Fabiana F D; Tufik, Sergio; Suchecki, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients exhibit depressive and anxiety symptoms, in addition to nightmares, which interfere with sleep continuity. Pharmacologic treatment of these sleep problems improves PTSD symptoms, but very few studies have used psychotherapeutic interventions to treat PTSD and examined their effects on sleep quality. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to investigate the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing therapy on indices of mood, anxiety, subjective, and objective sleep. The sample was composed of 11 healthy controls and 13 PTSD patients that were victims of assault and/or kidnapping. All participants were assessed before, and 1 day after, the end of treatment for depressive and anxiety profile, general well-being and subjective sleep by filling out specific questionnaires. In addition, objective sleep patterns were evaluated by polysomnographic recording. Healthy volunteers were submitted to the therapy for three weekly sessions, whereas PTSD patients underwent five sessions, on average. Before treatment, PTSD patients exhibited high levels of anxiety and depression, poor quality of life and poor sleep, assessed both subjectively and objectively; the latter was reflected by increased time of waking after sleep onset. After completion of treatment, patients exhibited improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms, and in quality of life; with indices that were no longer different from control volunteers. Moreover, these patients showed more consolidated sleep, with reduction of time spent awake after sleep onset. In conclusion, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing was an effective treatment of PTSD patients and improved the associated sleep and psychological symptoms.

  17. Improvement of mood and sleep alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder patients by eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Regina Raboni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients exhibit depressive and anxiety symptoms, in addition to nightmares, which interfere with sleep continuity. Pharmacologic treatment of these sleep problems improves PTSD symptoms, but very few studies have used psychotherapeutic interventions to treat PTSD and examined their effects on sleep quality. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to investigate the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing therapy on indices of mood, anxiety, subjective and objective sleep. The sample was composed of 11 healthy controls and 13 PTSD patients that were victims of assault and/or kidnapping. All participants were assessed before, and one day after, the end of treatment for depressive and anxiety profile, general well-being and subjective sleep by filling out specific questionnaires. In addition, objective sleep patterns were evaluated by polysomnographic recording. Healthy volunteers were submitted to the therapy for three weekly sessions, whereas PTSD patients underwent five sessions, on average. Before treatment, PTSD patients exhibited high levels of anxiety and depression, poor quality of life and poor sleep, assessed both subjectively and objectively; the latter was reflected by increased time of waking after sleep onset. After completion of treatment, patients exhibited improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms, and in quality of life; with indices that were no longer different from control volunteers. Moreover, these patients showed more consolidated sleep, with reduction of time spent awake after sleep onset. In conclusion, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing was an effective treatment of PTSD patients and improved the associated sleep and psychological symptoms.

  18. Improved Sleep in Military Personnel is Associated with Changes in the Expression of Inflammatory Genes and Improvement in Depression Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney S. Livingston

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives: Sleep disturbances are common in military personnel and are associated with increased risk for psychiatric morbidity, including posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, as well as inflammation. Improved sleep quality is linked to reductions in inflammatory bio-markers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Methods: In this study we examine whole genome expression changes related to improved sleep in 68 military personnel diagnosed with insomnia. Subjects were classified into the following groups and then compared: improved sleep (n=46, or non-improved sleep (n=22 following three months of standard of care treatment for insomnia. Within subject differential expression was determined from microarray data using the Partek Genomics Suite analysis program and the interactive pathway analysis was used to determine key regulators of observed expression changes. Changes in symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder were also compared. Results: At baseline both groups were similar in demographics, clinical characteristics, and gene-expression profiles. The microarray data revealed that 217 coding genes were differentially expressed at the follow-up-period compared to baseline in the participants with improved sleep. Expression of inflammatory cytokines were reduced including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-13, with fold changes ranging from -3.19 to -2.1, and there were increases in the expression of inflammatory regulatory genes including toll-like receptors 1, 4, 7, and 8 in the improved sleep group. Interactive pathway analysis revealed 6 gene networks, including ubiquitin which was a major regulator in these gene-expression changes. The improved sleep group also had a significant reduction in the severity of depressive symptoms.Conclusions: Interventions that restore sleep likely reduce the expression of inflammatory genes, which relate to ubiquitin genes and relate to reductions in depressive symptoms.

  19. Depressive Symptoms are the Main Predictor for Subjective Sleep Quality in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment--A Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Seidel

    Full Text Available Controlled data on predictors of subjective sleep quality in patients with memory complaints are sparse. To improve the amount of comprehensive data on this topic, we assessed factors associated with subjective sleep quality in patients from our memory clinic and healthy individuals.Between February 2012 and August 2014 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and subjective cognitive decline (SCD from our memory clinic and healthy controls were recruited. Apart from a detailed neuropsychological assessment, the subjective sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II.One hundred fifty eight consecutive patients (132 (84% MCI patients and 26 (16% SCD patients and 75 healthy controls were included in the study. Pairwise comparison of PSQI scores showed that non-amnestic MCI (naMCI patients (5.4 ± 3.5 had significantly higher PSQI scores than controls (4.3 ± 2.8, p = .003 Pairwise comparison of PSQI subscores showed that naMCI patients (1.1 ± 0.4 had significantly more "sleep disturbances" than controls (0.9 ± 0.5, p = .003. Amnestic MCI (aMCI (0.8 ± 1.2, p = .006 and naMCI patients (0.7 ± 1.2, p = .002 used "sleep medication" significantly more often than controls (0.1 ± 0.6 Both, aMCI (11.5 ± 8.6, p < .001 and naMCI (11.5 ± 8.6, p < .001 patients showed significantly higher BDI-II scores than healthy controls (6.1 ± 5.3. Linear regression analysis showed that the subjective sleep quality was predicted by depressive symptoms in aMCI (p < .0001 and naMCI (p < .0001 patients as well as controls (p < .0001. This means, that more depressive symptoms worsened subjective sleep quality. In aMCI patients we also found a significant interaction between depressive symptoms and global cognitive function (p = .002.Depressive symptoms were the main predictor of subjective sleep quality in MCI

  20. Self-awakening improves alertness in the morning and during the day after partial sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroki; Kubo, Tomohide; Kuriyama, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masaya

    2014-12-01

    The ability to awaken at a predetermined time without an alarm is known as self-awakening. Self-awakening improves morning alertness by eliminating sleep inertia; however, the effects of self-awakening on daytime alertness and alertness that has deteriorated as a result of sleep loss are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of self-awakening on both morning and daytime alertness after partial sleep deprivation. Fifteen healthy males without the habit of self-awakening participated in a cross-over trial including forced awakening and self-awakening conditions. In each condition, participants' sleep was restricted to 5 h per night in their homes for 4 consecutive days. They completed a psychomotor vigilance task and subjective ratings of sleepiness immediately upon awakening each morning. On the fourth day, participants completed subjective ratings of sleepiness, a psychomotor vigilance task and sleep latency tests in the laboratory seven times at 1-h intervals during the day. The response speed on the psychomotor vigilance task, in the morning and during the day, was higher in the self-awakening than the forced awakening condition. Our results showed that self-awakening improved alertness (assessed by response speeds) by reducing sleep inertia and alleviated daytime sleepiness heightened by partial sleep deprivation. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Mood Influences the Concordance of Subjective and Objective Measures of Sleep Duration in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Baillet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective/Background: Sleep plays a central role in maintaining health and cognition. In most epidemiologic studies, sleep is evaluated by self-report questionnaires but several reports suggest that these evaluations might be less accurate than objective measures such as polysomnography or actigraphy. Determinants of the discrepancy between objective and subjective measures remain to be investigated. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the role of mood states in determining the discrepancy observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration in older adults.Patients/Methods: Objective sleep quantity and quality were recorded by actigraphy in a sample of 45 elderly subjects over at least three consecutive nights. Subjective sleep duration and supplementary data, such as mood status and memory, were evaluated using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA.Results: A significant discrepancy was observed between EMA and actigraphic measures of sleep duration (p<0.001. The magnitude of this difference was explained by the patient’s mood status (p=0.020. No association was found between the magnitude of this discrepancy and age, sex, sleep quality or memory performance.Conclusion: The discrepancy classically observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration can be explained by mood status at the time of awakening. These results have potential implications for epidemiologic and clinical studies examining sleep as a risk factor for morbidity or mortality.

  2. Mood Influences the Concordance of Subjective and Objective Measures of Sleep Duration in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillet, Marion; Cosin, Charlotte; Schweitzer, Pierre; Pérès, Karine; Catheline, Gwenaëlle; Swendsen, Joel; Mayo, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Sleep plays a central role in maintaining health and cognition. In most epidemiologic studies, sleep is evaluated by self-report questionnaires but several reports suggest that these evaluations might be less accurate than objective measures such as polysomnography or actigraphy. Determinants of the discrepancy between objective and subjective measures remain to be investigated. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the role of mood states in determining the discrepancy observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration in older adults. Objective sleep quantity and quality were recorded by actigraphy in a sample of 45 elderly subjects over at least three consecutive nights. Subjective sleep duration and supplementary data, such as mood status and memory, were evaluated using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). A significant discrepancy was observed between EMA and actigraphic measures of sleep duration (p sleep quality or memory performance. The discrepancy classically observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration can be explained by mood status at the time of awakening. These results have potential implications for epidemiologic and clinical studies examining sleep as a risk factor for morbidity or mortality.

  3. High cardiac vagal control is related to better subjective and objective sleep quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gabriela G.; Ford, Brett Q.; Mauss, Iris B.; Schabus, Manuel; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac vagal control (CVC) has been linked to both physical and mental health. One critical aspect of health, that has not received much attention, is sleep. We hypothesized that adults with higher CVC – operationalized by high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) – will exhibit better sleep quality assessed both subjectively (i.e., with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objectively (i.e., with polysomnography). HF-HRV was measured in 29 healthy young women during an extended neutral film clip. Participants then underwent full polysomnography to obtain objective measures of sleep quality and HF-HRV during a night of sleep. As expected, higher resting HF-HRV was associated with higher subjective and objective sleep quality (i.e., shorter sleep latency and fewer arousals). HF-HRV during sleep (overall or separated by sleep phases) showed less consistent relationships with sleep quality. These findings indicate that high waking CVC may be a key predictor of healthy sleep. PMID:25709072

  4. Rotigotine Objectively Improves Sleep in Parkinson’s Disease: An Open-Label Pilot Study with Actigraphic Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances represent important predictors of poor quality of life (QoL in Parkinson’s disease (PD. This open-label pilot study aimed to objectively assess, by means of actigraphic recording, effect of rotigotine on sleep in PD patients with self-reported sleep complaints. 15 PD patients underwent one-week actigraphic recording before (T0 and during (T1 rotigotine treatment, which was titrated to the dose subjectively improving motor symptoms (4–8 mg/24 h. Sleep disturbances, daytime sleepiness, cognitive performance, QoL, and depression were also evaluated with questionnaires. Actigraphic recordings showed a significant reduction in nocturnal motor activity and mean duration of wake episodes after sleep onset during rotigotine treatment compared to baseline. In 10 patients presenting objective evidence of poor sleep quality at T0 (sleep efficiency ≤ 85%, rotigotine also significantly improved other sleep parameters and further reduced nocturnal motor activity and mean duration of wake episodes. A significant decrease in number and duration of daytime sleep episodes was also observed at T1. Finally we confirmed that rotigotine significantly improves perceived sleep quality and QoL. Our study showed for the first time that rotigotine is associated with an objective improvement of nocturnal and diurnal sleep disturbances in PD patients with self-reported sleep complaints. This study is registered with AIFA-observational study registry number 12021.

  5. The Association between Subjective Memory Complaints and Sleep within Older African American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Wright, Regina S; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T; Allaire, Jason C; Thorpe, Roland J; Whitfield, Keith E

    2017-06-13

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the association between subjective memory complaints and sleep (quantity and quality) in African American older adults. Participants from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging (BSBA; n = 351; mean age = 71.99) completed a self-report sleep scale, subjective memory complaint scale, global cognitive status measure, and demographic questionnaire. Worse overall sleep quality was significantly associated with subjective reports of difficulty recalling the placement of objects, recalling specific facts from reading materials, and worse memory currently compared to the past. Specific sleep parameters (e.g., longer sleep latency and shorter sleep duration) were associated with negative appraisals of participants' ability to do specific tasks involving memory (e.g., difficulty recalling placement of objects). Participants classified as poor sleepers (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] total score > 5) were more likely to report worse memory now compared to the past than participants classified as good sleepers (PSQI total score ≤ 5). Evaluation of sleep may be warranted when older adults, particularly African Americans, communicate concerns regarding their memory. Insufficient sleep may be a useful marker of acute daytime dysfunction and, perhaps, cognitive decline. Given memory problems are the hallmark of dementia, our findings support further evaluation of whether poor sleep can aid in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment.

  6. Subjective and objective sleep and self-harm behaviors in young children: A general population study

    OpenAIRE

    Singareddy, Ravi; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh B.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; FERNANDEZ-MENDOZA, Julio; Calhoun, Susan L.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Bixler, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    Significant association between sleep disturbances and suicidal ideation and/or attempts is reported in adults and adolescents. However, there is paucity of studies exploring the association between sleep and self-harm behaviors (SHB) in young children and are limited to only subjective sleep measures. We examined the association between SHB and both subjective and objective sleep in a population-based sample of 5–12 yr. old. Parents of every student in 3 local school (K-5) districts (n=7,312...

  7. Lower-limb warming improves sleep quality in elderly people living in nursing homes

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    Chika Oshima-Saeki

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances are common in older people. This study was conducted to examine the effects of a hot pack, which was used to warm the lower limbs, on the sleep of elderly people living in a nursing home. This is a prospective cohort involving seven elderly women. Subjects aged 74-93 years old were treated by warming the lower limbs for 40 minutes using hot packs every night over 8 weeks. A hot pack made of a dense polymer and warmed in a microwave oven was used as a warming device. In the first and last week, the subjects were required to wear an activity monitor to determine their sleep-awake status. During the second to ninth week, they received limb-warming treatment by a hot pack heated to 42ºC for 40 min every night. Surface skin temperature data were collected by thermographic measurement. As a result, lower-limb warming by a hot pack significantly improved the quality of sleep in the subjects. During warming, the surface temperature of the hands and face rose by approximately 0.5-1.5ºC. This study showed that lower-limb warming with a hot pack reduced sleep latency and wake episodes after sleep onset; thus, improving the quality of sleep in elderly people living in a nursing home.

  8. Subjective sleep quality in relation to objective sleep estimates: comparison, gender differences and changes between the acute phase and the six-month follow-up after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Linda N; Kim, Hesook Suzie; Finset, Arnstein; Lerdal, Anners

    2014-03-01

    To describe sleep experiences after stroke using subjective and objective indicators and identify possible gender differences in sleep in the acute phase and at 6-month follow-up. Sleep disturbances after stoke are recognized, but poorly described. Gender differences in sleep exist in other populations, but have not been reported after stroke. A longitudinal cohort study. Subjective sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and objective sleep was estimated with actigraphy in 100 patients in the acute phase and six months after stroke, from April 2007-March 2009. Subjective sleep quality was better and objective wake percentage was lower at follow-up than in the acute phase after stroke. Actigraphy estimated low sleep efficiency and many awakenings at both time points. Subjective and objective measures were correlated at the 6-month follow-up, but not in the acute phase. Women's subjective sleep efficiency and total score on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were worse than men's in the acute phase, but actigraphy estimated that women slept more than men in the course of a day. Women's subjective sleep quality was better at follow-up than in the acute phase. Men reported worse subjective sleep quality, but better subjective sleep efficiency at follow-up than in the acute phase, and also had lower objective wake percentage at follow-up. Subjective sleep quality was poor and actigraphy indicated disturbed sleep-wake patterns in the acute phase and at 6-month follow-up. Gender differences existed in subjective and objective sleep in the acute phase, but not at follow-up. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Subjective and objective sleep disturbance and longitudinal risk of depression in a cohort of older women.

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    Maglione, Jeanne E; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Peters, Katherine W; Paudel, Misti L; Yaffe, Kristine; Ensrud, Kristine E; Stone, Katie L

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the longitudinal relationship between subjective and objective sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Longitudinal. Three US clinical centers. Nine hundred fifty-two community-dwelling older women (70 y or older). At baseline, subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and objective sleep measures were assessed with wrist actigraphy. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) at baseline and approximately 5 y later. The analysis was restricted to women with few (GDS 0-2) depressive symptoms at baseline. There was an independent association between greater PSQI score (per standard deviation increase, indicating worse subjective sleep quality) at baseline and greater odds of worsening depressive symptoms (≥ 2-point increase in GDS) (Multivariate Odds Ratio [MOR] 1.19, confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.40, P = 0.036). Higher scores specifically on the sleep quality (MOR 1.41, CI 1.13-1.77, P sleep latency (MOR 1.21, CI 1.03-1.41, P = 0.018) PSQI subscales were also associated with greater odds for worsening depressive symptoms. Objective assessments revealed an association between baseline prolonged wake after sleep onset (WASO ≥ 60 min) and worsening depressive symptoms at follow-up (MOR 1.36, CI 1.01-1.84, P = 0.046). There were no associations between other objectively assessed sleep measures and worsening depressive symptoms. In older women with few or no depressive symptoms at baseline, those with more subjectively reported sleep disturbance and more objectively assessed fragmentation of sleep at baseline had greater odds of worsening depressive symptoms 5 y later. Future studies investigating this relationship in more detail are indicated. Maglione JE, Ancoli-Israel S, Peters KW, Paudel ML, Yaffe K, Ensrud KE, Stone KL, Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Subjective and objective sleep disturbance and longitudinal risk of depression in a cohort of older

  10. Subjective and objective sleep and self-harm behaviors in young children: a general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singareddy, Ravi; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh B; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan L; Shaffer, Michele L; Bixler, Edward O

    2013-10-30

    Significant association between sleep disturbances and suicidal ideation and/or attempts is reported in adults and adolescents. However, there is paucity of studies exploring the association between sleep and self-harm behaviors (SHB) in young children and are limited to only subjective sleep measures. We examined the association between SHB and both subjective and objective sleep in a population-based sample of 5-12 yr old. Parents of every student in 3 local school (K-5) districts (n=7312) was sent a screening questionnaire. Randomly selected children from this sample underwent a comprehensive history, physical examination, a 9-h overnight polysomnogram and completed several questionnaires. Among the final sample (n=693), 27 children had SHB with adjusted prevalence of 3%. There was no difference in age, gender, obesity, or socioeconomic status in subjects with or without SHB. Significantly more children with SHB had subjective sleep difficulty and depression. Difficulty maintaining sleep and frequent nightmares were associated with SHB independent of depression or demographics. Polysomnographic %REM-sleep was significantly higher in the SHB group after adjusting for demographics and depression. These data indicate that parent reported sleep disturbances are independently associated with SHB. It is possible that higher REM-sleep is a non-invasive biomarker for risk of self-harm behaviors in young children. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Subjective memory complaints in an elderly population with poor sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Hoon; Yoon, In-Young; Lee, Sang Don; Kim, Tae; Lee, Chung Suk; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Ki Woong; Kim, Chan-Hyung

    2017-05-01

    The association between sleep disturbances and cognitive decline in the elderly has been putative and controversial. We evaluated the relation between subjective sleep quality and cognitive function in the Korean elderly. Among 459 community-dwelling subjects, 352 subjects without depression or neurologic disorders (mean age 68.2 ± 6.1) were analyzed in this study. All the participants completed the Korean version of the consortium to establish a registry for Alzheimer's disease neuropsychological battery (CERAD-KN) as an objective cognitive measure and subjective memory complaints questionnaire (SMCQ). Based on the Pittsburgh sleep quality index, two types of sleepers were defined: 'good sleepers' and 'poor sleepers'. There were 192 good sleepers (92 men) and 160 poor sleepers (51 men). Poor sleepers reported more depressive symptoms and more use of sleep medication, and showed higher SMCQ scores than good sleepers, but there was no difference in any assessments of CERAD-KN. In the regression analysis, depressive symptoms and subjective sleep quality were associated with subjective memory complaints (β = 0.312, p poor sleep quality was associated with subjective memory complaints, but not with objective cognitive measures. As subjective memory complaints might develop into cognitive disorders, poor sleep quality in the elderly needs to be adequately controlled.

  12. Subjectively and objectively measured sleep with and without posttraumatic stress disorder and trauma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Huntley, Edward; Lavela, Joseph; Mellman, Thomas A

    2012-07-01

    Although reports of sleep disturbances are common among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), results of polysomnographic (PSG) studies have inconsistently documented abnormalities and have therefore suggested "sleep state misperception." The authors' study objectives were to compare sleep parameters measured objectively and subjectively in the laboratory and at home in civilians with and without trauma exposure and PTSD. Cross-sectional study. PSG recordings in a sleep laboratory and actigraphic recordings in participants' homes. One hundred three urban-residing African Americans with and without trauma exposure and PTSD who participated in a larger study. N/A. Sleep parameters (total sleep time [TST], sleep onset latency [SOL], and wake after sleep onset [WASO]) were assessed using laboratory PSG and home actigraphy. A sleep diary was completed in the morning after PSG and actigraphy recordings. Habitual TST, SOL, and WASO were assessed using a sleep questionnaire. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale was administered to assess participants' trauma exposure and PTSD diagnostic status. Participants, regardless of their trauma exposure/PTSD status, underestimated WASO in the diary and questionnaire relative to actigraphy and overestimated SOL in the diary relative to PSG. Among participants with current PTSD, TST diary estimates did not differ from the actigraphy measure in contrast with those without current PTSD who overestimated TST. No other significant group differences in discrepancies between subjective and objective sleep measures were found. Discrepancies between subjectively and objectively measured sleep parameters were not associated with trauma exposure or PTSD. This challenges prior assertions that individuals with PTSD overreport their sleep disturbances.

  13. A dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep: a randomized placebo controlled trial

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    Claustrat Bruno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, in association with Humulus lupulus extract, on the quality of sleep using the Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ in subjects with moderate to severe sleep disorders. Methods Randomized placebo-controlled trial, in a Population-based setting. Participants were adult patients 25 to 65 years old with a chronic primary insomnia who volunteered for the study. The tested intervention consisted of two soft gelatine capsules per day, containing either the dietary supplement (active group or olive oil (placebo group for a month. Subjects could also volunteer for two ancillary studies on melatonin and actigraphy. Evaluation criteria included i perception of the quality of sleep at the end of treatment using the LSEQ questionnaire, ii sleep efficiency measured by one-week actigraphic movement measurement performed before and during the treatment in a subsample of subjects, iii night melatonin and 6 sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6S urine rates in a subsample of subjects. Results The average of Leeds score was similar in both groups (p = 0.95. A marked improvement in the quality of sleep was observed in both placebo (62% and active (65% group (p = 0.52. The evolution of urinary melatonin, aMT6S, and of the Mel/aMT6S ratio showed no differences between the two groups. Sleep efficiency, as measured by actigraphy, improved similarly in both groups during the treatment period, from 72% to 76% and 75% in the active and placebo group respectively (p = 0.91. Conclusions The dietary supplement had neither effect on the perceived quality of sleep, nor on the melatonin metabolism and sleep-wake cycle. Trial registration: clinical trials.gov:NCT00484497

  14. Sleep in Schizophrenia: Exploring Subjective Experiences of Sleep Problems, and Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Vivian W; Ree, Melissa; Janca, Aleksandar; Waters, Flavie

    2016-12-01

    Sleep dysfunction is a pervasive issue in schizophrenia and psychosis. Current knowledge is drawn almost exclusively from studies using quantitative research methodologies that include measures and tools developed in healthy population groups. Qualitative studies investigating the first-person perspectives of sleep problems are therefore important for designing better assessment and treatment tools to meet consumer needs. Focus groups were conducted to elicit detailed information regarding the personal experience of sleep problems, their antecedents and impact, in 14 individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder who experienced insomnia during their illness. Thematic analysis was applied to examine the data and draw treatment implications for sleep management. Insomnia was ubiquitous and frequently co-occurred with other sleep difficulties (nightmares, sleep walking, acting out dreams, etc.) in this group. Discussions revealed themes common across insomnia populations (role of negative mood states and cognitive intrusions) and also new themes on factors contributing to sleep problems in schizophrenia: (1) beliefs that sleep problems cannot be changed; (2) trauma and adversity; (3) lifestyle choices and lack of motivation; and (4) medication side effects. Sleep problems also had profound impact on daytime dysfunctions and disability. The findings point to novel issues that may benefit from consideration in the treatment of sleep problems in schizophrenia. Unhelpful cognitions and behaviours about sleep can be addressed with psychological interventions, activity scheduling and motivational interviewing techniques. Seeking a first-person perspective is vital for identifying issues that will impact on treatment success and recovery.

  15. Auditory evoked responses upon awakening from sleep in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, M; De Gennaro, L; Ferlazzo, F; Curcio, G; Barattucci, M; Bertini, M

    2001-09-14

    The hypothesis that a state of hypoarousal upon awakening should lead to a decrease in amplitude and an increase in latency of the N1-P2 components of the Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEPs) as compared to presleep wakefulness levels, was evaluated after two nocturnal awakenings and after the final morning awakening from a 7.5-h night of sleep. The amplitude of the N1-P2 complex was reduced upon awakening as compared to presleep wakefulness levels, but only following the first nocturnal awakening, scheduled after the first 2 h of sleep. This result is interpreted as indicating a link between slow wave sleep amount, mainly present during the first part of the night, and lowered levels of brain activation upon awakening. The reaction times, recorded concomitantly to AEPs, were more sensitive to the negative effects of sleep inertia.

  16. Sleeping position and reported quality of sleep. A comparison between subjects demanding treatment for temporomandibular disorders and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Anna-Kerstin Göthe; Helkimo, Martti; Magnusson, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate if there are differences concerning preferred body posture during sleep between 100 patients, 66 women and 34 men, mean age: 49 years (range: 20-85 years) referred to a specialist clinic because of TMD and 100 matched controls from a public dental clinic. The participants were asked to answer a questionnaire with questions about TMD symptoms and neck or shoulder pain. They were also asked about preferred sleeping position as well as about perceived sleep quality. No differences could be found between the two groups in respect of sleeping position. However, significantly more individuals in the TMD group compared to the controls had changed their preferred sleeping position due to their face and/or jaw and/ or neck-shoulder symptoms. Subjects in the TMD group also more frequently stated that they often felt insufficiently rested at awakening and/or felt tired or sleepy in the daytime because of symptoms from face/jaws. A significant number in the control group reported TMD symptoms indicating a latent need for TMD treatment. It is concluded that sleep position seems to have little or no significance for the development or maintenance of TMD symptoms. However, the study indicates that TMD symptoms and associated neck- and shoulder pain affect the quality of sleep.

  17. Music improves sleep quality in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmat, László; Takács, Johanna; Bódizs, Róbert

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study to investigate the effects of music on sleep quality in young participants with poor sleep. Sleep disorders may result in fatigue, tiredness, depression and problems in daytime functioning. Music can reduce sympathetic nervous system activity, decrease anxiety, blood pressure, heart and respiratory rate and may have positive effects on sleep via muscle relaxation and distraction from thoughts. Control groups have not been used in most previous studies. We used a three-group repeated measures design. Ninety-four students (aged between 19 and 28 years) with sleep complaints were studied in 2006. Participants listened for 45 minutes either to relaxing classical music (Group 1) or an audiobook (Group 2) at bedtime for 3 weeks. The control group (Group 3) received no intervention. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index before the study and weekly during the intervention. Depressive symptoms in experimental group participants were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory. Repeated measures anova revealed a main effect of TIME (P audiobook and the control group. Depressive symptoms decreased statistically significantly in the music group (P audiobooks. Relaxing classical music is an effective intervention in reducing sleeping problems. Nurses could use this safe, cheap and easy to learn method to treat insomnia.

  18. Impact of sleep disorders in Japanese patients with functional dyspepsia (FD): nizatidine improves clinical symptoms, gastric emptying and sleep disorders in FD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagami, Seiji; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Izumi, Nikki; Shimpuku, Mayumi; Kodaka, Yasuhiro; Wakabayashi, Taiga; Nagoya, Hiroyuki; Shindo, Tomotaka; Kawagoe, Tetsuro; Gudis, Katya; Itoh, Takashi; Sakamoto, Choitsu

    2013-08-01

    The association between functional dyspepsia (FD) and sleep disorders has yet to be studied in detail. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk factors associated with sleep disorders and the clinical response to nizatidine therapy for sleep disorders in Rome III-based FD patients. We enrolled 94 FD patients and 52 healthy volunteers. We used Rome III criteria to evaluate upper abdominal symptoms, and the Self-Rating Questionnaire for Depression scores to determine depression status. Sleep disorder was evaluated using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores, and degree of anxiety by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Gastric motility was evaluated. Thirty-four FD patients were treated with nizatidine (300 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks in a crossover trial. The primary end point of this study was to determine whether nizatidine could improve clinical symptoms and sleep disorders in FD patients. The global PSQI score for FD patients was significantly (P FD patients than in healthy volunteers. We found significant relationships between subjective sleep quality and both Tmax and T1/2 values in FD patients. Nizatidine significantly improved certain clinical symptoms, gastric emptying, and global PSQI score compared with placebo treatment. Sleep disorders in FD patients correlated significantly with both clinical symptoms of dyspepsia and depression compared with healthy volunteers. Nizatidine significantly improved gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, gastric emptying, and sleep disorders in FD patients. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Prospective Evaluation of Sleep Improvement Following Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, Jacob E; Kim, Nayoung; Abboudi, Jack; Jones, Christopher; Liss, Frederic; Kirkpatrick, William; Matzon, Jonas; Rivlin, Michael; Wang, Mark L; Ilyas, Asif M

    2017-05-01

    Sleep disturbance due to nighttime awakening is a well-documented symptom of carpal tunnel syndrome. While relief of nighttime waking following carpal tunnel release (CTR) has been demonstrated, the effect of CTR on overall sleep quality has not been fully investigated. We hypothesized that CTR would result in significant improvement in overall sleep quality as well as patients' overall satisfaction with their sleep habits. Cases of carpal tunnel syndrome with positive nerve studies, and treated with CTR, were prospectively enrolled. Demographic data, electromyography (EMG) severity, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire, and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) scale data were collected. A total of 398 patients were enrolled, with 99% available at 2 weeks and 64% available at 3-month final follow-up. At final follow-up, average Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score improved significantly from the preoperative value. Average ISI score on all 7 sleep categories on the survey improved significantly from before surgery to the first postoperative visit. However, the total ISI score did not further improve significantly between the 2-week and the 3-month postoperative visits. The ISI score improvements did not correlate with EMG severity. Patients undergoing CTR demonstrated significant improvement in mean scores for 7 aspects of sleep quality. Sleep improvement was unrelated to preoperative EMG severity and was experienced within 2 weeks of surgery. Therapeutic II. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Subjective sleep quality in relation to inhibition and heart rate variability in patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Anders; Pallesen, Ståle; Hammar, Asa; Hansen, Anita Lill; Thayer, Julian F; Sivertsen, Børge; Tarvainen, Mika P; Nordhus, Inger Hilde

    2013-08-15

    Patients with panic disorder (PD) are known to report impaired sleep quality and symptoms of insomnia. PD is an anxiety disorder characterised by deficient physiological regulation as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), and reduced HRV, PD and insomnia have all been related to impaired inhibitory ability. The present study aimed to investigate the interrelationships between subjectively reported sleep impairment, cognitive inhibition and vagally mediated HRV in a sample characterised by variability on measures of all these constructs. Thirty-six patients with PD with or without agoraphobia were included. Cognitive inhibition was assessed with the Color-Word Interference Test from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), HRV was measured using high frequency (HF) power (ms(2)), and subjectively reported sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Cognitive inhibition was related to both Sleep latency and Sleep disturbances, whereas HRV was only related to Sleep disturbances. These relationships were significant also after controlling for depression. Correlational design. Cognitive inhibition is related to key insomnia symptoms: sleep initiation and sleep maintenance. The data supports the psychobiological inhibition model of insomnia, and extends previous findings. Possible clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lip muscle training improves obstructive sleep apnea and objective sleep: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the potential of lip muscle training for improving sleep. A patient with heavy snoring, daytime sleepiness and dry mouth underwent lip muscle training. Lip closure force LCFmax increased by 67.3% and LCFmin by 152% post-training. AHI decreased from 12.2 to 3.9 events/h by reducing hypopneic episodes. TST, sleep stage N3 and REM sleep increased, and WASO, sleep stage N1, and AI decreased. The patient switched from mouth to nose breathing during sleep and stopped snoring. Improved LCF, by moving the tongue into the anterior-superior oral cavity, may increase upper airway space and reduce the hypopnea index.

  2. Subjective and Objective Napping and Sleep in Older Adults: Are Evening Naps ‘Bad’ for Nighttime Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautovich, Natalie D.; McCrae, Christina S.; Rowe, Meredeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare objective and subjective measurements of napping, and to examine the relationship between evening napping and nocturnal sleep in older adults. Design For twelve days, participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries. Setting Community Participants 100 individuals who napped, 60–89 years (including good and poor sleepers with typical age-related medical comorbidities). Measurements Twelve days of sleep diary and actigraphy provided subjective and objective napping and sleep data. Results Evening naps (within 2 hours of bedtime) were characteristic of the sample with peak nap time occurring between 20:30–21:00 (average nap time occurred between 14:30–15:00). Two categories of nappers were identified: 1) day/evening – those who took both daytime and evening naps, and 2) daytime-only. Interestingly, no participants napped during the evening only. Day/evening nappers significantly underreported evening napping and demonstrated lower objectively measured sleep onset latencies (20 vs 26.5 minutes), less wake after sleep onset (51.4 vs 72.8 minutes), and higher sleep efficiencies (76.8 vs 82%) than daytime-only nappers. Conclusion Day/evening napping was prevalent amongst this sample of community-dwelling good/poor sleepers, but was not associated with impaired nocturnal sleep. Although the elimination or restriction of napping is a common element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi), these results suggest that a uniform recommendation to restrict/eliminate napping (particularly evening napping) may not meet the needs of all older individuals with insomnia. PMID:18691289

  3. Do periodic arm movements during sleep exist in healthy subjects? A polysomnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabelia, David; Mitterling, Thomas; Högl, Birgit; Wenning, Gregor K; Frauscher, Birgit

    2014-09-01

    Despite several polysomnographic studies on periodic leg movements (PLM) in healthy sleep, data on the prevalence and characteristics of periodic arm movements (PAM) in normal subjects are lacking. We aimed to investigate PAM and their association with PLM during wakefulness and sleep in healthy subjects. Ninety-one participants underwent video-polysomnography according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine 2007 criteria. In addition to standard electromyographic registration, data for both flexor digitorum superficialis muscles were recorded. Sixty-two subjects (68.1%) had a PAM index during wakefulness >5/h (median PAM index during wakefulness, 8.8/h; range, 0-77). Seven subjects (7.7%) had a PAM index >5/h during sleep (median PAM index during sleep, 0.7/h; range, 0-47.4). In 14% of cases, PAM during wakefulness were coincident with PLM during wakefulness. During sleep, this coincidence was not evident. The correlation between PAM and PLM was weak to moderate (during wakefulness: Spearman's ρ = 0.576, P sleep: Spearman's ρ = 0.222, P = 0.036). In healthy subjects, PAM occur predominantly during wakefulness with no apparent true periodicity. In contrast to classical PLM, some PAM may not present a true periodic phenomenon, but rather random voluntary movements meeting the wide range of periodicity criteria for PLM. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The comparison of sleep disturbances between the subjects with headache and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Bostani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Headache is one of the most common complaints of the patients referring to the treatment centers. Also, some studies have reported the correlation of sleep disturbances with migraine and tension headaches. This study was aimed to analyze the association of sleep disturbances with migraine and tension headaches. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1005 students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences were selected by stratified random sampling during the academic year 2013-2014. Having attracted the participation and cooperation of the participants, sleep disorder and symptoms of headache (migraine and tension tests were administered. Results: The overall prevalence of headache, migraine headache and tension headache in students of medical science were 73.8 %, 16.7 % and 30.9 %, respectively. 20.3% of medical students had sleep disorder. Difficulty in sleep onset, daytime fatigue, apnea and sadness and anxiety were associated with headache. Total sleep disorder was directly associated with migraine headache (P<0.05.Conclusion: There was a correlation between sleep disorders and headache, especially migraine headache. Considering the importance of sleep in the incidence of headaches, sleep hygiene education and changes in the quality and patterns of sleep are essential for students, which can greatly affect their individual and social life.

  5. Antagonism of serotonergic 5-HT2A/2C receptors: mutual improvement of sleep, cognition and mood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, H-P; Wehrle, R

    2009-05-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] and 5-HT receptors are involved in sleep and in waking functions such as cognition and mood. Animal and human studies support a particular role for the 5-HT(2A) receptor in sleep, which has led to renewed interest in this receptor subtype as a target for the development of novel pharmacological agents to treat insomnia. Focusing primarily on findings in healthy human volunteers, a review of the available data suggests that antagonistic interaction with 5-HT(2A) receptors (and possibly also 5-HT(2C) receptors) prolongs the duration of slow wave sleep and enhances low-frequency (sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), a widely accepted marker of sleep intensity. Despite certain differences, the changes in sleep and the sleep EEG appear to be remarkably similar to those of physiologically more intense sleep after sleep deprivation. It is currently unclear whether these changes in sleep are associated with improved vigilance, cognition and mood during wakefulness. While drug-induced interaction with sleep must be interpreted cautiously, too few studies are available to provide a clear answer to this question. Moreover, functional relationships between sleep and waking functions may differ between healthy controls and patients with sleep disorders. A multimodal approach investigating subjective and objective aspects of sleep and wakefulness provides a promising research avenue for shedding light on the complex relationships among 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor-mediated effects on sleep, the sleep EEG, cognition and mood in health and various diseases associated with disturbed sleep and waking functions.

  6. Overnight improvements in two REM sleep-sensitive tasks are associated with both REM and NREM sleep changes, sleep spindle features, and awakenings for dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T; O'Reilly, C; Carr, M; Dumel, G; Godin, I; Solomonova, E; Lara-Carrasco, J; Blanchette-Carrière, C; Paquette, T

    2015-07-01

    Memory consolidation is associated with sleep physiology but the contribution of specific sleep stages remains controversial. To clarify the contribution of REM sleep, participants were administered two REM sleep-sensitive tasks to determine if associated changes occurred only in REM sleep. Twenty-two participants (7 men) were administered the Corsi Block Tapping and Tower of Hanoi tasks prior to and again after a night of sleep. Task improvers and non-improvers were compared for sleep structure, sleep spindles, and dream recall. Control participants (N = 15) completed the tasks twice during the day without intervening sleep. Overnight Corsi Block improvement was associated with more REM sleep whereas Tower of Hanoi improvement was associated with more N2 sleep. Corsi Block improvement correlated positively with %REM sleep and Tower of Hanoi improvement with %N2 sleep. Post-hoc analyses suggest Tower of Hanoi effects-but not Corsi Block effects-are due to trait differences. Sleep spindle density was associated with Tower of Hanoi improvement whereas spindle amplitude correlated with Corsi Block improvement. Number of REM awakenings for dream reporting (but not dream recall per se) was associated with Corsi Block, but not Tower of Hanoi, improvement but was confounded with REM sleep time. This non-replication of one of 2 REM-sensitive task effects challenges both 'dual-process' and 'sequential' or 'sleep organization' models of sleep-dependent learning and points rather to capacity limitations on REM sleep. Experimental awakenings for sampling dream mentation may not perturb sleep-dependent learning effects; they may even enhance them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modifications of sleep structure induced by increasing levels of acoustic perturbation in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzano, M G; Parrino, L; Fioriti, G; Orofiamma, B; Depoortere, H

    1990-07-01

    In each non-REM (NREM) sleep stage, the aggregation of the arousal-related phasic events permits identification of periods of arousal fluctuation (cyclic alternating pattern or CAP) and periods of long-lasting arousal stability (non-CAP or NCAP). As the ratio CAP time to NREM sleep time (CAP/NREM) measures the instability of arousal during sleep, any perturbing event determines an increase of CAP/NREM. On the basis of these premises, 6 healthy volunteers underwent 5 sleep recordings at increasing intensities of sound pressure level (basal condition followed by continuous white noise at 45 dBA, 55 dBA, 65 dBA and 75 dBA, respectively). Besides a remarkable enhancement of CAP/NREM (P less than 0.00001), acoustic perturbation induced a significant linear increase of waking time after sleep onset, stage 2, NREM sleep, stage shifts and a significant linear decrease of stage 4, deep sleep, REM sleep and total sleep time. At each step of environmental disturbance, the values of the CAP ratio were consistent with the gradual changes of sleep organization. Although the Multiple Sleep Latency Test was unremarkable during the day following the sleep recording, CAP/NREM was significantly correlated with the personal evaluation of sleep quality (P less than 0.01). Through this model of transient situational insomnia it was possible to outline different degrees of subjective complaint depending on 3 ranges of CAP/NREM. A crucial role of CAP in the pathophysiological mechanisms of clinical insomnia is hypothesized.

  8. Association of poor subjective sleep quality with suicidal ideation among pregnant Peruvian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Barrios, Yasmin V; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Rondon, Marta B; Borba, Christina P C; Sánchez, Sixto E; Henderson, David C; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    To examine the independent and joint relationships of poor subjective sleep quality and antepartum depression with suicidal ideation among pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 641 pregnant women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru. Antepartum depression and suicidal ideation were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scale. Antepartum subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Logistic regression procedures were performed to estimate odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) adjusted for confounders. Overall, the prevalence of suicidal ideation in this cohort was 16.8% and poor subjective sleep quality was more common among women endorsing suicidal ideation as compared to their counterparts who did not (47.2% vs. 24.8%, Ppoor subjective sleep quality (defined using the recommended criteria of PSQI global score of >5 vs. ≤5) was associated with a 1.7-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (aOR=1.67; 95% CI 1.02-2.71). When assessed as a continuous variable, each 1-unit increase in the global PSQI score resulted in an 18% increase in odds for suicidal ideation, even after adjusting for depression (aOR=1.18; 95% CI 1.08-1.28). Women with both poor subjective sleep quality and depression had a 3.5-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (aOR=3.48; 95% CI 1.96-6.18) as compared with those who had neither risk factor. Poor subjective sleep quality was associated with increased odds of suicidal ideation. Replication of these findings may promote investments in studies designed to examine the efficacy of sleep-focused interventions to treat pregnant women with sleep disorders and suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Objective and subjective sleep disorders in automated peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumelioti, Maria-Eleni; Argyropoulos, Christos; Pankratz, Vernon Shane; Jhamb, Manisha; Bender, Filitsa H; Buysse, Daniel J; Strollo, Patrick; Unruh, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) is one of the fastest growing dialysis modalities. It is unknown whether sleep and mood are disturbed while performing repeated overnight exchanges. In this report, we aim to describe and compare the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), periodic limb movements (PLMS), poor sleep quality (SQ), and depression among APD patients compared with stages 3b-5 (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤44 ml/min/1.73 m2) chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Study participants were recruited from outpatient nephrology clinics, local dialysis centers, and the Thomas E. Starzl Transplant Institute in Western Pennsylvania between April 2004 and July 2009. There were 186 participants in this study including 22 APD patients, 89 CKD patients, and 75 HD patients. In-home polysomnography was performed and two questionnaires were completed, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). SDB and PLMS were quantified by in-home unattended polysomnography; poor SQ was defined by a score >5 on the PSQI, and the presence of moderate to severe depression was defined by a score >5 on the PHQ-9. The APD patients had a median age of 37.5 years, were predominantly female (72.7 %), and had a median body mass index (BMI) of 23.8 kg/m2. In univariate analyses, APD patients had significantly lower apnea-hypopnea index compared to HD patients by 12.2 points (likelihood ratio test p = 0.008) and revealed the least percent of TST with nocturnal hypoxemia compared to CKD patients by 2.7 points, respectively (likelihood ratio test p = 0.01). The APD group had also significantly greater stages 3 to 4 sleep compared to the CKD patients by 8.6 points (likelihood ratio test p = 0.009). In multivariate analyses and after adjustment for age, gender, race, and BMI, both APD and HD patients had higher average PSQI scores than CKD patients by 2.54 and 2

  10. Does sleeve gastrectomy improve obstructive sleep apnea?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suliman, Lucy Abdel Mabood; Abdalla, Dina Abouelkheir

    2016-01-01

    .... Bariatric surgery provides a significant weight loss for morbidly obese patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sleeve gastrectomy on OSA symptoms, sleep parameter, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP...

  11. Assessment of subjective sleep quality in iron deficiency anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All participants were requested to fill 3 forms: a socio-demographic form (age, gender, marital status, income level and educational status), hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale and pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Results: According to the HAD scale, the average anxiety score was found 9.24±4.37 in patients ...

  12. Crew factors in flight operations. 8: Factors influencing sleep timing and subjective sleep quality in commercial long-haul flight crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Connell, Linda J.; Gregory, Kevin B.

    1991-01-01

    How flight crews organize their sleep during layovers on long-haul trips is documented. Additionally, environmental and physiological constraints on sleep are examined. In the trips studied, duty periods averaging 10.3 hr alternated with layovers averaging 24.8 hr, which typically included two subject-defined sleep episodes. The circadian system had a greater influence on the timing and duration of first-sleeps than second-sleeps. There was also a preference for sleeping during the local night. The time of falling asleep for second-sleeps was related primarily to the amount of sleep already obtained in the layover, and their duration depended on the amount of time remaining in the layover. For both first- and second-sleeps, sleep durations were longer when subjects fell asleep earlier with respect to the minimum of the circadian temperature cycle. Naps reported during layovers and on the flight deck may be a useful strategy for reducing cumulative sleep loss. The circadian system was not able to synchronize with the rapid series of time-zone shifts. The sleep/wake cycle was forced to adopt a period different from that of the circadian system. Flight and duty time regulations are a means of ensuring that reasonable minimum rest periods are provided. This study clearly documents that there are physiologically and environmentally determined preferred sleep times within a layover. The actual time available for sleep is thus less than the scheduled rest period.

  13. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep and decreases pain in older adults with co-morbid insomnia and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Michael V; Rybarczyk, Bruce; Von Korff, Michael; Stepanski, Edward J

    2009-08-15

    Osteoarthritis pain affects more than half of all older adults, many of whom experience co-morbid sleep disturbance. Pain initiates and exacerbates sleep disturbance, whereas disturbed sleep maintains and exacerbates pain, which implies that improving the sleep of patients with osteoarthritis may also reduce their pain. We examined this possibility in a secondary analysis of a previously published randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in patients with osteoarthritis and co-morbid insomnia. Twenty-three patients (mean age 69.2 years) were randomly assigned to CBT-I and 28 patients (mean age 66.5 years) to an attention control. Neither directly addressed pain management. Twelve subjects crossed over to CBT-I after control treatment. Sleep and pain were assessed by self-report at baseline, after treatment, and (for CBT-I only) at 1-year follow-up. CBT-I subjects reported significantly improved sleep and significantly reduced pain after treatment. Control subjects reported no significant improvements. One-year follow-up found maintenance of improved sleep and reduced pain for both the CBT-I group alone and among subjects who crossed over from control to CBT-I. CBT-I but not an attention control, without directly addressing pain control, improved both immediate and long-term self-reported sleep and pain in older patients with osteoarthritis and comorbid insomnia. These results are unique in suggesting the long-term durability of CBT-I effects for co-morbid insomnia. They also indicate that improving sleep, per se, in patients with osteoarthritis may result in decreased pain. Techniques to improve sleep may be useful additions to pain management programs in osteoarthritis, and possibly other chronic pain conditions as well.

  14. Ethnicity moderates the influence of perceived social status on subjective sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Burel R; McGuire, Lynanne; Smith, Michael T

    2010-01-01

    It has long been recognized that socioeconomic status (SES) influences health and health-related behaviors, and it has been suggested that the adverse impact of low SES on health may be partly mediated by poor sleep quality. The relation between sleep and objective and subjective measures of SES has only been explored in a preliminary manner, providing indirect evidence that associations between SES and health might be explained, in part, by disrupted sleep. However, it remains unclear whether low SES directly affects sleep quality or whether the SES-sleep quality relation varies as a function of ethnicity given robust ethnic disparities across SES-related factors. This study examined the relation between perceived social status (i.e., individuals' perception of their socioeconomic standing) and subjective sleep quality among 149 college students, and examined the moderating effect of ethnicity to determine whether the magnitude or direction of association differed among Caucasian, Asian, and African Americans. Using hierarchical regressions and a dummy-coded ethnicity variable, results demonstrated significant moderation (ΔR₂ = 0.04, p = .02), such that both Asian (p = .04) and African Americans (p = .02) were significantly different from Caucasian Americans. Lower perceived social status was related to greater impairment in sleep quality for Asian Americans (β = -.37, p sleep quality for specific subgroups of ethnic minorities.

  15. Subjective sleep impairment in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: Results from Diabetes MILES-The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefs, G.; Donga, E.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Bot, M.; Speight, J.; Pouwer, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Despite growing recognition of the impact of sleep on diabetes, a clear profile of people with diabetes regarding subjective sleep impairment has yet to be established. This study examines: (1) subjective sleep characteristics in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; (2) the relationship of

  16. Subjective sleep impairment in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES-The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefs, Giesje; Donga, Esther; van Someren, Eus; Bot, Mariska; Speight, Jane; Pouwer, François

    AIMS: Despite growing recognition of the impact of sleep on diabetes, a clear profile of people with diabetes regarding subjective sleep impairment has yet to be established. This study examines: (1) subjective sleep characteristics in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; (2) the relationship of

  17. Investigating the Efficacy of Sleep Hygiene Education on Improving Sleep Disorders in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hazeri

    2015-07-01

    Methods:This is an analytical study with Field Trail method and pre- and post-style. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of demographic information, ESS, SMII, and ISI. In the first phase of the study, questionnaires were distributed among 207 nurses out of whom 100 nurses were diagnosed with sleep disorder. Eventually after the training period, the data from 66 questionnaires were analysed, using SPSS20 software with Paired T-test and ANOVA. Results:The first part of the findings showed that 48.3 percent of the nurses have sleep disorder. Findings also indicated that factors such as age, gender, marital status, work experience, number of children, type of shift work and job satisfaction did not have significant statistical impact on sleep disorder. The second part measured improvement of sleep disorders related to sleep hygiene education for nurses. Results revealed a better condition of sleep disorder among the participants after their education around sleep hygiene. Although there wasstatistically no significant relationship between pre- and post-training sleep disorder scores, given the small p-value it can be said that a marginal meaningful relationship does exist.

  18. Subjective and Objective Sleep Disturbance and Longitudinal Risk of Depression in a Cohort of Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Jeanne E.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Peters, Katherine W.; Paudel, Misti L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Stone, Katie L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal relationship between subjective and objective sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Three US clinical centers. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-two community-dwelling older women (70 y or older). Measurements: At baseline, subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and objective sleep measures were assessed with wrist actigraphy. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) at baseline and approximately 5 y later. The analysis was restricted to women with few (GDS 0-2) depressive symptoms at baseline. Results: There was an independent association between greater PSQI score (per standard deviation increase, indicating worse subjective sleep quality) at baseline and greater odds of worsening depressive symptoms (≥ 2-point increase in GDS) (Multivariate Odds Ratio [MOR] 1.19, confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.40, P = 0.036). Higher scores specifically on the sleep quality (MOR 1.41, CI 1.13-1.77, P sleep latency (MOR 1.21, CI 1.03-1.41, P = 0.018) PSQI subscales were also associated with greater odds for worsening depressive symptoms. Objective assessments revealed an association between baseline prolonged wake after sleep onset (WASO ≥ 60 min) and worsening depressive symptoms at follow-up (MOR 1.36, CI 1.01-1.84, P = 0.046). There were no associations between other objectively assessed sleep measures and worsening depressive symptoms. Conclusions: In older women with few or no depressive symptoms at baseline, those with more subjectively reported sleep disturbance and more objectively assessed fragmentation of sleep at baseline had greater odds of worsening depressive symptoms 5 y later. Future studies investigating this relationship in more detail are indicated. Citation: Maglione JE, Ancoli-Israel S, Peters KW, Paudel ML, Yaffe K, Ensrud KE, Stone KL, Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Subjective

  19. Subjective reports versus objective measurement of sleep latency and sleep duration in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Danielle L; Fung, Alison; Walker, Susan P; Barnes, Maree

    2013-01-01

    This study compared self-reported sleep latency (SL) and total sleep time (TST) to objective measures on polysomnography (PSG) during pregnancy. Thirty-three women in the third trimester (T3) of pregnancy, 16 women in the first trimester (T1) of pregnancy, and 15 non-pregnant women underwent overnight PSG, and shortly after awakening reported their perceived SL and TST. Results showed that, on average, the T3 group slightly overestimated their TSTs, whereas the T1 and non-pregnant groups underestimated TSTs when compared with objective measurement. All groups overestimated SL, and perceived SL was closest to the first epoch of 10 min of uninterrupted sleep or the first epoch of slow-wave sleep, rather than the first epoch of sleep (the current definition used for diagnostic sleep studies). The wide variation in discrepancies between estimation and PSG measurement for both TST and SL shows that self-reports made by both pregnant and non-pregnant women tend to be unreliable, which has important implications both clinically and for the many studies based on self-reported sleep patterns in pregnancy.

  20. Scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting improve adaptation to night shift work in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinoy, Evan D; Harris, Michael P; Kim, Min Ju; Wang, Wei; Duffy, Jeanne F

    2016-12-01

    We tested whether a sleep and circadian-based treatment shown to improve circadian adaptation to night shifts and attenuate negative effects on alertness, performance and sleep in young adults would also be effective in older adults. We assessed subjective alertness, sustained attention (psychomotor vigilance task, PVT), sleep duration (actigraphy) and circadian timing (salivary dim-light melatonin onset, DLMO) in 18 older adults (57.2±3.8 years; mean±SD) in a simulated shift work protocol. 4 day shifts were followed by 3 night shifts in the laboratory. Participants slept at home and were randomised to either the treatment group (scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting during the latter half of night shifts) or control group (ad-lib sleep and typical lighting during night shifts). Compared with day shifts, alertness and sustained attention declined on the first night shift in both groups, and was worse in the latter half of the night shifts. Alertness and attention improved on nights 2 and 3 for the treatment group but remained lower for the control group. Sleep duration in the treatment group remained similar to baseline (6-7 hours) following night shifts, but was shorter (3-5 hours) following night shifts in the control group. Treatment group circadian timing advanced by 169.3±16.1 min (mean±SEM) but did not shift (-9.7±9.9 min) in the control group. The combined treatment of scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting increased sleep duration and partially aligned circadian phase with sleep and work timing, resulting in improved night shift alertness and performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Scheduled Evening Sleep and Enhanced Lighting Improve Adaptation to Night Shift Work in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinoy, Evan D.; Harris, Michael P.; Kim, Min Ju; Wang, Wei; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We tested whether a sleep and circadian-based treatment shown to improve circadian adaptation to night shifts and attenuate negative effects on alertness, performance, and sleep in young adults would also be effective in older adults. Methods We assessed subjective alertness, sustained attention (psychomotor vigilance task, PVT), sleep duration (actigraphy), and circadian timing (salivary dim-light melatonin onset, DLMO) in eighteen older adults (57.2±3.8 y; mean±SD) in a simulated shift work protocol. Four day shifts were followed by three night shifts in the laboratory. Participants slept at home and were randomized to either the Treatment Group (scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting during the latter half of night shifts), or Control Group (ad lib sleep and typical lighting during night shifts). Results Compared to day shifts, alertness and sustained attention declined on the first night shift in both groups, and was worse in the latter half of the night shifts. Alertness and attention improved on nights 2 and 3 for the Treatment Group but remained lower for the Control Group. Sleep duration in the Treatment Group remained similar to baseline (6–7 h) following night shifts, but was shorter (3–5 h) following night shifts in the Control Group. Treatment Group circadian timing advanced by 169.3±16.1 min (mean±SEM) but did not shift (−9.7±9.9 min) in the Control Group. Conclusions The combined treatment of scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting increased sleep duration and partially aligned circadian phase with sleep and work timing, resulting in improved night shift alertness and performance. PMID:27566781

  2. Sleep Habits and Susceptibility to Upper Respiratory Illness: the Moderating Role of Subjective Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Adler, Nancy E; Hall, Martica; Cohen, Sheldon

    2017-02-01

    Sleep is a predictor of infectious illness that may depend on one's socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to investigate the moderating effects of objective and subjective SES on sleep-clinical cold risk link and test whether nasal inflammation serves as a plausible biological pathway. This study combined data (n = 732) from three viral challenge studies. Measures of self-reported sleep and objective and subjective measures of SES were obtained. Participants were quarantined and administrated rhinovirus (RV) or influenza virus and monitored over 5 (RV) or 6 (influenza) days for the development of a cold. Symptom severity, including mucus production and nasal clearance time, and levels of nasal cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β) were measured prior to administration and each day during the quarantined period. Subjective SES, but not objective SES, moderated associations between shorter sleep duration and increased likelihood of a clinical cold. Compared to ≥8-hour sleepers, ≤6-hour sleepers with low subjective SES were at increased risk for developing a cold (OR = 2.57, 95% CI 1.10-6.02). There was no association between sleep duration and colds in high subjective SES participants. Among infected individuals who reported low subjective SES, shorter sleep duration was associated with greater mucus production. There was no evidence that markers of nasal inflammation mediated the link between sleep duration and cold susceptibility among those reporting low subjective SES. Subjective SES may reflect an important social factor for understanding vulnerability to and protection against infectious illness among short sleepers.

  3. Parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism improves sleep quality: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Justin; Wang, Tracy S; Hammad, Abdulrahman Y; Burgardt, Laura; Doffek, Kara; Carr, Azadeh A; Shaker, Joseph L; Carroll, Ty B; Evans, Douglas B; Yen, Tina W F

    2017-01-01

    This prospective survey study assessed changes in sleep quality in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism after parathyroidectomy. Patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism (n = 110) or thyroidectomy for benign euthyroid disease (control group; n = 45) were recruited between June 2013 and June 2015 and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index preoperatively and at 1- and 6 months postoperatively. "Poor" sleep quality was defined as a score >5; a clinically important and relevant improvement was a ≥3-point decrease. Preoperatively, parathyroid patients had worse sleep quality than thyroid patients (mean 8.1 vs 5.3; P sleep quality (P = .03). Postoperatively, only parathyroid patients demonstrated improvement in sleep quality; mean scores did not differ between the parathyroid and thyroid groups at 1 month (6.3 vs 5.3; P = .12) or 6 months (5.8 vs 4.6; P = .11). The proportion of patients with a clinically important improvement in sleep quality was greater in the parathyroid group at 1 month (37% vs 10%; P sleep quality between the 2 groups at 1 month (50% vs 40%; P = .32) and 6 months (40% vs 29%; P = .22). More than two-thirds of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism report poor sleep quality. After parathyroidectomy, over one-third experienced improvement, typically within the first month postoperatively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An investigation into the strength of the association and agreement levels between subjective and objective sleep duration in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Arora

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVES: The majority of adolescent sleep research has utilized self-reported sleep duration and some have based information on a solitary question. Whilst some have claimed to have validated sleep survey data with objective actigraphy measures in adolescents, the statistical approach applied only demonstrates the strength of the association between subjective and objective sleep duration data and does not reflect if these different methods actually agree. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Midlands Adolescents Schools Sleep Education Study (MASSES. Adolescents (n=225 aged 11-13 years provided estimates for weekday, weekend and combined sleep duration based on self-reported survey data, a 7-day sleep diary, and wrist-worn actigraphy. RESULTS: We assessed the strength of the relationship as well as agreement levels between subjective and objectively determined sleep duration (weekday, weekend and combined. Subjective diary sleep duration was significantly correlated with actigraphy estimates for weekday and weekend sleep duration r=0.30, p ≤ 0.001 and r=0.31, p ≤ 0.001 respectively. Pitman's test demonstrated no significant difference in the variance between weekend sleep duration (r=0.09, p=0.16 and combined sleep duration (r=0.12, p=0.08 indicating acceptable agreement between actigraphy and sleep diary sleep duration only. Self-reported sleep duration estimates (weekday, weekend and combined did not agree with actigraphy determined sleep duration. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep diaries are a cost-effective alternative to survey/questionnaire data. Self-reported measures of sleep duration in adolescents do not agree with actigraphy measures and should be avoided where possible. Previous adolescent sleep studies that have utilized self-reported survey data may not provide a complete representation of sleep on the outcome measure of interest.

  5. More severe hypoxemia is associated with better subjective sleep quality in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ni; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Liou, Li-Min; Yen, Chen-Wen; Chen, Sharon Chia-Ju; Hsieh, Cheng-Fang; Hsieh, Sun-Wung; Lin, Feng-Cheng; Hsu, Chung-Yao

    2015-10-12

    Perceived sleep quality may play an important role in diagnosis and therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, few studies have assessed factors that are associated with perceived sleep quality in OSA patients. Hypoxemia depresses the central nervous system and attenuates the perceived respiratory load in asthmatic patients. This study aimed to investigate the factors related to perceived sleep quality, focusing on the role of hypoxemia. Polysomnography studies of 156 OSA patients were reviewed. Traditional polysomnographic parameters, including parameters of oxy-hemoglobin saturation (SpO2), were calculated, and the sleep questionnaire and scales were used. Considering the possible pitfalls of absolute values of SpO2 and individualized responses to hypoxemia, the amplitude of desaturation was further computed as "median SpO2 minus lowest 5 % SpO2 "and "highest 5 % SpO2 minus median 5 % SpO2". Correlations between these parameters and perceived sleep quality, represented as the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), were performed. Multiple linear regression analysis was also conducted to investigate the factors associated with the PSQI. Although the PSQI was not correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (r = -0.113, p = 0.162) and oxygen desaturation index (r = -0.085, p = 0.291), the PSQI was negatively correlated with "median SpO2 minus lowest 5 % SpO2" (r = -0.161, p = 0.045). After adjusting for age, total sleep time, the periodic limb movements index, tendency of depression, and the lowest 5 % SpO2, the "median SpO2 minus lowest SpO2" was still a significant predictor for a lower PSQI (β = -0.357, p = 0.015). More severe hypoxemia is associated with better perceived sleep quality among OSA patients. This paradox may be associated with hypoxemia-related impairment of perception. The effect of hypoxemia did not appear to be significant in relatively mild hypoxemia but become significant in severe hypoxemia." Median SpO2 minus lowest 5 % SpO2" may also

  6. Comparing Subjective With Objective Sleep Parameters Via Multisensory Actigraphy in German Physical Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Sarah; Endler, Stefan; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study compared subjective with objective sleep parameters among 72 physical education students. Furthermore, the study determined whether 24-hr recording differs from nighttime recording only. Participants wore the SenseWear Armband™ for three consecutive nights and kept a sleep log. Agreement rates ranged from moderate to low for sleep onset latency (ICC = 0.39 to 0.70) and wake after sleep onset (ICC = 0.22 to 0.59), while time in bed (ICC = 0.93 to 0.95) and total sleep time (ICC = 0.90 to 0.92) revealed strong agreement during this period. Comparing deviations between 24-hr wearing time (n = 24) and night-only application (n = 20) revealed no statistical difference (p > 0.05). As athletic populations have yet to be investigated for these purposes, this study provides useful indicators and practical implications for future studies.

  7. Subjective Sleep Quality in Women With Divorce Histories: The Role of Intimate Partner Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Tamara L; Burns, Vicki Ellison; Miller, James J; Fernandez-Botran, G Rafael

    2016-05-01

    A marital status of divorced or separated, as opposed to married, predicts increased risk of health problems, but not for all persons. Focusing on one established health risk that has been linked with divorce--poor subjective sleep quality--the present cross-sectional study examined whether a history of physical intimate partner victimization (IPV) helps identify divorced women at potentially greater risk of health problems. Community midlife women with divorce histories, all of whom were free of current IPV, reported on their past month sleep quality and lifetime IPV. The predicted odds of poor sleep quality were significantly greater for women with, versus without, IPV histories. This held after adjusting for socioemotional, medical, or sociodemographic risks. A dose-response relationship between IPV chronicity and poor quality sleep was observed. IPV history may help identify divorced women at increased risk of poor quality sleep and, more broadly, poor health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Depressive Symptoms and Subjective And Objective Sleep In Community-Dwelling Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Jeanne E.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Peters, Katherine W.; Paudel, Misti L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Stone, Katie L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and subjective and objective sleep in older women. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Four US clinical centers. Participants 3045 community-dwelling women ≥70 years. Measurements Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale categorizing participants as “normal” (0–2, referent), “some depressive symptoms” (3–5), or “depressed” (≥6). Subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Objective sleep measures were assessed with wrist actigraphy. Results In multivariable-adjusted models, there were graded associations between increased level of depressive symptoms and both worse subjective sleep quality and more subjective daytime sleepiness (p-trends depressive symptoms (OR 1.82, CI 1.48–2.24) and depressed (OR 2.84, CI 2.08–3.86) women had greater odds of reporting poor sleep (PSQI>5). Women with some depressive symptoms (OR 1.97, CI 1.47–2.64) and depressed women (OR 1.70, CI 1.12–2.58) had greater odds of reporting excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS>10). There were also graded associations between increased level of depressive symptoms and objectively measured wake after sleep onset (WASO) (p-trend = 0.030) and long wake episodes >5 minutes (p-trend 0.006). Depressed women had modestly increased odds of WASO ≥1 hour (OR 1.37, CI 1.03–1.83). Women with some depressive symptoms (OR 1.49, CI 1.19–1.86) and depressed women (OR 2.04, CI 1.52–2.74) had greater odds of being in the highest quartile for number of nap episodes >5 minutes. No associations between depressive symptom level and prolonged sleep latency, reduced sleep efficiency, or reduced or increased total sleep time were found. Conclusion Greater depressive symptom levels were associated with more subjective sleep disturbance and objective evidence of sleep fragmentation and napping. PMID

  9. Association of Poor Subjective Sleep Quality with Suicidal Ideation among Pregnant Peruvian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Barrios, Yasmin V.; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Rondon, Marta B.; Borba, Christina P.C.; Sánchez, Sixto E.; Henderson, David C.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the independent and joint relationships of poor subjective sleep quality, and antepartum depression with suicidal ideation among pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 641 pregnant women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru. Antepartum depression and suicidal ideation were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale. Antepartum subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Logistic regression procedures were performed to estimate odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) adjusted for confounders. Results Overall, the prevalence of suicidal ideation in this cohort was 16.8% and poor subjective sleep quality was more common among women endorsing suicidal ideation as compared to their counterparts who did not (47.2%vs.24.8%, p5vs. ≤5) was associated with a 1.7-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (aOR=1.67; 95%CI 1.02–2.71). When assessed as a continuous variable, each 1-unit increase in the global PSQI score resulted in an 18% increase in odds for suicidal ideation, even after adjusting for depression (aOR=1.18; 95%CI 1.08–1.28). Women with both poor subjective sleep quality and depression had a 3.5-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (aOR=3.48; 95%CI 1.96–6.18) as compared with those who had neither risk factor. Conclusion Poor subjective sleep quality was associated with increased odds of suicidal ideation. Replication of these findings may promote investments in studies designed to examine the efficacy of sleep-focused interventions to treat pregnant women with sleep disorders and suicidal ideation. PMID:25983188

  10. Effect of nocturnal road traffic noise exposure and annoyance on objective and subjective sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Patrizia; Mohler, Evelyn; Röösli, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Various epidemiological studies have found an association between noise exposure and sleep quality, but the mediating role of annoyance is unclear for this association. To investigate the effects of both objectively modeled road traffic noise exposure as well as noise annoyance on subjective and objective sleep quality measures. 1375 randomly selected participants from Basel, Switzerland, were enrolled in a questionnaire survey in 2008 with follow-up one year later (1122 participants). We assessed sleep quality by using a standardized sleep disturbance score, as well as the level of annoyance with road traffic noise at home. Objective sleep efficiency data was collected in a nested diary study by means of actigraphy from 119 subjects for 1551 nights. Residential nocturnal exposure to road traffic noise was modeled using validated models. Data were analyzed with random intercept mixed-effects regression models. In the main study, self-reported sleep quality was strongly related to noise annoyance (p for trendnoise exposure (p=0.07). In the nested diary study objectively measured sleep efficiency was not related to annoyance (p=0.25) but correlated with modeled noise exposure (p=0.02). Strikingly, noise induced decreased sleep efficiency was even more significant for study participants who were not annoyed with traffic noise (p=0.001). This study indicates that effects of nocturnal traffic noise on objective sleep quality are independent of perceived noise annoyance, whereas the association between self-reported sleep quality and noise is mediated by noise annoyance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... REM sleep? What is the effect of sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? ... Some hormones produced during sleep affect the body's use of energy. This may be how inadequate sleep ...

  12. Sleep after mobile phone exposure in subjects with mobile phone-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowden, Arne; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Ingre, Michael; Wiholm, Clairy; Hillert, Lena; Kuster, Niels; Nilsson, Jens P; Arnetz, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Several studies show increases in activity for certain frequency bands (10-14 Hz) and visually scored parameters during sleep after exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. A shortened REM latency has also been reported. We investigated the effects of a double-blind radiofrequency exposure (884 MHz, GSM signaling standard including non-DTX and DTX mode, time-averaged 10 g psSAR of 1.4 W/kg) on self-evaluated sleepiness and objective EEG measures during sleep. Forty-eight subjects (mean age 28 years) underwent 3 h of controlled exposure (7:30-10:30 PM; active or sham) prior to sleep, followed by a full-night polysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory. The results demonstrated that following exposure, time in Stages 3 and 4 sleep (SWS, slow-wave sleep) decreased by 9.5 min (12%) out of a total of 78.6 min, and time in Stage 2 sleep increased by 8.3 min (4%) out of a total of 196.3 min compared to sham. The latency to Stage 3 sleep was also prolonged by 4.8 min after exposure. Power density analysis indicated an enhanced activation in the frequency ranges 0.5-1.5 and 5.75-10.5 Hz during the first 30 min of Stage 2 sleep, with 7.5-11.75 Hz being elevated within the first hour of Stage 2 sleep, and bands 4.75-8.25 Hz elevated during the second hour of Stage 2 sleep. No pronounced power changes were observed in SWS or for the third hour of scored Stage 2 sleep. No differences were found between controls and subjects with prior complaints of mobile phone-related symptoms. The results confirm previous findings that RF exposure increased the EEG alpha range in the sleep EEG, and indicated moderate impairment of SWS. Furthermore, reported differences in sensitivity to mobile phone use were not reflected in sleep parameters.

  13. Association between seasonal affective disorder and subjective quality of the sleep/wake cycle in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Marco; Erbacci, Alex; Martoni, Monica; Natale, Vincenzo

    2014-03-30

    The relationship between seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and subjective quality of sleep/wake cycle in adolescents was explored. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (SPAQ-CA) and Mini Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ) were administered to 345 adolescents living in the city of Cesena (Emilia-Romagna region, Italy) (299 females; age range: 14-18 years), to determine SAD and perceived quality of the sleep/wake cycle. The response rate was 92% for females and 90.2% for males. The MSQ includes two factors, sleep and wake, with lower scores corresponding to a lower quality of sleep and wake. The MSQ includes cut-off criteria to detect a good or bad sleep and wake quality. Adolescents with SAD (16 ± 5.7) scored significantly lower than those not affected on wake factor (19.5 ± 4.3), while no effect has been observed on sleep factor. SAD was the only one significant predictor of good/bad wake quality, while it did not reach significant level with reference to good/bad sleep quality. Present results are indications of a possible influence of SAD on wake quality and further studies are necessary to confirm them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Blast Exposure on Subjective and Objective Sleep Measures in Combat Veterans with and without PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Ryan P J; Paul, Benjamin T E; Mammen, Oommen; Khan, Hassen; Cieply, Marissa A; Germain, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which self-reported exposure to blast during deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan affects subjective and objective sleep measures in service members and veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventy-one medication-free service members and veterans (mean age = 29.47 ± 5.76 years old; 85% men) completed self-report sleep measures and overnight polysomnographic studies. Four multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) were conducted to examine the impact of blast exposure and PTSD on subjective sleep measures, measures of sleep continuity, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parameters, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep parameters. There was no significant Blast × PTSD interaction on subjective sleep measures. Rather, PTSD had a main effect on insomnia severity, sleep quality, and disruptive nocturnal behaviors. There was no significant Blast × PTSD interaction, nor were there main effects of PTSD or Blast on measures of sleep continuity and NREM sleep. A significant PTSD × Blast interaction effect was found for REM fragmentation. The results suggest that, although persistent concussive symptoms following blast exposure are associated with sleep disturbances, self-reported blast exposure without concurrent symptoms does not appear to contribute to poor sleep quality, insomnia, and disruptive nocturnal disturbances beyond the effects of PTSD. Reduced REM sleep fragmentation may be a sensitive index of the synergetic effects of both psychological and physical insults. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  15. The study of subjective and objective evaluation of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Chun-feng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Sleep disorder is one of the most common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD patients. At present, there are subjective and objective tools to evaluate sleepdisorders. Nevertheless, previous studies commonly used single subjective questionnaires or objective examinations. Therefore, we used the combinations of subjective and objective tools to analyze clinical characteristics of sleep disturbances in PD and investigated differences and consistence between subjective and objective tools. Methods One hundred and sixteen PD patients were eligible to participate into this study. All participants were evaluated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS in "on" condition, Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y stage, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD 24 items, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and underwent a video-polysomnography (Video-PSG. Results According to PSQI score of 116 PD patients, the proportion of PD patients with sleep disturbances (PSQI ≥ 7 was 50% (N = 58. Compared to PD patients without sleep disturbances, PD patients with sleep disturbances had lower score of MoCA (23.34 ± 3.50 vs 24.89 ± 3.52; t = 2.377, P = 0.019, higher score of UPDRSⅠ[4.00 (2.00, 5.00 vs 3.00 (2.00, 5.00; U = - 2.306, P = 0.021], UPDRSⅡ[12.00 (9.00, 16.00 vs 10.00 (6.00, 13.00; U = - 1.995, P = 0.046], higher levodopa equivalent daily dose [LED, (508.14 ± 335.85 vs (394.06 ± 236.40 mg/d; t = - 2.115, P = 0.037]. Although PD patients with sleep disturbances had more score of UPDSR Ⅲ and higher H-Y stage, the differences were not significant (P > 0.05. On the other hand, decreased total sleep time (TST, reduced sleep efficiency (SE, increased sleep latency (SL, decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep stage Ⅱ time were found for PD patients with sleep disturbances (P 0.05, for all. The score of PSQI was positively correlated with the score of ESS (r = 0.200, P = 0

  16. Qigong Exercise Alleviates Fatigue, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms, Improves Sleep Quality, and Shortens Sleep Latency in Persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Like Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie S. M. Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS- like illness and to determine the dose-response relationship. Methods. One hundred fifty participants with CFS-like illness (mean age = 39.0, SD = 7.9 were randomly assigned to Qigong and waitlist. Sixteen 1.5-hour Qigong lessons were arranged over 9 consecutive weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChFS, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were assessed at baseline, immediate posttreatment, and 3-month posttreatment. The amount of Qigong self-practice was assessed by self-report. Results. Repeated measures analyses of covariance showed a marginally nonsignificant (P= 0.064 group by time interaction in the PSQI total score, but it was significant for the “subjective sleep quality” and “sleep latency” items, favoring Qigong exercise. Improvement in “subjective sleep quality” was maintained at 3-month posttreatment. Significant group by time interaction was also detected for the ChFS and HADS anxiety and depression scores. The number of Qigong lessons attended and the amount of Qigong self-practice were significantly associated with sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptom improvement. Conclusion. Baduanjin Qigong was an efficacious and acceptable treatment for sleep disturbance in CFS-like illness. This trial is registered with Hong Kong Clinical Trial Register: HKCTR-1380.

  17. Donepezil improves episodic memory in young individuals vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Lisa Y M; Chong, Delise L; Chen, Annette K; Rekshan, William R; Tan, Jiat-Chow; Zheng, Hui; Chee, Michael W L

    2009-08-01

    We investigated if donepezil, a long-acting orally administered cholinesterase inhibitor, would reduce episodic memory deficits associated with 24 h of sleep deprivation. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study involving 7 laboratory visits over 2 months. Participants underwent 4 functional MRI scans; 2 sessions (donepezil or placebo) followed a normal night's sleep, and 2 sessions followed a night of sleep deprivation. The study took place in a research laboratory. 26 young, healthy volunteers with no history of any sleep, psychiatric, or neurologic disorders. 5 mg of donepezil was taken once daily for approximately 17 days. Subjects were scanned while performing a semantic judgment task and tested for word recognition outside the scanner 45 minutes later. Sleep deprivation increased the frequency of non-responses at encoding and impaired delayed recognition. No benefit of donepezil was evident when participants were well rested. When sleep deprived, individuals who showed greater performance decline improved with donepezil, whereas more resistant individuals did not benefit. Accompanying these behavioral effects, there was corresponding modulation of task-related activation in functionally relevant brain regions. Brain regions identified in relation to donepezil-induced alteration in non-response rates could be distinguished from regions relating to improved recognition memory. This suggests that donepezil can improve delayed recognition in sleep-deprived persons by improving attention as well as enhancing memory encoding. Donepezil reduced decline in recognition performance in individuals vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation. Additionally, our findings demonstrate the utility of combined fMRI-behavior evaluation in psychopharmacological studies.

  18. [Non-face-to-face sleep improvement program in a workplace: bibliotherapy with and without behavioral self-control procedure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yoshiko; Kunitsuka, Kouko; Taniyama, Katsuko; Hayashi, Chikako; Tanaka, Minori; Sato, Chifumi

    2010-01-01

    Sleep hygiene education has been important health issue in the health promotion and the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. A feasible and effective method is necessary for population approach. To evaluate the effects of a non-face-to-face brief behavioral program for a sleep improvement in workplaces. Research design was a cluster control trial. Three hundred and thirty participants were allocated to the bibliotherapy group (BTG; n=130) or self-control group (SCG; n=200). Two groups were recruited from separated local sections of a Japanese company each other. There was no eligibility criteria and the intervention was open to every worker in the workplaces. All participants received a self-help booklet and information on recent topics of insomnia-related health problems. SCG participants set several behaviors for habit improvement and monitored those behaviors for 4 wk additionally. The replies to the questionnaire showed that almost all of them had any sleep disturbances. A total of 158 participants in SCG (79%) and a total of 106 participants in BTG (82%) responded to the post questionnaire. Sleep parameters of pre and post questionnaires were compared between SCG and BTG. Overall, sleep onset latency was reduced and sleep efficiency was improved. The significant changes were found in only SCG. Re-analysis of pre and post 3-days' sleep diaries showed that the subjects in both group improved significantly in the main variables (total sleep time, number of awakenings, time spent awake, sleep efficiency). Sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and daytime sleepiness improved significantly in only SCG. These results suggest that an additional target setting and self-monitoring could promote the effectiveness for sleep improvement of a bibliotherapy.

  19. Improved Mental Acuity Forecasting with an Individualized Quantitative Sleep Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent D. Winslow

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep impairment significantly alters human brain structure and cognitive function, but available evidence suggests that adults in developed nations are sleeping less. A growing body of research has sought to use sleep to forecast cognitive performance by modeling the relationship between the two, but has generally focused on vigilance rather than other cognitive constructs affected by sleep, such as reaction time, executive function, and working memory. Previous modeling efforts have also utilized subjective, self-reported sleep durations and were restricted to laboratory environments. In the current effort, we addressed these limitations by employing wearable systems and mobile applications to gather objective sleep information, assess multi-construct cognitive performance, and model/predict changes to mental acuity. Thirty participants were recruited for participation in the study, which lasted 1 week. Using the Fitbit Charge HR and a mobile version of the automated neuropsychological assessment metric called CogGauge, we gathered a series of features and utilized the unified model of performance to predict mental acuity based on sleep records. Our results suggest that individuals poorly rate their sleep duration, supporting the need for objective sleep metrics to model circadian changes to mental acuity. Participant compliance in using the wearable throughout the week and responding to the CogGauge assessments was 80%. Specific biases were identified in temporal metrics across mobile devices and operating systems and were excluded from the mental acuity metric development. Individualized prediction of mental acuity consistently outperformed group modeling. This effort indicates the feasibility of creating an individualized, mobile assessment and prediction of mental acuity, compatible with the majority of current mobile devices.

  20. Rotigotine may improve sleep architecture in Parkinson's disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled polysomnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Placidi, Fabio; Liguori, Claudio; Albanese, Maria; Imbriani, Paola; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Stanzione, Paolo; Stefani, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Growing evidence demonstrates that in Parkinson's Disease (PD) sleep disturbances are frequent and difficult to treat. Since the efficacy of rotigotine on sleep is corroborated by studies lacking polysomnography (PSG), this study explores the possible rotigotine-mediated impact on PSG parameters in PD patients. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study to determine the efficacy of rotigotine vs placebo on PSG parameters in moderately advanced PD patients. An unusual protocol was utilized, since patches were maintained from 18:00 h to awakening, minimizing the possible diurnal impact on motor symptoms. All participants underwent sleep PSG recordings, subjective sleep questionnaires (Parkinson Disease Sleep Scale [PDSS], Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), and the assessment of early-morning motor disability. We evaluated 42 PD patients (Hoehn & Yahr stages 2 and 3) with sleep impairment randomly assigned to active branch (N =21) or placebo (N = 21). Rotigotine significantly increased sleep efficiency and reduced both wakefulness after sleep onset and sleep latency compared to placebo. Moreover, the mean change in REM sleep quantity was significantly higher in the rotigotine than placebo group. The improvement of PSG parameters corresponded to the amelioration of PDSS and PSQI scores together with the improvement of patient morning motor symptoms. This study demonstrated the significant effect of rotigotine on sleep quality and continuity in PD patients by promoting sleep stability and increasing REM. The effectiveness of rotigotine on sleep may be ascribed to its pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile directly on both D1 and D2 receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The EASE Quality Improvement Project: Improving Safe Sleep Practices in Ohio Children's Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Jamie R; Gittelman, Michael A; Denny, Sarah A; Southworth, Hayley; Arnold, Melissa Wervey

    2016-10-01

    Despite American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations, many hospitalized infants are not observed in the appropriate safe sleep environment. Caregivers tend to model sleep patterns observed in a hospital setting. This project assessed the change in infant safe sleep practices within 6 children's hospitals after the implementation of a statewide quality improvement program. The AAP recruited hospitalists from each of the state's children's hospitals and asked them to form "safe sleep teams" within their institutions. Teams used a standardized data tool to collect information on the infant's age and sleep position/environment. They collected baseline data and then weekly for the duration of the 12-month project. Teams were required to implement at least 3 Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles. We calculated changes in safe sleep practices over time. Providers received Maintenance of Certification Part IV credit for participation. Teams collected 5343 audits at all participating sites. At baseline, only 279 (32.6%) of 856 of the sleeping infants were observed to follow AAP recommendations, compared with 110 (58.2%) of 189 (P sleep practices from 48.2% to 75.4% (P hospitals improved observed infant safe sleep behaviors and family report of safe sleep education. These behavior changes may lead to more appropriate safe sleep practices at home. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. All Night Spectral Analysis of EEG Sleep in Young Adult and Middle-Aged Male Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1989-01-01

    The sleep EEGs of 9 young adult males (age 20-28 years) and 8 middle-aged males (42-56 years) were analyzed by visual scoring and spectral analysis. In the middle-aged subjects power density in the delta, theta and sigma frequencies were attenuated as compared to the young subjects. In both age

  3. The impact of pain on anxiety and depression is mediated by objective and subjective sleep characteristics in fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Catena, Andres; Miro, Elena; Martinez, Maria P; Sanchez, Ana I; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2014-10-01

    Pain is the cardinal feature in fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) and increases the risk of anxiety and depression. Patients with FM frequently report sleep disturbances as well. Sleep may mediate the association between pain and emotional symptoms, an idea which has been scarcely studied. The objective of this study was to uncover the role of subjective and objective sleep characteristics as mediators of the relationship between pain and anxiety and depression in FM. Fifty-five female with FM (mean age, 47.62 ± 7.64 y) were assessed to obtain self-reported measures of pain, sleep quality, anxiety and depression levels, and self-efficacy to cope with pain. An ambulatory polysomnographic recording was performed to assess sleep architecture. Subjective poor sleep quality was found in all participtants. Pain correlated with subjective and objective sleep parameters, self-efficacy, anxiety, and, marginally, with depression. The mediated regression analysis suggested that the best models to explain the impact of pain on anxiety and depression included, as mediators, subjective sleep quality, objective sleep efficiency, and self-efficacy (these models explained 34% of the variance), with objective sleep efficiency being the mediator with the highest influence (Panxiety and depression. In fact, the impact of chronic pain on the later emotional variables was mediated not only by self-efficacy but also by subjective sleep quality and, especially, by objective sleep efficiency.

  4. Brain reactivity differentiates subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies during both sleep and wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand, Olivier; Morlet, Dominique; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-05-01

    The neurophysiological correlates of dreaming remain unclear. According to the "arousal-retrieval" model, dream encoding depends on intrasleep wakefulness. Consistent with this model, subjects with high and low dream recall frequency (DRF) report differences in intrasleep awakenings. This suggests a possible neurophysiological trait difference between the 2 groups. To test this hypothesis, we compared the brain reactivity (evoked potentials) of subjects with high (HR, N = 18) and low (LR, N = 18) DRF during wakefulness and sleep. During data acquisition, the subjects were presented with sounds to be ignored (first names randomly presented among pure tones) while they were watching a silent movie or sleeping. Brain responses to first names dramatically differed between the 2 groups during both sleep and wakefulness. During wakefulness, the attention-orienting brain response (P3a) and a late parietal response were larger in HR than in LR. During sleep, we also observed between-group differences at the latency of the P3a during N2 and at later latencies during all sleep stages. Our results demonstrate differences in the brain reactivity of HR and LR during both sleep and wakefulness. These results suggest that the ability to recall dreaming is associated with a particular cerebral functional organization, regardless of the state of vigilance.

  5. Acetazolamide improves central sleep apnea in heart failure: a double-blind, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Shahrokh

    2006-01-15

    Acetazolamide is a mild diuretic and a respiratory stimulant. It is used to treat periodic breathing at high altitude. To determine the therapeutic efficacy of acetazolamide on central sleep apnea associated with heart failure. Twelve male patients with stable systolic heart failure whose initial polysomnograms showed more than 15 episodes per hour of apnea and hypopnea participated in the study. The patients were randomized to a double-blind cross-over protocol with acetazolamide or placebo, taken 1 h before bedtime for six nights with 2 wk of washout. Polysomnography, pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases, and left ventricular ejection fraction were obtained initially along with a sleep questionnaire, history, and physical examination. Baseline measurements were repeated at the end of each arm. There were no significant differences between parameters at baseline and placebo. In comparing placebo with acetazolamide, the hourly number of episodes of central apnea (49 +/- 28 vs. 23 +/- 21 [mean +/- SD]; p = 0.004) and the percentage of total sleep time spent below an arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation of 90% (19 +/- 32 vs. 6 +/- 13%; p = 0.01) decreased significantly. Acetazolamide improved subjective perception of overall sleep quality (p = 0.003), feeling rested on awakening (p = 0.007), daytime fatigue (p = 0.02), and falling asleep unintentionally during daytime (p = 0.002). In patients with heart failure, administration of a single dose of acetazolamide before sleep improves central sleep apnea and related daytime symptoms.

  6. Health-related behaviors associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in Japanese workers: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Makoto; Odagiri, Keiichi; Mizuta, Isagi; Yamamoto, Makoto; Yamaga, Keiko; Hirano, Takako; Onoue, Kazue; Uehara, Akihiko

    2017-03-28

    Sleep disturbances are related to somatic and mental disorders, industrial accidents, absenteeism, and retirement because of disability. We aimed to identify health-related behaviors associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in Japanese workers. This cross-sectional study included 5,297 employees (mean age: 43.6±11.3 years; 4,039 men). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify health-related behaviors associated with subjective sleep insufficiency. Overall, 28.2% of participants experienced subjective sleep insufficiency. There was a significant difference between the genders in the proportion of participants with subjective sleep insufficiency (male: 26.4%; female: 34.3%; psubjective sleep insufficiency. After stratifying by gender, age ≥40 years, not exercising regularly, and eating a late-evening or fourth meal were significantly associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in both genders. Not walking quickly, experiencing a weight change, and eating quickly were positively associated with subjective sleep insufficiency only for males. Females who did not engage in physical activity were more likely to have experienced subjective sleep insufficiency, but this relationship was not observed in males. The results indicated that certain health-related behaviors, specifically not exercising regularly and nocturnal eating habits, were associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in a group of Japanese workers.

  7. [A study comparing circadian rhythm and sleep quality of athletes and sedentary subjects engaged in night work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauvieux, Benoît; Gouthière, Laurent; Sesboüe, Bruno; Davenne, Damien

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to show the resistance and persistence of the circadian rhythm of temperature (T degree) and the sleep quality of athletic subjects and sedentary subjects engaged in night work, and attempt to explain the mechanisms that influence these differences. The effects of night work on biological rhythms have been studied extensively in the past few years. The contradictory situations for the night workers irrefutably affect their biological systems. Individuals with high amplitudes in their circadian rhythms have been found to be more tolerant to shift work and this results in a greater stability of circadian rhythms. This seems beneficial in coping with frequent rhythm disturbances. The physical training program seems to improve several mechanisms of the human biological system: amplitudes of circadian rhythms were increased and the circadian rhythm period was more resistant to an environment extreme (night work, shift work, sleep deprivation, or jet lag). To test this hypothesis, athletes and sedentary subjects who were engaged in regular night work were selected in the PSA Peugeot Citroën Automobiles Group in French Normandy country. The circadian rhythm of the T degree for both groups was studied with a specific methodology and with extensive spectral analysis, especially the spectral elliptic inverse method. Study models of the rhythm of the T degree were determined and the characteristic parameters were exposed. A complementary actigraphic study showed the physical training program's effects on the sleep quality. The results revealed a large stability in the rhythm of circadian variation of T degree for the athletes: the amplitude was still large but for the sedentary subjects the amplitude of the T degree decreased and it was difficult to adjust a period on the rhythm of T degree. The stability and persistent quality of the athletes' circadian rhythm was confirmed. We observed that the actigraphic sleep was greater for athletes than for

  8. Sleep-dependent improvement in visuomotor learning: a causal role for slow waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsness, Eric C; Crupi, Domenica; Hulse, Brad K; Peterson, Michael J; Huber, Reto; Ansari, Hidayath; Coen, Michael; Cirelli, Chiara; Benca, Ruth M; Ghilardi, M Felice; Tononi, Giulio

    2009-10-01

    Sleep after learning often benefits memory consolidation, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In previous studies, we found that learning a visuomotor task is followed by an increase in sleep slow wave activity (SWA, the electroencephalographic [EEG] power density between 0.5 and 4.5 Hz during non-rapid eye movement sleep) over the right parietal cortex. The SWA increase correlates with the postsleep improvement in visuomotor performance, suggesting that SWA may be causally responsible for the consolidation of visuomotor learning. Here, we tested this hypothesis by studying the effects of slow wave deprivation (SWD). After learning the task, subjects went to sleep, and acoustic stimuli were timed either to suppress slow waves (SWD) or to interfere as little as possible with spontaneous slow waves (control acoustic stimulation, CAS). Sound-attenuated research room. Healthy subjects (mean age 24.6 +/- 1.0 years; n = 9 for EEG analysis, n = 12 for behavior analysis; 3 women). Sleep time and efficiency were not affected, whereas SWA and the number of slow waves decreased in SWD relative to CAS. Relative to the night before, visuomotor performance significantly improved in the CAS condition (+5.93% +/- 0.88%) but not in the SWD condition (-0.77% +/- 1.16%), and the direct CAS vs SWD comparison showed a significant difference (P = 0.0007, n = 12, paired t test). Changes in visuomotor performance after SWD were correlated with SWA changes over right parietal cortex but not with the number of arousals identified using clinically established criteria, nor with any sign of "EEG lightening" identified using a novel automatic method based on event-related spectral perturbation analysis. These results support a causal role for sleep slow waves in sleep-dependent improvement of visuomotor performance.

  9. Objective and subjective sleep quality: Melatonin versus placebo add-on treatment in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder withdrawing from long-term benzodiazepine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-06-30

    Benzodiazepines are frequently long-term prescribed for the treatment of patients with severe mental illness. This prescribing practice is problematic because of well-described side effects including risk of dependence. We examined the efficacy of prolonged-release melatonin on objective and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination with antipsychotics. All participants gradually tapered the use of benzodiazepines after randomization to add-on treatment with melatonin versus placebo. Here we report a subsample of 23 patients undergoing sleep recordings (one-night polysomnography) and 55 patients participating in subjective sleep quality ratings. Melatonin had no effect on objective sleep efficiency, but significantly improved self-reported sleep quality. Reduced benzodiazepine dosage at the 24-week follow-up was associated with a significantly decreased proportion of stage 2 sleep. These results indicate that prolonged-release melatonin has some efficacy for self-reported sleep quality after gradual benzodiazepine dose reduction, and that benzodiazepine discontinuation is not associated with rebound insomnia in medicated patients with severe mental illness. However, these findings were limited by a small sample size and a low retention rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Objective but Not Subjective Short Sleep Duration Associated with Increased Risk for Hypertension in Individuals with Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Christina J; Edinger, Jack D; Wyatt, James K; Krystal, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    To examine the relationship between hypertension prevalence in individuals with insomnia who have short total sleep duration sleep duration ≥ 6 h, using both objective and subjective measures of total sleep duration. Using a cross-sectional, observational design, 255 adult volunteers (n = 165 women; 64.7%) meeting current diagnostic criteria for insomnia disorder (MAge = 46.2 y, SDAge = 13.7 y) participated in this study at two large university medical centers. Two nights of polysomnography, 2 w of sleep diaries, questionnaires focused on sleep, medical, psychological, and health history, including presence/absence of hypertension were collected. Logistic regressions assessed the odds ratios of hypertension among persons with insomnia with short sleep duration sleep duration ≥ 6 h, measured both objectively and subjectively. Consistent with previous studies using objective total sleep duration, individuals with insomnia and short sleep duration sleep duration ≥ 6 h. Increased risk for hypertension was independent of major confounding factors frequently associated with insomnia or hypertension. No significant risk was observed using subjectively determined total sleep time groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the best balance of sensitivity and specificity using subjective total sleep time was at a 6-h cutoff, but the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve showed low accuracy and did not have good discriminant value. Objectively measured short sleep duration increased the odds of reporting hypertension more than threefold after adjusting for potential confounders; this relationship was not significant for subjectively measured sleep duration. This research supports emerging evidence that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with an increased risk of comorbid hypertension. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Moderators and mediators of exercise-induced objective sleep improvements in midlife and older adults with sleep complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buman, Matthew P; Hekler, Eric B; Bliwise, Donald L; King, Abby C

    2011-09-01

    Exercise can improve sleep quality, but for whom and by what means remains unclear. We examined moderators and mediators of objective sleep improvements in a 12-month randomized controlled trial among underactive midlife and older adults reporting mild/moderate sleep complaints. Participants (N = 66, 67% women, 55-79 years) were randomized to moderate-intensity exercise or health education control. Putative moderators were gender, age, physical function, self-reported global sleep quality, and physical activity levels. Putative mediators were changes in BMI, depressive symptoms, and physical function at 6 months. Objective sleep outcomes measured by in-home polysomnography were percent time in Stage I sleep, percent time in Stage II sleep, and number of awakenings during the first third of sleep at 12 months. Baseline physical function and sleep quality moderated changes in Stage I sleep; individuals with higher initial physical function (p = .01) and poorer sleep quality (p = .03) had greater improvements. Baseline physical activity level moderated changes in Stage II sleep (p = .04) and number of awakenings (p = .01); more sedentary individuals had greater improvements. Decreased depressive symptoms (CI:-1.57 to -0.02) mediated change in Stage I sleep. Decreased depressive symptoms (CI:-0.75 to -0.01), decreased BMI (CI:-1.08 to -0.06), and increased physical function (CI: 0.01 to 0.72) mediated change in number of awakenings. Initially less active individuals with higher initial physical function and poorer sleep quality improved the most. Affective, functional, and metabolic mediators specific to sleep architecture parameters were suggested. These results indicate strategies to more efficiently treat poor sleep through exercise in older adults.

  12. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term CPAP Treatment on Sleep Quality and Blood Pressure in Adherent Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei-Chen; Huang, Yi-Chih; Lan, Chou-Chin; Wu, Yao-Kuang; Huang, Kuo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Although CPAP is the first treatment choice for moderate-to-severe OSA, acceptance of and adherence to CPAP remain problematic. High CPAP adherence is generally defined as ≥4 h of use/night for ≥70% of the nights monitored. We investigated the long-term beneficial effects of CPAP on sleep quality and blood pressure in subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA according to high or low CPAP adherence. We retrospectively analyzed 121 subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA from August 2008 to July 2012. These subjects were divided into 3 groups: (1) no CPAP treatment (n = 29), (2) low CPAP adherence (n = 28), and (3) high CPAP adherence (n = 64). All subjects were followed up for at least 1 y. The 3 groups were compared regarding anthropometric and polysomnographic variables, presence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and blood pressure at baseline and at the last follow-up. The no-treatment group showed significant increases in oxygen desaturation index and blood pressure. The high-adherence group showed significant improvement in daytime sleepiness, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index, and blood pressure. Although the AHI was also significantly decreased after CPAP treatment in the low-adherence group, blood pressure remained unchanged. CPAP treatment had beneficial effects on both sleep quality and blood pressure only in subjects with OSA and high CPAP adherence who used CPAP for ≥4 h/night for ≥70% of nights monitored. Subjects with low CPAP adherence received beneficial effects on AHI, but not blood pressure. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  13. Mood and objective and subjective measures of sleep during late pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coo, Soledad; Milgrom, Jeannette; Trinder, John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between measures of objective sleep (OS) and subjective sleep (SS) to postpartum mood in healthy women from the third trimester of pregnancy to 10 to 12 weeks postpartum. Twenty-nine pregnant women completed self-report measures of mood and SS, and wore actigraphs for 7 continuous days during the third trimester (Time 1), within 15 days (Time 2), and 10 to 12 weeks postpartum (Time 3). The subjective perception of marked daytime dysfunction was associated with low mood during Time 1 and Time 3. Poor nighttime SS was related to low mood only at Time 2, whereas poor nighttime OS influenced stress during the same assessment time. These data indicate a stronger association between postpartum mood and the subjective perception of sleep than with OS quality and duration in healthy, non-depressed women, and highlight the awareness of poor daytime functioning as a significant contributor to new mothers' emotional wellbeing.

  14. Multidisciplinary intensive rehabilitation treatment improves sleep quality in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Maestri, Roberto; Ferrazzoli, Davide; Riboldazzi, Giulio; Bera, Rossana; Fontanesi, Cecilia; Rossi, Roger P; Pezzoli, Gianni; Ghilardi, Maria F

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are among the most common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), greatly interfering with daily activities and diminishing life quality. Pharmacological treatments have not been satisfactory because of side effects and interactions with anti-parkinsonian drugs. While studies have shown that regular exercise improves sleep quality in normal aging, there is no definitive evidence in PD. In a retrospective study, we determined whether an intense physical and multidisciplinary exercise program improves sleep quality in a large group of patients with PD. We analyzed the scores of PD Sleep Scale (PDSS), which was administered twice, 28 days apart, to two groups of patients with PD of comparable age, gender, disease duration and pharmacological treatment. The control group (49 patients) did not receive rehabilitation, The treated group (89 patients) underwent a 28-day multidisciplinary intensive rehabilitation program (three one-hour daily sessions comprising cardiovascular warm-up, relaxation, muscle-stretching, balance and gait training, occupational therapy to improve daily living activities). At enrolment, control and treated groups had similar UPDRS and PDSS scores. At re-test, 28 days later, UPDRS and total PDSS scores improved in the treated (p intensive rehabilitation treatment may have a positive impact on many aspects of sleep in PD.

  15. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Subjective assessment of facial aesthetics after maxillofacial orthognathic surgery for obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shofiq; Aleem, Fahd; Ormiston, Ian W

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the subjective perception of facial appearance by patients after maxillofacial surgery for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), and explored the possible correlation between satisfaction and surgical outcome. A total of 26 patients, 24 men and 2 women (mean (SD) age 45 (7) years), subjectively assessed their facial appearance before and after operation using a visual analogue scale (VAS). To investigate a possible association between postoperative facial appearance and surgical outcome, we analysed postoperative scores for the apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Postoperatively, 14 (54%) indicated that their facial appearance had improved, 4 (15%) recorded a neutral score, and 8 (31%) a lower score. The rating of facial appearance did not correlate with changes in the AHI or ESS following surgery. This study supports the view that most patients are satisfied with their appearance after maxillofacial orthognathic surgery for OSA. The subjective perception of facial aesthetics was independent of the surgical outcome. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The sleep, subjective fatigue, and sustained attention of commercial airline pilots during an international pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Renée M; Roach, Gregory D; Dawson, Drew; Lamond, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    International commercial airline pilots may experience heightened fatigue due to irregular sleep schedules, long duty days, night flying, and multiple time zone changes. Importantly, current commercial airline flight and duty time regulations are based on work/rest factors and not sleep/wake factors. Consequently, the primary aim of the current study was to investigate pilots' amount of sleep, subjective fatigue, and sustained attention before and after international flights. A secondary aim was to determine whether prior sleep and/or duty history predicted pilots' subjective fatigue and sustained attention during the international flights. Nineteen pilots (ten captains, nine first officers; mean age: 47.42+/-7.52 years) participated. Pilots wore wrist activity monitors and completed sleep and duty diaries during a return pattern from Australia to Europe via Asia. The pattern included four flights: Australia-Asia, Asia-Europe, Europe-Asia, and Asia-Australia. Before and after each flight, pilots completed a 5 min PalmPilot-based psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and self-rated their level of fatigue using the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Checklist. Separate repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine the impact of stage of flight and flight sector on the pilots' sleep in the prior 24 h, self-rated fatigue, and PVT mean response speed. Linear mixed model regression analyses were conducted to examine the impact of sleep in the prior 24 h, prior wake, duty length, and flight sector on pilots' self-rated fatigue and sustained attention before and after the international flights. A significant main effect of stage of flight was found for sleep in the prior 24 h, self-rated fatigue, and mean response speed (all p pilots should be taken into account in the development of flight and duty time regulations.

  18. Subjective cognitive decline in patients with migraine and its relationship with depression, anxiety, and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hwa; Kang, Yeonwook; Cho, Soo-Jin

    2017-12-01

    Cognitive decline is a major concern in patients with migraine. Depression, anxiety, and/or poor sleep quality are well-known comorbidities of migraine, but available evidence on the subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is limited. This study aimed to investigate the presence and frequency of SCD and its relationship with anxiety, depression and sleep quality in patients with migraine. We enrolled patients with migraine who scored within the normal range of the Korean-Mini Mental State Examination and the Korean-Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Using the Subjective Cognitive Decline Questionnaire (SCD-Q), participants with ≥7 were assigned to the SCD group. The Headache Impact Test-6, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used and analyzed between the two groups. A total of 188 patients with migraine, aged 38.1 ± 9.9 years, were enrolled. The mean SCD-Q score was 6.5 ± 5.5, and 44.7% of participants were identified as SCD. Migraineurs with SCD reported higher headache pain intensity and headache impact, as well as greater prevalence of anxiety, depression, reduced quality of sleep, and shorter sleep duration during weekdays compared to migraineurs without SCD. There were no significant differences in terms of age, sex, migraine type (chronic/episodic), medication, or sleep duration during weekends between the two groups. Upon multivariate logistic analysis adjusted for age, sex, headache characteristics, and psychological variables, depression was associated with increased risk of SCD (Odds ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.49) and sleep duration during weekdays was associated with decreased risk of SCD (Odds ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.44-0.97). A non-negligible number of patients with migraine complained of SCD. Depression and short sleep duration during weekdays were related to SCD among adult migraineurs.

  19. Moderate Exercise Plus Sleep Education Improves Self-Reported Sleep Quality, Daytime Mood, and Vitality in Adults with Chronic Sleep Complaints: A Waiting List-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gebhart, Carmen; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that physical exercise can contribute to better sleep quality. This study investigates the six-week influence of a combined intervention on self-rated sleep quality, daytime mood, and quality of life. A nonclinical sample of 114 adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining of sleep complaints participated in the study. The intervention group of 70 adults underwent moderate physical exercise, conducted weekly, plus sleep education sessions. Improvements among participa...

  20. Seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations and heart rates during sleep in obese subjects in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Maki; Kanikowska, Dominika; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sato, Motohiko; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2013-09-01

    During the past several decades, obesity has been increasing globally. In Japan, obesity is defined by a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or over; 28.6 % of men and 20.6 % of women are obese. Obese people have an increased incidence of developing cardiovascular, renal, and hormonal diseases and sleep disorders. Obese people also have shortened sleep durations. We investigated seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations, heart rates, and heart rate variability during sleep in obese subjects in Japan. Five obese (BMI, 32.0 ± 4.9 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23.2 ± 2.9 kg/m2) men participated in this study in the summer and winter. Electrocardiograms were measured continuously overnight in a climatic chamber at 26 °C with a relative humidity of 50 %. Saliva samples for melatonin were collected at 2300 hours, 0200 hours, and 0600 hours. We found that melatonin concentrations during sleep in obese subjects were significantly lower than those in non-obese subjects in the winter. Heart rate during sleep in winter was significantly higher than that in summer in both obese and non-obese subjects. Heart rate variability was not significantly different in the summer and winter in both obese and non-obese subjects. Our results show that decreased nocturnal melatonin concentrations during winter in obese men may be related to higher heart rates, and this may suggest that obese men are at an increased risk of a cardiovascular incident during sleep, especially in the winter.

  1. The efficacy of objective and subjective predictors of driving performance during sleep restriction and circadian misalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmadopoulos, Anastasi; Sargent, Charli; Zhou, Xuan; Darwent, David; Matthews, Raymond W; Dawson, Drew; Roach, Gregory D

    2017-02-01

    Fatigue is a significant contributor to motor-vehicle accidents and fatalities. Shift workers are particularly susceptible to fatigue-related risks as they are often sleep-restricted and required to commute around the clock. Simple assays of performance could provide useful indications of risk in fatigue management, but their effectiveness may be influenced by changes in their sensitivity to sleep loss across the day. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of several neurobehavioral and subjective tasks to sleep restriction (SR) at different circadian phases and their efficacy as predictors of performance during a simulated driving task. Thirty-two volunteers (M±SD; 22.8±2.9 years) were time-isolated for 13-days and participated in one of two 14-h forced desynchrony protocols with sleep opportunities equivalent to 8h/24h (control) or 4h/24h (SR). At regular intervals during wake periods, participants completed a simulated driving task, several neurobehavioral tasks, including the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), and subjective ratings, including a self-assessment measure of ability to perform. Scores transformed into standardized units relative to baseline were folded into circadian phase bins based on core body temperature. Sleep dose and circadian phase effect sizes were derived via mixed models analyses. Predictors of driving were identified with regressions. Performance was most sensitive to sleep restriction around the circadian nadir. The effects of sleep restriction around the circadian nadir were larger for simulated driving and neurobehavioral tasks than for subjective ratings. Tasks did not significantly predict driving performance during the control condition or around the acrophase during the SR condition. The PVT and self-assessed ability were the best predictors of simulated driving across circadian phases during SR. These results show that simple performance measures and self-monitoring explain a large proportion of the variance in

  2. Sleep-wake difficulties in community-dwelling cancer patients receiving palliative care: subjective and objective assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatchez, Marie Solange; Savard, Josée; Savard, Marie-Hélène; Aubin, Michèle; Ivers, Hans

    2017-09-21

    Prevalence rates of sleep difficulties in advanced cancer patients have varied widely across studies (12 to 96%), and none of these employed a diagnostic interview to distinguish different types of sleep-wake disorders. Moreover, very limited information is available on subjective and objective sleep parameters in this population. Our study was conducted in palliative cancer patients and aimed to assess rates of sleep-wake disorders and subsyndromal symptoms and to document subjective and objective sleep-wake parameters across various types of sleep-wake difficulties. The sample was composed of 51 community-dwelling cancer patients receiving palliative care and having an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score of 2 or 3. Relevant sections of the Duke Interview for Sleep Disorders were administered over the phone. An actigraphic recording and a daily sleep diary were completed for 7 consecutive days. Overall, 68.6% of the sample had at least one type of sleep-wake difficulty (disorder or symptoms): 31.4% had insomnia and 29.4% had hypersomnolence as their main sleep-wake problem. Participants with insomnia as their main sleep difficulty had greater disruptions of subjective sleep parameters, while objectively-assessed sleep was more disrupted in patients with hypersomnolence comorbid with another sleep-wake difficulty. Significance of the Results: The high rates of sleep-wake difficulties found in this study indicate a need to screen more systematically for sleep-wake disorders, including insomnia and hypersomnolence, in both palliative care research and clinical practice, and to develop effective nonpharmacological interventions specifically adapted to this population.

  3. Validation of the post sleep questionnaire for assessing subjects with restless legs syndrome: results from two double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharmal Murtuza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the subjective nature of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS symptoms and the impact of these symptoms on sleep, patient-reported outcomes (PROs play a prominent role as study endpoints in clinical trials investigating RLS treatments. The objective of this study was to validate a new measure, the Post Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ, to assess sleep dysfunction in subjects with moderate-to-severe RLS symptoms. Methods Pooled data were analyzed from two 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of gabapentin enacarbil (N = 540. At baseline and Week 12, subjects completed the PSQ and other validated health surveys: IRLS Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I, Profile of Mood States (POMS, Medical Outcomes Study Scale-Sleep (MOS-Sleep, and RLS-Quality of Life (RLSQoL. Pooled data were used post hoc to examine the convergent, divergent, known-group validity and the responsiveness of the PSQ. Results Convergent validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between baseline PSQ items and total scores of IRLS, POMS, RLSQoL, and the MOS-Sleep Scale (p ≤ 0.007 each. Divergent validity was demonstrated through the lack of significant correlations between PSQ items and demographic characteristics. Correlations (p Conclusions Although these analyses were potentially limited by the use of clinical trial data and not prospective data from a study conducted solely for validation purposes, the PSQ demonstrated robust psychometric properties and is a valid instrument for assessing sleep and sleep improvements in subjects with moderate-to-severe RLS symptoms. Trial Registration This study analyzed data from two registered trials, NCT00298623 and NCT00365352.

  4. The effect of sleep deprivation on pain perception in healthy subjects: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrimpf, Marlene; Liegl, Gregor; Boeckle, Markus; Leitner, Anton; Geisler, Peter; Pieh, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    There is strong evidence indicating an interaction between sleep and pain. However, the size of this effect, as well as the clinical relevance, is unclear. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effect of sleep deprivation on pain perception. A systematic literature search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane, Psyndex, Psycinfo, and Scopus. By conducting a random-effect model, the pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) of sleep deprivation on pain perception was calculated. Studies that investigated any kind of sleep deprivation in conjunction with a pain measurement were included. In cases of several pain measurements within a study, the average effect size of all measures was calculated. Five eligible studies (N = 190) for the between-group analysis and ten studies (N = 266) for the within-group analysis were identified. Sleep deprivation showed a medium effect in the between-group analysis (SMD = 0.62; CI95: 0.12, 1.12; z = 2.43; p = 0.015) and a large effect in the within-group analysis (SMD = 1.49; CI95: 0.82, 2.17; z = 4.35; p sleep deprivation on pain perception. As this meta-analysis is based on experimental studies in healthy subjects, the clinical relevance should be clarified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A new function of rapid eye movement sleep: improvement of muscular efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zi-Jian

    2015-05-15

    Previously I demonstrated that the slow wave sleep (SWS) functioned to adjust the emotional balance disrupted by emotional memories randomly accumulated during waking, while the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep played the opposite role. Many experimental results have unambiguously shown that various emotional memories are processed during REM sleep. In this article, it is attempted to combine this confirmed function of REM sleep with the atonic state unique to REM sleep, and to integrate a new theory suggesting that improvement of muscular efficiency be a new function of REM sleep. This new function of REM sleep is more advantageous than the function of REM sleep in emotional memories and disinhibited drives to account for the phylogenetic variations of REM sleep, especially the absence of REM sleep in dolphins and short duration of REM sleep in birds in contrary to that in humans and rodents, the absence of penile erections in REM sleep in armadillo, as well as the higher voltage in EEG during REM sleep in platypus and ostrich. Besides, this new function of REM sleep is also advantageous to explain the association of REM sleep with the atonic episodes in SWS, the absence of drastic menopausal change in duration of REM sleep, and the effects of ambient temperature on the duration of REM sleep. These comparative and experimental evidences support the improvement of muscular efficiency as a new and major function of REM sleep. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations of objectively and subjectively measured sleep quality with subsequent cognitive decline in older community-dwelling men: the MrOS sleep study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Terri; Yaffe, Kristine; Laffan, Alison; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Redline, Susan; Ensrud, Kristine E; Song, Yeonsu; Stone, Katie L

    2014-04-01

    To examine associations of objectively and subjectively measured sleep with subsequent cognitive decline. A population-based longitudinal study. Six centers in the United States. Participants were 2,822 cognitively intact community-dwelling older men (mean age 76.0 ± 5.3 y) followed over 3.4 ± 0.5 y. None. OBJECTIVELY MEASURED SLEEP PREDICTORS FROM WRIST ACTIGRAPHY: total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), wake after sleep onset (WASO), number of long wake episodes (LWEP). Self-reported sleep predictors: sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS]), TST. Clinically significant cognitive decline: five-point decline on the Modified Mini-Mental State examination (3MS), change score for the Trails B test time in the worse decile. Associations of sleep predictors and cognitive decline were examined with logistic regression and linear mixed models. After multivariable adjustment, higher levels of WASO and LWEP and lower SE were associated with an 1.4 to 1.5-fold increase in odds of clinically significant decline (odds ratio 95% confidence interval) Trails B test: SE sleep efficiency, greater nighttime wakefulness, greater number of long wake episodes, and poor self-reported sleep quality were associated with subsequent cognitive decline.

  7. Sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep measures: A population-based study of elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.F. van den; Miedema, H.M.E.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Hofman, A.; Neven, A.K.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate and explain sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep parameters in community-dwelling elderly persons. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-six

  8. Variability of respiratory mechanics during sleep in overweight and obese subjects with and without asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, L M; Owens, R L; Butler, J P; Suki, B; Malhotra, A

    2013-05-01

    Variability of respiration may provide information regarding disease states. We sought to characterize variability of ventilation and resistance in healthy and asthma, to determine how respiratory control may be altered in sleep and with bi-level positive airway pressure (BPAP). Overweight and obese subjects with and without asthma were studied during sleep at baseline and with BPAP, while measuring respiratory system resistance (Rrs) continuously. Stable periods (>20min) of wake, NREM, and REM sleep were identified and correlation metrics of respiratory parameters were calculated, including coefficient of variation (CV). Variability of Rrs was also characterized over short time scales (20 breaths) during sleep and defined as either "leading to arousal" or "not leading to arousal". Data from 10 control and 10 subjects with asthma were analyzed. CV of Rrs was decreased in asthma at baseline (p<0.001) and decreased on BPAP as compared to baseline (p<0.001). Long time scale correlations were found in respiratory parameters, but the degree of correlations was decreased from wake to sleep (p<0.05). The variance and CV of Rrs was increased preceding an arousal from sleep at baseline; however, during BPAP, the CV was decreased and was not increased preceding arousals. At baseline, resistance was greater in those with asthma, but variability was smaller. BPAP reduced both resistance and overall variability. We conclude that the BPAP-induced decrease in variability may indicate that those with asthma are more likely to remain in a low resistance state, and that low resistance variability may reduce arousals from sleep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of white noise on sleep in subjects exposed to ICU noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanchina, Michael L; Abu-Hijleh, Muhanned; Chaudhry, Bilal K; Carlisle, Carol C; Millman, Richard P

    2005-09-01

    There is disagreement in the literature about the importance of sleep disruption from intensive care unit (ICU) environmental noise. Previous reports have assumed that sleep disruption is produced by high-peak noise. This study aimed to determine whether peak noise or the change in noise level from baseline is more important in inducing sleep disruption. We hypothesized that white noise added to the environment would reduce arousals by reducing the magnitude of changing noise levels. Four subjects underwent polysomnography under three conditions: (1) baseline, (2) exposure to recorded ICU noise and (3) exposure to ICU noise and mixed-frequency white noise, while one additional subject completed the first two conditions. Baseline and peak noise levels were recorded for each arousal from sleep. A total of 1178 arousals were recorded during these studies. Compared to the baseline night (13.3+/-1.8 arousals/h) the arousal index increased during the noise (48.4+/-7.6) but not the white noise/ICU noise night (15.7+/-4.5) (Pnoise and white noise/ICU noise condition (17.7+/-0.4 versus 17.5+/-0.3 DB, P=0.65). Peak noise was not the main determinant of sleep disruption from ICU noise. Mixed frequency white noise increases arousal thresholds in normal individuals exposed to recorded ICU noise by reducing the difference between background noise and peak noise.

  10. Reduced sleep duration affects body composition, dietary intake and quality of life in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Lubrano, Carla; Gnessi, Lucio; Marocco, Chiara; Di Lazzaro, Luca; Polidoro, Giampaolo; Luisi, Federica; Merola, Gianluca; Mariani, Stefania; Migliaccio, Silvia; Lenzi, Andrea; Donini, Lorenzo M

    2016-09-01

    Sleep duration has emerged as a crucial factor affecting body weight and feeding behaviour. The aim of our study was to explore the relationship among sleep duration, body composition, dietary intake, and quality of life (QoL) in obese subjects. Body composition was assessed by DXA. "Sensewear Armband" was used to evaluate sleep duration. SF-36 questionnaire was used to evaluate quality of life (QoL). A 3-day dietary record was administered. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: sleep duration > and ≤300 min/day. 137 subjects (105 women and 32 men), age: 49.8 ± 12.4 years, BMI: 38.6 ± 6.7 kg/m(2), were enrolled. Sleep duration was ≤300 min in 30.6 % of subjects. Absolute and relative fat mass (FM) (40.5 ± 9 vs. 36.5 ± 9.1 kg; 40.2 ± 4.7 vs. 36.9 ± 5.6 %), and truncal fat mass (19.2 ± 6.1 vs. 16.6 ± 5 kg; 38.6 ± 5.3 vs. 35.2 ± 5.5 %) were higher in subjects sleeping ≤300 min when compared to their counterparts (all p BMI was observed (p = 0.077). Even though energy intake was not different between groups, subjects sleeping ≤300 min reported a higher carbohydrate consumption per day (51.8 ± 5.1 vs. 48.4 ± 9.2 %, p = 0.038). SF-36 total score was lower in subjects sleeping ≤300 min (34.2 ± 17.8 vs. 41.4 ± 12.9, p = 0.025). Sleep duration was negatively associated with FM (r = -0.25, p = 0.01) and SF-36 total score (r = -0.31, p sleep duration and SF-36 total score was confirmed by the regression analysis after adjustment for BMI and fat mass (R = 0.43, R (2) = 0.19, p = 0.012). Reduced sleep duration negatively influences body composition, macronutrient intake, and QoL in obese subjects.

  11. The effect of sleep restriction on laser evoked potentials, thermal sensory and pain thresholds and suprathreshold pain in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ødegård, Siv Steinsmo; Omland, Petter Moe; Nilsen, Kristian Bernhard; Stjern, Marit; Gravdahl, Gøril Bruvik; Sand, Trond

    2015-10-01

    Sleep restriction seems to change our experience of pain and reduce laser evoked potential (LEP) amplitudes. However, although LEP-habituation abnormalities have been described in painful conditions with comorbid sleep impairment, no study has previously measured the effect of sleep restriction on LEP-habituation, pain thresholds, and suprathreshold pain. Sixteen males and seventeen females (aged 18-31years) were randomly assigned to either two nights of delayed bedtime and four hours sleep (partial sleep deprivation) or nine hours sleep. The study subjects slept at home, and the sleep was measured with actigraphy both nights and polysomnography the last night. LEP, thermal thresholds and suprathreshold pain ratings were obtained the day before and the day after intervention. The investigator was blinded. ANOVA was used to evaluate the interaction between sleep restriction and day for each pain-related variable. LEP-amplitude decreased after sleep restriction (interaction p=0.02) compared to subjects randomized to nine hours sleep. LEP-habituation was similar in both groups. Thenar cold pain threshold decreased after sleep restriction (interaction p=0.009). Supra-threshold heat pain rating increased temporarily 10s after stimulus onset after sleep restriction (interaction p=0.01), while it did not change after nine hours sleep. Sleep restriction reduced the CNS response to pain, while some of the subjective pain measures indicated hyperalgesia. Since LEP-amplitude is known to reflect both CNS-pain-specific processing and cognitive attentive processing, our results suggest that hyperalgesia after sleep restriction might partly be caused by a reduction in cortical cognitive or perceptual mechanisms, rather than sensory amplification. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Can mental healthcare nurses improve sleep quality for inpatients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Niet, Gerrit; Tiemens, Bea; Hutschemaekers, Giel

    This article describes a pilot study that was carried out to in order to gain an indication as to whether mental healthcare nurses can apply evidence-based interventions for sleep problems effectively in inpatient mental health care. The study had a pre-test/post-test design and a comparison group was used. The study was performed on three psychiatric admission wards, located in three different towns in one province of The Netherlands. The participants were inpatients (18-60 years old) admitted owing to severe mental health problems like psychotic, mood or anxiety disorders. Of the newly admitted patients, 62.8% perceived having a sleep problem. Two brief, evidence-based interventions were introduced on two of the wards: the first with stimulus control (SC) as active component; the second with music-assisted relaxation (MAR). A third ward, with no interventions other than usual care, served as a point of comparison. Sleep quality was monitored using the Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire (RCSQ). The change score means of the treatment groups were compared with the mean score of the comparison group by means of a t-test. Estimates of effect were calculated. The results of this study showed that MAR produced a statistically significant improvement of sleep quality and showed a large effect size. The total RCSQ score did not improve significantly. SC failed to produce statistically significant improvement of sleep quality, nor of the RCSQ total score. This pilot study provided a strong indication that mental health nurses can apply MAR effectively. No such indication was found for stimulus control.

  13. Cocaine and Sleep: Early Abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Morgan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive cocaine use is associated with a profound dysregulation of sleep. Perhaps the result of chronic use, a significant deterioration in sleep is apparent over the first 3 weeks of abstinence, with no indication of recovery. Interestingly, the diminished sleep is not accompanied by subjective reports of poor or worsening sleep. Rather, subjective reports actually improve over abstinence, while sleep-related cognitive performance declines. A mechanistic understanding of the apparent difference in objective and subjective measures is currently lacking. Here we review the relevant literature on cocaine use and sleep, and discuss the possible relevance of this sleep disturbance in relationship to the underlying disorder and its treatment.

  14. Can a Brief Educational Intervention Improve Parents' Knowledge of Healthy Children's Sleep? A Pilot-Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Caroline H. D.; Owens, Judith A.; Pham, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Insufficient and poor quality sleep is prevalent in children, and is a significant public health concern due to the negative consequences for health. Certain sleep-related behaviours are associated with improved sleep, and sleep behaviours are amenable to efforts targeted towards behaviour change. Parental educational interventions have…

  15. Moderators and Mediators of Exercise-Induced Objective Sleep Improvements in Midlife and Older Adults with Sleep Complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Buman, Matthew P.; Hekler, Eric B.; Bliwise, Donald L.; King, Abby C.

    2011-01-01

    Regular exercise can improve sleep quality, but for whom and by what means this occurs remain unclear. We examined moderators and mediators of objective sleep improvements in a 12-month randomized controlled trial among initially underactive midlife and older adults reporting mild/moderate sleep complaints. Participants (N=66, 67% women, 55–79 years) were randomized to moderate-intensity exercise or health education control. Putative moderators were gender, age, and baseline physical function...

  16. Subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in late midlife and their association with age-related changes in cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waller, Katja Linda; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    ) or cognitively impaired (N = 92). METHODS: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale measured subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness, respectively. Depressive symptoms were determined using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II). A neuropsychological battery was administered....... Our results suggest that sleep quality may be an early marker of cognitive decline in midlife.......UNLABELLED: In an increasingly aged population, sleep disturbances and neurodegenerative disorders have become a major public health concern. Poor sleep quality and cognitive changes are complex health problems in aging populations that are likely to be associated with increased frailty, morbidity...

  17. Impaired objective and subjective sleep in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, Laura; Gerber, Markus; Furlano, Raoul I; Legeret, Corinne; Kalak, Nadeem; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-11-01

    Poor sleep and higher inflammation markers are associated, and impaired sleep quality is common among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, information on sleep among children and adolescents with IBD is currently lacking. The aims of the present study were to compare subjective and objective sleep of children and adolescents with IBD with healthy controls and to shed more light on the relationship between sleep and inflammation. We expected that poor sleep, as assessed via sleep electroencephalography recordings, would be observed among participants with IBD, but particularly among participants in an active state of disease. Furthermore, we expected that poor sleep and higher inflammatory markers would be associated. A total of 47 children and adolescents participated in the study; 23 were diagnosed with IBD (mean age: 13.88 years, 44% female). The IBD group was divided into a medically well adjusted "remission-group" (IBD-RE; n = 14) and a group with an "active state of disease" (IBD-AD; n = 8). Healthy controls (HC; n = 24) were age and gender matched. Participants completed self-rating questionnaires for subjective sleep disturbances. Anthropometric data, acute and chronic inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein [CRP] and erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]) and objective sleep were considered. Compared to HC and IBD-RE, IBD-AD patients showed impaired objective sleep patterns (eg, more awakenings, longer sleep latency, and reduced stage 3 sleep). Linear relationships described the correlation between higher ESR and more stage 4 (minutes, percentage) sleep. Nonlinear relationships described the relation between ESR and subjective sleep quality (inverse U-shaped) and between CRP and sleep latency (U-shaped). In children and adolescents with an active IBD, objective sleep was impaired and overall sleep quality and inflammation indices were associated in a complex manner. It seems advisable to include assessment of subjective sleep

  18. Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise improves sleep quality in men older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams Amir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present research was to investigate the effect of low and moderate intensity aerobic exercises on sleep quality in older adults. The statistical sample included 45 volunteer elderly men with age range of 60-70 years old that divided randomly in two experimental groups (aerobic exercise with low and moderate intensity and one control group. The maximum heart rate (MaxHR of subjects was obtained by subtracting one's age from 220. Furthermore, based on aerobic exercise type (40-50% MaxHR for low intensity group and 60-70% MaxHR for moderate intensity group the target MaxHR was calculated for each subject. The exercise protocol consisted of 8 weeks aerobic exercises (2 sessions in per-week based on Rockport one-mile walking/running test and the control group continued their daily activities. All subjects in per-test and post-test stages were completed the Petersburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Results in post-test stage showed that there were significant differences between control and experimental groups in sleep quality and its components (P<0.05. Also, the Tukey Post Hoc showed that the moderate intensity group scores in sleep quality and its components were better than other groups (P<0.05. Finally, the low intensity group scores were better than control group (P<0.05. Generally, the present research showed that the aerobic exercises with moderate intensity have a positive and significant effect on sleep quality and its components. Thus, based on these findings, the moderate intensity aerobic exercises as a useful and medical method for improve the sleep quality among community older adults was recommended.

  19. Subjective sleep quality and suggested immobilization test in restless leg syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi; Nanba, Kazuyoshi; Honda, Yutaka; Takahashi, Yasuro; Arai, Heii

    2002-06-01

    The severity of restless leg syndrome (RLS) and/or periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) was investigated by using a suggested immobilization test (SIT) and by measuring the influence of these disorders on the subjective sleep quality as assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Patients with RLS and those with both RLS and PLMD showed remarkably high values for PSQI and SIT, whereas patients with PLMD only showed normal values for PSQI. These findings suggest that there is only a small pathological significance for periodic limb movements, and demonstrate the efficacy of SIT and PSQI for evaluating the severity of these disorders.

  20. The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on objective and subjective sleep parameters in women with breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengacher, Cecile A; Reich, Richard R; Paterson, Carly L; Jim, Heather S; Ramesar, Sophia; Alinat, Carissa B; Budhrani, Pinky H; Farias, Jerrica R; Shelton, Melissa M; Moscoso, Manolete S; Park, Jong Y; Kip, Kevin E

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction for breast cancer survivors (MBSR(BC)) on multiple measures of objective and subjective sleep parameters among breast cancer survivors (BCS). Data were collected using a two-armed randomized controlled design among BCS enrolled in either a 6-week MBSR(BC) program or a usual care (UC) group with a 12-week follow-up. The present analysis is a subset of the larger parent trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01177124). Seventy-nine BCS participants (mean age 57 years), stages 0-III, were randomly assigned to either the formal (in-class) 6-week MBSR(BC) program or UC. Subjective sleep parameters (SSP) (i.e., sleep diaries and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) and objective sleep parameters (OSP) (i.e., actigraphy) were measured at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after completing the MBSR(BC) or UC program. Results showed indications of a positive effect of MBSR(BC) on OSP at 12 weeks on sleep efficiency (78.2% MBSR(BC) group versus 74.6% UC group, p = 0.04), percent of sleep time (81.0% MBSR(BC) group versus 77.4% UC group, p = 0.02), and less number waking bouts (93.5 in MBSR(BC) group versus 118.6 in the UC group, p < 0.01). Small nonsignificant improvements were found in SSP in the MBSR(BC) group from baseline to 6 weeks (PSQI total score, p = 0.09). No significant relationship was observed between minutes of MBSR(BC) practice and SSP or OSP. These data suggest that MBSR(BC) may be an efficacious treatment to improve objective and subjective sleep parameters in BCS. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Preventing Weight Gain Improves Sleep Quality Among Black Women: Results from a RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dori M; Christy, Jacob; Batch, Bryan C; Askew, Sandy; Moore, Reneé H; Parker, Portia; Bennett, Gary G

    2017-02-17

    Obesity and poor sleep are highly prevalent among Black women. We examined whether a weight gain prevention intervention improved sleep among Black women. We conducted a randomized trial comparing a 12-month weight gain prevention intervention that included self-monitoring through mobile technologies and phone coaching to usual care in community health centers. We measured sleep using the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale at baseline, 12 months, and 18 months. The scale examines quantity of sleep, sleep disturbance, sleep adequacy, daytime somnolence, snoring, shortness of breath, and global sleep problems (sleep problem indices I and II). Participants (n = 184) were on average 35.4 years and obese (BMI 30.2 kg/m2); 74% made sleep duration was 6.4 (1.5) hours. Controlling for weight change and sleep medication, the intervention group reported greater improvements in sleep disturbance [-8.35 (-16.24, -0.45)] and sleep problems at 12 months: sleep problem index I [-8.35 (-16.24, -0.45)]; sleep problem index II [-8.35 (-16.24, -0.45)]. However, these findings did not persist at 18 months. Preventing weight gain may afford clinical benefit on improving sleep quality. The trial was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov database (NCT00938535).

  2. Subjective Sleep Quality and hormonal modulation in long-term yoga practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Francisca M; Manzaneque, Juan M; Maldonado, Enrique F; Carranque, Gabriel A; Rodriguez, Francisco M; Blanca, Maria J; Morell, Miguel

    2009-07-01

    Yoga represents a fascinating mind-body approach, wherein body movements (asana), breathing exercises (pranayama) and meditation are integrated into a single multidimensional practice. Numerous beneficial mental and physical effects have been classically ascribed to this holistic ancient method. The purpose of the present study has been to examine the effects of long-term yoga practice on Subjective Sleep Quality (SSQ) and on several hormonal parameters of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Twenty-six subjects (16 experimental and 10 controls) were recruited to be part of the study. Experimental subjects were regular yoga practitioners with a minimum of 3 years of practice. Blood samples for the quantification of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) were drawn from all subjects. Likewise, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was employed to assess SSQ. As statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U-test was performed. The yoga group displayed lower PSQI scores and higher blood cortisol levels than control subjects. Therefore, it can be concluded that long-term yoga practice is associated with significant psycho-biological differences, including better sleep quality as well as a modulatory action on the levels of cortisol. These preliminary results suggest interesting clinical implications which should be further researched.

  3. Cortisol response and subjective sleep disturbance after low-frequency noise exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson Waye, K.; Agge, A.; Clow, A.; Hucklebridge, F.

    2004-10-01

    A previous experimental study showed that the cortisol response upon awakening was reduced following nights with low-frequency noise exposure. This study comprised a larger number of subjects and an extended period of acclimatisation nights. In total, 26 male subjects slept during five consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. Half of the subjects were exposed to low-frequency noise (40 dBA) on the 4th night and had their reference night (24 dBA) on the 5th night, while the reverse conditions were present for the other half of the group. Subjective sleep disturbances were recorded by questionnaires and cortisol response upon awakening was measured in saliva. The results showed that subjects were more tired and felt less socially orientated in the morning after nights with low-frequency noise. Mood was negatively affected in the evening after nights with low-frequency noise. No effect of noise condition was found on the cortisol secretion. There was a significant effect of group and weekday, indicating that further methodological developments are necessary before saliva cortisol secretion can be reliably used as an indicator of noise-disturbed sleep.

  4. EEG/EOG/EMG data from a cross sectional study on psychophysiological insomnia and normal sleep subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented here had been originally collected for a research project entitled ‘Sleep EEG spectral analysis in psychophysiological insomnia and normal sleep subjects’. This article describes the data of 11 subjects, referred to Sleep Disorders Research Center (SDRC in Kermanshah, Iran. The data includes 14 EEG, 6 EOG, and 3 EMG channels, with a sampling ratio of 256 Hz. It includes power spectral features in segments of 30 s for each channel, and nonlinear analysis parameter. Also, the complete demographic and polysomnography specifications are attached. Keywords: Sleep dataset, Psychophysiological, Insomnia, EEG

  5. Continuous positive airway pressure improves sleep and daytime sleepiness in patients with Parkinson disease and sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neikrug, Ariel B; Liu, Lianqi; Avanzino, Julie A; Maglione, Jeanne E; Natarajan, Loki; Bradley, Lenette; Maugeri, Alex; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Palmer, Barton W; Loredo, Jose S; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), common in Parkinson disease (PD), contributes to sleep disturbances and daytime sleepiness. We assessed the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on OSA, sleep, and daytime sleepiness in patients with PD. This was a randomized placebo-controlled, crossover design. Patients with PD and OSA were randomized into 6 w of therapeutic treatment or 3 w of placebo followed by 3 w of therapeutic treatment. Patients were evaluated by polysomnography (PSG) and multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) pretreatment (baseline), after 3 w, and after 6 w of CPAP treatment. Analyses included mixed models, paired analysis, and within-group analyses comparing 3 w to 6 w of treatment. Sleep laboratory. Thirty-eight patients with PD (mean age = 67.2 ± 9.2 y; 12 females). Continuous positive airway pressure. PSG OUTCOME MEASURES: sleep efficiency, %sleep stages (N1, N2, N3, R), arousal index, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and % time oxygen saturation sleep-onset latency (MSL). There were significant group-by-time interactions for AHI (P treatment of OSA, improvement in nighttime oxygenation, and in deepening sleep. The paired sample analyses revealed that 3 w of therapeutic treatment resulted in significant decreases in arousal index (t = 3.4, P = 0.002). All improvements after 3 w were maintained at 6 w. Finally, 3 w of therapeutic CPAP also resulted in overall decreases in daytime sleepiness (P = 0.011). Therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure versus placebo was effective in reducing apnea events, improving oxygen saturation, and deepening sleep in patients with Parkinson disease and obstructive sleep apnea. Additionally, arousal index was reduced and effects were maintained at 6 weeks. Finally, 3 weeks of continuous positive airway pressure treatment resulted in reduced daytime sleepiness measured by multiple sleep latency test. These results emphasize the importance of identifying and treating obstructive sleep apnea in patients with

  6. The Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR(BC)) on Objective and Subjective Sleep Parameters in Women with Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengacher, Cecile A.; Reich, Richard R.; Paterson, Carly L.; Jim, Heather S.; Ramesar, Sophia; Alinat, Carissa B.; Budhrani, Pinky H.; Farias, Jerrica R.; Shelton, Melissa M.; Moscoso, Manolete S.; Park, Jong Y.; Kip, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of MBSR(BC) on multiple measures of objective and subjective sleep parameters among breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods Data were collected using a two-armed randomized controlled design among BCS enrolled in either a six week MBSR(BC) program or a Usual Care (UC) group with a 12-week follow-up. The present analysis is a subset of the larger parent trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01177124). Seventy-nine BCS participants (mean age 57 years), stages 0-III, were randomly assigned to either the formal (in-class) six week MBSR(BC) program or UC. Subjective sleep parameters (SSP) (i.e., sleep diaries and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) and objective sleep parameters (OSP) (i.e., actigraphy) were measured at baseline, six weeks and 12 weeks after completing the MBSR(BC) or UC program. Results Results showed indications of a positive effect of MBSR(BC) on OSP at 12 weeks on sleep efficiency (78.2% MBSR(BC) group vs. 74.6% UC group, p=0.04), percent of sleep time (81.0% MBSR(BC) vs. 77.4% UC, p=0.02) and less number waking bouts (93.5 in MBSR(BC) vs. 118.6 in the UC group, pMBSR(BC) group from baseline to 6 weeks (PSQI total score, p=0.09). No significant relationship was observed between minutes of MBSR(BC) practice and SSP or OSP. Conclusions These data suggest that MBSR(BC) may be an efficacious treatment to improve objective and subjective sleep parameters in BCS. PMID:24943918

  7. Effects of artificial dawn on subjective ratings of sleep inertia and dim light melatonin onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Marina C; Hessels, Martijn; van de Werken, Maan; de Vries, Bonnie; Beersma, Domien G M; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    2010-07-01

    The timing of work and social requirements has a negative impact on performance and well-being of a significant proportion of the population in our modern society due to a phenomenon known as social jetlag. During workdays, in the early morning, late chronotypes, in particular, suffer from a combination of a nonoptimal circadian phase and sleep deprivation. Sleep inertia, a transient period of lowered arousal after awakening, therefore, becomes more severe. In the present home study, the authors tested whether the use of an alarm clock with artificial dawn could reduce complaints of sleep inertia in people having difficulties in waking up early. The authors also examined whether these improvements were accompanied by a shift in the melatonin rhythm. Two studies were performed: Study 1: three conditions (0, 50, and 250 lux) and Study 2: two conditions (0 lux and self-selected dawn-light intensity). Each condition lasted 2 weeks. In both studies, the use of the artificial dawn resulted in a significant reduction of sleep inertia complaints. However, no significant shift in the onset of melatonin was observed after 2 weeks of using the artificial dawn of 250 lux or 50 lux compared to the control condition. A multilevel analysis revealed that only the presence of the artificial dawn, rather than shift in the dim light melatonin onset or timing of sleep offset, is related to the observed reduction of sleep inertia complaints. Mechanisms other than shift of circadian rhythms are needed to explain the positive results on sleep inertia of waking up with a dawn signal.

  8. Clinical predictors of obesity hypoventilation syndrome in obese subjects with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingol, Zuleyha; Pıhtılı, Aylin; Cagatay, Penbe; Okumus, Gulfer; Kıyan, Esen

    2015-05-01

    Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is not a routine test in sleep laboratories due to its invasive nature. Therefore, the diagnosis of obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is underestimated. We aimed to evaluate the differences in subjects with OHS and pure obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and to determine clinical predictors of OHS in obese subjects. Demographics, body mass index (BMI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, polysomnographic data, ABG, spirometric measurements, and serum bicarbonate levels were recorded. Of 152 obese subjects with OSA (79 females/73 males, mean age of 50.3 ± 10.6 y, BMI of 40.1 ± 5.6 kg/m(2), 51.9% with severe OSA), 42.1% (n = 64) had OHS. Subjects with OHS had higher BMI (P = .02), neck circumference (P sleep time with S(pO2) sleep efficiency (P = .032), mean S(pO2) (P < .001), and nadir S(pO2) (P < .001). Serum bicarbonate levels and nadir S(pO2) were the only independent predictive factors for OHS. A serum bicarbonate level of ≥ 27 mmol/L as the cutoff gives a satisfactory discrimination for the diagnosis of OHS (sensitivity of 76.6%, specificity of 74.6%, positive predictive value of 54.5%, negative predictive value of 88.9%). A nadir S(pO2) of < 80% as the cutoff gives a satisfactory discrimination for the diagnosis of OHS (sensitivity of 82.8%, specificity of 54.5%, positive predictive value of 56.9%, negative predictive value of 81.4%). When we used a serum bicarbonate level of ≥ 27 mmol/L and/or a nadir S(pO2) of < 80% as a screening measure, only 3 of 64 subjects with OHS were missed. Serum bicarbonate level and nadir saturation were independent predictive factors for the diagnosis of OHS. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  9. No pain, no gain: an exploratory within-subjects mixed-methods evaluation of the patient experience of sleep restriction therapy (SRT) for insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Simon D; Morgan, Kevin; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Espie, Colin A

    2011-09-01

    To explore the patient experience of Sleep Restriction Therapy (SRT) for insomnia, with particular focus on elucidating possible side-effects, challenges to adherence and implementation and perceptions of benefit/impact. To fully investigate the patient experience of sleep restriction therapy for insomnia we designed a within-subjects mixed-method study, employing sleep and daytime functioning questionnaires, assessments of sleep-restriction-related side-effects, prospective qualitative audio-diaries and post-treatment semi-structured interviews. University of Glasgow Sleep Centre. Eighteen patients with Primary Insomnia (mean age=42; range 18-64). Patients took part in a 4-week brief sleep restriction intervention, involving two group sessions and two subsequent follow-up phone calls in the home environment. Sleep diaries and global measures of insomnia severity and sleep quality, as expected, demonstrated robust improvements at both post-treatment and 3-month follow-up (all large effect sizes). Daytime functioning/health-related quality of life variables similarly evidenced strong treatment effects (moderate to large effect sizes). Reported side-effects were common, with ≥50% of patients reporting impairment in 8 out of 12 listed symptoms as a consequence of initiating treatment. The four most common side-effects were 'fatigue/exhaustion' (100%), 'extreme sleepiness' (94%), 'reduced motivation/energy' (89%) and 'headache/migraine' (72%) [Mean number of symptoms per patient=7.2 (2.4); range 3-11]. Intriguingly, both side-effect frequency and ratings of side-effect interference were associated with baseline to post-treatment improvements in sleep quality. Qualitative real-time audio-diaries during week 1 of treatment and post-treatment interviews provided rich accounts of side-effects associated with acute SRT implementation; general challenges surrounding treatment implementation and adherence/non-adherence; and modifications to sleep parameters, daytime

  10. Sleep-related offline improvements in gross motor task performance occur under free recall requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eMalangre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal sleep effects on memory consolidation following gross motor sequence learning were examined using a complex arm movement task. This task required participants to produce non-regular spatial patterns in the horizontal plane by successively fitting a small peg into different target-holes on an electronic pegboard. The respective reaching movements typically differed in amplitude and direction. Targets were visualized prior to each transport movement on a computer screen. With this task we tested 18 subjects (22.6 +/- 1.9 years; 8 female using a between-subjects design. Participants initially learned a 10-element arm movement sequence either in the morning or in the evening. Performance was retested under free recall requirements 15 minutes post training, as well as 12 hrs and 24 hrs later. Thus each group was provided with one sleep-filled and one wake retention interval. Dependent variables were error rate (number of erroneous sequences and average sequence execution time (correct sequences only. Performance improved during acquisition. Error rate remained stable across retention. Sequence execution time (inverse to execution speed significantly decreased again during the sleep-filled retention intervals, but remained stable during the respective wake intervals. These results corroborate recent findings on sleep-related enhancement consolidation in ecological valid, complex gross motor tasks. At the same time they suggest this effect to be truly memory-based and independent from repeated access to extrinsic sequence information during retests.

  11. Circadian phase, dynamics of subjective sleepiness and sensitivity to blue light in young adults complaining of a delayed sleep schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moderie, Christophe; Van der Maren, Solenne; Dumont, Marie

    2017-06-01

    To assess factors that might contribute to a delayed sleep schedule in young adults with sub-clinical features of delayed sleep phase disorder. Two groups of 14 young adults (eight women) were compared: one group complaining of a delayed sleep schedule and a control group with an earlier bedtime and no complaint. For one week, each subject maintained a target bedtime reflecting their habitual sleep schedule. Subjects were then admitted to the laboratory for the assessment of circadian phase (dim light melatonin onset), subjective sleepiness, and non-visual light sensitivity. All measures were timed relative to each participant's target bedtime. Non-visual light sensitivity was evaluated using subjective sleepiness and salivary melatonin during 1.5-h exposure to blue light, starting one hour after target bedtime. Compared to control subjects, delayed subjects had a later circadian phase and a slower increase of subjective sleepiness in the late evening. There was no group difference in non-visual sensitivity to blue light, but we found a positive correlation between melatonin suppression and circadian phase within the delayed group. Our results suggest that a late circadian phase, a slow build-up of sleep need, and an increased circadian sensitivity to blue light contribute to the complaint of a delayed sleep schedule. These findings provide targets for strategies aiming to decreasing the severity of a sleep delay and the negative consequences on daytime functioning and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovery from Unrecognized Sleep Loss Accumulated in Daily Life Improved Mood Regulation via Prefrontal Suppression of Amygdala Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Motomura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many modern people suffer from sleep debt that has accumulated in everyday life but is not subjectively noticed [potential sleep debt (PSD]. Our hypothesis for this study was that resolution of PSD through sleep extension optimizes mood regulation by altering the functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Fifteen healthy male participants underwent an experiment consisting of a baseline (BL evaluation followed by two successive interventions, namely, a 9-day sleep extension followed by one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD. Tests performed before and after the interventions included a questionnaire on negative mood and neuroimaging with arterial spin labeling MRI for evaluating regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF and functional connectivity. Negative mood and amygdala rCBF were significantly reduced after sleep extension compared with BL. The amygdala had a significant negative functional connectivity with the medial prefrontal cortex (FCamg–MPFC, and this negative connectivity was greater after sleep extension than at BL. After TSD, these indices reverted to the same level as at BL. An additional path analysis with structural equation modeling showed that the FCamg–MPFC significantly explained the amygdala rCBF and that the amygdala rCBF significantly explained the negative mood. These findings suggest that the use of our sleep extension protocol normalized amygdala activity via negative amygdala–MPFC functional connectivity. The resolution of unnoticed PSD may improve mood by enhancing frontal suppression of hyperactivity in the amygdala caused by PSD accumulating in everyday life.

  13. Tiotropium Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler versus HandiHaler to improve sleeping oxygen saturation and sleep quality in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouloukaki, Izolde; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Mermigkis, Charalampos; Giannadaki, Katerina; Moniaki, Violeta; Mauroudi, Eleni; Michelakis, Stylianos; Schiza, Sophia E

    2016-05-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have poor sleep quality as a result of various alterations in oxygenation parameters and sleep macro- and micro-architecture. There is a shortage of data to support the efficacy of long-acting inhaled anticholinergic agents in improving these adverse effects, which are known to have a negative impact on clinical outcomes. We aimed to compare the tiotropium Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler and the HandiHaler in terms of their effects on sleeping oxygen saturation (SaO2) and sleep quality in patients with COPD. In a randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial involving 200 patients with mild to moderate COPD (resting arterial oxygen tension >60 mmHg while awake), we compared the effects of 6 months' treatment with the two devices on sleeping SaO2 and sleep quality. Overnight polysomnography and pulmonary function testing were performed at baseline and after 6 months' treatment. A total of 188 patients completed the trial. Both groups showed significant improvement in minimum sleep SaO2 and time of sleep spent with SaO2 below 90 (TST90) compared to baseline. The patients using the Respimat had significantly better TST90 than did those using the HandiHaler. Sleep disturbance was highly variable in these patients, but the sleep stage durations were significantly better in the Respimat group. Sleeping SaO2 can be improved by tiotropium delivered using either the HandiHaler device or the Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler. However, the patients who used the Respimat device had significantly better TST90 and sleep architecture parameters.

  14. Physical exercise performed before bedtime improves the sleep pattern of healthy young good sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flausino, Noler Heyden; Da Silva Prado, Juliana Martuscelli; de Queiroz, Sandra Souza; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the influence of different intensities and durations of exercise before bedtime on the sleep pattern and core body temperature of individuals considered good sleepers, we selected 17 healthy males and all underwent 5 nonconsecutive days of study. Measurements of polysomnographic parameters and core body temperature were taken at baseline and after each experimental protocol, performed at night. We found increased sleep efficiency (p = .016) among all protocols compared with baseline data and increase in REM sleep latency (p = .047) between two experiments; there was decrease in the percentage of stage 1 sleep (p = .046) and wake after sleep onset (p = .003). Core body temperature did not change significantly during the nights following exercise. Exercise performed before sleep does not impair sleep quality; rather, its practice improves sleep in good sleepers who are nonathletes, and may be considered to improve sleep pattern. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. Sleep of professional athletes: Underexploited potential to improve health and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomilehto, Henri; Vuorinen, Ville-Pekka; Penttilä, Elina; Kivimäki, Marko; Vuorenmaa, Markus; Venojärvi, Mika; Airaksinen, Olavi; Pihlajamäki, Jussi

    2017-04-01

    Sleep disorders have become increasingly prevalent affecting health and working ability. Restorative sleep may be considered important for athletes' successful recovery and performance. However, some athletes seem to experience major problems in sleeping. Thus far, there is limited scientific information about their sleep. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of sleep and the prevalence of sleep disorders as well as the impact of a structured sleep counselling protocol in professional athletes. A total of 107 professional ice hockey players participated in the study. The exploratory observational 1-year follow-up study consisted of questionnaire-based sleep assessment followed by general sleep counselling and, when needed, polysomnography and an individual treatment plan. One in every four players was found to have a significant problem in sleeping. All athletes considered sleep essential for their health and three in every four players considered that counselling would improve their performance. Counselling and individual treatment were found to improve significantly the quality of sleep with the mean alteration of 0.6 (95% CI 0.2-1.0, P = 0.004) in a scale from 0 to 10. Our results support that sleep problems are common in professional athletes. However, systematic examination, counselling and individual treatment planning can improve the quality of their sleep.

  16. Source-based subjective responses to sleep disturbance from transportation noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, O; Murphy, E

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that the use of subjective responses to questions concerning night-time environmental noise exposure is a robust method of assessing sleep disturbance from road traffic noise. However, there have only been a few studies exploring this issue in a real world context beyond controlled laboratory settings. This paper presents results from such a study. It utilises 208 household questionnaire surveys to assess subjective responses to levels of night-time sleep disturbance and annoyance from four different residential sites. Each residential site is characterised by a dominant noise source - road, light rail, and aircraft - and these sites are compared to a control site that is relatively free from transportation noise. The results demonstrate the inadequacy of continuous equivalent noise level measures as indicators of night-time disturbance. Furthermore, they suggest that the use of these measures alone is likely to result in inaccurate appraisals of night-time sleep disturbance from transportation noise. Ultimately, the research implies that measurement data should be used in conjunction with subjective response data to accurately gauge the level of night-time disturbance from transportation noise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exercise training improves sleep quality in middle-aged and older adults with sleep problems: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Yu; Ho, Ka-Hou; Chen, Hsi-Chung; Chien, Meng-Yueh

    2012-01-01

    Does an exercise training program improve the quality of sleep in middle-aged and older adults with sleep problems? Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. Adults aged over 40 years with sleep problems. A formal exercise training program consisting of either aerobic or resistance exercise. Self-reported sleep quality or polysomnography. Six trials were eligible for inclusion and provided data on 305 participants (241 female). Each of the studies examined an exercise training program that consisted of either moderate intensity aerobic exercise or high intensity resistance exercise. The duration of most of the training programs was between 10 and 16 weeks. All of the studies used the self-reported Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep quality. Compared to the control group, the participants who were randomised to an exercise program had a better global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score, with a standardised mean difference (SMD) of 0.47 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.86). The exercise group also had significantly reduced sleep latency (SMD 0.58, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.08), and medication use (SMD 0.44, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.74). However, the groups did not differ significantly in sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, or daytime functioning. Participation in an exercise training program has moderately positive effects on sleep quality in middle-aged and older adults. Physical exercise could be an alternative or complementary approach to existing therapies for sleep problems. Copyright © 2012 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrating Safe Sleep Practices into a Pediatric Hospital: Outcomes of a Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Angela D; Sisterhen, Laura L; Mallard, Ellen; Borecky, Betsy; Schmid, Barbara; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Luo, Chunqiao

    2016-01-01

    A quality improvement project for implementing safe sleep practices (SSP) was conducted at a large, U.S children's hospital. The intervention involved education of staff and standardization of infant sleep practices utilizing a multifaceted approach. Staff surveys and environmental audits were conducted pre- and post-intervention. Safe Sleep Environment (SSE) audits showed an improvement from 23% to 34% (phospital setting. Infant safe sleep practices have the potential to reduce infant mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of Subjective and Objective Sleep Duration as well as Sleep Quality with Non-Invasive Markers of Sub-Clinical Cardiovascular Disease (CVD): A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Ali, Shozab S.; Das, Sankalp; Younus, Adnan; Malik, Rehan; Latif, Muhammad A.; Humayun, Choudhry; Anugula, Dixitha; Abbas, Ghulam; Salami, Joseph; Elizondo, Javier Valero; Veledar, Emir

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Abnormal daily sleep duration and quality have been linked to hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and overall cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity & mortality. However, the relationship between daily sleep duration and quality with subclinical measures of CVD remain less well studied. This systematic review evaluated how daily sleep duration and quality affect burden of subclinical CVD in subjects free of symptomatic CVD. Methods: Literature search was done via MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science until June 2016 and 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Sleep duration and quality were measured either via subjective methods, as self-reported questionnaires or Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) or via objective methods, as actigraphy or polysomnography or by both. Among subclinical CVD measures, coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by electron beam computed tomography, Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound on carotid arteries, endothelial/microvascular function measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD) or peripheral arterial tone (PAT) or iontophoresis or nailfold capillaroscopy, and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) or ankle brachial index (ABI). Results: Subjective short sleep duration was associated with CAC and CIMT, but variably associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) and arterial stiffness; however, subjective long sleep duration was associated with CAC, CIMT and arterial stiffness, but variably associated with ED. Objective short sleep duration was positively associated with CIMT and variably with CAC but not associated with ED. Objective long sleep duration was variably associated with CAC and CIMT but not associated with ED. Poor subjective sleep quality was significantly associated with ED and arterial stiffness but variably associated with CAC and CIMT. Poor objective sleep quality was significantly associated with CIMT, and ED but variably associated with CAC. Conclusions

  20. Association of Subjective and Objective Sleep Duration as well as Sleep Quality with Non-Invasive Markers of Sub-Clinical Cardiovascular Disease (CVD): A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Ali, Shozab S; Das, Sankalp; Younus, Adnan; Malik, Rehan; Latif, Muhammad A; Humayun, Choudhry; Anugula, Dixitha; Abbas, Ghulam; Salami, Joseph; Elizondo, Javier Valero; Veledar, Emir; Nasir, Khurram

    2017-03-01

    Abnormal daily sleep duration and quality have been linked to hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and overall cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity& mortality. However, the relationship between daily sleep duration and quality with subclinical measures of CVD remains less well studied. This systematic review evaluated how daily sleep duration and quality affect burden of subclinical CVD in subjects free of symptomatic CVD. Literature search was done via MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science until June 2016 and 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Sleep duration and quality were measured either via subjective methods, as self-reported questionnaires or Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) or via objective methods, as actigraphy or polysomnography or by both. Among subclinical CVD measures, coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by electron beam computed tomography, Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound on carotid arteries, endothelial/microvascular function measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD) or peripheral arterial tone (PAT) or iontophoresis or nailfold capillaroscopy, and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) or ankle brachial index (ABI). Subjective short sleep duration was associated with CAC and CIMT, but variably associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) and arterial stiffness; however, subjective long sleep duration was associated with CAC, CIMT and arterial stiffness, but variably associated with ED. Objective short sleep duration was positively associated with CIMT and variably with CAC but not associated with ED. Objective long sleep duration was variably associated with CAC and CIMT but not associated with ED. Poor subjective sleep quality was significantly associated with ED and arterial stiffness but variably associated with CAC and CIMT. Poor objective sleep quality was significantly associated with CIMT, and ED but variably associated with CAC. Overall, our review provided mixed

  1. Patients previously treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas have disturbed sleep characteristics, circadian movement rhythm, and subjective sleep quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermasz, N. R.; Joustra, S. D.; Donga, E.; Pereira, A. M.; van Duinen, N.; van Dijk, M.; van der Klaauw, A. A.; Corssmit, E. P. M.; Lammers, G. J.; van Kralingen, K. W.; van Dijk, J. G.; Romijn, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Context and Objective: Fatigue and excessive sleepiness have been reported after treatment of nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMA). Because these complaints may be caused by disturbed nocturnal sleep, we evaluated objective sleep characteristics in patients treated for NFMA. Design: We

  2. Are inmates’ subjective sleep problems associated with borderline personality, psychopathy, and antisocial personality independent of depression and substance dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Laura; Duckworth, Rebecca; Thompson, Aaron; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June P.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research investigating the relationship between Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and sleep problems, independent of depression, has been conducted on small atypical samples with mixed results. This study extends the literature by utilizing a much larger sample and by statistically controlling for depression and substance dependence. Subjective reports of sleep problems were obtained from 513 jail inmates (70% male) incarcerated on felony charges. Symptoms of BPD were significantly associated with sleep problems even when controlling for depression. Thus, sleep problems associated with BPD cannot be attributed simply to co-morbid symptoms of depression and substance dependence was ruled out as proximal causes for this relationship. Symptoms of depression, but not Antisocial Personality features, were related to sleep problems independent of substance dependence. Treatment of individuals with BPD may be more effective if sleep problems are explicitly addressed in the treatment plan. PMID:20198127

  3. Leukocyte Expression of Type 1 and Type 2 Purinergic Receptors and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines during Total Sleep Deprivation and/or Sleep Extension in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Chennaoui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purinergic type P1 (adenosine A1 and A2A receptors and the type P2 (X7 receptor have been suggested to mediate physiological effects of adenosine and adenosine triphosphate on sleep. We aimed to determine gene expression of A1R (receptor, A2AR, and P2RX7 in leukocytes of healthy subjects during total sleep deprivation followed by sleep recovery. Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were also determined as they have been characterized as sleep regulatory substances, via P2RX7 activation. Blood sampling was performed on 14 young men (aged 31.9 ± 3.9 at baseline (B, after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24 h-SD, and after one night of sleep recovery (R. We compared gene expression levels after six nights of habitual (22.30–07.00 or extended (21.00–07.00 bedtimes. Using quantitative real-time PCR, the amount of mRNA for A1R, A2AR, P2RX7, TNF-α, and IL-1β was analyzed. After 24 h-SD compared to B, whatever prior sleep condition, a significant increase of A2AR expression was observed that returned to basal level after sleep recovery [day main effect, F(2, 26 = 10.8, p < 0.001]. In both sleep condition, a day main effect on P2RX7 mRNA was observed [F(2, 26 = 6.7, p = 0.005] with significant increases after R compared with 24 h-SD. TNF-α and IL-1β expressions were not significantly altered. Before 24 h-SD (baseline, the A2AR expression was negatively correlated with the latency of stage 3 sleep during the previous night, while that of the A1R positively. This was not observed after sleep recovery following 24 h-SD. This is the first study showing increased A2AR and not A1 gene expression after 24 h-SD in leukocytes of healthy subjects, and this even if bedtime was initially increased by 1.5 h per night for six nights. In conclusion, prolonged wakefulness induced an up-regulation of the A2A receptor gene expression in leukocytes from healthy subjects. Significant correlations between baseline expression of A1 and A2A

  4. Short and Long Sleep Duration and Risk of Drowsy Driving and the Role of Subjective Sleep Insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Querino; Grandner, Michael A.; Findley, James; Gurubhagavatula, Indira

    2013-01-01

    Experimental sleep restriction increases sleepiness and impairs driving performance. However, it is unclear whether short sleep duration in the general population is associated with drowsy driving. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether individuals in the general population who obtained sleep of 6 hours or less are more likely to report drowsy driving, and evaluate the role of perceived sleep sufficiency. Data exploring whether subgroups of short sleepers (those who report the ...

  5. Comparison of Subjective Sleep Quality of Long-Term Residents at Low and High Altitudes: SARAHA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi; Ulfberg, Jan; Allen, Richard P; Goel, Deepak

    2018-01-15

    To study the effect of altitude on subjective sleep quality in populations living at high and low altitudes after excluding cases of restless legs syndrome (RLS). This population-based study was conducted at three different altitudes (400 m, 1,900-2,000 m, and 3,200 m above sea level). All consenting subjects available from random stratified sampling in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions of India were included in the study (ages 18 to 84 years). Sleep quality and RLS status were assessed using validated translations of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Cambridge Hopkins RLS diagnostic questionnaire. Recent medical records were screened to gather data for medical morbidities. In the total sample of 1,689 participants included, 55.2% were women and average age of included subjects was 35.2 (± 10.9) years. In this sample, overall 18.4% reported poor quality of sleep (PSQI ≥ 5). Poor quality of sleep was reported more commonly at high altitude compared to low altitude (odds ratio [OR] = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.9-3.7; P quality of sleep were male sex, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and varicose veins. Binary logistic regression indicated that COPD (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.36-2.86; P quality of sleep. This study showed that poor quality of sleep was approximately twice as prevalent at high altitudes compared to low altitudes even after removing the potential confounders such as RLS and COPD.

  6. The impact of sleep duration and subject intelligence on declarative and motor memory performance: how much is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Matthew A; Fishbein, William

    2009-09-01

    Recent findings clearly demonstrate that daytime naps impart substantial memory benefits compared with equivalent periods of wakefulness. Using a declarative paired associates task and a procedural motor sequence task, this study examined the effect of two lengthier durations of nocturnal sleep [either a half night (3.5 h) or a full night (7.5 h) of sleep] on over-sleep changes in memory performance. We also assessed whether subject intelligence is associated with heightened task acquisition and, more importantly, whether greater intelligence translates to greater over-sleep declarative and procedural memory enhancement. Across both tasks, we demonstrate that postsleep performance gains are nearly equivalent, regardless of whether subjects obtain a half night or a full night of sleep. Remarkably, the over-sleep memory changes observed on both tasks are very similar to findings from studies examining performance following a daytime nap. Consistent with previous research, we also observed a strong positive correlation between amount of Stage 2 sleep and motor skill performance in the full-night sleep group. This finding contrasts with a highly significant correlation between spectral power in the spindle frequency band (12-15 Hz) and motor skill enhancement only in the half-night group, suggesting that sigma power and amount of Stage 2 sleep are both important for optimal motor memory processing. While subject intelligence correlated positively with acquisition and retest performance on both tasks, it did not correlate with over-sleep changes in performance on either task, suggesting that intelligence may not be a powerful modulator of sleep's effect on memory performance.

  7. Purging behaviors relate to impaired subjective sleep quality in female patients with anorexia nervosa: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Tokusei; Kawai, Keisuke; Tatsushima, Keita; Saeki, Chihiro; Wakabayashi, Kunie; Tamura, Naho; Ando, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    We examined how purging behaviors relate to subjective sleep quality and sleep patterns and how symptoms of disordered eating behaviors relate to global sleep quality in female patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Participants were new consecutive female inpatients with a primary diagnosis of AN admitted to the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine at Kohnodai Hospital between June 26 and December 25, 2015. We recorded patients' habitual eating behaviors, laxative overuse, or uretic misuse, and administered the Japanese versions of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-J) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Raw PSQI-J data were used to determine sleep patterns (sleep-onset time, wake-up time, and sleep duration). To examine how purging behaviors related to sleep quality, we compared variables between AN restricting type (ANr) and AN binge-eating/purging type (ANbp). Spearman's rank correlation analysis was used to examine which potential factors influence global PSQI-J score. Participants were 20 patients, of whom 12 had ANbp. Two ANr patients (25%) had global PSQI-J scores greater than 5, compared to 9 ANbp patients (75%; P < 0.05). Circadian rhythm disruption and abnormal sleep duration were significantly greater in ANbp patients than in ANr patients (P < 0.05). Global PSQI-J was significantly correlated with a diagnosis of ANbp (ρ = 0.525; P < 0.05), vomiting (ρ = 0.561; P < 0.05), and duration of illness (ρ = 0.536; P < 0.05). ANbp patients had worse global sleep quality and greater disrupted sleep than did ANr patients. This suggests that treatments focusing on sleep would be useful, especially for ANbp patients. Furthermore, vomiting and duration of illness should be considered essential factors related to impaired global sleep quality. Not applicable.

  8. Sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis of subjective and objective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel

    2009-09-01

    To perform a meta-analysis of subjective (i.e., based on questionnaires) and objective (i.e., using polysomnography or actigraphy) studies comparing sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus controls. We searched for subjective and objective sleep studies (1987-2008) in children with ADHD (diagnosed according to standardized criteria). Studies including subjects pharmacologically treated or with comorbid anxiety/depressive disorders were excluded. Sixteen studies, providing 9 subjective and 15 objective parameters and including a total pooled sample of 722 children with ADHD versus 638 controls, were retained. With regard to subjective items, the meta-analysis indicated that children with ADHD had significantly higher bedtime resistance (z = 6.94, p breathing (z = 2.05, p =.040), and daytime sleepiness (z = 1.96, p =.050) compared with the controls. As for objective parameters, sleep onset latency (on actigraphy), the number of stage shifts/hour sleep, and the apnea-hypopnea index were significantly higher in the children with ADHD compared with the controls (z = 3.44, p =.001; z = 2.43, p =.015; z = 3.47, p =.001, respectively). The children with ADHD also had significantly lower sleep efficiency on polysomnography (z = 2.26, p =.024), true sleep time on actigraphy (z = 2.85, p =.004), and average times to fall asleep for the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (z = 6.37, p children with ADHD are significantly more impaired than the controls in most of the subjective and some of the objective sleep measures. These results lay the groundwork for future evidence-based guidelines on the management of sleep disturbances in children with ADHD.

  9. The Impact of Nocturnal Hypoglycemia on Sleep in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Stender-Petersen, Kirstine; Rabøl, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes caused a decrease in awakening response in the 4-8-h period following the event. These findings underscore the risks associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia because nocturnal hypoglycemia potentially affects the patient's ability to wake up and respond......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to investigate the impact of nocturnal hypoglycemia on sleep patterns (assessed by polysomnography) and counterregulatory hormones. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this single-blinded, crossover trial, 26 subjects with type 2 diabetes attended two experimental...... night visits (one normoglycemic and one hypoglycemic) in randomized order. Plasma glucose (PG) levels were controlled by hyperinsulinemic glucose clamping. On the hypoglycemic night, hypoglycemia was induced after reaching sleep stage N2 by turning off glucose infusion until the PG target of 2...

  10. Is sleep education an effective tool for sleep improvement and minimizing metabolic disturbance and obesity in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Teresa; Taheri, Shahrad

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased significantly in recent years. Obesity is associated with a range of adverse physiological, psychological and social outcomes and places a huge economical burden on healthcare systems around the world. Insufficient sleep duration is common in adolescents and exacerbated by contemporary lifestyles, but may be a contributor to obesity onset and metabolic disruption. We briefly review the current evidence surrounding the associations between sleep and obesity as well as diabetes. Sleep improvement programs have been suggested as a potential avenue to raise awareness of the importance of sleep and ultimately enhance sleep behaviors/routines. A review of the current literature supporting the efficacy of such programs is tentative. Furthermore, very few studies have investigated if sleep enhancement has downstream positive effects on metabolic function or body weight in adolescents. We highlight biological and social factors that intensify sleep loss in adolescents and recommend that these be targeted components in future interventions aimed at improving adolescent sleep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aerobic exercise improves self-reported sleep and quality of life in older adults with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kathryn J; Baron, Kelly Glazer; Lu, Brandon; Naylor, Erik; Wolfe, Lisa; Zee, Phyllis C

    2010-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of moderate aerobic physical activity with sleep hygiene education to improve sleep, mood and quality of life in older adults with chronic insomnia. Seventeen sedentary adults aged >or=55 years with insomnia (mean age 61.6 [SD±4.3] years; 16 female) participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing 16 weeks of aerobic physical activity plus sleep hygiene to non-physical activity plus sleep hygiene. Eligibility included primary insomnia for at least 3 months, habitual sleep duration Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score >5. Outcomes included sleep quality, mood and quality of life questionnaires (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS], Short-form 36 [SF-36], Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]). The physical activity group improved in sleep quality on the global PSQI (psleep latency (p=.049), sleep duration (p=.04), daytime dysfunction (p=.027), and sleep efficiency (p=.036) PSQI sub-scores compared to the control group. The physical activity group also had reductions in depressive symptoms (p=.044), daytime sleepiness (p=.02) and improvements in vitality (p=.017) compared to baseline scores. Aerobic physical activity with sleep hygiene education is an effective treatment approach to improve sleep quality, mood and quality of life in older adults with chronic insomnia.

  12. Sex differences in objective measures of sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Anne; Metzler, Thomas J; Ruoff, Leslie M; Inslicht, Sabra S; Rao, Madhu; Talbot, Lisa S; Neylan, Thomas C

    2013-12-01

    A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for post-traumatic stress disorder and associated medical comorbid burden. Previous research indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with reduced slow wave sleep, which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep, which have been implicated in specific post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with age- and sex-matched control subjects. We used a cross-sectional, 2 × 2 design (post-traumatic stress disorder/control × female/male) involving83 medically healthy, non-medicated adults aged 19-39 years in the inpatient sleep laboratory. Visual electroencephalographic analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower slow wave sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 7.63, P = 0.007) and slow wave sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 6.11, P = 0.016). There was also a group × sex interaction effect for rapid eye movement sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 4.08, P = 0.047) and rapid eye movement sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 4.30, P = 0.041), explained by greater rapid eye movement sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder females compared to control females, a difference not seen in male subjects. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower energy in the delta spectrum (F(3,82)  = 6.79, P = 0.011) in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Slow wave sleep and delta findings were more pronounced in males. Removal of post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder, who had greater post-traumatic stress disorder severity, strengthened delta effects but reduced rapid eye movement effects to non-significance. These findings support previous evidence that post

  13. Correlation of salivary cortisol level with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in pediatric subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Soon; Guilleminault, Christian; Hwang, Se-Hwan; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Park, Dong-Sun; Maeng, Jae-Hwan

    2013-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with stress system activation involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. The relationships among salivary cortisol, a measure of the HPA axis, and objective parameters of polysomnography (PSG) and subjective sleep symptoms were examined. Our prospective study enrolled 80 children who had a physical examination, underwent overnight PSG, and completed the Korean version of the modified pediatric Epworth sleepiness scale (KMPESS) and OSA-18 (KOSA-18) questionnaires. Saliva was collected at night before PSG and in the early morning after PSG. Subjects (N=80) were divided into control (n=32, apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] or =1) groups; the OSAS group was subdivided into mild (1 or =5) groups. Although salivary cortisol before PSG (n-sCor) did not show a significant change with OSAS severity, salivary cortisol after PSG (m-sCor) significantly decreased with OSAS severity. This decrease resulted in a salivary cortisol ratio (r-sCor) that was significantly different between the control group and the two OSAS subgroups. The m-sCor and sub-sCor of the total group as well as the m-sCor, sub-sCor, and r-sCor of the OSAS group were negatively related to the oxygen desaturation index (ODI). The m-sCor and r-sCor in the OSAS group also were related to subjective sleep symptoms (quality of life [QOL] by KOSA-18). Among the four salivary cortisol parameters, r-sCor was negatively associated with OSAS severity, ODI, and QOL (KOSA-18), which may indicate a chronically stressed HPA axis. These results demonstrate that salivary cortisol may be a useful biomarker of OSAS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical activity, subjective sleep quality and time in bed do not vary by moon phase in German adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maia P; Standl, Marie; Schulz, Holger; Heinrich, Joachim

    2017-06-01

    Lunar periodicity in human biology and behaviour, particularly sleep, has been reported. However, estimated relationships vary in direction (more or less sleep with full moon) if they exist at all, and studies tend to be so small that there is potential for confounding by weekly or monthly cycles. Lunar variation in physical activity has been posited as a driver of this relationship, but is likewise not well studied. We explore the association between lunar cycle, sleep and physical activity in a population-based sample of 1411 Germans age 14-17 years (46% male). Physical activity (daily minutes moderate-to-vigorous activity) was objectively assessed by accelerometry for a total of 8832 days between 2011 and 2014. At the same time, time in bed (h) and subjective sleep quality (1-6) were diaried each morning. In models corrected for confounding, we found that lunar phase was not significantly associated with physical activity, subjective sleep quality or time in bed in either sex, regardless of season. Observed relationships varied randomly in direction between models, suggesting artefact. Thus, this large, objectively-measured and well-controlled population of adolescents displayed no lunar periodicity in objective physical activity, subjective sleep quality or time in bed. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Improving the quality of sleep with an optimal pillow: a randomized, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mi Yang; Jeong, HyeonCheol; Lee, SeungWon; Choi, Wonjae; Park, Jun Hyuck; Tak, Sa Jin; Choi, Dae Ho; Yim, Jongeun

    2014-07-01

    Because sleep comprises one-third of a person's life, using an optimal pillow for appropriate neck support to maintain cervical curve may contribute to improve quality of sleep. Design of orthopedic pillow conforms to orthopedic guidelines to ensure the right support of the cervical curve. The aim of this study was to investigate effect of different pillow shape and content on cervical curve, pillow temperature, and pillow comfort. A feather pillow is regarded as a standard pillow, and a memory foam pillow is one of the most popular pillows among pillow users. We, therefore, compared these two pillows with an orthopedic pillow. Twenty healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women; age range, 21-30 years) participated in the study. Each subject was asked to assume the supine position with 3 different pillows for 30 minute in each trial and then cervical curve, pillow temperature, and pillow comfort were measured. When comparing the cervical curve of the 3 different pillows, that of the orthopedic pillow was significantly higher than that of the other 2 pillows (p pillow than for the memory foam and feather pillows (p pillow comfort was significantly higher in orthopedic pillow than the other 2 pillows. This study shows that pillow shape and content plays a crucial role in cervical curve, pillow temperature, and pillow comfort and orthopedic pillow may be an optimal pillow for sleep quality.

  16. TodaysBaby Quality Improvement: Safe Sleep Teaching and Role Modeling in 8 US Maternity Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellams, Ann; Parker, Margaret G; Geller, Nicole L; Moon, Rachel Y; Colson, Eve R; Drake, Emily; Corwin, Michael J; McClain, Mary; Golden, W Christopher; Hauck, Fern R

    2017-11-01

    Nursing education and role modeling can increase adherence to safe sleep practices. Eight US hospital maternity units with variable baseline approaches to education participated in a national multicenter nursing quality improvement (QI) intervention to promote safe sleep practices. The goals at participating maternity units were to (1) increase the rate of mothers who reported receiving safe sleep information from nurses to ≥90% and (2) increase the rates of infants observed sleeping supine in a safe environment to ≥90%. A safe sleep QI toolkit, designed for and provided to all sites, included an educational curriculum and tools to use for staff and parent education. Local teams implemented safe sleep education using the tools as plan-do-study-act cycles. After each cycle, audits assessing maternal report of nursing education on safe sleep and inpatient infant sleep position and environment were performed. The QI interventions lasted a median of 160 days (range, 101-273). Mothers reported receiving information on 4 primary safe sleep topics 72% to 95% of the time (a 24%-57% increase over the baseline). Additionally, 93% of infants were observed in a supine sleep position, and 88% of infants were observed in a safe sleep environment (a 24% and 33% increase over baseline, respectively). These rates were sustained up to 12 months later. Implementation of a multisite QI intervention for safe sleep parenting education and role modeling led to increased knowledge of and compliance with safe sleep practices during postpartum hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Short and long sleep duration and risk of drowsy driving and the role of subjective sleep insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Querino; Grandner, Michael A; Findley, James; Gurubhagavatula, Indira

    2013-10-01

    Experimental sleep restriction increases sleepiness and impairs driving performance. However, it is unclear whether short sleep duration in the general population is associated with drowsy driving. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether individuals in the general population who obtained sleep of 6h or less are more likely to report drowsy driving, and evaluate the role of perceived sleep sufficiency. Data exploring whether subgroups of short sleepers (those who report the most or least unmet sleep need) show different risk profiles for drowsy driving are limited. From the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (N=31,522), we obtained the following self-reported data: (1) sleep duration (≤5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or ≥10 h/night); (2) number of days/week of perceived insufficient sleep; (3) among drivers, yes/no response to: "During the past 30 days, have you ever nodded off or fallen asleep, even just for a brief moment, while driving?" (4) demographics, physical/mental health. Using 7 h/night as reference, logistic regression analyses evaluated whether self-reported sleep duration was associated with drowsy driving. Overall, 3.6% reported drowsy driving. Self-identified short-sleepers reported drowsy driving more often, and long sleepers, less often. Among those who perceived sleep as always insufficient, drowsy driving was reported more often when sleep duration was ≤5 h, 6 h, or ≥10 h. Among those who perceived sleep as always sufficient, drowsy driving was reported more often among ≤5 h and 6h sleepers. Overall, drowsy driving was common, particularly in self-identified short-sleepers as a whole, as well as subgroups based on sleep insufficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interventions to Improve Safe Sleep Among Hospitalized Infants at Eight Children's Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Stephanie; Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Lukasiewicz, Gloria; Truong, Therese Macasiray

    2016-02-01

    Within hospital pediatric units, there is a lack of consistent application or modeling of the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for safe infant sleep. The purpose of this study was to improve safe sleep practices for infants in nonneonatal pediatric units with implementation of specific interventions. This multi-institutional study was conducted by using baseline observations collected for sleep location, position, and environment (collectively, "safe sleep") of infants admitted to pediatric units. Interventions consisted of: (1) staff education, including a commitment to promote safe sleep; (2) implementing site-generated safe sleep policies; (3) designating supply storage in patient rooms; and/or (4) caregiver education. Postintervention observations of safe sleep were collected. Eight hospitals participated from the Inpatient FOCUS Group of the Children's Hospital Association. Each site received institutional review board approval/exemption. Safe sleep was observed for 4.9% of 264 infants at baseline and 31.2% of 234 infants postintervention (Psleeping environment was reduced by >50% (P=.001). Implementation of site-specific interventions seems to improve overall safe sleep in inpatient pediatric units, although continued improvement is needed. Specifically, extra items are persistently left in the sleeping environment. Moving forward, hospitals should evaluate their compliance with American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations and embrace initiatives to improve modeling of safe sleep. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Objective and subjective assessment of sleep in chronic low back pain patients compared with healthy age and gender matched controls: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heneghan Conor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While approximately 70% of chronic low back pain (CLBP sufferers complain of sleep disturbance, current literature is based on self report measures which can be prone to bias and no objective data of sleep quality, based exclusively on CLBP are available. In accordance with the recommendations of The American Sleep Academy, when measuring sleep, both subjective and objective assessments should be considered as the two are only modestly correlated, suggesting that each modality assesses different aspects of an individual's sleep experience. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to expand previous research into sleep disturbance in CLBP by comparing objective and subjective sleep quality in participants with CLBP and healthy age and gender matched controls, to identify correlates of poor sleep and to test logistics and gather information prior to a larger study. Methods 15 CLBP participants (mean age = 43.8 years (SD = 11.5, 53% female and 15 healthy controls (mean age = 41.5 years (SD = 10.6, 53% female consented. All participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Diary and the SF36v2. CLBP participants also completed the Oswestry Disability Index. Sleep patterns were assessed over three consecutive nights using actigraphy. Total sleep time (TST, sleep efficiency (SE, sleep latency onset (SL and number of awakenings after sleep onset (WASO were derived. Statistical analysis was conducted using unrelated t-tests and Pearson's product moment correlation co-efficients. Results CLBP participants demonstrated significantly poorer overall sleep both objectively and subjectively. They demonstrated lower actigraphic SE (p = .002 and increased WASO (p = .027 but no significant differences were found in TST (p = .43 or SL (p = .97. Subjectively, they reported increased insomnia (p = Conclusion CLBP participants demonstrated poorer overall sleep, increased insomnia symptoms and

  20. Does the Treatment of Sleep Apnea Improve the Sexual Performance in Men with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome?

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    Cavit Ceylan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available        Aim: We aimed to investigate the eff ect of obstructive sleep apnea treatment on sexual performance in the case of obstructive sleep apnea in men with erectile dysfunction. Material and Methods: IIEF (international index of erectile function form was fi lled for 141 male patients who admitted with obstructive sleep apnea and with erectile dysfunction and investigated in polysomnography laboratory. All patients were examined at ENT (Ear Nose and Throat clinic. Patients in the treatment of surgery and CBAP (continuous positive airway pressure were evaluated according to the apnehipopne index (AHI. Preliminary report has been done at the 3. month aſt er the OSAS(Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome therapy for the 23 patients. IIEF form was fi lled again and symptom scoring has been updated for 23 patients who could be followed aſt er sleep apnea treatment. The age of these patients ranged from 26 to 65 years. Wilcoxon signed ranks, Kruskal Wallis, and Spearman’s rho tests were used to evaluate diff erences in IIEF scores before and aſt er the treatment. Results: Signifi cant improvement were confi rmed at IIEF scores of 23 patients with obstructive sleep apnea who could be followed and treated statistically (p0.05. Discussion: Sexual performance may decline in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a signifi cant improvement was detected on sexual performance with apnea treatment in this group of patients.

  1. Dose–response effects of exercise training on the subjective sleep quality of postmenopausal women: exploratory analyses of a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xuemei; Hall, Martica H; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Blair, Steven N; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether a dose–response relationship existed between exercise and subjective sleep quality in postmenopausal women. This objective represents a post hoc assessment that was not previously considered. Design Parallel-group randomised controlled trial. Setting Clinical exercise physiology laboratory in Dallas, Texas. Participants 437 sedentary overweight/obese postmenopausal women. Intervention Participants were randomised to one of four treatments, each of 6 months of duration: a non-exercise control treatment (n=92) or one of three dosages of moderate-intensity exercise (50% of VO2peak), designed to meet 50% (n=151), 100% (n=99) or 150% (n=95) of the National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Panel physical activity recommendations. Exercise dosages were structured to elicit energy expenditures of 4, 8 or 12 kilocalories per kilogram of body weight per week (KKW), respectively. Analyses were intent to treat. Primary outcome measures Continuous scores and odds of having significant sleep disturbance, as assessed by the Sleep Problems Index from the 6-item Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale. Outcome assessors were blinded to participant randomisation assignment. Results Change in the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Problems Index score at 6 months significantly differed by treatment group (control: −2.09 (95% CI −4.58 to 0.40), 4 KKW: −3.93 (−5.87 to −1.99), 8 KKW: −4.06 (−6.45 to −1.67), 12 KKW: −6.22 (−8.68 to −3.77); p=0.04), with a significant dose–response trend observed (p=0.02). Exercise training participants had lower odds of having significant sleep disturbance at postintervention compared with control (4 KKW: OR 0.37 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.73), 8 KKW: 0.36 (0.17 to 0.77), 12 KKW: 0.34 (0.16 to 0.72)). The magnitude of weight loss did not differ between treatment conditions. Improvements in sleep quality were not related to changes in body weight, resting parasympathetic control or cardiorespiratory

  2. Influence of food restriction on lipid profile and spontaneous glucose levels in male rats subjected to paradoxical sleep deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Aparecida Alvarenga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the paired consequences of food restriction and paradoxical sleep deprivation on lipid profile and spontaneous glucose levels in male rats. METHOD: Food restriction began at weaning, with 6 g of food being provided per day, which was subsequently increased by 1 g per week until reaching 15 g per day by the eighth week. At adulthood, both rats subjected to food restriction and those fed ad libitum were exposed to paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 h or were maintained in their home-cage groups. RESULTS: Animals subjected to food restriction exhibited a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein levels compared to animals that were given free access to food. After the paradoxical sleep deprivation period, the foodrestricted animals demonstrated reduced concentrations of high-density lipoprotein relative to their respective controls, although the values for the food-restricted animals after sleep deprivation were still higher than those for the ad libitum group. The concentration of low-density lipoproteins was significantly increased in sleep-deprived animals fed the ad libitum diet. The levels of triglycerides, very low-density lipoproteins, and glucose in foodrestricted animals were each decreased compared to both ad libitum groups. CONCLUSION: These results may help to illustrate the mechanisms underlying the relationship between sleep curtailment and metabolism and may suggest that, regardless of sleep deprivation, dietary restriction can minimize alterations in parameters related to cardiovascular risk.

  3. Effect of controlled-release melatonin on sleep quality, mood, and quality of life in subjects with seasonal or weather-associated changes in mood and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppämäki, Sami; Partonen, Timo; Vakkuri, Olli; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partinen, Markku; Laudon, Moshe

    2003-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of melatonin on sleep, waking up and well being in subjects with varying degrees of seasonal or weather-associated changes in mood and behaviour. Fifty-eight healthy adults exhibiting subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder (s-SAD) and/or the negative or positive type of weather-associated syndrome (WAS) were randomised to either 2 mg of sustained-release melatonin or placebo tablets 1-2 h before a desired bedtime for 3 weeks. Outcome measures were changes from baseline in sleep quality, sleepiness after waking, atypical depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life by week three. Early morning salivary melatonin concentrations were measured at baseline and treatment cessation in all subjects. Melatonin administration significantly improved the quality of sleep (P=0.03) and vitality (P=0.02) in the subjects with s-SAD, but attenuated the improvement of atypical symptoms and physical parameters of quality of life compared to placebo in the subjects with WAS, positive type.

  4. A dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep: a randomized placebo controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Claustrat Bruno; Roy Pascal; Feugier-Favier Nathalie; Nicolas Alain; Noel-Baron Florence; Remontet Laurent; Cornu Catherine; Saadatian-Elahi Mitra; Kassaï Behrouz

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, in association with Humulus lupulus extract, on the quality of sleep using the Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ) in subjects with moderate to severe sleep disorders. Methods Randomized placebo-controlled trial, in a Population-based setting. Participants were adult patients 25 to 65 years old with a chronic primary insomnia who volunteered for the study. The tested intervention...

  5. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted ...

  6. Improved Mental Acuity Forecasting with an Individualized Quantitative Sleep Model

    OpenAIRE

    Winslow, Brent D.; Nam Nguyen; Venta, Kimberly E.

    2017-01-01

    Sleep impairment significantly alters human brain structure and cognitive function, but available evidence suggests that adults in developed nations are sleeping less. A growing body of research has sought to use sleep to forecast cognitive performance by modeling the relationship between the two, but has generally focused on vigilance rather than other cognitive constructs affected by sleep, such as reaction time, executive function, and working memory. Previous modeling efforts have also ut...

  7. Self-relaxation training can improve sleep quality and cognitive functions in the older: a one-year randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingxian; Kang, Jiaxun; Wang, Ping; Zeng, Hui

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of self-relaxation training on sleep quality and cognitive functions in the older. Ageing causes declines in sleep quality and cognitive functions in older adults, and decreased sleep quality also accelerates declines in cognitive functions. Therefore, it is necessary to find cost-effective interventions to enhance sleep quality in the older, thereby improving their cognitive functions or delaying cognitive decline. Randomised controlled study. The study was conducted between July 2010 and June 2011 at Wangyuehu Community in Changsha, China. Eighty older adults with reduced sleep quality were selected and randomly assigned to experimental (n = 40) or control (n = 40) group. Subjects in the experimental group received self-relaxation training including progressive muscle relaxation and meditation based on sleep hygiene education, while the control group received sleep hygiene education only. Sleep quality and cognitive functions of the two groups were measured prior to training and at the end of the 3rd, 6th and 12th months using four reliable and valid questionnaires. Repeated measures anova revealed that the self-relaxation training had significant main effect as well as interaction effect with time on sleep quality and cognitive functions. Except for scores of Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination and number memory, time had significant main effect on scores of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, picture memory, associative memory and understanding memory. Self-relaxation training can improve sleep quality and cognitive functions in the older. Self-relaxation training is a non-invasive, simple and inexpensive therapeutic method of improving sleep quality and cognitive functions in community-dwelling older people. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Lack of perceived sleep improvement after 4-month structured exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, Steriani; McAuley, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Many middle-aged women experience decreases in their sleep quality during the menopausal transition. Physical activity has been shown to improve sleep, but few randomized, controlled trials investigating such effects in this population exist. In 164 previously low-active middle-aged women (mean age = 49.9, SD = 3.6), using a 4-month randomized, controlled trial, we examined structured exercise in the form of walking or yoga to determine the effects on perceived sleep quality. Participants completed body composition and fitness assessments and a battery of psychological measures, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, at the beginning and end of a 4-month randomized, controlled exercise trial with three arms: walking, yoga, and control. A series of mixed-model repeated-measures univariate analyses of covariance did not reveal any statistically significant intervention effects for total sleep quality or any individual sleep-quality domain. The pattern of effect sizes indicated that the walking group tended to experience small improvements in five of the seven assessed sleep-quality domains. Residual changes in menopausal symptoms and depression were associated with residual changes in total sleep quality. However, after controlling for the effects of physical activity, only menopausal symptoms contributed a unique amount of variance in residual change in total sleep quality. In this study, 4-month moderate-intensity walking and low-intensity yoga programs were ineffective in yielding statistically significant improvements in sleep quality. Exercise interventions of longer durations or greater intensity may be needed for such improvements.

  9. Does Subjective Sleep Affect Bone Mineral Density in Older People with Minimal Health Disorders? The PROOF Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Martin, Magali; Labeix, Pierre; Garet, Martin; Thomas, Thierry; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Collet, Philippe; Roche, Frédéric; Sforza, Emilia

    2016-11-15

    Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest a relation between bone mineral density (BMD) and self-assessment of sleep with an effect on bone formation and osteoporosis (OS) risk in short and long sleepers. This study explores this association in a large sample of older subjects. We examined 500 participants without insomnia complaints aged 65.7 ± 0.8 y. Each participant had a full evaluation including anthropometric measurement, clinical examination and measurements of BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral sites by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The daily energy expenditure (DEE) was measured by the Population Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sleep duration and quality were evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The subjects were stratified into three groups according to sleep duration, i.e., short (sleep was the best predictor of OS risk at the femoral level. This finding suggests an association between OS and self-reported sleep duration in older subjects. NCT 00759304 and NCT 00766584.

  10. Effects of Sleep Disruption and High Fat Intake on Glucose Metabolism in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Jacqueline M.; Barf, R. Paulien; Opp, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Poor sleep quality or quantity impairs glycemic control and increases risk of disease under chronic conditions. Recovery sleep may offset adverse metabolic outcomes of accumulated sleep debt, but the extent to which this occurs is unclear. We examined whether recovery sleep improves glucose metabolism in mice subjected to prolonged sleep disruption, and whether high-fat intake during sleep disruption exacerbates glycemic control. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 18-h sleep fragmenta...

  11. A novel sleep optimisation programme to improve athletes' well-being and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryswyk, Emer; Weeks, Richard; Bandick, Laura; O'Keefe, Michaela; Vakulin, Andrew; Catcheside, Peter; Barger, Laura; Potter, Andrew; Poulos, Nick; Wallace, Jarryd; Antic, Nick A

    2017-03-01

    To improve well-being and performance indicators in a group of Australian Football League (AFL) players via a six-week sleep optimisation programme. Prospective intervention study following observations suggestive of reduced sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness in an AFL group. Athletes from the Adelaide Football Club were invited to participate if they had played AFL senior-level football for 1-5 years, or if they had excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] >10), measured via ESS. An initial education session explained normal sleep needs, and how to achieve increased sleep duration and quality. Participants (n = 25) received ongoing feedback on their sleep, and a mid-programme education and feedback session. Sleep duration, quality and related outcomes were measured during week one and at the conclusion of the six-week intervention period using sleep diaries, actigraphy, ESS, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Profile of Mood States, Training Distress Scale, Perceived Stress Scale and the Psychomotor Vigilance Task. Sleep diaries demonstrated an increase in total sleep time of approximately 20 min (498.8 ± 53.8 to 518.7 ± 34.3; p optimisation programme may improve athletes' well-being. More research is required into the effects of sleep optimisation on athletic performance.

  12. Sawtooth waves during REM sleep after administration of haloperidol combined with total sleep deprivation in healthy young subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Pinto Jr.

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available We sought to examine the possible participation of dopaminergic receptors in the phasic events that occur during rapid eye movement (REM sleep, known as sawtooth waves (STW. These phasic phenomena of REM sleep exhibit a unique morphology and, although they represent a characteristic feature of REM sleep, little is known about the mechanisms which generate them and which are apparently different from rapid eye movements. STW behavior was studied in 10 male volunteers aged 20 to 35 years, who were submitted to polysomnographic monitoring (PSG. On the adaptation night they were submitted to the first PSG and on the second night, to the basal PSG. On the third night the volunteers received placebo or haloperidol and spent the whole night awake. On the fourth night they were submitted to the third PSG. After a 15-day rest period, the volunteers returned to the sleep laboratory and, according to a double-blind crossover randomized design, received haloperidol or placebo and spent the whole night awake, after which they were submitted to the fourth PSG. The volunteers who were given haloperidol combined with sleep deprivation exhibited an elevation of the duration and density of the STW, without significant alterations of the other REM sleep phasic phenomena such as rapid eye movement. These findings suggest that sawtooth waves must have their own generating mechanisms and that the dopaminergic receptors must exert a modulating role since REM sleep deprivation, as well as administration of neuroleptics, produces supersensitivity of dopaminergic receptors.

  13. Aberrant brain-stem morphometry associated with sleep disturbance in drug-naïve subjects with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ji Han Lee,1 Won Sang Jung,2 Woo Hee Choi,3 Hyun Kook Lim4 1Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA; 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, 4Department of Psychiatry, Saint Vincent Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, South Korea Objective: Among patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, sleep disturbances are common and serious noncognitive symptoms. Previous studies of AD patients have identified deformations in the brain stem, which may play an important role in the regulation of sleep. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relationship between sleep disturbances and alterations in brain stem morphology in AD.Materials and methods: In 44 patients with AD and 40 healthy elderly controls, sleep disturbances were measured using the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep subscale. We employed magnetic resonance imaging-based automated segmentation tools to examine the relationship between sleep disturbances and changes in brain stem morphology.Results: Analyses of the data from AD subjects revealed significant correlations between the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep-subscale scores and structural alterations in the left posterior lateral region of the brain stem, as well as normalized brain stem volumes. In addition, significant group differences in posterior brain stem morphology were observed between the AD group and the control group.Conclusion: This study is the first to analyze an association between sleep disturbances and brain stem morphology in AD. In line with previous findings, this study lends support to the possibility that brain stem structural abnormalities might be important neurobiological mechanisms underlying sleep disturbances associated with AD. Further longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, sleep, brain stem, MRI, shape analysis

  14. Cellular aging and restorative processes: subjective sleep quality and duration moderate the association between age and telomere length in a sample of middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbet, Matthew R; Carlisle, McKenzie; Cawthon, Richard M; Uchino, Bert N; Williams, Paula G; Smith, Timothy W; Gunn, Heather E; Light, Kathleen C

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether subjective sleep quality and sleep duration moderate the association between age and telomere length (TL). Participants completed a demographic and sleep quality questionnaire, followed by a blood draw. Social Neuroscience Laboratory. One hundred fifty-four middle-aged to older adults (age 45-77 y) participated. Participants were excluded if they were on immunosuppressive treatment and/or had a disease with a clear immunologic (e.g., cancer) component. N/A. Subjective sleep quality and sleep duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and TL was determined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). There was a significant first-order negative association between age and TL. Age was also negatively associated with the self-reported sleep quality item and sleep duration component of the PSQI. A significant age × self-reported sleep quality interaction revealed that age was more strongly related to TL among poor sleepers, and that good sleep quality attenuated the association between age and TL. Moreover, adequate subjective sleep duration among older adults (i.e. greater than 7 h per night) was associated with TL comparable to that in middle-aged adults, whereas sleep duration was unrelated to TL for the middle-aged adults in our study. The current study provides evidence for an association between sleep quality, sleep duration, and cellular aging. Among older adults, better subjective sleep quality was associated with the extent of cellular aging, suggesting that sleep duration and sleep quality may be added to a growing list of modifiable behaviors associated with the adverse effects of aging.

  15. Mindfulness meditation and improvement in sleep quality and daytime impairment among older adults with sleep disturbances: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David S; O'Reilly, Gillian A; Olmstead, Richard; Breen, Elizabeth C; Irwin, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    Sleep disturbances are most prevalent among older adults and often go untreated. Treatment options for sleep disturbances remain limited, and there is a need for community-accessible programs that can improve sleep. To determine the efficacy of a mind-body medicine intervention, called mindfulness meditation, to promote sleep quality in older adults with moderate sleep disturbances. Randomized clinical trial with 2 parallel groups conducted from January 1 to December 31, 2012, at a medical research center among an older adult sample (mean [SD] age, 66.3 [7.4] years) with moderate sleep disturbances (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] >5). A standardized mindful awareness practices (MAPs) intervention (n = 24) or a sleep hygiene education (SHE) intervention (n = 25) was randomized to participants, who received a 6-week intervention (2 hours per week) with assigned homework. The study was powered to detect between-group differences in moderate sleep disturbance measured via the PSQI at postintervention. Secondary outcomes pertained to sleep-related daytime impairment and included validated measures of insomnia symptoms, depression, anxiety, stress, and fatigue, as well as inflammatory signaling via nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Using an intent-to-treat analysis, participants in the MAPs group showed significant improvement relative to those in the SHE group on the PSQI. With the MAPs intervention, the mean (SD) PSQIs were 10.2 (1.7) at baseline and 7.4 (1.9) at postintervention. With the SHE intervention, the mean (SD) PSQIs were 10.2 (1.8) at baseline and 9.1 (2.0) at postintervention. The between-group mean difference was 1.8 (95% CI, 0.6-2.9), with an effect size of 0.89. The MAPs group showed significant improvement relative to the SHE group on secondary health outcomes of insomnia symptoms, depression symptoms, fatigue interference, and fatigue severity (P anxiety, stress, or NF-κB, although NF-κB concentrations significantly declined over time in both groups (P

  16. Brief Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Adolescents: An Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, E Juulia; Huurre, Taina; Tilli, Maija; Kiviruusu, Olli; Partonen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among adolescents, but there are no brief interventions to treat them. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief semistructured, individually delivered sleep intervention to ameliorate adolescents' sleeping difficulties and lengthen sleep duration. All students aged 16-18 years in a high school were screened for sleeping difficulties and 36 students with the highest sleep problem scores were invited to the intervention. Postintervention improvements were observed on self-reported and actiwatch-registered sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality and sleep latency, perceived stress and anxiety (all p values sleep efficiency and sleep latency did not change (p > 0.05). A brief individual sleep intervention can be effective in lengthening sleep duration and improving subjective sleep quality and well-being among adolescents.

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Doxepin 1 mg and 3 mg in a 12-week Sleep Laboratory and Outpatient Trial of Elderly Subjects with Chronic Primary Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystal, Andrew D; Durrence, H Heith; Scharf, Martin; Jochelson, Philip; Rogowski, Roberta; Ludington, Elizabeth; Roth, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    to evaluate the efficacy and safety of doxepin 1 mg and 3 mg in elderly subjects with chronic primary insomnia. the study was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for primary insomnia were randomized to 12 weeks of nightly treatment with doxepin (DXP) 1 mg (n = 77) or 3 mg (n = 82), or placebo (PBO; n = 81). Efficacy was assessed using polysomnography (PSG), patient reports, and clinician ratings. Objective efficacy data are reported for Nights (N) 1, 29, and 85; subjective efficacy data during Weeks 1, 4, and 12; and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale and Patient Global Impression (PGI) scale data after Weeks 2, 4, and 12 of treatment. Safety assessments were conducted throughout the study. DXP 3 mg led to significant improvement versus PBO on N1 in wake time after sleep onset (WASO; P treatment groups. There were no significant next-day residual effects; additionally, there were no reports of memory impairment, complex sleep behaviors, anticholinergic effects, weight gain, or increased appetite. DXP 1 mg and 3 mg administered nightly to elderly chronic insomnia patients for 12 weeks resulted in significant and sustained improvements in most endpoints. These improvements were not accompanied by evidence of next-day residual sedation or other significant adverse effects. DXP also demonstrated improvements in both patient- and physician-based ratings of global insomnia outcome. The efficacy of DXP at the doses used in this study is noteworthy with respect to sleep maintenance and early morning awakenings given that these are the primary sleep complaints of the elderly. This study, the longest placebo-controlled, double-blind, polysomnographic trial of nightly pharmacotherapy for insomnia in the elderly, provides the best evidence to date of the sustained efficacy and safety of an insomnia medication in older adults.

  18. Improved sleep after Qigong exercise in breast cancer survivors: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sleep disorder and fatigue are among a few major concerns of breast cancer survivors across the survivorship trajectory. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine feasibility and trends in multiple outcomes after a 6-week Qigong exercise program in breast cancer survivors. Methods: Eight female adults (mean age 55.4 ± 9.4 years, mean time after the completion of cancer treatment 3.9 ± 5.7 years who had a diagnosis of breast cancer and were at least 3 months postcompletion of primary cancer treatment prior to participation in this study. Baseline evaluation was administered using subjective questionnaires on sleep quality, insomnia, fatigue, and quality of life. All subjects participated in two training sessions to learn the "Six Healing Sound" Qigong exercise and attended group Qigong sessions once per week in the following 6 weeks. In addition to the group sessions, subjects were asked to perform the Qigong exercises twice at home right before going to bed in the evening and immediately after getting up in the morning. Following the 6-week intervention, subjects were re-assessed using the same questionnaires. Pre- and post-intervention scores were analyzed for statistical significance. Results: Compliance rate was 89.6% for group sessions and 78.5% (ranging from 65.6% to 90.7% for daily home Qigong exercises. No participant reported any adverse event or side effect during the study. All participants indicated in the end-intervention questionnaire that they would highly recommend the intervention to others. Significant improvements were observed in sleeping quality score (from 10.3 ± 3.6 to 5.4 ± 2.3, P < 0.01, insomnia index score (from 16.2 ± 3.2 to 6.8 ± 4.8, P < 0.01, fatigue score (from 60.3 ± 9.4 to 49.1 ± 8.6, P < 0.01, and SF-36 score (from 66.8 ± 7.7 to 80.9 ± 3.9, P < 0.01. Conclusions: Results of this single arm pilot study showed the feasibility and potential of "Six Healing Sounds" Qigong exercise for

  19. Wearing blue-blockers in the morning could improve sleep of workers on a permanent night schedule: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasseville, Alexandre; Benhaberou-Brun, Dalila; Fontaine, Charlotte; Charon, Marie-Claude; Hebert, Marc

    2009-07-01

    Night shiftworkers often complain of disturbed sleep during the day. This could be partly caused by morning sunlight exposure during the commute home, which tends to maintain the circadian clock on a daytime rhythm. The circadian clock is most sensitive to the blue portion of the visible spectrum, so our aim was to determine if blocking short wavelengths of light below 540 nm could improve daytime sleep quality and nighttime vigilance of night shiftworkers. Eight permanent night shiftworkers (32-56 yrs of age) of Quebec City's Canada Post distribution center were evaluated during summertime, and twenty others (24-55 yrs of age) during fall and winter. Timing, efficacy, and fragmentation of daytime sleep were analyzed over four weeks by a wrist activity monitor, and subjective vigilance was additionally assessed at the end of the night shift in the fall-winter group. The first two weeks served as baseline and the remaining two as experimental weeks when workers had to wear blue-blockers glasses, either just before leaving the workplace at the end of their shift (summer group) or 2 h before the end of the night shift (fall-winter group). They all had to wear the glasses when outside during the day until 16:00 h. When wearing the glasses, workers slept, on average +/-SD, 32+/-29 and 34+/-60 more min/day, increased their sleep efficacy by 1.95+/-2.17% and 4.56+/-6.1%, and lowered their sleep fragmentation by 1.74+/-1.36% and 4.22+/-9.16% in the summer and fall-winter group, respectively. Subjective vigilance also generally improved on Fridays in the fall-winter group. Blue-blockers seem to improve daytime sleep of permanent night-shift workers.

  20. Does improving sleep lead to better mental health? A protocol for a meta-analytic review of randomised controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Alexander J; Webb, Thomas L; Rowse, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sleep and mental health go hand-in-hand, with many, if not all, mental health problems being associated with problems sleeping. Although sleep has been traditionally conceptualised as a secondary consequence of mental health problems, contemporary views prescribe a more influential, causal role of sleep in the formation and maintenance of mental health problems. One way to evaluate this assertion is to examine the extent to which interventions that improve sleep also improve men...

  1. Improving the Test-Retest Reliability of Resting State fMRI by Removing the Impact of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahui; Han, Junwei; Nguyen, Vinh T; Guo, Lei; Guo, Christine C

    2017-01-01

    Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) provides a powerful tool to examine large-scale neural networks in the human brain and their disturbances in neuropsychiatric disorders. Thanks to its low demand and high tolerance, resting state paradigms can be easily acquired from clinical population. However, due to the unconstrained nature, resting state paradigm is associated with excessive head movement and proneness to sleep. Consequently, the test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI measures is moderate at best, falling short of widespread use in the clinic. Here, we characterized the effect of sleep on the test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI. Using measures of heart rate variability (HRV) derived from simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) recording, we identified portions of fMRI data when subjects were more alert or sleepy, and examined their effects on the test-retest reliability of functional connectivity measures. When volumes of sleep were excluded, the reliability of rs-fMRI is significantly improved, and the improvement appears to be general across brain networks. The amount of improvement is robust with the removal of as much as 60% volumes of sleepiness. Therefore, test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI is affected by sleep and could be improved by excluding volumes of sleepiness as indexed by HRV. Our results suggest a novel and practical method to improve test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI measures.

  2. Improving the Test-Retest Reliability of Resting State fMRI by Removing the Impact of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI provides a powerful tool to examine large-scale neural networks in the human brain and their disturbances in neuropsychiatric disorders. Thanks to its low demand and high tolerance, resting state paradigms can be easily acquired from clinical population. However, due to the unconstrained nature, resting state paradigm is associated with excessive head movement and proneness to sleep. Consequently, the test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI measures is moderate at best, falling short of widespread use in the clinic. Here, we characterized the effect of sleep on the test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI. Using measures of heart rate variability (HRV derived from simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG recording, we identified portions of fMRI data when subjects were more alert or sleepy, and examined their effects on the test-retest reliability of functional connectivity measures. When volumes of sleep were excluded, the reliability of rs-fMRI is significantly improved, and the improvement appears to be general across brain networks. The amount of improvement is robust with the removal of as much as 60% volumes of sleepiness. Therefore, test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI is affected by sleep and could be improved by excluding volumes of sleepiness as indexed by HRV. Our results suggest a novel and practical method to improve test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI measures.

  3. Sleep quality improves with endoscopic sinus surgery in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Värendh, M; Johannisson, A; Hrubos-Strøm, H; Andersson, M

    2017-03-01

    Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyposis (CRSwNP) is a chronic disease that has a major impact on generic and disease-specific quality of life. Little is known about the influence of CRSwNP on sleep and what effect surgery for CRSwNP has on sleep quality. The aim of the study was to investigate sleep quality in patients with CRSwNP before and after endoscopic surgery. Forty-two patients filled out four validated sleep questionnaires and one sino/nasal, disease specific quality of life questionnaire before surgery and three months later. A healthy control group filled out the same questionnaires at baseline and after three months. An impact on sleep patterns was found in all sleep questionnaires and surgery clearly improved the quality of sleep. The Sino-nasal outcome test sum score decreased from median 51,5 to 26,5. Epworth sleepiness scale showed a decline in score from score 7.5 to 6.0. Surgery also reduced the risk for obstructive sleep apnoea in 13 patients evaluated by the Berlin Questionnaire and Multivariable Apnea Prediction Index. Patients with CRSwNP had impaired sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, nasal patency, and risk for sleep apnea, all of which improved after corrective surgery.

  4. Selective REM-sleep deprivation does not diminish emotional memory consolidation in young healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, Jarste; Wiesner, Christian D; Hinze, Karoline; Abels, Lena C; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation and it has been hypothesized that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in particular facilitates the consolidation of emotional memory. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis using selective REM-sleep deprivation. We used a recognition memory task in which participants were shown negative and neutral pictures. Participants (N=29 healthy medical students) were separated into two groups (undisturbed sleep and selective REM-sleep deprived). Both groups also worked on the memory task in a wake condition. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for negative than for neutral stimuli and better after the sleep than the wake condition. There was, however, no difference in the recognition accuracy (neutral and emotional) between the groups. In summary, our data suggest that REM-sleep deprivation was successful and that the resulting reduction of REM-sleep had no influence on memory consolidation whatsoever.

  5. Selective REM-sleep deprivation does not diminish emotional memory consolidation in young healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarste Morgenthaler

    Full Text Available Sleep enhances memory consolidation and it has been hypothesized that rapid eye movement (REM sleep in particular facilitates the consolidation of emotional memory. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis using selective REM-sleep deprivation. We used a recognition memory task in which participants were shown negative and neutral pictures. Participants (N=29 healthy medical students were separated into two groups (undisturbed sleep and selective REM-sleep deprived. Both groups also worked on the memory task in a wake condition. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for negative than for neutral stimuli and better after the sleep than the wake condition. There was, however, no difference in the recognition accuracy (neutral and emotional between the groups. In summary, our data suggest that REM-sleep deprivation was successful and that the resulting reduction of REM-sleep had no influence on memory consolidation whatsoever.

  6. Increased physical activity improves sleep and mood outcomes in inactive people with insomnia: a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartescu, Iuliana; Morgan, Kevin; Stevinson, Clare D

    2015-01-01

    While high levels of activity and exercise training have been associated with improvements in sleep quality, minimum levels of activity likely to improve sleep outcomes have not been explored. A two...

  7. Use of a Supplementary Internet Based Education Program Improves Sleep Literacy in College Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Stuart F.; Anderson, Janis L.; Hodge, Gordon K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge regarding the importance of sleep in health and performance and good sleep hygiene practices is low, especially among adolescents and young adults. It is important to improve sleep literacy. Introductory psychology is one of the most highly enrolled courses at colleges and universities. This study tested the impact of an Internet-based learning module on improving sleep literacy in this venue. Methods: An Internet-based supplementary learning module containing sleep physiology and hygiene information was developed using content from the Harvard Medical School sleep educational website http://www.understandingsleep.org. Access to the module was provided as an extra credit activity for 2 of 4 sections (Supplemental Sleep, SS, N = 889) of an introductory college psychology course during their standard instruction on sleep and dreaming. The remaining 2 sections (Standard Instruction, SI, N = 878) only were encouraged to visit the website without further direction. Level of knowledge was assessed before and after availability to the module/website and at the end of the semester. Students were asked to complete a survey at the end of the semester inquiring whether they made any changes in their sleep behaviors. Results: Two hundred fifty students participated in the extra credit activity and had data available at all testing points. Students in the SS Group had a significant improvement in sleep knowledge test scores after interacting with the website in comparison to the SI group (19.41 ± 3.15 vs. 17.94 ± 3.08, p psychology course. Citation: Quan SF; Anderson JL; Hodge GK. Use of a supplementary internet based education program improves sleep literacy in college psychology students. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(2):155-160. PMID:23372469

  8. Effects of state and trait anxiety on sleep structure: A polysomnographic study in 1083 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, András; Montana, Xavier; Lanquart, Jean-Pol; Hubain, Philippe; Szűcs, Anna; Linkowski, Paul; Loas, Gwenolé

    2016-10-30

    Anxiety affects millions of people and has been shown to co-occur in combination with sleep disturbances, generating heavy medical costs and a huge socio-medico-economic burden. Sleep-studies in anxiety disorders are inconsistent and the effects of state and trait anxiety are unexplored. We selected 1083 patients from the database of a hospital sleep laboratory. The patients had polysomnography for different sleep disorders; their sleep initiation (sleep onset latency), sleep maintenance (total sleep time), non-rapid eye movement sleep-, and rapid eye movement sleep parameters; as well as their State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck depression scale were measured. In order to be included in our study, individuals needed to score in the low or high range on the State and/or Trait Subscales of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. We found that both state and trait anxiety affected non-rapid eye movement sleep parameters. Sleep onset latency changes predominantly associated to state anxiety while rapid eye movement parameters related to trait anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Benefits of Sleep Extension on Sustained Attention and Sleep Pressure Before and During Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; van Beers, Pascal; Bayon, Virginie; Bougard, Clément; Rabat, Arnaud; Millet, Guillaume Y; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of 6 nights of sleep extension on sustained attention and sleep pressure before and during total sleep deprivation and after a subsequent recovery sleep. Subjects participated in two experimental conditions (randomized cross-over design): extended sleep (EXT, 9.8 ± 0.1 h (mean ± SE) time in bed) and habitual sleep (HAB, 8.2 ± 0.1 h time in bed). In each condition, subjects performed two consecutive phases: (1) 6 nights of either EXT or HAB (2) three days in-laboratory: baseline, total sleep deprivation and after 10 h of recovery sleep. Residential sleep extension and sleep performance laboratory (continuous polysomnographic recording). 14 healthy men (age range: 26-37 years). EXT vs. HAB sleep durations prior to total sleep deprivation. Total sleep time and duration of all sleep stages during the 6 nights were significantly higher in EXT than HAB. EXT improved psychomotor vigilance task performance (PVT, both fewer lapses and faster speed) and reduced sleep pressure as evidenced by longer multiple sleep latencies (MSLT) at baseline compared to HAB. EXT limited PVT lapses and the number of involuntary microsleeps during total sleep deprivation. Differences in PVT lapses and speed and MSLT at baseline were maintained after one night of recovery sleep. Six nights of extended sleep improve sustained attention and reduce sleep pressure. Sleep extension also protects against psychomotor vigilance task lapses and microsleep degradation during total sleep deprivation. These beneficial effects persist after one night of recovery sleep. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. A brief sleep intervention improves outcomes in the school entry year: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Jon; Hiscock, Harriet; Ukoumunne, Obioha Chukwunyere; Wake, Melissa

    2011-10-01

    To determine the feasibility of screening for child sleep problems and the efficacy of a behavioral sleep intervention in improving child and parent outcomes in the first year of schooling. A randomized controlled trial was nested in a population survey performed at 22 elementary schools in Melbourne, Australia. Intervention involved 2 to 3 consultations that covered behavioral sleep strategies for children whose screening results were positive for a moderate/severe sleep problem. Outcomes were parent-reported child sleep problem (primary outcome), sleep habits, psychosocial health-related quality of life, behavior, and parent mental health (all at 3, 6, and 12 months) and blinded, face-to-face learning assessment (at 6 months). The screening survey was completed by 1512 parents; 161 (10.8%) reported a moderate/severe child sleep problem, and 108 of 136 (79.2% of those eligible) entered the trial. Sleep problems tended to resolve more rapidly in intervention children. Sleep problems affected 33% of 54 intervention children versus 43% of 54 control children at 3 months (P = .3), 25.5% vs 46.8% at 6 months (P = .03), and 32% vs 33% at 12 months (P = .8). Sustained sleep-habit improvements were evident at 3, 6, and 12 months (effect sizes: 0.33 [P = .03]; 0.51 [P = .003]; and 0.40 [P = .02]; respectively), and there were initial marked improvements in psychosocial scores that diminished over time (effect sizes: 0.47 [P = .02]; 0.41 [P = .09]; and 0.26 [P = .3]; respectively). Better prosocial behavior was evident at 12 months (effect size: 0.35; P = .03), and learning and parent outcomes were similar between groups. School-based screening for sleep problems followed by a targeted, brief behavioral sleep intervention is feasible and has benefits relevant to school transition.

  11. Use of a supplementary internet based education program improves sleep literacy in college psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Stuart F; Anderson, Janis L; Hodge, Gordon K

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge regarding the importance of sleep in health and performance and good sleep hygiene practices is low, especially among adolescents and young adults. It is important to improve sleep literacy. Introductory psychology is one of the most highly enrolled courses at colleges and universities. This study tested the impact of an Internet-based learning module on improving sleep literacy in this venue. An Internet-based supplementary learning module containing sleep physiology and hygiene information was developed using content from the Harvard Medical School sleep educational website http://www.understandingsleep.org. Access to the module was provided as an extra credit activity for 2 of 4 sections (Supplemental Sleep, SS, N = 889) of an introductory college psychology course during their standard instruction on sleep and dreaming. The remaining 2 sections (Standard Instruction, SI, N = 878) only were encouraged to visit the website without further direction. Level of knowledge was assessed before and after availability to the module/website and at the end of the semester. Students were asked to complete a survey at the end of the semester inquiring whether they made any changes in their sleep behaviors. Two hundred fifty students participated in the extra credit activity and had data available at all testing points. Students in the SS Group had a significant improvement in sleep knowledge test scores after interacting with the website in comparison to the SI group (19.41 ± 3.15 vs. 17.94 ± 3.08, p internet-based sleep learning module has the potential to enhance sleep literacy and change behavior among students enrolled in an introductory college psychology course.

  12. Changes in ventilation and its components in normal subjects during sleep.

    OpenAIRE

    Stradling, J R; Chadwick, G A; Frew, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    Non-invasive measurements were made of ventilation, its derivatives, the contributions of abdomen and rib cage and arterial oxygen saturation in six healthy normal men whilst awake and during sleep. Minute ventilation fell significantly during slow wave (SW) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (awake = 6.3 1 min-1, SW sleep = 5.7 1 min-1, REM sleep = 5.4 1 min-1; p less than 0.04). Mean inspiratory flow also fell significantly but timing was unchanged. The abdominal (diaphragmatic) contr...

  13. Serum amyloid A and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome before and after surgically-induced weight loss in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitou, Christine; Coupaye, Muriel; Laaban, Jean-Pierre; Coussieu, Christiane; Bedel, J F; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Basdevant, Arnaud; Clément, Karine; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2006-11-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an inflammatory marker associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and found to be increased in obesity. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome, a frequent complication of obesity also associated with CVD risk, is improved after surgically-induced weight loss. To explore the potential role of SAA in the relation between OSA and CVD, we investigated relationships between changes in SAA concentrations and nocturnal respiratory events in obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. We measured plasma SAA and used nocturnal respiratory polygraphy to assess the apneahypopnea index (AHI), the oxygen desaturation index (ODI) and the mean and lowest O(2) saturation (SaO(2) ) in 61 morbidly obese patients before either adjustable gastric banding or gastric bypass. For 35 subjects with OSA, the same data were obtained 1 year after the surgery. Before surgery, SAA concentrations were significantly higher in patients with severe OSA (56.2+/-6.4 microg/ml) compared to subjects with moderate OSA (22.9+/-3.2 microg/ml) or without OSA (16.2+/-2.2 microg/ml). Plasma SAA correlated positively with AHI and ODI, and negatively with mean and lowest SaO(2). After surgery, plasma SAA decreased significantly by 41.7%, and changes in plasma SAA correlated with variations in OSA parameters. In multivariate analyses, AHI was a predictor of plasma SAA, independent of BMI, both at baseline and during weight loss. The improvement of OSA after bariatric surgery is associated with a decrease in SAA, independent of the change in BMI. SAA may represent a marker of the improvement in CVD risk profile after surgically-induced weight loss in patients with OSA.

  14. Evidence of associations between cytokine genes and subjective reports of sleep disturbance in oncology patients and their family caregivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Miaskowski

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to identify distinct latent classes of individuals based on subjective reports of sleep disturbance; to examine differences in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics between the latent classes; and to evaluate for variations in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes between the latent classes. Among 167 oncology outpatients with breast, prostate, lung, or brain cancer and 85 of their FCs, growth mixture modeling (GMM was used to identify latent classes of individuals based on General Sleep Disturbance Scale (GSDS obtained prior to, during, and for four months following completion of radiation therapy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and haplotypes in candidate cytokine genes were interrogated for differences between the two latent classes. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the effect of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics on GSDS group membership. Two latent classes were identified: lower sleep disturbance (88.5% and higher sleep disturbance (11.5%. Participants who were younger and had a lower Karnofsky Performance status score were more likely to be in the higher sleep disturbance class. Variation in two cytokine genes (i.e., IL6, NFKB predicted latent class membership. Evidence was found for latent classes with distinct sleep disturbance trajectories. Unique genetic markers in cytokine genes may partially explain the interindividual heterogeneity characterizing these trajectories.

  15. Improvement in Physical Activity in Persons With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treated With Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Raymonde E; Duttuluri, Manideep; Gibson, Charlisa D; Mir, Sadaf; Fuhrmann, Katherine; Eden, Edward; Supariwala, Azhar

    2017-03-01

    Exercise improves sleep quality, yet people with untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may engage in less physical activity (PA) due to fatigue and daytime sleepiness. We examined changes in PA and sleep quality before and after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in OSA patients. In this prospective longitudinal study, persons with a primary diagnosis of OSA were enrolled at a community-based hospital in New York City. At 3 time intervals pre- and post-CPAP (3-8 months), we measured sleep quality using validated questionnaires, perceived PA using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and actual PA using pedometer steps per day. We sought to investigate how CPAP use and changes in sleep quality impacted the number of steps taken, as recorded in pedometer steps. In total, 62 patients were enrolled in the study from March 2012 to July 2014. In all, patients averaged 53 years of age, and 26 patients (42%) were female. Among all participants, 86% of persons had moderate to severe sleep apnea (AHI ≥15). Approximately 73% of participants were compliant with CPAP use. Poor sleep quality correlated with lower actual PA (P = .004) at baseline. At 3 and 7 months, there was significant improvement in sleep quality (Δ -2.63 ± 3.4 and Δ -3.5 ± 3.8; P sleep quality and actual PA.

  16. Mastication movements and sleep quality of patients with myofascial pain: occlusal device therapy improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Larissa Soares Reis; Gonçalves, Thais Marques Simek Vega; Pimentel, Marcele Jardim; Bavia, Paula Furlan; Rodrigues Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus

    2014-12-01

    Patients with myofascial pain experience impaired mastication, which might also interfere with their sleep quality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the jaw motion and sleep quality of patients with myofascial pain and the impact of a stabilization device therapy on both parameters. Fifty women diagnosed with myofascial pain by the Research Diagnostic Criteria were enrolled. Pain levels (visual analog scale), jaw movements (kinesiography), and sleep quality (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were evaluated before (control) and after stabilization device use. Range of motion (maximum opening, right and left excursions, and protrusion) and masticatory movements during Optosil mastication (opening, closing, and total cycle time; opening and closing angles; and maximum velocity) also were evaluated. Repeated-measures analysis of variance in a generalized linear mixed models procedure was used for statistical analysis (α=.05). At baseline, participants with myofascial pain showed a reduced range of jaw motion and poorer sleep quality. Treatment with a stabilization device reduced pain (Pmastication increased, and improvements in sleep scores for the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (P<.001) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (P=.04) were found. Myofascial pain impairs jaw motion and quality of sleep; the reduction of pain after the use of a stabilization device improves the range of motion and sleep parameters. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep Deprivation in Young and Healthy Subjects Is More Sensitively Identified by Higher Frequencies of Electrodermal Activity than by Skin Conductance Level Evaluated in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Posada-Quintero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed multiple measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS based on electrodermal activity (EDA and heart rate variability (HRV for young healthy subjects undergoing 24-h sleep deprivation. In this study, we have utilized the error awareness test (EAT every 2 h (13 runs total, to evaluate the deterioration of performance. EAT consists of trials where the subject is presented words representing colors. Subjects are instructed to press a button (“Go” trials or withhold the response if the word presented and the color of the word mismatch (“Stroop No-Go” trial, or the screen is repeated (“Repeat No-Go” trials. We measured subjects' (N = 10 reaction time to the “Go” trials, and accuracy to the “Stroop No-Go” and “Repeat No-Go” trials. Simultaneously, changes in EDA and HRV indices were evaluated. Furthermore, the relationship between reactiveness and vigilance measures and indices of sympathetic control based on HRV were analyzed. We found the performance improved to a stable level from 6 through 16 h of deprivation, with a subsequently sustained impairment after 18 h. Indices of higher frequencies of EDA related more to vigilance measures, whereas lower frequencies index (skin conductance leve, SCL measured the reactiveness of the subject. We conclude that indices of EDA, including those of the higher frequencies, termed TVSymp, EDASymp, and NSSCRs, provide information to better understand the effect of sleep deprivation on subjects' autonomic response and performance.

  18. Home exercise improves the quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness of elderlies: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Glauber Sá; Gomes, Glaucia Sá Brandão Freitas; Brandão, Glaudson Sá; Callou Sampaio, Antônia A; Donner, Claudio F; Oliveira, Luis V F; Camelier, Aquiles Assunção

    2018-01-01

    Aging causes physiological changes which affect the quality of sleep. Supervised physical exercise is an important therapeutic resource to improve the sleep of the elderlies, however there is a low adherence to those type of programs, so it is necessary to implement an exercise program which is feasible and effective. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that a semi-supervised home exercise program, improves sleep quality and daytime sleepiness of elderlies of the community who present poor sleep quality. This was a randomized controlled trial study, conducted from May to September 2017, in Northeastern Brazil, with elderlies of the community aging 60 years old or older, sedentary, with lower scores or equal to 5 at the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and without cognitive decline. From one hundred ninety-one potential participants twenty-eight refused to participate, therefore, one hundred thirty-one (mean age 68 ± 7 years), and 88% female, were randomly assigned to an intervention group - IG (home exercise and sleep hygiene, n = 65) and a control group - CG (sleep hygiene only, n = 66). Sleep assessment tools were used: PSQI, Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and clinical questionnaire of Berlin. The level of physical activity has been assessed by means of International Physical Activity Questionnaire adapted for the elderly (IPAQ) and Mini-Mental State Examination for cognitive decline. All participants were assessed before and after the 12-week intervention period and, also, the assessors were blind. The IG showed significant improvement in quality of sleep with a mean reduction of 4.9 ± 2.7 points in the overall PSQI (p exercise is effective in improving the quality of sleep and self-referred daytime sleepiness of sedentary elderlies of the community who presented sleep disorders. Ensaiosclinicos.gov.br process number: RBR-3cqzfy.

  19. Cognitive training improves sleep quality and cognitive function among older adults with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Participants (n = 51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n = 34) or to an active control group (n = 17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. COMMUNITY SETTING: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65-85). Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved "avoiding distractions" is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive

  20. An investigation of the relationship between subjective sleep quality, loneliness and mood in an Australian sample: can daily routine explain the links?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Simon Squire; Kozak, Nahum; Sullivan, Karen Anne

    2012-03-01

    Loneliness and low mood are associated with significant negative health outcomes including poor sleep, but the strength of the evidence underlying these associations varies. There is strong evidence that poor sleep quality and low mood are linked, but only emerging evidence that loneliness and poor sleep are associated. To independently replicate the finding that loneliness and poor subjective sleep quality are associated and to extend past research by investigating lifestyle regularity as a possible mediator of relationships, since lifestyle regularity has been linked to loneliness and poor sleep. Using a cross-sectional design, 97 adults completed standardized measures of loneliness, lifestyle regularity, subjective sleep quality and mood. Loneliness was a significant predictor of sleep quality. Lifestyle regularity was not a predictor of, nor associated with, mood, sleep quality or loneliness. This study provides an important independent replication of the association between poor sleep and loneliness. However, the mechanism underlying this link remains unclear. A theoretically plausible mechanism for this link, lifestyle regularity, does not explain the relationship between loneliness and poor sleep. The nexus between loneliness and poor sleep is unlikely to be broken by altering the social rhythm of patients who present with poor sleep and loneliness.

  1. Non-pharmacologic interventions to improve the sleep of hospitalized patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrat, Ruth; Huynh-Le, Minh-Phuong; Goyal, Madhav

    2014-05-01

    Despite the known adverse effects of sleep deprivation on recovery from illness, studies have shown that sleep deprivation remains an incompletely addressed problem among acutely ill inpatients. Behavioral interventions are recommended as first-line therapy prior to using pharmacologic therapy due to the side effects of sedative hypnotics. The objective of this systematic review was to identify non-pharmacologic interventions that have been used to improve sleep quality and quantity of non-intensive care unit (ICU) inpatients. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library through January 2013; manual searches of reference lists. Any study in which a non-pharmacologic intervention was conducted in a general inpatient setting, and nighttime sleep quantity or quality was assessed. Information on study design, populations, interventions, comparators, outcomes, time frame, and risk of bias were independently abstracted by two investigators. 13 intervention studies with 1,154 participants were included. Four studies were randomized controlled trials. Seven studies had a low to medium risk of bias, and there was significant heterogeneity in the interventions. Relaxation techniques improved sleep quality 0-38%, interventions to improve sleep hygiene or reduce sleep interruptions improved sleep quantity 5%, and daytime bright light exposure improved sleep quantity 7-18%. The heterogeneity in the types and dose of interventions, outcome measures, length of follow-up, differences in patient populations, and dearth of randomized trials may dilute effects seen or make it more difficult to draw conclusions. There is insufficient to low strength of evidence that any non-pharmacologic intervention improves sleep quality or quantity of general inpatients. Further studies are needed in this area to guide clinicians.

  2. Adherence to reduced-polluting biomass fuel stoves improves respiratory and sleep symptoms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accinelli, Roberto A; Llanos, Oscar; López, Lidia M; Pino, María I; Bravo, Yeny A; Salinas, Verónica; Lazo, María; Noda, Julio R; Sánchez-Sierra, Marita; Zárate, Lacey; da Silva, Joao; Gianella, Fabiola; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Gozal, David

    2014-01-17

    Symptoms of sleep apnea are markedly increased in children exposed to smoke from biomass fuels and are reduced by kitchen stoves that improve indoor biomass pollution. However, the impact of adherence to the use of improved stoves has not been critically examined. Sleep-related symptom questionnaires were obtained from children Peru before and 2 years after installation of less-polluting Inkawasi cooking stoves. 82 children with lifetime exposures to indoor fuel pollution were included. When compared to those alternating between both types of stoves or those using traditional stoves only, those children who exclusively used Inkawasi cooking stoves showed significant improvements in sleep and respiratory related symptoms, but some minor albeit significant improvements occurred when both stoves were concomitantly used. Improvements in respiratory and sleep-related symptoms associated with elevated indoor biomass pollution occur only following implementation and exclusive utilization of improved kitchen stoves.

  3. Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Differentially Elevated in Objective Versus Habitual Subjective Reduced Sleep Duration in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartino, Theresanne; Ghoul, Rawad El; Wang, Lu; Bena, James; Hazen, Stanley L; Tracy, Russel; Patel, Sanjay R; Auckley, Dennis; Mehra, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Data have demonstrated adverse health effects of sleep deprivation. We postulate that oxidative stress and systemic inflammation biomarkers will be elevated in relation to short-term and long-term sleep duration reduction. We analyzed data from the baseline examination of a randomized controlled trial involving participants with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Baseline polysomnography provided the total sleep time (PSG-TST, primary predictor); self-reported habitual sleep duration (SR-HSD) data was collected. Morning measures of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation included: myeloperoxidase (MPO, pmol/L), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL, U/L), F2-isoprostane (ng/mg), paraoxonase 1 (PON1, nmol·min(-1)·mL(-1)), and aryl esterase (μmol·min(-1)·mL(-1)). Linear models adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI), cardiovascular disease (CVD), smoking, statin/anti-inflammatory medications, and apnea-hypopnea index were utilized (beta estimates and 95% confidence intervals). One hundred forty-seven participants comprised the final analytic sample; they were overall middle-aged (51.0 ± 11.7 y), obese (BMI = 37.3 ± 8.1 kg/m(2)), and 17% had CVD. Multivariable models demonstrated a significant inverse association of PSG-TST and MPO (β [95% CI] = -20.28 [-37.48, -3.08], P = 0.021), i.e., 20.3 pmol/L MPO reduction per hour increase PSG-TST. Alternatively, a significant inverse association with ox-LDL and SR-HSD was observed (β [95% CI] = 0.98 [0.96, 0.99], P = 0.027), i.e., 2% ox-LDL reduction per hour increase SR-HSD. Even after consideration of obesity and OSA severity, inverse significant findings were observed such that reduced PSG-TST was associated with elevated MPO levels and SR-HSD with ox-LDL, suggesting differential up-regulation of oxidative stress and pathways of inflammation in acute versus chronic sleep curtailment. NIH clinical trials registry number NCT00607893. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Effects of Sleep Loss on Subjective Complaints and Objective Neurocognitive Performance as Measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Ryan P J; Khan, Hassen; Henry, Luke; Germain, Anne

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the effects of total and partial sleep deprivation on subjective symptoms and objective neurocognitive performance, as measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) in a sample of healthy adults. One-hundred and two, right-handed, healthy participants (between ages 18 and 30 years old) completed three consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory with concurrent continuous polysomnography monitoring. Night 1 served as a baseline night. Prior to Night 2, they were randomly assigned to one of three sleep conditions: undisrupted normal sleep (N = 34), sleep restriction (50% of habitual sleep, N = 37), or total sleep deprivation (N = 31). Participants slept undisturbed on Night 3. ImPACT was administered on three separate occasions. Sleep loss was associated with increased severity of subjectively reported affective, cognitive, physical, and sleep symptoms. Although objective neurocognitive task scores derived from the ImPACT battery did not corroborate subjective complaints, sleep loss was associated with significant differences on tasks of visual memory, reaction time, and visual motor speed over time. While self-report measures suggested marked impairments following sleep loss, deficits in neurocognitive performance were observed only on three domains measured with ImPACT. ImPACT may capture subtle changes in neurocognitive performance following sleep loss; however, independent and larger validation studies are needed to determine its sensitivity to acute sleep loss and recovery sleep. Neurocognitive screening batteries may be useful for detecting the effects of more severe or chronic sleep loss under high-stress conditions that mimic high-risk occupations.

  5. Slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation during non-rapid eye movement sleep improves behavioral inhibition in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tobias Munz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Behavioral inhibition, which is a later-developing executive function (EF and anatomically located in prefrontal areas, is impaired in attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. While optimal EFs have been shown to depend on efficient sleep in healthy subjects, the impact of sleep problems, frequently reported in ADHD, remains elusive. Findings of macroscopic sleep changes in ADHD are inconsistent, but there is emerging evidence for distinct microscopic changes with a focus on prefrontal cortical regions and non-rapid eye movement (non-REM slow-wave sleep. Recently, slow oscillations (SO during non-REM sleep were found to be less functional and, as such, may be involved in sleep-dependent memory impairments in ADHD. Objective: By augmenting slow-wave power through bilateral, slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS, frequency = 0.75 Hz during non-REM sleep, we aimed to improve daytime behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD. Methods: 14 boys (10-14 yrs diagnosed with ADHD were included. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, patients received so-tDCS either in the first or in the second experimental sleep night. Inhibition control was assessed with a visuomotor go/no-go task. Intrinsic alertness was assessed with a simple stimulus response task. To control for visuomotor performance, motor memory was assessed with a finger sequence tapping task. Results: SO-power was enhanced during early non-REM sleep, accompanied by slowed reaction times and decreased standard deviations of reaction times, in the go/no-go task after so-tDCS. In contrast, intrinsic alertness and motor memory performance were not improved by so-tDCS. Conclusion: Since behavioral inhibition but not intrinsic alertness or motor memory was improved by so-tDCS, our results suggest that lateral prefrontal slow oscillations during sleep might play a specific role for executive functioning in ADHD.

  6. Sleep education improves the sleep duration of adolescents: a randomized controlled pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kira, Geoff; Maddison, Ralph; Hull, Michelle; Blunden, Sarah; Olds, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    .... A parallel, two-arm randomized controlled pilot trial was conducted. High school students (13 to 16 years) were randomly allocated to either a classroom-based sleep education program intervention...

  7. Improvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea With Weight Loss is Dependent on Body Position During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Simon A; Khoo, Jun K; Edwards, Bradley A; Landry, Shane A; Naughton, Matthew T; Dixon, John B; Hamilton, Garun S

    2017-05-01

    Weight loss fails to resolve obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in most patients; however, it is unknown as to whether weight loss differentially affects OSA in the supine compared with nonsupine sleeping positions. We aimed to determine if weight loss in obese patients with OSA results in a greater reduction in the nonsupine apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) compared with the supine AHI, thus converting participants into supine-predominant OSA. Post hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of weight loss (bariatric surgery vs. medical weight loss) on OSA in 60 participants with obesity (body mass index: >35 and sleep study at 2 years. Eight of 37 (22%) patients demonstrated a normal nonsupine AHI (sleep avoidance may cure their OSA.

  8. Role of a respiratory therapist in improving adherence to positive airway pressure treatment in a pediatric sleep apnea clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambhekar, Supriya K; Com, Gulnur; Tang, Xinyu; Pruss, Kristi K; Jackson, Rithea; Bower, Charles; Carroll, John L; Ward, Wendy

    2013-12-01

    Many pediatric patients need positive airway pressure (PAP) for treatment of obstructive sleep-disordered breathing. Adherence to PAP (defined as percent of nights with PAP use of > 4 h) is often poor and not sustained long-term. With any chronic disease, education has been shown to help with patient outcomes. Education of patients and parents regarding PAP can be provided by different healthcare professionals. There is no published literature assessing the role of respiratory therapists (RTs) in improving adherence to PAP in children. We hypothesized that the addition of RT visits to a PAP clinic would improve PAP adherence. RT services for PAP patients were introduced in a multidisciplinary pediatric sleep clinic in May 2006. We identified children who had been followed in clinic, and had adherence download information before and after introduction of RT services. We collected demographic, polysomnography, and CPAP adherence data at clinic visits. Forty-six subjects met criteria for inclusion. The mean ± SD age was 14.9 ± 6 y. The mean ± SD apnea-hypopnea index was 26.7 ± 30 events/h. Other than the addition of the RT intervention, all subjects continued to receive the same clinical services as before. Subjects were divided into 3 groups, based on baseline adherence: 0% use, use for 1-50% of nights, and use for > 50% of nights. There was a statistically significant improvement in PAP adherence in the subjects with baseline use of 0% and 1-50%, but no improvement in those with > 50% use at baseline. There was no significant change in PAP use at subsequent RT visits. Utilization at clinic visits of an RT trained in the use of PAP improved adherence in pediatric subjects with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing when their baseline PAP adherence was < 50%.

  9. Differential improvement of the sleep quality among patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy with valproic acid: A longitudinal sleep questionnaire-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Chetan; Sinha, Sanjib; Ramachandraiah, Chaitra T; Nagappa, Madhu; Thennarasu, Kandivali; Taly, Arun B; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sodium valproic acid (SVA) on the sleep quality of patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Standardized sleep questionnaires viz. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were administered to 30 drug-naïve patients with JME (male:female (M:F) = 14:16; age: 21 ± 3.7 years) and the changes following SVA monotherapy was analyzed using t- and chi-squared tests. The mean age at onset of seizures and diagnosis was 15.43 ± 3.8 and 21 ± 5.1, years respectively. All had myoclonic jerks with mean duration of 5.23 ± 2.7 years, aggravated by sleep deprivation (23, 76.7%) and sleep-wake transition (29, 96.7%). Twenty-seven (90%) had generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), majority (70%) on awakening from sleep. Seizures were controlled in 25 patients (83.33%) with SVA monotherapy. Abnormal ESS was noted in five (16.66%) drug naïve patients compared to six (20%) patients while on SVA (P = 0.782). Mean ESS remained unchanged before and after SVA therapy (6.27 ± 4.4 vs 6.97 ± 4.7, P = 0.262). On the other hand, only four (13.3%) patients had abnormal PSQI scores at follow-up after initiation of SVA, as compared to 14 (46.7%) subjects in the drug naïve state (P = 0.037). Further, we also found significant reduction in mean PSQI scores after initiating SVA monotherapy (6.7 ± 5.6 vs 2.7 ± 2.84, P £ 0.0001). This study showed that the mean PSQI as well as the number of patients with abnormal PSQI significantly reduced after initiating SVA therapy, suggesting a significant improvement in night-time sleep quality with SVA treatment. However, SVA therapy did not alter ESS.

  10. Impact of layover length on sleep, subjective fatigue levels, and sustained attention of long-haul airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Petrilli, Renée M A; Dawson, Drew; Lamond, Nicole

    2012-06-01

    Long-haul airline pilots often experience elevated levels of fatigue due to extended work hours and circadian misalignment of sleep and wake periods. During long-haul trips, pilots are typically given 1-3 d off between flights (i.e., layover) to recover from, and prepare for, duty. Anecdotally, some pilots prefer long layovers because it maximizes the time available for recovery and preparation, but others prefer short layovers because it minimizes both the length of the trip, and the degree to which the body clock changes from "home time" to the layover time zone. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of layover length on the sleep, subjective fatigue levels, and capacity to sustain attention of long-haul pilots. Participants were 19 male pilots (10 Captains, 9 First Officers) working for an international airline. Data were collected during an 11- or 12-d international trip. The trips involved (i) 4 d at home prior to the trip; (ii) an eastward flight of 13.5 h across seven time zones; (iii) a layover of either 39 h (i.e., short, n = 9) or 62 h (i.e., long, n = 10); (iv) a return westward flight of 14.3 h across seven time zones; and (v) 4 d off at home after the trip. Sleep was recorded using a self-report sleep diary and wrist activity monitor; subjective fatigue level was measured using the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Checklist; and sustained attention was assessed using the psychomotor vigilance task for a personal digital assistant (PalmPVT). Mixed-model regression analyses were used to determine the effects of layover length (short, long) on the amount of sleep that pilots obtained during the trip, and on the pilots' subjective fatigue levels and capacity to sustain attention. There was no main effect of layover length on ground-based sleep or in-flight sleep, but pilots who had a short layover at the midpoint of their trip had higher subjective fatigue levels and poorer sustained attention than pilots who had a long layover. The results of this study

  11. Sleep extension improves serving accuracy: A study with college varsity tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jennifer; Simon, Richard D

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of sleep extension on tennis serving accuracy, as well as daytime sleepiness in college varsity tennis players. Twelve (seven females and five males) healthy students on a college varsity tennis team maintained their habitual sleep-wake schedule for a one-week baseline period followed by a one-week sleep extension period. Participants were requested to sleep at least nine hours, including naps, during the sleep extension period. Serving accuracy was assessed when participants were sleep deprived (prior to the sleep extension period) and after the sleep extension period. Levels of daytime sleepiness were monitored via the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and caffeine consumption was recorded throughout the study. Participants slept significantly more in the second week--the sleep extension week--compared with the first week--the baseline week (8.85 vs. 7.14 h; psleep extension period, accuracy of the tennis serves improved significantly (35.7% vs. 41.8%; psleep of approximately 2h per night significantly increased athletic performance in college varsity tennis players. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modafinil for cognitive neuroenhancement in healthy non-sleep-deprived subjects: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battleday, R M; Brem, A-K

    2015-11-01

    Modafinil is an FDA-approved eugeroic that directly increases cortical catecholamine levels, indirectly upregulates cerebral serotonin, glutamate, orexin, and histamine levels, and indirectly decreases cerebral gamma-amino-butrytic acid levels. In addition to its approved use treating excessive somnolence, modafinil is thought to be used widely off-prescription for cognitive enhancement. However, despite this popularity, there has been little consensus on the extent and nature of the cognitive effects of modafinil in healthy, non-sleep-deprived humans. This problem is compounded by methodological discrepancies within the literature, and reliance on psychometric tests designed to detect cognitive effects in ill rather than healthy populations. In order to provide an up-to-date systematic evaluation that addresses these concerns, we searched MEDLINE with the terms "modafinil" and "cognitive", and reviewed all resultant primary studies in English from January 1990 until December 2014 investigating the cognitive actions of modafinil in healthy non-sleep-deprived humans. We found that whilst most studies employing basic testing paradigms show that modafinil intake enhances executive function, only half show improvements in attention and learning and memory, and a few even report impairments in divergent creative thinking. In contrast, when more complex assessments are used, modafinil appears to consistently engender enhancement of attention, executive functions, and learning. Importantly, we did not observe any preponderances for side effects or mood changes. Finally, in light of the methodological discrepancies encountered within this literature, we conclude with a series of recommendations on how to optimally detect valid, robust, and consistent effects in healthy populations that should aid future assessment of neuroenhancement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  13. Manipulation of skin temperature improves nocturnal sleep in narcolepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Raymann, R.J.E.M.; Overeem, S.; Romeijn, N.; van Dijk, J. G.; Lammers, G.J.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Besides excessive daytime sleepiness, disturbed nocturnal sleep is a major complaint of patients with narcolepsy. Previously, alterations in skin temperature regulation in narcoleptic patients have been shown to be related to increased sleepiness. This study tests the hypothesis that

  14. Manipulation of skin temperature improves nocturnal sleep in narcolepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Raymann, R.J.; Overeem, S.; Romeijn, N.; Dijk, J.G.M.; Lammers, G.J.; Someren, EJ Van

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Besides excessive daytime sleepiness, disturbed nocturnal sleep is a major complaint of patients with narcolepsy. Previously, alterations in skin temperature regulation in narcoleptic patients have been shown to be related to increased sleepiness. This study tests the hypothesis that

  15. The relation between EEG prefrontal asymmetry and subjective feelings of mood following 24 hours of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Camila; Deslandes, Andréa; Moraes, Helena; Cagy, Maurício; Basile, Luiz Fernando; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2006-06-01

    Several studies have investigated the relationship between asymmetrical EEG activity over the frontal cortex and mood. This study aimed at investigating the association between state fluctuations in frontal alpha EEG asymmetry and state changes followed by 24 h of sleep deprivation (SD). Our results show that sleep deprivation caused a significant alteration in the asymmetry values. Activation shifted from the left hemisphere, before SD, to the right hemisphere, after SD, in all frontal electrode pairs. In addition, according to the self-rating scale of SD-related mood effects, subjects became significantly less alerted and active, and sleepier. According to these results, increased right prefrontal activation might be potentially associated with the negative mood states typically seen after sleep deprivation, although the causal relationship is still uncertain. However, more studies will be necessary to establish the viability of EEG asymmetry and the cerebral lateralization hypothesis to explain the SD-related affective changes.

  16. Diverting the Pathway to Substance Misuse by Improving Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    treatment of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), short-term treatment of obesity, and as an off-label treatment for narcolepsy ...substantially to these problems and is not explicitly addressed by established insomnia treatments . The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a... treatment for sleep problems related to military deployments. The intervention targets nocturnal vigilance and other maladaptive sleep behaviors. We

  17. Subjective Sleep Quality in Temporomandibular Disorder Patients and Association with Disease Characteristics and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, Rafael; Zini, Avraham; Zakuto, Avraham; Slutzky, Hulio; Haviv, Yaron; Sharav, Yair; Almoznino, Galit

    2017-01-01

    To measure sleep quality in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients, to compare it with that of control subjects, and to analyze its association with disease characteristics and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The collected data included demographics, tobacco use, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), trauma history, presence of coexisting headaches and/or body pain, parafunctional habits, pain scores, muscle tenderness to palpation scores, and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14). Differences between groups were examined with Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables and independent t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for numeric variables. Significant differences were then further tested with multivariate backward stepwise linear regression analysis. The final analysis was performed on 286 individuals (187 TMD patients and 99 controls). Poor sleep (PSQI global score > 5) was exhibited in 43.3% of the TMD group and in 28.3% of the control group (P = .013) (mean ± standard deviation [SD] PSQI score = 5.53 ± 2.85 for TMD patients and 4.41 ± 2.64 for controls, P = .001). TMD patients had significantly worse scores in the sleep quality component of the PSQI questionnaire (P = .006). Higher PSQI global scores and poor sleep were positively associated with whiplash history (P = .009 and P = .004, respectively), coexisting headaches (P = .005 and P = .002), body pain (P = .001 and P quality was positively associated with TMD disease characteristics, comorbid pain conditions, and poorer OHRQoL. Assessing sleep quality should be a routine part of the diagnostic work-up of TMD patients. A multidisciplinary management approach is needed to address all the factors-including sleep-that modulate pain experience.

  18. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow during Wakeful Rest in Older Subjects with Mild to Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Andrée-Ann; Gagnon, Katia; Arbour, Caroline; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Montplaisir, Jacques; Gagnon, Jean-François; Gosselin, Nadia

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during wakeful rest in older subjects with mild to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and healthy controls, and to identify markers of OSA severity that predict altered rCBF. High-resolution (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT imaging during wakeful rest. Research sleep laboratory affiliated with a University hospital. Fifty untreated OSA patients aged between 55 and 85 years, divided into mild, moderate, and severe OSA, and 20 age-matched healthy controls. N/A. Using statistical parametric mapping, rCBF was compared between groups and correlated with clinical, respiratory, and sleep variables. Whereas no rCBF change was observed in mild and moderate groups, participants with severe OSA had reduced rCBF compared to controls in the left parietal lobules, left precentral gyrus, bilateral postcentral gyri, and right precuneus. Reduced rCBF in these regions and in areas of the bilateral frontal and left temporal cortex was associated with more hypopneas, snoring, hypoxemia, and sleepiness. Higher apnea, microarousal, and body mass indexes were correlated to increased rCBF in the basal ganglia, insula, and limbic system. While older individuals with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) had hypoperfusion in the sensorimotor and parietal areas, respiratory variables and subjective sleepiness were correlated with extended regions of hypoperfusion in the lateral cortex. Interestingly, OSA severity, sleep fragmentation, and obesity correlated with increased perfusion in subcortical and medial cortical regions. Anomalies with such a distribution could result in cognitive deficits and reflect impaired vascular regulation, altered neuronal integrity, and/or undergoing neurodegenerative processes. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. The structural changes of upper airway and newly developed sleep breathing disorders after surgical treatment in class III malocclusion subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ui Lyong; Oh, Hoon; Min, Sang Ki; Shin, Ji Ho; Kang, Yong Seok; Lee, Won Wook; Han, Young Eun; Choi, Young Jun; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2017-06-01

    Bimaxillary surgery is the traditional treatment of choice for correcting class III malocclusion which is reported to cause an alteration of oropharyngeal structures and upper airway narrowing that might be a predisposing factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aimed to analyze sleep parameters in class III malocclusion subjects and ascertain the prevalence of snoring or OSA following bimaxillary surgery.A total of 22 patients with Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular setback for class III malocclusion were prospectively enrolled. All patients received endoscopic examination, cephalometry, 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT), and sleep study twice at 1 month before and 3 months after surgery.The patient population consisted of 5 males and 17 females with a mean body mass index of 22.5 kg/m and mean age of 22.1 years. No patients complained of sleep-related symptoms, and the results of sleep study showed normal values before surgery. Three patients (13%) were newly diagnosed with mild or moderate OSA and 6 patients (27%) showed increased loudness of snoring (over 40 dB) after bimaxillary surgery. According to cephalometric analysis and 3D-CT results, the retropalatal and retroglossal areas were significantly narrowed in class III malocclusion patients, showing snoring and sleep apnea after surgery. In addition, the total volume of the upper airway was considerably reduced following surgery in the same patients.Postoperative narrowing of the upper airway and a reduction of total upper airway volume can be induced, and causes snoring and OSA in class III malocclusion subjects following bimaxillary surgery.

  20. Acute physical exercise under hypoxia improves sleep, mood and reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino-Lemos, Valdir; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner T; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Lira, Fabio S; Luz Bittar, Irene G; Caris, Aline V; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak performed under hypoxia (equivalent to an altitude of 4500 m for 28 h) on sleep, mood and reaction time. Forty healthy men were randomized into 4 groups: Normoxia (NG) (n = 10); Hypoxia (HG) (n = 10); Exercise under Normoxia (ENG) (n = 10); and Exercise under Hypoxia (EHG) (n = 10). All mood and reaction time assessments were performed 40 min after awakening. Sleep was reassessed on the first day at 14 h after the initiation of hypoxia; mood and reaction time were measured 28 h later. Two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak were performed for 60 min on the first and second days after 3 and 27 h, respectively, after starting to hypoxia. Improved sleep efficiency, stage N3 and REM sleep and reduced wake after sleep onset were observed under hypoxia after acute physical exercise. Tension, anger, depressed mood, vigor and reaction time scores improved after exercise under hypoxia. We conclude that hypoxia impairs sleep, reaction time and mood. Acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak under hypoxia improves sleep efficiency, reversing the aspects that had been adversely affected under hypoxia, possibly contributing to improved mood and reaction time.

  1. Pre-processing techniques to improve HEVC subjective quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, D. G.; Del Barrio, A. A.; Botella, Guillermo; Meyer-Baese, Uwe; Meyer-Baese, Anke; Grecos, Christos

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, HEVC is the cutting edge encoding standard being the most efficient solution for transmission of video content. In this paper a subjective quality improvement based on pre-processing algorithms for homogeneous and chaotic regions detection is proposed and evaluated for low bit-rate applications at high resolutions. This goal is achieved by means of a texture classification applied to the input frames. Furthermore, these calculations help also reduce the complexity of the HEVC encoder. Therefore both the subjective quality and the HEVC performance are improved.

  2. Elevated upper body position improves pregnancy-related OSA without impairing sleep quality or sleep architecture early after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, Sebastian; Mueller, Noomi; Heisig, Anne M; Shin, Christina H; Jung, Stefanie; Leffert, Lisa R; Bateman, Brian T; Pugsley, Lori J; Nagasaka, Yasuko; Duarte, Ingrid Moreno; Ecker, Jeffrey L; Eikermann, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    During pregnancy, upper airway resistance is increased, predisposing vulnerable women to pregnancy-related OSA. Elevation of the upper body increases upper airway cross-sectional area (CSA) and improves severity of OSA in a subgroup of nonpregnant patients (positional-dependent sleep apnea). We tested the hypothesis that elevated position of the upper body improves OSA early after delivery. Following institutional review board approval, we conducted a randomized, crossover study on two postpartum units of Massachusetts General Hospital. Women during the first 48 h after delivery were included. Polysomnography was performed in nonelevated and 45° elevated upper body position. Upper airway CSA was measured by acoustic pharyngometry in nonelevated, 45° elevated, and sitting body position. Fifty-five patients were enrolled, and measurements of airway CSA obtained. Thirty patients completed polysomnography in both body positions. Elevation of the upper body significantly reduced apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) from 7.7 ± 2.2/h in nonelevated to 4.5 ± 1.4/h in 45° elevated upper body position (P = .031) during sleep. Moderate to severe OSA (AHI > 15/h) was diagnosed in 20% of postpartum patients and successfully treated by elevated body position in one-half of them. Total sleep time and sleep architecture were not affected by upper body elevation. Change from nonelevated to sitting position increased inspiratory upper airway CSA from 1.35 ± 0.1 cm2 to 1.54 ± 0.1 cm2 during wakefulness. Position-dependent increase in CSA and decrease in AHI were correlated (r = 0.42, P = .022). Among early postpartum women, 45° upper body elevation increased upper airway CSA and mitigated sleep apnea. Elevated body position might improve respiratory safety in women early after delivery. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01719224; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  3. Subjective sleep disturbances in children with partial epilepsy and their effects on quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutter, Th; Brouwer, O. F.; de Weerd, A. W.

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to explore the prevalence of sleep disturbances in a large cohort of school-aged children with partial epilepsy, to compare the findings with those in children without epilepsy of the same age and gender, and to evaluate the relationship between sleep

  4. Discrepancy between subjective and objective sleep disturbances in early and moderate stage Alzheimer’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Most, E.I.S.; Aboudan, S.; Scheltens, P.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Sleep disturbances such as nocturnal awakenings frequently occur in demented elderly persons and can contribute to depression, cognitive impairment, and caregiver burden. Recognizing sleep disturbances at an early stage of the disease progress is a first prerequisite of intervention and

  5. The Effectiveness of Hypnotherapy in Treating Depression, Anxiety and Sleep Disturbance Caused by Subjective Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmoud Mirzamani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with tinnitus encounter many problems, including depression, anxiety, insomnia, increased sensitivity to sound, and negativity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy on the depression, anxiety, and insomnia caused by tinnitus. Materials and Methods: This study was a pilot research with a pretest-posttest and control design. The statistical population included individuals who suffered from tinnitus and its associated symptoms. Twenty patients with tinnitus were selected through available sampling. The subjects were divided randomly into two experimental and control groups. Both groups completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in both pretest and post-test phases. Only the experimental group received 10 sessions of hypnotherapy. In this study, independent and dependent t-tests were used to obtain the data.Results: The two groups were similar in terms of tinnitus severity and age range. The results of independent and dependent t-tests at p=0.05 level in all three variables of depression, anxiety, and insomnia showed a significant difference between the scores of pretest and post-test as well as the post-test scores of control and experimental groups.Conclusion: The results indicated the effectiveness and usefulness of hypnotherapy in the reduction and treatment of the depression, anxiety, and insomnia caused by tinnitus in the experimental group.

  6. Improved sleep patterns positively affect learning outcome among Danish nursing students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølling, Ina Koldkjær; Carøe, Per

    physiology is taught at the nursing education programme; this does not mean that nursing students develop good sleep habits. Methods: To support learning an innovative method was chosen where nursing students were motivated to develop good sleep habits through peer learning. Nursing students were taught......-up by social media activities motivated the nursing students to change their sleep habits. Results: This project has been completed by one of two classes of first semester students at the nursing education programme at UCN. This class demonstrated better examination results and a lower drop-oup rate compared...... positive effect on the study environment. Through peer learning, the ambassadors will promote another project on health behaviour among another group of nursing students. A presumed positive side effect is that nursing students become more aware of sleep problems among patients. Moreover, improved sleep...

  7. Effect of sleep deprivation and driving duration on the useful visual field in younger and older subjects during simulator driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogé, Joceline; Pébayle, Thierry; El Hannachi, Saida; Muzet, Alain

    2003-06-01

    Nine older subjects (40-51 years) and 10 younger subjects (18-30 years) took part in two one-hour driving sessions. They performed a very monotonous task during which they had to follow a vehicle either after a complete night of sleep or after one night of sleep deprivation. While driving their useful visual field was assessed by introducing signals that would appear on the whole road scene. The analysis of the data indicates that the ability to process peripheral signals deteriorates with age, driving duration and sleep deprivation. However, the effects of these three variables on the peripheral visual ability are not similar in a dual task. The driver's useful visual field changes with age and prolongation of the monotonous driving activity according to a tunnel vision phenomenon. On the other hand, a sleep debt deteriorates the useful visual field according to a general interference phenomenon. These results are discussed in terms of decrease in the level of arousal and increase of fatigue.

  8. Self-reported sleep quantity, quality and sleep hygiene in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knufinke, Melanie; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Geurts, Sabine A E; Coenen, Anton M L; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2017-03-08

    Sleep is essential for recovery and performance in elite athletes. While actigraphy-based studies revealed suboptimal sleep in athletes, information on their subjective experience of sleep is scarce. Relatively unexplored is also the extent to which athletes' sleep is adversely affected by environmental conditions and daytime behaviours, that is sleep hygiene. This study aimed to provide insight in sleep quantity, quality and its putative association with sleep hygiene. Participants were 98 elite (youth) athletes competing at the highest (inter-)national level. Sleep quantity, quality and sleep hygiene were assessed once covering a 1-month period by using established (sub)clinical questionnaires, and repeatedly during 7 consecutive days. Sleep quality was generally healthy, although 41% of all athletes could be classified as 'poor sleeper', and 12% were identified as having a sleep disorder. Daily self-monitoring revealed sleep durations of 8:11 ± 0:45 h, but elevated wake after sleep onset of 13 ± 19 min. Sleep quality, feeling refreshed, and morning vigor were moderate at best. Regarding sleep hygiene, general measures revealed irregular sleep-wake patterns, psychological strain and activating pre-sleep behaviours. At the daily level, blue-light exposure and late-evening consumption of heavy meals were frequently reported. General sleep hygiene revealed significant associations with sleep quality (0.45  0.50; P sleep onset. Subtle improvements in sleep seem possible, and optimizing sleep hygiene, such as regular sleep-wake patterns and reducing psychological strain, may facilitate this sleep upgrading process. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Transcranial direct current stimulation during sleep improves declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Lisa; Mölle, Matthias; Hallschmid, Manfred; Born, Jan

    2004-11-03

    In humans, weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability in the motor, visual, and prefrontal cortex. Periods rich in slow-wave sleep (SWS) not only facilitate the consolidation of declarative memories, but in humans, SWS is also accompanied by a pronounced endogenous transcortical DC potential shift of negative polarity over frontocortical areas. To experimentally induce widespread extracellular negative DC potentials, we applied anodal tDCS (0.26 mA) [correction] repeatedly (over 30 min) bilaterally at frontocortical electrode sites during a retention period rich in SWS. Retention of declarative memories (word pairs) and also nondeclarative memories (mirror tracing skills) learned previously was tested after this period and compared with retention performance after placebo stimulation as well as after retention intervals of wakefulness. Compared with placebo stimulation, anodal tDCS during SWS-rich sleep distinctly increased the retention of word pairs (p sleep and during wake intervals. tDCS increased sleep depth toward the end of the stimulation period, whereas the average power in the faster frequency bands (,alpha, and beta) was reduced. Acutely, anodal tDCS increased slow oscillatory activity sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memories.

  10. Does exercise improve self-reported sleep quality in non-remitted major depressive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethorst, C D; Sunderajan, P; Greer, T L; Grannemann, B D; Nakonezny, P A; Carmody, T J; Trivedi, M H

    2013-04-01

    Sleep disturbances are persistent residual symptoms following remission of major depressive disorder (MDD) and are associated with an increased risk of MDD recurrence. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of exercise augmentation on self-reported sleep quality in participants with non-remitted MDD. Method Participants were randomized to receive selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) augmentation with one of two doses of exercise: 16 kilocalories per kilogram of body weight per week (KKW) or 4 KKW for 12 weeks. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the clinician-rated Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C). The four sleep-related items on the IDS-C (Sleep Onset Insomnia, Mid-Nocturnal Insomnia, Early Morning Insomnia, and Hypersomnia) were used to assess self-reported sleep quality. Significant decreases in total insomnia (p depressive symptoms. Higher baseline hypersomnia predicted a greater decrease in depression severity following exercise treatment (p = 0.0057). No significant moderating effect of any baseline sleep on change in depression severity was observed. There were no significant differences between exercise treatment groups on total insomnia or any individual sleep item. Exercise augmentation resulted in improvements in self-reported sleep quality in patients with non-remitted MDD. Given the prevalence of insomnia as a residual symptom following MDD treatment and the associated risk of MDD recurrence, exercise augmentation may have an important role in the treatment of MDD.

  11. Improving Cardiometabolic Health with Diet, Physical Activity, and Breaking Up Sitting: What about Sleep?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E. Vincent

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cardiometabolic disease poses a serious health and economic burden worldwide and its prevalence is predicted to increase. Prolonged sitting, lack of physical activity, poor diet, and short sleep duration are ubiquitous behaviors in modern society, and all are independent risk factors in the development of cardiometabolic disease. Existing evidence demonstrates that breaking up prolonged periods of sitting is beneficial for cardiometabolic health, however, studies have not controlled for prior sleep duration. This article examines how prolonged sitting and short sleep duration independently contribute to cardiometabolic risk, and how breaking up sitting and obtaining adequate sleep may reduce this risk. We suggest that as prolonged sitting and short sleep duration influence the same cardiometabolic parameters, there is potential for short sleep to attenuate the positive impact of breaking up prolonged sitting with physical activity. Likewise, breaking up prolonged sitting and obtaining adequate sleep together could improve predictors of cardiometabolic disease, i.e., the combined effect may be stronger than either alone. To explore these perspectives, we propose a research agenda to investigate the relationship between breaking up prolonged sitting with physical activity and short sleep duration. This will provide an evidence-base for informing the design of interventions to reduce the burden of cardiometabolic disease on communities worldwide.

  12. Efficacy of agomelatine and escitalopram on depression, subjective sleep and emotional experiences in patients with major depressive disorder: a 24-wk randomized, controlled, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corruble, Emmanuelle; de Bodinat, Christian; Belaïdi, Carole; Goodwin, Guy M

    2013-11-01

    In the present randomized, controlled, double-blind trial (12 wk treatment plus double-blind extension for 12 wk), 25-50 mg/d agomelatine (n = 164) and 10-20 mg/d escitalopram (n = 160) were compared for short- and long-term efficacy, subjective sleep and tolerability. The effects of these drugs on emotional experiences were also compared in patients having completed the Oxford Questionnaire on the Emotional Side-Effects of Antidepressants (agomelatine: n = 25; escitalopram: n = 20). Agomelatine and escitalopram similarly improved depressive symptoms, with clinically relevant score changes over 12 and 24 wk and notable percentage of remitters (week 12: 60.9 and 54.4%; week 24: 69.6 and 63.1% respectively). Over the 12 and 24-wk treatment periods, the 'global satisfaction on sleep' scores increased in both treatment groups and did not differ between groups. Satisfaction with sleep-wake quality was high in both groups; the 'wellness feeling on waking' was more improved with agomelatine than with escitalopram (p = 0.02). In patients with pronounced sleep complaints, quality of sleep and feeling on waking were significantly more improved with agomelatine than with escitalopram (p = 0.016 and p = 0.009, respectively). Emotional blunting was less frequent on agomelatine than on escitalopram. Indeed, 28% of patients on agomelatine vs. 60% on escitalopram felt that their emotions lacked intensity and 16% of patients on agomelatine vs. 53% on escitalopram felt that things that they cared about before illness did not seem important any more (p = 0.024). The tolerability profile of agomelatine was found to be superior to that of escitalopram and the incidence of patients with at least one emergent adverse event leading to treatment discontinuation was lower in the agomelatine group than in the escitalopram group (5.5 vs. 10.6%). The findings suggest that agomelatine displays additional long-term clinical benefits on sleep-wake quality and emotional experiences over

  13. Goodnight Book: Sleep Consolidation Improves Word Learning via Storybooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie E. Williams

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Reading the same storybooks repeatedly helps preschool children learn words. In addition, sleeping shortly after learning also facilitates memory consolidation and aids learning in older children and adults. The current study explored how sleep promotes word learning in preschool children using a shared storybook reading task. Children were either read the same story repeatedly or different stories and either napped after the stories or remained awake. Children’s word retention were tested 2.5 hours later, 24 hours later and 7 days later. Results demonstrate strong, persistent effects for both repeated readings and sleep consolidation on young children’s word learning. A key finding is that children who read different stories before napping learned words as well as children who had the advantage of hearing the same story. In contrast, children who read different stories and remained awake never caught up to their peers on later word learning tests. Implications for educational practices are discussed.

  14. Menstrual changes in sleep, rectal temperature and melatonin rhythms in a subject with premenstrual syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, K; Uchiyama, M; Okawa, M; Saito, K; Kawaguchi, M; Funabashi, T; Kimura, F

    2000-03-10

    We studied a sighted woman with premenstrual syndrome who showed menstrual changes in circadian rhythms. She showed alternative phase shifts in the sleep rhythm in the menstrual cycle: progressive phase advances in the follicular phase and phase delays in the luteal phase. Rectal temperature rhythm also showed similar menstrual changes, but the phase advance and delay started a few days earlier than changes in sleep-wake rhythm so that the two rhythms were dissociated around ovulation and menstruation. These results suggest that her circadian rhythms in sleep and temperature are under the control of ovarian steroid hormones and that these two rhythms have different sensitivity to the hormones.

  15. Analyses of aerodynamic characteristics of the oropharynx applying CBCT: obstructive sleep apnea patients versus control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Li, Yingguang; Reiber, Johan Hc; de Lange, Jan; Tu, Shengxian; van der Stelt, Paul; Lobbezoo, Frank; Aarab, Ghizlane

    2018-02-01

    To determine the most relevant aerodynamic characteristic of the oropharynx related to the collapse of the upper airway in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients; and to determine the correlation between the most relevant aerodynamic characteristic(s) of the oropharynx and anatomical characteristics of the oropharynx in OSA patients. 31 mild to moderate OSA patients (mean ± SD age = 43.5 ± 9.7 years) and 13 control subjects (mean ± SD age = 48.5 ± 16.2 years) were included in this prospective study. The diagnosis of OSA patients was based on an overnight polysomnographic recording. To exclude the presence of OSA in the control subjects, they were asked to fill out a validated questionnaire to determine the risk of OSA. NewTom5G cone beam CT (CBCT) scans were obtained from both OSA patients and control subjects. Computational models of the oropharynx were reconstructed based on CBCT images. The aerodynamic characteristics of the oropharynx were calculated based on these computational models. Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyse the correlation between the most relevant aerodynamic characteristic(s) and anatomical characteristics of the oropharynx in OSA patients. Compared with controls, the airway resistance during expiration (R ex ) of the OSA patients was significantly higher (p = 0.04). There was a significant negative correlation between R ex and the minimum cross-sectional area (CSA min ) of the oropharynx (r = -0.41, p = 0.02), and between R ex and the volume of the oropharynx (r = -0.48, p = 0.01) in OSA patients. After excluding an outlier, there is only significant correlation between R ex and the CSA min of the oropharynx (r = -0.45, p = 0.01). Within the limitations of this study, we concluded that the most relevant aerodynamic characteristic of the oropharynx in the collapse of the upper airway in OSA patients is R ex . Therefore, the repetitive collapse of the upper airway in OSA patients may be explained by a high R ex , which is

  16. Listening to music for improving sleep in adults with insomnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kira Vibe; Koenig, Julian; Jennum, Poul

    2013-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows:To assess the effects of music listening on sleep quality in adults with insomnia and to assess the influence of specific variables that may moderate the effect.......This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows:To assess the effects of music listening on sleep quality in adults with insomnia and to assess the influence of specific variables that may moderate the effect....

  17. Changes in Habitual Sleep Duration after Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Ryo; Minami, Takuma; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Murase, Kimihiko; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Inouchi, Morito; Oga, Toru; Chin, Kazuo

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can affect not only sleep quality but also sleep duration. Determining the therapeutic effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on habitual sleep profiles may shed light on the impact of OSA on sleep duration. To determine whether and how CPAP affects habitual sleep duration in patients with OSA. Assessments of sleep duration and sleep quality were performed on 57 newly diagnosed study subjects with OSA (46 men; median age, 63 yr; apnea-hypopnea index, >20 h(-1)) at baseline and 3 months after initiation of CPAP therapy. Measurements included in-laboratory sleep tests (polysomnography), assessments of habitual sleep (actigraphy with sleep diary for 7 d), and questionnaires on subjective symptoms (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Actigraphic night sleep time did not change after CPAP (from 354.0 ± 64.5 min to 353.0 ± 57.0 min; P = 0.87) in the entire group, despite improvements in sleep efficiency and sleep fragmentation. Changes in habitual night sleep duration varied among the participants; habitual night sleep duration increased by 33 minutes (interquartile range, 14-45 min) in 28 participants (sleep time restorers) and decreased by 23 minutes (interquartile range, -48 to -11 min) in 29 participants (sleep time nonrestorers). Subgroup analyses revealed that sleep time restorers were characterized at baseline as having shorter and more fragmented sleep with frequent daytime napping. Nonrestorers were characterized by frequent use of hypnotic drugs and comorbid insomnia, despite longer habitual sleep duration. Actigraphic sleep fragmentation, sleep efficiency, daytime sleepiness, and the frequency of daytime napping were improved after CPAP only in the sleep time restorers, whereas subjective sleep quality was improved in the nonrestorers. Multivariate linear regression showed that shorter baseline night sleep time, baseline daytime napping

  18. Effectiveness of prolonged-release melatonin in Improving Quality of Sleep in Patients Aged 55 or Over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kovrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficacy of prolonged-release melatonin used in routine practice to improve sleep quality in Russian patients over 55 years of age.Patients and methods. The results of the multicenter open-label observational study of Circadin (prolonged-release melatonin efficiency for treatment of insomnia in 36 patients older than 55 yeare presented. The drug was administered at a dose of 2 mg one-two hours before bedtime for 3 weeks.Results. Treatment with Circadin resulted in statistically significant (p<0.0001 according to pared t-test (95% CI: 4.8; 7.3 improvement of the sleep quality: the mean value of the modified subjective sleep characteristics scale increased from 11.8±2.6 points at baseline to 17.8±2.3 points after 3 weeks of treatment. The modified Questionnaire Scoring Subjective Characteristics of Sleep was grade from 0 (very bad to 20 (very good taking into account: the amount of time required to fall asleep, the sleep duration, the number of night awakenings and the general well-being in the morning. An increase of 6 points on a scale from 0 to 20 was considered as clinically relevant. A greater effect was observed in patients with severely impaired sleep quality as well as with low level of depression and anxiety and absence of cognitive impairment. Upon completion of Circadin treatment there were statistically significant improvement (p<0.0001 of attention (the mean value of the symbol-digit coding test increased from 34.2±9.7 to 37.3±10.6 points and memory (the median value of the short-term verbal memory test increased from 4 points at baseline to 5 points at the study end, p=0.0069.The drug had a good safety profile; only one adverse event related to study medication (allergic rush was registered in the study. The absolute majority (91.7% of the study patients considered Circadin treatment as either effective or very effective.Conclusion. Taking into consideration the good safety profile of this drug

  19. Time for bed: parent-set bedtimes associated with improved sleep and daytime functioning in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A; Gradisar, Michael; Wright, Helen; Lack, Leon C; Dohnt, Hayley; Carskadon, Mary A

    2011-06-01

    To determine the proportion of adolescents whose bedtime is set by their parents and to evaluate whether parent-set bedtimes are associated with earlier bedtimes, more sleep, and better daytime functioning. 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years (mean = 15.6, SD = 0.95; 60% male) from 8 socioeconomically diverse schools in South Australia. Adolescents completed the School Sleep Habits Survey during class time and then completed an 8-day Sleep Diary. The Flinders Fatigue Scale was completed on the final day of the study. 17.5% of adolescents reported a parent-set bedtime as the main factor determining their bedtime on school nights. Compared to adolescents without parent-set bedtimes, those with parent-set bedtimes had earlier bedtimes, obtained more sleep, and experienced improved daytime wakefulness and less fatigue. They did not differ significantly in terms of time taken to fall asleep. When parent-set bedtimes were removed on weekends, sleep patterns did not significantly differ between groups. Significant personal and public health issues, such as depression and accidental injury and mortality, are associated with insufficient sleep. Converging biological and psychosocial factors mean that adolescence is a period of heightened risk. Parent-set bedtimes offer promise as a simple and easily translatable means for parents to improve the sleep and daytime functioning of their teens.

  20. Pre-Sleep Protein Ingestion to Improve the Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Response to Exercise Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommelen, Jorn; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-11-28

    Protein ingestion following resistance-type exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates, and enhances the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training. As the adaptive response to a single bout of resistance exercise extends well beyond the first couple of hours of post-exercise recovery, recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of the timing and distribution of protein ingestion during more prolonged recovery periods. Recent work has shown that overnight muscle protein synthesis rates are restricted by the level of amino acid availability. Protein ingested prior to sleep is effectively digested and absorbed, and thereby stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery. When applied during a prolonged period of resistance-type exercise training, protein supplementation prior to sleep can further augment gains in muscle mass and strength. Recent studies investigating the impact of pre-sleep protein ingestion suggest that at least 40 g of protein is required to display a robust increase in muscle protein synthesis rates throughout overnight sleep. Furthermore, prior exercise allows more of the pre-sleep protein-derived amino acids to be utilized for de novo muscle protein synthesis during sleep. In short, pre-sleep protein ingestion represents an effective dietary strategy to improve overnight muscle protein synthesis, thereby improving the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training.

  1. Pre-Sleep Protein Ingestion to Improve the Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Response to Exercise Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorn Trommelen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Protein ingestion following resistance-type exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates, and enhances the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training. As the adaptive response to a single bout of resistance exercise extends well beyond the first couple of hours of post-exercise recovery, recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of the timing and distribution of protein ingestion during more prolonged recovery periods. Recent work has shown that overnight muscle protein synthesis rates are restricted by the level of amino acid availability. Protein ingested prior to sleep is effectively digested and absorbed, and thereby stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery. When applied during a prolonged period of resistance-type exercise training, protein supplementation prior to sleep can further augment gains in muscle mass and strength. Recent studies investigating the impact of pre-sleep protein ingestion suggest that at least 40 g of protein is required to display a robust increase in muscle protein synthesis rates throughout overnight sleep. Furthermore, prior exercise allows more of the pre-sleep protein-derived amino acids to be utilized for de novo muscle protein synthesis during sleep. In short, pre-sleep protein ingestion represents an effective dietary strategy to improve overnight muscle protein synthesis, thereby improving the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training.

  2. Sleep improvement for restless legs syndrome patients. Part III: effect of treatment assignment belief on sleep improvement in restless legs syndrome patients. A mediation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burbank F

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fred Burbank Director, Salt Creek International Women's Health Foundation, San Clemente, CA, USA Purpose: Two parallel-design, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trials were conducted to study the safety and efficacy of vibratory stimulation (VS on restless legs syndrome (RLS patients (Part I of this series of articles. Pooled data from the two studies was retroactively analyzed to compare the relative effects of actual pad assignment with therapeutic pad assignment belief on sleep improvement for patients with RLS. Patients and methods: One hundred fifty-eight patients with at least moderately severe RLS, as measured by a score of 15 points or greater on the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group rating scale (IRLS, were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment (patient-controlled vibration or sham (patient-controlled sound or light-emitting pads. Patients and clinicians were blinded to pad assignment. The pad was placed under the patient's legs while in bed at night and activated during an RLS episode. Improvements in Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Problems Index II (MOS-II scores from baseline to week 4 were examined as a function of pad assignment (independent variable and therapeutic pad assignment belief held by each patient (mediator variable through mediation analysis. Results: Therapeutic pad assignment belief influenced change in MOS-II scores more than actual pad assignment. Patients who believed they had been assigned a therapeutic pad had substantially greater sleep improvement than those who concluded the opposite. When a patient believed that a therapeutic pad had been assigned, sleep improvement was comparable in magnitude, independent of the type of pad assigned (vibrating or sham. Patients assigned vibrating pads believed that they had been assigned a therapeutic pad 2.6 times more frequently than patients assigned sham pads. Consequently, vibrating pads were more efficient at improving

  3. Increased estradiol and improved sleep, but not hot flashes, predict enhanced mood during the menopausal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Hadine; Petrillo, Laura Fagioli; Koukopoulos, Alexia; Viguera, Adele C; Hirschberg, April; Nonacs, Ruta; Somley, Brittny; Pasciullo, Erica; White, David P; Hall, Janet E; Cohen, Lee S

    2011-07-01

    The antidepressant effect of estrogen in women undergoing the menopause transition is hypothesized to be mediated by central nervous system effects of increasing estradiol on mood or through a pathway involving suppression of hot flashes and associated sleep disturbance. Estrogen therapy (ET) and the hypnotic agent zolpidem were selected as interventions in a three-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to distinguish the effects of estradiol, sleep, and hot flashes on depression. Women with depressive disorders, hot flashes, and sleep disturbance were randomly assigned to transdermal 17β-estradiol 0.05 mg/d, zolpidem 10 mg/d, or placebo for 8 wk. Changes in serum estradiol, perceived sleep quality, objectively measured sleep, and hot flashes were examined as predictors of depression improvement [Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)] using multivariate linear regression. Seventy-two peri/postmenopausal women with depression disorders were randomized to 17β-estradiol (n = 27), zolpidem (n = 31), or placebo (n = 14). There was no significant difference between groups in depression improvement (overall MADRS decrease 11.8 ± 8.6). Increasing estradiol (P = 0.009) and improved sleep quality (P mood in adjusted models but reduced hot flashes (P = 0.99) did not. Post hoc subgroup analyses revealed that the therapeutic effect of increasing estradiol levels on mood was seen in perimenopausal (P = 0.009), but not postmenopausal, women. For women with menopause-associated depression, improvement in depression is predicted by improved sleep, and among perimenopausal women, by increasing estradiol levels. These results suggest that changes in estradiol and sleep quality, rather than hot flashes, mediate depression during the menopause transition. Therapies targeting insomnia may be valuable in treating menopause-associated depression.

  4. Can mental healthcare nurses improve sleep quality for inpatients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niet, G.J. De; Tiemens, B.G.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a pilot study that was carried out to in order to gain an indication as to whether mental healthcare nurses can apply evidence-based interventions for sleep problems effectively in inpatient mental health care. The study had a pre-test/post-test design and a comparison group

  5. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  6. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Okajima

    Full Text Available The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  7. Melatonin improves sleep in children with epilepsy: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sejal V; Horn, Paul S; Simakajornboon, Narong; Beebe, Dean W; Holland, Katherine; Byars, Anna W; Glauser, Tracy A

    2015-05-01

    Insomnia, especially maintenance insomnia, is widely prevalent in epilepsy. Although melatonin is commonly used, limited data address its efficacy. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to identify the effects of melatonin on sleep and seizure control in children with epilepsy. Eleven prepubertal, developmentally normal children aged 6-11 years with epilepsy were randomized by a software algorithm to receive placebo or a 9-mg sustained release (SR) melatonin formulation for four weeks, followed by a one-week washout and a four-week crossover condition. The pharmacy performed blinding; patients, parents, and study staff other than a statistician were blinded. The primary outcomes were sleep onset latency and wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) measured on polysomnography. The secondary outcomes included seizure frequency, epileptiform spike density per hour of sleep on electroencephalogram (EEG), and reaction time (RT) measures on psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Statistical tests appropriate for crossover designs were used for the analysis. Data were analyzed from 10 subjects who completed the study. Melatonin decreased sleep latency (mean difference, MD, of 11.4 min and p = 0.02) and WASO (MD of 22 min and p = 0.04) as compared to placebo. No worsening of spike density or seizure frequency was seen. Additionally, slow-wave sleep duration and rapid eye movement (REM) latency were increased with melatonin and REM sleep duration was decreased. These changes were statistically significant. Worsening of headache was noted in one subject with migraine on melatonin. SR melatonin resulted in statistically significant decreases in sleep latency and WASO. No clear effects on seizures were observed, but the study was too small to allow any conclusions to be drawn in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep inspires insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ullrich; Gais, Steffen; Haider, Hilde; Verleger, Rolf; Born, Jan

    2004-01-22

    Insight denotes a mental restructuring that leads to a sudden gain of explicit knowledge allowing qualitatively changed behaviour. Anecdotal reports on scientific discovery suggest that pivotal insights can be gained through sleep. Sleep consolidates recent memories and, concomitantly, could allow insight by changing their representational structure. Here we show a facilitating role of sleep in a process of insight. Subjects performed a cognitive task requiring the learning of stimulus-response sequences, in which they improved gradually by increasing response speed across task blocks. However, they could also improve abruptly after gaining insight into a hidden abstract rule underlying all sequences. Initial training establishing a task representation was followed by 8 h of nocturnal sleep, nocturnal wakefulness, or daytime wakefulness. At subsequent retesting, more than twice as many subjects gained insight into the hidden rule after sleep as after wakefulness, regardless of time of day. Sleep did not enhance insight in the absence of initial training. A characteristic antecedent of sleep-related insight was revealed in a slowing of reaction times across sleep. We conclude that sleep, by restructuring new memory representations, facilitates extraction of explicit knowledge and insightful behaviour.

  9. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-09-01

    To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes' adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan.

  10. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Results Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Conclusions Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes’ adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan. PMID:22375236

  11. A comparative study on the clinical and polysomnographic pattern of obstructive sleep apnea among obese and non-obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to compare the pattern of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA among obese and nonobese subjects regarding clinical and polysomnographic data obtained for a polysomnographic study. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective descriptive study was conducted by analyzing polysomnographic data in 112 consecutive patients underwent a sleep study at our sleep laboratory from January 2009 to July 2010. Out of them, 81 were diagnosed to have OSA (apnea-hypopnoea Index ≥5. These patients were classified in two groups with body mass index (BMI 0.001. The minimal oxygen saturation was lower in the obese than the nonobese group (68.5 ± 13.00 vs. 80.3 ± 7.40, P0.001 and was well below 90% in both groups. Overall, the OSA in nonobese patients was mild-to-moderate as compared to that of the obese and no significant differences were observed between them as regard to age, gender, mean neck circumference, excessive daytime sleepiness, adenoid or tonsillar enlargement, smoking, and remaining polysomnographic parameters. Conclusion: Obstructive sleep apnea can occur in nonobese persons though with less severity as compared to obese leading to a concept that OSA is not restricted to obese persons only and there is a high demand of its awareness regarding evaluation, diagnosis, and management in such individuals.

  12. Vedolizumab Therapy Is Associated with an Improvement in Sleep Quality and Mood in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Betsy W; Borren, Nynke Z; Velonias, Gabriella; Conway, Grace; Cleland, Thom; Andrews, Elizabeth; Khalili, Hamed; Garber, John G; Xavier, Ramnik J; Yajnik, Vijay; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N

    2017-01-01

    Poor sleep, depression, and anxiety are common in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and associated with increased risk of relapse and poor outcomes. The effectiveness of therapies in improving such psychosocial outcomes is unclear but is an important question to examine with increasing selectivity of therapeutic agents. This prospective cohort enrolled patients with moderate-to-severe CD or UC starting biologic therapy with vedolizumab or anti-tumor necrosis factor α agents (anti-TNF). Sleep quality, depression, and anxiety were measured using validated short-form NIH PROMIS questionnaires assessing sleep and mood quality over the past 7 days. Disease activity was assessed using validated indices. Improvement in sleep and mood scores from baseline was assessed, and regression models were used to identify determinants of sleep quality. Our study included 160 patients with IBD (49 anti-TNF, 111 Vedolizumab) among whom half were women and the mean age was 40.2 years. In the combined cohort, we observed a statistically significant and meaningful decrease in mean scores from baseline (52.8) by week 6 (49.8, p = 0.002). Among vedolizumab users, sleep T-score improved from baseline (53.6) by week 6 (50.7) and persisted through week 54 (46.5, p = 0.009). Parallel reductions in depression and anxiety were also noted (p sleep, depression, and anxiety between vedolizumab and anti-TNF use at week 6. Both vedolizumab and anti-TNF biologic therapies were associated with improvement in sleep and mood quality in IBD.

  13. Exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms for office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kokoro; Kawashima, Motoko; Takechi, Sayuri; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the benefits of a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program to reduce the dry eye symptoms of office workers. We recruited 11 office workers with dry eye symptoms, aged 31-64 years, who voluntarily participated in group health guidance at a manufacturing company. Participants learned about the role of physical activity and exercise in enhancing wellness and performed an exercise program at home 3 days per week for 10 weeks. We estimated the indexes of body composition, dry eye symptoms, and psychological distress using the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score and the World Health Organization's Subjective Well-Being Inventory questionnaires pre- and postintervention. The 10-week exercise program and the questionnaires were completed by 48.1% (39 of 81) of the participants. Body composition did not change pre- and postintervention. However, the average of the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score scores in participants with subjective dry eye significantly improved after the intervention. Moreover, the World Health Organization's Subjective Well-Being Inventory positive well-being score tended to increase after the intervention. In this study, we showed that a 10-week exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms of healthy office workers. Our study suggests that a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program can play an important role in the treatment of patients with dry eye disease.

  14. Strategies for Getting Enough Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Strategies for Getting Enough Sleep You can take steps to improve your sleep ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: June 7, 2017 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  15. Post learning sleep improves cognitive-emotional decision-making: evidence for a 'deck B sleep effect' in the Iowa Gambling Task.

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    Corrine J Seeley

    Full Text Available The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT is widely used to assess real life decision-making impairment in a wide variety of clinical populations. Our study evaluated how IGT learning occurs across two sessions, and whether a period of intervening sleep between sessions can enhance learning. Furthermore, we investigate whether pre-sleep learning is necessary for this improvement. A 200-trial version of the IGT was administered at two sessions separated by wake, sleep or sleep and wake (time-of-day control. Participants were categorized as learners and non-learners based on initial performance in session one. In session one, participants initially preferred the high-frequency reward decks B and D, however, a subset of learners decreased choice from negative expected value 'bad' deck B and increased choices towards with a positive expected value 'good' decks (decks C and D. The learners who had a period of sleep (sleep and sleep/wake control conditions between sessions showed significantly larger reduction in choices from deck B and increase in choices from good decks compared to learners that had intervening wake. Our results are the first to show that post-learning sleep can improve performance on a complex decision-making task such as the IGT. These results provide new insights into IGT learning and have important implications for understanding the neural mechanisms of "sleeping on" a decision.

  16. Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n = 51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n = 34) or to an active control group (n = 17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and

  17. Cognitive training improves sleep quality and cognitive function among older adults with insomnia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Haimov

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia.Participants (n = 51 were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n = 34 or to an active control group (n = 17. The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated.COMMUNITY SETTING: residential sleep/performance testing facility.Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65-85.Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia.Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming. Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved "avoiding distractions" is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep.New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized

  18. Quantitative Motor Performance and Sleep Benefit in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gilst, Merel M; van Mierlo, Petra; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Overeem, Sebastiaan

    2015-10-01

    Many people with Parkinson disease experience "sleep benefit": temporarily improved mobility upon awakening. Here we used quantitative motor tasks to assess the influence of sleep on motor functioning in Parkinson disease. Eighteen Parkinson patients with and 20 without subjective sleep benefit and 20 healthy controls participated. Before and directly after a regular night sleep and an afternoon nap, subjects performed the timed pegboard dexterity task and quantified finger tapping task. Subjective ratings of motor functioning and mood/vigilange were included. Sleep was monitored using polysomnography. On both tasks, patients were overall slower than healthy controls (night: F2,55 = 16.938, P Parkinson patients. Here we show that the subjective experience of sleep benefit is not paralleled by an actual improvement in motor functioning. Sleep benefit therefore appears to be a subjective phenomenon and not a Parkinson-specific reduction in symptoms. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. Polysomnograph chart view by patients: a new educational strategy to improve CPAP adherence in sleep apnea therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Vito Antonio; Damiani, Mario Francesco; Quaranta, Vitaliano Nicola; Capozzolo, Alberto; Resta, Onofrio

    2014-02-01

    CPAP is currently the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but therapy adherence is poor. Many educational trials have been proposed to increase CPAP adherence. We tested the hypothesis that polysomnograph chart viewing by patients would improve CPAP adherence. A controlled parallel group study was performed with 206 newly diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients, randomized into 2 groups (n = 103 each): standard support group, and educational support group. Each educational support group subject viewed 2 consecutive polysomnograms on the computer screen: the first recorded during a standard diagnostic overnight polysomnography, and the second during a full-night polysomnography with nasal CPAP. The subject's attention was drawn only to the flow and oxyhemoglobin saturation curves. Clinical outcomes were assessed via polysomnography at CPAP initiation and after 1, 3, and 12 months. After 12 months of CPAP, 76% of the educational support group and 52% of the standard support group returned for a follow-up visit (P CPAP use (measured as hours of use per night) was higher in the educational support group at each control visit. Polysomnograph chart viewing by obstructive sleep apnea patients can increase CPAP adherence, as evaluated by rate of return for the follow-up visit and mean nightly CPAP use.

  20. Sleep and exercise: a reciprocal issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Léger, Damien

    2015-04-01

    Sleep and exercise influence each other through complex, bilateral interactions that involve multiple physiological and psychological pathways. Physical activity is usually considered as beneficial in aiding sleep although this link may be subject to multiple moderating factors such as sex, age, fitness level, sleep quality and the characteristics of the exercise (intensity, duration, time of day, environment). It is therefore vital to improve knowledge in fundamental physiology in order to understand the benefits of exercise on the quantity and quality of sleep in healthy subjects and patients. Conversely, sleep disturbances could also impair a person's cognitive performance or their capacity for exercise and increase the risk of exercise-induced injuries either during extreme and/or prolonged exercise or during team sports. This review aims to describe the reciprocal fundamental physiological effects linking sleep and exercise in order to improve the pertinent use of exercise in sleep medicine and prevent sleep disorders in sportsmen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Qigong Exercise May Reduce Serum TNF-α Levels and Improve Sleep in People with Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghee Moon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory cytokine levels are often elevated in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD. People with PD often experience sleep disturbances that significantly impact quality of life. Past studies suggest inflammatory cytokines may be associated with various symptoms of PD. Benefits of Qigong, a mind–body exercise, have been shown in different neurological conditions, but there is still a lack of clinical evidence in the PD population. Methods: Ten people with PD were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups receiving six weeks of Qigong (experimental group or sham Qigong (control group intervention. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in subjects’ serum and sleep quality were measured before and after the intervention. Results: After the intervention, the serum level of TNF-α in the experimental group was significantly decreased in all subjects, while the level in the control group showed a trend to increase. Qigong exercise significantly improved sleep quality at night. There was a strong correlation between changes in the level of TNF-α and sleep quality. Conclusion: Qigong exercise decreased TNF-α level in people with PD and helped improve sleep quality. TNF-α may have a potential to influence the sleep quality in people with PD.

  2. Success Rate and Technical Quality of Home Polysomnography with Self-Applicable Electrode Set in Subjects with Possible Sleep Bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Tomi; Myllymaa, Katja; Westeren-Punnonen, Susanna; Ahlberg, Jari; Hukkanen, Taina; Toyras, Juha; Lappalainen, Reijo; Mervaala, Esa; Sipila, Kirsi; Myllymaa, Sami

    2017-08-18

    Using sleep laboratory polysomnography (PSG) is restricted for the diagnosis of only the most severe sleep disorders due to its low availability and high cost. Home PSG is more affordable, but applying conventional electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes increases its overall complexity and lowers the availability. Simple, self-administered single-channel EEG monitors on the other hand suffer from poor reliability. In this study, we aimed to quantify the reliability of self-administrated home PSG recordings conducted with a newly designed ambulatory electrode set (AES) that enables multi-channel EEG, electrooculography, electromyography and electrocardiography recordings. We assessed the sleep study success rate and technical quality of the recordings performed in subjects with possible sleep bruxism (SB). Thirty-two females and five males aged 39.6±11.6 years (mean±SD) with self-reported SB were recruited in the study. Self-administrated home PSG recordings with two AES designs were conducted (n=19 and 21). The technical quality of the recordings was graded based on the proportion of interpretable data. Technical failure rate for AES (both designs) was 5% and SB was scorable for 96.9% of all recorded data. Only one recording failed due to mistakes in self-applying the AES. We found that the proportion of good quality self-administrated EEG recordings is significantly higher when multiple channels are used compared to using a single channel. Sleep study success rates and proportion of recordings with high quality interpretable data from EEG channels of AES were comparable to that of conventional home PSG. Self-applicable AES has potential to become a reliable tool for widely available home PSG.

  3. A shower before bedtime may improve the sleep onset latency of youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth-Turner, Craig; Di Michele, Rocco; Muir, Ian; Gregson, Warren; Drust, Barry

    2017-10-01

    During the competitive season, soccer players are likely exposed to numerous factors that may disrupt the process of sleep. The current investigation looked to evaluate a practical sleep hygiene strategy (10-min showering at ∼40°C before lights out), within a group of 11 youth soccer players in comparison to normal sleeping conditions (control). Each condition consisted of three days within a randomised crossover trial design. Sleep information was collected using a commercial wireless bedside sleep monitor. Measures of skin temperature were evaluated using iButton skin thermistors to establish both distal and proximal skin temperatures and distal to proximal gradient. The shower intervention elevated distal skin temperature by 1.1°C (95% CI: 0.1-2.1°C, p = .04) on average prior to lights out. The elevation in distal temperature was also present during the first 30-min following lights out (1.0°C, 95% CI: 0.4-1.6°C, p < .01). The distal to proximal gradient also showed a significant effect between the conditions within the first 30-min after lights out (0.7°C, 95% CI: 0.3-1.2°C, p < .01). On average the sleep latency of the youth soccer players was -7-min lower (95% CI: -13 to -2 min, p < .01) and sleep efficiency +2% higher (95% CI: 1-3%; p < .01) in the shower condition. These findings demonstrate that a warm shower performed before lights out may offer a practical strategy to promote thermoregulatory changes that may advance sleep onset latency and improve sleep efficiency in athletes.

  4. Sleep and vascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Gérard E

    2006-10-01

    It is not surprising that cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure and coronary insufficiency can give rise to varying degrees of sleep impairment; it is less readily appreciated that certain physiologic events occurring during sleep-as well as long-term unsatisfactory sleep-may cause or increase the risk of cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, stroke, and cardiac arrythmias. Heart rate abnormalities during sleep in normotensive subjects predict later cardiovascular disease, and their early identification alerts the physician to undertake preventive measures. Maneuvers, such as induction of hypoxia, can elicit abnormal blood pressure responses during sleep, and such responses have been used to identify impending cardiovascular problems that could become therapeutic targets. The spontaneously hypertensive rat has been used to examine the effect of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity on the heart under a variety of experimental conditions, including quiet and paradoxical sleep. The results have disclosed significant differences between the responses of spontaneously hypertensive rats and normal rats to SNS stimulation. Exploration of other pathophysiologic pathways affected by exposure to light and dark, including those responsive to the cyclic production of melatonin, will improve our understanding of the effect of disruptions of the circadian cycle on cardiovascular function. There is growing evidence that melatonin can influence important processes such as fluid, nitrogen, and acid-base balance. Human subjects whose nocturnal arterial blood pressure fails to show the "normal" decrement during sleep ("nondippers") are also prone to sleep poorly, exhibit increased SNS activity during sleep, and have an increased risk of total and cardiovascular disease mortality. Chronic sleep deficit is now known to be a risk factor for obesity and may contribute to the visceral form of obesity that underlies the metabolic syndrome

  5. Blue-light-blocking intraocular lens implantation improves the sleep quality of cataract patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; She, Chunyan; Chen, Danian; Yan, Fangbing; Zeng, Jihong; Zeng, Liping; Wang, Lin

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate whether blue-light-blocking intraocular lens implantation affects the sleep quality of cataract patients. Pre-test/post-test experiment. N/A. 40 patients having bilateral cataracts with level higher than N3 (LOCS II) nucleus hardness, including 26 females (65%) and 14 males (35%). Cataract phacoemulsification followed by blue-light-blocking intraocular lens (IOLs, SN60WF, Alcon Laboratories, USA) implantation. Patients were contacted in site before cataract surgery and followed by telephone at least 2 months later after second-eye surgery. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires were administered to evaluate sleep quality. Median age of patients was 74 years (IQR 70 to 78). The median PSQI globe scores were 7 before surgery and 4 after surgery (Z = -2.121, p = 0.037). More specifically, there were significant differences on subjective sleep quality (Z = -2.064, p = 0.045), sleep duration (Z = -2.037, p = 0.047) and daytime dysfunction (Z = -2.142, p = 0.034) when compared between before and after surgeries. The ratio of poor sleepers (PSQI > 5) was reduced significantly after surgery (χ² = 14.532, p Blue-light-blocking IOL had a significantly beneficial effect on the sleep quality of cataract patients.

  6. Subjective sleep quality in women experiencing intimate partner violence: contributions of situational, psychological, and physiological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephanie J; Kozachik, Sharon L; Hall, Rosalie J

    2010-02-01

    This study, guided by an adaptation of the theory of unpleasant symptoms, examined the complex relationships of childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence (IPV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and physical health symptoms with global sleep quality and disruptive nighttime behaviors. Data were analyzed using covariance structure analysis. A convenience sample of 157 women currently experiencing IPV was recruited from crisis shelters and community agencies. Findings provide empirical support that women concurrently experiencing PTSD, depression, and stress-related physical health symptoms demonstrated poor global sleep quality and frequent disruptive nighttime behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder and stress health symptoms functioned as mediators of childhood maltreatment and IPV effects on both global sleep quality and disruptive nighttime behaviors, but depression did not.

  7. A descriptive study to assess the impact of surgical stomas on individuals' sleep perceptions & response to sleep hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorbeck, Ellen; Willette-Murphy, Karen; Meiers, Sonja; Rudel, Rebecca; Alakhras, Mazen

    2010-01-01

    Multiple factors affect the sleep quality of individuals with surgically created stomas. Using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation as the theoretical framework, a study was conducted to: 1) assess subjective sleep quality perceptions and objective sleep measurement in adults with stomas, 2) determine if there is a correlation between subjective and objective measurement of sleep in this group, and 3) implement a stoma-specific sleep hygiene intervention to improve these sleep quality perceptions. Subjective assessment focused on sleep subset questions from the Stoma Quality of Life Index (SQOLI) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Respondents' (n = 26) subjective sleep scores were 7.23 mean global score on seven questions (PSQI, range: 0 [no difficulty sleeping] to 3 [severe difficulty sleeping], total 0 to 21) with a mean score of 7.32 on three questions (SQOLI, range 1 [severe difficulty sleeping] to 4 [no difficulty sleeping], total 0 to 12) on sleep subset questions; composite scores of 5 or greater (PSQI) and 3 or less (SQOLI) indicating sleep problems. Scores showed that adults with stomas have increased sleep disruption and poor sleep quality. Five respondents who met intervention enrollment criteria participated in an objective sleep assessment using actigraphy, overnight oxygenation studies, and a 4-week sleep hygiene intervention. Mean PSQI score improved by 1.20 but the difference was not statistically significant. Because the results of this study confirm that sleep problems are common in older adults with a stoma, larger sample size studies of >4 weeks' duration are warranted. Until additional research results are available, the existence of sleep quality and overnight pouching concerns should be recognized and use of the low-cost, easy-to-use, stoma-specific sleep hygiene intervention considered.

  8. Tai chi qigong as a means to improve night-time sleep quality among older adults with cognitive impairment: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan AWK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aileen WK Chan, Doris SF Yu, KC Choi, Diana TF Lee, Janet WH Sit, Helen YL Chan The Nethersole School of Nursing, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Age-related cognitive decline is a growing public health concern worldwide. More than a quarter of adults with cognitive impairment experience sleep disturbance. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the preliminary effects of tai chi qigong (TCQ on improving the night-time sleep quality of older adults with cognitive impairment. Participants: Older adults with cognitive impairment who complain of sleep disturbance. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with two groups. Fifty-two subjects were recruited from two district elderly community centers and randomly assigned to either the TCQ group (n=27 or the control group (n=25. The intervention group received TCQ training consisting of two 60-minute sessions each week for 2 months. The control group was advised to maintain their usual activities. Sleep quality was measured by the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Quality of life was measured by Short-form 12, cognitive functions measured by mini-mental state examination, and subjective memory deficits measured by the memory inventory for Chinese. Results: Data were collected at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months. Significant results were noted at 6 months in the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score (P=0.004, sleep duration (P=0.003, habitual sleep efficiency (P=0.002, and the Short-form 12 mental health component (P<0.001. The TCQ participants reported better sleep quality and a better (quality of life mental health component than the control group. Conclusion: TCQ can be considered a useful nonpharmacological approach for improving sleep quality in older adults with cognitive impairment.Clinical trial registration: CUHK_CCT00448 (https://www2.ccrb.cuhk.edu.hk/registry/public/287. Keywords: cognitive decline, mind

  9. Evaluating and Improving Automatic Sleep Spindle Detection by Using Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yin Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindles are brief bursts of brain activity in the sigma frequency range (11–16 Hz measured by electroencephalography (EEG mostly during non-rapid eye movement (NREM stage 2 sleep. These oscillations are of great biological and clinical interests because they potentially play an important role in identifying and characterizing the processes of various neurological disorders. Conventionally, sleep spindles are identified by expert sleep clinicians via visual inspection of EEG signals. The process is laborious and the results are inconsistent among different experts. To resolve the problem, numerous computerized methods have been developed to automate the process of sleep spindle identification. Still, the performance of these automated sleep spindle detection methods varies inconsistently from study to study. There are two reasons: (1 the lack of common benchmark databases, and (2 the lack of commonly accepted evaluation metrics. In this study, we focus on tackling the second problem by proposing to evaluate the performance of a spindle detector in a multi-objective optimization context and hypothesize that using the resultant Pareto fronts for deriving evaluation metrics will improve automatic sleep spindle detection. We use a popular multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA, the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2, to optimize six existing frequency-based sleep spindle detection algorithms. They include three Fourier, one continuous wavelet transform (CWT, and two Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT based algorithms. We also explore three hybrid approaches. Trained and tested on open-access DREAMS and MASS databases, two new hybrid methods of combining Fourier with HHT algorithms show significant performance improvement with F1-scores of 0.726–0.737.

  10. The effects of exercise on self-rated sleep among adults with chronic sleep complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Erlacher

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Improvements on subjective sleep quality after a combined intervention cannot be attributed to the cognitive component alone, but PA has an independent effect. Adults with chronic sleep complaints benefit from exercise. Therefore structured PA should be implemented in any sleep management programs.

  11. Exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms for office workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sano K

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kokoro Sano,1 Motoko Kawashima,1 Sayuri Takechi,2 Masaru Mimura,2 Kazuo Tsubota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: We investigated the benefits of a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program to reduce the dry eye symptoms of office workers. Materials and methods: We recruited 11 office workers with dry eye symptoms, aged 31–64 years, who voluntarily participated in group health guidance at a manufacturing company. Participants learned about the role of physical activity and exercise in enhancing wellness and performed an exercise program at home 3 days per week for 10 weeks. We estimated the indexes of body composition, dry eye symptoms, and psychological distress using the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score and the World Health Organization’s Subjective Well-Being Inventory questionnaires pre- and postintervention. Results: The 10-week exercise program and the questionnaires were completed by 48.1% (39 of 81 of the participants. Body composition did not change pre- and postintervention. However, the average of the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score scores in participants with subjective dry eye significantly improved after the intervention. Moreover, the World Health Organization’s Subjective Well-Being Inventory positive well-being score tended to increase after the intervention. Conclusion: In this study, we showed that a 10-week exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms of healthy office workers. Our study suggests that a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program can play an important role in the treatment of patients with dry eye disease. Keywords: dry eye, exercise, office workers, cognitive behavioral therapy

  12. Buprenorphine Transdermal System Improves Sleep Quality and Reduces Sleep Disturbance in Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Chronic Low Back Pain: Results from Two Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarlas, Aaron; Miller, Kate; Wen, Warren; Lynch, Shau Yu; Ripa, Steven R; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Raffa, Robert B

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of buprenorphine (Butrans®) transdermal System (BTDS) treatment on sleep outcomes for patients with moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain (CLBP). Two enriched-enrollment, randomized-withdrawal, double-blind, controlled trials examined BTDS treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe CLBP. Trial I evaluated BTDS 10 and 20 mcg/hour against a placebo control among opioid-naïve patients. Trial II compared BTDS 20 mcg/hour against a lower-dose control (BTDS 5 mcg/hour) among opioid-experienced patients. The patient-reported Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS-SS) assessed overall sleep quality (Sleep Problems Index [SPI]), Disturbance, and other sleep outcomes. In each trial, MOS-SS scores were compared between target treatment and control arms during the 12-week double-blind phase. Correspondence of changes in sleep outcomes and pain severity and the degree to which pain reduction mediates treatment impact on sleep outcomes were examined. Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale scores were collected from 541 (Trial I) and 441 (Trial II) patients prior to randomization and from 369 (Trial I) and 274 (Trial II) patients at week 12. Patients receiving target treatment showed statistically significantly more improvement in SPI and Disturbance scores at 12 weeks than their respective controls (Ps sleep outcomes. Buprenorphine Transdermal System improved sleep quality and disturbance for opioid-naïve and opioid-experienced patients with moderate-to-severe CLBP. Benefits of BTDS for these sleep outcomes emerged within 4 weeks and were maintained over the entire 12-week treatment period. © 2015 Optum. Pain Practice published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of World Institute of Pain.

  13. Memory improvement via slow-oscillatory stimulation during sleep in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, Carmen E; Florczak, Susan M; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Marshall, Lisa; Zee, Phyllis C; Paller, Ken A

    2015-09-01

    We examined the intriguing but controversial idea that disrupted sleep-dependent consolidation contributes to age-related memory decline. Slow-wave activity during sleep may help strengthen neural connections and provide memories with long-term stability, in which case decreased slow-wave activity in older adults could contribute to their weaker memories. One prediction from this account is that age-related memory deficits should be reduced by artificially enhancing slow-wave activity. In young adults, applying transcranial current oscillating at a slow frequency (0.75 Hz) during sleep improves memory. Here, we tested whether this procedure can improve memory in older adults. In 2 sessions separated by 1 week, we applied either slow-oscillatory stimulation or sham stimulation during an afternoon nap in a double-blind, crossover design. Memory tests were administered before and after sleep. A larger improvement in word-pair recall and higher slow-wave activity was observed with slow-oscillatory stimulation than with sham stimulation. This is the first demonstration that this procedure can improve memory in older adults, suggesting that declarative memory performance in older adults is partly dependent on slow-wave activity during sleep. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of Medical Subject Headings and text-word searches in MEDLINE to retrieve studies on sleep in healthy individuals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenuwine, Elizabeth S.; Floyd, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate the performance of two search strategies in the retrieval of primary research papers containing descriptive information on the sleep of healthy people from MEDLINE. Methodology: Two search strategies—one based on the use of only Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), the second based on text-word searching—were evaluated as to their specificity and sensitivity in retrieving a set of relevant research papers published in the journal Sleep from 1996 to 2001 that were preselected by a hand search. Results: The subject search provided higher specificity than the text-word search (66% and 47%, respectively) but lower sensitivity (78% for the subject search versus 88% for the text-word search). Each search strategy gave some unique relevant hits. Conclusions: The two search strategies complemented each other and should be used together for maximal retrieval. No combination of MeSH terms could provide comprehensive yet reasonably precise retrieval of relevant articles. The text-word searching had sensitivity and specificity comparable to the subject search. In addition, use of text words “normal,” “healthy,” and “control” in the title or abstract fields to limit the final sets provided an efficient way to increase the specificity of both search strategies. PMID:15243641

  15. The Coronary Health Improvement Projects Impact on Lowering Eating, Sleep, Stress, and Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M.; Aldana, Stephen G.; Greenlaw, Roger L.; Diehl, Hans A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The Coronary Health Improvement Project (CHIP) is designed to lower cardiovascular risk factors among a group of generally healthy individuals through health education. Purpose: This study will evaluate the efficacy of the CHIP intervention at improving eating, sleep, stress, and depressive disorders. Methods: A health education…

  16. The SENSE Study: Treatment Mechanisms of a Cognitive Behavioral and Mindfulness-Based Group Sleep Improvement Intervention for At-Risk Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Matthew; Schwartz, Orli; Waloszek, Joanna M; Raniti, Monika; Simmons, Julian G; Murray, Greg; Blake, Laura; Dahl, Ronald E; Bootzin, Richard; McMakin, Dana L; Dudgeon, Paul; Trinder, John; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a cognitive behavioral and mindfulness-based group sleep intervention would improve sleep and anxiety on school nights in a sample of at-risk adolescents. We also examined whether benefits to sleep and anxiety would be mediated by improvements in sleep hygiene awareness and presleep hyperarousal. Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted with 123 adolescent participants (female = 60%; mean age = 14.48) who had high levels of sleep problems and anxiety symptoms. Participants were randomized into a sleep improvement intervention (n = 63) or active control "study skills" intervention (n = 60). Preintervention and postintervention, participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), Sleep Beliefs Scale (SBS), and Presleep Hyperarousal Scale (PSAS) and wore an actiwatch and completed a sleep diary for five school nights. The sleep intervention condition was associated with significantly greater improvements in actigraphy-measured sleep onset latency (SOLobj), sleep diary measured sleep efficiency (SEsubj), PSQI, SCAS, SBS, and PSAS, with medium to large effect sizes. Improvements in the PSQI and SCAS were specifically mediated by the measured improvements in the PSAS that resulted from the intervention. Improvements in SOLobj and SEsubj were not specifically related to improvements in any of the putative treatment mechanisms. This study provides evidence that presleep arousal but not sleep hygiene awareness is important for adolescents' perceived sleep quality and could be a target for new treatments of adolescent sleep problems.

  17. Disagreement between subjective and actigraphic measures of sleep duration in a population-based study of elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.F. van den; Rooij, F.J.A. van; Vos, H.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Hofman, A.; Miedema, H.M.E.; Neven, A.K.; Tiemeier, H.

    2008-01-01

    Sleep duration is an important concept in epidemiological studies. It characterizes a night's sleep or a person's sleep pattern, and is associated with numerous health outcomes. In most large studies, sleep duration is assessed with questionnaires or sleep diaries. As an alternative, actigraphy may

  18. Disagreement between subjective and actigraphic measures of sleep duration in a population-based study of elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. van den Berg (Julia); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); H. Vos; J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); A. Hofman (Albert); H.M. Miedema (Henk); A.K. Neven (Arie); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSleep duration is an important concept in epidemiological studies. It characterizes a night's sleep or a person's sleep pattern, and is associated with numerous health outcomes. In most large studies, sleep duration is assessed with questionnaires or sleep diaries. As an alternative,

  19. Sleep and Rest Requirements: Physiological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, David F.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Sleep is a vital physiological need which must be met to insure optimal functioning. A single night of significantly shortened sleep negatively impacts performance, alertness, and mood. Restricted sleep studies have shown that even a relatively small amount of sleep loss over several consecutive days can be additive and result in a cumulative sleep debt with similar detrimental effects. Compounding the problem of sleep loss in the operational environment is the poor correlation between subjective reports of sleepiness and objective measures of physiological sleep need. Some of the factors determining how sleepy an individual is at a given point in time are: (1) individual characteristics (e.g., amount of prior sleep and wakefulness, circadian phase, age), (2) environmental conditions (e.g., noise, temperature, amount of social interaction), and (3) task variables (e.g., signal rate, workload). Although sleep need can be masked with medications, the only way to reduce it is with sleep itself. The timing of the sleep period can affect sleep duration and quality and thus its restorative strength. The data are clear that increasing sleep time results in improved alertness. This paper will briefly review the scientific findings on sleep need, the effects of sleep loss, napping strategies, and the implications of incorporating physiologically sound sleep and rest strategies into the operational aviation environment.

  20. Preoperative Drug Induced Sleep Endoscopy Improves the Surgical Approach to Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Colin; Chou, David; Doghramji, Karl; Boon, Maurits

    2017-06-01

    Drug induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) allows for preoperative evaluation of the specific site and character of upper airway obstruction in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We aim to assess the impact DISE has on customizing the surgical plan and evaluate its role in surgical success. We retrospectively reviewed patients undergoing surgery for OSA. We compared those patients undergoing preoperative DISE to those that did not to assess procedures performed and surgical outcomes. We found 87 patients undergoing surgery for OSA who had postoperative polysomnogram results. Of the group undergoing preoperative DISE, 8% had multilevel surgery. This compared to 59.5% in those not undergoing DISE ( p = .0004). The success rate of patients who had preoperative DISE was 86% compared to 51.4% in those who did not have preoperative DISE ( p BMI) and postoperative oxygen nadir, ESS, or BMI in the DISE and no DISE cohorts. The addition of DISE to our preoperative workup has contributed to a decreased rate of multilevel surgery and increased rate of surgical success through identification of the individual patient's OSA architecture and customization of the surgical plan.

  1. An improved methodology for individualized performance prediction of sleep-deprived individuals with the two-process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaraman, Srinivasan; Gribok, Andrei V; Wesensten, Nancy J; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2009-10-01

    We present a method based on the two-process model of sleep regulation for developing individualized biomathematical models that predict performance impairment for individuals subjected to total sleep loss. This new method advances our previous work in two important ways. First, it enables model customization to start as soon as the first performance measurement from an individual becomes available. This was achieved by optimally combining the performance information obtained from the individual's performance measurements with a priori performance information using a Bayesian framework, while retaining the strategy of transforming the nonlinear optimization problem of finding the optimal estimates of the two-process model parameters into a series of linear optimization problems. Second, by taking advantage of the linear representation of the two-process model, this new method enables the analytical computation of statistically based measures of reliability for the model predictions in the form of prediction intervals. Two distinct data sets were used to evaluate the proposed method. Results using simulated data with superimposed white Gaussian noise showed that the new method yielded 50% to 90% improvement in parameter-estimate accuracy over the previous method. Moreover, the accuracy of the analytically computed prediction intervals was validated through Monte Carlo simulations. Results for subjects representing three sleep-loss phenotypes who participated in a laboratory study (82 h of total sleep loss) indicated that the proposed method yielded individualized predictions that were up to 43% more accurate than group-average prediction models and, on average, 10% more accurate than individualized predictions based on our previous method.

  2. A Four-Session Sleep Intervention Program Improves Sleep for Older Adult Day Health Care Participants: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L; Song, Yeonsu; Hughes, Jaime; Jouldjian, Stella; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Fung, Constance H; Rodriguez Tapia, Juan Carlos; Mitchell, Michael N; Alessi, Cathy A

    2017-08-01

    To test the effectiveness of a 4-week behavioral Sleep Intervention Program (SIP: sleep compression, modified stimulus control, and sleep hygiene) compared to a 4-week information-only control (IC) among older adults attending a VA Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) program in a double-blind, randomized, clinical trial. Forty-two individuals (mean age: 77 years, 93% male) enrolled in a VA ADHC program were randomized to receive SIP or IC. All completed in-person sleep and health assessments at baseline, post-treatment and 4-months follow-up that included 3 days/nights of wrist actigraphy, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Mixed repeated measures analysis was used to compare sleep outcomes at post-treatment and 4-months follow-up, with baseline values as covariates. SIP participants (n = 21) showed significant improvement on actigraphy sleep efficiency (p = .007), number of nighttime awakenings (p = .016), and minutes awake at night (p = .001) at post-treatment, compared to IC participants (n = 21). Benefits were slightly attenuated but remained significant at 4-month follow-up (all p's sleep time between groups. There was significant improvement on PSQI factor 3 (daily disturbances) at 4-month follow-up (p = .016), but no differences were observed between SIP and IC on other PSQI components or ISI scores at post-treatment or 4-month follow-up. A short behavioral sleep intervention may have important benefits in improving objectively measured sleep in older adults participating in ADHC. Future studies are needed to study implementation of this intervention into routine clinical care within ADHC.

  3. Subjective sleep disturbances and glycemic control in adults with long-standing type 1 diabetes: The Pittsburgh's Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denic-Roberts, Hristina; Costacou, Tina; Orchard, Trevor J

    2016-09-01

    To date, studies on sleep disturbances in type 1 diabetes (T1D) have been limited to youth and/or small samples. We therefore assessed the prevalence of subjective sleep disturbances and their associations with glycemia and estimated insulin sensitivity in individuals with long-standing T1D. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 222 participants of the Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study of childhood-onset T1D attending the 25-year examination (mean age=52years, diabetes duration=43years). The Berlin Questionnaire (risk of obstructive sleep apnea, OSA), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (daytime sleepiness), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (sleep quality, bad dreams presence, and sleep duration) were completed. Associations between sleep disturbances and poor glycemic control (HbA1c⩾7.5%/58mmol/mol), log-transformed HbA1c, and estimated insulin sensitivity (estimated glucose disposal rate, eGDR, squared) were assessed in multivariable regression. The prevalences of high OSA risk, excessive daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, and bad dreams were 23%, 13%, 41%, and 26%, respectively, with more women (51%) reporting poor sleep quality than men (30%, p=0.004). Participants under poor glycemic control were twice as likely to report bad dreams (p=0.03), but not independently (p=0.07) of depressive symptomatology. Sleep duration was directly associated with HbA1c among individuals with poor glycemic control, but inversely in their counterparts (interaction p=0.002), and inversely associated with eGDR (p=0.002). These findings suggest important interrelationships between sleep, gender, depressive symptomatology, and glycemic control, which may have important clinical implications. Further research is warranted to examine the mechanism of the interaction between sleep duration and glycemic control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improvement of a patient's circadian rhythm sleep disorders by aripiprazole was associated with stabilization of his bipolar illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Tetsuo

    2017-04-01

    Splitting of the behavioural activity phase has been found in nocturnal rodents with suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) coupling disorder. A similar phenomenon was observed in the sleep phase in the diurnal human discussed here, suggesting that there are so-called evening and morning oscillators in the SCN of humans. The present case suffered from bipolar disorder refractory to various treatments, and various circadian rhythm sleep disorders, such as delayed sleep phase, polyphasic sleep, separation of the sleep bout resembling splitting and circabidian rhythm (48 h), were found during prolonged depressive episodes with hypersomnia. Separation of sleep into evening and morning components and delayed sleep-offset (24.69-h cycle) developed when lowering and stopping the dose of aripiprazole (APZ). However, resumption of APZ improved these symptoms in 2 weeks, accompanied by improvement in the patient's depressive state. Administration of APZ may improve various circadian rhythm sleep disorders, as well as improve and prevent manic-depressive episodes, via augmentation of coupling in the SCN network. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  5. The Therapeutic Potential of Exercise to Improve Mood, Cognition, and Sleep in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gretchen O; Otto, Michael W; Ellis, Terry D; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the classic motor symptoms, Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a variety of nonmotor symptoms that significantly reduce quality of life, even in the early stages of the disease. There is an urgent need to develop evidence-based treatments for these symptoms, which include mood disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and sleep disruption. We focus here on exercise interventions, which have been used to improve mood, cognition, and sleep in healthy older adults and clinical populations, but to date have primarily targeted motor symptoms in PD. We synthesize the existing literature on the benefits of aerobic exercise and strength training on mood, sleep, and cognition as demonstrated in healthy older adults and adults with PD, and suggest that these types of exercise offer a feasible and promising adjunct treatment for mood, cognition, and sleep difficulties in PD. Across stages of the disease, exercise interventions represent a treatment strategy with the unique ability to improve a range of nonmotor symptoms while also alleviating the classic motor symptoms of the disease. Future research in PD should include nonmotor outcomes in exercise trials with the goal of developing evidence-based exercise interventions as a safe, broad-spectrum treatment approach to improve mood, cognition, and sleep for individuals with PD. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  6. The Therapeutic Potential of Exercise to Improve Mood, Cognition, and Sleep in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gretchen O.; Otto, Michael W.; Ellis, Terry D.; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the classic motor symptoms, Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with a variety of non-motor symptoms that significantly reduce quality of life, even in the early stages of the disease. There is an urgent need to develop evidence-based treatments for these symptoms, which include mood disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and sleep disruption. We focus here on exercise interventions, which have been used to improve mood, cognition, and sleep in healthy older adults and clinical populations, but to date have primarily targeted motor symptoms in PD. We synthesize the existing literature on the benefits of aerobic exercise and strength training on mood, sleep, and cognition as demonstrated in healthy older adults and adults with PD, and suggest that these types of exercise offer a feasible and promising adjunct treatment for mood, cognition, and sleep difficulties in PD. Across stages of the disease, exercise interventions represent a treatment strategy with the unique ability to improve a range of non-motor symptoms while also alleviating the classic motor symptoms of the disease. Future research in PD should include non-motor outcomes in exercise trials with the goal of developing evidence-based exercise interventions as a safe, broad-spectrum treatment approach to improve mood, cognition, and sleep for individuals with PD. PMID:26715466

  7. Valeriana wallichii root extract improves sleep quality and modulates brain monoamine level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Surajit; Ray, Koushik; Yogendra Kumar, M S; Gupta, Shilpa; Kauser, Hina; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mishra, Kshipra; Panjwani, Usha

    2012-07-15

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of Valeriana wallichi (VW) aqueous root extract on sleep-wake profile and level of brain monoamines on Sprague-Dawley rats. Electrodes and transmitters were implanted to record EEG and EMG in freely moving condition and the changes were recorded telemetrically after oral administration of VW in the doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Sleep latency was decreased and duration of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was increased in a dose dependent manner. A significant decrease of sleep latency and duration of wakefulness were observed with VW at doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg. Duration of NREM sleep as well as duration of total sleep was increased significantly after treatment with VW at the doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg. VW also increased EEG slow wave activity during NREM sleep at the doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg. Level of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5-HT) and hydroxy indole acetic acid (HIAA) were measured in frontal cortex and brain stem after VW treatment at the dose of 200mg/kg. NE and 5HT level were decreased significantly in both frontal cortex and brain stem. DA and HIAA level significantly decreased only in cortex. DOPAC level was not changed in any brain region studied. In conclusion it can be said that VW water extract has a sleep quality improving effect which may be dependent upon levels of monoamines in cortex and brainstem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of a short post-lunch nap in improving cognitive, motor, and sprint performance in participants with partial sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, J; Atkinson, G; Edwards, B; Reilly, T

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a post-lunch nap on subjective alertness and performance following partial sleep loss. Ten healthy males (mean age 23.3 years, s = 3.4) either napped or sat quietly from 13:00 to 13:30 h after a night of shortened sleep (sleep 23:00-03:00 h only). Thirty minutes after the afternoon nap or control (no-nap) condition, alertness, short-term memory, intra-aural temperature, heart rate, choice reaction time, grip strength, and times for 2-m and 20-m sprints were recorded. The afternoon nap lowered heart rate and intra-aural temperature. Alertness, sleepiness, short-term memory, and accuracy at the 8-choice reaction time test were improved by napping (P 0.05). Sprint times were improved. Mean time for the 2-m sprints fell from 1.060 s (s(x) = 0.018) to 1.019 s (s(x) = 0.019) (P = 0.031 paired t-test); mean time for the 20-m sprints fell from 3.971 s (s(x) = 0.054) to 3.878 s (s(x) = 0.047) (P = 0.013). These results indicate that a post-lunch nap improves alertness and aspects of mental and physical performance following partial sleep loss, and have implications for athletes with restricted sleep during training or before competition.

  9. Heart Rate Dynamics and their Relation with the Cyclic Alternating Pattern of Sleep in Normal Subjects and NFLE Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jose S.; Dorantes, Guadalupe; Alba, Alfonso; Méndez, Martin O.; Camacho, Sergio; Luna-Rivera, Martin; Parrino, Liborio; Riccardi, Silvia; Terzano, Mario G.; Milioli, Giulia

    The aim of this work is to study the behavior of the autonomic system through variations in the heart rate (HR) during the Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP) which is formed by A-phases. The analysis was carried out in 10 healthy subjects and 10 patients with Nocturnal Front Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE) that underwent one whole night of polysomnographic recordings. In order to assess the relation of A-phases with the cardiovascular system, two time domain features were computed: the amplitude reduction and time delay of the minimum of the R-R intervals with respect to A-phases onset. In addition, the same process was performed over randomly chosen R-R interval segments during the NREM sleep for baseline comparisons. A non-parametric bootstrap procedure was used to test differences of the kurtosis values of two populations. The results suggest that the onset of the A-phases is correlated with a significant increase of the HR that peaks at around 4s after the A-phase onset, independently of the A-phase subtype and sleep time for both healthy subjects and NFLE patients. Furthermore, the behavior of the reduction in the R-R intervals during the A-phases was significantly different for NFLE patients with respect to control subjects.

  10. How Much Sleep Is Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... June 7, 2017 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through Research National Institutes of Health- (NIH) supported research is shedding light on how sleep and lack of sleep affect the human body. ...

  11. Music-assisted relaxation to improve sleep quality: meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Niet, Gerrit; Tiemens, Bea; Lendemeijer, Bert; Hutschemaekers, Giel

    2009-07-01

    This paper is a report of a meta-analysis conducted to evaluate the efficacy of music-assisted relaxation for sleep quality in adults and elders with sleep complaints with or without a co-morbid medical condition. Clinical studies have shown that music can influence treatment outcome in a positive and beneficial way. Music holds the promise of counteracting psychological presleep arousal and thus improving the preconditions for sleep. We conducted a search in the Embase (1997 - July 2008), Medline (1950 - July 2008), Cochrane (2000 - July 2008), Psychinfo (1987 - July 2008) and Cinahl (1982 - July 2008) databases for randomized controlled trials reported in English, German, French and Dutch. The outcome measure of interest was sleep quality. Data were extracted from the included studies using predefined data fields. The researchers independently assessed the quality of the trials using the Delphi list. Only studies with a score of 5 points or higher were included. A pooled analysis was performed based on a fixed effect model. Five randomized controlled trials with six treatment conditions and a total of 170 participants in intervention groups and 138 controls met our inclusion criteria. Music-assisted relaxation had a moderate effect on the sleep quality of patients with sleep complaints (standardized mean difference, -0.74; 95% CI: -0.96, -0.46). Subgroup analysis revealed no statistically significant contribution of accompanying measures. Music-assisted relaxation can be used without intensive investment in training and materials and is therefore cheap, easily available and can be used by nurses to promote music-assisted relaxation to improve sleep quality.

  12. Module number of default mode network: inter-subject variability and effects of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Liu, Huan; Hitchman, Glenn; Lei, Xu

    2015-01-30

    Sleep deprivation have shown its great influence on the default mode network (DMN). The DMN is a core system in resting state brain activity. Recent studies have focused on its subsystems and multiple functions. However, the individual specific organization of the DMN is rarely investigated. As the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on mood are well documented, a more interesting question is whether changes in the processing of emotional information due to sleep deprivation are related to any specific topological properties of the DMN. In this study, we proposed an index, module number of DMN (mnDMN), to measure the specific modular structure of the DMN for each individual. Our results showed that the DMN was generally split into two modules after SD, and the decreased functional connectivity between the two modules was related to a worsening of the participants׳ self-reported emotional state. Furthermore, the mnDMN was correlated with participants' rating scores of high valence pictures in the SD session, indicating that the mnDMN might reflect mood valuation in the human brain. Overall, our research reveals the diversity of the DMN, and may contribute towards a better understanding of the properties and functions of the DMN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure improves myocardial perfusion reserve and endothelial-dependent vasodilation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Patricia K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD, but whether OSA is an independent risk factor for CVD is controversial. The purpose of this study is to determine if patients with OSA have subclinical cardiovascular disease that is detectable by multi-modality cardiovascular imaging and whether these abnormalities improve after nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP. Results Of the 35 consecutive subjects with newly diagnosed moderate to severe OSA recruited from the Stanford Sleep Disorders Clinic, 20 patients were randomized to active vs. sham nCPAP. Active nCPAP was titrated to pressures that would prevent sleep disordered breathing based on inpatient polysomnography. OSA patients had baseline vascular function abnormalities including decreased myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR, brachial flow mediated dilation (FMD and nitroglycerin-induced coronary vasodilation. Patients randomized to active nCPAP had improvement of MPR (1.5 ± 0.5 vs. 3.0 ± 1.3, p = 0.02 and brachial FMD (2.5% ± 5.7% vs. 9.0% ± 6.5%, p = 0.03 after treatment, but those randomized to sham nCPAP showed no significant improvement. There were no significant changes seen in chamber sizes, systolic and diastolic function, valvular function and coronary vasodilation to nitroglycerin. Conclusions Patients with moderate to severe OSA had decreased MPR and brachial FMD that improved after 3 months of nCPAP. These findings suggest that relief of apnea in OSA may improve microvascular disease and endothelial dysfunction, which may prevent the development of overt cardiovascular disease. Further study in a larger patient population may be warranted.

  14. Using patient flow simulation to