WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjective self-reported symptoms

  1. Effects of Long-Haul Transmeridian Travel on Subjective Jet-Lag and Self-Reported Sleep and Upper Respiratory Symptoms in Professional Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Peter M; Duffield, Rob; Lu, Donna; Hickmans, Jeremy A; Scott, Tannath J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the effects of 24-h travel west across 11 time zones on subjective jet-lag and wellness responses together with self-reported sleep and upper respiratory symptoms in 18 professional rugby league players. Measures were obtained 1 or 2 d before (pretravel) and 2, 6, and 8 d after travel (post-2, post-6, and post-8) from Australia to the United Kingdom (UK) for the 2015 World Club Series. Compared with pretravel, subjective jet-lag remained significantly elevated on post-8 (3.1 ± 2.3, P 0.90), although it was greatest on post-2 (4.1 ± 1.4). Self-reported sleep-onset times were significantly earlier on post-2 than at all other time points (P 0.90), and large effect sizes suggested that wake times were earlier on post-2 than on post-6 and post-8 (d > 0.90). Although significantly more upper respiratory symptoms were reported on post-6 than at pretravel (P .05, d sleep responses, along with upper respiratory symptoms, in professional rugby league players. Of note, the increase in self-reported upper respiratory symptoms is a reminder that the demands of long-haul travel may be an additional concern in jet-lag for traveling athletes. However, due to the lack of sport-specific performance measures, it is still unclear whether international travel interferes with training to the extent that subsequent competition performance is impaired.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of self-report and subjective history in the diagnosis of low back pain with non-specific lower extremity symptoms: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Susan; Averell, Kristina; Eickelman, Angela; Sanker, Holly; Donaldson, Megan Burrowbridge

    2015-02-01

    Subjective history questions/self-report items are commonly used to triage the patient with low back pain and related leg symptoms. However the value of the history taking process for decision-making to identify common classifications/diagnosis for patients presenting with low back related leg pain (LBRLP) have not been considered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of self-report items/history-taking questions used to identify patients with LBRLP. Eligible studies included: 1)subjects with low back pain AND related lower extremity pain, 2)details of subjective examination/self-report items, 3)cohort, prospective/longitudinal studies, and randomized control trials, 4)use of statistical reporting, 5)an acceptable reference standard. Quality was evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2. A synthesis of history items that met the threshold for at least a small shift in the likelihood of the condition with a +LR ≥ 2 or -LR ≤ 0.5 were reported. Conditions commonly reported in the literature: lumbar spinal stenosis, lumbosacral nerve root compression/radiculopathy, disc herniation and neurophysiological low back pain ± leg pain. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. This is the first systematic review of diagnostic accuracy studies that examined only the history-taking items for their ability to identify LBRLP conditions. Clustering key items may provide a more precise clinical picture necessary to detect and treat a patient's presentation. History questions formed within the interview and their contributing value for decision-making remain understudied. There is a need for better designs to determine a more accurate diagnostic power to identify conditions with LBRLP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. ... checklist to approximate a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) ADHD diagnosis ...

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among medical students in Eldoret ... divided into two parts. ... representatives prior to the start of whole-class activities and.

  5. Self-reported Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among university students in Eldoret, Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study of all students who gave consent to participate in the study. Setting: Moi University's Town Campus, comprising the ...

  6. Severity of self-reported diseases and symptoms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Rasmussen, Niels Kristian; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    , more frequently than males, reported on all symptoms and all disease groups except injuries. People with relatively low levels of education reported most diseases, especially musculoskeletal and cardiovascular diseases, more frequently than people with higher education. Age-adjusted mean SF-36 scores...... for all dimensions combined showed that the symptoms of melancholy/depression and breathing difficulties, psychiatric disorders and respiratory diseases scored lowest (i.e. were most often associated with worse health). Females had lower SF-36 combined scores (worse health) than males on all symptoms. We......OBJECTIVE: To estimate and rank the relative severity of self-reported diseases and symptoms in Denmark. METHOD: The 1994 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey collected data from 5,472 Danes older than 16 years of age. Interviews (response frequency: 79%) gave information on diseases and symptoms...

  7. Self-reported symptoms and healthcare seeking in the general population-exploring "The Symptom Iceberg"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elnegaard, Sandra; Andersen, Rikke Sand; Pedersen, Anette Fischer

    2015-01-01

    leading to GP contacts. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of symptoms and GP contacts are common in this overview of 44 different self-reported symptoms. For almost 2/3 of the reported symptoms no gender differences were found concerning the proportion leading to GP contacts. An enhanced understanding of healthcare...... population may increase our knowledge of this complex field. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported symptoms and the proportion of individuals reporting GP contact, in a large Danish nationwide cohort. A secondary objective was to explore gender differences in GP...

  8. Cross-sectional study of anxiety symptoms and self-report of awake and sleep bruxism in female TMD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Luisa Maria Faria; da Silva Parente Macedo, Leonora Cristina; Duarte, Cristina Maria Rabelais; de Goffredo Filho, Gilberto Senechal; de Souza Tesch, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between levels of anxiety symptoms and prevalence of self-report of awake and sleep bruxism in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). One hundred and eighty-one female patients, aged 19-77 years, were consecutively evaluated. The patients were selected from among those who sought treatment at the TMD and Orofacial Pain Outpatient Clinic of the Petrópolis School of Medicine. All patients completed the questionnaire and underwent clinical examination, both components of the RDC/TMD, in addition to answering questions pertaining to the assessment of levels of anxiety symptoms, taken from the Symptom Check List 90 self-report instrument. The subjects were classified according to the presence of self-reported only awake bruxism, only sleep bruxism, both, or none. A logistic regression procedure was performed to evaluate the possible association through odds ratio between anxiety symptoms and self-reported awake or sleep bruxism. The cofactors for each outcome were age, self-reported bruxism during the circadian period other than the one being evaluated, and the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It was possible to demonstrate the presence of a positive and statistically significant relationship between anxiety levels and self-reported awake bruxism. This finding was not observed in those subjects who reported sleep bruxism. A positive relationship was found between self-reported awake bruxism and levels of anxiety symptoms, but not between sleep bruxism and anxiety.

  9. Self-reported temporomandibular disorder symptoms and severity of malocclusion in prospective orthognathic-surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedström-Oristo, Anna-Liisa; Ekholm, Heidi; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Peltomäki, Timo

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the association between self-reported symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and the severity of malocclusion in prospective orthognathic-surgical patients. The subjects consisted of 50 consecutive patients (13 males and 37 females) referred to two university clinics for assessment of orthodontic-surgical treatment need. Data considering self-reported TMD symptoms were gathered using a semi-structured diary. At the first appointment, all patients rated the importance of treatment (on a scale of 1-10) and assessed self-perceived dental appearance using a VAS scale. The scale was anchored with photographs 1 and 10 from the Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Study models were assessed by an experienced orthodontic specialist using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index and the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON). Association between the PAR and ICON scores and the number of reported symptoms was analyzed statistically. Seventy-one percent of patients reported experiencing TMD symptoms. The most prevalent symptoms were pain in the head and/or neck region and fatigue in the TMJ region. The number of symptoms was highest in the morning. Ninety percent of males and 86% of females rated the importance of treatment as high; males experiencing TMD symptoms tended to rate surgery as more important compared with males with no symptoms (p = 0.056). In this sample, the results cannot unambiguously confirm an association between self-reported symptoms of TMD and objectively defined severity of malocclusion.

  10. Self-Report of Depressive Symptoms in Low Back Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisson, James; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents two studies designed to examine the self-report of depressive symptoms in low back pain patients (N=134). Both studies found that patients were more likely to report somatic than cognitive symptoms of depression. Patients with multiple physical findings were not more likely to report somatic symptoms than patients with few physical…

  11. Self-Reported Knee Symptoms Assessed by KOOS Questionnaire in Downhill Runners (Skyrunners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Sergio Roi

    Full Text Available The knee is the weight-bearing joint most commonly associated with sports injuries, and therefore is most at risk of developing degenerative changes, including osteoarthritis. Skyrunners can be considered to be at risk of developing symptoms of post-traumatic osteoarthritis due to downhill running.The aim of this study was to analyze the health of the knee joints of a large group of these athletes via a specific self-report questionnaire.This study was carried out by asking the participants of seven official Skyraces (22.4±3.1 km length; 1596±393 m elevation to fill out a questionnaire. Information regarding age, sex, downhill elevation (m during training and competitions over the last month, and history of previous knee injury was also collected before the participants filled out the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS, which is a reliable and validated instrument designed to assess patients' opinions about their knees and associated problems that can result in post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Athletes were divided into six age groups (from 17 to 70 years and 12 groups based on the downhill gradient they had covered over the last month (from 1,000 to 40,000 m.Six hundred twenty-one questionnaires were collected from 45% of the participants in the seven races. Multivariate analysis revealed that self-reported KOOS scores were unrelated to age, sex and monthly downhill gradient. Only 74 (12% of the participants reported previous knee injuries. Significant differences in the five subscales of the KOOS were found between skyrunners with and without previous knee injuries (P<0.01.In the studied population, regular training for downhill running and participation in Skyraces could not be considered risk factors for subjective knee symptoms. Skyrunners with self-reported histories of knee injuries scored worse on all five subscales of the KOOS.

  12. Self-reported Symptoms after Induced and Inhibited Bronchoconstriction in Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIMPSON, ANDREW J.; ROMER, LEE M.; KIPPELEN, PASCALE

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose A change in the perception of respiratory symptoms after treatment with inhaled beta2 agonists is often used to aid diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Our aim was to test the association between subjective ratings of respiratory symptoms and changes in airway caliber after induced and inhibited bronchoconstriction in athletes with EIB. Methods Eighty-five athletes with diagnosed or suspected EIB performed a eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH) challenge with dry air. Of the 45 athletes with hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction [i.e., post-EVH fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) ≥10%, EVH−], 36 were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Terbutaline (0.5 mg) or placebo was administered by inhalation 15 min before EVH. Spirometry (for FEV1) was performed before and after EVH, and respiratory symptoms were recorded 15 min after EVH on visual analog scales. Results Terbutaline inhibited bronchoconstriction (i.e., maximal fall in FEV1 athletes, with an average degree of bronchoprotection of 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45% to 62%). Terbutaline reduced group mean symptom scores (P athletes who had less than 10% FEV1 fall after EVH in the terbutaline condition, almost half (48%) rated at least one respiratory symptom higher under terbutaline, and more than one quarter (28%) had a higher total symptom score under terbutaline. Conclusion Self-reports of respiratory symptoms in conditions of induced and inhibited bronchoconstriction do not correlate with changes in airway caliber in athletes with EIB. Therefore, subjective ratings of respiratory symptoms after treatment with inhaled beta2 agonists should not be used as the sole diagnostic tool for EIB in athletes. PMID:25710876

  13. Self-reported versus informant-reported depressive symptoms in adults with mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileviciute, I; Hartley, S L

    2015-02-01

    Virtually nothing is known about potential differences in the types of depression symptoms reported by adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) on self-reported questionnaires as compared with the types of symptoms reported by caregivers on informant questionnaires. Moreover, little is known about how the presentation of depression among adults with mild ID varies based on socio-demographic characteristics. We compared findings from two self-reported questionnaires, the Self-Reported Depression Questionnaire (SRDQ) and the Glasgow Depression Scale for People with a Learning Disability (GDS), to that of an informant questionnaire of depressive symptoms, the Glasgow Depression Scale--Caregiver Supplement (CGDS), in 80 adults with mild ID. We also examined the association between age, sex, IQ and the presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder and frequency of affective, cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms in our sample of adults with mild ID. Adults with mild ID self-reported a higher frequency of affective and cognitive depressive symptoms than staff reported on the informant measure. Staff reported a higher frequency of somatic symptoms than adults with mild ID on one of the self-reported questionnaires (GDS) and a similar frequency on the other self-reported questionnaire (SRDQ). Important differences were found in the types of depressive symptoms based on their IQ, age and presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder. Informant questionnaires offer valuable information, but assessment should include self-reported questionnaires as these questionnaires add unique information about internalised experiences (affective and cognitive symptoms) of adults with mild ID that may not be apparent to caregivers. Health care providers should be made aware of the important differences in the presentation of depressive based on their IQ, age and presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  14. Relationship between self-reported adherence, antiretroviral drug concentration measurement and self-reported symptoms in patients treated for HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Cingolani, Antonella; Fanti, Iuri; Colafigli, Manuela; Tamburrini, Enrica; Cauda, Roberto; Navarra, Pierluigi; De Luca, Andrea; Murri, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore relationships between self-reported adherence, antiretroviral drug concentration measurement (TDM) and self-reported symptoms. We systematically administered to human immunodeficiency (HIV)-infected outpatients a questionnaire evaluating measures of self-reported adherence (missing doses during last week, deviations from the prescribed timing of therapy, self-initiated discontinuations for > 24 or 48 h, exhausting drugs and present sense of how patients are taking therapy) and a panel of referred symptoms (a symptom score was built summing self-reported scores for each listed symptom). We selected patients who completed the questionnaire and also had a TDM (mainly reflecting adherence in the past few days or weeks), thus comparing these two tools as measures of adherence. A total of 130 patients (64.6% males, median age 44 years, 76.2% with HIV RNA HIV RNA symptom score was associated with a lower self-reported adherence and with a higher proportion of undetectable drug levels. Self-reported adherence and TDM showed a correlation and seemed to be comparable tools for adherence estimation. Self-reported symptoms were associated with lower adherence and undetectable drug levels.

  15. Self reported symptoms of anxiety associated with coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the psychophysiological effects of coffee consumption on anxiety as reported by University students. . It was hypothesized that heavy caffeine users would report significantly higher anxiety and more psychophysical symptoms of caffenism more than non-users. A sample size of 447-university students ...

  16. A Cross-Cultural Study of Self-Report Depressive Symptoms among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Kathleen S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of self-report depressive symptoms measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale was conducted in Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and the United States with 953 college students. There are marked differences among countries in symptoms reported. Research designs and measurement strategies for cross-cultural research are discussed. (SLD)

  17. The Relationship between ADHD Symptoms, Mood Instability, and Self-Reported Offending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:…

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms in Children Attending School in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisoorya, T S; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; George, Sanju; Thennarasu, K; Srinath, Shoba

    2016-09-02

    To study the prevalence and correlates of self-reported ADHD symptoms among school-going adolescents from Kerala, India. Seven thousand five hundred sixty students from Classes 8, 10, and 12, aged 12 to 19 years, across 73 schools selected by cluster random sampling, were invited to participate, but only 7,150 successfully completed the questionnaire incorporating standardized instruments. Three hundred five (4.3%) self-reported symptoms for ADHD combined type, 131 (1.8%) for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type, and 102 (1.4%) for ADHD inattentive type with a male predominance. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that those with symptoms of ADHD (combined type) compared with the non-ADHD group had poorer academic performance, significantly higher substance use, psychological distress, suicidality, and sexual abuse. The high prevalence of self-reported ADHD symptoms and its association with negative correlates previously reported in literature in those with a diagnosis of ADHD suggests that clinically significant self-reported ADHD symptoms could be as disabling as ADHD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Relationship between medication beliefs, self-reported and refill adherence, and symptoms in patients with asthma using inhaled corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Steenis MNA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MNA Van Steenis,1 JA Driesenaar,2 JM Bensing,2,3 R Van Hulten,4 PC Souverein,4 L Van Dijk,2,4 PAGM De Smet,5 AM Van Dulmen2,6,71Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2NIVEL (Netherlands institute for health services research, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 4Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 5IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 6Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 7Department of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Drammen, NorwayBackground: Beliefs play a crucial role in medication adherence. Interestingly, the relationship between beliefs and adherence varies when different adherence measures are used. How adherence, in turn, is related to asthma symptoms is still unclear. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between beliefs (ie, necessities and concerns about inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and subjectively as well as objectively measure adherence and the agreement between these measures. Further, the relationship between adherence and asthma symptoms was examined.Methods: A total of 280 patients aged 18–80 years who filled at least two ICS prescriptions in the preceding year were recruited to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire to assess necessity beliefs and concerns about ICS, four questions about ICS use to measure self-reported adherence, and the Asthma Control Questionnaire to assess asthma symptoms. Proportion of days covered was used to determine pharmacy refill adherence.Results: Data from 93 patients with asthma were analyzed. Necessities were positively related to self-reported adherence (P = 0.01. No other

  20. Self-Reported Decline in Everyday Function, Cognitive Symptoms, and Cognitive Function in People With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverick, Rosanna; Haddow, Lewis; Daskalopoulou, Marina; Lampe, Fiona; Gilson, Richard; Speakman, Andrew; Antinori, Andrea; Bruun, Tina; Vassilenko, Anna; Collins, Simon; Rodger, Alison

    2017-11-01

    We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive adults in 5 European clinics. HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests and questionnaires of cognitive symptoms and ADLs. We considered cognitive function in 5 domains, psychosocial factors, and clinical parameters as potentially associated with symptoms. Separate regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with a decline in ADL (defined as self-reported decline affecting ≥2 ADLs and attributed to cognitive difficulties) and self-reported frequency of symptoms of cognitive impairment. We also estimated the diagnostic accuracy of both questionnaires as tests for cognitive impairment. Four hundred forty-eight patients completed the assessments [mean age 45.8 years, 84% male, 87% white, median CD4 count 550 cells/mm, median time since HIV diagnosis 9.9 years, 81% virologically suppressed (HIV-1 plasma RNA symptoms of cognitive impairment were both associated with worse performance on some cognitive tests. There were also strong associations with financial difficulties, depressive and anxiety symptoms, unemployment, and longer time since HIV diagnosis. Both questionnaires performed poorly as diagnostic tests for cognitive impairment. Patients' own assessments of everyday function and symptoms were associated with objectively measured cognitive function. However, there were strong associations with other psychosocial issues including mood and anxiety disorders and socioeconomic hardship. This should be considered when assessing HIV-associated cognitive impairment in clinical care or research studies.

  1. Self-reported ADHD symptoms and interhemispheric interaction in adults : A dimensional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh M.H.; Börger, Norbert A.; Geuze, Reint H.; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied the dimensional approach to test whether self-reported symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults are associated with the speed of interhemispheric interaction. A sample of first grade students (N =112) completed Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales

  2. Self-Reported Decline in Everyday Function, Cognitive Symptoms, and Cognitive Function in People With HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laverick, Rosanna; Haddow, Lewis; Daskalopoulou, Marina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive adults in 5 European clinics. METHODS: HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests and questionnaires...

  3. Self-reported Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Older Chinese Adults in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lydia W; Dong, XinQi

    2017-07-01

    Discrimination is part of life for many Americans, especially ethnic minorities. Focusing on older Chinese Americans, this study examines the association between self-reported discrimination and depressive symptoms and identifies subgroups that are more likely to report experiencing discrimination. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of data collected from adults (age 60+ years) of Chinese origin residing in the Greater Chicago area (N = 3,004). Self-reported discrimination was assessed by the Experiences of Discrimination instrument and was dichotomized (yes vs no). Depressive symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Logistic regression of self-reported discrimination and negative binominal regression of depressive symptoms were conducted. About 21.5% of the sample reported having experienced discrimination. The odds of reporting discrimination are higher for those who are younger, have higher education and income, are more acculturated, have been in the United States longer, live outside Chinatown, and have higher levels of neuroticism and conscientiousness. Self-reported discrimination is significantly and positively associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic characteristics, migration-related variables, and personality factors. Findings suggest a robust relationship between self-reported discrimination and depressive symptoms in older Chinese Americans. They further suggest that the relatively advantaged groups-younger, higher socioeconomic status, more acculturated, and living outside Chinatown-are more likely to report experiencing discrimination. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Menopause is associated with self-reported poor sleep quality in women without vasomotor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hao-Chang; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Ou, Horng-Yih; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between menopause and self-reported sleep quality in Chinese women without vasomotor symptoms. Cross-sectional data were collected from a decoded database of the National Cheng Kung University Hospital. Menopause was defined as absence of menses for at least 12 months or a history of hysterectomy and oophorectomy. Self-reported sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A higher global PSQI score indicates poorer self-reported sleep quality, and a global PSQI score greater than 5 differentiates poor sleepers from good sleepers. Of the 1,088 women recruited, 353 (32.4%) were in postmenopause status. Postmenopausal women had higher mean (SD) global PSQI scores (8.0 [3.3] vs. 6.1 [2.2], P menopause (β = 1.532; 95% CI, 1.135 to 1.949; P menopause (odds ratio, 1.453; 95% CI, 1.030 to 2.051; P menopause and snoring are associated with an increased risk of poor self-reported sleep quality independently of cardiometabolic factors and lifestyle, whereas long sleep duration is associated with a decreased risk of poor self-reported sleep quality.

  5. Pathological changes in the subsynovial connective tissue increase with self-reported carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat, Jimmy; Wilson, Katherine E; Keir, Peter J

    2015-05-01

    Fibrosis and thickening of the subysnovial connective tissue are the most common pathological findings in carpal tunnel syndrome. The relationship between subsynovial connective tissue characteristics and self-reported carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms was assessed. Symptoms were characterized using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and Katz hand diagram in twenty-two participants (11 with symptoms, 11 with no symptoms). Using ultrasound, the thickness of the subsynovial connective tissue was measured using a thickness ratio (subsynovial thickness/tendon thickness) and gliding function was assessed using a shear strain index ((Displacement(tendon)-Displacement(subsynovial))/Displacement(tendon)x 100). For gliding function, participants performed 10 repeated flexion-extension cycles of the middle finger at a rate of one cycle per second. Participants with symptoms had a 38.5% greater thickness ratio and 39.2% greater shear strain index compared to participants without symptoms (p<0.05). Ultrasound detected differences the SSCT in symptomatic group that was characterized by low self-reported symptom severity scores. This study found ultrasound useful for measuring structural and functional changes in the SSCT that could provide insight in the early pathophysiology associated with carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Emergency Department Utilization and Self-Reported Symptoms in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Patricia; Kennedy, Richard; Williams, Courtney; Brown, Cynthia J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The rise in emergency department (ED) utilization among older adults is a nursing concern, because emergency nurses are uniquely positioned to positively impact the care of older adults. Symptoms have been associated with ED utilization, however, it remains unclear if symptoms are the primary reason for ED utilization. Purpose Describe the self-reported symptoms of community-dwelling older adults prior to accessing the emergency department. Examine the differences in self-reported symptoms among those who utilized the emergency department, and those who did not. Procedures A prospective longitudinal design was used. The sample included 403 community-dwelling older adults 75 years and older. Baseline in-home interviews were conducted followed by monthly telephone interviews over 15 months. Main Findings Commonly reported symptoms at baseline included pain, feeling tired, and having shortness of breath. In univariate analysis, pain, shortness of breath, fair/poor well-being, and feeling tired were significantly correlated with ED utilization. In multivariable models, problems with balance, and fair/poor well-being were significantly associated with ED utilization. Conclusions Several symptoms were common among this cohort of older adults. However, there were no significant differences in the types of symptoms reported by older adults who utilized the emergency department compared to those who did not use the emergency department. Based on these findings, symptoms among community-dwelling older adults may not be the primary reason for ED utilization. PMID:28131350

  7. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Beyond symptom self-report: use of a computer "avatar" to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Catherine E; Radell, Milen L; Shind, Christine; Ebanks-Williams, Yasheca; Beck, Kevin D; Gilbertson, Mark W

    2016-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur in the wake of exposure to a traumatic event. Currently, PTSD symptoms are assessed mainly through self-report in the form of questionnaire or clinical interview. Self-report has inherent limitations, particularly in psychiatric populations who may have limited awareness of deficit, reduced attention span, or poor vocabulary and/or literacy skills. Diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy would be aided by behavioral measures. A viable alternative may be virtual environments, in which the participant guides an on-screen "avatar" through a series of onscreen events meant to simulate real-world situations. Here, a sample of 82 veterans, self-assessed for PTSD symptoms was administered such a task, in which the avatar was confronted with situations that might evoke avoidant behavior, a core feature of PTSD. Results showed a strong correlation between PTSD symptom burden and task performance; in fact, the ability to predict PTSD symptom burden based on simple demographic variables (age, sex, combat exposure) was significantly improved by adding task score as a predictor variable. The results therefore suggest that virtual environments may provide a new way to assess PTSD symptoms, while avoiding at least some of the limitations associated with symptom self-report, and thus might be a useful complement to questionnaire or clinical interview, potentially facilitating both diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy.

  9. Self-Reported Bruxism and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders in Finnish University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtela, Outi S; Näpänkangas, Ritva; Joensuu, Tiina; Raustia, Aune; Kunttu, Kristina; Sipilä, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of self-reported bruxism and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and to investigate their association in academic and applied science university students in Finland. The data were gathered from 4,403 Finnish students included in the Finnish Student Health Survey 2012. The comprehensive questionnaire included five questions concerning bruxism and TMD symptoms. Bivariate associations between self-reported bruxism and TMD symptoms were evaluated using chi-square tests, and logistic regression model was used with age and gender as factors. Sleep bruxism was reported by 21.0% of women and by 12.5% of men, awake bruxism by 2.0% of women and by 2.8% of men, and both sleep and awake bruxism by 7.2% of women and by 3.2% of men. TMD pain was reported by 25.9% of women and by 11.4% of men and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain on jaw movement by 9.6% of women and by 4.2% of men. Report of sleep bruxism increased the risk for all TMD symptoms in both genders. Among women, report of awake bruxism increased the risk for TMD pain and TMJ pain on jaw movement. Reporting stress as a perpetuating factor for TMD pain increased the risk for both sleep and awake bruxism in both genders. The logistic regression analysis (including age and gender) showed that report of sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism was associated with TMD pain (Odds Ratio [OR] = 5.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.86-6.70), TMJ pain on jaw movement (OR = 4.49; 95% CI = 3.54-5.69), and TMJ locking (OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 2.17-4.10). Bruxism and TMD symptoms are frequent in Finnish university students. Self-reported bruxism is associated with TMD symptoms, confirming earlier findings.

  10. Training attention improves decision making in individuals with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jessica A; Gorlick, Marissa A; Denny, Taylor; Worthy, Darrell A; Beevers, Christopher G; Maddox, W Todd

    2014-06-01

    Depression is often characterized by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work has reported that training attention away from negative stimuli reduced this bias and reduced depressive symptoms. However, the effect of attention training on subsequent learning has yet to be explored. In the present study, participants were required to learn to maximize reward during decision making. Undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms received attention training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision-making task (n = 20; active training). The active-training group was compared to two other groups: undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms who received placebo training (n = 22; placebo training) and a control group with low levels of depressive symptoms (n = 33; nondepressive control). The placebo-training depressive group performed worse and switched between options more than did the nondepressive controls on the reward maximization task. However, depressives that received active training performed as well as the nondepressive controls. Computational modeling indicated that the placebo-trained group learned more from negative than from positive prediction errors, leading to more frequent switching. The nondepressive control and active-training depressive groups showed similar learning from positive and negative prediction errors, leading to less-frequent switching and better performance. Our results indicate that individuals with elevated depressive symptoms are impaired at reward maximization, but that the deficit can be improved with attention training toward positive stimuli.

  11. The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptom Scale: Development and preliminary validation of a self-report scale of symptom specific dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Greenberg, Jennifer L; Rosenfield, Elizabeth; Kasarskis, Irina; Blashill, Aaron J

    2016-06-01

    The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptom Scale (BDD-SS) is a new self-report measure used to examine the severity of a wide variety of symptoms associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). The BDD-SS was designed to differentiate, for each group of symptoms, the number of symptoms endorsed and their severity. This report evaluates and compares the psychometric characteristics of the BDD-SS in relation to other measures of BDD, body image, and depression in 99 adult participants diagnosed with BDD. Total scores of the BDD-SS showed good reliability and convergent validity and moderate discriminant validity. Analyses of the individual BDD-SS symptom groups confirmed the reliability of the checking, grooming, weight/shape, and cognition groups. The current findings indicate that the BDD-SS can be quickly administered and used to examine the severity of heterogeneous BDD symptoms for research and clinical purposes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Headache and musculoskeletal complaints among subjects with self reported whiplash injury. The HUNT-2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygaard Oystein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the life-time prevalence of self reported whiplash injury and the relationship to chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs and headache in a large unselected adult population. Methods Between 1995 and 1997, all inhabitants 20 years and older in Nord-Trondelag county in Norway were invited to a comprehensive health survey. Out of 92,936 eligible for participation, a total of 59,104 individuals (63.6% answered the question about whiplash injury (whiplash. Among these, 46,895 (79.3% responded to the questions of musculoskeletal complaints and headache. Results The total life-time prevalence of self reported whiplash injury was 2.9%, for women 2.7% and for men 3.0%. There was a significant association between self reported whiplash injury and headache (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.8-2.4, and chronic MSCs (OR = 3.3; 95% CI 2.8-3.8, evident for all ten anatomical sites investigated. The association was most pronounced for those with a combination of headache and chronic MSC for both men (OR = 4.8; 95% CI 3.6-6.2 and women (OR = 5.2; 95% CI 3.7-7.1. Conclusions Subjects with self reported whiplash injury had significantly more headache and musculoskeletal complaints than those without, and may in part be due to selective reporting. The causal mechanism remains unclear and cannot be addressed in the present study design.

  13. Self-reported symptoms associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçer, Nermin; Pamukçu, Tuğba

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the last years, it has been discussed frequently whether there are any harmful effects of electromagnetic fields on human health. Electromagnetic fields are generated by several natural and man-made sources. Part of the electromagnetic spectrum called Radiofrequency is used in communication systems such as mobile (cellular) phone and computer. The aim of our study was to explore different self-reported symptoms that may be associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields. This survey study was conducted, using a questionnaire, on 350 people aged +9 years in Turkey. The chi-square test was used for data analysis. Self-reported symptoms were headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness, sleep disturbance-insomnia, tension-anxiety, joint and bone pain, lacrimation of the eyes, hearing loss and tinnitus. As a result of the survey, the study has shown that users of mobile phone and computer more often complained of headache, joint and bone pain, hearing loss, vertigo/dizziness, tension-anxiety symptoms according to time of daily usage (p < 0.05). In users of mobile phone and computer, women significantly (p < 0.05) complained more often of headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness and tension-anxiety than men.

  14. Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR): Validation of the German version of a self-report measure for screening negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Maike; Lincoln, Tania Marie

    2016-02-01

    Validated self-report instruments could provide a time efficient screening method for negative symptoms in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a German version of the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR) which is based on the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). In- and outpatients (N=50) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed with standardized interviews and questionnaires on negative and positive symptoms and general psychopathology in schizophrenia, depression, and global functioning. The German version of the MAP-SR showed high internal consistency. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the MAP-SR with the experience sub-scale of the CAINS and the negative symptom sub-scale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The MAP-SR also exhibited discriminant validity indicated by its non-significant correlations with positive symptoms and general psychopathology, which is in line with the findings for the original version of the MAP-SR. However, the MAP-SR correlated moderately with depression. The German MAP-SR appears to be a valid and suitable diagnostic tool for the identification of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of a self-reported HIV symptoms list: the ISS-HIV symptoms scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciardini, Raffaella; Pugliese, Katherina; Francisci, Daniela; Costantini, Andrea; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Cognigni, Miriam; Tontini, Chiara; Lucattini, Stefano; Fucili, Luca; Di Gregorio, Massimiliano; Mirra, Marco; Fragola, Vincenzo; Pompili, Sara; Murri, Rita; Vella, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    To describe the development and the psychometric properties of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità-HIV symptoms scale (lSS-HIV symptoms scale). The ISS-HIV symptom scale was developed by an Italian working team including researchers, physicians and people living with HIV. The development process went through the following steps: (1) review of HIV/AIDS literature; (2) focus group; (3) pre-test analysis; (4) scale validation. The 22 symptoms of HIV-ISS symptoms scale were clustered in five factors: pain/general discomfort (7 items); depression/anxiety (4 items); emotional reaction/psychological distress (5 items); gastrointestinal discomfort (4 items); sexual discomfort (2 items). The internal consistence reliability was for all factors within the minimum accepted standard of 0.70. The results of this study provide a preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the ISS-HIV symptoms scale. In the new era where HIV infection has been transformed into a chronic diseases and patients are experiencing a complex range of symptoms, the ISS-HIV symptoms scale may represent an useful tool for a comprehensive symptom assessment with the advantage of being easy to fill out by patients and potentially attractive to physicians mainly because it is easy to understand and requires short time to interpret the results.

  16. Self-Reported Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease by Sex and Disease Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju Young; Pohlig, Ryan T; Habermann, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with a wide range of symptom presentations. The purpose of this research was to compare self-reported motor and non-motor symptoms of PD by sex and disease duration. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive survey in community-dwelling people with PD. A total of 141 participants (64.6% response rate; 59.6% men; M age = 69.7 years) were included. Males reported more rigidity, speech problems, sexual dysfunction, memory problems, and socializing problems than females. The number of motor symptoms in three groups divided by increments of 5 years was significantly increased. Postural instability, freezing, off periods, dyskinesia, speech problems, and hallucinations/psychosis were significantly increased as the disease duration increased. Thorough assessment of motor and non-motor symptoms could decrease the risk of inadequate symptom management. Provision of information regarding PD symptoms at each stage may help people with PD and their caregivers in planning their future care and life.

  17. Perception of faces in schizophrenia: Subjective (self-report) vs. objective (psychophysics) assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients’ perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. Methods The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Results Compared to controls (n=25), patients (n=35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. Conclusion These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. PMID:26938027

  18. Perception of faces in schizophrenia: Subjective (self-report) vs. objective (psychophysics) assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor

    2016-05-01

    Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients' perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Compared to controls (n = 25), patients (n = 35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mental Wellbeing and Self-reported Symptoms of Reproductive Tract Infections among Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama A. Khopkar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the self-reported mental wellbeing among slum-dwelling adolescents in Western India and asked whether adolescent postmenarcheal girls’ mental wellbeing and self-reported symptoms suggestive of reproductive tract infections (RTIs were associated. A sub-section of a cross-sectional personal interview survey among unmarried 10–18-year-old adolescents (n= 85 in a slum in the city of Nashik was analyzed. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between sociodemographic variables, physical health indicators, and adolescent postmenarcheal girls’ mental wellbeing. Nearly every other postmenarcheal girl reported having experienced symptoms suggestive of RTIs during the last twelve months. Adolescent postmenarcheal girls’ mental health and some aspects of somatic health appear to be closely interrelated. Understanding the relationship between adolescent mental wellbeing and reproductive health in low-income countries requires further investigation. Health service development in growing informal urban agglomerations in India and beyond should provide combined mental and reproductive health services for adolescents.  

  20. Familial Depressive Symptoms and Delinquency: Separate Self-Reports From Mothers and Their Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee; Hoskin, Anthony

    2018-04-01

    Research has documented that both unipolar and bipolar depression are positively correlated with involvement in delinquency and crime. The present study sought to broaden the understanding of these relationships by looking for links between offending and family histories of depressive symptoms in relationship to offspring delinquency. More than 6,000 college students and their mothers provided self-reported information regarding feelings of depression. Students provided self-reports of involvement in various categories of offending and drug use from ages 10 through 18. Numerous significant positive correlations were found between general feelings of depression and of manic depression and involvement in delinquency. The depression-delinquency relationships were strongest when considering offspring themselves, although maternal depression symptoms were also associated with various forms of offspring delinquency and drug use. To help assess the causal chains that might be involved, multiple regression and mediation analysis revealed that parental depression enhanced the probability of offspring feeling depressed and may have thereby contributed to offspring being delinquent, particularly in the case of manic depression. This study reconfirmed the well-established relationship between depression and involvement in delinquency and drug use, and suggests that it extends back to parental forms of depression, especially by the mother.

  1. Trauma-Related Sleep Disturbance and Self-Reported Physical Health Symptoms in Treatment-Seeking Female Rape Victims

    OpenAIRE

    CLUM, GRETCHEN A.; NISHITH, PALLAVI; RESICK, PATRICIA A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between trauma-related sleep disturbance and physical health symptoms in treatment-seeking female rape victims. A total of 167 participants were assessed for PTSD symptoms, depression, sleep disturbance, and frequency of self-reported health symptoms. Results demonstrated that trauma-related sleep disturbance predicted unique variance in physical health symptoms after other PTSD and depression symptoms were controlled. The findings sugge...

  2. Self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms in school-aged Singaporean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, Iliana; Ponniah, Kathryn; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Chan, Yiong Huak; Fung, Daniel; Woo, Bernardine

    2015-03-01

    Few studies have examined anxiety and depression experiences of primary (middle) school-aged children from ethnically diverse backgrounds, and most have relied on parents or others as informants. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported anxiety and depression symptoms in Singaporean primary school-aged children. Age, gender, and ethnic differences and interactions were explored as well as similarities and differences between Singaporean children and US norms. A large representative community sample of 1655 8- to 12-year-old Singaporean children (Chinese, Malay, and Indian) completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) as part of a larger epidemiological study of mental health in Singaporean children. Rates of clinically elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression were 9.3% and 16.9% on the MASC and the CDI, respectively. Separation and social anxieties were most common. Evidence of a gender difference in levels of emotional symptoms was most evident in Indian children, with girls reporting more symptoms than boys. The relationship between age and internalizing problems was weak. A substantial minority of primary school-aged Singaporean children reported elevated anxious and depressive symptoms. Better understanding of the factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of these problems can help the development of culture-specific interventions and facilitate the planning of community-tailored services and initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Self-reported aural symptoms, headache and temporomandibular disorders in Japanese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Rahena; Morita, Manabu; Ekuni, Disuke; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Furuta, Michiko; Yamanaka, Reiko; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Wilson, David

    2013-02-06

    To investigate the associations of aural symptoms, headache and depression with the presence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms in a young adult population in Japan. A personal interview survey was conducted on first-year university students (n = 1,930) regarding symptoms of TMD, aural problems, headache, shoulder pain and depression. Logistic regression was applied to assess the associations of these problems with the presence of TMD symptoms after controlling for age and gender. Among the 1,930 students, 543 students exhibited TMD symptoms and were classified into 7 groups: clicking only (Group I, n = 319), pain in the TMJ only (Group II, n = 21), difficulty in mouth opening only (Group III, n = 18), clicking and pain (Group IV, n = 29), clicking and difficulty in mouth opening (Group V, n = 48), difficulty in mouth opening and pain (Group VI, n = 11), and combination of three symptoms (Group VII, n = 97). The control group (n = 1,387) were subjects without any TMD symptoms. After adjusting for age and gender, a strong association was observed between TMD symptoms (Group II and IV) and tinnitus (OR = 12.1 and 13.2, respectively). TMD symptoms (Group I, II and III) were also associated with vertigo and headache. Otalgia and depression were significantly associated with the presence of clicking only. TMD symptoms were significantly correlated to aural symptoms and headache. A functional evaluation of the stomatognathic system should be considered in subjects with unexplained aural symptoms and headache.

  4. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Health Symptoms Among Rice Farmers in Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marisa; Stadlinger, Nadja; Mmochi, Aviti J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    The agrarian population in low- and middle-income countries suffers from a number of adverse health effects due to pesticide exposure. In Zanzibar, the government subsidizes pesticides to enhance local rice production. The objectives of this study were to assess Zanzibar smallholder rice farmers' pesticide use and self-reported health symptoms in relation to pesticide exposure, training, and use of protective measures and to raise awareness for future local policy formulation. An exploratory cross-sectional interviewer-administered study was conducted among 99 rice farmers. Participants were selected based on convenience sampling and stratified by expected exposure category. The study participants reported using pesticides in World Health Organization (WHO) Class II. Of pesticide users, 61% reported one or more symptoms of possible acute pesticide poisoning. Only 50% of pesticide users had received training in safe handling and application of pesticides, but those who had displayed a higher use of protective measures. Farmers who did not use protective measures were more likely to have reported skin irritation and headache, which, together with eye irritation, were the most commonly reported acute symptoms. The main sociodemographic differences between the expected exposure categories of pesticide users and nonusers were in gender and education level. Scaling up of training in safe handling and application of pesticides is needed. Further studies are required to better understand the mechanisms behind the choice to use pesticides or not.

  5. Self-reported adherence to oral cancer therapy: relationships with symptom distress, depression, and personal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry DL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Donna L Berry,1–3 Traci M Blonquist,4 Fangxin Hong,4,5 Barbara Halpenny,1 Ann H Partridge2,3 1Phyllis F Cantor Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 2Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 3Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 5Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Background: Therapeutic cancer chemotherapy is most successful when complete dosing is achieved. Because many newer therapeutic agents are oral and self-administered by the patient, adherence is a concern. The purpose of our analysis was to explore relationships between adherence, patient characteristics, and barriers to adherence.Methods: This secondary analysis utilized self-reported data from a randomized trial of self-care management conducted at two cancer centers in the US. Symptom distress was measured using the 15-item Symptom Distress Scale (SDS-15 and depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Adherence to oral medication was self-reported using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Measures were collected via Web-based, study-specific software ~8 weeks after treatment start date. Odds of low/medium adherence (score <8 were explored using univariate logistic regression. Given the number of factors and possible relationships among factors, a classification tree was built in lieu of a multivariable logistic regression model.Results: Of the eligible participants enrolled, 77 were on oral therapy and 70 had an MMAS score. Forty-nine (70% reported a high adherence score (=8. Higher odds of low/medium adherence were associated with greater symptom distress (P=0.09, more depression (P=0.05, chemotherapy vs hormonal oral medication (P=0.03, being female (P=0.02, and being randomized to the control group in the parent trial (P=0.09. Conversely, high adherence was associated with

  6. Self-reported food-related gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS are common and associated with more severe symptoms and reduced quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhn, Lena; Störsrud, Stine; Törnblom, Hans; Bengtsson, Ulf; Simrén, Magnus

    2013-05-01

    .001), energy (r=-0.21; P=0.005), food (r=-0.29; P<0.001), social functioning (r=-0.23; P=0.001), and physical status (r=-0.16; P<0.05). However, the number of food items reported to provoke GI symptoms was unrelated to body mass index, age, IBS subtype, anxiety, depression, or GI-specific anxiety. The majority of IBS patients believe that certain food items are important triggers of their GI symptoms. This is especially true for foods containing carbohydrates and fat, and also may be relevant for histamine-releasing food items and foods rich in biogenic amines. Self-reported food intolerance is associated with high symptom burden and reduced quality of life.

  7. Self-reported aural symptoms, headache and temporomandibular disorders in Japanese young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhter Rahena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the associations of aural symptoms, headache and depression with the presence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD symptoms in a young adult population in Japan. Methods A personal interview survey was conducted on first-year university students (n = 1,930 regarding symptoms of TMD, aural problems, headache, shoulder pain and depression. Logistic regression was applied to assess the associations of these problems with the presence of TMD symptoms after controlling for age and gender. Results Among the 1,930 students, 543 students exhibited TMD symptoms and were classified into 7 groups: clicking only (Group I, n = 319, pain in the TMJ only (Group II, n = 21, difficulty in mouth opening only (Group III, n = 18, clicking and pain (Group IV, n = 29, clicking and difficulty in mouth opening (Group V, n = 48, difficulty in mouth opening and pain (Group VI, n = 11, and combination of three symptoms (Group VII, n = 97. The control group (n = 1,387 were subjects without any TMD symptoms. After adjusting for age and gender, a strong association was observed between TMD symptoms (Group II and IV and tinnitus (OR = 12.1 and 13.2, respectively. TMD symptoms (Group I, II and III were also associated with vertigo and headache. Otalgia and depression were significantly associated with the presence of clicking only. Conclusions TMD symptoms were significantly correlated to aural symptoms and headache. A functional evaluation of the stomatognathic system should be considered in subjects with unexplained aural symptoms and headache.

  8. Trauma-related sleep disturbance and self-reported physical health symptoms in treatment-seeking female rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clum, G A; Nishith, P; Resick, P A

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between trauma-related sleep disturbance and physical health symptoms in treatment-seeking female rape victims. A total of 167 participants were assessed for PTSD symptoms, depression, sleep disturbance, and frequency of self-reported health symptoms. Results demonstrated that trauma-related sleep disturbance predicted unique variance in physical health symptoms after other PTSD and depression symptoms were controlled. The findings suggest that trauma-related sleep disturbance is one potential factor contributing to physical health symptoms in rape victims with PTSD.

  9. Imbalance: Objective measures versus subjective self-report in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarovano, Elodie; Wang, Wei; Reynolds, Pam; MacDougall, Hamish G

    2018-01-01

    Dizziness and imbalance are very common complaints in clinical practice. One of the challenges is to evaluate the 'real' risk of falls. Two tools are available: the patient's self-report and the measure of the patient's balance. We evaluated the relationship between these methods using the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and measures of balance while visual inputs are perturbed with Virtual Reality (VR). 90 consecutive patients underwent the DHI questionnaire and the balance test. The DHI questionnaire was used to measure the subject's perception of handicap associated with dizziness. The balance test measured the postural sway in several visual conditions: eyes open, eyes closed, and with an unpredictable visual perturbation using VR at several amplitudes of movement. No correlation was found between the DHI score and the balance measurement. The visual perturbations allow us to characterize patients into three groups: one group with a high DHI score who did not fall on the balance test (5.5%), one group with a low DHI score who failed eyes closed on a compliant surface (9.0%), and one group of the remaining patients (85.5%). The correlation between the DHI score and the balance performance became significant on the remaining group of patients. Both subjective self-report and objective measure are important to characterize a patient. The use of VR visual perturbations allowed us to define three important groups of patients. VR visual perturbations provided additional information that helps explain the lack of correlation between DHI and objective test results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fewer self-reported depressive symptoms in young adults exposed to maternal depressed mood during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohsel, Katrin; Holz, Nathalie E; Hohm, Erika; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    Depressed mood is prevalent during pregnancy, with accumulating evidence suggesting an impact on developmental outcome in the offspring. However, the long-term effects of prenatal maternal depression regarding internalizing psychopathology in the offspring are as yet unclear. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, prenatal maternal depressed mood was assessed at the child's age of 3 months. In a sample of n=307 offspring, depressive symptoms were obtained via questionnaire at the ages of 19, 22, 23 and 25 years. At age 25 years, diagnoses of depressive disorder were obtained using a diagnostic interview. In a subsample of currently healthy participants, voxel-based morphometry was conducted and amygdala volume was assessed. In n=85 young adults exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood, no significantly higher risk for a diagnosis of depressive disorder was observed. However, they reported significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms. This association was especially pronounced when prenatal maternal depressed mood was present during the first trimester of pregnancy and when maternal mood was depressed pre- as well as postnatally. At an uncorrected level only, prenatal maternal depressed mood was associated with decreased amygdala volume. Prenatal maternal depressed mood was not assessed during pregnancy, but shortly after childbirth. No diagnoses of maternal clinical depression during pregnancy were available. Self-reported depressive symptoms do not imply increased, but rather decreased symptom levels in young adults who were exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood. A long-term perspective may be important when considering consequences of prenatal risk factors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Psychophysiological and self-reported reactivity associated with social anxiety and public speaking fear symptoms: Effects of fear versus distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayiotou, Georgia; Karekla, Maria; Georgiou, Dora; Constantinou, Elena; Paraskeva-Siamata, Michaela

    2017-09-01

    This study examines psychophysiological and subjective reactivity to anxiety-provoking situations in relation to social anxiety and public speaking fear. We hypothesized that social anxiety symptoms would be associated with similar reactivity across types of imaginary anxiety scenes and not specifically to social anxiety-related scenes. This would be attributed to co-existing depression symptoms. Public speaking fear was expected to be associated with more circumscribed reactivity to survival-threat scenes, due to its association with fearfulness. Community participants imagined standardized anxiety situations, including social anxiety and animal fear scenes, while their physiological reactivity and self-reported emotions were assessed. Findings supported that social anxiety was associated with undifferentiated physiological reactivity across anxiety-provoking situations, except with regards to skin conductance level, which was higher during social anxiety imagery. Public speaking fear was associated with increased reactivity to animal phobia and panic scenes. Covariance analyses indicated that the lack of response specificity associated with social anxiety could be attributed to depression levels, while the specificity associated with public speaking fear could be explained by fearfulness. Findings highlight the need to assess not only primary anxiety symptoms but also depression and fearfulness, which likely predict discrepant reactions of individuals to anxiogenic situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors related to self-reported social anxiety symptoms among incoming university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu Hui; Sun, Zih-Jie; Lee, I Hui; Lee, Chih-Ting; Chen, Kao Chin; Tsai, Chung Hung; Yang, Yen Kuang; Yang, Yi Ching

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the lifestyle/social, personality trait and mental factors among incoming university students with higher self-reported social anxiety symptoms (SAS). A total of 5126 incoming university students were recruited. The test battery included a self-administered questionnaire that examined personal lifestyle, the Measurement of Support Functions, the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision, the Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Scale, the Social Phobia Inventory, the suicide ideation from the Brief Symptoms Rating Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire. SAS (23.7%) were prevalent. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that the significant predictors of higher levels of SAS were being an undergraduate student and a non-smoker, having lower Measurement of Support Functions score (poorer social support), having higher Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision score (Internet addiction), having lower Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Scale score (less altruistic behaviour), having suicide ideation and having higher Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire score (poorer sleeper). Given the high prevalence of SAS among university students, it is necessary to build a better strategy to detect students with potential social anxiety-related problems/disorders or other mental problems early on. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Personality factors versus expectations and self-reported symptoms among patients awaiting advanced prosthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakestam, U; Söderfeldt, B; Rydén, O; Glantz, P O

    1997-09-01

    To assess simple questions for identifying patient personality traits among a normal Swedish population and to assess possible relationships between personality and symptoms, attitudes, dental problems, and received dental care, a questionnaire was sent to 489 subjects awaiting prosthodontic treatment (response rate 84.2%). Three personality traits could be identified: "Fearful-depressed" subjects consumed more tranquillisers, were worried and had many symptoms, whilst "Open-minded" were optimistic about treatment, had high expectations and few symptoms. "Control-minded" did not reveal worries and guarded their autonomy. It was concluded that personality indicators were related to clinically relevant factors: salience of teeth, perceptions of problems, dental attendance pattern, expectations and perceptions of symptoms.

  14. Course of self-reported symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity in substance abusers during early treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder has been associated with poor outcome in studies of substance use disorders. This study aimed to assess the course of self-reported symptoms of both attention deficit and hyperactivity among adults presenting for treatment for substance use disorders....... A sample of 75 substance abusers were assessed after they were admitted to a centralized intake unit, and followed at 3 and 6 months after intake by independent interviewers (follow-up rate 81%). Symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity were assessed with the Adult Self-report Scale for ADHD (ASRS......). Both types of symptoms declined significantly during follow-up, but attention symptoms had a high intraclass correlation (0.79), and hyperactivity had a moderate intraclass correlation (0.64). Both baseline attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms were associated with worse work and social...

  15. Current self-reported symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder are associated with total brain volume in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hoogman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduced total brain volume is a consistent finding in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. In order to get a better understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD, we take the first step in studying the dimensionality of current self-reported adult ADHD symptoms, by looking at its relation with total brain volume. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a sample of 652 highly educated adults, the association between total brain volume, assessed with magnetic resonance imaging, and current number of self-reported ADHD symptoms was studied. The results showed an association between these self-reported ADHD symptoms and total brain volume. Post-hoc analysis revealed that the symptom domain of inattention had the strongest association with total brain volume. In addition, the threshold for impairment coincides with the threshold for brain volume reduction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding improves our understanding of the biological substrates of self-reported ADHD symptoms, and suggests total brain volume as a target intermediate phenotype for future gene-finding in ADHD.

  16. Self-reported lactose intolerance in clinic patients with functional gastrointestinal symptoms: prevalence, risk factors, and impact on food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Chu, H; Cong, Y; Deng, Y; Long, Y; Zhu, Y; Pohl, D; Fried, M; Dai, N; Fox, M

    2015-08-01

    Many patients complain of abdominal symptoms with dairy products; however, clinical and psychosocial factors associated with self-reported lactose intolerance (SLI) have not been assessed in large studies. In particular, data are lacking from lactase deficient populations. This prospective cohort study assessed the prevalence of, and risk factors for, SLI in Chinese patients attending a gastroenterology clinic. Consecutive patients completed questionnaires to assess digestive health (Rome III), psychological state (HADS), life event stress (LES), food intake, and quality-of-life (SF-8). A representative sample completed genetic studies and hydrogen breath testing (HBT) at the clinically relevant dose of 20 g lactose. SLI was present in 411/910 (45%) clinic patients with functional abdominal symptoms. The genotype in all subjects was C/C-13910. A small number of novel SNPs in lactase promoter region were identified, including C/T-13908 which appeared to confer lactase persistence. Over half of the patients (54%) completed the 20 g lactose HBT with 58% (285/492) reporting typical symptoms. Positive and negative predictive values of SLI for abdominal symptoms during HBT were 60% and 44%, respectively. Psychological state and stress were not associated with SLI in clinic patients. SLI impacted on physical quality-of-life and was associated with reduced ingestion of dairy products, legumes, and dried fruit (p ≤ 0.05). In a lactase deficient population, approximately half of patients attending clinic with functional gastrointestinal symptoms reported intolerance to dairy products; however, SLI did not predict findings on 20 g lactose HBT. Independent of psychosocial factors, SLI impacted on quality-of-life and impacted on food choices with restrictions not limited to dairy products. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Borderline but not Antisocial Personality Disorder Symptoms are Related to Self-Reported Partner Aggression in Late Middle-Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Gleason, Marci E. J.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship between personality pathology and the frequency of self-reported psychological and physical partner aggression in a community sample of 872 adults aged 55–64. Previous research suggests that antisocial and borderline personality disorder (PD) symptoms are associated with partner aggression. Controlling for gender, education, alcohol dependence, and other personality pathology, we found that borderline PD symptoms, which include abandonment fears, unstable identity, and affective instability, were significantly related to the frequency of self-reported aggression towards one’s partner. This relationship was observed regardless of whether the participant’s personality was described by a clinical interviewer, the participant themselves, or an informant chosen by the participant. Further, the relationship between borderline PD symptoms and self-reported partner aggression was moderated by gender such that women were driving the association. Conversely, antisocial PD symptoms, which include deceitfulness, irresponsibility, disregard for rules, and lack of remorse did not significantly account for variance in self-reported partner aggression. PMID:22732005

  18. Borderline but not antisocial personality disorder symptoms are related to self-reported partner aggression in late middle-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-08-01

    We examined the relationship between personality pathology and the frequency of self-reported psychological and physical partner aggression in a community sample of 872 adults aged 55-64. Previous research suggests that antisocial and borderline personality disorder (PD) symptoms are associated with partner aggression. Controlling for gender, education, alcohol dependence, and other personality pathology, we found that borderline PD symptoms, which include abandonment fears, unstable identity, and affective instability, were significantly related to the frequency of self-reported aggression toward one's partner. This relationship was observed regardless of whether the participant's personality was described by a clinical interviewer, the participant themselves, or an informant chosen by the participant. Further, the relationship between borderline PD symptoms and self-reported partner aggression was moderated by gender such that women were driving the association. Conversely, antisocial PD symptoms, which include deceitfulness, irresponsibility, disregard for rules, and lack of remorse did not significantly account for variance in self-reported partner aggression. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Expectancy Effects on Self-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Simulated Neurofeedback: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grace J; Suhr, Julie A

    2018-03-31

    Expectancy is a psychological factor that can impact treatment effectiveness. Research on neurofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggests expectancy may contribute to treatment outcomes, though evidence for expectancy as an explanatory factor is sparse. This pilot study investigated the effects of expectancies on self-reported ADHD symptoms in simulated neurofeedback. Forty-six adults who were concerned that they had ADHD expected to receive active neurofeedback, but were randomly assigned to receive a placebo with false feedback indicating attentive (positive false feedback) or inattentive (negative false feedback) states. Effects of the expectancy manipulation were measured on an ADHD self-report scale. Large expectancy effects were found, such that individuals who received positive false feedback reported significant decreases in ADHD symptoms, whereas individuals who received negative false feedback reported significant increases in ADHD symptoms. Findings suggest that expectancy should be considered as an explanatory mechanism for ADHD symptom change in response to neurofeedback.

  20. Extremely prematurely born adolescents self-report of anxiety symptoms, and the mothers' reports on their offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sømhovd, M J; Esbjørn, B H; Hansen, B M

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To compare anxiety symptoms in adolescents born extremely prematurely to term-born controls. METHODS: We had 96 preterm-born adolescents and 40 term-born controls from Denmark, and their mothers score the adolescents on the Revised Children Anxiety and Depression scale. We analysed group...... differences, cross-informant correlations and relative risks for elevated anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: Self-reported anxiety symptoms did not significantly differ, although the upper confidence limit (95% CI: -3.3 to 5.1) supported an odds ratio of 2 for the preterm-born participants. Mothers of the preterm......-born participants reported higher social anxiety symptoms than did mothers of controls (51.7 versus 46.8, p = 0.001). The relative risk for being above a threshold indicating distressing anxiety was small from self-reports (1.39; p = 0.60). From mother-reports, the relative risk was noticeable but not significant...

  1. The impact of motor symptoms on self-reported anxiety in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Robert D; Le, Asher M; Neargarder, Sandy; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2017-05-01

    Anxiety is commonly endorsed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and significantly affects quality of life. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) is often used but contains items that overlap with common PD motor symptoms (e.g., "hands trembling"). Because of these overlapping items, we hypothesized that PD motor symptoms would significantly affect BAI scores. One hundred non-demented individuals with PD and 74 healthy control participants completed the BAI. PD motor symptoms were assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Factor analysis of the BAI assessed for a PD motor factor, and further analyses assessed how this factor affected BAI scores. BAI scores were significantly higher for PD than NC. A five-item PD motor factor correlated with UPDRS observer-rated motor severity and mediated the PD-control difference on BAI total scores. An interaction occurred, whereby removal of the PD motor factor resulted in a significant reduction in BAI scores for PD relative to NC. The correlation between the BAI and UPDRS significantly declined when controlling for the PD motor factor. The results indicate that commonly endorsed BAI items may reflect motor symptoms such as tremor instead of, or in addition to, genuine mood symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of considering motor symptoms in the assessment of anxiety in PD and point to the need for selecting anxiety measures that are less subject to contamination by the motor effects of movement disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  3. Trends in self-reported sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finland from 1972 to 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2008-01-01

    A hypothesis concerning habitual sleep reduction and its adverse consequences among general population in modern societies has received wide publicity in the mass media, although scientific evidence supporting the hypothesis is scarce. Similarly, there is an extensively distributed belief, at least...... in Finland, that the prevalence of insomnia-related symptoms is increasing, but evidence for this is even sparser. These issues are important because of the known increased risk of mortality and health risks associated with sleep duration deviating from 7 to 8 h. To reveal possible trends in self......-reported sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms, we reanalyzed all available data from surveys carried out in Finland from 1972 to 2005. The main results were that a minor decrease of self-reported sleep duration has taken place in Finland, especially among working aged men. However, the size...

  4. Biological alterations and self-reported symptoms among insecticides-exposed workers in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toe, Adama M; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Ouedraogo, Moustapha; Guissou, Pierre I

    2012-03-01

    Occupationally exposed workers, farm workers and plant protection agents in the Sahel region of Burkina Faso were interviewed to assess adverse health effects of insecticides. The subjects were also examined for changes in both hematological and biochemical parameters. The prevalence of liver and kidney dysfunction was found to be quite high among insecticide applicators, especially among plant protection agents. The prevalence of biochemical alterations seems to be correlated to the frequency of insecticide use. However, no significant differences were found between the hematological parameters among farm workers and plant protection agents. The hematological parameters of all the insecticide applicators were normal. The great majority of insecticide applicators (85%) reported symptoms related to insecticide exposure. The use of insecticides in the agriculture of Burkina Faso is threatening to human health.

  5. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  6. CLINICAL OUTCOMES AND SELF-REPORTED SYMPTOMS IN PATIENTS WITH ACROMEGALY: AN 8-YEAR FOLLOW-UP OF A LANREOTIDE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairi, Shafaq; Sagvand, Babak Torabi; Pulaski-Liebert, Karen J; Tritos, Nicholas A; Klibanski, Anne; Nachtigall, Lisa B

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of patients with acromegaly who remained on long-term lanreotide depot after completion of an open-label multicenter phase III clinical trial (SALSA: A Multi Center Open Label Study to Assess the Ability of Subjects With Acromegaly or Their Partners to Administer Somatuline Autogel), compare baseline and long-term follow-up symptoms scores, and correlate scores with individual longitudinal clinical outcomes. Records of all subjects previously enrolled at the Massachusetts General Hospital site of SALSA were reviewed. Those who remained on lanreotide were interviewed and asked to complete a questionnaire that they had filled out in SALSA in 2007 regarding their current symptomatology and injection side effects, as well as to complete the Acromegaly Quality of Life Questionnaire. Furthermore, clinical, biochemical, and radiographic data related to acromegaly and its comorbidities were tracked throughout follow-up. Six out of 7 patients chose to remain on lanreotide, and 5 of them continued lanreotide depot through last follow-up, for up to 8 years or in 1 case until death. In all cases, lanreotide remained well tolerated, and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels and pituitary imaging remained well controlled on stable doses. While comorbidities persisted or developed, the self-reported symptom score after up to 8 years of therapy showed a significant decrease in frequency or resolution in symptoms that were reported at baseline. This study shows a significant decrease in frequency or resolution in self-reported symptoms in well-controlled patients receiving long-term lanreotide therapy. AcroQoL = Acromegaly Quality of Life Questionnaire GH = growth hormone GI = gastrointestinal IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor-1 SALSA = A Multi Center Open Label Study to Assess the Ability of Subjects With Acromegaly or Their Partners to Administer Somatuline Autogel.

  7. Comparison of children's self-reports of depressive symptoms among different family interaction types in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Lee-Lan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that family interactions are associated with depressive symptoms in children. However, detailed classifications of family interaction types have not been studied thoroughly. This study aims to understand the types of family interactions children experience and to identify the specific types of family interactions that are associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms in children. Methods Data used in the study was collected as part of the Child and Adolescent Behavior in Long term Evolution (CABLE project in 2003. CABLE is a longitudinal cohort study that commenced in 2001 and collects data annually from children in Taipei city and Hsinchu county in northern Taiwan. The data analyzed in this study was that obtained from the sixth graders (aged 11 to 12 years old in 2003. Of the 2,449 sixth graders, 51.2% were boys and 48.8% were girls. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to investigate the types of family interactions. One way ANOVA was used to establish the relationship between family interaction types and children's self-reports of depressive symptoms. Results Based on the results of factor analysis, the latent factors for family interactions included supporting activities, psychological control, parental discipline, behavioral supervision, and family conflict. After conducting cluster analysis using factor scores, four types of family interactions were revealed: supervised (29.66%, disciplined (13.56%, nurtured (40.96% and conflict (15.82%. Children from the disciplined or conflict families were more likely to report depressive symptoms. Children from the nurtured families were least likely to report depressive symptoms. Conclusion Family interactions can be classified into four different types, which are related to children's self-reports of depressive symptoms. The creation of a family interaction environment that is beneficial for children's mental health is an important

  8. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085

  9. Self-reported symptoms and risk factors for digital ischaemia among international world-class beach volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Pol, Daan; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Maas, Mario; Kuijer, P Paul F M

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms is remarkably high among elite indoor volleyball players. Since the exposure to sport-specific demands may be higher in beach volleyball compared to indoor volleyball, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms and associated risk factors among world-class beach volleyball players. Therefore, a questionnaire survey was performed among beach volleyball players active during the 2013 Grand Slam Beach Volleyball in the Netherlands. In total, 60 of the 128 beach volleyball players (47%) participated: 26 males and 34 females from 17 countries. The self-reported prevalence of cold or blue or pale digits in the dominant hand during or immediately after practice or competition was 38% (n = 23). Two risk factors were independently associated with symptoms of blue or pale digits: more than 14 years playing volleyball (odds ratio (OR) 4.42, 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 1.30-15.07) and sex (female) (OR 4.62, 90% CI 1.15-18.57). In conclusion, the prevalence of symptoms associated with digital ischaemia is high among international world-class beach volleyball players. Female sex and the length of the volleyball career were independently associated with an increased risk of ischaemia-related symptoms. The high prevalence of these seemingly innocuous symptoms and possible associated risk factors warrant regular monitoring since early detection can potentially prevent thromboembolic complications and irreversible tissue damage.

  10. Self-Reported Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms Among Adults Referred to a Gender Identity Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaat, Lieke E W; van der Miesen, Anna I R; de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Popma, Arne; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    The purpose of this study was to (1) investigate autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in a sample of adults referred for gender dysphoria (GD) compared to typically developing (TD) populations, (2) see whether males assigned at birth with GD (MaB GD s) and females assigned at birth with GD (FaB GD s) differ in ASD symptom levels, (3) study the role of sexual orientation, and (4) investigate ASD symptoms' correlation with GD symptoms. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was used to measure ASD symptoms, and the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS) was used to measure the intensity of GD. Mean AQ scores of adults referred for GD (n = 326; 191 MaB GD and 135 FaB GD ) were compared to three TD populations taken from the literature (n = 1316; 667 male and 644 female, 5 birth-assigned sex unknown). The mean AQ score in individuals referred for GD was similar to the TD samples. FaB GD s showed higher mean AQ scores than MaB GD s, and they had mean scores similar to TD individuals of the same experienced gender (TD males). After selecting individuals with an UGDS score indicative of GD, a positive association between ASD and GD symptoms was found. The co-occurrence of GD and ASD in adults may not be as prevalent as previously suggested. Attenuation of sex differences in ASD might explain FaB GD s' and MaB GD s' ASD symptoms' similarity to those of TD individuals of the same experienced gender. Intensity of ASD symptoms might be correlated with intensity of GD symptoms, warranting further studies to elaborate on their potential co-occurrence.

  11. Self-reported post-discharge symptoms following obstetric neuraxial blockade.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, N E

    2010-10-01

    Economic pressures are leading to earlier hospital discharge following delivery, before complications of obstetric neuraxial block may become apparent. Our aim was to estimate the incidence of symptoms presenting post-discharge at a single tertiary obstetric centre.

  12. Prevalence of self-reported specific phobia symptoms in an Israeli sample of young conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Levin, Jennifer; Dannon, Pinhas N; Poreh, Amir; Yehuda, Yoram Ben; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-01-01

    Specific phobia is a very prevalent disorder with high comorbidity rates. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of specific phobia symptoms in a sample of Israeli young adults. Eight hundred fifty young Israeli soldiers participated in the study. Measures included a questionnaire on specific phobias and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Data on eight specific fears representing DSM-IV-TR specific phobias were analyzed to evaluate prevalence of phobic symptoms and find potential socio-demographic correlates. Prevalence of fears and specific phobic symptoms was 49.1 and 8.7%, respectively. Most frequent phobic symptoms were from animals, being alone, heights, injury and closed places. The following variables were accompanied by more phobic symptoms: male gender, role of mechanic, not having completed the matriculation exams, lack of friends and romantic relationships, therapy prior to enlistment or during the military service and having received psychotropic drugs in the past. Based on a stepwise regression analysis, the following variables contributed significantly to the prediction of phobic symptoms: lack of friends and romantic relationships, school absenteeism and role of mechanic. Our findings corroborate results from other studies in the Western world regarding the high prevalence of specific phobia symptomatology, as well as its distribution and socio-demographic correlates.

  13. Health symptoms in relation to temperature, humidity, and self-reported perceptions of climate in New York City residential environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Ashlinn; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2017-07-01

    Little monitoring has been conducted of temperature and humidity inside homes despite the fact that these conditions may be relevant to health outcomes. Previous studies have observed associations between self-reported perceptions of the indoor environment and health. Here, we investigate associations between measured temperature and humidity, perceptions of indoor environmental conditions, and health symptoms in a sample of New York City apartments. We measured temperature and humidity in 40 New York City apartments during summer and winter seasons and collected survey data from the households' residents. Health outcomes of interest were (1) sleep quality, (2) symptoms of heat illness (summer season), and (3) symptoms of respiratory viral infection (winter season). Using mixed-effects logistic regression models, we investigated associations between the perceptions, symptoms, and measured conditions in each season. Perceptions of indoor temperature were significantly associated with measured temperature in both the summer and the winter, with a stronger association in the summer season. Sleep quality was inversely related to measured and perceived indoor temperature in the summer season only. Heat illness symptoms were associated with perceived, but not measured, temperature in the summer season. We did not find an association between any measured or perceived condition and cases of respiratory infection in the winter season. Although limited in size, the results of this study reveal that indoor temperature may impact sleep quality, and that thermal perceptions of the indoor environment may indicate vulnerability to heat illness. These are both important avenues for further investigation.

  14. Subjective Social Status and Self-Reported Health Among US-born and Immigrant Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Jeremiah R; Glenn, Beth A; Mistry, Rashmita S; Ponce, Ninez A; Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2017-02-01

    Subjective social status is associated with a range of health outcomes. Few studies have tested the relevance of subjective social status among Latinos in the U.S.; those that have yielded mixed results. Data come from the Latino subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2554). Regression models adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic factors. Stratified analyses tested whether nativity status modifies the effect of subjective social status on health. Subjective social status was associated with better health. Income and education mattered more for health than subjective social status among U.S.-born Latinos. However, the picture was mixed among immigrant Latinos, with subjective social status more strongly predictive than income but less so than education. Subjective social status may tap into stressful immigrant experiences that affect one's perceived self-worth and capture psychosocial consequences and social disadvantage left out by conventional socioeconomic measures.

  15. Parent–Youth Agreement on Self-Reported Competencies of Youth With Depressive and Suicidal Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbekou, Valentin; MacNeil, Sasha; Gignac, Martin; Renaud, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A multi-informant approach is often used in child psychiatry. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment uses this approach, gathering parent reports on the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and youth reports on the Youth Self-Report (YSR), which contain scales assessing both the child’s problems and competencies. Agreement between parent and youth perceptions of their competencies on these forms has not been studied to date. Method: Our study examined the parent–youth agreement of competencies on the CBCL and YSR from a sample of 258 parent–youth dyads referred to a specialized outpatient clinic for depressive and suicidal disorders. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for all competency scales (activity, social, and academic), with further examinations based on youth’s sex, age, and type of problem. Results: Weak-to-moderate parent–youth agreements were reported on the activities and social subscales. For the activities subscale, boys’ ratings had a strong correlation with parents’ ratings, while it was weak for girls. Also, agreement on activities and social subscales was stronger for dyads with the youth presenting externalizing instead of internalizing problems. Conclusion: Agreement on competencies between parents and adolescents varied based on competency and adolescent sex, age, and type of problem. PMID:25886673

  16. Effects of self-reported hearing or vision impairment on depressive symptoms: a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J H; Lee, H J; Jung, J; Park, E-C

    2018-02-08

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of either hearing, vision or dual sensory impairment on depressive symptoms and to identify subgroups that are vulnerable and significantly affected. Data from the 2006-2014 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) were used and a total of 5832 individuals were included in this study. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D10) scale. Sensory impairment was assessed according to the levels of self-reported hearing or vision, which were categorised as either good (excellent, very good or good) or poor (fair or poor). The changes in hearing or vision from records of previous survey were investigated. Changes from good to poor, which indicates new onset, were defined as hearing impairment or vision impairment. Interactions of changes in hearing and vision were considered in the analysis. Dual sensory impairment was indicated when hearing impairment and vision impairment both developed at the same time. Demographic, socioeconomic and health-related factors were considered as potential confounders and were adjusted for in the generalised estimating equation model. Individuals with hearing impairment demonstrated significantly more severe depressive symptoms [β = 0.434, standard errors (s.e.) = 0.097, p impairment also showed significantly elevated depressive symptoms (β = 0.253, s.e. = 0.058, p impairment showed significantly more severe depressive symptoms (β = 0.768, s.e. = 0.197, p impairment on depressive symptoms was significant in both sexes and across age groups, except for vision impairment in male participants. Hearing, vision and dual sensory impairment are significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Our results suggest that treatment or rehabilitation of either hearing or vision impairment would help prevent depression.

  17. Are self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms among older adults associated with increased intestinal permeability and psychological distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganda Mall, John-Peter; Östlund-Lagerström, Lina; Lindqvist, Carl Mårten; Algilani, Samal; Rasoal, Dara; Repsilber, Dirk; Brummer, Robert J; V Keita, Åsa; Schoultz, Ida

    2018-03-20

    Despite the substantial number of older adults suffering from gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms little is known regarding the character of these complaints and whether they are associated with an altered intestinal barrier function and psychological distress. Our aim was to explore the relationship between self-reported gut health, intestinal permeability and psychological distress among older adults. Three study populations were included: 1) older adults with GI symptoms (n = 24), 2) a group of older adults representing the general elderly population in Sweden (n = 22) and 3) senior orienteering athletes as a potential model of healthy ageing (n = 27). Questionnaire data on gut-health, psychological distress and level of physical activity were collected. Intestinal permeability was measured by quantifying zonulin in plasma. The level of systemic and local inflammation was monitored by measuring C-reactive protein (CRP), hydrogen peroxide in plasma and calprotectin in stool samples. The relationship between biomarkers and questionnaire data in the different study populations was illustrated using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Older adults with GI symptoms displayed significantly higher levels of both zonulin and psychological distress than both general older adults and senior orienteering athletes. The PCA analysis revealed a separation between senior orienteering athletes and older adults with GI symptoms and showed an association between GI symptoms, psychological distress and zonulin. Older adults with GI symptoms express increased plasma levels of zonulin, which might reflect an augmented intestinal permeability. In addition, this group suffer from higher psychological distress compared to general older adults and senior orienteering athletes. This relationship was further confirmed by a PCA plot, which illustrated an association between GI symptoms, psychological distress and intestinal permeability.

  18. ADHD Dimensions and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms in Relation to Self-Report and Laboratory Measures of Neuropsychological Functioning in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Matthew A; Rapport, Hannah F; Rondon, Ana T; Becker, Stephen P

    2017-06-01

    This study examined ADHD and sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms in relation to self-report and laboratory measures of neuropsychological functioning in college students. College students ( N = 298, aged 17-25, 72% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, SCT, depression, sleep, functional impairment, and executive functioning (EF). Participants also completed a visual working memory task, a Stroop test, and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II). ADHD inattentive and SCT symptoms were strong predictors of self-reported EF, with inattention the strongest predictor of Time Management and Motivation and SCT the strongest predictor of Self-Organization/Problem Solving. SCT (but not inattention) was associated with Emotion Regulation. No relationships were found between self-reported symptoms and laboratory task performance. Between-group analyses were largely consistent with regression analyses. Self-reported ADHD and SCT symptoms are strongly associated with college students' self-reported EF, but relationships with laboratory task measures of neuropsychological functioning are limited.

  19. Northern Ireland: political violence and self-reported physical symptoms in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, E; Wilson, R

    1991-01-01

    In order to investigate the possible relationship between physical health and political violence in Northern Ireland a random sample of residents of four electoral areas (two with relatively high violence and two with relatively low violence) was interviewed at home. Each person was asked to rate their health in terms of common physical symptoms, to indicate their use of family doctor and hospital services, and to rate the level of political violence in their neighbourhood. Analysis of covariance (with a measure of psychological well-being, a measure of trait neuroticism plus age and socioeconomic status as covariates) revealed that women reported more physical symptoms than did men, people in the 'high' violence areas reported more symptoms than did those in the 'low' violence areas, while those who rated their own neighbourhood most highly in terms of perceived violence also reported the greatest number of physical symptoms. However, a series of chi 2 tests revealed no association between political violence or perceived political violence and uptake of services.

  20. Self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms among Danish women with cosmetic breast implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Kim; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Fryzek, Jon P

    2004-01-01

    No epidemiological evidence of an association between silicone breast implants and connective tissue disease has been found. Based on case reports, it has been hypothesized that silicone breast implants may be associated with a unique rheumatic symptom cluster termed "atypical connective tissue d...

  1. Self-reported cue-induced physical symptoms of craving as an indicator of cocaine dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorspan, Florence; Fortias, Maeva; Zerdazi, El-Hadi; Karsinti, Emily; Bloch, Vanessa; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Bellivier, Frank; Brousse, Georges; van den Brink, Wim; Derks, Eske M.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of cocaine dependence is under-recognized by cocaine users and requires a careful standardized interview to be ascertained by clinicians. To test if past experiences of cue-induced physical symptoms of craving (nausea, vomiting, sweating, shaking, nervousness) before cocaine use could

  2. Subtyping patients with heroin addiction at treatment entry: factor derived from the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maremmani, Icro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Pacini, Matteo; Bizzarri, Jacopo V; Trogu, Emanuela; Maremmani, Angelo Gi; Gerra, Gilberto; Perugi, Giulio; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2010-04-13

    Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Using the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90), we studied the psychopathological dimensions of 1,055 patients with heroin addiction (884 males and 171 females) aged between 16 and 59 years at the beginning of treatment, and their relationship to age, sex and duration of dependence. A total of 150 (14.2%) patients with heroin addiction showed depressive symptomatology characterised by feelings of worthlessness and being trapped or caught; 257 (24.4%) had somatisation symptoms, 205 (19.4%) interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms, 235 (22.3%) panic symptomatology, 208 (19.7%) violence and self-aggression. These dimensions were not correlated with sex or duration of dependence. Younger patients with heroin addiction were characterised by higher scores for violence-suicide, sensitivity and panic anxiety symptomatology. Older patients with heroin addiction showed higher scores for somatisation and worthlessness-being trapped symptomatology. This study supports the hypothesis that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation are the core of the clinical phenomenology of addiction and should be incorporated into its nosology.

  3. Subtyping patients with heroin addiction at treatment entry: factor derived from the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maremmani Icro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Methods Using the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90, we studied the psychopathological dimensions of 1,055 patients with heroin addiction (884 males and 171 females aged between 16 and 59 years at the beginning of treatment, and their relationship to age, sex and duration of dependence. Results A total of 150 (14.2% patients with heroin addiction showed depressive symptomatology characterised by feelings of worthlessness and being trapped or caught; 257 (24.4% had somatisation symptoms, 205 (19.4% interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms, 235 (22.3% panic symptomatology, 208 (19.7% violence and self-aggression. These dimensions were not correlated with sex or duration of dependence. Younger patients with heroin addiction were characterised by higher scores for violence-suicide, sensitivity and panic anxiety symptomatology. Older patients with heroin addiction showed higher scores for somatisation and worthlessness-being trapped symptomatology. Conclusions This study supports the hypothesis that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation are the core of the clinical phenomenology of addiction and should be incorporated into its nosology.

  4. Self-reported cue-induced physical symptoms of craving as an indicator of cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorspan, Florence; Fortias, Maeva; Zerdazi, El-Hadi; Karsinti, Emily; Bloch, Vanessa; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Bellivier, Frank; Brousse, Georges; van den Brink, Wim; Derks, Eske M

    2015-12-01

    The presence of cocaine dependence is under-recognized by cocaine users and requires a careful standardized interview to be ascertained by clinicians. To test if past experiences of cue-induced physical symptoms of craving (nausea, vomiting, sweating, shaking, nervousness) before cocaine use could be a useful way to boost the diagnosis of cocaine dependence. A cross-sectional study of 221 cocaine users from several outpatient addiction treatment services in France, addressing the most severe period of cocaine use. DSM-IV cocaine dependence was determined with the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Physical symptoms before using cocaine were retrospectively assessed with a single item rated on a 0-5 scale. The prevalence of DSM-IV cocaine dependence was 84.6%. The mean score on the physical symptoms item was 1.3 (SD 1.3). A cut-off score of ≥ 1 on this item alone resulted in a sensitivity of 62%, a specificity of 88.2%, a positive predictive value of 96.6% and a negative predictive value of 29.7% to detect DSM IV cocaine dependence in this sample. Adding this item to a model with the frequency of cocaine use significantly increased the predictive power: Nagelkerke's R(2) increased from .149 to .326 (p physical signs of cocaine craving is associated with a clinical diagnosis of lifetime cocaine dependence and could be a simple way to improve its detection in clinical settings. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  5. Development of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale: a self-report measure for the assessment of muscle dysmorphia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayville, Stephen B; Williamson, Donald A; White, Marney A; Netemeyer, Richard G; Drab, Danae L

    2002-12-01

    Muscle dysmorphia has recently been described as a variant of body dysmorphic disorder that involves an intense preoccupation with one's perceived lack of muscle size. Currently, no assessment measures specific to the cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions of the construct of muscle dysmorphia have been published. To address this need, the authors developed the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS), a brief 19-item self-report measure for the assessment of muscle dysmorphia symptoms. Psychometric evaluation of the MASS across two samples of male weight lifting participants (total N = 372) revealed a stable five-factor structure. An evaluation of factor content resulted in the following factor labels: Bodybuilding Dependence, Muscle Checking, Substance Use, Injury, and Muscle Satisfaction. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were established with the MASS total score and its subscales. The authors believe the MASS will be a useful measure for research and applied work relating to muscle dysmorphia.

  6. Fructan, Rather Than Gluten, Induces Symptoms in Patients With Self-Reported Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodje, Gry I; Sarna, Vikas K; Minelle, Ingunn H; Rolfsen, Kjersti L; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R; Veierød, Marit B; Henriksen, Christine; Lundin, Knut E A

    2018-02-01

    Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is characterized by symptom improvement after gluten withdrawal in absence of celiac disease. The mechanisms of non-celiac gluten sensitivity are unclear, and there are no biomarkers for this disorder. Foods with gluten often contain fructans, a type of fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols. We aimed to investigate the effect of gluten and fructans separately in individuals with self-reported gluten sensitivity. We performed a double-blind crossover challenge of 59 individuals on a self-instituted gluten-free diet, for whom celiac disease had been excluded. The study was performed at Oslo University Hospital in Norway from October 2014 through May 2016. Participants were randomly assigned to groups placed on diets containing gluten (5.7 g), fructans (2.1 g), or placebo, concealed in muesli bars, for 7 days. Following a minimum 7-day washout period (until the symptoms induced by the previous challenge were resolved), participants crossed over into a different group, until they completed all 3 challenges (gluten, fructan, and placebo). Symptoms were measured by Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale Irritable Bowel Syndrome (GSRS-IBS) version. A linear mixed model for analysis was used. Overall GSRS-IBS scores differed significantly during gluten, fructan, and placebo challenges; mean values were 33.1 ± 13.3, 38.6 ± 12.3, and 34.3 ± 13.9, respectively (P = .04). Mean scores for GSRS-IBS bloating were 9.3 ± 3.5, 11.6 ± 3.5, and 10.1 ± 3.7, respectively, during the gluten, fructan, and placebo challenges (P = .004). The overall GSRS-IBS score for participants consuming fructans was significantly higher than for participants consuming gluten (P = .049), as was the GSRS bloating score (P = .003). Thirteen participants had the highest overall GSRS-IBS score after consuming gluten, 24 had the highest score after consuming fructan, and 22 had the highest score after consuming placebo. There was no difference in GSRS

  7. Energy drinks and youth self-reported hyperactivity/inattention symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Deborah L; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Grilo, Stephanie A; McCaslin, Catherine; Schwartz, Marlene; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-01-01

    To describe patterns in sweetened beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and sex, documenting both the amount and types of sweetened beverages consumed; and to examine the association of sweetened beverage consumption with hyperactivity/inattention symptoms among middle school students in a single urban school district. Middle school students (n = 1649; 47% Hispanic and 38% black, non-Hispanic) from 12 schools, randomly selected out of 27 district schools, completed health behavior surveys in fall 2011. Students reported quantity and types of sweetened beverages consumed in the past 24 hours and completed the 5-item Hyperactivity/Inattention subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to measure symptoms. Amount and variety of reported sweetened beverage consumption (including energy drinks) were greater among boys versus girls and among black and Hispanic versus white students. Risk of hyperactivity/inattention increased by 14% for each additional sweetened beverage consumed, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, sex, school lunch eligibility, family structure, and sugary food consumption. Students reporting consumption of energy drinks were 66% more likely to be at risk for hyperactivity/inattention after adjusting for number of drinks, other types of drinks consumed, and other potential confounders. Results support recommendations to limit consumption of sweetened beverages and to avoid consumption of energy drinks among children. Interventions to reduce sweetened beverage consumption should explicitly focus on energy drinks and other emerging sweetened beverages such as sports and sweetened coffee drinks. More research is needed to understand the direction of effects and the mechanisms behind the association between sweetened beverages and hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A clinical measure of suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior, and associated symptoms in bipolar disorder: Psychometric properties of the Concise Health Risk Tracking Self-Report (CHRT-SR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostacher, Michael J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Rabideau, Dustin; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Sylvia, Louisa G; Gold, Alexandra K; Shesler, Leah W; Ketter, Terence A; Bowden, Charles L; Calabrese, Joseph R; Friedman, Edward S; Iosifescu, Dan V; Thase, Michael E; Leon, Andrew C; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2015-12-01

    People with bipolar disorder are at high risk of suicide, but no clinically useful scale has been validated in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties in bipolar disorder of the 7- and 12-item versions of the Concise Health Risk Tracking Self-Report (CHRT-SR), a scale measuring suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior, and associated symptoms. The CHRT was administered to 283 symptomatic outpatients with bipolar I or II disorder who were randomized to receive lithium plus optimized personalized treatment (OPT), or OPT without lithium in a six month longitudinal comparative effectiveness trial. Participants were assessed using structured diagnostic interviews, clinician-rated assessments, and self-report questionnaires. The internal consistency (Cronbach α) was 0.80 for the 7-item CHRT-SR and 0.90 for the 12-item CHRT-SR with a consistent factor structure, and three independent factors (current suicidal thoughts and plans, hopelessness, and perceived lack of social support) for the 7-item version. CHRT-SR scores are correlated with measures of depression, functioning, and quality of life, but not with mania scores. The 7- and 12-item CHRT-SR both had excellent psychometric properties in a sample of symptomatic subjects with bipolar disorder. The scale is highly correlated with depression, functioning, and quality of life, but not with mania. Future research is needed to determine whether the CHRT-SR will be able to predict suicide attempts in clinical practice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. A Cross-sectional study to assess knowledge, practice and self- reported morbidity symptoms of pesticide use among farm women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srujana Medithi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inevitable pesticide use in Indian agriculture has posed an increased risk of exposure to the farmers, which may lead to adverse health manifestations. Therefore, it is essential that the farmers must be aware of the harmful effects of pesticides. Aims and Objectives: To assess knowledge, practice and identify self-reported morbidity symptoms associated with pesticide use among farm women in the identified villages of Telangana, India. Materials and Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to carry out the survey among farmwomen. Results: 129 women working in agricultural farms were included in the study. Meagre knowledge regarding route of pesticide exposure was observed. Majority of them were not aware of toxicity symbols and never read the precautions on the pesticide containers. Inaccessibility was the main reason for insubstantial use of personal protective equipments (PPEs. Unsafe storage and disposal practices of containers were observed. Weakness (57.3%, headache (52% and itching of skin (51.1% were the common morbidity symptoms. Significant association was found between morbidity symptoms and use of PPE and hygienic practices, indicating importance of such practices. Conclusion: Improving knowledge which influences their practices and encouraging PPE use might be useful to remediate these issues. Monitoring studies may further aid to obtain the outcome of the awareness programmes and subsequently improved intervention methods can also be implemented.

  10. Self-reported toileting behaviors in employed women: Are they associated with lower urinary tract symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Mary H; Willis-Gray, Marcella G; Zhou, Fang; Newman, Diane K; Wu, Jennifer M

    2018-02-01

    To describe toileting behaviors working women habitually use and investigate behaviors associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), especially urinary urgency with or without leakage. Non-pregnant female employees of a large academic medical center 18 years and over were eligible to complete an online survey about bladder health and toileting behaviors. One hundred eighty-two women participated in the survey. The majority were white (83.52%), married (52.49%), had ≥1 pregnancy (54.40%), and in excellent health (93.41%). The average age and body mass index were 47.28 ± 13.56 years and 27.92 ± 6.78, respectively. The sample was further sub-divided into two groups: urinary urgency (N = 119) or no urinary urgency symptoms (N = 51). Habitual toileting behaviors for these groups (N = 170) included: sitting to urinate at home (98.24%), emptying the bladder completely (88.82%), emptying the bladder before leaving home (80.00%), and sitting to urinate when away from home (68.82%). Logistic regression analysis showed age increased the odds of urinary urgency (aOR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02-1.09). Women who waited too long to urinate at work (aOR 7.85, 95%CI 1.57-39.24) and wore panty liners for urinary leakage (aOR 2.86, 95%CI 1.25-6.56) had greater odds of urinary urgency than women who did neither. Most habitual toileting behaviors were not associated with urinary urgency except waiting too long to urinate when at work. Logistic regression revealed significant relationships among health-related factors, personal characteristics, behaviors, and urinary urgency. LUTS in women is both a women's health and occupational health issue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Increased health risk in subjects with high self-reported seasonality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas M Øyane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seasonal variations in mood and behaviour, termed seasonality, are commonly reported in the general population. As a part of a large cross-sectional health survey in Hordaland, Norway, we investigated the relationship between seasonality, objective health measurements and health behaviours. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 11,545 subjects between 40-44 years old participated, completing the Global Seasonality Score, measuring seasonality. Waist/hip circumference, BMI and blood pressure were measured, and blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Subjects also completed a questionnaire on miscellaneous health behaviours (exercise, smoking, alcohol consumption. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to investigate associations between seasonality and objective health measurements, while binary logistic regression was used for analysing associations between seasonality and health behaviours. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, month of questionnaire completion and sleep duration. Seasonality was positively associated with high waist-hip-ratio, BMI, triglyceride levels, and in men high total cholesterol. Seasonality was negatively associated with HDL cholesterol. In women seasonality was negatively associated with prevalence of exercise and positively associated with daily cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High seasonality was associated with objective health risk factors and in women also with health behaviours associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease.

  12. Are physical symptoms among survivors of a disaster presented to the general practitioner? A comparison between self-reports and GP data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stellato Rebecca K

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies examining medically unexplained symptoms (MUS have been performed in primary or secondary care and have examined symptoms for which patients sought medical attention. Disasters are often described as precipitating factors for MUS. However, health consequences of disasters are typically measured by means of questionnaires, and it is not known whether these self-reported physical symptoms are presented to the GP. It is also not known if the self-reported symptoms are related to a medical disorder or if they remain medically unexplained. In the present study, three research questions were addressed. Firstly, were self-reported symptoms among survivors presented to the GP? Secondly, were the symptoms presented to the GP associated with a high level of functional impairment and distress? Thirdly, what was the GP's clinical judgment of the presented symptoms, i.e. were the symptoms related to a medical diagnosis or could they be labeled MUS? Methods Survivors of a man-made disaster (N = 887 completed a questionnaire 3 weeks (T1 and 18 months (T2 post-disaster. This longitudinal health survey was combined with an ongoing surveillance program of health problems registered by GPs. Results The majority of self-reported symptoms was not presented to the GP and survivors were most likely to present persistent symptoms to the GP. For example, survivors with stomachache at both T1 and T2 were more likely to report stomachache to their GP (28% than survivors with stomachache at only T1 (6% or only T2 (13%. Presentation of individual symptoms to the GP was not consistently associated with functional impairment and distress. 56 – 91% of symptoms were labeled as MUS after clinical examination. Conclusion These results indicate that the majority of self-reported symptoms among survivors of a disaster are not presented to the GP and that the decision to consult with a GP for an individual symptom is not dependent on the level of

  13. Memory-guided force output is associated with self-reported ADHD symptoms in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Kristina A; Chennavasin, Amanda P; Yoder, Arie; Williams, Genevieve K R; Loken, Eric; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L

    2016-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorder in childhood and persists into adulthood in up to 65 % of cases. ADHD is associated with adverse outcomes such as the ability to gain and maintain employment and is associated with an increased risk for substance abuse obesity workplace injuries and traffic accidents A majority of diagnosed children have motor deficits; however, few studies have examined motor deficits in young adults. This study provides a novel examination of visuomotor control of grip force in young adults with and without ADHD. Participants were instructed to maintain force production over a 20-second trial with and without real-time visual feedback about their performance. The results demonstrated that when visual feedback was available, adults with ADHD produced slightly higher grip force than controls. However, when visual feedback was removed, adults with ADHD had a faster rate of decay of force, which was associated with ADHD symptom severity and trait impulsivity. These findings suggest that there may be important differences in the way that adults with ADHD integrate visual feedback during continuous motor tasks. These may account for some of the motor impairments reported in children with ADHD. These deficits could result from (1) dysfunctional sensory motor integration and/or (2) deficits in short-term visuomotor memory.

  14. Relationship between knee kinetic outcome measures in vertical counter movement jumps and self-reported function in ACL reconstructed subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    2014-01-01

    Relationship between knee kinetic outcome measures in counter movement jumps and self-reported function in ACL reconstructed subjects Brekke AF1,2, Nielsen DB2, Holsgaard-Larsen A2 1School of physiotherapy, University College Zealand, Denmark 2Orthopaedic Research Unit, Department of Orthopaedics...... and Traumatology, Odense University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark Introduction: Altered loading pattern of the medial aspect of the knee has been associated with the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are associated...... with early-onset OA with associated pain, functional limitations, and decreased quality of life. However, specific knee loading pattern of the medial aspect has not been investigated during different jump-tasks in ACL-reconstructed patients. The purpose was to investigate potential kinetic differences...

  15. Self-Reported Symptoms and Pesticide Use among Farm Workers in Arusha, Northern Tanzania: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbert Bunini Manyilizu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to describe self-reported health symptoms, the use of personal protective gear and clothing and poor safety procedures when applying pesticides among farm workers. A total of 128 adult farm workers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire during the farming season. The commonly used pesticides included profenofos, mancozeb, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, endosulfan and carbosulfan. The majority (>90% of farm workers used no personal protective clothing while handling pesticides. More than one-third of farm workers ate and drank without washing their hands following pesticide handling, while a smaller number smoked or chewed gum. Wearing special boots during pesticide application was found to reduce the risk of skin rash (OR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.06–0.66, whereas smoking when applying pesticides increased the risk of chest pain occurrence (OR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.14–15.43, as well as forgetfulness (OR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.30–14.02. Chewing gum and eating when applying pesticides was associated with diarrhoea (OR = 11.0, 95% CI: 1.80–6.84 and OR = 7.0, 95% CI: 1.27–3.67 respectively. The increased self-reported prevalence of post-exposure adverse health effects among farm workers was associated with poor use of personal protective clothing and poor safety practices during pesticide use and handling. These data indicate the need for improved availability and use of protective equipment, and training in crop and pest management practices to prevent risky behavioursand for safer and sustainable vegetable production.

  16. Supporting the education goals of post-9/11 veterans with self-reported PTSD symptoms: a needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Marsha Langer; Mueller, Lisa; Smelson, David; Corrigan, Patrick W; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; Bokhour, Barbara G; Najavits, Lisa M; Vessella, Jennifer M; Drebing, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The influx of young adult veterans with mental health challenges from recent wars combined with newly expanded veteran education benefits has highlighted the need for a supported education service within the Veterans Administration. However, it is unknown how such a service should be designed to best respond to these needs. This study undertook a qualitative needs assessment for education supports among veterans with post-9/11 service with self-reported PTSD symptoms. Focus groups were held with 31 veterans, 54% of whom were under age 30. Transcripts were analyzed and interpreted using a thematic approach and a Participatory Action Research team. Findings indicate a need for age relevant services that assist with: education planning and access, counseling for the G.I. Bill, accommodations for PTSD symptoms, community and family re-integration, and outreach and support. The veterans recommended that supported education be integrated with the delivery of mental health services, that services have varied intensity, and there be linkages between colleges and the Veterans Health Administration.

  17. Self-reported wrist and finger symptoms associated with other physical/mental symptoms and use of computers/mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2018-03-01

    Recently, computer, mobile phone and Internet use has increased. This study aimed to determine the possible relation between self-reported wrist and finger symptoms (aches, pain or numbness) and using computers/mobile phones, and to analyze how the symptoms are specifically associated with utilizing desktop computers, portable computers or mini-computers and mobile phones. A questionnaire was sent to 15,000 working-age Finns (age 18-65). Via a questionnaire, 723 persons reported wrist and finger symptoms often or more with use. Over 80% use mobile phones daily and less than 30% use desktop computers or the Internet daily at leisure, e.g., over 89.8% quite often or often experienced pain, numbness or aches in the neck, and 61.3% had aches in the hips and the lower back. Only 33.7% connected their symptoms to computer use. In the future, the development of new devices and Internet services should incorporate the ergonomics of the hands and wrists.

  18. Characteristics and Psychiatric Symptoms of Internet Gaming Disorder among Adults Using Self-Reported DSM-5 Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Ri; Hwang, Samuel Suk-Hyun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kim, Dai-Jin; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Griffiths, Mark. D.; Hyun, So Yeon; Youn, Hyun Chul

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) proposed nine diagnostic criteria and five cut-point criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). We aimed to examine the efficacy of such criteria. Methods Adults (n=3041, men: 1824, women: 1217) who engaged in internet gaming within last 6 months completed a self-report online survey using the suggested wordings of the criteria in DSM-5. Major characteristics, gaming behavior, and psychiatric symptoms of IGD were analyzed using ANOVA, chi-square, and correlation analyses. Results The sociodemographic variables were not statistically significant between the healthy controls and the risk group. Among the participants, 419 (13.8%) were identified and labeled as the IGD risk group. The IGD risk group scored significantly higher on all motivation subscales (psymptom dimensions, i.e., somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism (p<0.001). Conclusion The IGD risk group showed differential psychopathological manifestations according to DSM-5 IGD diagnostic criteria. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the specific criteria, especially for developing screening instruments. PMID:26766947

  19. Examining the Effects of Self-Reported Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Positive Relations with Others on Self-Regulated Learning for Student Service Members/Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Bryan M.; Middleton, Michael J.; Hildebrandt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationships between self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, perceived positive relations with others, self-regulation strategy use, and academic motivation among student service members/veterans (SSM/V) enrolled in postsecondary education. Participants: SSM/V (N = 214), defined as veterans, active…

  20. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ): a validation study of a multidimensional self-report questionnaire to assess distress, depression, anxiety and somatization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, B.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Ader, H.J.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Hermens, M.L.M.; van Boeijen, C.A.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Stalman, W.A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed in primary care to distinguish non-specific general distress from depression, anxiety and somatization. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate its criterion and construct validity.

  1. Validation of the Expanded Versions of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale v1.1 Symptom Checklist and the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael J; Faraone, Stephen V; Alperin, Samuel; Leon, Terry L; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Adler, Lenard A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) expanded versions, including executive function deficits (EFDs) and emotional dyscontrol (EC) items, and to present ASRS and AISRS pilot normative data. Two patient samples (referred and primary care physician [PCP] controls) were pooled together for these analyses. Final analysis included 297 respondents, 171 with adult ADHD. Cronbach's alphas were high for all sections of the scales. Examining histograms of ASRS 31-item and AISRS 18-item total scores for ADHD controls, 95% cutoff scores were 70 and 23, respectively; histograms for pilot normative sample suggest cutoffs of 82 and 26, respectively. (a) ASRS- and AISRS-expanded versions have high validity in assessment of core 18 adult ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM) symptoms and EFD and EC symptoms. (b) ASRS (31-item) scores 70 to 82 and AISRS (18-item) scores from 23 to 26 suggest a high likelihood of adult ADHD.

  2. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of end-stage renal disease patients with self-reported pruritus symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan K

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Karthik Ramakrishnan,1 T Christopher Bond,1 Ami Claxton,1 Vipan C Sood,2 Maria Kootsikas,2 Wendy Agnese,2 Scott Sibbel11DaVita Clinical Research, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Jersey City, NJ, USAAbstract: One of the most common conditions affecting end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD is pruritus. Studies report that itchy and dry skin, symptoms of pruritus, affect 40%–90% of ESRD patients. Yet, in clinical practice the condition is often underdiagnosed resulting in inadequate management and an underappreciated impact on patient outcomes. Two retrospective analyses were conducted: a preliminary analysis of ESRD patients with pruritus symptoms (n=73,124 undergoing HD or peritoneal dialysis at a large dialysis provider and a subsequent detailed analysis of a homogenous subset of patients undergoing in-center HD (n=38,315. The goal was to better understand the clinical burden of pruritus as it relates to patient characteristics, quality of life, medication use, and HD compliance. This population is commonly burdened by multiple comorbidities and related polypharmaceutical management; identifying the relationship of pruritus to these ailments can help guide future research and resource allocation. The detailed analysis confirmed trends observed in the preliminary analysis: 30% reported being "moderately" to "extremely bothered" by itchiness. The HD patient population with the highest severity of self-reported pruritus also had a consistent trend in overall increased resource utilization – higher monthly doses of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (53,397.1 to 63,405.4 units and intravenous (IV iron (237.2 to 247.6 units and higher use of IV antibiotics (14.1% to 20.7%, as well as poorer quality-of-life measures (25-point reductions in Burden of Disease Score and Effects on Daily Life subscales of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-36 survey. These results highlight the need to better

  3. Telephone versus internet administration of self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and insomnia: psychometric evaluation of a method to reduce the impact of missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Blom, Kerstin; El Alaoui, Samir; Kraepelien, Martin; Rück, Christian; Andersson, Gerhard; Svanborg, Cecilia; Lindefors, Nils; Kaldo, Viktor

    2013-10-18

    Internet-administered self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulties are widely used in clinical trials and in clinical routine care, but data loss is a common problem that could render skewed estimates of symptom levels and treatment effects. One way of reducing the negative impact of missing data could be to use telephone administration of self-report measures as a means to complete the data missing from the online data collection. The aim of the study was to compare the convergence of telephone and Internet administration of self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulties. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-Report (LSAS-SR), Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self-Rated (MADRS-S), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were administered over the telephone and via the Internet to a clinical sample (N=82) of psychiatric patients at a clinic specializing in Internet-delivered treatment. Shortened versions of the LSAS-SR and the ISI were used when administered via telephone. As predicted, the results showed that the estimates produced by the two administration formats were highly correlated (r=.82-.91; PInternet: Cronbach alpha=.79-.93). The correlation coefficients were similar across questionnaires and the shorter versions of the questionnaires used in the telephone administration of the LSAS-SR and ISI performed in general equally well compared to when the full scale was used, as was the case with the MADRS-S. Telephone administration of self-report questionnaires is a valid method that can be used to reduce data loss in routine psychiatric practice as well as in clinical trials, thereby contributing to more accurate symptom estimates.

  4. Self-Reported Psychopathology, Trauma Symptoms, and Emotion Coping Among Child Suicide Attempters and Ideators: An Exploratory Study of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzy, Mary E; Barreto, Steven J; Swenson, Lance P; Liguori, Gina; Costea, Geanina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined self-reported psychopathology, trauma symptoms, and emotion coping in 7 to 12 year old children with suicidal ideation and attempts. This study compared 70 psychiatric inpatient children with current suicidal ideation to 59 psychiatric inpatient children with recent suicide attempts on measures of depression, anxiety, anger, emotional intelligence, and family/contextual factors. Results revealed greater self-reported anger as well as psychological distress associated with traumatic experiences (dissociation, anger, depression), among children who attempted suicide, in addition to increased reports of special education utilization, when compared to ideators only. These relationships were not affected by age or gender. Overall, the findings suggest self-reports of younger children who attempt suicide share similarities with older children and adolescent attempters, when compared with ideators who do not attempt. Implications for assessment and treatment are discussed.

  5. The Link of Self-Reported Insomnia Symptoms and Sleep Duration with Metabolic Syndrome: A Chinese Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Chieh; Sun, Chien-An; You, San-Lin; Hwang, Lee-Ching; Liang, Chun-Yu; Yang, Tsan; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Chen, Chien-Hua; Wei, Cheng-Yu; Chou, Yu-Ching

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the relationships of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with insomnia symptoms and sleep duration in a Chinese adult population. Data from a nationwide epidemiological survey conducted on residents from randomly selected districts in Taiwan in 2007 were used for this cross-sectional population-based study. A total of 4,197 participants were included in this study. Insomnia symptoms, including difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakening (EMA), were assessed using the Insomnia Self-Assessment Inventory questionnaire. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based upon their reported sleep duration (insomnia symptoms (OR [95% CI] was 1.54 [1.05-2.47]). However, there was no significant combined effect of insomnia symptoms and sleep duration on the prevalence of MetS. The current investigation shows that short sleep duration and insomnia symptoms, specifically DIS and DMS, were significant correlates of MetS. These findings should be replicated in prospective studies using both sleep duration and sleep quality measures. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Development of an objective gene expression panel as an alternative to self-reported symptom scores in human influenza challenge trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Julius; Parizotto, Eneida; Antrobus, Richard; Francis, James; Bunce, Campbell; Stranks, Amanda; Nichols, Marshall; McClain, Micah; Hill, Adrian V S; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Gilbert, Sarah C

    2017-06-08

    Influenza challenge trials are important for vaccine efficacy testing. Currently, disease severity is determined by self-reported scores to a list of symptoms which can be highly subjective. A more objective measure would allow for improved data analysis. Twenty-one volunteers participated in an influenza challenge trial. We calculated the daily sum of scores (DSS) for a list of 16 influenza symptoms. Whole blood collected at baseline and 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post challenge was profiled on Illumina HT12v4 microarrays. Changes in gene expression most strongly correlated with DSS were selected to train a Random Forest model and tested on two independent test sets consisting of 41 individuals profiled on a different microarray platform and 33 volunteers assayed by qRT-PCR. 1456 probes are significantly associated with DSS at 1% false discovery rate. We selected 19 genes with the largest fold change to train a random forest model. We observed good concordance between predicted and actual scores in the first test set (r = 0.57; RMSE = -16.1%) with the greatest agreement achieved on samples collected approximately 72 h post challenge. Therefore, we assayed samples collected at baseline and 72 h post challenge in the second test set by qRT-PCR and observed good concordance (r = 0.81; RMSE = -36.1%). We developed a 19-gene qRT-PCR panel to predict DSS, validated on two independent datasets. A transcriptomics based panel could provide a more objective measure of symptom scoring in future influenza challenge studies. Trial registration Samples were obtained from a clinical trial with the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02014870, first registered on December 5, 2013.

  7. The effects of the gender-culture interaction on self-reports of depressive symptoms: cross-cultural study among Egyptians and Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Vivian; Beshai, Shadi; Yu, Mabel

    2016-01-01

    Research in depression has revealed differences in the way depressed individuals across cultures report their symptoms. This literature also points to possible differences in symptom reporting patterns between men and women. Using data from a larger dataset (Beshai et al. 2016), the current study examined whether non-depressed and depressed Egyptian and Canadian men and women differed in their self-report of the various domains of the Beck Depression Inventory -II (BDI-II). We recruited a total of 131 depressed and non-depressed participants from both Egypt ( n = 29 depressed; n = 29 non-depressed) and Canada ( n = 35 depressed; n = 38 non-depressed). Depression status was ascertained using a structured interview. All participants were asked to complete the BDI-II along with other self-report measures of depression. BDI-II items were divided into two subscales in accordance with Dozois, Dobson & Ahnberg (1998) factor analysis: cognitive-affective and somatic-vegetative subscales. We found a significant three-way interaction effect on the cognitive-affective ( F (1,121) = 9.51, p = .003) and main effect of depression status on somatic-vegetative subscales ( F (1,121) = 42.80, p cultures may differentially report cognitive symptoms of depression. These results also suggest that clinicians and clinical scientists need to further examine the interaction effect of culture and gender when investigating self-reported symptoms of depression.

  8. The efficacy of antidepressants on overall well-being and self-reported depression symptom severity in youth: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmans, Glen I; Gerwig, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of the efficacy of second-generation antidepressants for youth have concluded that such drugs possess a statistically significant advantage over placebo in terms of clinician-rated depressive symptoms. However, no meta-analysis has included measures of quality of life, global mental health, self-esteem, or autonomy. Further, prior meta-analyses have not included self-reports of depressive symptoms. Studies were selected through searching Medline, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials databases as well as GlaxoSmithKline's online trial registry. We included self-reports of depressive symptoms and pooled measures of quality of life, global mental health, self-esteem, and autonomous functioning as a proxy for overall well-being. We found a nonsignificant difference between second-generation antidepressants and placebo in terms of self-reported depressive symptoms (k = 6 trials, g = 0.06, p = 0.36). Further, pooled across measures of quality of life, global mental health, self-esteem, and autonomy, antidepressants yielded no significant advantage over placebo (k = 3 trials, g = 0.11, p = 0.13). Though limited by a small number of trials, our analyses suggest that antidepressants offer little to no benefit in improving overall well-being among depressed children and adolescents. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Patterns of self-reported depressive symptoms in relation to morningness-eveningness in inpatients with a depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Matthias Johannes; Olschinski, Christiane; Kundermann, Bernd; Cabanel, Nicole

    2016-05-30

    The stable and persisting preference for activities in the late evening (i.e. eveningness) is associated with a higher risk for depression, suicidality, and non-remission in major depression. The present study investigated symptom patterns in hospitalized patients with depressive syndromes in relation to morningness-eveningness (chronotypes). Depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI-II]) and chronotype (German version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire [D-MEQ]) were assessed after admission and before discharge in inpatients with mainly major depression. Group differences of BDI-II single items and three BDI-II factors (cognitive, affective, somatic) between patients divided at the D-MEQ sample median into "morning preference" (MP) and "evening preference" (EP) were calculated. Data from 64 consecutively admitted patients (31MP/33EP) were analyzed. Both groups (MP/EP) were comparable regarding age, sex, diagnosis, length of stay, and subjective sleep quality, BDI-II scores were significantly higher in EP than in MP at admission. At admission and discharge, cognitive symptoms were significantly more pronounced in EP vs. MP; non-significant differences between EP and MP were found for affective and somatic symptoms. The results underline the importance of the trait-like chronotype for severity and symptomatology in patients with depressive disorders. The patients' chronotype should be taken into account in diagnostics and treatment of depressive disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychiatric symptom typology in a sample of youth receiving substance abuse treatment services: associations with self-reported child maltreatment and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Jaccard, James

    2011-11-01

    Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population.

  11. Cross-sectional study of self-reported ADHD symptoms and psychological comorbidity among college students in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Jhambh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults is scantily researched in India. There is dearth of information on prevalence of ADHD in college students worldwide. Further, fewer studies in the past have evaluated the impact of ADHD on the psychological well-being of college students. Aims: To study the prevalence of ADHD among college students and psychological problems related to ADHD. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 237 students were recruited from various medical, engineering, and commerce and arts colleges of Chandigarh, India. They were administered the Adult ADHD Self Report Scale v1.1(ASRS and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS to diagnose adult ADHD. To assess comorbidities; General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ; Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS; Rosenberg′s Self-Esteem Scale (RSES;and questions on emotional stability, social problems, and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis were administered on all participants. Results: A total of 13 students (5.48% fulfilled the criteria for adult ADHD. These students experienced significantly higher emotional instability and low self-esteem than those without ADHD (N = 224. The occurrence of psychological problems, depression, social problems, and substance abuse was comparable in students with and without ADHD. Conclusions: ADHD is prevalent among the college students studying in the most competitive institutes as well. Students with ADHD experience higher emotional instability and poor self-esteem than others. It has little effect on their psychological well-being and social adjustment. Prompt detection and management of ADHD in college students may help them deal with these problems effectively.

  12. Measuring negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Sun Kim,1 Seon-Kyeong Jang,1 Seon-Cheol Park,2 Jung-Seo Yi,3 Joong-Kyu Park,4 Jung Suk Lee,5 Kee-Hong Choi,6 Seung-Hwan Lee1,7 1Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan, 3Department of Psychiatry, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, 4Department of Rehabilitation Psychology, Daegu University, Daegu, 5Department of Psychiatry, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, 6Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, 7Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Republic of Korea Background: The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS is one of the validated interview measures of negative symptoms in psychotic disorders. The Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MPSR is a self-report measure that assesses the motivation and pleasure domains of negative symptoms based on the CAINS. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of a Korean version of the MPSR.Methods: A total of 139 patients with schizophrenia completed the MPSR, CAINS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scales, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, and other measures of trait and cognitive function.Results: The 15-item MPSR showed good internal consistency. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Motivation and Pleasure subscale of the CAINS and the anhedonia/avolition subscale of the SANS. The scale was not associated with psychotic symptoms, agitation/mania, and depression/anxiety, and it showed good discriminant validity. MPSR scores were significantly correlated with Behavioral Activation System total score for trait measure.Conclusion: The Korean version of the MPSR is a notable self-report method for examining the severity of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Keywords: Korean

  13. Consistency of Self-Reported Neurocognitive Symptoms, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, and Concussive Events From End of First Deployment to Veteran Health Administration Comprehensive Traumatic Brain Injury Evaluation by Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Arthur C; Fingerhut, Esther C

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the consistency of self-reported symptoms and concussive events in combat veterans who reported experiencing concussive events. One hundred and forty, single deployed, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn combat veterans with Veteran Health Administration (VHA) Comprehensive Traumatic Brain Injury Evaluations (CTBIE) and no post-deployment head injury were examined to assess consistency of self-reported (a) traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related symptoms, (b) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related symptoms, and (c) TBI-related concussive events from soon after deployment to time of VHA CTBIE. Compared to their self-report of symptoms and traumatic events at the time of their Post-Deployment Health Assessment, at the time of their comprehensive VHA evaluation, subjects reported significantly greater impairment in concentration, decision making, memory, headache, and sleep. In addition, although half the subjects denied any PTSD symptoms post-deployment, approximately three quarters reported experiencing all four PTSD screening symptoms near the time of the VHA CTBIEs. At the latter time, subjects also reported significantly more TBI-related concussive events, as well as more post-concussive sequelae such as loss of consciousness immediately following these concussive events. Finally, although 84% reported a level of impairment so severe as to render all but the simplest activity doable, the vast majority simultaneously reported working and/or attending college. These findings raise questions regarding the accuracy of veteran self-report of both near and distant traumatic events, and argue for the inclusion of contemporaneous Department of Defense (DOD) records in veteran assessment and treatment planning. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Self-reported cold sensitivity in normal subjects and in patients with traumatic hand injuries or hand-arm vibration syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlin Lars B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cold sensitivity is a common and disabling complaint following hand injuries. The main purpose of this study was to describe self-reported consequences of cold sensitivity and the association with disability and health-related quality of life in patients with hand injuries or hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS and in normal subjects. Methods Responses to the Cold Intolerance Symptom Severity (CISS questionnaire, Potential Work Exposure Scale (PWES, Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH and Short-Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36 were investigated in normal subjects (n = 94, hand injured patients (amputation and nerve injuries, n = 88 and patients with HAVS (n = 30. The results are presented as median (range, percent and mean deviation from norms. The Kruskal Wallis Test or Mann-Whitney U-Test were used to identify significant differences between multiple groups or subgroups. The Spearman rank correlation was used to study the relationship between cold sensitivity and disability. Results Abnormal cold sensitivity (CISS score > 50 was seen in 75% and 45% of patients with HAVS and a traumatic hand injury, respectively. Patients were significantly more exposed to cold in their work environment than the normal population, with a consequently negative effect on work ability due to cold sensitivity. Patients with abnormal cold sensitivity were more seriously disabled and had a poorer health-related quality of life than patients with normal cold sensitivity [higher DASH scores and e.g. significantly larger mean deviation from norms in the subscales Role Physical and Bodily Pain (SF-36]. Conclusion Severe and abnormal cold sensitivity may have a profound impact on work capacity, leisure, disability and health-related quality of life. It is frequently seen in patients with traumatic hand injuries and particularly apparent in patients with HAVS.

  15. Prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among indigenous Sami and non-Sami in Northern- and Mid-Norway – the SAMINOR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketil Lenert Hansen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main purpose of this work was to identify the prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among Sami and non-Sami adults. Study design: A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study. Data were collected by self-administrated questionnaires. Method: SAMINOR is a population-based study of health and living conditions conducted in 24 municipalities in Northern Norway during 2003 and 2004. The present study included 15,546 individuals aged between 36 and 79, whose ethnicity was categorized as Sami (33.4%, Kven (7.3% and Norwegian majority population (57.2%. Results: Sami respondents had a higher prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk than the Norwegian majority population. The reporting was highest among Sami females (27.1%. Consumption of milk and dairy products (yoghurt and cheese was high among all the ethnic groups. However, significantly more Sami than non-Sami never (or rarely consume milk or cheese, and individuals who reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk had an significant lower intake of dairy products than those not reporting stomach symptoms after consuming dairy products. Sami reported general abdominal pain more often than the majority population. The adjusted models show a significant effect of Sami ethnicity in both men and women on self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk. In females, the odds ratio (OR=1.77 (p=0.001 and in males OR=1.64 (p=0.001. Conclusion: Our study shows that the Sami population reported more stomach symptoms after consuming milk, suggesting a higher prevalence of milk intolerance among the Sami population than the Norwegian majority population.

  16. Self-reported menopausal symptoms, coronary artery calcification, and carotid intima-media thickness in recently menopausal women screened for the Kronos early estrogen prevention study (KEEPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Erin Foran; He, Yunxiao; Black, Dennis M; Brinton, Eliot A; Budoff, Mathew J; Cedars, Marcelle I; Hodis, Howard N; Lobo, Rogerio A; Manson, Joann E; Merriam, George R; Miller, Virginia M; Naftolin, Fredrick; Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Harman, S Mitchell; Taylor, Hugh S

    2013-04-01

    To determine whether self-reported menopausal symptoms are associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Cross-sectional analysis. Multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Recently menopausal women (n = 868) screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). None. Baseline menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, night sweats, palpitations, mood swings, depression, insomnia, irritability), serum E2 levels, and measures of atherosclerosis were assessed. Atherosclerosis was quantified using coronary artery calcium (CAC) Agatston scores (n = 771) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Logistic regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CAC. Linear regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CIMT. Correlation between length of time in menopause with menopausal symptoms, E2, CAC, and CIMT were assessed. In early menopausal women screened for KEEPS, neither E2 nor climacteric symptoms predicted the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis. Palpitations and depression approached significance as predictors of CAC. Other symptoms of insomnia, irritability, dyspareunia, hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, and vaginal dryness were not associated with CAC. Women with significantly elevated CAC scores were excluded from further participation in KEEPS; in women meeting inclusion criteria, neither baseline menopausal symptoms nor E2 predicted CIMT. Years since menopause onset correlated with CIMT, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, and E2. Self-reported symptoms in recently menopausal women are not strong predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis. Continued follow-up of this population will be performed to determine whether baseline or persistent symptoms in the early menopause are associated with progression of cardiovascular disease. NCT00154180. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Self-Reported Menopausal Symptoms, Coronary Artery Calcification and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Recently Menopausal Women Screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Erin Foran; He, Yunxiao; Black, Dennis M.; Brinton, Eliot A.; Budoff, Mathew J.; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Hodis, Howard N.; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Merriam, George R.; Miller, Virginia M.; Naftolin, Fredrick; Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Harman, S. Mitchell; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether self-reported menopausal symptoms are associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Setting Multi-center, randomized controlled trial. Patients Recently menopausal women (n=868) screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Design Cross sectional analysis. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Baseline menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, night sweats, palpitations, mood swings, depression, insomnia, irritability), serum estradiol (E2) levels and measures of atherosclerosis were assessed. Atherosclerosis was quantified using Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) Agatston scores (n=771) and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT). Logistic regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CAC. Linear regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CIMT. Correlation between length of time in menopause with menopausal symptoms, estradiol (E2), CAC, and CIMT were assessed. Results In early menopausal women screened for KEEPS, neither E2 nor climacteric symptoms predicted the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis. Palpitations (p=0.09) and depression (p=0.07) approached significance as predictors of CAC. Other symptoms of insomnia, irritability, dyspareunia, hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, and vaginal dryness were not associated with CAC. Women with significantly elevated CAC scores were excluded from further participation in KEEPS; in women meeting inclusion criteria, neither baseline menopausal symptoms nor E2 predicted CIMT. Years since menopause onset correlated with CIMT, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness and E2. Conclusions Self-reported symptoms in recently menopausal women are not strong predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis. Continued follow-up of this population will be performed to determine if baseline or persistent symptoms in the early menopause are associated with progression of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23312232

  18. Intertester reliability of clinical shoulder instability and laxity tests in subjects with and without self-reported shoulder problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshoj, Henrik; Ingwersen, Kim Gordon; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Kjaer, Birgitte Hougs; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2018-03-03

    First, to investigate the intertester reliability of clinical shoulder instability and laxity tests, and second, to describe the mutual dependency of each test evaluated by each tester for identifying self-reported shoulder instability and laxity. A standardised protocol for conducting reliability studies was used to test the intertester reliability of the six clinical shoulder instability and laxity tests: apprehension, relocation, surprise, load-and-shift, sulcus sign and Gagey. Cohen's kappa (κ) with 95% CIs besides prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK), accounting for insufficient prevalence and bias, were computed to establish the intertester reliability and mutual dependency. Forty individuals (13 with self-reported shoulder instability and laxity-related shoulder problems and 27 normal shoulder individuals) aged 18-60 were included. Fair (relocation), moderate (load-and-shift, sulcus sign) and substantial (apprehension, surprise, Gagey) intertester reliability were observed across tests (κ 0.39-0.73; 95% CI 0.00 to 1.00). PABAK improved reliability across tests, resulting in substantial to almost perfect intertester reliability for the apprehension, surprise, load-and-shift and Gagey tests (κ 0.65-0.90). Mutual dependencies between each test and self-reported shoulder problem showed apprehension, relocation and surprise to be the most often used tests to characterise self-reported shoulder instability and laxity conditions. Four tests (apprehension, surprise, load-and-shift and Gagey) out of six were considered intertester reliable for clinical use, while relocation and sulcus sign tests need further standardisation before acceptable evidence. Furthermore, the validity of the tests for shoulder instability and laxity needs to be studied. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. A comparison of self-reported joint symptoms following infection with different enteric pathogens: effect of HLA-B27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiellerup, P.; Krogfelt, K.A.; Locht, H.

    2008-01-01

    with positive fecal culture for Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Shigella, and E. coli were addressed by questionnaires inquiring about gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and the occurrence of joint pain in a previously healthy joint within 4 weeks after onset of infection. A blood sample was requested for HLA......-B27 typing. RESULTS: Of 3146 patients invited, 2105 (67%) responded to the survey questionnaire. The triggering infections were Campylobacter, 1003; Salmonella, 619; E. coli, 290; Shigella, 102; and Yersinia, 91. JPrea was reported by 294 subjects: Campylobacter, 131 (13.1%); Salmonella, 104 (16.......8%); Yersinia, 21 (23.1%); Shigella, 10 (9.8%); and E. coli, 28 (9.7%). There was a significant association between severity of gastroenteritis and development of arthralgia (p = 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) for JPrea in an HLA-B27-positive individual was 2.62 (95% CI 1.67-3.93) for the entire group...

  20. The structure of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in three female trauma samples: A comparison of interview and self-report measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Christine D.; McCreary, Donald R.; Asmundson, Gordon J.G.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical research increasingly suggests that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is comprised of four factors: re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal. Nonetheless, there remains some inconsistency in the findings of factor analyses that form the bulk of this empirical literature. One source of such inconsistency may be assessment measure idiosyncrasies. To examine this issue, we conducted confirmatory factor analyses of interview and self-report data across three trauma samples. Analyses of the interview data indicated a good fit for a four-factor model across all samples; analyses of the self-report data indicated an adequate fit in two of three samples. Overall, findings suggest that measure idiosyncrasies may account for some of the inconsistency in previous factor analyses of PTSD symptoms. PMID:18206346

  1. Self-reported neurological symptoms in relation to CO emissions due to problem gas appliance installations in London: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreis Irene

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research by the authors found evidence that up to 10% of particular household categories may be exposed to elevated carbon monoxide (CO concentrations from poor quality gas appliance installations. The literature suggests certain neurological symptoms are linked to exposure to low levels of CO. This paper addresses the hypothesis that certain self-reported neurological symptoms experienced by a householder are linked to an estimate of their CO exposure. Methods Between 27 April and 27 June 2006, 597 homes with a mains supply of natural gas were surveyed, mainly in old, urban areas of London. Qualified gas engineers tested all gas appliances (cooker, boiler, gas fire, and water heater and reported, according to the Gas Industry Unsafe Situations Procedure, appliances considered At Risk (AR, Immediately Dangerous (ID or Not to Current Standards (NCS. Five exposure risk categories were defined based on measurement of CO emitted by the appliance, its features and its use, with "high or very high" exposure category where occupants were considered likely to be exposed to levels greater than 26 ppm for one hour. The prevalence of symptoms at each level of exposure was compared with that at lowest level of exposure. Results Of the households, 6% were assessed as having a "high or very high" risk of exposure to CO. Of the individuals, 9% reported at least one neurological symptom. There was a statistically significant association between "high or very high" exposure risk to CO and self-reported symptoms compared to "no exposure" likelihood, for households not in receipt of benefit, controlling for "number of residents" and presence of pensioners, OR = 3.23 (95%CI: 1.28, 8.15. Risk ratios across all categories of exposure likelihood indicate a dose-response pattern. Those households in receipt of benefit showed no dose-response pattern. Conclusion This study found an association between risk of CO exposure at low concentration

  2. Use of wireless telephones and self-reported health symptoms: a population-based study among Swedish adolescents aged 15–19 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlberg Michael

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the last years of rapid increase in use of wireless phones little data on the use of these devices has been systematically assessed among young persons. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to assess use of wireless phones and to study such use in relation to explanatory factors and self-reported health symptoms. Methods A postal questionnaire comprising 8 pages of 27 questions with 75 items in total was sent to 2000 Swedish adolescents aged 15–19 years and selected from the population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. Results The questionnaire was answered by 63.5% of the study subjects. Most participants reported access to a mobile phone (99.6% and use increased with age; 55.6% of the 15-year-olds and 82.2% of the 19-year-olds were regular users. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. Use of wired hands-free equipment 'anytime' was reported by 17.4%. Cordless phones were used by 81.9%, and 67.3% were regular users. Watching TV increased the odds ratio for use of wireless phones, adjusted for age and gender. Some of the most frequently reported health complaints were tiredness, stress, headache, anxiety, concentration difficulties and sleep disturbances. Regular users of wireless phones had health symptoms more often and reported poorer perceived health than less frequent users. Conclusion Almost all adolescence in this study used a wireless phone, girls more than boys. The most frequent use was seen among the older adolescents, and those who watched TV extensively. The study further showed that perceived health and certain health symptoms seemed to be related to the use of wireless phones. However, this part of the investigation was explorative and should therefore be interpreted with caution since bias and chance findings due to multiple testing might have influenced the results. Potentially this study will stimulate more sophisticated studies that may also investigate

  3. Biomonitoring Human Exposure to Household Air Pollution and Association with Self-reported Health Symptoms – A Stove Intervention Study in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Commodore, Adwoa; Hartinger, Stella; Lewin, Michael; Sjödin, Andreas; Pittman, Erin; Trinidad, Debra; Hubbard, Kendra; Lanata, Claudio F.; Gil, Ana I.; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Naeher, Luke P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Household air pollution (HAP) from indoor biomass stoves contains harmful pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and is a leading risk factor for global disease burden. We used biomonitoring to assess HAP exposure and association with self-reported symptoms in 334 non-smoking Peruvian women to evaluate the efficacy of a stove intervention program. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study within the framework of a community randomized control trial. Using urinary PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) as the exposure biomarkers, we investigated whether the intervention group (n = 155, with new chimney-equipped stoves) were less exposed to HAP compared to the control group (n = 179, with mostly open-fire stoves). We also estimated associations between the exposure biomarkers, risk factors, and self-reported health symptoms, such as recent eye conditions, respiratory conditions, and headache. Results We observed reduced headache and ocular symptoms in the intervention group than the control group. Urinary 2-naphthol, a suggested biomarker for inhalation PAH exposure, was significantly lower in the intervention group (GM with 95% CI: 13.4 [12.3, 14.6] μg/g creatinine) compared to control group (16.5 [15.0, 18.0] μg/g creatinine). Stove type and/or 2-naphthol was associated with a number of self-reported symptoms, such as red eye (adjusted OR with 95% CI: 3.80 [1.32, 10.9]) in the past 48 h. Conclusions Even with the improved stoves, the biomarker concentrations in this study far exceeded those of the general populations and were higher than a no-observed-genotoxic-effect-level, indicating high exposure and a potential for increased cancer risk in the population. PMID:27680405

  4. The effects of the gender-culture interaction on self-reports of depressive symptoms: cross-cultural study among Egyptians and Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Research in depression has revealed differences in the way depressed individuals across cultures report their symptoms. This literature also points to possible differences in symptom reporting patterns between men and women. Using data from a larger dataset (Beshai et al. 2016, the current study examined whether non-depressed and depressed Egyptian and Canadian men and women differed in their self-report of the various domains of the Beck Depression Inventory –II (BDI-II. Method We recruited a total of 131 depressed and non-depressed participants from both Egypt (n = 29 depressed; n = 29 non-depressed and Canada (n = 35 depressed; n = 38 non-depressed. Depression status was ascertained using a structured interview. All participants were asked to complete the BDI-II along with other self-report measures of depression. BDI-II items were divided into two subscales in accordance with Dozois, Dobson & Ahnberg (1998 factor analysis: cognitive-affective and somatic-vegetative subscales. Results We found a significant three-way interaction effect on the cognitive-affective (F(1,121 = 9.51, p = .003 and main effect of depression status on somatic-vegetative subscales (F(1,121 = 42.80, p < .001. Post hoc analyses revealed that depressed Egyptian men reported lower scores on the cognitive-affective subscale of the BDI-II compared to their depressed Canadian male counterparts. Conclusions These results suggest that males across cultures may differentially report cognitive symptoms of depression. These results also suggest that clinicians and clinical scientists need to further examine the interaction effect of culture and gender when investigating self-reported symptoms of depression.

  5. Night-eating syndrome and the severity of self-reported depressive symptoms from the Korea Nurses' Health Study: analysis of propensity score matching and ordinal regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, O-S; Kim, M S; Lee, J E; Jung, H

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of night-eating syndrome (NES) and depression is increasing worldwide. Although nurses, in particular, are exposed to work in an environment of irregular eating, shift work, and stressful settings, limited research exist. In fact, the prevalence of NES among Korean nurses has never been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of NES as well as the association between NES and severity of self-reported depressive symptoms among South Korean female nurses. The Korea Nurses' Health Study, following the protocols of the Nurses' Health Study led by the Harvard University, collected data on Korean female nurses. Survey responses from 3617 participants were included, and 404 responses were analyzed in this cross-sectional study using propensity score matching. Descriptive, Spearman's and Cramer's correlations, propensity score matching, and multivariable ordinal logistic regression were conducted as statistical analysis. The prevalence of both NES and self-reported depressive symptoms among Korean female nurses were higher compared with nurses in prior studies. Nurses with NES were 1.65 times more likely to have greater severity of depressive symptoms than those without NES (95% confidence interval [1.19-2.10], odds ratio = 1.65) after adjusting for covariates including sociodemographic characteristics, health behavioural factors, and shift work. This study suggests significant association between NES and the severity of self-reported depressive symptoms among Korean female nurses after adjusting for covariates. Policy makers and hospital managers need to develop strategies to reduce depression and NES among nurses for enhancement of nurses' mental and physical health as well as for improvement of care quality. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing the validity of the self reporting questionnaire and the Afghan symptom checklist: dysphoria, aggression, and gender in transcultural assessment of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Ventevogel, Peter; Sancilio, Amelia; Eggerman, Mark; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2014-07-18

    The relative performance of local and international assessment instruments is subject to ongoing discussion in transcultural research on mental health and psychosocial support. We examined the construct and external validity of two instruments, one developed for use in Afghanistan, the other developed by the World Health Organization for use in resource-poor settings. We used data collected on 1003 Afghan adults (500 men, 503 women) randomly sampled at three sites in Afghanistan. We compared the 22-item Afghan Symptom Checklist (ASCL), a culturally-grounded assessment of psychosocial wellbeing, with Pashto and Dari versions of the 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). We derived subscales using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) and tested total and subscale scores for external validity with respect to lifetime trauma and household wealth using block model regressions. EFA suggested a three-factor structure for SRQ-20--somatic complaints, negative affect, and emotional numbing--and a two-factor structure for ASCL--jigar khun (dysphoria) and aggression. Both factor models were supported by CFA in separate subsamples. Women had higher scores for each of the five subscales than men (p khun subscale were equally associated with variance in trauma exposures. However, interactions between gender and jigar khun suggested that, relative to SRQ-20, the jigar khun subscale was more strongly associated with household wealth for women; similarly, gender interactions with aggression indicated that the aggression subscale was more strongly associated with trauma and wealth. Two central elements of Afghan conceptualizations of mental distress--aggression and the syndrome jigar khun--were captured by the ASCL and not by the SRQ-20. The appropriateness of the culturally-grounded instrument was more salient for women, indicating that the validity of instruments may be gender-differentiated. Transcultural validation processes for tools measuring

  7. How Informative Are Self-Reported Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms? An Examination of the Agreement Between the Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Scale V1.1 and Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Investigator Symptom Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael J; Faraone, Stephen V; Alperin, Samuel; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Adler, Lenard A

    2017-11-27

    Assess agreement between self-ratings via the adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Self-Report Scale (ASRS)-v1.1 Symptom Checklist and clinician ratings via the adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) expanded version using DSM-5 adult ADHD patients (referred sample) and ADHD controls (recruited from a primary care physician practice). The ASRS v1.1 Symptom Checklist was administered to measure self-reported ADHD symptoms and impairment, the Adult ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale v1.2 was used to establish an adult ADHD diagnosis and the childhood and adult/current sections of the scale were used to provide scores to measure symptoms of childhood ADHD and recent symptoms of adult ADHD, the AISRS to measure ADHD current symptom severity. Participants (n = 299; range 18-58), of which 171 were ADHD+ and 128 ADHD-. ASRS and AISRS total scores and individual subsections examining inattention, hyperactivity, emotional dysfunction (EF), and emotional dyscontrol (EC) were all significantly correlated (Spearman's ρ's = 0.78-0.89, ps < 0.01). Correlations remained significant when controlling for demographic factors and psychiatric conditions. The ASRS (self) and AISRS (clinician rated) scales have high agreement. This agreement extended not only the to the core 18 DSM symptoms, but also to the additional 13 symptoms that examine EC and EF.

  8. Kindergarteners' self-reported social inhibition and observed social reticence: moderation by adult-reported social inhibition and social anxiety disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A; Molitor, Joseph G

    2015-04-01

    Prevention of later anxiety problems would best be accomplished by identifying at-risk children early in development. For example, children who develop Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) may show social withdrawal in the form of social inhibition (i.e., shyness with unfamiliar adults and peers) at school entry. Although the use of children's perceptions of their own social inhibition would provide insight into early risk, the utility of young children's self-reports remains unclear. The current study examined whether children deemed more extreme on social inhibition or social anxiety by adult report provided self-report of social inhibition that related to observed social reticence in the laboratory. Participants included 85 kindergarten children (36 female, 49 male), their parents, and their teachers. Moderation analyses revealed that children's self-reported social inhibition related significantly to observed social reticence under the conditions of high parent-reported social inhibition, high teacher-reported social inhibition, and high SAD symptoms. These results suggest that the most inhibited children are aware of their behavior and can report it in a meaningfully way as young as kindergarten age.

  9. Kindergarteners’ Self-Reported Social Inhibition and Observed Social Reticence: Moderation by Adult-Reported Social Inhibition and Social Anxiety Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Molitor, Joseph G.

    2014-01-01

    Prevention of later anxiety problems would best be accomplished by identifying at-risk children early in development. For example, children who develop Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) may show social withdrawal in the form of social inhibition (i.e., shyness with unfamiliar adults and peers) at school entry. Although the use of children’s perceptions of their own social inhibition would provide insight into early risk, the utility of young children’s self-reports remains unclear. The current study examined whether children deemed more extreme on social inhibition or social anxiety by adult report provided self-report of social inhibition that related to observed social reticence in the laboratory. Participants included 85 kindergarten children (36 female, 49 male), their parents, and their teachers. Moderation analyses revealed that children’s self-reported social inhibition related significantly to observed social reticence under the conditions of high parent-reported social inhibition, high teacher-reported social inhibition, and high SAD symptoms. These results suggest that the most inhibited children are aware of their behavior and can report it in a meaningfully way as young as kindergarten age. PMID:25113397

  10. A dysphoric's TALE: The relationship between the self-reported functions of autobiographical memory and symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Lydia; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Anderson, Rachel J

    2016-10-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is believed to serve self, social and directive functions; however, little is known regarding how this triad of functions operates in depression. Using the Thinking About Life Experiences questionnaire [Bluck, S., & Alea, N. (2011). Crafting the TALE: Construction of a measure to assess the functions of autobiographical remembering. Memory, 19, 470-486.; Bluck, S., Alea, N., Habermas, T., & Rubin, D. C. (2005). A TALE of three functions: The self-reported uses of autobiographical memory. Social Cognition, 23, 91-117.], two studies explored the relationship between depressive symptomology and the self-reported frequency and usefulness of AMs for self, social and directive purposes. Study 1 revealed that thinking more frequently but talking less frequently about past life events was significantly associated with higher depression scores. Recalling past events more frequently to maintain self-continuity was also significantly associated with higher depressive symptomology. However, results from Study 2 indicated that higher levels of depression were also significantly associated with less-frequent useful recollections of past life events for self-continuity purposes. Taken together, the findings suggest atypical utilisations of AM to serve self-continuity functions in depression and can be interpreted within the wider context of ruminative thought processes.

  11. Effects over time of self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination on depressive symptoms and loneliness among Australian school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Naomi; Perry, Ryan; Ferdinand, Angeline; Kelaher, Margaret; Paradies, Yin

    2017-02-03

    Racism and racial discrimination are increasingly acknowledged as a critical determinant of health and health inequalities. However, patterns and impacts of racial discrimination among children and adolescents remain under-investigated, including how different experiences of racial discrimination co-occur and influence health and development over time. This study examines associations between self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination experiences and loneliness and depressive symptoms over time among Australian school students. Across seven schools, 142 students (54.2% female), age at T1 from 8 to 15 years old (M = 11.14, SD = 2.2), and from diverse racial/ethnic and migration backgrounds (37.3% born in English-speaking countries as were one or both parents) self-reported racial discrimination experiences (direct and vicarious) and mental health (depressive symptoms and loneliness) at baseline and 9 months later at follow up. A full cross-lagged panel design was modelled using MPLUS v.7 with all variables included at both time points. A cross-lagged effect of perceived direct racial discrimination on later depressive symptoms and on later loneliness was found. As expected, the effect of direct discrimination on both health outcomes was unidirectional as mental health did not reciprocally influence reported racism. There was no evidence that vicarious racial discrimination influenced either depressive symptoms or loneliness beyond the effect of direct racial discrimination. Findings suggest direct racial discrimination has a persistent effect on depressive symptoms and loneliness among school students over time. Future work to explore associations between direct and vicarious discrimination is required.

  12. Supplementing the Braden scale for pressure ulcer risk among medical inpatients: the contribution of self-reported symptoms and standard laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogestad, Ingrid Johansen; Martinsen, Liv; Børsting, Tove Elisabet; Granheim, Tove Irene; Ludvigsen, Eirin Sigurdssøn; Gay, Caryl L; Lerdal, Anners

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate medical inpatients' symptom experience and selected laboratory blood results as indicators of their pressure ulcer risk as measured by the Braden scale. Pressure ulcers reduce quality of life and increase treatment costs. The prevalence of pressure ulcers is 6-23% in hospital populations, but literature suggests that most pressure ulcers are avoidable. Prospective, cross-sectional survey. Three hundred and twenty-eight patients admitted to medical wards in an acute hospital in Oslo, Norway consented to participate. Data were collected on 10 days between 2012-2014 by registered nurses and nursing students. Pressure ulcer risk was assessed using the Braden scale, and scores indicated pressure ulcer risk. Skin examinations were categorised as normal or stages I-IV using established definitions. Comorbidities were collected by self-report. Self-reported symptom occurrence and distress were measured with 15 items from the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and pain was assessed using two numeric rating scales. Admission laboratory data were collected from medical records. Prevalence of pressure ulcers was 11·9, and 20·4% of patients were identified as being at risk for developing pressure ulcers. Multivariable analysis showed that pressure ulcer risk was positively associated with age ≥80 years, vomiting, severe pain at rest, urination problems, shortness of breath and low albumin and was negatively associated with nervousness. Our study indicates that using patient-reported symptoms and standard laboratory results as supplemental indicators of pressure ulcer risk may improve identification of vulnerable patients, but replication of these findings in other study samples is needed. Nurses play a key role in preventing pressure ulcers during hospitalisation. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms may improve the quality of care. Knowledge about symptoms associated with pressure ulcer risk may contribute to a faster clinical judgment of

  13. Self-reported symptoms and risk factors for digital ischaemia among international world-class beach volleyball players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Daan; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Maas, Mario; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms is remarkably high among elite indoor volleyball players. Since the exposure to sport-specific demands may be higher in beach volleyball compared to indoor volleyball, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms and

  14. Orofacial symptoms related to temporomandibular joint arthritis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: smallest detectable difference in self-reported pain intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoustrup, Peter; Kristensen, Kasper D; Verna, Carlalberta; Küseler, Annelise; Herlin, Troels; Pedersen, Thomas K

    2012-12-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) may lead to mandibular growth disturbances and interfere with optimal joint and muscle function. Orofacial symptoms are common clinical findings in relation to TMJ arthritis in adolescence. Knowledge about their clinical manifestation is important for TMJ arthritis diagnosis, treatment choice, and outcome evaluation. The aim of our prospective observational study was to evaluate and describe the frequency, the main complaints, and the localization of TMJ arthritis-related orofacial symptoms. The smallest detectable differences (SDD) for minimal, average, and maximal pain were estimated. Thirty-three patients with JIA and arthritis-related orofacial symptoms in relation to 55 affected TMJ were included in our questionnaire study (mean age 14.11 yrs). Calculation of the SDD was based on a duplicate assessment 45 min after the first questionnaire was completed. The majority of the patients had common orofacial symptoms during mastication and maximal mouth opening procedures. Persistent orofacial symptoms were rare. The TMJ area in combination with the masseter muscle region was the orofacial region where symptoms were most common. The SDD for minimal, average, and maximal pain were between 10 and 14 mm on a visual analog scale. Our study offers new knowledge about TMJ arthritis-related orofacial symptoms that may aid diagnosis and clinical decision-making. We suggest that TMJ arthritis-related orofacial symptoms could be understood as products of the primary TMJ inflammation in combination with secondary myogenic and functional issues.

  15. Subjective memory complaints among patients on sick leave are associated with symptoms of fatigue and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kristine Aasvik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to identify symptoms associated with subjective memory complaints among subjects who are currently on sick leave due to symptoms of chronic pain, fatigue, depression, anxiety and insomnia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, subjects (n = 167 who were currently on sick leave were asked to complete an extensive survey consisting of the following: items addressing their sociodemographics, one item from the SF-8 health survey measuring pain, Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index and Everyday Memory Questionnaire – Revised. General linear modeling (GLM was used to analyze variables associated with SMCs. Results: Symptoms of fatigue (p-value <= 0.001 and anxiety (p-value = 0.001 were uniquely and significantly associated with perceived memory failures. The associations with symptoms of pain, depression and insomnia were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Subjective memory complaints should be recognized as part of the complex symptomatology among patients who report multiple symptoms, especially in cases of fatigue and anxiety. Self-report questionnaires measuring perceived memory failures may be a quick and easy way to incorporate and extend this knowledge into clinical practice.

  16. Don't eat tomatoes: patient's self-reported experiences of causes of symptoms in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibley, Lesley B; Norton, Christine; Jones, Roger

    2010-08-01

    About 30-50% of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) experience refractory symptoms despite taking proton pump inhibitors regularly. Epidemiology studies suggest lifestyle risks, but these are under-represented in existing guidelines. The potential for changes to positively impact on symptoms may be underestimated. Lifestyle advice currently appears to be ineffective. To inform the future design of a behaviour change intervention aimed at improving symptoms for patients with GORD, by exploring patient understanding and experiences of lifestyle influences on GORD symptoms. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 23 patients (12 women and 11 men) aged 30-86 years, aiming to identify lifestyle influences perceived by patients to affect their symptoms. Patients reported a wide range of daily influences on their symptoms, including diet, drinking with a meal, body position, alcohol, gaining weight, stress and anxiety. Dietary influences included types of food eaten and eating pattern-including speed of eating and meal size. Many foods were identified as troublesome, but not all foods affected all patients. Eating late and daytime tiredness were not recognized as causes or consequences of night-time reflux. Patients stated that daily living patterns affected their reflux symptoms, but influences were highly variable between respondents. Lifestyle factors appear to combine in unique patterns for individuals, but GORD patients may not be able to identify potential triggers and make changes for themselves. A behaviour change intervention might prove beneficial to these patients.

  17. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: a systematic review on the diagnostic value of gastrointestinal symptoms and self-reported milk intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellema, A.P.; Schellevis, F.G.; van der Windt, D.A.W.M.; Kneepkens, C.M.F.; van der Horst, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: When lactose malabsorption gives rise to symptoms, the result is called 'lactose intolerance'. Although lactose intolerance is often bothersome for patients, once recognized it may be managed by simple dietary adjustments. However, diagnosing lactose intolerance is not straightforward,

  18. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: a systematic review on the diagnostic value of gastrointestinal symptoms and self-reported milk intolerance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellema, P.; Schellevis, F.G.; Windt, D.A.W.M. van der; Kneepkens, C.M.F.; Horst, H.E. van der

    2010-01-01

    Background: When lactose malabsorption gives rise to symptoms, the result is called 'lactose intolerance'. Although lactose intolerance is often bothersome for patients, once recognized it may be managed by simple dietary adjustments. However, diagnosing lactose intolerance is not straightforward,

  19. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: a systematic review on the diagnostic value of gastrointestinal symptoms and self-reported milk intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellema, P.; Schellevis, F. G.; van der Windt, D. A. W. M.; Kneepkens, C. M. F.; van der Horst, H. E.

    2010-01-01

    When lactose malabsorption gives rise to symptoms, the result is called 'lactose intolerance'. Although lactose intolerance is often bothersome for patients, once recognized it may be managed by simple dietary adjustments. However, diagnosing lactose intolerance is not straightforward, especially in

  20. Cotton dust exposure and self-reported respiratory symptoms among textile factory workers in Northwest Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daba Wami, Sintayehu; Chercos, Daniel Haile; Dessie, Awrajaw; Gizaw, Zemichael; Getachew, Atalay; Hambisa, Tesfaye; Guadu, Tadese; Getachew, Dawit; Destaw, Bikes

    2018-01-01

    Cotton dust induced respiratory disorders are dramatically increased over the globe, especially the problem is serious in developing countries. Respiratory symptoms, such as cough, phlegm, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, chronic bronchitis, and byssinosis are common among workers exposed to cotton dust. However, in Ethiopia, the magnitude of the problem is not well known and information is limited about the risk factors. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and associated factors. A Comparative cross-sectional study design was employed. A total of 413 (276 exposed and 137 unexposed) participants were included in the study. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select exposed and unexposed groups to cotton dust respectively. Multivariable binary logistic regression analyses was performed to identify variables associated with respiratory symptoms and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was used to determine the strength of associations. Significance level was obtained at 95% confidence interval (CI) and p -value ≤0.05. The prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms was 47.8% (95% CI: 41.3, 53.7%) and 15.3% (95% CI: 9.6, 22.3%) among exposed and control groups respectively. Sex (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.45), service year (AOR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.19, 4.71) and ventilation (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.17, 4.91) were factors significantly associated with respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, working department such as; ginning (AOR = 5.1, 95% CI: 2.13, 12.16), spinning (AOR = 4.96, 95% CI: 2.18, 11.29), weaving (AOR = 5.9, 95% CI: 2.46, 14.27) and blowing working departments (AOR = 5.14, 95% CI: 1.4, 18.94) were significantly associated with respiratory disorders. The prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms was higher among workers exposed to cotton dust than unexposed workers. Sex, service year, working department and work unit ventilation were predictor

  1. Self-Reported Treatment-Associated Symptoms among Patients with Urea Cycle Disorders Participating in Glycerol Phenylbutyrate Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamani, Sandesh C. S.; Diaz, George A.; Rhead, William; Berry, Susan A.; Le Mons, Cynthia; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Bartley, James; Feigenbaum, Annette; Schulze, Andreas; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Gallagher, Renata; Bartholomew, Dennis; Harding, Cary O.; Korson, Mark S.; McCandless, Shawn E.; Smith, Wendy; Vockley, Jerry; Kronn, David; Zori, Robert; Cederbaum, Stephen; Merritt, J. Lawrence; Wong, Derek; Coakley, Dion F.; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Dickinson, Klara; Marino, Miguel; Lee, Brendan H.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care outcomes have been increasingly assessed through health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures. While the introduction of nitrogen-scavenging medications has improved survival in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs), they are often associated with side effects that may affect patient compliance and outcomes. Methods Symptoms commonly associated with nitrogen-scavenging medications were evaluated in 100 adult and pediatric participants using a non-validated UCD-specific questionnaire. Patients or their caregivers responded to a pre-defined list of symptoms known to be associated with the use of these medications. Responses were collected at baseline (while patients were receiving sodium phenylbutyrate [NaPBA]) and during treatment with glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB). Results After 3 months of GPB dosing, there were significant reductions in the proportion of patients with treatment-associated symptoms (69% vs. 46%; p<0.0001), the number of symptoms per patient (2.5 vs. 1.1; p<0.0001), and the frequency of the more commonly reported individual symptoms such as body odor, abdominal pain, nausea, burning sensation in mouth, vomiting, and heartburn (p<0.05). The reduction in symptoms was observed in both pediatric and adult patients. The presence or absence of symptoms or change in severity did not correlate with plasma ammonia levels or NaPBA dose. Conclusions The reduction in symptoms following 3 months of open-label GPB dosing was similar in pediatric and adult patients and may be related to chemical structure and intrinsic characteristics of the product rather than its effect on ammonia control. PMID:26296711

  2. Self-reported treatment-associated symptoms among patients with urea cycle disorders participating in glycerol phenylbutyrate clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Diaz, George A; Rhead, William; Berry, Susan A; Le Mons, Cynthia; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Bartley, James; Feigenbaum, Annette; Schulze, Andreas; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Gallagher, Renata; Bartholomew, Dennis; Harding, Cary O; Korson, Mark S; McCandless, Shawn E; Smith, Wendy; Vockley, Jerry; Kronn, David; Zori, Robert; Cederbaum, Stephen; Merritt, J Lawrence; Wong, Derek; Coakley, Dion F; Scharschmidt, Bruce F; Dickinson, Klara; Marino, Miguel; Lee, Brendan H; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Health care outcomes have been increasingly assessed through health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures. While the introduction of nitrogen-scavenging medications has improved survival in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs), they are often associated with side effects that may affect patient compliance and outcomes. Symptoms commonly associated with nitrogen-scavenging medications were evaluated in 100 adult and pediatric participants using a non-validated UCD-specific questionnaire. Patients or their caregivers responded to a pre-defined list of symptoms known to be associated with the use of these medications. Responses were collected at baseline (while patients were receiving sodium phenylbutyrate [NaPBA]) and during treatment with glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB). After 3 months of GPB dosing, there were significant reductions in the proportion of patients with treatment-associated symptoms (69% vs. 46%; p<0.0001), the number of symptoms per patient (2.5 vs. 1.1; p<0.0001), and frequency of the more commonly reported individual symptoms such as body odor, abdominal pain, nausea, burning sensation in mouth, vomiting, and heartburn (p<0.05). The reduction in symptoms was observed in both pediatric and adult patients. The presence or absence of symptoms or change in severity did not correlate with plasma ammonia levels or NaPBA dose. The reduction in symptoms following 3 months of open-label GPB dosing was similar in pediatric and adult patients and may be related to chemical structure and intrinsic characteristics of the product rather than its effect on ammonia control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Implicit negative affect predicts attention to sad faces beyond self-reported depressive symptoms in healthy individuals: An eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Charlott Maria; Skopinceva, Marija; Kersting, Anette; Quirin, Markus; Suslow, Thomas

    2018-04-04

    Cognitive theories of depression assume biased attention towards mood-congruent information as a central vulnerability and maintaining factor. Among other symptoms, depression is characterized by excessive negative affect (NA). Yet, little is known about the impact of naturally occurring NA on the allocation of attention to emotional information. The study investigates how implicit and explicit NA as well as self-reported depressive symptoms predict attentional biases in a sample of healthy individuals (N = 104). Attentional biases were assessed using eye-tracking during a free viewing task in which images of sad, angry, happy and neutral faces were shown simultaneously. Participants' implicit affectivity was measured indirectly using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test. Questionnaires were administered to assess actual and habitual explicit NA and presence of depressive symptoms. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with sustained attention to sad faces and reduced attention to happy faces. Implicit but not explicit NA significantly predicted gaze behavior towards sad faces independently from depressive symptoms. The present study supports the idea that naturally occurring implicit NA is associated with attention allocation to dysphoric facial expression. The findings demonstrate the utility of implicit affectivity measures in studying individual differences in depression-relevant attentional biases and cognitive vulnerability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship of hip joint space to self reported hip pain. A survey of 4.151 subjects of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: the Osteoarthritis Substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, Kjeld

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the effect of pelvic orientation on measurements of hip joint space widths (JSW) in cadaver pelvic radiographs, thereby validating the pelvic radiographs of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: The Osteoarthritis Substudy (CCHS III) cohort of 4.152 subjects, and (2...... was significantly associated to self reported pain in or around the hip joint in both sexes. CONCLUSION: Measurements of minimum hip JSW did not seem to be significantly influenced by varying spatial orientation of the pelvis during X-ray recordings. An inclusion criteria of minimum JSW

  5. Self-Reported Bothersome Symptoms Across Different Socioepidemiological Groups of People Living With HIV Attending French Hospitals: Results From the ANRS-VESPA2 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Véronique; Vilotitch, Antoine; Marcellin, Fabienne; Demoulin, Baptiste; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Spire, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    Twenty years after the advent of combined antiretroviral therapies (ARTs), there is a growing need for up-to-date information about the daily experience of people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between socioepidemiological groups and the types of bothersome symptoms reported by PLWH participating in a national survey in France. We analyzed self-reported bothersome symptoms in a representative sample of PLWH (ANRS-VESPA2 survey), most of whom were receiving ART treatment. PLWH (N = 2505) were grouped into three clusters according to the number of bothersome symptoms reported: Cluster A (low number, n = 1848), Cluster B (moderate number, n = 271), and Cluster C (high number, n = 386). Individuals in Cluster A (low number of bothersome symptoms) were less likely to report all the symptom types investigated. Psychological, sexual, and general symptoms were more likely to be reported in Cluster B (moderate number), whereas gastric-, pain-, and appearance-related symptoms were more likely in Cluster C (high number). In multivariate analyses, women not natives of Sub-Saharan Africa and former/active female injecting drug users were more likely to report a medium or high number of symptoms, and lower adherence to ART. Combining new biomedical strategies with coping mechanisms and providing better support to socially vulnerable PLWH may improve this population's quality of health and daily life. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical aspects and self-reported symptoms of sequelae of Yersinia enterocolitica infections in a population-based study, Germany 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bettina M; Werber, Dirk; Höhle, Michael; Stark, Klaus

    2013-05-23

    Foodborne Yersinia enterocolitica infections continue to be a public health problem in many countries. Consumption of raw or undercooked pork is the main risk factor for yersiniosis in Germany. Small children are most frequently affected by yersiniosis. In older children and young adults, symptoms of disease may resemble those of appendicitis and may lead to hospitalization and potentially unnecessary appendectomies. Y. enterocolitica infections may also cause sequelae such as reactive arthritis (ReA), erythema nodosum (EN), and conjunctivitis. We studied clinical aspects of yersiniosis, antimicrobial use, and self-reported occurrence of appendectomies, reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and conjunctivitis. To assess post-infectious sequelae participants of a large population-based case-control study on laboratory-confirmed Y. enterocolitica infections conducted in Germany in 2009-2010 were followed for 4 weeks. Diarrhea occurred most frequently in children ≤4 years (95%); abdominal pain in the lower right quadrant was most common in children 5-14 years of age (63%). Twenty-seven per cent of patients were hospitalized, 37% were treated with antimicrobials. In 6% of yersiniosis patients ≥5 years of age, appendectomies were performed. Self-reported symptoms consistent with ReA were reported by 12% of yersiniosis patients compared to 5% in a reference group not exposed to yersiniosis. Symptoms consistent with EN were reported by 3% of yersiniosis patients compared to 0.1% in the reference group. Symptoms of conjunctivitis occurred with the same frequency in yersiniosis patients and the reference group. Acute Y. enterocolitica infections cause considerable burden of illness with symptoms lasting for about 10 days and hospitalizations in more than a quarter of patients. The proportion of yersiniosis patients treated with antimicrobial drugs appears to be relatively high despite guidelines recommending their use only in severe cases. Appendectomies and post

  7. Clinical aspects and self-reported symptoms of sequelae of Yersinia enterocolitica infections in a population-based study, Germany 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Foodborne Yersinia enterocolitica infections continue to be a public health problem in many countries. Consumption of raw or undercooked pork is the main risk factor for yersiniosis in Germany. Small children are most frequently affected by yersiniosis. In older children and young adults, symptoms of disease may resemble those of appendicitis and may lead to hospitalization and potentially unnecessary appendectomies. Y. enterocolitica infections may also cause sequelae such as reactive arthritis (ReA), erythema nodosum (EN), and conjunctivitis. Methods We studied clinical aspects of yersiniosis, antimicrobial use, and self-reported occurrence of appendectomies, reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and conjunctivitis. To assess post-infectious sequelae participants of a large population-based case–control study on laboratory-confirmed Y. enterocolitica infections conducted in Germany in 2009–2010 were followed for 4 weeks. Results Diarrhea occurred most frequently in children ≤4 years (95%); abdominal pain in the lower right quadrant was most common in children 5–14 years of age (63%). Twenty-seven per cent of patients were hospitalized, 37% were treated with antimicrobials. In 6% of yersiniosis patients ≥5 years of age, appendectomies were performed. Self-reported symptoms consistent with ReA were reported by 12% of yersiniosis patients compared to 5% in a reference group not exposed to yersiniosis. Symptoms consistent with EN were reported by 3% of yersiniosis patients compared to 0.1% in the reference group. Symptoms of conjunctivitis occurred with the same frequency in yersiniosis patients and the reference group. Conclusions Acute Y. enterocolitica infections cause considerable burden of illness with symptoms lasting for about 10 days and hospitalizations in more than a quarter of patients. The proportion of yersiniosis patients treated with antimicrobial drugs appears to be relatively high despite guidelines recommending their use only in

  8. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV-TR major depressive disorder, self-reported diagnosed depression and current depressive symptoms among adults in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Buttery, Amanda K; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Hapke, Ulfert; Busch, Markus A

    2016-01-15

    While standardized diagnostic interviews using established criteria are the gold standard for assessing depression, less time consuming measures of depression and depressive symptoms are commonly used in large population health surveys. We examine the prevalence and health-related correlates of three depression measures among adults aged 18-79 years in Germany. Using cross-sectional data from the national German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) (n=7987) and its mental health module (DEGS1-MH) (n=4483), we analysed prevalence and socio-demographic and health-related correlates of (a) major depressive disorder (MDD) established by Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) using DSM-IV-TR criteria (CIDI-MDD) in the last 12 months, (b) self-reported physician or psychotherapist diagnosed depression in the last 12 months, and (c) current depressive symptoms in the last two weeks (PHQ-9, score ≥10). Prevalence of 12-month CIDI-MDD was 4.2% in men and 9.9% in women. Prevalence of 12-month self-reported health professional-diagnosed depression was 3.8% and 8.1% and of current depressive symptoms 6.1% and 10.2% in men and women, respectively. Case-overlap between measures was only moderate (32-45%). In adjusted multivariable analyses, depression according to all three measures was associated with lower self-rated health, lower physical and social functioning, higher somatic comorbidity (except for women with 12-month CIDI-MDD), more sick leave and higher health service utilization. Persons with severe depression may be underrepresented. Associations between CIDI-MDD and correlates and overlap with other measures may be underestimated due to time lag between DEGS1 and DEGS1-MH. Prevalence and identified cases varied between these three depression measures, but all measures were consistently associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in self-reported symptoms of depression and physical well-being in healthy individuals following a Taiji beginner course - Results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schitter, Agnes Maria; Nedeljkovic, Marko; Ausfeld-Hafter, Brigitte; Fleckenstein, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Taiji is a mind-body practice being increasingly investigated for its therapeutic benefits in a broad range of mental and physical conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential preventive effects of Taiji practice in healthy individuals with regard to their depressive symptomatology and physical well-being. Seventy healthy Taiji novices were randomly assigned to a Taiji intervention group, that is, Taiji beginner course (Yang-Style Taiji, 2 h per week, 12 weeks) or a control group comprised of the waiting list for the course. Self-reported symptoms of depression (CES-D) and physical well-being (FEW-16) were assessed at baseline, at the end of the intervention, as well as 2 months later. The included participants had a mean age of 35.5 years. Physical well-being in the Taiji group significantly increased when comparing baseline to follow-up (FEW-16 sum score T(27) = 3.94, P = 0.001, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.55). Pearson's correlation coefficients displayed a strong negative relationship between self-reported symptoms of depression and physical well-being (P's healthy individuals, with improvements pronouncing over time. Physical well-being was shown to have a strong relationship with depressive symptoms. Based on these results, the consideration of Taiji as one therapeutic option in the development of multimodal approaches in the prevention of depression seems justifiable.

  10. Cross-sectional study of self-reported ADHD symptoms and psychological comorbidity among college students in Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhambh, Ishani; Arun, Priti; Garg, Jasmin

    2014-01-01

    Existence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is scantily researched in India. There is dearth of information on prevalence of ADHD in college students worldwide. Further, fewer studies in the past have evaluated the impact of ADHD on the psychological well-being of college students. To study the prevalence of ADHD among college students and psychological problems related to ADHD. Cross-sectional study. A total of 237 students were recruited from various medical, engineering, and commerce and arts colleges of Chandigarh, India. They were administered the Adult ADHD Self Report Scale v1.1(ASRS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) to diagnose adult ADHD. To assess comorbidities; General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ); Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS); Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES);and questions on emotional stability, social problems, and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis) were administered on all participants. A total of 13 students (5.48%) fulfilled the criteria for adult ADHD. These students experienced significantly higher emotional instability and low self-esteem than those without ADHD (N = 224). The occurrence of psychological problems, depression, social problems, and substance abuse was comparable in students with and without ADHD. ADHD is prevalent among the college students studying in the most competitive institutes as well. Students with ADHD experience higher emotional instability and poor self-esteem than others. It has little effect on their psychological well-being and social adjustment. Prompt detection and management of ADHD in college students may help them deal with these problems effectively.

  11. Risk factors associated with self-reported symptoms of digital ischemia in elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de pol, D.; Kuijer, P. P. F. M.; Langenhorst, T.; Maas, M.

    2014-01-01

    One in every four elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands reported blue or pale digits in the dominant hand. Little is known about risk factors. To assess whether personal-, sports-, and work-related risk factors are associated with these symptoms in these volleyball players, a survey was

  12. SELF REPORT ASSESSMENT OF ANXIETY - A CROSS VALIDATION OF THE LEHRER WOOLFOLK ANXIETY SYMPTOM QUESTIONNAIRE IN 3 POPULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOLING, A; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    This study was meant to investigate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Lehrer Woolfolk Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (LWASQ), an instrument for assessment of somatic, behavioral and cognitive aspects of anxiety. Confirmatory factor analysis on data from social phobics (n = 108),

  13. Middle Childhood Support-Seeking Behavior during Stress: Links with Self-Reported Attachment and Future Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Adinda; Santens, Tara; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Vos, Pieter; Maes, Bea; Bosmans, Guy

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether children's more anxious and avoidant attachment is linked to decreased support-seeking behavior toward their mother during stress in middle childhood, and whether children's decreased support-seeking behavior enhances the impact of experiencing life events on the increase of depressive symptoms 18 months later.…

  14. Self-Reported Internalization Symptoms and Family Factors in Indigenous Sami and Non-Sami Adolescents in North Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bals, Margrethe; Turi, Anne Lene; Vitterso, Joar; Skre, Ingunn; Kvernmo, Siv

    2011-01-01

    Through differences in family socialization between indigenous and non-indigenous youth, there may be cultural differences in the impact of family factors on mental health outcome. Using structural equation modelling, this population-based study explored the relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression and family factors in indigenous…

  15. Reliability, Validity, and Utility of Instruments for Self-Report and Informant Report Concerning Symptoms of ADHD in Adult Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Boonstra, A. Marije; Swinkels, S. H. N.; Bekker, Evelijne M.; de Noord, Ineke; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between symptoms of ADHD in adults, obtained with different methods and from different sources. Method: Information was obtained from 120 adults with ADHD, their partners, and their parents, using the ADHD Rating Scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale…

  16. Reliability, validity, and utility of instruments for self-report and informant report concerning symptoms of ADHD in adult patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, J.J.S.; Boonstra, A.M.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Bekker, E.M.; Noord, I. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between symptoms of ADHD in adults, obtained with different methods and from different sources. METHOD: Information was obtained from 120 adults with ADHD, their partners, and their parents, using the ADHD Rating Scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales

  17. Impact of cardiac symptoms on self-reported household task performance in women with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, L P

    2001-01-01

    Household tasks are highly salient physical activities for women. Inability to perform household tasks may serve as an important marker of limitations imposed by cardiac symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of cardiac symptoms on perceived ability to perform household tasks in women with coronary artery disease and to examine relationships among age, whether the woman lived alone, ability to perform household tasks, and cardiac-related quality of life. Forty-one women with confirmed diagnosis of coronary artery disease and a mean age of 66 years (SD 12 years) were interviewed about the impact of their cardiac symptoms and perceived ability to perform household tasks (Household Activities Scale) and cardiac-related quality of life (Seattle Angina Questionnaire). The women were primarily white (89.4%) and retired (65.9%). Forty-six percent were married, and 26.8% lived alone. "Washing dishes" (51.3%) was the only task a majority of the sample could perform without limitation. Household tasks most commonly reported as no longer performed included carrying laundry (24.4%), vacuuming (30.0%), and scrubbing the floor (51.2%). The task most commonly modified because of cardiac symptoms was changing bed linens (60%). Of the 14 household tasks, women performed a mean of 3.39 (SD 3.36) activities without difficulty. Total number of household activities performed without difficulty was associated with better quality of life in the area of exertional capacity (r = 0.50, P = 0.001). Women who lived alone reported greater perceived ability to perform household tasks than women who did not live alone (r = 0.31, P = 0.05). Age was not significantly associated with perceived household task performance (r = -0.22, P = 0.17). Women with coronary artery disease (CAD) perceived cardiac symptoms as disrupting their ability to perform household tasks. Future research is needed to determine the independent impact of cardiac symptoms on functional limitations

  18. Pesticide use and self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among aquatic farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming; Jørs, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers...... in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly...... associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide...

  19. Risk factors associated with self-reported symptoms of digital ischemia in elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, D; Kuijer, P P F M; Langenhorst, T; Maas, M

    2014-08-01

    One in every four elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands reported blue or pale digits in the dominant hand. Little is known about risk factors. To assess whether personal-, sports-, and work-related risk factors are associated with these symptoms in these volleyball players, a survey was performed among elite male volleyball players in the Dutch national top league and in the Dutch beach volleyball team. The questionnaire assessed the presence of symptoms and risk factors. Binary logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs). A total of 99 of the 107 athletes participated - a response rate of 93%. Two sports-related risk factors were associated with symptoms of blue or pale digits: 18-30 years playing volleyball [OR = 6.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-29.54] and often/always performing weight training to increase dominant limb strength (OR = 2.70; 95% CI 1.05-6.92). No significant other sports-, personal-, or work-related risk factors were found. Playing volleyball for more than 17 years and often/always performing weight training to increase dominant limb strength were independently associated with an increased risk on ischemia-related complaints of the dominant hand in elite male volleyball players. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The prediction of poor outcome in young adults: comparison of the Young Adult Self-Report, the General Health Questionnaire and the Symptom Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, R F; Verhulst, F C

    1994-06-01

    The ability of the Young Adult Self-Report (YASR), the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) to predict maladjustment across a 2-year time-span was assessed in a general population sample of 528 18- to 22-year-olds. Referral for mental health services and need for professional help were predicted by total problem scores of the YASR, the GHQ-28 and the SCL-90 and by the internalizing scale of the YASR. Furthermore, the internalizing scale predicted suicide attempts or suicidal ideation, whereas the externalizing scale predicted police contacts. The YASR delinquent behavior syndrome was the only significant predictor of alcohol abuse. The findings supported the validity of the YASR as an instrument for the assessment of psychopathology in young adults.

  1. The Pattern of Mobile Phone Use and Prevalence of Self-Reported Symptoms in Elementary and Junior High School Students in Shiraz, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Atefi, Mohammad; Kholghi, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: The use of mobile phone by children is increasing drastically. Children are likely to accumulate many years of exposure during their lives. Furthermore, as nervous systems in children are developing, children may be at a greater risk compared to adults. In this light, some scientists have suggested that the use of mobile phones should be restricted in high-risk groups such as children. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of mobile phone use and its health effects among students from the city of Shiraz, Iran. Methods: A total of 469 (235 males and 234 females; 250 elementary and 219 junior high school) healthy students participated in this study. The students were randomly selected from three different educational districts of the city. For each student, a questionnaire regarding the possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic fields or microwave radiation, specially the pattern of mobile phone use, medical history and life style was filled out by interviewers. Results: Only 31.42% of the students used to use mobile phones. The average daily time of using mobile phones in talk mode was 7.08±21.42 minutes. Not only the relative frequency of mobile phone ownership in boys was significantly more than the girls, but also the boys used their mobile phones more frequently. Statistically significant associations were found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and some symptoms. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and the number of headaches per month, number of vertigo per month, or number of sleeping problem per month. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study show that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz use mobile phones. A significant increase was found in some self-reported symptoms among users of mobile phones. These findings are in line with what is widely believed regarding the higher vulnerability of children to exhibit

  2. The Pattern of Mobile Phone Use and Prevalence of Self-Reported Symptoms in Elementary and Junior High School Students in Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of mobile phone by children is increasing drastically. Children are likely to accumulate many years of exposure during their lives. Furthermore, as nervous systems in children are developing, children may be at a greater risk compared to adults. In this light, some scientists have suggested that the use of mobile phones should be restricted in high-risk groups such as children. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of mobile phone use and its health effects among students from the city of Shiraz, Iran. Methods: A total of 469 (235 males and 234 females; 250 elementary and 219 junior high school healthy students participated in this study. The students were randomly selected from three different educational districts of the city. For each student, a questionnaire regarding the possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic fields or microwave radiation, specially the pattern of mobile phone use, medical history and life style was filled out by interviewers. Results: Only 31.42% of the students used to use mobile phones. The average daily time of using mobile phones in talk mode was 7.08±21.42 minutes. Not only the relative frequency of mobile phone ownership in boys was significantly more than the girls, but also the boys used their mobile phones more frequently. Statistically significant associations were found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and some symptoms. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and the number of headaches per month, number of vertigo per month, or number of sleeping problem per month. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study show that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz use mobile phones. A significant increase was found in some self-reported symptoms among users of mobile phones. These findings are in line with what is widely believed regarding the higher vulnerability of

  3. The pattern of mobile phone use and prevalence of self-reported symptoms in elementary and junior high school students in shiraz, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Atefi, Mohammad; Kholghi, Fatemeh

    2011-06-01

    The use of mobile phone by children is increasing drastically. Children are likely to accumulate many years of exposure during their lives. Furthermore, as nervous systems in children are developing, children may be at a greater risk compared to adults. In this light, some scientists have suggested that the use of mobile phones should be restricted in high-risk groups such as children. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of mobile phone use and its health effects among students from the city of Shiraz, Iran. A total of 469 (235 males and 234 females; 250 elementary and 219 junior high school) healthy students participated in this study. The students were randomly selected from three different educational districts of the city. For each student, a questionnaire regarding the possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic fields or microwave radiation, specially the pattern of mobile phone use, medical history and life style was filled out by interviewers. Only 31.42% of the students used to use mobile phones. The average daily time of using mobile phones in talk mode was 7.08±21.42 minutes. Not only the relative frequency of mobile phone ownership in boys was significantly more than the girls, but also the boys used their mobile phones more frequently. Statistically significant associations were found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and some symptoms. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and the number of headaches per month, number of vertigo per month, or number of sleeping problem per month. RESULTS obtained in this study show that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz use mobile phones. A significant increase was found in some self-reported symptoms among users of mobile phones. These findings are in line with what is widely believed regarding the higher vulnerability of children to exhibit symptoms from using mobile phones. The

  4. Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Kageyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of wind turbine noise (WTN with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012: 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.

  5. The effect of school meals with fatty fish on adolescents' self-reported symptoms for mental health: FINS-TEENS - a randomized controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Siv; Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Øyen, Jannike; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Baste, Valborg; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence linking fish consumption and n-3 LCPUFAs to mental health. Still, the results from randomized trials with n-3 LCPUFAs show conflicting results, and it is possible that the combined effect of several nutrients in fish may explain the observed associations. To aim of the present study was to investigate if school meals with fatty fish three times per week for 12 weeks could alter mental health in a sample of typically developing adolescents. In the Fish Intervention Studies-TEENS (FINS-TEENS), adolescents from eight secondary schools (n=425) in Norway, were randomized to receive school meals with fatty fish, meat or n-3 LCPUFA supplements. Mental health was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the differences between the groups were assessed with linear mixed effect models, unadjusted and adjusted for baseline and dietary compliance. The results showed no effects of school meals with fatty fish compared to similar meals with meat or n-3 LCPUFAs on the adolescents' self-reported symptom scores for mental health. Among adolescents scoring above the SDQ cut-offs (high-scorers), the fish- improved less than the meat group in the self-reported symptom scores for total difficulties- and emotional problems. However, the findings should be regarded as preliminary, as the analyses for the high-scorer group were underpowered. In conclusion, serving school meals with fatty fish did not alter mental health in a typically developing sample of adolescents. It is possible that serving healthy school meals with meat is more beneficial than similar meals with fatty fish in adolescents scoring high on mental health problems. However, the results should be seen as preliminary, as the dietary compliance in the fish group was low and the analyses in the high score group underpowered. Thus, further studies should investigate the associations between fish consumption and adolescents' mental health.

  6. Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Takayuki; Yano, Takashi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Sueoka, Shinichi; Tachibana, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The association of wind turbine noise (WTN) with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012): 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR) of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.

  7. General health assessment vs. job satisfaction : The relationship of indicators of subjective well-being with self-reported absenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sczesny, S; Thau, S; Scesnzy, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was based on the assumption that people are motivated to gain or maintain their well-being. Being absent from work is conceptualized as a means to this end. We investigated which one of two indicators of subjective well-being - general health assessment versus job satisfaction - is

  8. Pesticide use, erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase level and self-reported acute intoxication symptoms among vegetable farmers in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; Jors, E.; Brandt, L.

    2014-01-01

    : The majority of pesticides used were WHO class II, classified as moderately hazardous. The mean numbers of personal protective equipment used by farmers were 2.22 (95% CI: 1.89; 2.54). Out of five hygienic practices asked, farmers followed 3.63 (95% CI: 3.40; 3.86) hygienic practices on the average. Farmers...... of healthy individuals. A lower mean haemoglobin-adjusted AChE level was seen among farmers compared to the controls. The use of highly toxic pesticides, inadequate use of personal protective equipment and poor hygienic practices might explain the reason for symptoms of pesticide intoxication and a lower ACh...

  9. Validation of Self-Reported Cognitive Problems with Objective ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical neuropsychological test performance in 147 manganese (Mn) exposed residents. These residents were from two Ohio towns exposed to ambient air-Mn from an industrial source with modeled average air-Mn concentrations of 0.54 µg/m3 (range: 0.01-4.58) and were part of a larger study of cognitive, motor, tremor abnormalities and their relationship to Mn exposure.The primarily white (94.6%) participants (aged 30-64) lived in the towns for at least 10 years (range: 10-64) and had 13.9 years of education, on average. In the last 7 days before testing, 94 (64.4%) participants self-reported concentration problems and 105 (71.8%) self-reported memory problems. After adjusting for age and education, participants who self-reported cognitive problems did not perform worse on the objective neuropsychological measures than those who reported not having problems, except on 1 of 17 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Color). Greater levels of depression and female sex predicted having more self-reported cognitive problems. Higher education was associated with fewer self-reported cognitive problems. Measures of Mn in air, blood, hair, and toenails were not associated with subjective cognitive self-reported p

  10. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Klith Jensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88% had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02–1.28. The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22–0.91. These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

  11. Meta-analysis of self-reported health symptoms in 1990–1991 Gulf War and Gulf War-era veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Alexis L; Janulewicz, Patricia A; Sullivan, Kimberly A; Krengel, Maxine H; Yee, Megan K; McClean, Michael; White, Roberta F

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Across diverse groups of Gulf War (GW) veterans, reports of musculoskeletal pain, cognitive dysfunction, unexplained fatigue, chronic diarrhoea, rashes and respiratory problems are common. GW illness is a condition resulting from GW service in veterans who report a combination of these symptoms. This study integrated the GW literature using meta-analytical methods to characterise the most frequently reported symptoms occurring among veterans who deployed to the 1990–1991 GW and to better understand the magnitude of ill health among GW-deployed veterans compared with non-deployed GW-era veterans. Design Meta-analysis. Methods Literature databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies published from January 1990 to May 2017 reporting health symptom frequencies in GW-deployed veterans and GW-era control veterans. Self-reported health symptom data were extracted from 21 published studies. A binomial-normal meta-analytical model was used to determine pooled prevalence of individual symptoms in GW-deployed veterans and GW-era control veterans and to calculate combined ORs of health symptoms comparing GW-deployed veterans and GW-era control veterans. Results GW-deployed veterans had higher odds of reporting all 56 analysed symptoms compared with GW-era controls. Odds of reporting irritability (OR 3.21, 95% CI 2.28 to 4.52), feeling detached (OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.83 to 7.03), muscle weakness (OR 3.19, 95% CI 2.73 to 3.74), diarrhoea (OR 3.24, 95% CI 2.51 to 4.17) and rash (OR 3.18, 95% CI 2.47 to 4.09) were more than three times higher among GW-deployed veterans compared with GW-era controls. Conclusions The higher odds of reporting mood-cognition, fatigue, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal and dermatological symptoms among GW-deployed veterans compared with GW-era controls indicates these symptoms are important when assessing GW veteran health status. PMID:29440208

  12. Linking state regulation, brain laterality, and self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh M.H.; Borger, Norbert A.; Geuze, Reint H.; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Many clinical studies have shown that performance of subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is impaired when stimuli are presented at a slow rate compared to a medium or fast rate. According to the cognitive–energetic model, this finding may reflect difficulty in

  13. Patients' self-reported function, symptoms and health-related quality of life before and 6 months after transcatheter aortic valve implantation and surgical aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Karin; Nilsson, Johan; Hörnsten, Åsa; Näslund, Ulf

    2017-03-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most common valve disease in western countries and has poor prognosis without treatment. Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is the gold standard, and transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a new method that is used in high-risk patients who are denied surgery. The purpose of treatment is not only to save life, but also to reduce symptoms and increase health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to describe patients' self-reported outcomes in terms of physical function, symptoms, dependence, HRQoL, and cognitive function after TAVI and SAVR. All patients treated with TAVI during 1 year ( n = 24) and age-matched patients treated with SAVR ( n = 24) were included. Data were collected on the day before and at 6 months after treatment using structural questionnaires. Self-rated function was low before treatment and increased at follow-up. A quarter of all patients reported syncope at baseline, and none reported this at follow-up. Breathlessness was reported by all patients to be the most limiting cardiac symptom, but the TAVI patients reported more severe symptoms. At 6 months' follow-up, symptoms were reduced, but breathlessness and fatigue were still common, especially in the TAVI group. HRQoL, which was very low in the TAVI group at baseline, increased in all dimensions except social function. We found no change in cognitive function or dependence at follow-up. There was no difference in the size of improvement between groups. The results could be helpful when informing future patients in order to give them realistic expectations.

  14. Relationships between postural orientation and self reported function, hop performance and muscle power in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trulsson, Anna; Roos, Ewa M; Ageberg, Eva

    2010-01-01

    study was to characterise correlations between this novel test set, called the Test for Substitution Patterns (TSP) and commonly used tests of knee function. METHODS: In a blinded set-up, 53 subjects (mean age 30 years, range 20-39, with 2-5 years since ACL injury) were assessed using the TSP, the Knee...... Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscale sport/recreation (KOOS sport/rec), 3 hop tests and 3 muscle power tests. Correlations between the scores of the TSP and the other tests were determined. RESULTS: Moderate correlations were found between TSP scores and KOOS sport/rec (rs = -0.43; p = 0...

  15. Subjective and Objective Measures of Dryness Symptoms in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: Capturing the Discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzina, Oriana M; Gallagher, Peter; Mitchell, Sheryl; Bowman, Simon J; Griffiths, Bridget; Hindmarsh, Victoria; Hargreaves, Ben; Price, Elizabeth J; Pease, Colin T; Emery, Paul; Lanyon, Peter; Bombardieri, Michele; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Pitzalis, Costantino; Hunter, John; Gupta, Monica; McLaren, John; Cooper, Anne M; Regan, Marian; Giles, Ian P; Isenberg, David A; Saravanan, Vadivelu; Coady, David; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; McHugh, Neil J; Young-Min, Steven A; Moots, Robert J; Gendi, Nagui; Akil, Mohammed; MacKay, Kirsten; Ng, W Fai; Robinson, Lucy J

    2017-11-01

    To develop a novel method for capturing the discrepancy between objective tests and subjective dryness symptoms (a sensitivity scale) and to explore predictors of dryness sensitivity. Archive data from the UK Primary Sjögren's Syndrome Registry (n = 688) were used. Patients were classified on a scale from -5 (stoical) to +5 (sensitive) depending on the degree of discrepancy between their objective and subjective symptoms classes. Sensitivity scores were correlated with demographic variables, disease-related factors, and symptoms of pain, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Patients were on average relatively stoical for both types of dryness symptoms (mean ± SD ocular dryness -0.42 ± 2.2 and -1.24 ± 1.6 oral dryness). Twenty-seven percent of patients were classified as sensitive to ocular dryness and 9% to oral dryness. Hierarchical regression analyses identified the strongest predictor of ocular dryness sensitivity to be self-reported pain and that of oral dryness sensitivity to be self-reported fatigue. Ocular and oral dryness sensitivity can be classified on a continuous scale. The 2 symptom types are predicted by different variables. A large number of factors remain to be explored that may impact symptom sensitivity in primary Sjögren's syndrome, and the proposed method could be used to identify relatively sensitive and stoical patients for future studies. © 2016, The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Somatic symptoms beyond those generally associated with a whiplash injury are increased in self-reported chronic whiplash. A population-based cross sectional study: the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrtveit Solbjørg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic whiplash leads to considerable patient suffering and substantial societal costs. There are two competing hypothesis on the etiology of chronic whiplash. The traditional organic hypothesis considers chronic whiplash and related symptoms a result of a specific injury. In opposition is the hypothesis that chronic whiplash is a functional somatic syndrome, and related symptoms a result of society-induced expectations and amplification of symptoms. According to both hypotheses, patients reporting chronic whiplash are expected to have more neck pain, headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression than the general population. Increased prevalence of somatic symptoms beyond those directly related to a whiplash neck injury is less investigated. The aim of this study was to test an implication derived from the functional hypothesis: Is the prevalence of somatic symptoms as seen in somatization disorder, beyond symptoms related to a whiplash neck injury, increased in individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash? We further aimed to explore recall bias by comparing the symptom profile displayed by individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash to that among those self-reporting a non-functional injury: fractures of the hand or wrist. We explored symptom load, etiologic origin could not be investigated in this study. Methods Data from the Norwegian population-based “Hordaland Health Study” (HUSK, 1997–99; N = 13,986 was employed. Chronic whiplash was self-reported by 403 individuals and fractures by 1,746. Somatization tendency was measured using a list of 17 somatic symptoms arising from different body parts and organ systems, derived from the research criteria for somatization disorder (ICD-10, F45. Results Chronic whiplash was associated with an increased level of all 17 somatic symptoms investigated (p Conclusions The increased prevalence of somatic symptoms beyond symptoms expected according to the organic injury model

  17. Linking state regulation, brain laterality, and self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saleh M H; Börger, Norbert A; Geuze, Reint H; van der Meere, Jaap J

    2016-10-01

    Many clinical studies have shown that performance of subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is impaired when stimuli are presented at a slow rate compared to a medium or fast rate. According to the cognitive-energetic model, this finding may reflect difficulty in allocating sufficient effort to regulate the motor activation state. Other studies have shown that the left hemisphere is relatively responsible for keeping humans motivated, allocating sufficient effort to complete their tasks. This leads to a prediction that poor effort allocation might be associated with an affected left-hemisphere functioning in ADHD. So far, this prediction has not been directly tested, which is the aim of the present study. Seventy-seven adults with various scores on the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale performed a lateralized lexical decision task in three conditions with stimuli presented in a fast, a medium, and a slow rate. The left-hemisphere functioning was measured in terms of visual field advantage (better performance for the right than for the left visual field). All subjects showed an increased right visual field advantage for word processing in the slow presentation rate of stimuli compared to the fast and the medium rate. Higher ADHD scores were related to a reduced right visual field advantage in the slow rate only. The present findings suggest that ADHD symptomatology is associated with less involvement of the left hemisphere when extra effort allocation is needed to optimize the low motor activation state.

  18. Differences in prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms among computer and non-computer users in a Nigerian population: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanniyi O

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Literature abounds on the prevalent nature of Self Reported Musculoskeletal Symptoms (SRMS among computer users, but studies that actually compared this with non computer users are meagre thereby reducing the strength of the evidence. This study compared the prevalence of SRMS between computer and non computer users and assessed the risk factors associated with SRMS. Methods A total of 472 participants comprising equal numbers of age and sex matched computer and non computer users were assessed for the presence of SRMS. Information concerning musculoskeletal symptoms and discomforts from the neck, shoulders, upper back, elbows, wrists/hands, low back, hips/thighs, knees and ankles/feet were obtained using the Standardized Nordic questionnaire. Results The prevalence of SRMS was significantly higher in the computer users than the non computer users both over the past 7 days (χ2 = 39.11, p = 0.001 and during the past 12 month durations (χ2 = 53.56, p = 0.001. The odds of reporting musculoskeletal symptoms was least for participants above the age of 40 years (OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.31-0.64 over the past 7 days and OR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47-0.77 during the past 12 months and also reduced in female participants. Increasing daily hours and accumulated years of computer use and tasks of data processing and designs/graphics significantly (p Conclusion The prevalence of SRMS was significantly higher in the computer users than the non computer users and younger age, being male, working longer hours daily, increasing years of computer use, data entry tasks and computer designs/graphics were the significant risk factors for reporting musculoskeletal symptoms among the computer users. Computer use may explain the increase in prevalence of SRMS among the computer users.

  19. Emotion regulation in social anxiety: a systematic investigation and meta-analysis using self-report, subjective, and event-related potentials measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivity, Yogev; Huppert, Jonathan D

    2018-03-07

    Recent models of social anxiety disorder emphasise the role of emotion dysregulation; however, the nature of the proposed impairment needs clarification. In a replication and extension framework, four studies (N = 193) examined whether individuals with social anxiety (HSAs) are impaired in using cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Self-reports and lab-based tasks of suppression and reappraisal were utilised among individuals with high and low levels of social anxiety. A meta-analysis of these studies indicated that, compared to controls, HSAs reported less frequent and effective use of reappraisal and more frequent and effective use of suppression. Counter to most models and our hypotheses, HSAs were more successful than controls in lab-based reappraisal of shame-arousing pictures as measured by subjective ratings, but not by event-related potentials. HSAs were less successful than controls in lab-based suppression of shame-arousing pictures as measured by subjective ratings, but not by event-related potentials. The results held even when participants were under social stress (impromptu speech anticipation). Overall, subjective reports of HSAs reveal strong deficits in emotion regulation whereas lab-based measures provided less conclusive evidence of such deficits. These results suggest that individuals with social anxiety experience difficulties implementing their reappraisal abilities in daily life.

  20. [Factors related to subjective fatigue symptoms of adolescent girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Junko; Fukuda, Sayuri; Murakami, Toshio; Kawamoto, Naoki

    2011-09-01

    To assess changes in subjective fatigue symptoms of adolescent girls over a 15-year period and investigate factors related to these symptoms. A total of 86 items on physical health (including subjective fatigue symptoms), dietary life, and daily living were investigated and five items on physical activity were measured for approximately 100 female first-year dietetic students at a junior college each October over the 15-year period from 1994 to 2008. A total of 1,547 students (mean age, 19.2 +/- 0.3 years) were studied. Subjects were first divided into two groups using the median subjective fatigue score as the cutoff point, and annual changes in the proportion of students in the high subjective fatigue group were investigated by simple regression analysis. In addition, relationships between the two subjective fatigue groups and each item were investigated. 1) The proportion of students with many subjective fatigue symptoms showed a significantly increasing trend over the 15-year period. 2) Investigation of relationships between subjective fatigue symptoms and each factor revealed significance for many items, including dietary habits, life satisfaction, amount of sleep, and desire for a positive body image. 3) In order to determine which of the items were most strongly related to subjective fatigue symptoms, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for the 15-year period as well as three 5-year periods into which it was divided. The results showed that the dietary habits score (an indicator of dietary habits) and life satisfaction were related to subjective fatigue symptoms during all four periods. As for other items, relationships were observed for amount of sleep in three, diet and salt intake score in two, and liking for coffee/tea, juice drinks, and oily food, bedtime snack, desire for body image, self-assessment of body type, and health consciousness in one. These findings indicate that perspectives in education for promoting the health of

  1. The prevalence of self-reported premenstrual symptoms and evaluation of regular exercise with premenstrual symptoms among female employees in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Su-Ying; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Kuo, Hsin-Chih; Liao, Li-Ling

    2018-03-01

    Few studies have focused on premenstrual symptoms in employees. This study explored the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms in 7,193 female employees aged 18-55 years in a large electronics manufacturer in Taiwan from August 2014 to December 2014 and examined whether regular exercise was associated with premenstrual symptoms. Information was collected on demographics, lifestyle, menstrual history, menstrual pain, and premenstrual symptoms. Half of the participants reported irregular menstruation; 79.4% reported a moderate menstruation amount, and half reported little impact of menstrual pain at work. In order of prevalence, symptoms were "easy to fatigue" (24%), "backache" (21.2%), and "abdominal bloating" (17.4%). Participants who engaged in regular exercise reported fewer backaches (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.68-0.91), somatic discomfort (aOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.63-0.96), headache (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.69-0.98), diarrhea (aOR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.60-0.96), constipation (aaOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.44-0.78), less irritability (aOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.65-0.94), feeling morose and depressed (aOR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95), crying (aOR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.27-0.87), and emotional lability (aOR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.58-0.91). Regular exercise was associated with decreased menstrual pain (aOR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.76-0.96). Our findings provide a better understanding of premenstrual symptoms in female workers, allowing for the development of premenstrual health programs to improve their health and quality of life.

  2. Self-reported dietary adherence, disease-specific symptoms, and quality of life are associated with healthcare provider follow-up in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughey, Jacob J; Ray, Bonnie K; Lee, Anne R; Voorhees, Kristin N; Kelly, Ciaran P; Schuppan, Detlef

    2017-12-11

    The only treatment for celiac disease (CeD) is a lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD). The restrictive nature of the GFD makes adherence a challenge. As an integral part of CeD management, multiple professional organizations recommend regular follow-up with a healthcare provider (HCP). Many CeD patients also participate in patient advocacy groups (PAGs) for education and support. Previous work found that follow-up of CeD patients is highly variable. Here we investigated the self-reported factors associated with HCP follow-up among individuals diagnosed with CeD who participate in a PAG. We conducted a survey of members of Beyond Celiac (a PAG), collecting responses from 1832 U.S. adults ages 19-65 who reported having CeD. The survey queried HCP follow-up related to CeD and included validated instruments for dietary adherence (CDAT), disease-specific symptoms (CSI), and quality of life (CD-QOL). Overall, 27% of respondents diagnosed with CeD at least five years ago reported that they had not visited an HCP about CeD in the last five years. The most frequent reason for not visiting an HCP was "doing fine on my own" (47.6%). Using multiple logistic regression, we identified significant associations between whether a respondent reported visiting an HCP about CeD in the last five years and the scores for all three validated instruments. In particular, as disease-specific symptoms and quality of life worsened, the probability of having visited an HCP increased. Conversely, as dietary adherence worsened, the probability decreased. Our results suggest that many individuals with CeD manage their disease without ongoing support from an HCP. Our results thus emphasize the need for greater access to high quality CeD care, and highlight an opportunity for PAGs to bring together patients and HCPs to improve management of CeD.

  3. Exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms for office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kokoro; Kawashima, Motoko; Takechi, Sayuri; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the benefits of a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program to reduce the dry eye symptoms of office workers. We recruited 11 office workers with dry eye symptoms, aged 31-64 years, who voluntarily participated in group health guidance at a manufacturing company. Participants learned about the role of physical activity and exercise in enhancing wellness and performed an exercise program at home 3 days per week for 10 weeks. We estimated the indexes of body composition, dry eye symptoms, and psychological distress using the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score and the World Health Organization's Subjective Well-Being Inventory questionnaires pre- and postintervention. The 10-week exercise program and the questionnaires were completed by 48.1% (39 of 81) of the participants. Body composition did not change pre- and postintervention. However, the average of the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score scores in participants with subjective dry eye significantly improved after the intervention. Moreover, the World Health Organization's Subjective Well-Being Inventory positive well-being score tended to increase after the intervention. In this study, we showed that a 10-week exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms of healthy office workers. Our study suggests that a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program can play an important role in the treatment of patients with dry eye disease.

  4. Subjective assessment of acute mountain sickness: investigating the relationship between the Lake Louise Self-Report, a visual analogue scale and psychological well-being scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühauf, Anika; Burtscher, Martin; Pocecco, Elena; Faulhaber, Martin; Kopp, Martin

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing discussion how to assess acute mountain sickness (AMS) in real life conditions. Next to more-item scales with a cut off like the Lake Louise Self-Report (LLS), some authors suggested to use visual analog scales (VAS) to assess AMS. This study tried to contribute to this question using VAS items used for the Subjective Ratings of Drug Effects, including an additional single item for AMS. Furthermore, we investigated if instruments developed to assess psychological well-being might predict AMS assessed via LLS or VAS. 32 (19 Female) adult persons with known AMS susceptibility filled in questionnaires (Feeling Scale, Felt Arousal Scale, Activation Deactivation Check List, LLS, VAS) at a height of 3650 m above sea level. Correlation and regression analysis suggest a moderate to high relationship between the LLS score and the VAS items, including one VAS item asking for the severity of AMS, as well as psychological well-being. In conclusion, using VAS items to assess AMS can be a more precise alternative to questionnaires like LLS, for people knowledgeable with AMS. Furthermore, researchers should be aware that psychological well-being might be an important parameter influencing the assessment of AMS.

  5. [Dietary habits, attitudes toward weight control, and subjective symptoms of fatigue in young women in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osako, Mai; Takayama, Tomoko; Kira, Shohei

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes dietary habits and attitudes toward body weight control of college women in Japan and examines their relationships with subjective symptoms of fatigue. We also discuss strategies to promote better diets among young adults. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to 286 young women aged 18 to 25 years; 275 of these were analyzed. The study found that more than half of the women were concerned about nutritional balance and calories. Yet thirty percent ate "a single-item meal (i.e., bread, rice bowl, noodles) two or more times a day," while roughly one half skipped breakfast "sometimes" or "always." A majority ate vegetables "almost never" and consumed instant foods, confectionery, or sugary drinks "almost daily." Subjective symptoms of fatigue were significantly correlated with a higher frequency of irregular meal-taking, single-item meals, between-meal snacking, missed breakfasts, non-vegetable diets, non-fruit diets, and instant foods and confectionery. About sixty percent of the women in the study considered their bodies to be "slightly fat or overweight" while 79.5% indicated a desire to "lose weight". On average, the participants' ideal BMI was 18.7 (+/- 1.2) while the ideal body weight was 47.2 (+/- 4.1) kg, approximately 4 kg under actual average body weight. Subjective symptoms of fatigue were stronger among women who considered themselves "slightly fat or overweight". Likewise, symptoms were stronger to the extent that a participant's ideal BMI was below her actual BMI. Many women in this study desired to lose weight although they were not overweight by objective measures. The study suggests that subjective symptoms of fatigue are not the result of individual dietary habits, but rather of a lifestyle that reach to series of dietary habits connected to subjective symptoms of fatigue. The study also confirms the importance both of encouraging young women not just to eat well but to lead lifestyles in which they do not skip meals and

  6. Psychometric properties of self-reported questionnaires for the evaluation of symptoms and functional limitations in individuals with rotator cuff disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Corinne; Desmeules, François; Dionne, Clermont E; Frémont, Pierre; MacDermid, Joy C; Roy, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the psychometric properties (reliability, validity and responsiveness) of self-report questionnaires used to assess symptoms and functional limitations of individuals with rotator cuff (RC) disorders. A systematic search in three databases (Cinahl, Medline and Embase) was conducted. Data extraction and critical methodological appraisal were performed independently by three raters using structured tools, and agreement was achieved by consensus. A descriptive synthesis was performed. One-hundred and twenty articles reporting on 11 questionnaires were included. All questionnaires were highly reliable and responsive to change, and showed construct validity; seven questionnaires also shown known-group validity. The minimal detectable change ranged from 6.4% to 20.8% of total score; only two questionnaires (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon questionnaire [ASES] and Upper Limb Functional Index [ULFI]) had a measurement error below 10% of global score. Minimal clinically important differences were established for eight questionnaires, and ranged from 8% to 20% of total score. Overall, included questionnaires showed acceptable psychometric properties for individuals with RC disorders. The ASES and ULFI have the smallest absolute error of measurement, while the Western Ontario RC Index is one of the most responsive questionnaires for individuals suffering from RC disorders. All included questionnaires are reliable, valid and responsive for the evaluation of individuals with RC disorders. As all included questionnaires showed good psychometric properties for the targeted population, the choice should be made according to the purpose of the evaluation and to the construct being evaluated by the questionnaire. The WORC, a RC-specific questionnaire, appeared to be more responsive. It should therefore be used to evaluate change in time. If the evaluation is time-limited, shorter questionnaires or short versions should be considered (such as

  7. Somatic symptoms beyond those generally associated with a whiplash injury are increased in self-reported chronic whiplash. A population-based cross sectional study: the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic whiplash leads to considerable patient suffering and substantial societal costs. There are two competing hypothesis on the etiology of chronic whiplash. The traditional organic hypothesis considers chronic whiplash and related symptoms a result of a specific injury. In opposition is the hypothesis that chronic whiplash is a functional somatic syndrome, and related symptoms a result of society-induced expectations and amplification of symptoms. According to both hypotheses, patients reporting chronic whiplash are expected to have more neck pain, headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression than the general population. Increased prevalence of somatic symptoms beyond those directly related to a whiplash neck injury is less investigated. The aim of this study was to test an implication derived from the functional hypothesis: Is the prevalence of somatic symptoms as seen in somatization disorder, beyond symptoms related to a whiplash neck injury, increased in individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash? We further aimed to explore recall bias by comparing the symptom profile displayed by individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash to that among those self-reporting a non-functional injury: fractures of the hand or wrist. We explored symptom load, etiologic origin could not be investigated in this study. Methods Data from the Norwegian population-based “Hordaland Health Study” (HUSK, 1997–99); N = 13,986 was employed. Chronic whiplash was self-reported by 403 individuals and fractures by 1,746. Somatization tendency was measured using a list of 17 somatic symptoms arising from different body parts and organ systems, derived from the research criteria for somatization disorder (ICD-10, F45). Results Chronic whiplash was associated with an increased level of all 17 somatic symptoms investigated (pwhiplash was more commonly reported than whiplash-injury a long time ago, and the association of interest weakly increased with time since whiplash

  8. Exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms for office workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sano K

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kokoro Sano,1 Motoko Kawashima,1 Sayuri Takechi,2 Masaru Mimura,2 Kazuo Tsubota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: We investigated the benefits of a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program to reduce the dry eye symptoms of office workers. Materials and methods: We recruited 11 office workers with dry eye symptoms, aged 31–64 years, who voluntarily participated in group health guidance at a manufacturing company. Participants learned about the role of physical activity and exercise in enhancing wellness and performed an exercise program at home 3 days per week for 10 weeks. We estimated the indexes of body composition, dry eye symptoms, and psychological distress using the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score and the World Health Organization’s Subjective Well-Being Inventory questionnaires pre- and postintervention. Results: The 10-week exercise program and the questionnaires were completed by 48.1% (39 of 81 of the participants. Body composition did not change pre- and postintervention. However, the average of the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score scores in participants with subjective dry eye significantly improved after the intervention. Moreover, the World Health Organization’s Subjective Well-Being Inventory positive well-being score tended to increase after the intervention. Conclusion: In this study, we showed that a 10-week exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms of healthy office workers. Our study suggests that a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program can play an important role in the treatment of patients with dry eye disease. Keywords: dry eye, exercise, office workers, cognitive behavioral therapy

  9. The impact of Michigan's Dr Ron Davis smoke-free air law on levels of cotinine, tobacco-specific lung carcinogen and severity of self-reported respiratory symptoms among non-smoking bar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teri; Shamo, Farid; Boynton, Katherine; Kiley, Janet

    2012-11-01

    To determine the impact on bar employee's health and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) before and after the implementation of Michigan's Dr Ron Davis smoke-free air law that went into effect on 1 May 2010, prohibiting smoking in places of work, including bars. This study used a pre/postintervention experimental design. The setting was bars in 12 Michigan counties. Subjects were bar employees, recruited through flyers and individual discussions with local health department staff. Participants completed a screening questionnaire to determine eligibility. A total of 40 eligible employees completed a demographic survey, provided urine samples for analysis of cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and completed questionnaires on respiratory and general health status 6 weeks before and 6-10 weeks after the law went into effect. The main outcome measures were urine samples for total cotinine and total NNAL and data from a self-administered respiratory and general health status questionnaire collected during the pre-law and post-law study periods. There was a significant decrease in the mean cotinine levels from 35.9 ng/ml to a non-quantifiable value (plevel from 0.086 pmol/ml to 0.034 pmol/ml (plaw. There was also a significant improvement in all six self-reported respiratory symptoms (plaw is protecting bar employee health.

  10. The use of immersive virtual reality (VR) to predict the occurrence 6 months later of paranoid thinking and posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed by self-report and interviewer methods: a study of individuals who have been physically assaulted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Daniel; Antley, Angus; Ehlers, Anke; Dunn, Graham; Thompson, Claire; Vorontsova, Natasha; Garety, Philippa; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Glucksman, Edward; Slater, Mel

    2014-09-01

    Presentation of social situations via immersive virtual reality (VR) has the potential to be an ecologically valid way of assessing psychiatric symptoms. In this study we assess the occurrence of paranoid thinking and of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to a single neutral VR social environment as predictors of later psychiatric symptoms assessed by standard methods. One hundred six people entered an immersive VR social environment (a train ride), presented via a head-mounted display, 4 weeks after having attended hospital because of a physical assault. Paranoid thinking about the neutral computer-generated characters and the occurrence of PTSD symptoms in VR were assessed. Reactions in VR were then used to predict the occurrence 6 months later of symptoms of paranoia and PTSD, as assessed by standard interviewer and self-report methods. Responses to VR predicted the severity of paranoia and PTSD symptoms as assessed by standard measures 6 months later. The VR assessments also added predictive value to the baseline interviewer methods, especially for paranoia. Brief exposure to environments presented via virtual reality provides a symptom assessment with predictive ability over many months. VR assessment may be of particular benefit for difficult to assess problems, such as paranoia, that have no gold standard assessment method. In the future, VR environments may be used in the clinic to complement standard self-report and clinical interview methods. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Self-reported perinatal depressive symptoms and postnatal symptom severity after treatment with antidepressants in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study across 12 European countries using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupattelli A

    2018-06-01

    postnatal depressive symptoms by severity across multiple countries and the association between antidepressant treatment in pregnancy and postnatal symptom severity. Materials and methods: This was a multinational web-based study conducted across 12 European countries (n=8069. Uniform data collection was ensured via an electronic questionnaire. Pregnant women at any gestational week and mothers of children with <1 year of age could participate. We used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS to measure the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms according to severity, which were corrected by survey weight adjustment (descriptive analysis. Within mothers with a psychiatric disorder (n=173, we estimated the association between antidepressant treatment in pregnancy and postnatal depressive symptom severity, as standardized EPDS mean scores, via the inverse probability of treatment weight (association analysis. Results: In the descriptive analysis (n=8069, the period prevalence of moderate-to-very severe depressive symptoms was higher in the western and eastern regions relative to the northern region, both in the antenatal period (6.8%–7.5% vs 4.3% and in the postnatal period (7.6% vs 4.7%. One in two mothers with psychiatric disorders used an antidepressant in pregnancy (86 of 173. In the association analysis, women medicated at any time during pregnancy (adjusted β=−0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] =−0.66, −0.02 had a significant postnatal symptom severity reduction compared with the nonmedicated counterpart. This effect was larger (β=−0.74, 95% CI =−1.24, −0.24 when the analysis was restricted to mothers within 6 months after childbirth. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-reported antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms differs across European countries. Among women with psychiatric disorders, those who had been on treatment with antidepressants during pregnancy were less likely to report postnatal depressive symptoms

  12. Self-Reported Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity in High School Students: Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carroccio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS has recently been included among the gluten-related disorders. As no biomarkers of this disease exist, its frequency has been estimated based on self-reported symptoms, but to date no data are available about self-reported NCWS in teenagers. Aim: To explore the prevalence of self-reported NCWS in a group of high school students and to study their demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: The study was performed between April 2015 and January 2016 in two high schools of a coastal town in the south of Sicily (Italy. A total of 555 students (mean age 17 years, 191 male, 364 female completed a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported NCWS. The subjects who self-reported NCWS were then compared with all the others. Results: Seven individuals (1.26% had an established diagnosis of CD. The prevalence of self-reported NCWS was 12.2%, and 2.9% were following a gluten-free diet (GFD. Only 15 out of 68 (23% NCWS self-reporters had consulted a doctor for this problem and only nine (14% had undergone serological tests for celiac disease. The NCWS self-reporters very often had IBS symptoms (44%. Conclusions: Self-reported NCWS was found to be common in teenagers, with a frequency of 12.2%; the frequency of GFD use was 2.9%, which was much higher than the percentage of known CD in the same population (1.26%. A greater awareness of the possible implications on the part of the subjects involved, and a more thorough medical approach to the study of self-reported wheat-induced symptoms are required.

  13. Self-Reported Functional Status as Predictor of Observed Functional Capacity in Subjects with Early Osteoarthritis of the Hip and Knee : A Diagnostic Study in the CHECK Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieleman, H. J.; Reneman, M. F.; van Ittersum, M. W.; van der Schans, C. P.; Groothoff, J. W.; Oosterveld, F. G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) may experience functional limitations in work settings. In the Cohort Hip and Cohort Knee study (CHECK) physical function was both self-reported and measured performance-based, using Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE). Relations between

  14. Self-report outcome in new hearing-aid users: Longitudinal trends and relationships between subjective measures of benefit and satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David

    2006-01-01

    experimento fueron los cambios en los resultados auto-reportados en el tiempo y las relaciones entre las diferentes mediciones subjetivas de beneficio y satisfacción. Se aplicaron cuatro inventarios de resultados y un cuestionario sobre estilo de vida auditivo a 25 usuarios de AAdespués de la adaptación; la......-aid users assess outcome changes over time. The practical consequence of the results is that early self-report outcome assessment may be misleading for some self-report outcome schemes. El estudio se enfocó en los resultados auto-reportados en nuevos usuarios de auxiliares auditivos (AA). Los objetivos del...... evaluación tuvo lugar una, cuatro y trece semanas después. Los resultados muestran que para los nuevos usuarios que utilizan su AA más de 4 horas al día, los resultados auto-reportados mejoran en algunas escalas en el curso de 13 semanas, aun cuando no hubiera cambio en la amplificación durante este tiempo...

  15. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  16. Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buck, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    The PERSEREC Crime Self-Reporting Study covers criminal record checks conducted in CY00 on 14,470 subjects of DoD security clearance investigations, including uniformed military, civilian, and contractor personnel...

  17. Oral appliance therapy versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial on self-reported symptoms of common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, M; Byraki, A; Ahlberg, J; Heymans, M W; Hamburger, H L; De Lange, J; Lobbezoo, F; Aarab, G

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with several sleep disorders and sleep-related problems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of a mandibular advancement device (MAD) with those of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on self-reported symptoms of common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems in mild and moderate OSAS patients. In this randomised placebo-controlled trial, sixty-four OSAS patients (52·0 ± 9·6 years) were randomly assigned to an MAD, nCPAP or an intra-oral placebo appliance in a parallel design. All participants filled out the validated Dutch Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SDQ) twice: one before treatment and one after six months of treatment. With 88 questions, thirteen scales were constructed, representing common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to study differences between the groups for the different SDQ scales over time. The MAD group showed significant improvements over time in symptoms corresponding with 'insomnia', 'excessive daytime sleepiness', 'psychiatric sleep disorder', 'periodic limb movements', 'sleep apnoea', 'sleep paralysis', 'daytime dysfunction', 'hypnagogic hallucinations/dreaming', 'restless sleep', 'negative conditioning' and 'automatic behaviour' (range of P values: 0·000-0·014). These improvements in symptoms were, however, not significantly different from the improvements in symptoms observed in the nCPAP and placebo groups (range of P values: 0·090-0·897). It can be concluded that there is no significant difference between MAD and nCPAP in their positive effects on self-reported symptoms of common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems in mild and moderate OSAS patients. These beneficial effects may be a result of placebo effects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Self-Reported Symptoms Among HIV-lnfected Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in the ATHENA Cohort in The Netherlands ≯

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, I. Marion; Prins, Jan M.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Smit, Colette; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may experience symptoms because of HIV disease or treatment. Symptoms might negatively affect quality of life, adherence, virological response, and survival. We investigated to what extent HIV-infected patients receiving

  19. The influence of personality, measured by the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), on symptoms among subjects in suspected sick buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runeson, R; Norbäck, D; Klinteberg, B; Edling, C

    2004-12-01

    The aim was to study possible relationships between personality traits as measured by the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), a self-report personality inventory based on psychobiological theory, and medical symptoms, in subjects with previous work history in suspected sick buildings. The study comprised 195 participants from 19 consecutive cases of suspected sick buildings, initially collected in 1988-92. In 1998-89, the KSP inventory and a symptoms questionnaire were administered in a postal follow-up study. There were 16 questions on symptoms, including symptoms from the eyes, nose, throat, skin, and headache, tiredness, and a symptom score (SC), ranging from 0 to 16, was calculated. The questionnaire also requested information on personal factors, including age, gender, smoking habits, allergy and diagnosed asthma. The KSP ratings in the study group did not differ from the mean personality scale norm scores, calculated from an external reference group. Females had higher scores for somatic anxiety (P < 0.01), muscular tension (P < 0.001), psychic anxiety (P < 0.01), psychasthenia (P < 0.05), indirect aggression (P < 0.05), and guilt (P < 0.05), while males scored higher on detachment (P < 0.001). Subjects with higher SC were found to display higher degree of somatic anxiety (P < 0.001), muscular tension (P < 0.001), psychic anxiety (P < 0.001), psychasthenia (P < 0.001), inhibition of aggression (P < 0.05), detachment (P < 0.05), suspicion (P < 0.01), indirect aggression (P < 0.01), and verbal aggression (P < 0.05). In addition, ocular, respiratory, dermal, and systemic symptoms (headache and tiredness) were significantly related to anxiety- and aggressivity-related scales. There were associations between personality scales and change of symptom score (SC) during the 9-year period. The associations between KSP personality traits and symptoms were more pronounced in females. In conclusion, there are gender differences in personality and SBS symptoms

  20. Psychosocial and organizational work environment of nurse managers and self-reported depressive symptoms: Cross-sectional analysis from a cohort of nurse managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Nourry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The association between depressive symptoms and psycho‑organisational work environment has been established in the literature. Some studies have evaluated depressive symptoms in healthcare workers, but little research has been carried out among nurse managers. The aim of the study is to evaluate the depressive symptoms prevalence among nurse managers' population and work environment factors. Material and Methods: A descriptive correlational research design was used. Data were collected from 296 nurse managers in five hospitals in the eastern area of France between 2007 and 2008. Health outcomes were evaluated by measuring depressive symptoms (CES-D scale, the exposure data by assessing psycho‑organisational work environment with effort-reward imbalance-model of Siegrist. Multiple logistic regressions were used to describe the strength of the association between depressive symptoms and effort-reward imbalance adjusted for personal and occupational characteristics of the nurse managers. Results: Among the nurse managers, a third had depressive symptoms, and 18% presented an effort-reward imbalance (ratio: ≥ 1. A significant association was found between depressive symptoms and effort-reward imbalance (OR = 10.81, 95% CI: 5.1-23, p < 10-3, and with esteem as a reward (OR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.6-6.3, p < 10-2. Conclusion: In view of the hierarchical situation of nurse managers and their primary roles in hospitals, it is necessaryto take prevention measures to improve their work environment and health.

  1. Self-reported skin symptoms and skin-related quality of life among Latino immigrant poultry processing and other manual workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A; Newman, Jill C; Pichardo-Geisinger, Rita; Mora, Dana C; Chen, Haiying; Feldman, Steven R; Arcury, Thomas A

    2014-05-01

    Manual labor employment occurs in environments with exposures likely to impact skin-related quality of life (SRQOL). The objectives of this paper are to (1) document the dimensions of SRQOL, (2) examine its association with skin symptoms, and (3) identify the predictors of SRQOL in Latino manual workers. A population-based survey of 733 Latino manual workers obtained Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and skin symptoms in the prior year. Two-thirds of workers were employed in production. Skin symptoms in prior year were reported by 23%. Impaired SRQOL was reported by 23%. In multivariate analyses, reduced SRQOL was associated with age, occupation, childhood indigenous language use, and experience of skin symptoms in the prior year. Despite overall high SRQOL exposures in some immigrant occupational groups produce reduce SRQOL. This rural, immigrant population faces significant obstacles to obtaining dermatological care; efforts are needed to improve their SRQOL. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Self-reported temporomandibular joint disorder symptoms, oral health, and quality of life of children in kindergarten through grade 5: Do sex, race, and socioeconomic background matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglehart, Marita R; Patel, Manan H; Widmalm, Sven-Erik; Briskie, Daniel M

    2016-02-01

    The authors' objectives were to determine the percentage of children in kindergarten through grade 5 who reported symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD); to assess whether sex, race, and socioeconomic background mattered; and to explore the relationships between TMJD and children's oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The research team conducted face-to-face interviews with 8,302 children in kindergarten through grade 5 (51% female, 49% male; 53% African American, 42% white). They conducted oral health screenings with 7,439 children. Overall, 23.6% of the children reported pain when chewing tough food, and 18.8% reported pain when opening their mouth wide; 23.2% reported hearing a sound (clicking) when opening their mouth wide. Female students were more likely than male students and African American children were more likely than white children to report TMJD symptoms. The prevalence of TMJD symptoms did not correlate with whether the children had a need for oral health care services or whether they had an abscess or carious teeth with pulpal involvement. TMJD symptoms were associated significantly with children's OHRQoL. Considerable percentages of 4- to 12-year-old children reported TMJD symptoms, with girls and African American children being more likely than their counterparts to be affected. Experiencing TMJD symptoms was associated significantly with poorer OHRQoL. Dental practitioners need to be aware that substantial percentages of kindergarten and elementary school-aged children experience TMJD symptoms. Taking a dental history and conducting an oral examination, therefore, should include assessments of the signs and symptoms of TMJD; treatment recommendations should be provided for affected children. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diagnostic value of self-reported mechanical symptoms for diagnosing large meniscal tears in patients aged 40 years or older with meniscal tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Kenneth; Englund, Martin; Lohmander, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Meniscal tears, which are longitudinal-vertical tears (e.g. bucket-handle tears) and/or involve all three meniscal sub regions (anterior horn, body and posterior horn), are typically large and assumed to cause patient perceived mechanical knee symptoms (knee grinding or clicking and knee...... catching or locking). However, whether the presence of such mechanical symptoms is useful for diagnosing these forms of meniscus tears is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the diagnostic values of having mechanical symptoms in diagnosing a bucket-handle tear and/or a tear involving all three meniscal sub...... regions in middle-aged and older patients undergoing arthroscopic meniscal surgery. Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of Pihl et al. OARSI 2017. The study included patients aged 40 years or older undergoing surgery for a meniscal tear from Knee Arthroscopy Cohort Southern Denmark (KACS...

  4. High prevalence of self-reported symptoms of digital ischemia in elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Daan; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Langenhorst, Ton; Maas, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In the past 3 years, 6 volleyball players with ischemic digits and small microemboli in the digital arteries of the dominant hand presented themselves in our hospital. These complaints were caused by an aneurysmatic dilation of the posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) with distal occlusion and digital emboli in the isolateral limb. All were elite male volleyball players active in the national top league. Little is known about the exact symptoms associated with PCHA pathological lesions with digital emboli (PCHAP with DE) and its prevalence in elite volleyball players. If vascular injury can be identified at an early stage, thromboembolic complications and irreversible damage to the digits might be prevented. To assess the prevalence of symptoms that are consistent with digital ischemia and may be caused by PCHAP with DE in elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A questionnaire survey was performed among elite volleyball players in the Dutch national top league and the Dutch beach volleyball team. The questionnaire was constructed using literature-based data on symptoms associated with PCHAP with DE, together with data retrieved from medical files. A total of 99 of the 107 athletes participated, with a response rate of 93%. The most frequently reported symptoms associated with PCHAP with DE were cold, blue, or pale digits in the dominant hand during or immediately after practice or competition. The prevalence of these symptoms ranged from 11% to 27%. The prevalence of cold digits during practice and competition was 27%. The prevalence of cold, blue, and pale digits during or immediately after practice and competition was 12%. An unexpectedly high percentage of elite volleyball players reported symptoms that are associated with PCHAP with DE in the dominant hand. Because these athletes are considered potentially at risk for developing critical digital ischemia, further analysis of the presence of digital

  5. Association between Asian Dust-Borne Air Pollutants and Daily Symptoms on Healthy Subjects: A Web-Based Pilot Study in Yonago, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Majbauddin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the spring, Asian dust (AD repeatedly makes its way to Japan, originating from drylands. We evaluated the association between AD-borne air pollutants and daily reported subjective symptoms in healthy subjects. We constructed an Internet questionnaire on daily ocular, nasal, respiratory, and skin symptoms. Forty-two healthy volunteers residents of Yonago (mean age, 33.57 were selected from the self-reporting web-based survey and recorded their symptoms between 1 and 31 of March 2013. We also collected information on levels of suspended particulate matter (SPM, particulate matter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and nitrogen oxide (NOx per hour on each of those days. SPM and PM2.5 were the dominant pollutants recorded throughout the month. A positive correlation was observed between SPM and ocular (r=0.475, p<0.01, nasal (r=0.614, p<0.001, and skin (r=0.445, p<0.05 symptoms. PM2.5 correlations were significant for ocular (r=0.428, p<0.05, nasal (r=0.560, p<0.01, and skin (r=0.437, p<0.05 symptoms. Our findings provide introductory evidence of AD-borne air pollutants and their association with several bodily symptoms in healthy subjects with the implementation of a self-administrated web-based survey application.

  6. Correlation Between Acoustic Measurements and Self-Reported Voice Disorders Among Female Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng-Chuan; Chen, Sheng Hwa; Chen, Su-Chiu; Wang, Chi-Te; Kuo, Yu-Ching

    2016-07-01

    Many studies focused on teachers' voice problems and most of them were conducted using questionnaires, whereas little research has investigated the relationship between self-reported voice disorders and objective quantification of voice. This study intends to explore the relationship of acoustic measurements according to self-reported symptoms and its predictive value of future dysphonia. This is a case-control study. Voice samples of 80 female teachers were analyzed, including 40 self-reported voice disorders (VD) and 40 self-reported normal voice (NVD) subjects. The acoustic measurements included jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio (NHR). Levene's t test and logistic regression were used to analyze the differences between VD and NVD and the relationship between self-reported voice conditions and the acoustic measurements. To examine whether acoustic measurements can be used to predict further voice disorders, we applied a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to determine the cutoff values and the associated sensitivity and specificity. The results showed that jitter, shimmer, and the NHR of VD were significantly higher than those of NVD. Among the parameters, the NHR and shimmer demonstrated the highest correlation with self-reported voice disorders. By using the NHR ≥0.138 and shimmer ≥0.470 dB as the cutoff values, the ROC curve displayed 72.5% of sensitivity and 75% of specificity, and the overall positive predictive value for subsequent dysphonia achieved 60%. This study demonstrated a significant correlation between acoustic measurements and self-reported dysphonic symptoms. NHR and ShdB are two acoustic parameters that are more able to reflect vocal abnormalities and, probably, to predict subsequent subjective voice disorder. Future research recruiting more subjects in other occupations and genders shall validate the preliminary results revealed in this study. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Neuropsychological Performance and Subjective Symptom Reporting in Military Service Members With a History of Multiple Concussions: Comparison With a Single Concussion, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Orthopedic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Douglas B; Curtiss, Glenn; Armistead-Jehle, Patrick; Belanger, Heather G; Tate, David F; Reid, Matthew; Bowles, Amy O; Velez, Carmen S; Kennedy, Jan E; Vanderploeg, Rodney D

    To examine differences in objective neurocognitive performance and subjective cognitive symptoms in individuals with a history of a single concussion, multiple concussions, orthopedic injuries, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants included 116 military service members who sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) during combat deployment. Subjects were subdivided into groups based on concussion frequency: a single concussion (n = 42), 2 concussions (n = 21), and 3 or more concussions (n = 53). Eighty-one subjects sustained an orthopedic injury (n = 60) during deployment or were diagnosed with PTSD (n = 21), but had no history of mTBI. Subjects completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and self-report measures of postconcussive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and psychopathology. No differences were found among the concussion groups on a composite neuropsychological measure. The PTSD group had the highest number of symptom complaints, with the 2-concussion and 3-plus-concussion groups being most similar to the PTSD group. The concussion groups showed a nonsignificant pattern of increasing distress with increasing number of concussions. The current findings are consistent with meta-analytic results showing no differential effect on neuropsychological functioning due to multiple concussions. Results also support the burden of adversity hypothesis suggesting increasing symptom levels with increasing psychological or physically traumatic exposures.

  8. Predicting symptom clusters of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Croatian war veterans: the role of socio-demographics, war experiences and subjective quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lončar, Mladen; Plašć, Ivana Dijanić; Bunjevac, Tomislav; Hrabač, Pero; Jakšić, Nenad; Kozina, Slavica; Henigsberg, Neven; Sagud, Marina; Marčinko, Darko

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has documented multiple chains of risk in the development of PTSD among war veterans. However, existing studies were mostly carried out in the West, while they also did not analyze specific symptom clusters of PTSD. The aim of this study was to examine the role of socio-demographic characteristics, war experiences and subjective quality of life in the prediction of three clusters of PTSD symptoms (i.e., avoidance, intrusion, hyperarousal). This study comprised 184 male participants who have survived war imprisonment during the Croatian Homeland War in the period from 1991 to 1995. The data was collected through several self-report measuring instruments: questionnaire on socio-demographic data, war experiences (Questionnaire on Traumatic Combat and War Experiences), subjective quality of life (WHO-Five Well-being Index), and PTSD symptoms (Impact of Events Scale - Revised). The level of three symptom clusters of PTSD was found to be moderate to high, as indicated by the scores on the IES-R. Results of the three hierarchical regression analyses showed the following: traumatic war experiences were significant predictors of avoidance symptoms; traumatic war experiences and subjective quality of life were significant predictors of hyperarousal symptoms; and traumatic war experiences, material status and subjective quality of life were significant predictors of intrusion symptoms. These findings support the widespread belief that the development of war-related PTSD is accounted for by multiple chains of risk, while traumatic war experiences seem to be the only predictor of all three symptom clusters. Future research should put more emphasis on specific PTSD symptom clusters when investigating the etiopathogenesis of this disorder among war-affected populations.

  9. Treatment options for subjective tinnitus: Self reports from a sample of general practitioners and ENT physicians within Europe and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Deborah A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus affects about 10-15% of the general population and risks for developing tinnitus are rising through increased exposure to leisure noise through listening to personal music players at high volume. The disorder has a considerable heterogeneity and so no single mechanism is likely to explain the presence of tinnitus in all those affected. As such there is no standardized management pathway nor singly effective treatment for the condition. Choice of clinical intervention is a multi-factorial decision based on many factors, including assessment of patient needs and the healthcare context. The present research surveyed clinicians working in six Westernized countries with the aims: a to establish the range of referral pathways, b to evaluate the typical treatment options for categories of subjective tinnitus defined as acute or chronic, and c to seek clinical opinion about levels of satisfaction with current standards of practice. Methods A structured online questionnaire was conducted with 712 physicians who reported seeing at least one tinnitus patients in the previous three months. They were 370 general practitioners (GPs and 365 ear-nose-throat specialists (ENTs from the US, Germany, UK, France, Italy and Spain. Results Our international comparison of health systems for tinnitus revealed that although the characteristics of tinnitus appeared broadly similar across countries, the patient's experience of clinical services differed widely. GPs and ENTs were always involved in referral and management to some degree, but multi-disciplinary teams engaged either neurology (Germany, Italy and Spain or audiology (UK and US professionals. For acute subjective tinnitus, pharmacological prescriptions were common, while audiological and psychological approaches were more typical for chronic subjective tinnitus; with several specific treatment options being highly country specific. All therapy options were associated with low levels

  10. The 'subject-symptom' impotent in the erective dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Grassi, Maria Virginia Filomena Cremasco; Pereira, Mário Eduardo Costa

    2001-01-01

    A masculinidade, como sintoma, utiliza a atividade do pênis ereto como estandarte de sustentação imaginária da potência fálica. A instalação da disfunção erétil (que afeta o órgão) coloca em questão a masculinidade (que afeta o ser), confirmando a sensação subjetiva de "impotência" sexual - sujeito e sintoma se fundem no fracasso eretivo.Masculinity, as a symptom, uses the erect penis activity as an imaginary maintenance banner of the phallic potency. The installation of the erectile dysfunct...

  11. A randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial to evaluate bread, in which gluten has been pre-digested by prolyl endoprotease treatment, in subjects self-reporting benefits of adopting a gluten-free or low-gluten diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Dinka; Holtrop, Grietje; Chope, Gemma; Moar, Kim M; Cruickshank, Morven; Hoggard, Nigel

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine if the enzyme Aspergillus niger prolyl endoprotease (ANPEP), which degrades the immunogenic proline-rich residues in gluten peptides, can be used in the development of new wheat products, suitable for gluten-sensitive (GS) individuals. We have carried out a double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial with two groups of adults; subjects, self-reporting benefits of adopting a gluten-free or low-gluten diet (GS, n 16) and a control non-GS group (n 12). For the trial, volunteers consumed four wheat breads: normal bread, bread treated with 0·8 or 1 % ANPEP and low-protein bread made from biscuit flour. Compared with controls, GS subjects had a favourable cardiovascular lipid profile - lower LDL (4·0 (sem 0·3) v. 2·8 (sem 0·2) mmol/l; P=0·008) and LDL:HDL ratio (3·2 (sem 0·4) v. 1·8 (sem 0·2); P=0·005) and modified haematological profile. The majority of the GS subjects followed a low-gluten lifestyle, which helps to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms severity. The low-gluten lifestyle does not have any effect on the quality of life, fatigue or mental state of this population. Consumption of normal wheat bread increased GI symptoms in GS subjects compared with their habitual diet. ANPEP lowered the immunogenic gluten in the treated bread by approximately 40 %. However, when compared with the control bread for inducing GI symptoms, no treatment effects were apparent. ANPEP can be applied in the production of bread with taste, texture and appearance comparable with standard bread.

  12. Relationship between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity and subjective memory impairment in breast cancer survivors: role of self-efficacy, fatigue and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Siobhan M; Lloyd, Gillian R; Awick, Elizabeth A; McAuley, Edward

    2017-09-01

    Many breast cancer survivors report cancer and cancer treatment-associated cognitive change. However, very little is known about the relationship between physical activity and subjective memory impairment (SMI) in this population. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between physical activity and SMI and longitudinally test a model examining the role of self-efficacy, fatigue and distress as potential mediators. Post-treatment breast cancer survivors (N = 1477) completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, distress (depression, concerns about recurrence, perceived stress, anxiety), fatigue and SMI at baseline and 6-month follow-up. A subsample (n = 362) was randomly selected to wear an accelerometer. It was hypothesized that physical activity indirectly influences SMI via exercise self-efficacy, distress and fatigue. Relationships were examined using panel analysis within a covariance modeling framework. The hypothesized model provided a good fit in the full sample (χ 2  = 1462.5, df = 469, p = exercise self-efficacy and reduced distress and fatigue. Higher levels of physical activity, lower levels of fatigue and distress and higher exercise self-efficacy may play an important role in understanding SMI in breast cancer survivors across time. Future research is warranted to replicate and explore these relationships further. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Do subjective symptoms predict our perception of jet-lag?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, J; Edwards, B; Nevill, A; Atkinson, G; Reilly, T; Davies, P; Godfrey, R

    2000-10-01

    A total of 39 subjects were studied after a flight from the UK to either Sydney or Brisbane (10 time-zones to the east). Subjects varied widely in their age, their athletic ability, whether or not they were taking melatonin, and in their objectives when in Australia. For the first 6 days after arrival, subjects scored their jet-lag five times per day and other subjective variables up to five times per day, using visual analogue scales. For jet-lag, the scale was labelled 0 = no jet-lag to 10 = very bad jet-lag; the extremes of the other scales were labelled - 5 and + 5, indicating marked changes compared with normal, and the centrepoint was labelled 0 indicating 'normal'. Mean daily values for jet-lag and fatigue were initially high (+ 3.65 +/- 0.35 and + 1.55 +/- 0.22 on day 1, respectively) and fell progressively on subsequent days, but were still raised significantly (p concentration and motivation, and rises in irritability and nocturnal wakings, had recovered by day 4 or earlier, and bowel activity was less frequent, with harder stools, on days 1 and 2 only. Also, on day 1, there was a decrease in the ease of getting to sleep (- 1.33 +/- 0.55), but this changed to an increase from day 2 onwards (for example, + 0.75 +/- 0.25 on day 6). Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate predictors of jet-lag. The severity of jet-lag at all the times that were measured was strongly predicted by fatigue ratings made at the same time. Its severity at 08:00 h was predicted by an earlier time of waking, by feeling less alert 30 min after waking and, marginally, by the number of waking episodes. Jet-lag at 12:00 and 16:00 h was strongly predicted by a fall of concentration at these times; jet-lag at mealtimes (12:00, 16:00 and 20:00 h) was predicted by the amount of feeling bloated. Such results complicate an exact interpretation that can be placed on an assessment of a global term such as jet-lag, particularly if the assessment is made only once per day.

  14. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among non insulin treated Greek type 2 diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gikas Aristofanis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is common among diabetic subjects. We conducted the present study to estimate the prevalence of depression in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D in Greece. Methods The study sample consisted of 320 T2D subjects without overt macrovascular disease attending the diabetes outpatient clinic of our hospital, from June 2007 to December 2007. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory, modified for use in diabetic subjects. Results Of the study subjects 107 (33.4% reported elevated depressive symptoms. More women than men with diabetes reported symptoms of depression (48.4% vs. 12.7%, P 1c (P = 0.04, and duration of diabetes (P = 0.004. In the male study group, univariate linear regression analysis showed no significant relationships between depressive symptoms and the testing variables. Conclusion The prevalence of depression in Greek T2D subjects is high. Diabetic female subjects showed increased levels of depressive symptoms compared with male subjects. Independent risk factors of depressive symptoms in diabetic female subjects were diabetes duration and glycemic control.

  15. Effects of milk containing only A2 beta casein versus milk containing both A1 and A2 beta casein proteins on gastrointestinal physiology, symptoms of discomfort, and cognitive behavior of people with self-reported intolerance to traditional cows' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianqin, Sun; Leiming, Xu; Lu, Xia; Yelland, Gregory W; Ni, Jiayi; Clarke, Andrew J

    2016-04-02

    Cows' milk generally contains two types of β-casein, A1 and A2 types. Digestion of A1 type can yield the peptide β-casomorphin-7, which is implicated in adverse gastrointestinal effects of milk consumption, some of which resemble those in lactose intolerance. This study aimed to compare the effects of milk containing A1 β-casein with those of milk containing only A2 β-casein on inflammation, symptoms of post-dairy digestive discomfort (PD3), and cognitive processing in subjects with self-reported lactose intolerance. Forty-five Han Chinese subjects participated in this double-blind, randomized, 2 × 2 crossover trial and consumed milk containing both β-casein types or milk containing only A2 β-casein. Each treatment period was 14 days with a 14-day washout period at baseline and between treatment periods. Outcomes included PD3, gastrointestinal function (measured by smart pill), Subtle Cognitive Impairment Test (SCIT), serum/fecal laboratory biomarkers, and adverse events. Compared with milk containing only A2 β-casein, the consumption of milk containing both β-casein types was associated with significantly greater PD3 symptoms; higher concentrations of inflammation-related biomarkers and β-casomorphin-7; longer gastrointestinal transit times and lower levels of short-chain fatty acids; and increased response time and error rate on the SCIT. Consumption of milk containing both β-casein types was associated with worsening of PD3 symptoms relative to baseline in lactose tolerant and lactose intolerant subjects. Consumption of milk containing only A2 β-casein did not aggravate PD3 symptoms relative to baseline (i.e., after washout of dairy products) in lactose tolerant and intolerant subjects. Consumption of milk containing A1 β-casein was associated with increased gastrointestinal inflammation, worsening of PD3 symptoms, delayed transit, and decreased cognitive processing speed and accuracy. Because elimination of A1 β-casein attenuated these effects

  16. Self Reported Symptoms Associated with Coffee Consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    caffeine ingestion often leads to inhibition of logical, connected thought, and ... consumption produced a pattern of physiological and psychological reactions ... professionals in Nigeria after several years of research at .... experienced by daily users of coffee and occasional users. .... Brain Research and Review 17: 139 –.

  17. Relationship between the amount of rice oil ingested by patients with Yusho and their subjective symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T.; Hayabuchi, H.

    1985-02-01

    The goal of this study was to clarify the subjective symptoms closely related to Yusho by examining the relationship between the amount of PCB-contaminated rice oil ingested by patients and the subjective symptoms recorded on their questionnaires. The amount of PCB-contaminated rice oil consumed by the patients was obtained by interviewing the housewife in each Yusho family. Individual consumption of the oil was estimated by taking into account age, sex and the number of meals at home. In 1970, 46 patients were available for analysis, and in 1971, 33 patients were available. Among 12 subjective symptoms studied, numbness of the limbs, coughing, expectoration, and the sensation of elevated teeth were considered to show a dose-response relationship, which suggests that these subjective symptoms are closely related to Yusho. Consistent high rates of complaints of general fatigue and eye discharge were considered possibly to be connected with Yusho, although no dose-response relationships have been determined. Other subjective symptoms, such as fever, headache, dizziness, abdominal pain, swelling in the joints, changes in menstruation, and loss of hair failed to show consistent dose-response relationships. It should be noted, however, that for these symptoms which failed to show dose-response relationships, it is impossible to deny a causal relationship.

  18. Intensity of ADHD Symptoms and Subjective Feelings of Competence in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanc, Tomasz; Brzezinska, Anna Izabela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess how different levels of intensity of ADHD symptoms influence the development of the subjective feeling of competence in school age children. The sample was comprised of 62 children age 11 to 13. For the purpose of estimation of the subjective feeling of competence, The Feeling of Competence Questionnaire…

  19. Bifactor Models Show a Superior Model Fit: Examination of the Factorial Validity of Parent-Reported and Self-Reported Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenacker, Klaas; Hautmann, Christopher; Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Döpfner, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that bifactor models yield better solutions than models with correlated factors. However, the kind of bifactor model that is most appropriate is yet to be examined. The current study is the first to test bifactor models across the full age range (11-18 years) of adolescents using self-reports, and the first to test bifactor models with German subjects and German questionnaires. The study sample included children and adolescents aged between 6 and 18 years recruited from a German clinical sample (n = 1,081) and a German community sample (n = 642). To examine the factorial validity, we compared unidimensional, correlated factors and higher-order and bifactor models and further tested a modified incomplete bifactor model for measurement invariance. Bifactor models displayed superior model fit statistics compared to correlated factor models or second-order models. However, a more parsimonious incomplete bifactor model with only 2 specific factors (inattention and impulsivity) showed a good model fit and a better factor structure than the other bifactor models. Scalar measurement invariance was given in most group comparisons. An incomplete bifactor model would suggest that the specific inattention and impulsivity factors represent entities separable from the general attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder construct and might, therefore, give way to a new approach to subtyping of children beyond and above attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on

  1. Symptoms and subjective quality of life in post-traumatic stress disorder: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacco, Domenico; Matanov, Aleksandra; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with substantially reduced subjective quality of life (SQOL). This study aimed to explore whether and how changes in the levels of PTSD symptom clusters of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal are associated with changes in SQOL. Two samples with PTSD following the war in former Yugoslavia were studied, i.e. a representative sample of 530 people in five Balkan countries and a non-representative sample of 215 refugees in three Western European countries. They were assessed on average eight years after the war and re-interviewed one year later. PTSD symptoms were assessed on the Impact of Event Scale - Revised and SQOL on the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life. Linear regression and a two-wave cross lagged panel analysis were used to explore the association between PTSD symptom clusters and SQOL. The findings in the two samples were consistent. Symptom reduction over time was associated with improved SQOL. In multivariable analyses adjusted for the influence of all three clusters, gender and time since war exposure, only changes in hyperarousal symptoms were significantly associated with changes in SQOL. The two-wave cross-lagged panel analysis suggested that the link between hyperarousal symptoms and SQOL is bidirectional. Low SQOL of patients with war-related PTSD is particularly associated with hyperarousal symptoms. The findings suggest a bidirectional influence: a reduction in hyperarousal symptoms may result in improved SQOL, and improvements in SQOL may lead to reduced hyperarousal symptoms.

  2. Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Exposure and Subjective Symptoms in Residents Participating in Clean-Up Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ha, Mina; Lee, Jong Seong; Kwon, Hojang; Ha, Eun-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Choi, Yeyong; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Hur, Jongil; Lee, Seung-Min; Kim, Eun-Jung; Im, Hosub

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to examine the relationship between crude oil exposure and physical symptoms among residents participating in clean-up work associated with the Hebei Spirit oil spill, 2007 in Korea. Methods A total of 288 residents responded to a questionnaire regarding subjective physical symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics and clean-up activities that occurred between two and eight weeks after the accident. Additionally, the urine of 154 of the respondents was ana...

  3. Relationship between subjective symptom classifications in photochemical smog incidents and air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noushi, H; Nagasaki, M; Mizoguchi, I

    1973-04-01

    Investigation was conducted twice on 74 and 50 junior high school students having subjective symptoms of injury from smog on June 25 and July 8 of 1972. Among the first group there were 27 cases of headache, 18 cases of weakness, 13 cases of malaise, 11 cases of eye irritation, 9 cases of throat pain, and others. The second group showed a comparable number of cases for each individual symptom. Classification of the symptoms and pollution index showed relationships between oxidants and breathing difficulties, numbness of hands and legs, and throat pain, and also relationships between sulfur dioxide and eye irritation, throat pain, weakness, malaise, coughing, and dizziness.

  4. Digestive Symptoms in Healthy People and Subjects With Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyonnet, Denis; Donazzolo, Yves; Gendre, David; Tanguy, Jérôme; Guarner, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Goals: The aim of this study was to validate the ability of symptom frequency questionnaire to differentiate between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and healthy subjects. Background: A digestive symptom frequency questionnaire (DSFQ) was previously used in a food efficacy trial in a non-IBS population with mild gastrointestinal symptoms. Study: We compared 2 well-defined populations: 100 IBS patients fulfilling Rome III criteria (mean age 32 y; range, 18 to 59 y), and 100 sex-matched and age-matched healthy subjects. Frequency of individual digestive symptoms (abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating, flatulence, borborygmi) was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale (from none to everyday of the week) and the IBS severity with the IBS-SSS questionnaire. Health-Related Quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed with the Food and Benefits Assessment (FBA) and Functional Digestive Disorders Quality of Life (FDDQL) questionnaires. The digestive (dis)comfort dimension of these questionnaires was considered as the main dimension for HRQoL. Results: The DSFQ discriminated IBS from healthy subjects with a significant difference (Pdigestive discomfort measured by FDDQL (−0.816), digestive comfort measured by FBA (−0.789), and the IBS-SSS score (0.762). Conclusions: Measurement of digestive symptom frequency by means of the DSFQ can differentiate IBS from healthy subjects, and shows a good correlation with other validated questionnaires (clinical trial #NCT01457378). PMID:25014236

  5. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189. For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables, a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students’ nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI. Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms. Multiple linear regression tested the association of students’ eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints.

  6. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189). For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students’ nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI). Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms). Multiple linear regression tested the association of students’ eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints. PMID:26473918

  7. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-10-14

    We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189). For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students' nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI). Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms). Multiple linear regression tested the association of students' eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints.

  8. Social Cognition, Executive Functions and Self-Report of Psychological Distress in Huntington's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using...... a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. METHOD: 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status...... psychological distress was significantly associated with worse performances on social cognitive tests (mean absolute correlation .34) and that there were no significant correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on tests of executive functions. The correlations between perceived...

  9. Association between chronic urticaria and self-reported penicillin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Susanna; Localio, Russell; Apter, Andrea J

    2016-04-01

    Penicillin allergy is the most commonly reported drug allergy and often presents with cutaneous symptoms. Other common diagnoses, such as chronic urticaria, may be falsely attributed to penicillin allergy. Because chronic urticaria is fairly common in the general population, evaluation of its prevalence in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy was of interest. Similarly, the prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria is not well known and also becomes interesting in light of the high prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in the general population. To determine the prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria and the prevalence of chronic urticaria in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. This was a retrospective medical record review of 11,143 patients completed using the electronic health record of the University of Pennsylvania Allergy and Immunology clinic. The prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria was found to be approximately 3 times greater than in the general population. The prevalence of chronic urticaria in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy was also found to be approximately 3 times greater than in the population. This link between chronic urticaria and self-reported penicillin allergy highlights the need for clinicians to inquire about self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria and to consider penicillin skin testing. Furthermore, patients who report penicillin allergy might actually have chronic urticaria, indicating the importance of inquiring about chronic urticaria symptoms in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychophysiological tests and provocation of subjects with mobile phone related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilén, Jonna; Johansson, Amanda; Kalezic, Nebojsa; Lyskov, Eugene; Sandström, Monica

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exposure to a mobile phone-like radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field on persons experiencing subjective symptoms when using mobile phones (MP). Twenty subjects with MP-related symptoms were recruited and matched with 20 controls without MP-related symptoms. Each subject participated in two experimental sessions, one with true exposure and one with sham exposure, in random order. In the true exposure condition, the test subjects were exposed for 30 min to an RF field generating a maximum SAR(1g) in the head of 1 W/kg through an indoor base station antenna attached to a 900 MHz GSM MP. The following physiological and cognitive parameters were measured during the experiment: heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV), respiration, local blood flow, electrodermal activity, critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT), short-term memory, and reaction time. No significant differences related to RF exposure conditions were detected. Also no differences in baseline data were found between subject groups, except for the reaction time, which was significantly longer among the cases than among the controls the first time the test was performed. This difference disappeared when the test was repeated. However, the cases differed significantly from the controls with respect to HRV as measured in the frequency domain. The cases displayed a shift in low/high frequency ratio towards a sympathetic dominance in the autonomous nervous system during the CFFT and memory tests, regardless of exposure condition. This might be interpreted as a sign of differences in the autonomous nervous system regulation between persons with MP related subjective symptoms and persons with no such symptoms. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Affective symptoms as predictors of Alzheimer's disease in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a 10-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, I.H.G.B.; Visser, P.J.; Aalten, P.; Kester, A.; Jolles, J.; Verhey, F.R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Affective symptoms are common in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but there is disagreement whether these symptoms are predictive for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the predictive accuracy of affective symptoms for AD during a follow-up study in subjects with MCI,

  12. Swallowing abnormalities in multiple sclerosis: correlation between videofluoroscopy and subjective symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, W.; Steinbrich, W. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland); Wetzel, S.G.; Radue, E.W. [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Kappos, L.; Hoshi, M.M. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland); Witte, U. [Section of Logopedia, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if subjective symptoms indicating an impaired deglutition correlate with videofluoroscopic findings in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Videofluoroscopic examinations of 18 MS patients were analyzed by a radiologist and a logopedist and compared with the symptoms of these patients. Four patients complained about permanent dysphagia. Six patients reported mild and intermittent difficulties in swallowing, but were asymptomatic at the time of videofluoroscopy. Eight patients had no symptoms regarding their deglutition. All patients (n=4) who complained of permanent dysphagia showed aspiration. All patients (n=6) with mild and intermittent difficulties in swallowing showed undercoating of the epiglottis and/or laryngeal penetration. Of those 8 patients without any swallowing symptoms, only 2 had a normal videofluoroscopy. Swallowing abnormalities seem to be much more frequent in patients with MS than generally believed and they may easily be missed clinically as long as the patients do not aspirate. (orig.)

  13. Case Series of an Intraoral Balancing Appliance Therapy on Subjective Symptom Severity and Cervical Spine Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jun Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a holistic intraoral appliance (OA on cervical spine alignment and subjective symptom severity. Design. An observational study on case series with holistic OA therapy. Setting. An outpatient clinic for holistic temporomandibular joint (TMJ therapy under the supervision of the Pain Center, CHA Biomedical center, CHA University. Subjects. Ambulatory patients presenting with diverse chief complaints in the holistic TMJ clinic. Main Measures. Any immediate change in the curvature of cervical spine and the degree of atlantoaxial rotation was investigated in the images of simple X-ray and computed tomography of cervical spine with or without OA. Changes of subjective symptom severity were also analyzed for the holistic OA therapy cases. Results. A total of 59 cases were reviewed. Alignment of upper cervical spine rotation showed an immediate improvement (. Changes of subjective symptom severity also showed significant improvement (. Conclusion. These cases revealed rudimentary clinical evidence that holistic OA therapy may be related to an alleviated symptom severity and an improved cervical spinal alignment. These results show that further researches may warrant for the holistic TMJ therapy.

  14. Symptoms and subjective quality of life in post-traumatic stress disorder: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Giacco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is associated with substantially reduced subjective quality of life (SQOL. This study aimed to explore whether and how changes in the levels of PTSD symptom clusters of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal are associated with changes in SQOL. METHODS: Two samples with PTSD following the war in former Yugoslavia were studied, i.e. a representative sample of 530 people in five Balkan countries and a non-representative sample of 215 refugees in three Western European countries. They were assessed on average eight years after the war and re-interviewed one year later. PTSD symptoms were assessed on the Impact of Event Scale - Revised and SQOL on the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life. Linear regression and a two-wave cross lagged panel analysis were used to explore the association between PTSD symptom clusters and SQOL. RESULTS: The findings in the two samples were consistent. Symptom reduction over time was associated with improved SQOL. In multivariable analyses adjusted for the influence of all three clusters, gender and time since war exposure, only changes in hyperarousal symptoms were significantly associated with changes in SQOL. The two-wave cross-lagged panel analysis suggested that the link between hyperarousal symptoms and SQOL is bidirectional. CONCLUSIONS: Low SQOL of patients with war-related PTSD is particularly associated with hyperarousal symptoms. The findings suggest a bidirectional influence: a reduction in hyperarousal symptoms may result in improved SQOL, and improvements in SQOL may lead to reduced hyperarousal symptoms.

  15. Gender differences in subjective well-being, self-esteem and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with symptoms of anxiety and depression: findings from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derdikman-Eiron, Ruth; Indredavik, Marit S; Bratberg, Grete H; Taraldsen, Gunnar; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Colton, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression during adolescence are well documented. However, little attention has been given to differences in subjective well-being, self-esteem and psychosocial functioning between boys and girls with symptoms of anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the associations between such symptoms and subjective well-being, self-esteem, school functioning and social relations in adolescents. Data were taken from a major population-based Norwegian study, the Nord-Trøndelag Health study (HUNT), in which 8984 (91% of all invited) adolescents, aged 13-19 years, completed an extensive self-report questionnaire. Although prevalence rates of symptoms of anxiety and depression were higher in girls than in boys, a significant interaction between gender and symptoms of anxiety and depression was found in respect of each of the following outcome variables: subjective well-being, self-esteem, academic problems, frequency of meeting friends and the feeling of not having enough friends. These interactions indicate that the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and lower subjective well-being and self-esteem, more academic problems in school and lower social functioning were stronger for boys than for girls. Our findings may contribute to an earlier assessment and more efficient treatment of male adolescent anxiety and depression. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  16. The risk of subjective symptoms in mobile phone users in Poland – An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Szyjkowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the type and incidence of subjective symptoms related to the use of mobile phones in Polish users. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in 2005 using a questionnaire survey. Although it has been quite a long time, up to now, no such data have been published for Poland. The questionnaire consisted of 53 questions concerning sex, age, education, general health, characteristics of a mobile phone (hand-held, loud-speaking unit as well as the habits associated with its use (frequency and duration of calls, text messages, etc. and complaints associated with using a mobile phone. Results: As many as 1800 questionnaires were sent. The response was obtained from 587 subjects aged 32.6±11.3 (48.9% women, 51.1% men; the age did not differ significantly between men and women. The subjects owned a cell phone for an average of 3 years. Majority of the respondents used the phone intensively, i.e. daily (74% or almost daily (20%. Headaches were reported significantly more often by the people who talked frequently and long in comparison with other users (63.2% of the subjects, p = 0.0029, just like the symptoms of fatigue (45%, p = 0.013. Also, the feeling of warmth around the ear and directly to the auricle was reported significantly more frequently by the intensive mobile phone users, compared with other mobile phone users (47.3%, p = 0.00004 vs. 44.6%, p = 0.00063, respectively. Most symptoms appeared during or immediately after a call and disappeared within 2 h after the call. Continuous headache, persisting for longer than 6 h since the end of a call, was reported by 26% of the subjects. Conclusions: Our results show that the mobile phone users may experience subjective symptoms, the intensity of which depends on the intensity of use of mobile phones.

  17. Oral appliance therapy versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial on self-reported symptoms of common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolopoulou, M.; Byraki, A.; Ahlberg, J.; Heymans, M. W.; Hamburger, H. L.; de Lange, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Aarab, G.

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with several sleep disorders and sleep-related problems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of a mandibular advancement device (MAD) with those of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on self-reported

  18. Satisfaction with Life of Schizophrenia Outpatients and Their Caregivers: Differences between Patients with and without Self-Reported Sleep Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Brissos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia often present sleep complaints, but its relationship with general satisfaction with life (SWL and burden for caregivers has been understudied. We aimed to assess the differences in SWL between patients with and without self-reported sleep disturbances and that of their caregivers. In a noninterventional study, 811 schizophrenia adult outpatients were screened for their subjective perception of having (or not sleep disturbances and evaluated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Patients self-reporting sleep disturbances were significantly more symptomatic (P<0.001, presented significantly worse family support (P=0.0236, and self-reported worse SWL in all domains. Caregivers of patients with schizophrenia self-reporting sleep disturbances also reported worse SWL in all domains, as compared to caregivers of patients without subjective sleep disturbances. Patient and caregivers’ SWL was significantly correlated to patients’ quality of sleep (P<0.0001 for all domains. Patient’ and caregivers’ SWL was negatively affected by patients’ poor quality of sleep. We found that patients self-reporting sleep disturbances showed greater symptom severity, worse quality of sleep, worse SWL, and less caregiver support. SWL was also worse for caregivers of patients with schizophrenia reporting sleep disturbances.

  19. Satisfaction with Life of Schizophrenia Outpatients and Their Caregivers: Differences between Patients with and without Self-Reported Sleep Complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Pedro; Cañas, Fernando; Bobes, Julio; Bernardo Fernandez, Ivan; Guzman, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often present sleep complaints, but its relationship with general satisfaction with life (SWL) and burden for caregivers has been understudied. We aimed to assess the differences in SWL between patients with and without self-reported sleep disturbances and that of their caregivers. In a noninterventional study, 811 schizophrenia adult outpatients were screened for their subjective perception of having (or not) sleep disturbances and evaluated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Patients self-reporting sleep disturbances were significantly more symptomatic (P < 0.001), presented significantly worse family support (P = 0.0236), and self-reported worse SWL in all domains. Caregivers of patients with schizophrenia self-reporting sleep disturbances also reported worse SWL in all domains, as compared to caregivers of patients without subjective sleep disturbances. Patient and caregivers' SWL was significantly correlated to patients' quality of sleep (P < 0.0001 for all domains). Patient' and caregivers' SWL was negatively affected by patients' poor quality of sleep. We found that patients self-reporting sleep disturbances showed greater symptom severity, worse quality of sleep, worse SWL, and less caregiver support. SWL was also worse for caregivers of patients with schizophrenia reporting sleep disturbances. PMID:24288609

  20. Compulsive buying in university students: its prevalence and relationships with materialism, psychological distress symptoms, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz; Otero-López, José Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Compulsive buying has become a severe problem among young people. The prominent role that psychological variables play in this phenomenon support their consideration in establishing a risk profile for compulsive buying that serves as a guide for the development of prevention and treatment programs with guarantees of effectiveness. However, there are only a small number of studies in existence which have explored the compulsive buying prevalence among students, and none of them have been conducted in a Mediterranean country. This study aims to estimate the compulsive buying prevalence in a sample of university students from the region of Galicia (Spain). We also intend to determine if statistically significant differences exist between compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers in relation with gender, materialistic values, psychological distress symptoms and subjective well-being. Lastly, the clarification of which of the determinants examined represent risk or protection factors for compulsive buying constitutes another important objective of this paper. A total sample of 1448 university students participated in this study. They answered a battery of self-reports assessing gender, compulsive buying propensity, materialism, distress symptomatology, and well-being. Participants were initially classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared for the aforementioned variables through chi-square testing or variance analyses. Then, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants make up a risk profile for compulsive buying. The estimated prevalence of compulsive buying in the sample of university students considered was 7.4%. Statistically significant differences between compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers were detected for gender, and each and every one of the psychological variables explored. Specifically, it was confirmed that compulsive buyers obtained significantly

  1. Parents with Psychosis: A Pilot Study Examining Self-Report Measures Related to Family Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Karen; Byrne, Linda; Barkla, Joanne; McLean, Duncan; Hearle, Jenny; McGrath, John

    2002-01-01

    Examines the utility of various self-report instruments related to family functioning in families where a parent has a psychotic disorder, and explores associations between these instruments and symptoms in the parent. There were significant associations between objective measures of negative symptoms and self-report scores related to problems in…

  2. Self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...

  3. Systematic review of self-reported prognosis in adults after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassidy, John David; Cancelliere, Carol; Carroll, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    accepted and form our evidence base of prognostic studies. Of these, 23 addressed self-reported outcomes in adults, including 2 of the 3 original ICoMP research studies. These studies show that common postconcussion symptoms are not specific to MTBI/concussion and occur after other injuries as well. Poor...... recovery after MTBI is associated with poorer premorbid mental and physical health status and with more injury-related stress. Most recover over 1 year, but persistent symptoms are more likely in those with more acute symptoms and more emotional stress. CONCLUSIONS: Common subjective symptoms after MTBI......OBJECTIVE: To update the mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) prognosis review published by the World Health Organization Task Force in 2004. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus were searched from 2001 to 2012. We included published, peer-reviewed studies with more than...

  4. Subjective symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome correlate more with psychological factors than electrophysiological severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firosh Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy and is one of the most common requests for electrodiagnosis. We aimed to note the relationship of subjective symptom severity of CTS, with objective electrophysiological severity and psychological status of patients. Patients and Methods: One hundred and forty-four consecutive patients of CTS referred to neurophysiology laboratory of a tertiary care hospital over 1 year were prospectively studied. Boston CTS Assessment Questionnaire (BCTSAQ and visual analog scale (VAS were used to assess subjective symptom severity. Psychological status was assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Electrophysiological severity of CTS was estimated by median motor distal latency and median to ulnar peak sensory latency difference across the wrist. Each parameter in both hands was scored from 0 to 3 depending on the severity grade, and a composite electrophysiological severity score (CEPSS was calculated for each patient by summing up the scores in both hands. Statistical analysis was done by Spearman's rank correlation test. Results: There was significant correlation of BCTSAQ with VAS (P = 0.001, HADS anxiety score (P < 0.001, and HADS depression score (P = 0.01. CEPSS had no significant correlation with VAS (P = 0.103, HADS anxiety score (P = 0.211, or HADS depression score (P = 0.55. CEPSS had a borderline correlation with BCTSAQ (P = 0.048. Conclusions: While the subjective symptoms of CTS are well correlated with psychological factors, their correlation with objective electrophysiological severity is weak. Hence, prompt treatment of psychological comorbidity is important in symptomatic management of CTS; decision about surgical intervention should be based on electrophysiological severity rather than symptom severity.

  5. Social Inequalities and Depressive Symptoms in Adults: The Role of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebel, Jens; Maske, Ulrike E; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)-as measured by education, occupation, and income-is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung 'social ladder'. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms. Prospective studies are needed to establish

  6. Subjective memory complaints, depressive symptoms and instrumental activities of daily living in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, Tae Woo; Lee, Taek Jun

    2016-03-01

    The diagnostic relevance of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains to be unresolved. The aim of this study is to determine clinical correlates of SMCs in MCI. Furthermore, we examined whether there are the differences due to different aspects of complaints (i.e. prospective memory (PM) versus retrospective memory (RM) complaints). We examined the cross-sectional associations between SMCs and depressive symptoms, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and cognitive measures in sixty-six individuals with MCI (mean age: 65.7 ± 8.01 years). The criteria for MCI included SMCs, objective cognitive impairment, normal general cognitive function, largely intact functional activities, and absence of dementia. SMCs were assessed using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), which contains 16 items describing everyday memory failure of both PM and RM. SMC severity (i.e. PRMQ total score) was associated with stronger depressive symptoms and worse IADL performance. SMCs were not related to cognitive measures. For PM and RM subscores, both depressive symptoms and IADL were related to the PRMQ-PM and -RM scores. The main contributors to these PM and RM scores were depressive symptoms and IADL impairment, respectively. This study suggests that SMCs are more associated with depressive symptoms and IADL problems than with cognitive performance in individuals with MCI. Furthermore, while PM and RM complaints are related to both depressive symptoms and IADL, the differences between these main contributors suggest that RM complaints based on IADL could be more associated with the organically driven pathological features of MCI.

  7. Social Inequalities and Depressive Symptoms in Adults: The Role of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)—as measured by education, occupation, and income—is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Methods Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung ‘social ladder’. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). Results After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. Conclusions The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms

  8. Relationship between job stress and subjective oral health symptoms in male financial workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Koichi; Suzuki, Seitaro; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Sugihara, Naoki; Kamijyo, Hideyuki

    2017-04-07

    The aim was to assess subjective oral health symptoms and job stress, as measured by self-assessment of how demanding the job is, in male financial workers. The participants were recruited by applying screening procedures to a pool of Japanese registrants in an online database. For the stress check, 7 items about how demanding the job is were selected from The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ). Participants comprised a total of 950 financial male workers, ages 25 to 64. Participants who answered "I can't complete my work in the required time" had more decayed teeth (p=0.010). Participants who felt that their job is highly demanding (answered affirmatively to 6 or all 7 items) were more likely to report "often get food stuck between teeth" (p=0.030), "there are some foods I can't eat" (p=0.005), "bad breath" (p=0.032), and "jaw makes clicking sound" (p=0.032). The independent variable of total stress score of 24-28 was found to be correlated to at least three oral health symptoms (OR: 3.25; 95%CI: 1.66-6.35). These results indicate that certain job stress factors are associated with certain oral health symptoms, and that oral health symptoms are likely predictors of job stress.

  9. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in first episode psychosis and in subjects at ultra high risk for developing psychosis; onset and relationship to psychotic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, Bouke; Lankreijer, Kay; Linszen, Don H.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and obsessive compulsive disorder in patients with schizophrenia or related disorders or subjects at ultra high risk for development of psychosis. Secondly, to determine the time of occurrence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms

  10. Objective and subjective factors as predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms in parents of children with cancer--a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Lindahl Norberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parents of children with cancer report post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS years after the child's successful treatment is completed. The aim of the present study was to analyze a number of objective and subjective childhood cancer-related factors as predictors of parental PTSS. METHODS: Data were collected from 224 parents during and after their child's cancer treatment. Data sources include self-report questionnaires and medical records. RESULTS: In a multivariate hierarchical model death of the child, parent's perception of child psychological distress and total symptom burden predicted higher levels of PTSS. In addition, immigrants and unemployed parents reported higher levels of PTSS. The following factors did not predict PTSS: parent gender, family income, previous trauma, child's prognosis, treatment intensity, non-fatal relapse, and parent's satisfaction with the child's care. CONCLUSIONS: Although medical complications can be temporarily stressful, a parent's perception of the child's distress is a more powerful predictor of parental PTSS. The vulnerability of unemployed parents and immigrants should be acknowledged. In addition, findings highlight that the death of a child is as traumatic as could be expected.

  11. The relationship between caregivers' subjective social status and asthma symptoms and management for urban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Judy; Fagnano, Maria; Tremblay, Paul; Halterman, Jill S

    2018-03-01

    Subjective social status (SSS) is a person's perception of his/her social standing among others. We explored the relationship between caregivers' SSS and asthma symptoms, visits, and medication use among children with persistent asthma. We analyzed baseline data of children (3-10 years) from the SB-TEAM trial in Rochester, NY. Using a modified MacArthur Scale of SSS, caregivers rated themselves "a lot worse off" to "a lot better off" compared to 4 groups (e.g., neighbors). "Low SSS" was defined by a response of "a lot worse off" or "somewhat worse off" for any of the referent groups. Caregivers reported their child's asthma symptoms, healthcare visits for asthma, and medication use. Bivariate and multivariate statistics were used. We found that, of the 230 children enrolled (participation rate:78%, 62% Black, 72% Medicaid), 29% of caregivers had low SSS. Caregivers with low SSS had more depressive symptoms (46% vs. 28%) and lower social support (69.1 vs. 77.7). In multivariable analyses, children of caregivers with low SSS had fewer symptom-free days/2 weeks (5.8 vs. 7.9, p = .01). While they were more likely to have a routine asthma visit in the past year (35% vs. 23%, adjusted p = .03), there was no difference in their use of preventive medication. Many caregivers of children with persistent asthma report low SSS. While children of these caregivers had fewer symptom-free days, they were not more likely to use preventive medications. Efforts are needed to support these caregivers to ensure optimal preventive care and reduce morbidity.

  12. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and self-reported mental health status in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, L L N; Ebstrup, J F; Mortensen, E L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D receptors and vitamin D-metabolising enzymes are present in the brain and in the central nervous system at sites responsible for the regulation of emotions and behaviour. This raises the hypothesis that low vitamin D is related to poor mental health. Our aim...... was to examine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and the self-reported symptoms and diagnosis of depression and anxiety in the adult general population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Serum 25(OH)D was measured in three Danish population-based studies, including 5308 adults aged 18-64 years. After 5...

  13. Self-Reported Appetite and Intake Adequacy In Patients With Non-dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chan

    2012-06-01

    The positive predictive value (95%CI of appetite rating for energy and protein were 0.37 (0.32–0.41 and 0.90 (0.86–0.93 respectively. In conclusion, while self-reported appetite scores were useful in ranking energy and protein intakes, subjective reporting of good appetite was associated with adequate protein but not energy intake. Report of a good appetite does not always mean adequate intake in non-dialysis ESKD patients with high symptom burden.

  14. Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Exposure and Subjective Symptoms in Residents Participating in Clean-Up Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Lee, Jong Seong; Kwon, Hojang; Ha, Eun-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Choi, Yeyong; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Hur, Jongil; Lee, Seung-Min; Kim, Eun-Jung; Im, Hosub

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to examine the relationship between crude oil exposure and physical symptoms among residents participating in clean-up work associated with the Hebei Spirit oil spill, 2007 in Korea. Methods A total of 288 residents responded to a questionnaire regarding subjective physical symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics and clean-up activities that occurred between two and eight weeks after the accident. Additionally, the urine of 154 of the respondents was analyzed for metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals. To compare the urinary levels of exposure biomarkers, the urine of 39 inland residents who were not directly exposed to the oil spill were analyzed. Results Residents exposed to oil remnants through clean-up work showed associations between physical symptoms and the exposure levels defined in various ways, including days of work, degree of skin contamination, and levels of some urinary exposure biomarkers of VOCs, metabolites and metals, although no major abnormalities in urinary exposure biomarkers were observed. Conclusions This study provides evidence of a relationship between crude oil exposure and acute human health effects and suggests the need for follow-up to evaluate the exposure status and long-term health effects of clean-up participants. PMID:22125768

  15. Depressive symptoms are associated with daytime sleepiness and subjective sleep quality in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Greg J; Colloby, Sean J; Lett, Debra J; O'Brien, John T; Anderson, Kirstie N; Burn, David J; McKeith, Ian G; Taylor, John-Paul

    2016-07-01

    Sleep problems and depression are common symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), where patients typically experience subjectively poor sleep quality, fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness. However, whilst sleep disturbances have been linked to depression, this relationship has not received much attention in DLB. The present cross-sectional study addresses this by examining whether depressive symptoms are specifically associated with subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in DLB, and by examining other contributory factors. DLB patients (n = 32) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Motor and cognitive functioning was also assessed. Pearson correlations were used to assess the relationship between GDS-15, ESS and PSQI scores. GDS-15 scores were positively associated with both ESS (r = 0.51, p depressive symptoms in DLB. Given the cross-sectional nature of the present study, the directionality of this relationship cannot be determined, although this association did not appear to be mediated by sleep quality or daytime sleepiness. Nevertheless, these findings have clinical relevance; daytime sleepiness or poor sleep quality might indicate depression in DLB, and subsequent work should examine whether the treatment of depression can reduce excessive daytime sleepiness and improve sleep quality in DLB patients. Alternatively, more rigorous screening for sleep problems in DLB might assist the treatment of depression. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Self-Reports: Testing Validity and Reliability Using the NEO-PI-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Eriksson, Jonna M.; Westerlund, Joakim; Bejerot, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Although self-reported measures are frequently used to assess adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the validity of self-reports is under-researched in ASD. The core symptoms of ASD may negatively affect the psychometric properties of self-reported measures. The aim of the present study was to test the validity and reliability of…

  17. Nasal hyperresponders and atopic subjects report different symptom intensity to air quality: a climate chamber study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, L; Andersson, K; Bønløkke, J H; Mølhave, L; Kjaergaard, S K; Stridh, G; Juto, J-E; Sigsgaard, T

    2009-06-01

    Short-term exposure to dust and dust added with beta-(1,3)-d-glucan or aldehydes may cause sensory reactions. In random order, we exposed 36 volunteers in a climate chamber to clean air, office dust, dust with glucan, and dust with aldehydes. Three groups of subjects were exposed, eleven were non-atopic with nasal histamine hyperreactivity, 13 were non-atopic, and 12 were atopic. Subjective ratings of symptoms and general health were registered four times during four 6-h exposure sessions. Six symptom intensity indices were constructed. The nasal hyperreactive group had a high and time-dependent increase of mucous membrane irritations, whereas the atopic group had a low and stable rate of irritations with exposure time, close to the reference group (P = 0.02 for differences between the groups with respect to time under exposure for Weak Inflammatory Responses and P = 0.05 for Irritative Body Perception, significance mainly because of the nasal hyperreactive group). Exposure to dust, with or without glucan or aldehydes, showed increased discomfort measured by the index for Constant Indoor Climate, and dust with glucan had a similar effect for the index for Lower Respiratory Effects. For Psychological and Neurological Effects these were dependent on group affiliation, thus preventing a uniform statement of exposure effects for all three investigated groups. Opportunities for identifying persons with high or low sensitivity to low-level exposures are important in preventive medicine and will reduce intra-group variability and thus increase the power of experimental and epidemiological studies searching for correlations between exposures and health effects. The contrast between nasal hyperreactive on one side and atopic and reference subjects on the other side is particularly important. The atopic group indicated a non-homogenous reaction depending on their hyperreactive status, a finding that could be important but needs further confirmation.

  18. Subjective facial skin type, based on the sebum related symptoms, can reflect the objective casual sebum level in acne patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, C W; Choi, J W; Youn, S W

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between the subjective skin type and the casual sebum level was not fully clarified. To investigate the characteristics of subjective skin type and to find the relationship between the subjective skin types and the skin type-related symptoms, casual sebum level, along with the objective skin type. Seven hundred and nine patients, clinically diagnosed with acne, were included. The questionnaire and the casual sebum level measurement were performed. The determining symptoms of each subjective skin type were investigated. The 95% confidence interval of casual sebum level of each subjective skin type was calculated. The most frequent subjective skin type was the combination type. The dryness, tightness, and oiliness can be conclusive symptoms in determining the subjective skin type. The mean and the 95% confidence interval of the casual sebum level was highest in the oily skin type, followed by the combination, normal, and dry skin type. We found that the subjective skin type was determined by the skin type-related symptoms. The 95% confidence intervals of the casual sebum level of each subjective skin type were established. Based on the skin type-related symptoms, the casual sebum level of acne patients can be estimated. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Communication subjective assessments of patients undergoing compulsory treatment with the severity of negative symptoms and cognitive functioning level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabanov T.N.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the relationship of subjective assessments of the mentally ill with the severity of negative symptoms and cognitive functioning level. The features of patients perception of various aspects of compulsory treatment and subjective satisfaction with treatment. In a study of 94 male patients with a diagnosis of organic mental disorder and schizophrenia was used diagnostic system, consisting of patopsihologicheskogo study, formal survey map, the scale of assessment of negative symptoms SANS, questionnaire symptom levels SCL-90, self-existing problems, as well as - in Test authoring tool sheet to treatment and hospital stay (VG Bulygin, Kabanov, TN, 2011. The differences in subjective assessments of aspects of compulsory treatment and social functioning of patients with varying degrees of severity of negative symptoms and dependence of subjective assessments of the level of cognitive functioning.

  20. Brief Report: Subjective Social Mobility and Depressive Symptoms in Syrian Refugees to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euteneuer, Frank; Schäfer, Sarina J

    2018-01-16

    Previous findings indicate that refugees are at increased risk for mental health problems. In addition to stressful pre-migration experiences, post-migration factors may contribute to poor mental health outcomes. Among immigrants to the United States, downward mobility in subjective social status (SSS) was associated with depression, corroborating the potentially detrimental mental health consequences of a decline in one's perceived social position. The present study examined whether downward mobility in SSS among male refugees from Syria to Germany is associated with depression. We found that refugees who experience stronger downward mobility in SSS exhibit more severe depressive symptoms and were more likely to fulfill provisional DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of Major Depression. Our findings highlight the importance to consider the 'social pain' of downward social mobility during the post-migration phase.

  1. Validity of Self-Reported Concentration and Memory Problems: Relationship with Neuropsychological Assessment and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: This study investigated the validity of self-reported concentration and memory problems (CMP) in residents environmentally exposed to manganese (Mn). Method: Self-report of CMP from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was com...

  2. Longitudinal associations of subjective memory with memory performance and depressive symptoms: between-person and within-person perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülür, Gizem; Hertzog, Christopher; Pearman, Ann; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2014-12-01

    Clinical diagnostic criteria for memory loss in adults typically assume that subjective memory ratings accurately reflect compromised memory functioning. Research has documented small positive between-person associations between subjective memory and memory performance in older adults. Less is known, however, about whether within-person fluctuations in subjective memory covary with within-person variance in memory performance and depressive symptoms. The present study applied multilevel models of change to 9 waves of data from 27,395 participants of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; mean age at baseline = 63.78; SD = 10.30; 58% women) to examine whether subjective memory is associated with both between-person differences and within-person variability in memory performance and depressive symptoms and explored the moderating role of known correlates (age, gender, education, and functional limitations). Results revealed that across persons, level of subjective memory indeed covaried with level of memory performance and depressive symptoms, with small-to-moderate between-person standardized effect sizes (0.19 for memory performance and -0.21 for depressive symptoms). Within individuals, occasions when participants scored higher than usual on a test of episodic memory or reported fewer-than-average depressive symptoms generated above-average subjective memory. At the within-person level, subjective memory ratings became more sensitive to within-person alterations in memory performance over time and those suffering from functional limitations were more sensitive to within-person alterations in memory performance and depressive symptoms. We take our results to suggest that within-person changes in subjective memory in part reflect monitoring flux in one's own memory functioning, but are also influenced by flux in depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Longitudinal Associations of Subjective Memory with Memory Performance and Depressive Symptoms: Between-Person and Within-Person Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülür, Gizem; Hertzog, Christopher; Pearman, Ann; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Clinical diagnostic criteria for memory loss in adults typically assume that subjective memory ratings accurately reflect compromised memory functioning. Research has documented small positive between-person associations between subjective memory and memory performance in older adults. Less is known, however, about whether within-person fluctuations in subjective memory covary with within-person variance in memory performance and depressive symptoms. The present study applied multilevel models of change to nine waves of data from 27,395 participants of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; mean age at baseline = 63.78; SD = 10.30; 58% women) to examine whether subjective memory is associated with both between-person differences and within-person variability in memory performance and depressive symptoms and explored the moderating role of known correlates (age, gender, education, and functional limitations). Results revealed that across persons, level of subjective memory indeed covaried with level of memory performance and depressive symptoms, with small-to-moderate between-person standardized effect sizes (0.19 for memory performance and 0.21 for depressive symptoms). Within individuals, occasions when participants scored higher than usual on a test of episodic memory or reported fewer-than-average depressive symptoms generated above-average subjective memory. At the within-person level, subjective memory ratings became more sensitive to within-person alterations in memory performance over time and those suffering from functional limitations were more sensitive to within-person alterations in memory performance and depressive symptoms. We take our results to suggest that within-person changes in subjective memory in part reflect monitoring flux in one’s own memory functioning, but are also influenced by flux in depressive symptoms. PMID:25244464

  4. The brain and the subjective experience of time. A voxel based symptom-lesion mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojano, Luigi; Caccavale, Michelina; De Bellis, Francesco; Crisci, Claudio

    2017-06-30

    The aim of the study was to identify the anatomical bases involved in the subjective experience of time, by means of a voxel based symptom-lesion mapping (VLSM) study on patients with focal brain damage. Thirty-three patients (nineteen with right-hemisphere lesions -RBD, and fourteen with left lesion- LBD) and twenty-eight non-neurological controls (NNC) underwent the semi-structured QUEstionnaire for the Subjective experience of Time (QUEST) requiring retrospective and prospective judgements on self-relevant time intervals. All participants also completed tests to assess general cognitive functioning and two questionnaires to evaluate their emotional state. Both groups of brain-damaged patients achieved significantly different scores from NNC on the time performance, without differences between RBD and LBD. VLSM showed a cluster of voxels located in the right inferior parietal lobule significantly related to errors in the prospective items. The lesion subtraction analysis revealed two different patterns possibly associated with errors in the prospective items (the right inferior parietal cortex, rolandic operculum and posterior middle temporal gyrus) and in the retrospective items (superior middle temporal gyrus, white matter posterior to the insula). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The mediation effect of health literacy between subjective social status and depressive symptoms in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Huijing; Chen, Yuxia; Fang, Wenjie; Zhang, Yanting; Fan, Xiuzhen

    2016-12-01

    Depressive symptoms are prevalent and cause adverse outcomes in heart failure. Previous studies have linked depressive symptoms with socioeconomic status. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. This study aimed to evaluate the association between socioeconomic status and depressive symptoms, and to examine whether access to healthcare, health literacy and social support mediated this relationship in patients with heart failure. Cross-sectional design was used to study 321 patients with heart failure recruited from a general hospital. Demographics, clinical data, depressive symptoms, socioeconomic status (i.e., education, employment, income, and subjective social status), access to healthcare, health literacy, and social support were collected by patient interview, medical record review or questionnaires. A series of logistic regressions and linear regressions were conducted to examine mediation. The mean age of patients with heart failure was 63.6±10.6years. Fifty-eight patients (18%) had depressive symptoms. Lower subjective social status (OR=1.321, p=0.012) and lower health literacy (OR=1.065, psubjective social status and health literacy were entered simultaneously, the relationship between subjective social status and depressive symptoms became non-significant (OR=1.208, p=0.113), demonstrating mediation. Additionally, lower social support was associated with depressive symptoms (OR=1.062, p=0.007). In patients with heart failure, health literacy mediated the relationship between subjective social status and depressive symptoms. Lower social support was associated with depressive symptoms. Interventions should take these factors into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of the gap between socioeconomic stratum and subjective social class on depressive symptoms: unique insights from a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jaeyong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether gaps between socioeconomic stratum and subjective social class affect the prevalence of depressive symptoms. We collected data from the Korean Health Panel Survey, years 2009 and 2011, and performed a longitudinal analysis of 12,357 individuals at baseline (2009), estimating the prevalence of depressive symptoms among individuals with disparate socioeconomic stratum (High, Middle, or Low household income and education level, respectively) and subjective social class (High, Middle, or Low). The odds ratio for depressive symptoms among individuals with High household income and High social class, or Low household income and Low social class, was 0.537 and 1.877, respectively (psocioeconomic stratum and subjective social class on depressive symptoms deteriorated, as a whole, across the socioeconomic spectrum. The gap between socioeconomic stratum and perceived position in the social hierarchy explains a substantial part of inequalities in the prevalence of depressive symptoms. It is important to consider the impact of discrepancies between different measures of socioeconomic well-being on depressive symptoms rather than looking at the subjective social class alone. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Interleukin 13 Polymorphism Is Associated with Symptom Severity in Adult Subjects with Ever Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Accordini

    Full Text Available Different genes are associated with categorical classifications of asthma severity. However, continuous outcomes should be used to catch the heterogeneity of asthma phenotypes and to increase the power in association studies. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in candidate gene regions and continuous measures of asthma severity, in adult patients from the general population. In the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD study (www.geird.org, 326 subjects (aged 20-64 with ever asthma were identified from the general population in Verona (Italy between 2007 and 2010. A panel of 236 SNPs tagging 51 candidate gene regions (including one or more genes was analysed. A symptom and treatment score (STS and pre-bronchodilator FEV1% predicted were used as continuous measures of asthma severity. The association of each SNP with STS and FEV1% predicted was tested by fitting quasi-gamma and linear regression models, respectively, with gender, body mass index and smoking habits as potential confounders. The Simes multiple-test procedure was used for controlling the false discovery rate (FDR. SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region (IL5/RAD50/IL13/IL4 was associated with STS (TG/GG vs TT genotype: uncorrected p-value = 0.00006, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.04, whereas rs20541 in the same gene region, in linkage disequilibrium with rs848 (r(2 = 0.94 in our sample, did not reach the statistical significance after adjusting for multiple testing (TC/CC vs TT: uncorrected p-value = 0.0003, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.09. Polymorphisms in other gene regions showed a non-significant moderate association with STS (IL12B, TNS1 or lung function (SERPINE2, GATA3, IL5, NPNT, FAM13A only. After adjusting for multiple testing and potential confounders, SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region is significantly associated with a continuous measure of symptom severity in adult subjects with ever

  8. Self-Report and Psychophysiological Responses to Fear Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonana, Juan R.; Gonzalez-Javier, Francisca; Espin-Lopez, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the relationship between self-report and psychophysiological responses to fear appeals and behavioral changes elicited by these. Ninety-two subjects watched one of four messages that varied in level of threat (high vs. low) and efficacy (high vs. low). Concomitantly, psychophysiological measures (heart rate and…

  9. Psychiatric Diagnoses of Self-Reported Child Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, Stephen H.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    1993-01-01

    Subjects who self-reported episodes of abusing a child were compared to those without a history of child battery. It was concluded that self-identified child abusers have increased lifetime rates of antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and depression. (DB)

  10. Frequency, stability and differentiation of self-reported school fear and truancy in a community sample

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Müller, Nora; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Surprisingly little is known about the frequency, stability, and correlates of school fear and truancy based on self-reported data of adolescents. Methods Self-reported school fear and truancy were studied in a total of N = 834 subjects of the community-based Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS) at two times with an average age of thirteen and sixteen years. Group definitions were based on two behavioural items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Comp...

  11. The association between objective income and subjective financial need and depressive symptoms in South Koreans aged 60 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woorim; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Ju, Yeong Jun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the gap between objective income and subjective financial need on depressive symptoms in individuals aged 60 and older. Data from the 2011 and 2013 Korean Retirement and Income Study were used. A total of 4891 individuals aged 60 and older were included at baseline. The Generalized Estimating Equation model was used to examine the association between the gap in objective income and subjective financial need and the presence of depressive symptoms, which were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Compared to individuals in the middle objective income-middle subjective financial need group, individuals in the low-low category (odds ratio (OR): 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.61) and the low-middle category (OR: 1.26, 95%CI: 1.09-1.45) showed a statistically significant higher likelihood of having depressive symptoms. In contrast, participants in the middle-low (OR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.54-0.99), high-low (OR: 0.50, 95%CI: 0.34-0.73), high-middle (OR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.63-0.87), and high-high categories (OR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.55-0.99) were less likely to exhibit depressive symptoms. Additionally, the lower likelihood of depressive symptoms found in middle- and high-income groups with lower levels of subjective financial need was strong among individuals with chronic disease. Differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms generally exist between individuals of the same income category depending on perceived income adequacy. Therefore, it is important to consider discrepancies in objective income and subjective financial need when assessing risk factors for depressive symptoms in older populations. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  12. Psychological impacts from expectation of worsening conditions and obstacles to life planning are affected by glycemic control, self-reported symptoms, and drug therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Hara, Yoriko; Ishihara, Yoko

    2016-05-01

    It is important to reduce psychological stresses for glycemic control in diabetes. We investigated the factors affecting psychological impact, which was involved in the disease conditions in 378 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients' self-assessed symptoms and four subscales of psychological impacts on diabetes - impact from diabetes (S1), anxiety from having a chronic disease (S2), expectation of worsening conditions (S3) and obstacles to life planning (S4) - were analyzed. Significant odds ratios (ORs) were found for sex and age in S1, age and glycemic control in S2, glycemic control in S3, disease duration and glycemic control in S4, and number of symptoms in S1-S4. Scores of S1 and S2 in women were lower than those in men, and decreased age-dependently. Significant ORs for the number of symptoms in S3 and S4 were greater than in S1 and S2. ORs increased markedly for patients under oral hypoglycemic agent therapy in S4 and insulin therapy in S1-S4 when compared with ORs for lifestyle therapy alone. The psychological impact of type 2 diabetes involved a priori factors dependent on sex and aging in the subscales of current anxieties and impact, and a posteriori factors, such as disease duration, glycemic control and treatment methods, in the subscales of expectation of worsening conditions and obstacles to life planning.

  13. Strong subjective recovery as a protective factor against the effects of positive symptoms on quality of life outcomes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David

    2014-08-01

    Interest in recovery from schizophrenia has been growing steadily, with much of the focus on remission from psychotic symptoms and a return to functioning. Less is known about the experience of subjective recovery and its relationships with other important outcomes, such as quality of life and the formation and sustenance of social connections. This study sought to address this gap in knowledge by examining the links between self perceived recovery, symptoms, and the social components of quality of life. Sixty eight veterans with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders who were participating in a study of cognitive remediation and work were concurrently administered the Recovery Assessment Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale (QLS). Linear regression analyses demonstrated that subjective recovery moderated the relationship between positive symptoms and both QLS intrapsychic foundations scores and QLS instrumental role functioning after controlling for negative symptoms. Further examination of this interaction revealed that for individuals with substantial positive symptoms, higher levels of subjective recovery were associated with better instrumental role functioning and intrapsychic foundational abilities. Greater self perceived recovery is linked with stronger quality of life, both in regards to the cognitive and affective bases for socialization and active community involvement, even in the presence of substantial psychotic symptoms. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Older subjects with hyperthyroidism present with a paucity of symptoms and signs: a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelaert, K; Torlinska, B; Holder, R L; Franklyn, J A

    2010-06-01

    The absence of classical symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism often results in delayed diagnosis and treatment. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism according to patients' age and gender as well as severity and type of hyperthyroidism. This was a cross-sectional study of 3049 consecutive patients with hyperthyroidism presenting to a single secondary/tertiary care clinic. Calculation of adjusted odds ratios for presence/absence of symptoms/signs of hyperthyroidism simultaneously analyzing the influence of patients' age/gender, disease etiology/severity, symptom duration, and smoking. The majority of patients older than 61 yr had two or more symptoms. The lowest proportion of subjects reporting five or more symptoms was found in those older than 61 yr. Increasing age was associated with reduced adjusted odds ratio for the presence of most classical symptoms except for weight loss and shortness of breath, independent of disease severity. Those with more severe hyperthyroidism and smokers had increased odds ratios for most symptoms. Older age, higher serum free T(4) concentrations at diagnosis, male gender, and toxic nodular hyperthyroidism were independently associated with risk of atrial fibrillation. Signs of ophthalmopathy were associated with increasing age, smoking, longer symptom duration, and female gender. Classical symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism are significantly less prevalent in older patients and more prevalent in smokers and subjects with higher free T(4) concentrations. We propose a lower threshold for performing thyroid function tests in patients older than 60 yr, especially in those presenting with atrial fibrillation, weight loss, or shortness of breath.

  15. Concurrent Improvement in Both Binge Eating and Depressive Symptoms with Naltrexone/Bupropion Therapy in Overweight or Obese Subjects with Major Depressive Disorder in an Open-Label, Uncontrolled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerdjikova, Anna I; Walsh, Brandon; Shan, Kevin; Halseth, Amy E; Dunayevich, Eduardo; McElroy, Susan L

    2017-10-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is associated with obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD). Naltrexone extended-release (ER)/bupropion ER (NB) is approved as an adjunct to diet and physical activity for chronic weight management. In a prospectively designed 24-week open-label, single-arm, single-site trial of 25 women with MDD and overweight/obesity, NB reduced weight and depressive symptoms. This post hoc analysis investigated the relationship between change in self-reported binge eating behavior (evaluated with the Binge Eating Scale [BES]) and changes in weight, control of eating, and depressive symptoms. At baseline, 91% of subjects had moderate or severe BES scores, suggesting BED. BES scores were significantly improved from week 4, and by week 24, 83% reported "little or no problem." Improvement in BES scores correlated with improvement in depressive symptoms and control of eating. NB may be effective in reducing binge eating symptoms associated with MDD and overweight/obesity. Evaluation of NB in BED appears warranted. Orexigen Therapeutics, Inc.

  16. Personality, psychological stress, and self-reported influenza symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croon Marcel A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI. This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.. ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009, social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011, and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048 predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures.

  17. Validation of self-reported erythema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B; Thieden, E; Lerche, C M

    2013-01-01

    Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data.......Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data....

  18. Self-Report Measures of Family Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes and compares two self-report measures of family competence: the Family Awareness Scales (FAS) (Green and Kolevzon, late 1970s) and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) (Beavers, 1983). Discusses reliability and validity. Their focus on the "insider" (family member) is different from the traditional examination of family…

  19. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Okbay, Aysu; Baselmans, B.M.L. (Bart M.L.); Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Turley, Patrick; Nivard, Michel; Fontana, M.A. (Mark Alan); Meddens, S.F.W. (S. Fleur W.); Linnér, R.K. (Richard Karlsson); Rietveld, C.A. (Cornelius A); Derringer, J.; Gratten, Jacob; Lee, James J.; Liu, J.Z. (Jimmy Z); Vlaming, Ronald; SAhluwalia, T. (Tarunveer)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVery few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted genome-wide association studies of three phenotypes: subjective well-being (n = 298,420), depressive symptoms (n = 161,460), and neuroticism (n = 170,911). We identify 3 variants associ...

  20. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derringer, Jaime; Gratten, Jacob; Lee, James J; Liu, Jimmy Z; de Vlaming, Ronald; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Cavadino, Alana; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Davies, Gail; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Garfield, Victoria; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Gonzalez, Juan R; Haitjema, Saskia; Karlsson, Robert; van der Laan, Sander W; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J; Miller, Michael B; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Tian; Matteson, Lindsay; Mihailov, Evelin; Minica, Camelia C; Nolte, Ilja M; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; van der Most, Peter J; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rawal, Rajesh; Realo, Anu; Rueedi, Rico; Schmidt, Börge; Smith, Albert V; Stergiakouli, Evie; Tanaka, Toshiko; Taylor, Kent; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Willems, Sara M; Zhao, Wei; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Bergmann, Sven; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Boyle, Patricia A; Cherney, Samantha; Cox, Simon R; Davis, Oliver S P; Ding, Jun; Direk, Nese; Eibich, Peter; Emeny, Rebecca T; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Faul, Jessica D; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forstner, Andreas J; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Richa; Harris, Tamara B; Harris, Juliette M; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; De Jager, Philip L; Kaakinen, Marika A; Kajantie, Eero; Karhunen, Ville; Kolcic, Ivana; Kumari, Meena; Launer, Lenore J; Franke, Lude; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Liewald, David C; Koini, Marisa; Loukola, Anu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Montgomery, Grant W; Mosing, Miriam A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Petrovic, Katja E; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Quaye, Lydia; Räikkönen, Katri; Rudan, Igor; Scott, Rodney J; Smith, Jennifer A; Sutin, Angelina R; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Vinkhuyzen, Anna E; Yu, Lei; Zabaneh, Delilah; Attia, John R; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Boomsma, Dorret I; Snieder, Harold; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Bültmann, Ute; de Geus, Eco J C; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hansen, Torben; Hartman, Catharine A; Haworth, Claire M A; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kraft, Peter; Kubzansky, Laura D; Lehtimäki, Terho; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mills, Melinda; de Mutsert, Renée; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L; Plomin, Robert; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Christine; Rich, Stephen S; Rosendaal, Frits R; den Ruijter, Hester M; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Svento, Rauli; Schmidt, Reinhold; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Starr, John M; Stefansson, Kari; Steptoe, Andrew; Terracciano, Antonio; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, André G; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagner, Gert G; Weir, David R; Yang, Jian; Conley, Dalton C; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Laibson, David I; Medland, Sarah E; Meyer, Michelle N; Pickrell, Joseph K; Esko, Tõnu; Krueger, Robert F; Beauchamp, Jonathan P; Koellinger, Philipp D; Benjamin, Daniel J; Bartels, Meike; Cesarini, David

    2016-01-01

    We conducted genome-wide association studies of three phenotypes: subjective well-being (N = 298,420), depressive symptoms (N = 161,460), and neuroticism (N = 170,910). We identified three variants associated with subjective well-being, two with depressive symptoms, and eleven with neuroticism, including two inversion polymorphisms. The two depressive symptoms loci replicate in an independent depression sample. Joint analyses that exploit the high genetic correlations between the phenotypes (|ρ^| ≈ 0.8) strengthen the overall credibility of the findings, and allow us to identify additional variants. Across our phenotypes, loci regulating expression in central nervous system and adrenal/pancreas tissues are strongly enriched for association. PMID:27089181

  1. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Jari; Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (pbruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects.

  2. Effects of oral versus transdermal menopausal hormone treatments on self-reported sleep domains and their association with vasomotor symptoms in recently menopausal women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintron, Dahima; Lahr, Brian D.; Bailey, Kent R.; Santoro, Nanette; Lloyd, Robin; Manson, JoAnn E.; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Pal, Lubna; Taylor, Hugh S.; Wharton, Whitney; Naftolin, Fredrick; Harman, S. Mitchell; Miller, Virginia M.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study determined whether two different formulations of hormone therapy (HT): oral conjugated equine estrogens (o-CEE; 0.45 mg/d, n = 209), transdermal 17β-estradiol (t-E2; 50 μg/d, n = 201) plus cyclic progesterone (Prometrium, 200 mg) or placebo (PBO, n = 243) affected sleep domains in participants of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Methods: Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at baseline and during the intervention at 6, 18, 36, and 48 months. Global sleep quality and individual sleep domain scores were compared between treatments using analysis of covariance, and correlated with vasomotor symptom (VMS) scores using Spearman correlation coefficients. Results: Global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores (mean 6.3; 24% with score >8) were similar across groups at baseline and were reduced (improved sleep quality) by both HT (average change −1.27 [o-CEE] and −1.32 [t-E2]) when compared with PBO (−0.60; P = 0.001 [o-CEE vs PBO] and P = 0.002 [t-E2 vs PBO]). Domain scores for sleep satisfaction and latency improved with both HT. The domain score for sleep disturbances improved more with t-E2 than o-CEE or PBO. Global sleep scores significantly correlated with VMS severity (rs = 0.170, P < 0.001 for hot flashes; rs = 0.177, P < 0.001 for night sweats). Change in scores for all domains except sleep latency and sleep efficiency correlated with change in severity of VMS. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality is common in recently menopausal women. Sleep quality improved with both HT formulations. The relationship of VMS with domains of sleep suggests that assessing severity of symptoms and domains of sleep may help direct therapy to improve sleep for postmenopausal women. PMID:28832429

  3. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  4. Menopause characteristics and subjective symptoms in women with and without spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Quint, Elisabeth H; Bushnik, Tamara; Rodriguez, Gianna M; Terrill, Melissa Sendroy

    2010-04-01

    To examine menopause transition characteristics and symptom bother in women with spinal cord injury (SCI). Prospective cohort (4 data collection periods across 4 years). Community. Women (n=62) with SCI (injury levels C6-T12, nonambulatory, >36mo postinjury; 86.1% retention) and women without SCI (n=66; 92.9% retention) with intact ovaries, not using hormone therapy, and between the ages of 45 and 60 years volunteered. A total of 505 observations were collected and analyzed. None. Age at final menstrual period (FMP), transitions through menopause status classifications, and menopause symptom bother (vasomotor, somatic, psychologic symptoms). The number of women transitioning through a menopause status classification over the course of the study did not significantly vary by group (P=.263), nor did age at FMP (P=.643). Women with SCI experienced greater bother of somatic symptoms (a subscale, P<.001), bladder infections (P<.001), and diminished sexual arousal (P=.012). Women without SCI had significantly greater bother of vasomotor symptoms (P=.020). There were no significant group by menopause status interactions; main effects for menopause status were significant only for vasomotor symptoms and vaginal dryness. Results suggested that women with SCI experience greater symptom bother in certain areas, but that patterns of symptom bother across menopause, transition through menopause, and age at FMP are similar to those of their peers. Larger studies are needed to examine menopause outcomes with respect to level of injury and completeness of injury. These findings provide a framework that women with SCI and their health care providers can use to address the menopause transition and highlight the importance of multidisciplinary involvement to maximize health and well being during this transition. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Were volatile organic compounds the inducing factors for subjective symptoms of employees working in newly constructed hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, Tomoko; Horike, Tokushi; Ohashi, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Wang, Da-Hong; Kira, Shohei

    2004-08-01

    This study demonstrated possible relationships between environmental, personal, and occupational factors and changes in the subjective health symptoms of 214 employees after the relocation of a hospital in a region of Japan. Eight indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in at least one of the 19 rooms investigated, and total VOC (TVOC) concentrations in 8 rooms exceeded the advisable value (400 microg/m(3)) established by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Formaldehyde was detected in all the investigated rooms, but none of the results exceeded the guideline value (100 microg/m(3)). Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to select variables significantly associated with the subjective symptoms that can be induced by sick building syndrome. The results showed that subjective symptoms of deterioration in the skin, eye, ear, throat, chest, central nervous system, autonomic system, musculoskeletal system, and digestive system among employees were associated mainly with gender difference and high TVOC concentrations (>1200 microg/m(3)). Long work hours (>50 h per week) in females and smoking in males were to be blamed for the deterioration of their symptoms. The present findings suggest that to protect employees from indoor environment-related adverse health effects, it is necessary to reduce the concentration of indoor chemicals in new buildings, to decrease work hours, and to forbid smoking. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Depressive symptoms in HIV-infected and seronegative control subjects in Cameroon: Effect of age, education and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmogne, Georgette D; Qiu, Fang; Ntone, Félicien E; Fonsah, Julius Y; Njamnshi, Dora M; Kuate, Callixte T; Doh, Roland F; Kengne, Anne M; Tagny, Claude T; Nchindap, Emilienne; Kenmogne, Léopoldine; Mbanya, Dora; Cherner, Mariana; Heaton, Robert K; Njamnshi, Alfred K

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a leading cause of HIV/AIDS disease burden; it worsens health outcomes and quality of life. Addressing this problem requires accurate quantification of the extra burden of depression to HIV/AIDS in a given population, and knowledge of the baseline depression prevalence in the general population. There has been no previous study of depression in the general Cameroonian population. The current study attempts to address that important need. We used the Beck Depression Inventory-II to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms in 270 HIV-infected and seronegative Cameroonians. Univariate analyses showed a trend toward higher depressive symptoms among cases, compared to controls (p = 0.055), and among older subjects (>40 years), compared to younger subjects (≤40 years) (p = 0.059). Analysis of depression severity showed that 33.73% of cases had moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms, compared to 19.8% of controls (pHIV status, CD4 levels, viral loads, ART, or opportunistic infections on the risk of depressive symptoms. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed significantly higher risk of depressive symptoms among females compared to males; this was significant for both female controls and female cases. Female cases had significantly higher CD4 cell counts and lower viral loads, compared to males. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed that lower education (≤10 years) was associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. This study shows a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among seronegative controls and HIV-infected Cameroonians. Integrating care for mental disorders such as depression into primary health care and existing HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Cameroon may improve the wellbeing of the general population and could lower the HIV/AIDS burden.

  7. Psychological characteristics and subjective symptoms as determinants of psychological distress in patients prior to breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Noriko; Iwamitsu, Yumi; Kuranami, Masaru; Okazaki, Shigemi; Wada, Mei; Yamamoto, Kenji; Todoroki, Keiko; Watanabe, Masahiko; Miyaoka, Hitoshi

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how psychological characteristics, subjective symptoms, a family history of breast cancer, and age impact psychological distress in outpatients at the first hospital visit prior to breast cancer diagnosis. Participants were prediagnosed women with complaints of breast symptoms who either came to our hospital directly, or with a referral from another clinic. Patients were asked to complete questionnaires to determine the following: trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), negative emotional suppression (Courtauld Emotional Control Scale), life stress events (Life Experiences Survey), and psychological distress (Profile of Mood States). We examined subjective symptoms (lumps, pain, abnormal nipple discharge, or deformed nipple) and family history of breast cancer based on answers to the interview sheet filled out by patients on their first visit. We analyzed a total of 154 patients who completed the questionnaires out of 237 eligible patients. A significant model was obtained by multiple regression analysis (adjusted R (2) = 0.574, p < 0.01) in which the standard partial regression coefficients for trait anxiety, suppression of anxiety, negative life change events, positive life change events, and subjective symptoms were statistically significant (beta = 0.623, 0.133, 0.155, 0.108, and 0.124, respectively; p < 0.05). Psychological distress prior to diagnosis was higher in patients who had high trait anxiety, suppression of anxiety, many life stress events, and subjective symptoms. In particular, trait anxiety had a large impact on psychological distress, underscoring the need for and importance of adequate psychological care.

  8. Vestibular Symptoms in Factory Workers Subjected to Noise for a Long Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Raghunath

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise can cause permanent or temporary hearing loss. High levels of noise may stimulate the vestibular system and thereby cause disturbances in the balancing mechanism. Objective: To determine the effect of long-term exposure to occupational noise on the vestibular system. Methods: A dizziness questionnaire was administered to 20 factory workers who were exposed to occupational noise for more than 10 years. The results were compared with 2 control groups. The control group 1 consisted of 20 people who had similar physical activity during work but were not exposed to high level of noise. Control group 2 consisted of 20 students never exposed to hazardous noise. Results: There was significant difference between the experimental group and the 2 control groups in terms of frequency of vestibular symptoms. However, most of the symptoms were subtle in nature. Tinnitus was significantly (p<0.05 more frequent in the experimental group than the 2 control groups. Conclusions: Long-term exposure to noise may cause vestibular symptoms before clinically detectable hearing loss. The symptoms are subtle for which they are mostly neglected; the symptoms do not affect the functional ability of workers.

  9. Validation of self-reported cellular phone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now there is ......BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now...... there is very little information published on this subject. METHODS: We conducted a study to validate the questionnaire used in an ongoing international case-control study on cellular phone use, the "Interphone study". Self-reported cellular phone use from 68 of 104 participants who took part in our study...... was compared with information derived from the network providers over a period of 3 months (taken as the gold standard). RESULTS: Using Spearman's rank correlation, the correlation between self-reported phone use and information from the network providers for cellular phone use in terms of the number of calls...

  10. Anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders among Latinos in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Ortiz, Mayra; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Vujanovic, Anka

    2015-05-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 143 Latinos (85.7% female; Mage=39.0, SD=10.9; 97.2% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. Results indicated that the interaction between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was significantly associated with number of mood and anxiety disorders, panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The form of the significant interactions indicated that individuals reporting co-occurring higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and lower levels of subjective social status evidenced the greatest levels of psychopathology and panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that there is merit in focusing further scientific attention on the interplay between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in regard to understanding, and thus, better intervening to reduce anxiety/depressive vulnerability among Latinos in primary care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The customer is always right? Subjective target symptoms and treatment preferences in patients with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Berna, Fabrice; Jaeger, Susanne; Westermann, Stefan; Nagel, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Clinicians and patients differ concerning the goals of treatment. Eighty individuals with schizophrenia were assessed online about which symptoms they consider the most important for treatment, as well as their experience with different interventions. Treatment of affective and neuropsychological problems was judged as more important than treatment of positive symptoms (p experience with Occupational and Sports Therapy, only a minority had received Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Family Therapy, and Psychoeducation with family members before. Patients appraised Talk, Psychoanalytic, and Art Therapy as well as Metacognitive Training as the most helpful treatments. Clinicians should carefully take into consideration patients' preferences, as neglect of consumers' views may compromise outcome and adherence to treatment.

  12. [Changes in comorbid symptoms and subjective interference in a habit reversal therapy in children with chronic tic disorder - a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitecki, Katrin; Döpfner, Manfred

    2012-05-01

    This pilot study investigates the effects of habit reversal training in a German-speaking population of children and young adults with chronic tic disorders on comorbid symptoms and subjective interference. 16 children were treated using a manualized program. Comorbid-symptoms (ADHD, anxiety and OCD, depression) were assessed using parent and self-ratings. Additionally, the correlation of tic symptoms with comorbid symptoms at the beginning of the therapy was analyzed. We obtained positive results in reducing comorbid symptoms during a primary treatment of tic symptoms. We further found a correlation of tic symptoms and comorbid symptoms especially in parent ratings. These first findings show that a primary treatment of tics may be indicated in patients with comorbid symptoms, because a therapy of tic symptoms has also positive effects on comorbid symptoms.

  13. Cannabis use and age at onset of symptoms in subjects at clinical high risk for psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragt, S.; Nieman, D. H.; Schultze-Lutter, F.; van der Meer, F.; Becker, H.; de Haan, L.; Dingemans, P. M.; Birchwood, M.; Patterson, P.; Salokangas, R. K. R.; Heinimaa, M.; Heinz, A.; Juckel, G.; Graf von Reventlow, H.; French, P.; Stevens, H.; Ruhrmann, S.; Klosterkötter, J.; Linszen, D. H.; McGorry, Patrick D.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Knapp, Martin; van de Fliert, Reinaud; Klaassen, Rianne; Picker, Heinz; Neumann, Meike; Brockhaus-Dumke, Anke; Pukrop, Ralf; Svirskis, Tanja; Huttunen, Jukka; Laine, Tiina; Ilonen, Tuula; Ristkari, Terja; Hietala, Jarmo; Skeate, Amanda; Gudlowski, Yehonala; Ozgürdal, Seza; Witthaus, Henning; Lewis, Shôn; Morrisson, Antony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Numerous studies have found a robust association between cannabis use and the onset of psychosis. Nevertheless, the relationship between cannabis use and the onset of early ( or, in retrospect, prodromal) symptoms of psychosis remains unclear. The study focused on investigating the

  14. Disorganized Symptoms and Executive Functioning Predict Impaired Social Functioning in Subjects at Risk for Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Eslami, Ali; Jahshan, Carol; Cadenhead, Kristin S.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of social functioning deficits were assessed in 22 individuals “at risk” for psychosis. Disorganized symptoms and executive functioning predicted social functioning at follow-up. Early intervention efforts that focus on social and cognitive skills are indicated in this vulnerable population.

  15. Prevalence of and risk factors for subjective symptoms in urban preschool children without a cause identified by the guardian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing-Ling; Li, Xi-Ling; Xu, Xiao-Bo; Sun, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Qi

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of and the risk factors for subjective symptoms without an identified cause by the guardian (SSWICG) in urban preschool children. A questionnaire was used to collect information from 661 urban preschool children. The subjective symptoms were cited from the MM075NA Indoor Environment Quality Investigation Questionnaire. Information about living conditions, kindergarten and outdoor environments was collected, as well as health information from each child. The prevalence of SSWICG reached 31%, among which the prevalence of general symptoms in the central nervous system (CNS) reached 54.6%. Univariate analysis showed that the materials that made indoor furniture, walls and doors, indoor biological factors, outdoor pollution sources near the house and traffic pollution were associated with SSWICG and mucosal, dermal and general symptoms in the CNS subgroups. Multivariate analysis also showed that furniture materials, traffic pollution, kindergarten environment quality and allergies were associated. The prevalence of SSWICG was relatively high. Possible risk factors include indoor furnishing materials, allergy, traffic pollution and kindergarten environmental pollution.

  16. Self-reported stress and risk of stroke: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Nielsen, Naja; Boysen, Gudrun

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lay people often mention stress as one of the most important risk factors for stroke. Stress might trigger a cerebrovascular event directly or could be associated with higher levels of blood pressure or an unfavorable lifestyle. To examine these possibilities, we analyzed...... the association between self-reported stress frequency and intensity and risk of stroke. METHODS: Data from the second examination, 1981 to 1983, of participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were analyzed with Cox regression after a mean of 13 years of follow-up. A total of 5604 men and 6970 women were...... included, and 929 first-ever strokes occurred, of which 207 (22%) were fatal within 28 days after onset of symptoms. The stress frequency categories were never/hardly ever, monthly, weekly, or daily. The stress intensity categories were never/hardly ever, light, moderate, or high. RESULTS: Subjects...

  17. The Role of Personality and Subjective Exposure Experiences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Children Following Wenchuan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiacan; Xu, Jiajun; Li, Bin; Li, Na; Guo, Wanjun; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Yanchun; Hu, Junmei

    2017-12-08

    This study aims to investigate the role of personality traits and subjective exposure experiences in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. In Qingchuan, 21,652 children aged 7 to 15 years were assessed using face-to-face interviews one year after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. The Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, a modified earthquake exposure scale, the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (adolescent), and the Adolescent Depression Inventory were used to assess personality characteristics, trauma experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, respectively. The measurement was completed with 20,749 children. After adjusting for other factors by multinomial logistic regression analysis, neuroticism, having felt unable to escape from the disaster and having been trapped for a longer time were risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. Socialization was a protective factor of them. Having felt extreme panic or fear was a risk factor of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. For depression symptoms, introversion and psychoticism were risk factors, and extraversion was a protective factor. This study was conducted with the largest representative sample of child survivors of a natural, devastating disaster in a developing country. These results could be useful for planning psychological intervention strategies for children and for influencing further research.

  18. Influence of headache frequency on clinical signs and symptoms of TMD in subjects with temple headache and TMD pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gary C; John, Mike T; Ohrbach, Richard; Nixdorf, Donald R; Schiffman, Eric L; Truelove, Edmond S; List, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    The relationship of the frequency of temple headache to signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders (TMD) was investigated in a subset of a larger convenience sample of community TMD cases. The study sample included 86 painful TMD, nonheadache subjects; 309 painful TMD subjects with varied frequency of temple headaches; and 149 subjects without painful TMD or headache for descriptive comparison. Painful TMD included Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders diagnoses of myofascial pain, TMJ arthralgia, and TMJ osteoarthritis. Mild to moderate-intensity temple headaches were classified by frequency using criteria based on the International Classification of Headache Disorder, 2nd edition, classification of tension-type headache. Outcomes included TMD signs and symptoms (pain duration, pain intensity, number of painful masticatory sites on palpation, mandibular range of motion), pressure pain thresholds, and temple headache resulting from masticatory provocation tests. Trend analyses across the painful TMD groups showed a substantial trend for aggravation of all of the TMD signs and symptoms associated with increased frequency of the temple headaches. In addition, increased headache frequency showed significant trends associated with reduced PPTs and reported temple headache with masticatory provocation tests. In conclusion, these findings suggest that these headaches may be TMD related, as well as suggesting a possible role for peripheral and central sensitization in TMD patients. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between workers' self-reported changes in health and their attitudes towards a workplace intervention: lessons from smoke-free legislation across the UK hospitality industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCalman, Laura; Semple, Sean; Galea, Karen S; Van Tongeren, Martie; Dempsey, Scott; Hilton, Shona; Gee, Ivan; Ayres, Jon G

    2012-05-02

    The evaluation of smoke-free legislation (SFL) in the UK examined the impacts on exposure to second-hand smoke, workers' attitudes and changes in respiratory health. Studies that investigate changes in the health of groups of people often use self-reported symptoms. Due to the subjective nature it is of interest to determine whether workers' attitudes towards the change in their working conditions may be linked to the change in health they report. Bar workers were recruited before the introduction of the SFL in Scotland and England with the aim of investigating their changes to health, attitudes and exposure as a result of the SFL. They were asked about their attitudes towards SFL and the presence of respiratory and sensory symptoms both before SFL and one year later. Here we examine the possibility of a relationship between initial attitudes and changes in reported symptoms, through the use of regression analyses. There was no difference in the initial attitudes towards SFL between those working in Scotland and England. Bar workers who were educated to a higher level tended to be more positive towards SFL. Attitude towards SFL was not found to be related to change in reported symptoms for bar workers in England (Respiratory, p = 0.755; Sensory, p = 0.910). In Scotland there was suggestion of a relationship with reporting of respiratory symptoms (p = 0.042), where those who were initially more negative to SFL experienced a greater improvement in self-reported health. There was no evidence that workers who were more positive towards SFL reported greater improvements in respiratory and sensory symptoms. This may not be the case in all interventions and we recommend examining subjects' attitudes towards the proposed intervention when evaluating possible health benefits using self-reported methods.

  20. Readability and comprehension of self-report binge eating measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lauren K; McHugh, R Kathryn; Pratt, Elizabeth M; Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2013-04-01

    The validity of self-report binge eating instruments among individuals with limited literacy is uncertain. This study aims to evaluate reading grade level and multiple domains of comprehension of 13 commonly used self-report assessments of binge eating for use in low-literacy populations. We evaluated self-report binge eating measures with respect to reading grade levels, measure length, formatting and linguistic problems. All measures were written at a reading grade level higher than is recommended for patient materials (above the 5th to 6th grade level), and contained several challenging elements related to comprehension. Correlational analyses suggested that readability and comprehension elements were distinct contributors to measure difficulty. Individuals with binge eating who have low levels of educational attainment or limited literacy are often underrepresented in measure validation studies. Validity of measures and accurate assessment of symptoms depend on an individual's ability to read and comprehend instructions and items, and these may be compromised in populations with lower levels of literacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Subjective memory complaints in older people. Is it a symptom of dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints are common in older people. They are inconsistently related to current cognitive impairment, but are more consistently correlated to future development of dementia. Subjective memory complaints are also related to depression and personality traits. Many patients...... with dementia have impaired awareness of deficits even in the early stages of dementia and therefore do not complain about memory problems. Reports about impaired memory in older people should lead to diagnostic examination Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5/12...

  2. Effect of Heated Humidification on CPAP Therapy Adherence in Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnea With Nasopharyngeal Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudorn, Chuleekorn; Muntham, Dittapol; Reutrakul, Sirimon; Chirakalwasan, Naricha

    2016-09-01

    The addition of heated humidification to CPAP has been shown to improve nasal adverse effects in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, current data regarding improvement in CPAP adherence is conflicting. Furthermore, there are no data from a tropical climate area with a high humidity level. In this prospective randomized crossover study conducted in Thailand, subjects with moderate to severe OSA with nasopharyngeal symptoms post-split-night study were enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive CPAP with or without heated humidification for 4 weeks and then crossed over. Information on CPAP adherence, quality of life assessed by the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, nasopharyngeal symptoms assessed by a modified XERO questionnaire, and bedroom ambient humidity and temperature data were obtained. Data were collected on 20 subjects with OSA during the period of January to December 2014. Although the addition of heated humidification appeared to improve average hours of use for all days when compared with conventional CPAP, the difference was not statistically significant (CPAP with heated humidification = 4.6 ± 1.7 h/night; conventional CPAP = 4.0 ± 1.7 h/night, P = .1). However, the addition of heated humidification improved CPAP adherence on the days of use (5.5 ± 1.5 h/night) compared with conventional CPAP (5.2 ± 1.4 h/night), P = .033. Quality of life was also improved according to the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire score (median 17.6 [interquartile range 3.5]) in the heated humidification group compared with conventional CPAP group (median 17.6 [interquartile range 4.5]), P = .046. Significant reduction in the dry throat/sore throat symptom was noted only when CPAP with heated humidification was used. Even in a tropical climate area, CPAP adherence and quality of life appeared to improve when heated humidification was employed in subjects with moderate to severe OSA with nasopharyngeal symptoms

  3. Subtle Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Mild Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lawson, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 1,345 high school students and 2,321 university students found that 30-37% reported having experienced a head injury, with 12-15% reporting loss of consciousness. Significant relationships were found between mild head injury incidence and gender; sleep difficulties; social difficulties; handedness pattern; and diagnoses of attention…

  4. Self-reported Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 87, No 5 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 4 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. The effect of holiday haemodialysis treatments on patient mood, adverse symptoms and subjective wellbeing using the Big Red Kidney Bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Jane; Bennett, Paul N; Ockerby, Cherene; Ludlow, Marie; Fairbairn, Jo; Wilson, Anne; Kerr, Peter G

    2017-02-01

    People with end-stage kidney disease receiving haemodialysis are restricted to holidays where dialysis services are readily available. Holiday dialysis in regional, rural and remote areas is particularly challenging. The aims of this study were to evaluate the wellbeing of those who received dialysis in a holiday haemodialysis bus and to measure patient well-being with that of a comparable cohort of haemodialysis patients. A three machine haemodialysis bus, the Big Red Kidney Bus, was built to enable people, their families and carers to take holidays across a range of tourist destinations in Victoria, Australia. Measures included pre-post subjective well-being, dialysis symptoms and mood questionnaires complemented by post semi-structured telephone interviews. Participating holidaymakers were positive about the haemodialysis bus service and the standard of care experienced. They reported decreased dialysis side effects of fatigue, muscle cramp and dry skin. The overall number of reported symptoms decreased, and the perceived level of bother associated with symptoms also decreased. No changes in subjective well-being and mood were detected. Mean Personal Wellbeing Index scores were significantly higher than in a comparative haemodialysis sample. The Big Red Kidney Bus provided a safe and feasible holiday dialysis service. Holidaymakers' well-being was reflected by the decreased dialysis patient side effects. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  7. Self-reported skin morbidity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Zarchi, Kian; Ellervik, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Skin diseases are thought to be common in the general population. In 2004, a cross-sectional study in Norway, using a validated questionnaire for 18,770 individuals, revealed a high prevalence of skin diseases in the general population. To describe the prevalence of self-reported skin morbidities...... questionnaire. In total, 17.2% self-reported skin complaints. The most prominent self-reported skin complaint was itch with an overall prevalence of 6.5%. The skin morbidity most influenced by age was pimples. There was a uniform pattern showing fewer skin complaints with increasing education. Women reported...... skin morbidities more frequently than men. Participants in employment reported fewer skin morbidities compared to unemployed participants. Skin morbidities in Denmark are common, and the distribution of prevalence estimates in the Danish population parallel those of the Norwegian population, although...

  8. The Healthy Aging Brain Care (HABC Monitor: validation of the Patient Self-Report Version of the clinical tool designed to measure and monitor cognitive, functional, and psychological health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monahan PO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick O Monahan,1 Catherine A Alder,2–4 Babar A Khan,1–3 Timothy Stump,1 Malaz A Boustani1–4 1Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Regenstrief Institute Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA; 4Eskenazi Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA Background: Primary care providers need an inexpensive, simple, user-friendly, easily standardized, sensitive to change, and widely available multidomain instrument to measure the cognitive, functional, and psychological symptoms of patients suffering from multiple chronic conditions. We previously validated the Caregiver Report Version of the Healthy Aging Brain Care Monitor (HABC Monitor for measuring and monitoring the severity of symptoms through caregiver reports. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Patient Self-Report Version of the HABC Monitor (Self-Report HABC Monitor.Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: Primary care clinics affiliated with a safety net urban health care system in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.Subjects: A total of 291 subjects aged ≥65 years with a mean age of 72.7 (standard deviation 6.2 years, 76% female, and 56% African Americans.Analysis: Psychometric validity and reliability of the Self-Report HABC Monitor.Results: Among 291 patients analyzed, the Self-Report HABC Monitor demonstrated excellent fit for the confirmatory factor analysis model (root mean square error of approximation =0.030, comparative fit index =0.974, weighted root mean square residual =0.837 and good internal consistency (0.78–0.92. Adequate convergent–divergent validity (differences between the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status test-based cognitive function impairment versus nonimpairment groups was demonstrated only when patients were removed from analysis if they had both cognitive function test impairment and suspiciously perfect self-report HABC Monitor cognitive floor

  9. Beer, Wine, Spirits and Subjective Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Morten; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mygind, K.

    1999-01-01

    To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health.......To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health....

  10. Gender differences in public office workers' satisfaction, subjective symptoms and musculoskeletal complaints in workplace and office environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangbok; Park, Myoung Hwan; Jeong, Byung Yong

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates differences between male and female public office workers' satisfaction levels, sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) complaints in workplace and office environments. Questionnaire surveys were performed in 30 offices from 15 public institutions. Male and female workers of the same age were coupled and selected from each office, gathering a total of 120 male and 120 female subjects. The results show that differences exist between genders in noise and lighting satisfaction levels, SBS-related symptoms (eye, nose, skin) and MSD complaints of hand/wrist/finger, while there is no difference in overall satisfaction level of office environments. The study also suggests that office design for public office workers should take into account gender differences in preventing MSDs and also SBS. The findings of this study are expected to serve as basic data for designing effective public office environments.

  11. Subjective and objective symptoms of psychical load in nuclear power plant operators in connection with shift operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozeny, J.; Prochazkova, Z.

    1992-01-01

    A group of 56 operators (mean age=34.6 years, S.D. 3.4 year, range=30-40 years; university graduates of technical direction) in a nuclear power plant was followed during the morning, afternoon and night shift from the standpoint of subjective symptoms (an evaluation scale assessed at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the shift) and objective symptoms (critical flicker frequency determined at the same time) of the psychical load. No significant differences were found by multivariation analysis between subjective perception of the work load and its objective reflection. The night shift, where the load lies particularly in the monotony of stimuli, appears to exert a higher psychical load aimed at maintaining mental activity when compared with the afternoon and morning shift. In contrast to subjective assessment of the psychical condition where the data fluctuated during the whole shift, the psychical activity reflected in the objective data, decreased until the middle of the shift when stabilization occurred. (author) 1 tab., 8 refs

  12. Predictors of subjective well-being in patients with paranoid symptoms: is insight necessarily advantageous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carmen; Provencio, María; Espinosa, Regina; Chaves, Covadonga; Fuentenebro, Filiberto

    2011-09-30

    In schizophrenia, poor insight has been associated with negative outcome. In fact, some studies have found insight to be associated with greater treatment adherence and lower levels of symptomatology, as well as better psychosocial functioning. However, others have found that insight into illness is associated with an increase in depression, low self-esteem, and possibly higher risk of suicide. We investigated the relationship between insight and well-being in a sample of 40 people presenting paranoid symptoms and diagnosed with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that compared to a paranoid group with high insight, paranoid participants with low insight had more self-acceptance, higher sense of autonomy and personal growth, and greater orientation towards gratification. Moderation analyses showed that when experiential avoidance was high, insight into paranoia had a detrimental effect on self-acceptance. Overall, our results support the need to explore which psychological variables moderate insight in patients with persecutory beliefs. We discuss the implications of these results for the research of paranoia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nasal hyperresponders and atopic subjects report different symptom intensity to air quality: a climate chamber study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodin, Lennart; Andersson, K.; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort

    2009-01-01

    Short-term exposure to dust and dust added with beta-(1,3)-d-glucan or aldehydes may cause sensory reactions. In random order, we exposed 36 volunteers in a climate chamber to clean air, office dust, dust with glucan, and dust with aldehydes. Three groups of subjects were exposed, eleven were non......, significance mainly because of the nasal hyperreactive group). Exposure to dust, with or without glucan or aldehydes, showed increased discomfort measured by the index for Constant Indoor Climate, and dust with glucan had a similar effect for the index for Lower Respiratory Effects. For Psychological...

  14. Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Depressive Symptoms, and Fatigue after a TIA or Transient Neurological Attack: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Frank G; Plaizier, Nicole O; Vermeer, Sarah E; Góraj, Bozena M; Koudstaal, Peter J; Richard, Edo; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Kessels, Roy P C; van Dijk, Ewoud J

    2017-01-01

    Subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), depressive symptoms, and fatigue are common after stroke and are associated with reduced quality of life. We prospectively investigated their prevalence and course after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or nonfocal transient neurological attack (TNA) and the association with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesions. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Subjective Fatigue subscale from the Checklist Individual Strength were used to assess subjective complaints shortly after TIA or TNA and six months later. With repeated measure analysis, the associations between DWI lesion presence or clinical diagnosis (TIA or TNA) and subjective complaints over time were determined. We included 103 patients (28 DWI positive). At baseline, SCI and fatigue were less severe in DWI positive than in DWI negative patients, whereas at follow-up, there were no differences. SCI ( p = 0.02) and fatigue ( p = 0.01) increased in severity only in DWI positive patients. There were no differences between TIA and TNA. Subjective complaints are highly prevalent in TIA and TNA patients. The short-term prognosis is not different between DWI-positive and DWI negative patients, but SCI and fatigue increase in severity within six months after the event when an initial DWI lesion is present.

  15. High prevalence of self-reported photophobia in adult ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise eBijlenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many adult outpatients with ADHD report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N=494. Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms. The ADHD (symptoms group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.

  16. The relationship between workers’ self-reported changes in health and their attitudes towards a workplace intervention: lessons from smoke-free legislation across the UK hospitality industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacCalman Laura

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of smoke-free legislation (SFL in the UK examined the impacts on exposure to second-hand smoke, workers’ attitudes and changes in respiratory health. Studies that investigate changes in the health of groups of people often use self-reported symptoms. Due to the subjective nature it is of interest to determine whether workers’ attitudes towards the change in their working conditions may be linked to the change in health they report. Methods Bar workers were recruited before the introduction of the SFL in Scotland and England with the aim of investigating their changes to health, attitudes and exposure as a result of the SFL. They were asked about their attitudes towards SFL and the presence of respiratory and sensory symptoms both before SFL and one year later. Here we examine the possibility of a relationship between initial attitudes and changes in reported symptoms, through the use of regression analyses. Results There was no difference in the initial attitudes towards SFL between those working in Scotland and England. Bar workers who were educated to a higher level tended to be more positive towards SFL. Attitude towards SFL was not found to be related to change in reported symptoms for bar workers in England (Respiratory, p = 0.755; Sensory, p = 0.910. In Scotland there was suggestion of a relationship with reporting of respiratory symptoms (p = 0.042, where those who were initially more negative to SFL experienced a greater improvement in self-reported health. Conclusions There was no evidence that workers who were more positive towards SFL reported greater improvements in respiratory and sensory symptoms. This may not be the case in all interventions and we recommend examining subjects’ attitudes towards the proposed intervention when evaluating possible health benefits using self-reported methods.

  17. What's in a Self-report?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Else Marie

    2016-01-01

    of ED recorded in the health registers. Women with self-reported ED were comparable with women with hospital diagnosed ED on most reproductive and health characteristics, while they differed from women without ED concerning all characteristics studied. Our findings highlight that women with self...

  18. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in a community sample of subjects with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Charlotte; Mortensen, Dennis; Friis, Merete

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects about 15-20% of the population of the Western countries. Traditionally, IBS has been an exclusion diagnosis, but recently definitions have emerged from population-based research. The aim of this population-based study was to evaluate any...... evaluation. IBS was defined as more than weekly experience of abdominal pain and distension, and in addition either borborygmia or altering stool consistency. The diagnostic work-up consisted of gastroscopy, manometry and 23-hour pH and pressure recordings of the oesophagus, lactose tolerance test, barium...... enema, measurement of colonic transit time, and rectoscopy. RESULTS: Compared to the group without abdominal complaints significantly more subjects with IBS had spasms of the colon (OR = 10.2 (1.2-87.3)), and abnormal contractions of the oesophagus at manometry (OR = 9.1 (1.1-78.2)). Furthermore...

  19. Who Take Naps? Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Napping in Very Old Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yue; Stone, Katie; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Covinsky, Kenneth; Yaffe, Kristine

    2018-03-02

    Despite the widespread belief that napping is common among older adults, little is known about the correlates of napping. We examined the prevalence and correlates of self-reported and objectively measured napping among very old women. We studied 2,675 community-dwelling women (mean age 84.5 ± 3.7 years; range 79-96). Self-reported napping was defined as a report of regular napping for ≥1 hour per day. Individual objective naps were defined as ≥5 consecutive minutes of inactivity as measured by actigraphy and women were characterized as "objective nappers" if they had at least 60 minutes of naps per day. Seven percent of the women only had self-reported napping, 29% only had objective napping, and 14% met the criteria for both. Multinomial logistic regression showed that the independent correlates of "both subjective and objective napping" were age (per 5 year odds ratio [OR] = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.31-1.93), depressive symptoms (per SD of score, OR = 1.53; 1.32-1.77), obesity (OR =1.93; 1.42-2.61), current smoking (OR = 3.37; 1.56-7.30), heavier alcohol drinking (OR = 0.49; 0.34-0.71), history of stroke (OR = 1.56; 1.08-2.26), diabetes (OR = 2.40; 1.61-3.57), dementia (OR = 3.31; 1.27-8.62), and Parkinson's disease (OR = 7.43; 1.87-29.50). Besides, having objective napping alone was associated with age and diabetes, whereas subjective napping was associated with stroke and myocardial infarction. These associations were independent of nighttime sleep duration and fragmentation. Daytime napping is very common in women living in their ninth decade and both subjective and objective napping were significantly related to age and comorbidities. Future studies are needed to better understand napping and its health implications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Self-reported hearing performance in workers exposed to solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fuente

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz, to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.

  1. Environmental investigations. Main road reconstruction Oslo East. Traffic pollution and noise and self reporting symptoms for health and well-being. Total results from the cross section investigations for 1987, 1994 and 1996; Miljoeundersoekelsene hovedveiomlegging Oslo Oest. Trafikkforurensning og stoey og selvrapporterende symptomer paa helse og trivsel. Samlede resultater fra tverrsnittundersoekelsene for 1987, 1994 og 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clench-Aas, Jocelyne; Bartonova, Alena

    1999-07-01

    The report describes the effects of exposure to NO{sub 2}, PM{sub 2}.5 and PM{sub 1}0 -{sub 2}.5 on symptoms of reduced health and well-being in adults living in the Vaalerenga/Gamlebyen area in Oslo. Results for some chronic diseases are also reported. In connection with measures taken in order to reduce the environmental burden in the study area, we show that reduced exposure to air pollutants (NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 2}.5) decreased the reporting of symptoms in the upper and lower airways and symptoms of general bad health. For these symptoms, dose-response functions are quantified. The effect of exposure to coarse particles is small, compared to NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 2}.5. Noise perturbs sleep significantly and leads to fatigue.

  2. Frequency of self-reported COPD exacerbation and airflow obstruction in five Latin American cities: the Proyecto Latinoamericano de Investigacion en Obstruccion Pulmonar (PLATINO) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca, Maria; Tálamo, Carlos; Halbert, Ronald J; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Lopez, Maria Victorina; Muiño, Adriana; Jardim, José Roberto B; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Pertuzé, Julio; Moreno, Dolores; Menezes, Ana Maria B

    2009-07-01

    Recurrent exacerbations are common in COPD patients. Limited information exists regarding exacerbation frequency in COPD patients from epidemiologic studies. We examined the frequency of self-reported exacerbations and the factors influencing exacerbation frequency among COPD patients in a population-based study conducted in Latin America. We used a post-bronchodilator FEV(1)/FVC ratio of < 0.70 to define COPD. Exacerbation was self-reported and defined by symptoms (deterioration of breathing symptoms that affected usual daily activities or caused missed work). Spirometry was performed in 5,314 subjects. There were 759 subjects with airflow limitation; of these, 18.2% reported ever having had an exacerbation, 7.9% reported having an exacerbation, and 6.2% reported having an exacerbation requiring at least a doctor visit within the past year. The proportion of individuals with an exacerbation significantly increased by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages, from 4.2% in stage 1 to 28.9% in stages 3 and 4. The self-reported exacerbation rate was 0.58 exacerbations per year. The rate of exacerbations requiring at least a doctor visit and length of stay in hospital due to exacerbations also increased as COPD severity progressed. The factors associated with having an exacerbation in the past year were dyspnea, prior asthma diagnosis, receiving any respiratory therapy, and disease severity of GOLD stages 3 and 4. The proportion of individuals with airflow limitation and self-reported exacerbation increases as the disease severity progresses. Dyspnea, prior asthma diagnosis, receiving any respiratory therapy, and more severe obstruction were significantly associated with having an exacerbation in the past year.

  3. An obesity provoking behaviour negatively influences young normal weight subjects' health related quality of life and causes depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernersson, Asa; Frisman, Gunilla Hollman; Sepa Frostell, Anneli; Nyström, Fredrik H; Lindström, Torbjörn

    2010-12-01

    In many parts of the world the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in combination with high consumption of food has increased, which contributes to increased risk for becoming overweight. Our primary aim was, in an intervention, to examine the influence on health related quality of life (HRQoL) and mood in young normal weight subjects of both sexes, when adopting an obesity provoking behaviour by increasing the energy intake via fast food and simultaneously adopting a sedentary lifestyle. A secondary aim was to follow-up possible long-term effects on HRQoL and mood 6 and 12 months after this short-term intervention. In this prospective study, 18 healthy normal weight subjects (mean age 26±6.6 years), mainly university students were prescribed doubled energy intake, and maximum 5000 steps/day, during 4 weeks. An age and sex matched control group (n=18), who were asked to have unchanged eating habits and physical activity, was recruited. Before and after the intervention questionnaires including Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety Depression scale, Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, Sense of Coherence and Mastery scale were completed by the subjects in the intervention group and by the controls with 4 weeks interval. Six and 12 months after the intervention the subjects underwent the same procedure as at baseline and the controls completed the same questionnaires. During the intervention, subjects in the intervention group increased their bodyweight and developed markedly lower physical and mental health scores on Short Form-36 as well as depressive symptoms while no changes appeared in the controls. The increase of depressive symptoms was associated with increases of energy intake, body weight and body fat. When followed up, 6 and 12 months after the intervention, physical and mental health had returned completely to baseline values, despite somewhat increased body weight. In conclusion, adopting obesity provoking behaviour for 4 weeks decreases HRQo

  4. Comparison of subjective symptoms and cold prevention measures in winter between traffic control workers and construction workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Kurokawa, Junichi; Mirbod, Seyed Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    To help making comfortable workplaces and to prevent health disorders induced by the exposure to moderate cold in two different groups of out-door workers, we conducted a survey to compare subjective symptoms and cold prevention measures in winter between traffic control workers and construction workers. The subjects of this study were 98 male traffic control workers and 149 male workers engaged in building construction. Work loads of traffic control workers and construction workers were estimated at RMR1-2 and RMR2-4, respectively. All subjects were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire covering age, occupational career, working figure, present illness, past history of diseases, individual preventive measures to the cold, subjective symptoms in the winter (43 items) and subjective symptoms occurred during daytime working in the winter (6 items). In two parts of the construction workplaces (the place where a morning assembly was held and on the 7th floor of the construction site) dry bulb, wet bulb and globe temperatures were measured in January. Windchill Index (kcal/cm,(2) x h) was calculated by the measured dry bulb temperature and wind velocity. Mean values of dry bulb temperature between 9:00 and 16:30 in the place where a morning assembly was held for three days were between 4.8 +/- 1.2 degrees C at 9:00 am and 9.3 +/- 1.1 degrees C at noon. Mean values of Windchill Index in the place where a morning assembly was held were between 490.8+/-23.9 kcal/cm(2) x h at 9:30 am and 608.2+/-47.3 kcal/cm(2) x h at 2:30 pm. Occupational career, monthly working days, daily working hours, one way commuting hours, and daily smoking numbers of the traffic control workers were significantly shorter than the construction workers (pconstruction workers (0.7%). Prevalence of wearing a warm underwear, body warmer, warm trousers, underpants, warm socks, shoe warmer and muffler in the traffic control workers were significantly higher than the construction workers. The

  5. Evaluating genetic ancestry and self-reported ethnicity in the context of carrier screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shraga, Roman; Yarnall, Sarah; Elango, Sonya; Manoharan, Arun; Rodriguez, Sally Ann; Bristow, Sara L; Kumar, Neha; Niknazar, Mohammad; Hoffman, David; Ghadir, Shahin; Vassena, Rita; Chen, Serena H; Hershlag, Avner; Grifo, Jamie; Puig, Oscar

    2017-11-28

    Current professional society guidelines recommend genetic carrier screening be offered on the basis of ethnicity, or when using expanded carrier screening panels, they recommend to compute residual risk based on ethnicity. We investigated the reliability of self-reported ethnicity in 9138 subjects referred to carrier screening. Self-reported ethnicity gathered from test requisition forms and during post-test genetic counseling, and genetic ancestry predicted by a statistical model, were compared for concordance. We identified several discrepancies between the two sources of self-reported ethnicity and genetic ancestry. Only 30.3% of individuals who indicated Mediterranean ancestry during consultation self-reported this on requisition forms. Additionally, the proportion of individuals who reported Southeast Asian but were estimated to have a different genetic ancestry was found to depend on the source of self-report. Finally, individuals who reported Latin American demonstrated a high degree of ancestral admixture. As a result, carrier rates and residual risks provided for patient decision-making are impacted if using self-reported ethnicity. Our analysis highlights the unreliability of ethnicity classification based on patient self-reports. We recommend the routine use of pan-ethnic carrier screening panels in reproductive medicine. Furthermore, the use of an ancestry model would allow better estimation of carrier rates and residual risks.

  6. Self-reported Medication Adherence and CKD Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Cedillo-Couvert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the general population, medication nonadherence contributes to poorer outcomes. However, little is known about medication adherence among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We evaluated the association of self-reported medication adherence with CKD progression and all-cause death in patients with CKD. Methods: In this prospective observational study of 3305 adults with mild-to-moderate CKD enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC Study, the baseline self-reported medication adherence was assessed by responses to 3 questions and categorized as high, medium, and low. CKD progression (50% decline in eGFR or incident end-stage renal disease and all-cause death were measured using multivariable Cox proportional hazards. Results: Of the patients, 68% were categorized as high adherence, 17% medium adherence, and 15% low adherence. Over a median follow-up of 6 years, there were 969 CKD progression events and 675 deaths. Compared with the high-adherence group, the low-adherence group experienced increased risk for CKD progression (hazard ratio = 1.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.54 after adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical factors, cardiovascular medications, number of medication types, and depressive symptoms. A similar association existed between low adherence and all-cause death, but did not reach standard statistical significance (hazard ratio = 1.14 95% confidence interval = 0.88, 1.47. Conclusion: Baseline self-reported low medication adherence was associated with an increased risk for CKD progression. Future work is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying this association and to develop interventions to improve adherence. Keywords: CKD, death, medication adherence, progression

  7. Impact of depressive symptoms on subjective well-being: the importance of patient-reported outcomes in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haro JM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Jorge Mauriño1, Julio Sanjúan2, Josep Maria Haro3, Teresa Díez1, Javier Ballesteros41AstraZeneca Medical Department, Madrid, Spain; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Valencia, CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain; 3Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, CIBERSAM, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain; 4Department of Neuroscience-Psychiatry, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, CIBERSAM, Leioa, SpainObjective: The subjective experience of psychotic patients toward treatment is a key factor in medication adherence, quality of life, and clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to assess the subjective well-being in patients with schizophrenia and to examine its relationship with the presence and severity of depressive symptoms.Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted with clinically stable outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The Subjective Well-Being under Neuroleptic Scale – short version (SWN-K and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS were used to gather information on well-being and the presence and severity of depressive symptoms, respectively. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to assess the associations between the SWN-K total score, its five subscales, and the CDSS total score. Discriminative validity was evaluated against that criterion by analysing the area under the curve (AUC.Results: Ninety-seven patients were included in the study. Mean age was 35 years (standard deviation = 10 and 72% were male. Both the total SWN-K scale and its five subscales correlated inversely and significantly with the CDSS total score (P < 0.0001. The highest correlation was observed for the total SWN-K (Spearman’s rank order correlation [rho] = –0.59, being the other correlations: mental functioning (–0.47, social integration (–0.46, emotional regulation (–0.51, physical functioning (–0.48, and self-control (–0.41. A total of 33 patients (34% were classified as depressed. Total SWN-K showed the highest AUC

  8. Self-reported physical fitness of older persons : A substitute for performance-based measures of physical fitness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanHeuvelen, MJG; Kempen, GIJM; Ormel, J; de Greef, M.H.G.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the validity of self-report measures of physical fitness as substitutes for performance-based tests, self-reports and performance-based tests of physical fitness were compared. Subjects were a community-based sample of older adults (N = 624) aged 57 and over. The performance-based tests

  9. Relationships over time of subjective and objective elements of recovery in persons with schizophreni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rikke; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2015-01-01

    of symptoms with four assessments of self-reports of subjective aspects of recovery. Participants were 101 outpatients with schizophrenia. Symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) while subjective recovery was assessed with the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS). Separate......Recovery from schizophrenia involves both subjective elements such as self-appraised wellness and objective elements such as symptom remission. Less is known about how they interact. To explore this issue, this study examined the relationship over the course of 1 year of four assessments...... Pearson׳s or Spearman׳s rank׳s correlation coefficients, calculated at all four measurement points, revealed the total symptom score was linked with lower levels of overall self-recovery at all four measurement points. The PANSS emotional discomfort subscale was linked with self-reported recovery at all...

  10. Bulimia symptoms and other risk behaviors during pregnancy in women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Scott J; Keel, Pamela K; Thuras, Paul; Mitchell, James E

    2004-09-01

    The current study examined the change in bulimic symptoms as well as alcohol, drug, and tobacco use during pregnancy in subjects with bulimia nervosa. A self-report questionnaire was used to collect retrospective data on eating disorder symptoms and substance use during pregnancy from 129 participants in a long-term study of bulimia nervosa. Follow-up data were collected for a total of 322 pregnancies occurring over a 10-15-year period. Overall, subjects reported that body dissatisfaction worsened, but binge eating and purging improved during pregnancy. However, the number of women completely abstinent from bulimic symptoms did not change significantly with pregnancy. Body esteem often worsened with pregnancy, particularly for women with active bulimia symptoms. Self-reported alcohol use significantly declined with pregnancy. In general, bulimia nervosa symptoms decreased during pregnancy, although the number of women completely abstinent did not change significantly.

  11. Aripiprazole Improves Depressive Symptoms and Immunological Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in an HIV-Infected Subject with Resistant Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cecchelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole is the first medication approved by the FDA as an add-on treatment for MDD. The impact of aripiprazole on the response to HIV is unknown. The patient we report on was diagnosed HIV-positive in 1997 and has been treated with antiretroviral therapy since then. In 2008, we diagnosed resistant major depression, hypochondria, and panic disorder. On that occasion, blood tests showed a significantly reduced CD4 count and a positive viral load. We treated this patient with aripiprazole and citalopram. Mood, somatic symptoms, and occupational functioning progressively improved. The last blood examination showed an increase in the CD4 count and a negative viral load. On the basis of the present case study and the review of the literature concerning the effects of psychotropic agents on viral replication, we suggest that the use of aripiprazole in HIV-infected subjects warrants further research.

  12. Semantic memory and depressive symptoms in patients with subjective cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrner, J; Coutinho, G; Mattos, P; Moser, D; Pflüger, M; Gleiss, A; Auff, E; Dal-Bianco, P; Pusswald, G; Stögmann, E

    2017-07-01

    Semantic memory may be impaired in clinically recognized states of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationship between semantic memory and depressive symptoms (DS) in patients with cognitive impairment. 323 cognitively healthy controls and 848 patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia were included. Semantic knowledge for famous faces, world capitals, and word vocabulary was investigated. Compared to healthy controls, we found a statistically significant difference of semantic knowledge in the MCI groups and the AD group, respectively. Results of the SCD group were mixed. However, two of the three semantic memory measures (world capitals and word vocabulary) showed a significant association with DS. We found a difference in semantic memory performance in MCI and AD as well as an association with DS. Results suggest that the difference in semantic memory is due to a storage loss rather than to a retrieval problem.

  13. Mass transit ridership and self-reported hearing health in an urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Sherman, Martin F; Magda, Lori A; Riley, Halley E; McAlexander, Tara P; Neitzel, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Information on prevalence and risk factors associated with self-reported hearing health among mass transit riders is extremely limited, even though evidence suggests mass transit may be a source of excessive exposure to noise. Data on mass transit ridership were collected from 756 study participants using a self-administered questionnaire. Hearing health was measured using two symptom items (tinnitus and temporary audiometric threshold shift), two subjective measures (self-rated hearing and hearing ability), and two medical-related questions (hearing testing and physician-diagnosed hearing loss). In logistic regression analyses that controlled for possible confounders, including demographic variables, occupational noise exposure, nonoccupational noise exposure (including MP3 player use) and use of hearing protection, frequent and lengthy mass transit (all forms) ridership (1,100 min or more per week vs. 350 min or less per week) was the strongest predictor of temporary threshold shift symptoms. Noise abatement strategies, such as engineering controls, and the promotion of hearing protection use should be encouraged to reduce the risk of adverse impacts on the hearing health of mass transit users.

  14. Self-reported quality care for knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerås, N; Jordan, K P; Clausen, B

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare patient perceived quality of osteoarthritis (OA) management in primary healthcare in Denmark, Norway, Portugal and the UK. METHODS: Participants consulting with clinical signs and symptoms of knee OA were identified in 30 general practices and invited to complete...... a cross-sectional survey including quality indicators (QI) for OA care. A QI was considered as eligible if the participant had checked 'Yes' or 'No', and as achieved if the participant had checked 'Yes' to the indicator. The median percentage (with IQR and range) of eligible QIs achieved by country...... was determined and compared in negative binominal regression analysis. Achievement of individual QIs by country was determined and compared using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 354 participants self-reported QI achievement. The median percentage of eligible QIs achieved (checked 'Yes') was 48...

  15. Lower subjective quality of life and the development of social anxiety symptoms after the discharge of elderly patients with remitted schizophrenia: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazaki, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Niimura, Hidehito; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Ito, Shinya; Nemoto, Takahiro; Sakuma, Kei; Kashima, Haruo; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2012-10-01

    Remitted schizophrenic patients living in the community often encounter difficulties in their daily lives, possibly leading to the development of social anxiety symptoms. Although several studies have reported the significance of social anxiety as a comorbidity in patients with schizophrenia, few longitudinal data are available on the development of social anxiety symptoms in patients with remitted schizophrenia, especially in association with the process of "deinstitutionalization." The aims of this study were to assess the social anxiety symptoms in remitted outpatients with schizophrenia and to examine whether the development of social anxiety symptoms was associated with psychotic symptoms, social functioning, or subjective quality of life. Fifty-six people with schizophrenia who were discharged through a deinstitutionalization project were enrolled in this longitudinal study and prospectively assessed with regard to their symptoms, social functioning, and subjective quality of life. The severity of social anxiety symptoms was measured using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Global/Social functioning and subjective quality of life were evaluated using the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, the Social Functioning Scale, and the World Health Organization-Quality of Life 26 (WHO-QOL26). Thirty-six patients completed the reassessment at the end of the 5-year follow-up period. The mean LSAS total score worsened over time, whereas other symptoms improved from the baseline. The mean WHO-QOL26 score in the worsened LSAS group was significantly lower than that in the stable LSAS group. At baseline, WHO-QOL26 scores were associated with an increase in the severity of social anxiety symptoms. In community-dwelling patients with remitted schizophrenia, a lower subjective quality of life might lead to the development of social anxiety symptoms, both concurrently and prospectively. To achieve a complete functional recovery, additional interventions for social

  16. Validity of Self-Reported Periodontal Disease Questionnaire among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiga, Sakura; Ohba, Takashi; Tanoue, Daisuke; Kawase, Hiromi; Katoh, Takahiko; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Kumamoto RAINBOW Project, a multifaceted implementation of the prevention of premature labor, we investigated pregnant women's oral health status and assessed the validity of a self-reported periodontal disease questionnaire. We examined the oral health status of pregnant women and asked them for subjective descriptions of symptoms of periodontitis both in the first and the second half of their pregnancy in Kumamoto Prefecture from August 2012 to January 2014. The Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was used to assess the periodontal condition, and women having periodontal pockets with depths of ≥4 mm were catecogorized as having periodontitis. The results were the scores of the self-questionnaire for periodontal disease prepared by the Japan Dental Association. Of the 9,527 pregnant women who received periodontal check- ups during the first half of pregnancy, 32 percent were diagnosed as having periodontitis. The self-questionnaire had a sensitivity of 51.2% and a specificity of 62.9% for pregnant women to predict their periodontal disease. Then, we evaluated the importance of each question by logistic regression analysis and extracted the useful items. An increased sensitivity (79.9%) was obtained with the best of the modified questionnaire. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the evaluation of the usefulness of the self-reported periodontal disease questionnaire for pregnant women. The current self-questonnaire used for the general adult population was less sensitive for pregnant women. Our modified questionnaire showed an improved sensitivity for diagnosing periodontitis, but its specificity remained low. A specialized self-questionnaire for periodontal disease in pregnant women should be designed.

  17. On the reliability of self-reported health: Evidence from Albanian data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Vaillant

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the reliability of self-assessed measures of health using panel data collected in Albania by the World Bank in 2002, 2003 and 2004 through the Living Standard Measurement Study project. As the survey includes questions on a self-assessed measure of health and on more objective health problems, both types of information are combined with a view to understanding how respondents change their answers to the self-reported measures over time. Estimates from random effects ordered Probit models show that differences in self-reported subjective health between individuals are much more marked than those over time, suggesting a strong state dependence in subjective health status. The empirical analysis also reveals respondent consistency, from both a subjective and an objective viewpoint. Self-reported health is much more influenced by permanent shocks than by more transitory illness or injury.

  18. EAMJ Self Reported May 2010.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-01

    May 1, 2010 ... The DSM-IV-TR (1) criteria for diagnosis of ADHD include the manifestation of at least six out of eighteen possible symptoms over a considerable period of time (at least six months). These can be wholly symptoms of inattention (inattentive subtype) or hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms (hyperactive-.

  19. Prospective Evaluation of Self-Reported Aggression in Transgender Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defreyne, Justine; T'Sjoen, Guy; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Arcelus, Jon

    2018-05-01

    Although research on the relation between testosterone and aggression in humans is inconclusive, guidelines (including the World Professional Association for Transgender Health Standards of Care, edition 7) have warned for an increase in aggression in transgender men taking testosterone treatment. To investigate the association between levels of testosterone and aggression in treatment-seeking transgender people and explore the role of mental health psychopathology (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and social support in aggression in this population. Every transgender person invited for assessment at a national transgender health clinic in the United Kingdom during a 3-year period (2012-2015) completed self-report measures for interpersonal problems, including levels of aggression (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems [IIP-32]), symptoms of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), and experiences of transphobia before and 1 year after the initiation of gender-affirming hormonal therapy. Correlations between prospective scores for the IIP-32 factor "too aggressive" and prospective levels of sex steroids, prospective psychological (HADS), and baseline psychosocial measurements were tested. Prospective scores for the factor "too aggressive" were not correlated to prospective serum testosterone levels. Results of 140 people (56 transgender men, 84 transgender women) were analyzed. A prospective increase in scores for the factor "too aggressive" of the IIP-32 in transgender men 1 year after being treated with testosterone treatment or a decrease of the IIP-32 aggression scores in transgender women 1 year after gender-affirming hormonal therapy was not found. However, a positive correlation was found between increasing HADS anxiety scores and increasing scores for the IIP-32 "too aggressive" score in the entire study population and a positive correlation with lower support

  20. Self-reported concussion history: impact of providing a definition of concussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins CA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Clifford A Robbins,1 Daniel H Daneshvar,1,2 John D Picano,1,3 Brandon E Gavett,1,4 Christine M Baugh,1,2 David O Riley,1 Christopher J Nowinski,1,2,5 Ann C McKee,1,2,6–8 Robert C Cantu,1,5,9,10 Robert A Stern1,2,8,91Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy, 2Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA; 4Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, CO, USA; 5Sports Legacy Institute, Waltham MA, USA; 6United States Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA; 7Department of Pathology, 8Alzheimer's Disease Center, 9Department of Neurosurgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 10Department of Neurosurgery, Emerson Hospital, Concord, MA, USABackground: In recent years, the understanding of concussion has evolved in the research and medical communities to include more subtle and transient symptoms. The accepted definition of concussion in these communities has reflected this change. However, it is unclear whether this shift is also reflected in the understanding of the athletic community.What is known about the subject: Self-reported concussion history is an inaccurate assessment of someone's lifetime exposure to concussive brain trauma. However, unfortunately, in many cases it is the only available tool.Hypothesis/purpose: We hypothesize that athletes' self-reported concussion histories will be significantly greater after reading them the current definition of concussion, relative to the reporting when no definition was provided. An increase from baseline to post-definition response will suggest that athletes are unaware of the currently accepted medical definition.Study design: Cross-sectional study of 472 current and former athletes.Methods: Investigators conducted structured telephone interviews with current and former athletes between January

  1. Self-reported quality of life and self-esteem in sad and anxious school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Kristin D; Neumer, Simon-Peter; Holen, Solveig; Waaktaar, Trine; Sund, Anne Mari; Kendall, Philip C

    2016-09-13

    Anxiety and depressive symptoms are common in childhood, however problems in need of intervention may not be identified. Children at risk for developing more severe problems can be identified based on elevated symptom levels. Quality of life and self-esteem are important functional domains and may provide additional valuable information. Schoolchildren (n = 915), aged 9-13, who considered themselves to be more anxious or sad than their peers, completed self-reports of anxiety (Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for children (MASC-C), depression (The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire; SMFQ), quality of life (Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen; KINDL) and self-esteem (Beck self-concept inventory for youth (BSCI-Y) at baseline of a randomized controlled indicative study. Using multivariate analyses, we examined the relationships between internalizing symptoms, quality of life and self-esteem in three at-risk symptom groups. We also examined gender and age differences. 52.1 % of the screened children scored above the defined at-risk level reporting elevated symptoms of either Anxiety and Depression (Combined group) (26.6 %), Depression only (15.4 %) or Anxiety only (10.2 %). One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant mean differences between the symptom groups on self-reported quality of life and self-esteem. Regression analysis predicting quality of life and self-esteem showed that in the Depression only group and the Combined group, symptom levels were significantly associated with lower self-reported scores on both functional domains. In the Combined group, older children reported lower quality of life and self-esteem than younger children. Internalizing symptoms explained more of the variance in quality of life than in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression explained more of the variance than anxious symptoms. Female gender was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms, but there was no gender difference in quality of life and self

  2. Impression Management and Self-Report among Violent Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.

    2006-01-01

    Offenders are assumed by many to employ socially desirable responding (SDR) response styles when completing self-report measures. Contrary to expectations, prior research has shown that accounting for SDR in self-report measures of antisocial constructs does not improve the relationship with outcome. Despite this, many self-report measures…

  3. Low-dose caffeine discrimination and self-reported mood effects in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, K; Griffiths, R R

    1992-01-01

    A caffeine versus placebo discrimination procedure was used to determine the lowest caffeine dose that could produce discrimination and self-reported mood effects in normal volunteers. During daily sessions under double-blind conditions, caffeine-abstinent subjects orally ingested a capsule containing 178 mg caffeine or placebo. Before beginning discrimination training, the compounds were identified to subjects by letter codes. Fifteen, 30, and 45 min after capsule ingestion, subjects guessed the capsule's letter code. Correct guesses at 45 min earned money. After each session, subjects received a supplementary capsule containing caffeine or placebo to ensure that, within each phase of the study, subjects received the same daily dose of caffeine equal to the training dose. Five of the 15 subjects acquired the caffeine versus placebo discrimination within the first 20 sessions (greater than or equal to 75% correct); 6 other subjects acquired the discrimination with additional training. Nine subjects who acquired the discrimination were subsequently trained at progressively lower caffeine doses. In general, the lowest dose to produce discrimination (greater than or equal to 75% correct) was also the lowest dose to produce self-reported mood effects: 4 subjects showed discrimination and self-reported mood effects at 100 mg caffeine, 2 at 56 mg, 1 at 32 mg, and 1 at 18 mg. One of these subjects also showed self-reported mood effects at 10 mg. The present study documents discriminative stimulus and self-reported mood effects of caffeine at doses below those previously shown to affect any behavior in normal volunteers. PMID:1548451

  4. Comparing the Self-Report and Measured Smartphone Usage of College Students: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heyoung; Ahn, Heejune; Nguyen, Trung Giang; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dae Jin

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays smartphone overuse has become a social and medical concern. For the diagnosis and treatment, clinicians use the self-report information, but the report data often does not match actual usage pattern. The paper examines the similarity and variance in smartphone usage patterns between the measured data and self-reported data. Together with the self-reported data, the real usage log data is collected from 35 college students in a metropolitan region of Northeast Asia, using Android smartphone monitoring application developed by the authors. The unconscious users underestimate their usage time by 40%, in spite of 15% more use in the actual usage. Messengers are most-used application regardless of their self-report, and significant preference to SNS applications was observed in addict group. The actual hourly pattern is consistent with the reported one. College students use more in the afternoon, when they have more free time and cannot use PCs. No significant difference in hourly pattern is observed between the measured and self-report. The result shows there are significant cognitive bias in actual usage patterns exists in self report of smartphone addictions. Clinicians are recommended to utilize measurement tools in diagnosis and treatment of smartphone overusing subjects.

  5. Differences in self-reported physical limitation among older women and men in Ismailia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadr, Zeinab; Yount, Kathryn

    2012-09-01

    This study explores the reasons for gender differences in self-reported physical limitation among older adults in Ismailia, Egypt. 435 women and 448 men, 50 years and older in Ismailia, Egypt, participated in a social survey and tests of physical performance. Ordered logit models were estimated to compare unadjusted gender differences in reported disability with these differences adjusted sequentially for (a) age and objective measures of physical performance, (b) self-reported morbidities and health care use, and (c) social and economic attributes. Compared with men, women more often reported higher levels of limitation in activities of daily living (ADLs), upper-extremity range of motion (ROM), and lower-extremity gross mobility (GM). Adjusting for age and objective measures of physical performance, women and men had similar odds of self-reporting difficulty with ADLs. With sequential adjustments for the remaining variables, women maintained significantly higher odds of self-reported difficulty with upper-extremity ROM and lower-extremity GM. Cross-culturally, gender differences in self-reported disability may arise from objective and subjective perceptions of disability. Collectively, these results and those from prior studies in Bangladesh and the United States suggest that gender gaps in self-reported physical limitation may be associated with the degree of gender equality in society.

  6. Effect of stress and intesity of mobile phone using on the health and subjective symptoms in GSM workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Szyjkowska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no available data on the health consequences that may result from the synergistic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF and stress. Understanding the mechanisms of the simultaneous exposure will make it possible to develop procedures to minimize adverse health effects in professionals using mobile phones. Material and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in 600 randomly selected people to obtain data on their health status and the prevalence of subjective symptoms related to the mobile phones using. Among them, there were 208 GSM Network employees, to whom the Perceived Stress Scale and Assessment of Stress at Work Questionnaire were sent. Eighty-nine completed questionnaires were returned (response rate – 42.8%. Results: The mean age of respondents was 30.3 years (standard deviation (SD = 7.7, time of occupational use of mobile phone – 4.1 years (SD = 1.7, the level of occupational stress – 95.3 (SD = 19.1. A significant percentage of people (62.8% complained of the frequent difficulties in coping with problems of everyday life, and 57.4% had a fairly frequent problems with managing their own affairs. Significant differences in the life stress were detected between groups with different time of phone use (p = 0.03, and in occupational stress level, significant differences were noted between the 2 groups differing in the length of the conversation (p = 0.05. The risk of headache, associated (odds ratio (OR = 4.2, p = 0.008 or not associated (OR = 2.97, p = 0.04 with calls on mobile phone, adjusted for stress, was significantly higher in people speaking via mobile more than 60 min/day than in those talking less. Conclusions: The study indicates that both stressors acting at the same time (EMF from cell phone and stress adversely affect the well-being of workers and increase the risk of subjective symptoms. Med Pr 2017;68(5:617–628

  7. [Effect of stress and intesity of mobile phone using on the health and subjective symptoms in GSM workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyjkowska, Agata; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Szymczak, Wiesław; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    2017-07-26

    There are no available data on the health consequences that may result from the synergistic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and stress. Understanding the mechanisms of the simultaneous exposure will make it possible to develop procedures to minimize adverse health effects in professionals using mobile phones. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 600 randomly selected people to obtain data on their health status and the prevalence of subjective symptoms related to the mobile phones using. Among them, there were 208 GSM Network employees, to whom the Perceived Stress Scale and Assessment of Stress at Work Questionnaire were sent. Eighty-nine completed questionnaires were returned (response rate - 42.8%). The mean age of respondents was 30.3 years (standard deviation (SD) = 7.7), time of occupational use of mobile phone - 4.1 years (SD = 1.7), the level of occupational stress - 95.3 (SD = 19.1). A significant percentage of people (62.8%) complained of the frequent difficulties in coping with problems of everyday life, and 57.4% had a fairly frequent problems with managing their own affairs. Significant differences in the life stress were detected between groups with different time of phone use (p = 0.03), and in occupational stress level, significant differences were noted between the 2 groups differing in the length of the conversation (p = 0.05). The risk of headache, associated (odds ratio (OR) = 4.2, p = 0.008) or not associated (OR = 2.97, p = 0.04) with calls on mobile phone, adjusted for stress, was significantly higher in people speaking via mobile more than 60 min/day than in those talking less. The study indicates that both stressors acting at the same time (EMF from cell phone and stress) adversely affect the well-being of workers and increase the risk of subjective symptoms. Med Pr 2017;68(5):617-628. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Association between objective and subjective binge eating and psychopathology during a psychological treatment trial for bulimic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Accurso, Erin C; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Ellison, Jo; Smith, Tracey L; Klein, Marjorie H; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-12-01

    Although loss of control (LOC) while eating is a core construct of bulimia nervosa (BN), questions remain regarding its validity and prognostic significance independent of overeating. We examined trajectories of objective and subjective binge eating (OBE and SBE, respectively; i.e., LOC eating episodes involving an objectively or subjectively large amount of food) among adults participating in psychological treatments for BN-spectrum disorders (n = 80). We also explored whether changes in the frequency of these eating episodes differentially predicted changes in eating-related and general psychopathology and, conversely, whether changes in eating-related and general psychopathology predicted differential changes in the frequency of these eating episodes. Linear mixed models with repeated measures revealed that OBE decreased twice as rapidly as SBE throughout treatment and 4-month follow-up. Generalized linear models revealed that baseline to end-of-treatment reductions in SBE frequency predicted baseline to 4-month follow-up changes in eating-related psychopathology, depression, and anxiety, while changes in OBE frequency were not predictive of psychopathology at 4-month follow-up. Zero-inflation models indicated that baseline to end-of-treatment changes in eating-related psychopathology and depression symptoms predicted baseline to 4-month follow-up changes in OBE frequency, while changes in anxiety and self-esteem did not. Baseline to end-of-treatment changes in eating-related psychopathology, self-esteem, and anxiety predicted baseline to 4-month follow-up changes in SBE frequency, while baseline to end-of-treatment changes in depression did not. Based on these findings, LOC accompanied by objective overeating may reflect distress at having consumed an objectively large amount of food, whereas LOC accompanied by subjective overeating may reflect more generalized distress related to one's eating- and mood-related psychopathology. BN treatments should

  9. [Effect of large-scale repair work on indoor formaldehyde levels upon and subjective symptoms in, medical students during gross anatomy dissection course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Mihoko; Hoshiko, Michiko; Hara, Kunio; Ishitake, Tatsuya; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Yamaki, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effect of large-scale repair work on indoor formaldehyde (FA) levels and subjective symptoms in medical students during a gross anatomy dissection course. We measured the indoor FA levels, room air temperature, and room humidity during a gross anatomy dissection course. In addition, the prevalence of subjective symptoms, keeping allergy state, and wearing personal protective equipment were surveyed in two groups of students using a self-administered questionnaire. The mean indoor FA levels before and after repair work were 1.22 ppm and 0.14 ppm, respectively. The mean indoor FA level significantly decreased after repair work. The prevalences of most subjective symptoms before the anatomy practice were similar before and after the repair work. However, the prevalences of most subjective symptoms during the anatomy practice were lower after the repair work. The mean indoor FA levels and prevalences of subjective symptoms decreased after the repair work. We have to continuously monitor indoor FA levels, carry out private countermeasures to minimize exposure to FA, and maintain equipment for ventilation to be able to conduct practice in a comfortable environment.

  10. Are population health surveys reliable for self-reporting conditions and relative well-being for those with asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Whiffen

    2018-06-01

    Linkage of survey data can provide useful insights into relative levels of self-reported illnesses and subjective well-being but can also be used effectively to explore the risks that other morbidities present to mental wellbeing.

  11. The relevance of personality assessment in patients with hyperventilation symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Mieke; De Bolle, Marleen; Boone, Eva; De Fruyt, Filip

    2012-05-01

    Relatively few data are available concerning the relations between hyperventilation symptoms and general personality traits in clinical populations. A clear picture of the personality traits associated with hyperventilation symptoms could enhance early detection of those individuals who are at risk for developing hyperventilation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of general personality in hyperventilation syndrome. Patients (N = 364) with symptoms not explained by an organic disease and supposedly caused by hyperventilation completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the General Health Questionnaire--12, and the Nijmegen Questionnaire. Patients were also subjected to a hyperventilation provocation test and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (TcPCO(2)) values were registered. The results showed that patients with hyperventilation obtained mean Neuroticism scores above the normative mean. Moreover, only Neuroticism was positively linked with self-reported hyperventilation symptoms, and personality traits were more strongly related to self-reported complaints than to objective physical information. Neuroticism clearly differentiated between different diagnostic groups on the basis of Nijmegen Questionnaire and TcPCO(2) values, and an additional small effect of Agreeableness was observed. The present study contributes to the evidence that Neuroticism is strongly associated with self-reported hyperventilation symptoms, and provides substantial evidence that Neuroticism is a vulnerability factor in the development of hyperventilation. Therefore, personality assessment may be helpful in advancing the understanding and the early detection of hyperventilation symptoms.

  12. Accuracy of Professional Self-Reports: Medical Student Self-Report and the Scoring of Professional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter Lagha, Regina Anne

    2014-01-01

    Self-report is currently used as an indicator of professional practice in a variety of fields, including medicine and education. Important to consider, therefore, is the ability of self-report to accurately capture professional practice. This study investigated how well professionals' self-reports of behavior agreed with an expert observer's…

  13. Self-Reported and FEMA Flood Exposure Assessment after Hurricane Sandy: Association with Mental Health Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wil Lieberman-Cribbin

    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy caused extensive physical and economic damage; the long-term mental health consequences are unknown. Flooding is a central component of hurricane exposure, influencing mental health through multiple pathways that unfold over months after flooding recedes. Here we assess the concordance in self-reported and Federal Emergency Management (FEMA flood exposure after Hurricane Sandy and determine the associations between flooding and anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Self-reported flood data and mental health symptoms were obtained through validated questionnaires from New York City and Long Island residents (N = 1231 following Sandy. Self-reported flood data was compared to FEMA data obtained from the FEMA Modeling Task Force Hurricane Sandy Impact Analysis. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to determine the relationship between flooding exposure and mental health outcomes. There were significant discrepancies between self-reported and FEMA flood exposure data. Self-reported dichotomous flooding was positively associated with anxiety (ORadj: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.1-1.9], depression (ORadj: 1.7 [1.3-2.2], and PTSD (ORadj: 2.5 [1.8-3.4], while self-reported continuous flooding was associated with depression (ORadj: 1.1 [1.01-1.12] and PTSD (ORadj: 1.2 [1.1-1.2]. Models with FEMA dichotomous flooding (ORadj: 2.1 [1.5-2.8] or FEMA continuous flooding (ORadj: 1.1 [1.1-1.2] were only significantly associated with PTSD. Associations between mental health and flooding vary according to type of flood exposure measure utilized. Future hurricane preparedness and recovery efforts must integrate micro and macro-level flood exposures in order to accurately determine flood exposure risk during storms and realize the long-term importance of flooding on these three mental health symptoms.

  14. The importance of subjective claims management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, C S

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the causes and effects of "subjective disability" on today's workforce and employers. As employees feel out of control with both their careers and demands placed upon them, the number of claims characterized by self-reported symptoms are increasing. Subjective disabilities include chronic syndrome, fibromyalgia, psychiatric claims and chronic pain. The author discusses creative strategies in case studies that have helped employers contain the costs of disability claims, while empowering the employee to take control of their own situation and return to work sooner.

  15. Relations Between Self-Reported and Linguistic Monitoring Assessments of Affective Experience in an Extreme Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    2018-03-01

    Approaches for monitoring psychosocial health in challenging environments are needed to maintain the performance and safety of personnel. The purpose of the present research was to examine the relationship between 2 candidate methods (self-reported and linguistics) for monitoring affective experience during extreme environment activities. A single-subject repeated-measures design was used in the present work. The participant was a 46-year-old individual scheduled to complete a self-supported ski expedition across Arctic Greenland. The expedition lasted 28 days, and conditions included severe cold, low stimulation, whiteouts, limited habitability, and threats to life and limb. During the expedition, the participant completed a daily self-report log including assessment of psychological health (perceptions of control and affect) and a video diary (emotion). Video diary entries were subjected to linguistic inquiry and word count analyses before the links between self-report and linguistic data across the expedition period were tested. Similarities in the pattern of self-reported and linguistic assessments emerged across the expedition period. A number of predictable correlations were identified between self-reported and linguistic assessments of affective/emotional experience. Overall, there was better agreement between self-reports and linguistic analytics for indicators of negative affect/emotion. Future research should build on this initial study to further test the links between self-reported affect and emotional states monitored via linguistics. This could help develop methods for monitoring psychological health in extreme environments and support organizational decision making. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-reported periodontal conditions among Dutch women during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmakh, V; Slot, D E; van der Weijden, G A

    2017-11-01

    Women can experience symptoms of gingival inflammation during pregnancy. However, whether clinical signs of gingival inflammation were present already before pregnancy and whether women perceive an alteration in their periodontal health status during pregnancy compared to their periodontal health status before pregnancy remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the self-reported periodontal conditions in pregnant Dutch women as perceived before and during pregnancy. This cross-sectional survey was performed by asking women visiting two midwifery practices to complete a structured questionnaire. The data, which considered the women's oral hygiene habits, perceived periodontal health status before and during pregnancy and dental visits, were gathered and analysed. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used when appropriate. Most of the respondents (mean age: 29.6 years) brushed their teeth twice a day (72.2%), and 62.0% used interdental cleaning devices. Significant differences in periodontal health before and during pregnancy were perceived. No differences with respect to periodontal disease symptoms between the three trimesters during pregnancy were found. The symptom with the greatest increase was bleeding gums. This was followed by symptoms of painful and swollen gums. Of the 61.5% women who disclosed their plans to become pregnant to their dental care practitioner, 53.9% received information regarding the possibility of alterations in oral health status during pregnancy. Because of the perceived alterations in oral health status during pregnancy, approximately 11% of the women scheduled an additional appointment with their dental care professional for advice. During the pregnancy period, perceived alterations in periodontal health status were reported as compared to the oral health situation before pregnancy. Furthermore, approximately 50% of the women who visited a dental professional and disclosed their (plans) of pregnancy did not receive

  17. Poor self-reported sleep quality and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Marrero, Jesús; Zaragozá, Maria C; González-Garcia, Sergio; Aliste, Luisa; Sáez-Francàs, Naia; Romero, Odile; Ferré, Alex; Fernández de Sevilla, Tomás; Alegre, José

    2018-05-16

    Non-restorative sleep is a hallmark symptom of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis. However, little is known about self-reported sleep disturbances in these subjects. This study aimed to assess the self-reported sleep quality and its impact on quality of life in a Spanish community-based chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis cohort. A prospective cross-sectional cohort study was conducted in 1,455 Spanish chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis patients. Sleep quality, fatigue, pain, functional capacity impairment, psychopathological status, anxiety/depression and health-related quality of life were assessed using validated subjective measures. The frequencies of muscular, cognitive, neurological, autonomic and immunological symptom clusters were above 80%. High scores were recorded for pain, fatigue, psychopathological status, anxiety/depression, and low scores for functional capacity and quality of life, all of which correlated significantly (all p quality of sleep as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Multivariate regression analysis showed that after adjusting for age and gender, the pain intensity (odds ratio, 1.11; p quality of life (odds ratio, 0.96; both p quality. These findings suggest that this large chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis sample presents poor sleep quality, as assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and that this poor sleep quality is associated with many aspects of quality of life. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Gastroesophageal reflux disease as an etiology of sleep disturbance in subjects with insomnia and minimal reflux symptoms: a pilot study of prevalence and response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nicholas J; Madanick, Ryan D; Alattar, Maha; Morgan, Douglas R; Davis, Paris H; Galanko, Joseph A; Spacek, Melissa B; Vaughn, Bradley V

    2008-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a well-recognized cause of impaired sleep in patients with frequent GERD symptoms, as well as those with sleep apnea. GERD's role in sleep disturbance of minimally symptomatic patients with poor sleep quality is less clear. We aimed to define the prevalence of GERD-related sleep disturbance in minimally-symptomatic subjects with demonstrated insomnia, and to assess the changes in sleep efficiency in these subjects after vigorous acid suppression. We recruited subjects aged 18-75 years reporting at least 6 months of insomnia, and sleep difficulty at least three nights per week. Subjects with a BMI > 30, a history of snoring or ongoing use of proton pump inhibitor or H2 receptor antagonist were excluded. Subjects underwent concurrent sleep study with dual channel 24-h pH study. Sleep efficiency, defined as the percentage of time after sleep initiation that the subject actually slept, and spontaneous arousal index, defined as the number of arousals per hour, were calculated. Those with a sleep study demonstrating poor sleep quality (sleep efficiency of 10 arousals/h for those aged 15 for those who were 45 or older) and no obstructive sleep apnea were treated with rabeprazole 20 mg PO BID x 14 days. After 14 days, the subjects underwent repeat sleep study with pH monitoring. The GERD Symptom Assessment Scale (GSAS), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ) were administered to subjects at study inception and after 2 weeks of therapy. Twenty-four subjects reporting insomnia were enrolled, and 20 met criteria for disordered sleep and no OSA. Seventeen completed both the first and second studies, and 16 were adequate for analysis. Baseline GSAS demonstrated trivial or no reflux symptoms in the cohort (no subject scored > 8 out of 45 on GSAS, corresponding to a median rating of reflux symptoms of "not at all"). Four of 16 subjects (25%) demonstrated abnormal pH studies at baseline

  19. [Self-reported substance abuse related emergencies: frequency and nature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, G; Smoltczyk, H; Dengler, W; Buchkremer, G

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency and nature of self-reported and drug-related emergencies. 47 patients of a ward for opiate detoxification were interviewed about their experiences with drug-related emergencies. Typical categories had to be found like overdoses, seizures, accidents and suicide attempts respectively. 68% had own experience with drug-related emergency. A majority suffered opiate overdose with different extensions as unconsciousness or breath-depression. Alcohol and polydrug use was associated with overdose. Drug-related accidents were only reported by men. Half the number of drug-related emergencies were treated in hospital. Most emergencies occurred alone either in a home environment or outside. Harm reduction interventions like observed user rooms should be established. Furthermore other strategies to reduce the number of emergencies as sharing naloxon or resuscitation programs in wards for detoxification could also be an effective method to prevent near fatal or fatal overdoses in dependent subjects.

  20. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and associated features in German adolescents: A self-report survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möllmann, Anne; Dietel, Fanny A; Hunger, Antje; Buhlmann, Ulrike

    2017-08-01

    Prior research has not yet investigated the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in adolescents and young adults based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). In the current study, the point prevalence of BDD, comorbid symptoms, and associated features, such as appearance-related suicidality, level of insight or history of plastic surgeries, were examined in a non-clinical sample of German adolescents and young adults (n=308), between 15 and 21 years old, using self-report measures. Eleven participants (3.6%; 95% CI=[1.9, 5.8]) met DSM-5 criteria for BDD. Self-reported BDD (vs. no-BDD) was related to respondents showing significantly more obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and lower degrees of insight regarding appearance concerns. Significantly more adolescents and young adults with vs. without self-reported BDD (36.4% vs. 8.8%) reported appearance-related suicidal ideation. In conclusion, body dysmorphic symptoms are common in adolescents and young adults and are associated with high rates of comorbid symptoms and suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Severe preeclampsia and maternal self-report of oral health, hygiene, and dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Kim A; Berggren, Erica K; Koskenoja, Viktoria; Urlaub, Diana; Lorenz, Carol

    2013-02-01

    Maternal periodontal disease diagnosed by a detailed oral health examination is associated with preeclampsia. Our objective was to measure the association between maternal self-report of oral symptoms/problems, oral hygiene practices, and/or dental service use before or during pregnancy and severe preeclampsia. A written questionnaire was administered to pregnant females at the time of prenatal ultrasound and outcomes were ascertained by chart abstraction. The χ(2) test compared maternal oral symptoms/problems, hygiene practices, and dental service use between females with severe preeclampsia versus normotensive females. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for severe preeclampsia. A total of 48 (10%) of 470 females reported ≥2 oral symptoms/problems in the 6 months before pregnancy and 77 (16%) since pregnancy. Fifty-one (11%) reported previous periodontal treatment. Twenty-eight (6%) of 470 developed severe preeclampsia. Females with a history of periodontal treatment were more likely to develop severe preeclampsia (aOR = 3.71; 95% CI = 1.40 to 9.83) than females without a history of periodontal treatment. Self-reported oral health symptoms/problems, oral hygiene practices, or dental service use before or during pregnancy were not associated with severe preeclampsia when considered in the context of other maternal risk factors. Maternal self-report of previous periodontal treatment before pregnancy is associated with severe preeclampsia.

  2. Laboratory and Self-Report Methods to Assess Reappraisal and Distraction in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, Alexandra H; Henry, Lauren; Prussien, Kemar V; Vreeland, Allison; Smith, Michele; Adery, Laura H; Compas, Bruce E

    2018-06-07

    Coping and emotion regulation are central features of risk and resilience in childhood and adolescence, but research on these constructs has relied on different methods of assessment. The current study aimed to bridge the gap between questionnaire and experimental methods of measuring secondary control coping strategies, specifically distraction and cognitive reappraisal, and examine associations with symptoms of anxiety and depression in youth. A community sample of 70 youth (ages 9-15) completed a novel experimental coping and emotion regulation paradigm and self-report measures of coping and emotion regulation and symptoms. Findings indicate that use of distraction and reappraisal during the laboratory paradigm was associated with lower levels of negative emotion during the task. Youth emotion ratings while implementing distraction, but not reappraisal, during the laboratory task were associated with youth self-reported use of secondary control coping in response to family stress. Youth symptoms of anxiety and depression were also significantly positively associated with negative emotion ratings during the laboratory task, and both laboratory task and self-reported coping and emotion regulation accounted for significant variance in symptoms in youth. Both questionnaire and laboratory methods to assess coping and emotion regulation in youth are important for understanding these processes as possible mechanisms of risk and resilience and continued integration of these methods is a priority for future research.

  3. Interformat reliability of digital psychiatric self-report questionnaires: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Maathz, Pernilla; Hursti, Timo

    2014-12-03

    Research on Internet-based interventions typically use digital versions of pen and paper self-report symptom scales. However, adaptation into the digital format could affect the psychometric properties of established self-report scales. Several studies have investigated differences between digital and pen and paper versions of instruments, but no systematic review of the results has yet been done. This review aims to assess the interformat reliability of self-report symptom scales used in digital or online psychotherapy research. Three databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO) were systematically reviewed for studies investigating the reliability between digital and pen and paper versions of psychiatric symptom scales. From a total of 1504 publications, 33 were included in the review, and interformat reliability of 40 different symptom scales was assessed. Significant differences in mean total scores between formats were found in 10 of 62 analyses. These differences were found in just a few studies, which indicates that the results were due to study effects and sample effects rather than unreliable instruments. The interformat reliability ranged from r=.35 to r=.99; however, the majority of instruments showed a strong correlation between format scores. The quality of the included studies varied, and several studies had insufficient power to detect small differences between formats. When digital versions of self-report symptom scales are compared to pen and paper versions, most scales show high interformat reliability. This supports the reliability of results obtained in psychotherapy research on the Internet and the comparability of the results to traditional psychotherapy research. There are, however, some instruments that consistently show low interformat reliability, suggesting that these conclusions cannot be generalized to all questionnaires. Most studies had at least some methodological issues with insufficient statistical power being the most common issue

  4. Accuracy of Clinical Tests in Detecting Disk Herniation and Nerve Root Compression in Subjects With Lumbar Radicular Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekedahl, Harald; Jönsson, Bo; Annertz, Mårten; Frobell, Richard B

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the accuracy of 3 commonly used neurodynamic tests (slump test, straight-leg raise [SLR] test, femoral neurodynamic test) and 2 clinical assessments to determine radiculopathy (radiculopathy I, 1 neurologic sign; radiculopathy II, 2 neurologic signs corresponding to 1 specific nerve root) in detecting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings (extrusion, subarticular nerve root compression, and foraminal nerve root compression). Validity study. Secondary care. We included subjects (N=99; mean age, 58y; 54% women) referred for epidural steroid injection because of lumbar radicular symptoms who had positive clinical and MRI findings. Positive clinical findings included the slump test (n=67), SLR test (n=50), femoral neurodynamic test (n=7), radiculopathy I (n=70), and radiculopathy II (n=33). Positive MRI findings included extrusion (n=27), subarticular nerve compression (n=14), and foraminal nerve compression (n=25). Not applicable. Accuracy of clinical tests in detecting MRI findings was evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristics analysis with area under the curve (AUC). The slump test had the highest sensitivity in detecting extrusion (.78) and subarticular nerve compression (1.00), but the respective specificity was low (.36 and .38). Radiculopathy I was most sensitive in detecting foraminal nerve compression (.80) but with low specificity (.34). Only 1 assessment had a concurrent high sensitivity and specificity (ie, radiculopathy II) in detecting subarticular nerve compression (.71 and .73, respectively). The AUC for all tests in detecting extrusion, subarticular nerve compression, and foraminal nerve compression showed ranges of .48 to .60, .63 to .82, and .33 to .57, respectively. In general, the investigated neurodynamic tests or assessments for radiculopathy lacked diagnostic accuracy. The slump test was the most sensitive test, while radiculopathy II was the most specific test. Most interestingly, no

  5. Weight loss and waist reduction is associated with improvement in gastroesophageal disease reflux symptoms: A longitudinal study of 15 295 subjects undergoing health checkups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S-K; Lee, T; Yang, H-J; Park, J H; Sohn, C I; Ryu, S; Park, D I

    2017-05-01

    General obesity and abdominal obesity is an established risk factor of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, the influence of weight or waist change on improvement of GERD is unclear. Our aim was to investigate if weight loss or waist reduction improves GERD symptoms and esophagitis. A retrospective longitudinal study of 15 295 subjects who underwent gastroscopy for a health checkup and reported GERD symptoms between 2011 and 2013, and repeated a checkup until 2014 was conducted. The improvement of GERD symptoms and esophagitis according to weight loss (≥-2, -0.5 to -2 kg/m 2 in body mass index [BMI]), waist reduction (≥-5, -0.1 to -0.5 cm) and baseline BMI/waist circumference (WC) categories was assessed using logistic regression. Weight loss or waist reduction was associated with improvement in GERD symptoms only in subjects with general or abdominal obesity. Among subjects with general obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 ) and decreased ≥2 kg/m 2 in BMI, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of improvement in GERD symptoms was 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70-2.83). Among subjects with abdominal obesity (WC ≥90 cm) and decreased ≥5 cm in WC, the corresponding OR was 2.16 (95% CI 1.56-2.90). There was no association between weight loss or waist reduction and improvement in esophagitis. Weight loss or waist reduction was associated with improvement in GERD symptoms only in subjects with general or abdominal obesity. Weight loss or waist reduction will be an important treatment option in obese patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Extent and characteristics of self-reported pain in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldheim, E; Elkan, A-C; Bergman, S; Frostegård, J; van Vollenhoven, R; Henriksson, E Welin

    2013-02-01

    Patients' own experiences of subjective symptoms are scarcely covered, and the objective of this study was to investigate the extent and characteristics of self-reported pain in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study comprised a cross-sectional design where 84 patients with SLE were asked to complete self-assessments: visual analogue scale of pain and the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Medical assessments, including ESR, SLAM, SLEDAI, and SLICC, were also performed. Of the study population, 24% reported higher levels of SLE-related pain (≥40 mm on VAS). This group had a significantly shorter disease duration, higher ESR, and higher disease activity, according to the SLAM and SLEDAI, compared to the rest of the study population. This group mainly used the words "tender," "aching," and "burning" to describe moderate and severe pain, and they used a greater number of words to describe their pain. Of the patients with higher levels of pain, 70% reported their present pain as "distressing." The most common pain location for the whole patient population was the joints. Patients rated their disease activity significantly higher than physicians did. These findings expand the current knowledge of the extent of SLE-related pain and how patients perceive this pain. The results can contribute to affirmative, supportive and caring communication and especially highlight SLE-related pain in patients with a short disease duration and high disease activity.

  7. Validation of self-reported cannabis dose and potency: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet

    2013-10-01

    To assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cannabis dose and potency measures. Cross-sectional study comparing self-reports with objective measures of amount of cannabis and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration. Ecological study with assessments at participants' homes or in a coffee shop. Young adult frequent cannabis users (n = 106) from the Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study. The objectively measured amount of cannabis per joint (dose in grams) was compared with self-reported estimates using a prompt card and average number of joints made from 1 g of cannabis. In addition, objectively assessed THC concentration in the participant's cannabis was compared with self-reported level of intoxication, subjective estimate of cannabis potency and price per gram of cannabis. Objective estimates of doses per joint (0.07-0.88 g/joint) and cannabis potency (1.1-24.7%) varied widely. Self-reported measures of dose were imprecise, but at group level, average dose per joint was estimated accurately with the number of joints made from 1 g [limit of agreement (LOA) = -0.02 g, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.29; 0.26], whereas the prompt card resulted in serious underestimation (LOA = 0.14 g, 95% CI = -0.10; 0.37). THC concentration in cannabis was associated with subjective potency ['average' 3.77% (P = 0.002) and '(very) strong' 5.13% more THC (P cannabis] and with cannabis price (about 1% increase in THC concentration per euro spent on 1 g of cannabis, P cannabis use appear at best to be associated weakly with objective measures. Of the self-report measures, number of joints per gram, cannabis price and subjective potency have at least some validity. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Interventions for Subjects with Depressive Symptoms with or without Unhealthy Alcohol Use: Are There Different Patterns of Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Skule

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been suggested that alcohol problems negatively affect therapeutic interventions for depression. This study examines the patterns of change in depressive symptoms following an intervention for depression, in participants with or without comorbid unhealthy alcohol use.Methods: Depressive symptoms (BDI–II, perceived control of depressive symptoms (UNCONTROL and unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT were assessed in 116 patients before and after attending a cognitive behavioral psychoeducational intervention for depression. At pretest the mean score of AUDIT was 8.1, indicating a, on average, risk of harmful level of alcohol abuse. At pretest the majority of the total sample had a moderate degree of depressive symptoms, with a mean BDI–II score of 25.1 and 36.2% had a risky use of alcohol as measured with AUDIT score at 8 points or above. To assess the relationship between depressive symptoms, perceived uncontrollability of depression and alcohol use across time, a cross-lagged panel model was estimated.Results: A clinical significant reduction of depressive symptoms, and a parallel and statistically significant increase in the perceived control of depressive symptoms, was identified after attending a cognitive behavioral psychoeducational intervention for depression. At posttest, the mean BDI–II score was 17.8, demonstrating a statistically significant decrease of 7.3 points in depressive symptoms from before starting the course to 6 months later. The effect size (d-value of 0.83 can be interpreted as a large decrease in depressive symptoms. In this sample alcohol use and depressive symptoms seemed to be unrelated. The cross-lagged correlation panel analysis indicated that a high degree of perceived control of depressive symptoms leads to a reduction in depressive symptoms, and not vice versa.Conclusion: We found that this intervention for depression were effective in reducing depressive symptoms. The patterns of change seemed to

  9. The Effects of Local Vibration on Balance, Power, and Self-Reported Pain After Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Lisa; Peer, Kimberly S; Miller, Lauren

    2017-05-01

    Muscle fatigue and acute muscle soreness occur after exercise. Application of a local vibration intervention may reduce the consequences of fatigue and soreness. To examine the effects of a local vibration intervention after a bout of exercise on balance, power, and self-reported pain. Single-blind crossover study. Laboratory. 19 healthy, moderately active subjects. After a 30-min bout of full-body exercise, subjects received either an active or a sham vibration intervention. The active vibration intervention was performed bilaterally over the muscle bellies of the triceps surae, quadriceps, hamstrings, and gluteals. At least 1 wk later, subjects repeated the bout, receiving the other vibration intervention. Static balance, dynamic balance, power, and self-reported pain were measured at baseline, after the vibration intervention, and 24 h postexercise. After the bout of exercise, subjects had reduced static and dynamic balance and increased self-reported pain regardless of vibration intervention. There were no differences between outcome measures between the active and sham vibration conditions. The local vibration intervention did not affect balance, power, or self-reported pain.

  10. Measuring Cognitive Load: A Comparison of Self-Report and Physiological Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    This study explored three methods to measure cognitive load in a learning environment using four logic puzzles that systematically varied in level of intrinsic cognitive load. Participants' perceived intrinsic load was simultaneously measured with a self-report measure-a traditional subjective measure-and two objective, physiological measures…

  11. Associations between subjective happiness and dry eye disease: a new perspective from the Osaka study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye disease has become an important health problem. A lack of concordance between self-reported symptoms and the outcome of dry eye examinations has raised questions about dry eye disease. To explore the association between subjective happiness and objective and subjective symptoms of dry eye disease. The study adopted a cross-sectional design. All the employees of a company in Osaka, Japan. 672 Japanese office workers using Visual Display Terminals (age range: 26-64 years). The dry eye measurement tools included the Schirmer test, conjunctivocorneal staining, the tear film break-up time, as well as the administration of a dry eye symptoms questionnaire. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale. Dry eye examination parameters, dry eye symptoms questionnaires, and the Subjective Happiness Scale score. Of the 672 workers, 561 (83.5%) completed the questionnaires and examinations. The mean Subjective Happiness Scale score was 4.91 (SD = 1.01). This score was inversely correlated with the dry eye symptom score (r = -0.188, p happiness was the lowest in the group without objective results, but reported subjective symptoms of dry eyes (p happiness and self-reported symptoms of dry eyes. Findings of this study revealed a new perspective on dry eye disease, including the potential for innovative treatments of a specific population with dry eye disease.

  12. Evaluation of self-esteem and depression symptoms in depressed and nondepressed subjects treated with onabotulinumtoxinA for glabellar lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexsel, Doris; Brum, Cristiano; Siega, Carolina; Schilling-Souza, Juliana; Dal'Forno, Taciana; Heckmann, Marc; Rodrigues, Ticiana C

    2013-07-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection has become the most popular cosmetic nonsurgical procedure, and it has been suggested that BoNT-A injections may improve emotional states when frown lines are treated. To evaluate symptoms of depression and self-esteem before and after onabotulinumtoxinA (ONA) injections in the glabella in subjects with and without depression. Twenty-five subjects with depression were allocated into one group and 25 subjects without depression were matched to those according to demographic characteristics. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were used to assess depression symptoms and self-esteem, respectively. Patients were assessed up to 12 weeks after the intervention. Patients with depression had significant improvement in depression symptoms after ONA injections. The maximum effect occurred within the first 8 weeks after treatment. A significant reduction from baseline in BDI score and significant improvement in self-esteem were also observed in patients with depression. This research presents new data regarding BoNT-A as a potential treatment to improve depression symptoms in patients with Major Depressive Disorder. Self-esteem scores alone cannot explain the improvement in depression symptoms. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Impact of Androgen Deprivation Therapy on Self-Reported Cognitive Function in Men with Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Shireen; Naglie, Gary; Tomlinson, George; Duff Canning, Sarah; Breunis, Henriette; Timilshina, Narhari; Alibhai, Shabbir M H

    2018-03-01

    Although androgen deprivation therapy is widely used to treat prostate cancer, its effects on cognitive function are unclear. To our knowledge no prior report has examined the impact of androgen deprivation therapy on self-reported cognitive function. Three groups of men 50 years old or older who were matched on age and education were enrolled in the study, including 81 with prostate cancer starting on continuous androgen deprivation therapy, 84 controls with prostate cancer not receiving androgen deprivation therapy and 85 healthy controls. Two scales from the FACT-Cog (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive subscale) version 3 were used to assess self-reported cognitive function. Changes in cognitive scores with time were analyzed by 2 approaches, including 1) multivariable regression and 2) calculation of the proportion of subjects per group with a decrease of 1 SD or more. Multivariable regression was applied to assess predictors of a decline in self-reported cognitive function. We also examined relationships between the FACT-Cog and a neuropsychological battery of 15 tests. Mean participant age was 69 years (range 50 to 87). The mean educational level was 15 years (range 8 to 24). FACT-Cog scores were similar at baseline across the cohorts. Neither analytical approach revealed that androgen deprivation therapy was associated with changes in self-reported cognitive function on either FACT-Cog scale. Mood and fatigue correlated with changes in self-reported cognitive function. The relationship between self-reported and objective cognitive measures was weak (maximum Spearman correlation coefficient 0.14) and only 2 of 30 correlations were statistically significant. A total of 12 months of androgen deprivation therapy were not associated with self-reported cognitive function changes in older men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Genomic ancestry, self-reported "color" and quantitative measures of skin pigmentation in Brazilian admixed siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tailce K M Leite

    Full Text Available A current concern in genetic epidemiology studies in admixed populations is that population stratification can lead to spurious results. The Brazilian census classifies individuals according to self-reported "color", but several studies have demonstrated that stratifying according to "color" is not a useful strategy to control for population structure, due to the dissociation between self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry. We report the results of a study in a group of Brazilian siblings in which we measured skin pigmentation using a reflectometer, and estimated genomic ancestry using 21 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs. Self-reported "color", according to the Brazilian census, was also available for each participant. This made it possible to evaluate the relationship between self-reported "color" and skin pigmentation, self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry, and skin pigmentation and genomic ancestry. We observed that, although there were significant differences between the three "color" groups in genomic ancestry and skin pigmentation, there was considerable dispersion within each group and substantial overlap between groups. We also saw that there was no good agreement between the "color" categories reported by each member of the sibling pair: 30 out of 86 sibling pairs reported different "color", and in some cases, the sibling reporting the darker "color" category had lighter skin pigmentation. Socioeconomic status was significantly associated with self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry in this sample. This and other studies show that subjective classifications based on self-reported "color", such as the one that is used in the Brazilian census, are inadequate to describe the population structure present in recently admixed populations. Finally, we observed that one of the AIMs included in the panel (rs1426654, which is located in the known pigmentation gene SLC24A5, was strongly associated with skin pigmentation in this sample.

  15. Genomic ancestry, self-reported "color" and quantitative measures of skin pigmentation in Brazilian admixed siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Tailce K M; Fonseca, Rômulo M C; de França, Nanci M; Parra, Esteban J; Pereira, Rinaldo W

    2011-01-01

    A current concern in genetic epidemiology studies in admixed populations is that population stratification can lead to spurious results. The Brazilian census classifies individuals according to self-reported "color", but several studies have demonstrated that stratifying according to "color" is not a useful strategy to control for population structure, due to the dissociation between self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry. We report the results of a study in a group of Brazilian siblings in which we measured skin pigmentation using a reflectometer, and estimated genomic ancestry using 21 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs). Self-reported "color", according to the Brazilian census, was also available for each participant. This made it possible to evaluate the relationship between self-reported "color" and skin pigmentation, self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry, and skin pigmentation and genomic ancestry. We observed that, although there were significant differences between the three "color" groups in genomic ancestry and skin pigmentation, there was considerable dispersion within each group and substantial overlap between groups. We also saw that there was no good agreement between the "color" categories reported by each member of the sibling pair: 30 out of 86 sibling pairs reported different "color", and in some cases, the sibling reporting the darker "color" category had lighter skin pigmentation. Socioeconomic status was significantly associated with self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry in this sample. This and other studies show that subjective classifications based on self-reported "color", such as the one that is used in the Brazilian census, are inadequate to describe the population structure present in recently admixed populations. Finally, we observed that one of the AIMs included in the panel (rs1426654), which is located in the known pigmentation gene SLC24A5, was strongly associated with skin pigmentation in this sample.

  16. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari, Walid El; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students' nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential...... associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary...

  17. Cortisol Variability and Self-reports in the Measurement of Work-related Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Björn; Eek, Frida; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether a high cortisol awakening response (CAR) and low cortisol decline over the day (CDD) are related to self-reported work stress and well-being, and whether there are gender differences in these relationships. Three hundred eighty-three working men and women responded to a survey...... measuring job stress factors, mastery at work, symptoms and well-being. Salivary cortisol was sampled at awakening, after 45 min and at 21:00, from which the variables CAR and CDD were defi ned. A high CAR was associated with lower perceived job control and work mastery, and poorer well-being. Low CDD...... men, a similar comparison showed those with low CDD to have poorer scores on job stress factors and symptom load. We conclude that individuals displaying high CAR or low CDD differ from those not displaying these cortisol profi les in self-report of work stress and well-being, and that gender...

  18. Abilities of Oropharyngeal pH Tests and Salivary Pepsin Analysis to Discriminate Between Asymptomatic Volunteers and Subjects With Symptoms of Laryngeal Irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadlapati, Rena; Adkins, Christopher; Jaiyeola, Diana-Marie; Lidder, Alcina K; Gawron, Andrew J; Tan, Bruce K; Shabeeb, Nadine; Price, Caroline P E; Agrawal, Neelima; Ellenbogen, Michael; Smith, Stephanie S; Bove, Michiel; Pandolfino, John E

    2016-04-01

    It has been a challenge to confirm the association between laryngeal symptoms and physiological reflux disease. We examined the ability of oropharyngeal pH tests (with the Restech Dx-pH system) and salivary pepsin tests (with Peptest) to discriminate between asymptomatic volunteers (controls) and subjects with a combination of laryngeal and reflux symptoms (laryngeal ± reflux). We performed a physician-blinded prospective cohort study of 59 subjects at a single academic institution. Adult volunteers were recruited and separated into 3 groups on the basis of GerdQ and Reflux Symptom Index scores: controls (n = 20), laryngeal symptoms (n = 20), or laryngeal + reflux symptoms (n = 19). Subjects underwent laryngoscopy and oropharyngeal pH tests and submitted saliva samples for analysis of pepsin concentration. Primary outcomes included abnormal acid exposure and composite (RYAN) score for oropharyngeal pH tests and abnormal mean salivary pepsin concentration that was based on normative data. Complete oropharyngeal pH data were available from 53 subjects and complete salivary pepsin data from 35 subjects. We did not observe any significant differences between groups in percent of time spent below pH 4.0, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, or RYAN scores or percent of subjects with positive results from tests for salivary pepsin (53% vs 40% vs 75%; P = .50, respectively). The laryngeal + reflux group had a significantly higher estimated mean concentration of salivary pepsin (117.9 ± 147.4 ng/mL) than the control group (32.4 ± 41.9 ng/mL) or laryngeal symptom group (7.5 ± 11.2 ng/mL) (P = .01 and P = .04, respectively). By using current normative thresholds, oropharyngeal pH testing and salivary pepsin analysis are not able to distinguish between healthy volunteers and subjects with a combination of laryngeal and reflux symptoms. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A qualitative study on coping behaviors and influencing factors among mothers in Japan raising children under three years old while experiencing physical and mental subjective symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaso, Misato; Miyazaki, Kikuko; Nakayama, Takeo

    2018-01-10

    No studies illustrating the coping behaviors of mothers experiencing physical and mental subjective symptoms, or the factors that contribute to these behaviors, have been investigated. Therefore, the present study sought to develop a conceptual framework on the coping behaviors and contributing factors of mothers experiencing physical and mental subjective symptoms. This qualitative study involved theoretical sampling and semi-structured interviews of mothers who were raising children under 3 years of age in Japan and had experienced physical and mental subjective symptoms since giving birth. Women who were pregnant, required regular medical exams, or had difficulty communicating in Japanese were excluded. All mothers were recruited via personal contacts, snowball sampling, and posters at a community center and nursery schools. Analysis was conducted using the constant comparative method. The interview data were extracted in contextual units based on analytical themes, and concepts were generated. Relationships between concepts were investigated and categorized. To confirm theoretical saturation and ensure the validity of the data, a study supervisor was appointed, four qualitative researchers examined the results, and the interview respondents underwent member checking. There were a total of 21 participants. Thirteen categories were created from 29 concepts identified from the analytical theme "What do mothers do when raising children under 3 years of age while experiencing physical and mental subjective symptoms?" While experiencing subjective symptoms, mothers raising children under 3 years of age tended to lead a child-centric lifestyle and were hesitant to visit the doctor, not only because of typical reasons such as time and costs, but also because of factors related to their child. Some circumstances occurring while experiencing physical and mental subjective symptoms led mothers to put their own needs first and attempt to cope on their own as much as

  20. Demographic predictors of false negative self-reported tobacco use status in an insurance applicant population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmier, James; Lanzrath, Brian; Dixon, Ammon; Idowu, Oluseun

    2014-01-01

    To identify and quantify demographic correlates of false-negative self-reporting of tobacco use in life insurance applicants. Several studies have assessed the sensitivity of self-reporting for tobacco use in various populations, but statistical examination of the causes of misreporting has been rarer. The very large (488,000 confirmed tobacco users) sample size, US-wide geographic scope, and unique incentive structure of the life insurance application process permit more robust and insurance industry-specific results in this study. Approximately 6.2 million life insurance applicants for whom both tobacco-use interview questions and a confirmatory urine cotinine test were completed between 1999 and 2012 were evaluated for consistency between self-reported and laboratory-confirmed tobacco-use status. The data set was subjected to logistic regression to identify predictors of false negative self-reports (FNSR). False-negative self-reporting was found to be strongly associated with male gender, applicant ages of less than 30 or greater than 60, and low cotinine positivity rates in the applicant's state of residence. Policy face value was also moderately predictive, values above $500,000 associated with moderately higher FNSR. The findings imply that FNSR in life insurance applicants may be the result of complex interactions among financial incentives, geography and presumptive peer groups, and gender.

  1. Knee motion variability in patients with knee osteoarthritis: the effect of self-reported instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Jonathan A.; Robinson, Megan E.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; Tashman, Scott; Farrokhi, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis has been previously associated with a stereotypical knee-stiffening gait pattern and reduced knee joint motion variability due to increased antagonist muscle co-contractions and smaller utilized arc of motion during gait. However, episodic self-reported instability may be a sign of excessive motion variability for a large subgroup of patients with knee osteoarthritis. The objective of this work was to evaluate the differences in knee joint motion variability during gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis with and without self-reported instability compared to a control group of older adults with asymptomatic knees. Methods Forty-three subjects, 8 with knee osteoarthritis but no reports of instability (stable), 11 with knee osteoarthritis and self-reported instability (unstable), and 24 without knee osteoarthritis or instability (control) underwent Dynamic Stereo X-ray analysis during a decline gait task on a treadmill. Knee motion variability was assessed using parametric phase plots during the loading response phase of decline gait. Findings The stable group demonstrated decreased sagittal-plane motion variability compared to the control group (p=0.04), while the unstable group demonstrated increased sagittal-plane motion variability compared to the control (p=0.003) and stable groups (pknee motion variability in patients with knee osteoarthritis without self-reported instability supports previous research. However, presence of self-reported instability is associated with increased knee motion variability in patients with knee osteoarthritis and warrants further investigation. PMID:25796536

  2. Self-Reported Health and Gender: The Role of Social Norms

    OpenAIRE

    Caroli, Eve; Weber-Baghdiguian, Lexane

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of social norms in accounting for differences in self-reported health as reported by men and women. Using the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS, 2010), we first replicate the standard result that women report worse health than men, whatever the health outcome we consider – i.e. general self-assessed health but also more specific symptoms such as skin problems, backache, muscular pain in upper and lower limbs, headache and eyestrain, stomach ache, respiratory dif...

  3. Negative mood-induced alcohol-seeking is greater in young adults who report depression symptoms, drinking to cope, and subjective reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; Hardy, Lorna; Mathew, Amanda R; Hitsman, Brian

    2018-04-01

    Acute negative mood powerfully motivates alcohol-seeking behavior, but it remains unclear whether sensitivity to this effect is greater in drinkers who report depression symptoms, drinking to cope, and subjective reactivity. To examine these questions, 128 young adult alcohol drinkers (ages 18-25) completed questionnaires of alcohol use disorder symptoms, depression symptoms, and drinking to cope with negative affect. Baseline alcohol choice was measured by preference to enlarge alcohol versus food thumbnail images in two-alternative forced-choice trials. Negative mood was then induced by depressive statements and music, before alcohol choice was tested. Subjective reactivity was indexed by increased sadness pre- to post-mood induction. Baseline alcohol choice correlated with alcohol dependence symptoms (p = .001), and drinking coping motives (ps ≤ .01). Mood induction increased alcohol choice and subjective sadness overall (ps choice was associated with depression symptoms (p = .007), drinking to cope (ps ≤ .03), and subjective reactivity (p = .007). The relationship between mood-induced alcohol choice and drinking to cope remained significant after covarying for other drinking motives. Furthermore, the three predictors (depression, drinking to cope, and subjective reactivity) accounted for unique variance in mood-induced alcohol choice (ps ≥ .03), and collectively accounted for 18% of the variance (p choice task as sensitive to the relative value of alcohol and acute negative mood. The findings also accord with the core prediction of negative reinforcement theory that sensitivity to the motivational impact of negative mood on alcohol-seeking behavior may be an important mechanism that links depression and alcohol dependence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. A population-based survey to assess troublesome symptoms in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, Christina; Bytzer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A simple frequency and severity threshold for categorizing reflux symptoms as troublesome has been suggested, but there is a lack of confirmatory studies for this threshold. The objectives of this study were to examine the characteristics for troublesome symptoms and to compare different...... ways of categorizing reflux symptoms as troublesome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Members of a web panel responding to an e-mail invitation (1623/3506, median age interval 40-44 years, 51% female) who reported reflux symptoms during the preceding 4 weeks (n=1284) were linked to the full questionnaire....... Associations between self-reported troublesome symptoms (10-graded VAS) and troublesome symptoms (mild symptoms >1 day/week or moderate/severe symptoms > or = 1 day/week) and clinical characteristics were analyzed. RESULTS: Out of 1284 subjects, 482 (38%) reported reflux symptoms. Agreement...

  5. Fibromyalgia symptom reduction by online behavioral self-monitoring, longitudinal single subject analysis and automated delivery of individualized guidance

    OpenAIRE

    William Collinge; Paul Yarnold; Robert Soltysik

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex chronic pain condition that is difficult to treat. The prevailing approach is an integration of pharmacological, psycho-educational, and behavioral strategies. Information technology offers great potential for FM sufferers to systemically monitor symptoms as well as potential impacts of various management strategies. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate effects of a web-based, self-monitoring and symptom management system (SMARTLog) that analyzes perso...

  6. Association between self-reported sleep duration and serum vitamin D level in elderly Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hong; Chang, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong Young; Kang, Ju Wan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the association between self-reported sleep duration and serum vitamin D level in elderly Korean adults. Cross-sectional data analysis. Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010. Noninstitutionalized adults aged 60 to 80 (N = 1,614). The confounding variables were serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and self-reported daily sun exposure and sleep duration. Self-reported daily sleep duration was divided into four groups: Q1 (≤4 hours), Q2 (5-6 hours), Q3 (7-8 hours), and Q4 (≥9 hours). Mean serum vitamin D levels of subjects in the Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 groups were 44.18, 48.08, 48.83, and 51.78 nmol/L, respectively. On multivariate linear regression analysis, subjects in the Q2 (B = 3.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42-7.19), Q3 (B = 4.89, 95% CI = 1.54-8.24), and Q4 (B = 5.18, 95% CI = 0.78-9.58) groups had significantly higher serum vitamin D levels than subjects in the Q1 group. Serum vitamin D level is positively associated with self-reported daily sleep duration in elderly Korean individuals. These results suggest that inadequate sleep duration may be associated with lower vitamin D levels in elderly adults. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Self-reported post-exertional fatigue in Gulf War veterans: roles of autonomic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mian; Xu, Changqing; Yao, Wenguo; Mahan, Clare M.; Kang, Han K.; Sandbrink, Friedhelm; Zhai, Ping; Karasik, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine if objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction exists from a group of Gulf War veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue, we evaluated 16 Gulf War ill veterans and 12 Gulf War controls. Participants of the ill group had self- reported, unexplained chronic post-exertional fatigue and the illness symptoms had persisted for years until the current clinical study. The controls had no self-reported post-exertional fatigue either at the time of initial survey nor at the time of the current study. We intended to identify clinical autonomic disorders using autonomic and neurophysiologic testing in the clinical context. We compared the autonomic measures between the 2 groups on cardiovascular function at both baseline and head-up tilt, and sudomotor function. We identified 1 participant with orthostatic hypotension, 1 posture orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, 2 distal small fiber neuropathy, and 1 length dependent distal neuropathy affecting both large and small fiber in the ill group; whereas none of above definable diagnoses was noted in the controls. The ill group had a significantly higher baseline heart rate compared to controls. Compound autonomic scoring scale showed a significant higher score (95% CI of mean: 1.72–2.67) among ill group compared to controls (0.58–1.59). We conclude that objective autonomic testing is necessary for the evaluation of self-reported, unexplained post-exertional fatigue among some Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illnesses. Our observation that ill veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue had objective autonomic measures that were worse than controls warrants validation in a larger clinical series. PMID:24431987

  8. [Analysis of relationships between perimenopausal symptoms and professional functioning and life satisfaction--Subjective perception of the dependence in women aged 40+].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska, Iwona; Rasińska, Renata; Głowacka, Maria Danuta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse and present the opinions of women in perimenopause on subjectively perceived symptoms characteristic of the climacteric period, and connected with their professional functioning, as well as to evaluate the effects of selected variables on the incidence and severity of these symptoms and the women's life satisfaction. The study included 250 professionally active women in perimenopausal age (40-57 years). The study used the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) to evaluate life satisfaction of women and the Kupperman Index (KI) as quantitative and qualitative self-assessment of climacteric symptoms. The authors also used a questionnaire of their own design that contains an index of defined symptoms of perimenopause, which warrants the use of Pareto-Lorenz analysis. The obtained results prove the presence of statistically significant correlations between the occurrence and severity of menopausal symptoms and the place of enployment (p=0.04912), gynecological care (p=0.00325), hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (p=0.01523) and assessment of life satisfaction (p=0.0325). Among the symptoms particularly influencing effective professional functioning, women pointed out hot flashes, irritability, reduced concentration and coordination, sleep disturbances, and increased sweating. There is a statistically significant correlation between the woman's place of employment, gynecological care, HRT, the evaluation of life satisfaction and the severity of perimenopausal symptoms. A set of symptoms whose presence and severity influence the sense of life satisfaction and evaluation of professional functioning was observed. Among the most frequently reported symptoms that exert an adverse effect on professional functioning of women are: hot flushes, irritability, reduced concentration and coordination, sleep disturbances, and increased sweating. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  9. Self-reported sleep quality, weight status and depression in young adult twins and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Alexia; Fisher, Abi; Llewellyn, Clare; Gregory, Alice M

    2015-01-01

    Research supporting relationships between sleep quality, weight, depression and anxiety has typically examined the relationships separately rather than simultaneously, potentially hampering insights into the characteristics of reported links. This study aimed to fill this gap in the research to provide further insight into the factors associated with sleep. Data from wave 4 of the G1219 cohort were used in cross-sectional analyses. The sample comprised 1392 adult twins and siblings aged 18-27 years. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire which included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index as a measure of sleep quality, the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire as a measure of depression symptoms and the Revised Symptoms of Anxiety Scale as a measure of anxiety symptoms. Participants were asked to self-report general health and weight and height so researchers could derive weight status from measures of body mass index. An analysis of covariance including weight status, depression, anxiety and general health as predictors and sleep quality as the outcome revealed main effects of depression (F(3,1163) = 10.93, p relationship between weight and sleep should not be assumed as it is possible that the relationship is at least in part accounted for by depression symptoms or general health. Depression symptoms and general health may also account for the association between sleep quality and anxiety symptoms in young adults.

  10. An internet survey on self-reported food allergy in Greece: clinical aspects and lack of appropriate medical consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeromitros, D; Makris, M P; Chliva, C; Sergentanis, T N; Church, M K; Maurer, M; Psaltopoulou, T

    2013-05-01

    Food allergy (FA) represents a common and worldwide disorder but in publications referring to FA the reported diagnosis is rarely confirmed. Consequently, the subjectively assessed FA may negatively affect the quality of life of patients and their families. We have conducted this internet survey in order to estimate the self-reported perception of FA in Greece. A standard anonymous questionnaire was posted for a 3-month period on http://www.in.gr, a Greek popular Internet portal. Each individual could participate only once. Participants were screened for the presence or history of FA by a key question and were then asked to provide information on symptoms, course and management. A total of 3673 adult subjects (mean age 34.2 years, range 18-74, females 61.3%), reporting FA were included in analysis. Most reported reactions were related to fruits (14.9%), seafood (10.7%) and nuts (9.2%). The first episode occurred principally during the second (29.2%) and third (30.9%) decade within 3 h from consumption (82.2%). Predominant symptoms were urticaria and oral allergy syndrome (almost 25% each one). Nearly half of the participants sought no medical advice, while 31.4% asked for an allergist's consultation. Almost 21% of reactors were hospitalized; nuts, severity of symptoms (lower respiratory and/or cardiovascular), onset in lower age, previous exercise and concomitant alcohol and/or aspirin intake were positively associated with hospitalization. Although FA causes severe anaphylactic episodes, almost 50% of individuals who experience symptoms perceived as FA do not seek medical advice. Awareness programmes must be carried out in order to increase consciousness about this potentially fatal medical condition. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Self-reported executive functioning competencies and lifetime aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alan R; Breen, Cody M; Russell, Tiffany D; Nerpel, Brady P; Pogalz, Colton R

    2017-05-08

    Neuropsychological research can be advanced through a better understanding of relationships between executive functioning (EF) behavioral competencies and the expression of aggressive behavior. While performance-based EF measures have been widely examined, links between self-report indices and practical real-life outcomes have not yet been established. Executive Functioning Index subscale scores in this sample (N = 579) were linked to trait hostility (Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire), aggression in the natural environment (Lifetime Acts of Violence Assessment), and conduct disorder symptoms prior to age 15. Significant associations were found between all of the EFI subscales (Motivational Drive, Organization, Strategic Planning, Impulse Control, and Empathy), trait aggression, and conduct disturbance. Lifetime acts of aggression were predicted by all but Organization scores. Physical injuries inflicted on other(s) were 2 to 4 times more likely to occur among respondents generating low (z < -1) EFI subscale scores. While these EFI relationships were modest in size, they are pervasive in scope. These findings provide support for the potential role of perceived EF deficits in moderating lifetime aggression.

  12. Self-reported emotion regulation in adults with Tourette's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Helena; Wilkinson, Verity; Robertson, Mary M; Channon, Shelley

    2016-11-30

    Recent work has reported mild impairments in social and emotional processing in Tourette's syndrome (TS), but deliberate attempts to use specific emotion regulation strategies have not been investigated previously. In the present study, adult participants with TS and no comorbidities (TS-alone) were compared to healthy control participants on several self-report measures assessing habitual use of reappraisal and suppression emotion regulation strategies. There were no group differences on measures of reappraisal, but the TS-alone group reported using suppression more frequently than the control group and this was true across a range of negative emotions. The groups did not differ on symptomatology scores of anxiety or depression, although more frequent use of suppression was associated with higher depressive symptomatology for the TS-alone group only. Further work is needed to examine potential factors that may influence emotion regulation in TS, including increased emotional reactivity or expertise in applying strategies to suppress tic symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of smoking on lung function, respiratory symptoms and respiratory diseases amongst HIV-positive subjects: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabane Lehana

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking prevalence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive subjects is about three times of that in the general population. However, whether the extremely high smoking prevalence in HIV-positive subjects affects their lung function is unclear, particularly whether smoking decreases lung function more in HIV-positive subjects, compared to the general population. We conducted this study to determine the association between smoking and lung function, respiratory symptoms and diseases amongst HIV-positive subjects. Results Of 120 enrolled HIV-positive subjects, 119 had an acceptable spirogram. Ninety-four (79% subjects were men, and 96 (81% were white. Mean (standard deviation [SD] age was 43.4 (8.4 years. Mean (SD of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 percent of age, gender, race and height predicted value (%FEV1 was 93.1% (15.7%. Seventy-five (63% subjects had smoked 24.0 (18.0 pack-years. For every ten pack-years of smoking increment, %FEV1 decreased by 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.6%, -0.6%, after controlling for gender, race and restrictive lung function (R2 = 0.210. The loss of %FEV1 in our subjects was comparable to the general population. Compared to non-smokers, current smokers had higher odds of cough, sputum or breathlessness, after adjusting for highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART use, odds ratio OR = 4.9 (95% CI: 2.0, 11.8. However respiratory symptom presence was similar between non-smokers and former smokers, OR = 1.0 (95% CI: 0.3, 2.8. All four cases of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had smoked. Four of ten cases of restrictive lung disease had smoked (p = 0.170, and three of five asthmatic subjects had smoked (p = 1.000. Conclusions Cumulative cigarette consumption was associated with worse lung function; however the loss of %FEV1 did not accelerate in HIV-positive population compared to the general population. Current smokers had higher odds of respiratory symptoms

  14. Detecting Careless Responses to Self-Reported Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountur, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: The use of self-report questionnaires may lead to biases such as careless responses that distort the research outcomes. Early detection of careless responses in self-report questionnaires may reduce error, but little guidance exists in the literature regarding techniques for detecting such careless or random responses in…

  15. Interrelations between orthostatic postural deviations and subjects' age, sex, malocclusion, and specific signs and symptoms of functional pathologies of the temporomandibular system: a preliminary correlation and regression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, Wagner Cesar; Hsing, Wu Tu

    2014-07-01

    Studies on the relationships between postural deviations and the temporomandibular system (TS) functional health are controversial and inconclusive. This study stems from the hypothesis that such inconclusiveness is due to authors considering functional pathologies of the TS (FPTS) as a whole, without taking into account subjects' specific FPTS signs and symptoms. Based on the author and collaborators' previous studies, the present study analyzed data on body posture from a sample of 50 subjects with (30) and without (20) FPTS. Correlation analyses were applied, taking as independent variables age, sex, Helkimo anamnestic, occlusal, and dysfunction indices, as well as FPTS specific signs and symptoms. Postural assessments of the head, cervical spine, shoulders, lumbar spine, and hips were the dependent variables. Linear regression equations were built that proved to partially predict the presence and magnitude of body posture deviations by drawing on subjects' characteristics and specific FPTS symptoms. Determination coefficients for these equations ranged from 0.082 to 0.199 in the univariate, and from 0.121 to 0.502 in the multivariate regression analyses. Results show that factors intrinsic to the subjects or the TS may potentially interfere in results of studies that analyze relationships between FPTS and body posture. Furthermore, a trend to specificity was found, e.g. the degree of cervical lordosis was found to correlate to age and FPTS degree of severity, suggesting that some TS pathological features, or malocclusion, age or sex, may be more strongly correlated than others with specific posture patterns.

  16. Subjective age and perceived distance-to-death moderate the association between posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgi, Yuval

    2016-09-01

    Little research has addressed the association between posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in the second half of life. This study examined whether subjective age and perceived distance-to-death moderate this association. 339 community-dwelling older adults (age range 50-90; M = 65.44, SD = 9.77) were sampled through random dialing to Jewish residents in the south of Israel. Participants completed a phone-questionnaire on PTS symptoms, level of PTG, subjective age, and perceived distance-to-death. Higher levels of PTS symptoms were both linearly and curvilinearly related to higher PTG. Additionally, subjective age and perceived distance-to-death moderated this association in a linear way, so that the association was strongest in participants who reported younger subjective age and further distance-to-death. The findings emphasize the moderating effect of two time perspectives, one that focuses on time since birth and another that concerns the time that remains before death. These two perspectives affect the association between posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth within older individuals.

  17. Association of a trait-like bias towards the perception of negative subjective life events with risk of developing premenstrual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Xenia; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Csukly, Gabor; Telek, Tamas; Pap, Dorottya; Rihmer, Zoltan; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2010-04-16

    Premenstrual symptoms affect the majority of healthy women. Premenstrual symptomatology has earlier been linked to stress and a state-like alteration in the perception of life events in the late-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. We hypothesised that there is also a trait-like negative bias in the perception of life events evident throughout the whole cycle which is associated with the likelihood to manifest more marked symptoms in the late-luteal phase of the cycle. 88 healthy women completed the PRISM calendar for three consecutive cycles and the Objective and Subjective Event Checklist during the follicular phase of the first cycle. Association between PRISM score change from the follicular through the late-luteal phase and life event variables was investigated by Generalized Linear Model Analysis (GENMOD). The PRISM score change showed a significant negative association with the ratio of positive subjective life events and a significant positive association with the ratio of negative subjective life events. There were no significant results in case of the objective life events. Our results indicate that women manifesting a more marked increase of symptoms from the late follicular through the late-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle are more likely to notice negative subjective life events and less likely to notice positive subjective life events. This suggest a trait-like negative bias in the perception of life events present throughout the whole reproductive cycle which may play an important role in the emergence of premenstrual symptoms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Designing hunting regulation under population uncertainty and self-reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2016-01-01

    A number of methods exist for estimating the size of animal populations. All methods generate an uncertain estimate of population size, and have different properties, which can be taken into account when designing regulation. We consider hunting regulation when the population size is uncertain...... and when the self-reported bag is used to estimate the population size. The properties of a population tax and a tax on self-reported bag are analyzed and we begin by considering a baseline situation with full certainty and no use of self-reporting for population size estimation. Here individual hunters...... self-report a bag on zero and a population tax alone can secure an optimum. Next we show that when facing uncertain population size, a risk-averse hunter will self-report part of the bag to reduce the uncertain population tax payment, making both tax instruments necessary for reaching an optimum...

  19. Development and initial validation of a brief self-report measure of cognitive dysfunction in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Anna L; Schilling, Stephen G; Goesling, Jenna; Williams, David A

    2015-06-01

    Pain is often the focus of research and clinical care in fibromyalgia (FM); however, cognitive dysfunction is also a common, distressing, and disabling symptom in FM. Current efforts to address this problem are limited by the lack of a comprehensive, valid measure of subjective cognitive dysfunction in FM that is easily interpretable, accessible, and brief. The purpose of this study was to leverage cognitive functioning item banks that were developed as part of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) to devise a 10-item short form measure of cognitive functioning for use in FM. In study 1, a nationwide (U.S.) sample of 1,035 adults with FM (age range = 18-82, 95.2% female) completed 2 cognitive item pools. Factor analyses and item response theory analyses were used to identify dimensionality and optimally performing items. A recommended 10-item measure, called the Multidimensional Inventory of Subjective Cognitive Impairment (MISCI) was created. In study 2, 232 adults with FM completed the MISCI and a legacy measure of cognitive functioning that is used in FM clinical trials, the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ). The MISCI showed excellent internal reliability, low ceiling/floor effects, and good convergent validity with the MASQ (r = -.82). This paper presents the MISCI, a 10-item measure of cognitive dysfunction in FM, developed through classical test theory and item response theory. This brief but comprehensive measure shows evidence of excellent construct validity through large correlations with a lengthy legacy measure of cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Frequency, stability and differentiation of self-reported school fear and truancy in a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metzke Christa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surprisingly little is known about the frequency, stability, and correlates of school fear and truancy based on self-reported data of adolescents. Methods Self-reported school fear and truancy were studied in a total of N = 834 subjects of the community-based Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS at two times with an average age of thirteen and sixteen years. Group definitions were based on two behavioural items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR. Comparisons included a control group without indicators of school fear or truancy. The three groups were compared across questionnaires measuring emotional and behavioural problems, life-events, self-related cognitions, perceived parental behaviour, and perceived school environment. Results The frequency of self-reported school fear decreased over time (6.9 vs. 3.6% whereas there was an increase in truancy (5.0 vs. 18.4%. Subjects with school fear displayed a pattern of associated internalizing problems and truants were characterized by associated delinquent behaviour. Among other associated psychosocial features, the distress coming from the perceived school environment in students with school fear is most noteworthy. Conclusion These findings from a community study show that school fear and truancy are frequent and display different developmental trajectories. Furthermore, previous results are corroborated which are based on smaller and selected clinical samples indicating that the two groups display distinct types of school-related behaviour.

  1. Neither self-reported ethnicity nor declared family origin are reliable indicators of genomic ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade; D'Elia, Maria Paula Barbieri; Amador, Marcos Antônio Trindade; Santos, Ney Pereira Carneiro; Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista; da Cruz Castelli, Erick; Witkin, Steven S; Miot, Hélio Amante; Miot, Luciane Donida Bartoli; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães

    2016-06-01

    Ancestry information can be useful in investigations of diseases with a genetic or infectious background. As the Brazilian population is highly admixed physical traits tend to be poor indicators of ancestry. The assessment of ancestry by ancestry informative markers (AIMs) can exclude the subjectivity of self-declared ethnicity and reported family origin. We aimed to evaluate the reliability of self-reported ethnicity or reported family origin as indicators of genomic ancestry in a female population from the Southeast of Brazil. Two cohorts were included: 404 women asked to self-report their ethnicity (Pop1) and 234 women asked to report their family's origin (Pop2). Identification of AIMs was performed using a panel of 61 markers and results were plotted against parental populations-Amerindian, Western European and Sub-Saharan African-using Structure v2.3.4. In Pop1 57.4 % of women self-reported as white, 34.6 % as brown and 8.0 % as black. Median global European, Amerindian and African contributions were 66.8, 12.6 and 16.6 %. In Pop2, 66.4 % of women declared European origin, 23.9 % African origin and 26.9 % Amerindian. Median global European, Amerindian and African contributions were 80.8, 7.3 and 7.6 %, respectively. Only 31.0 and 21.0 % of the global variation in African and European contributions, respectively, could be explained by self-reported ethnicity and reported family origin only accounted for 20.0 and 5.0 % of the variations observed in African and European ancestries, respectively. Amerindian ancestry did not influence self-reported ethnicity or declared family origin. Neither self-reported ethnicity nor declared family origin are reliable indicators of genomic ancestry in these Brazilian populations.

  2. Cognitive function and the agreement between self-reported and accelerometer-accessed physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbolsheimer, Florian; Riepe, Matthias W; Peter, Richard

    2018-02-21

    Numerous studies have reported weak or moderate correlations between self-reported and accelerometer-assessed physical activity. One explanation is that self-reported physical activity might be biased by demographic, cognitive or other factors. Cognitive function is one factor that could be associated with either overreporting or underreporting of daily physical activity. Difficulties in remembering past physical activities might result in recall bias. Thus, the current study examines whether the cognitive function is associated with differences between self-reported and accelerometer-assessed physical activity. Cross-sectional data from the population-based Activity and Function in the Elderly in Ulm study (ActiFE) were used. A total of 1172 community-dwelling older adults (aged 65-90 years) wore a uniaxial accelerometer (activPAL unit) for a week. Additionally, self-reported physical activity was assessed using the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire (LAPAQ). Cognitive function was measured with four items (immediate memory, delayed memory, recognition memory, and semantic fluency) from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Total Score (CERAD-TS). Mean differences of self-reported and accelerometer-assessed physical activity (MPA) were associated with cognitive function in men (r s  = -.12, p = .002) but not in women. Sex-stratified multiple linear regression analyses showed that MPA declined with high cognitive function in men (β = -.13; p = .015). Results suggest that self-reported physical activity should be interpreted with caution in older populations, as cognitive function was one factor that explained the differences between objective and subjective physical activity measurements.

  3. Predictors of self-reported academic performance among undergraduate medical students of Hawassa University, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedefaw, Abel; Tilahun, Birkneh; Asefa, Anteneh

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify predictors of self-reported academic performance in undergraduate medical students at Hawassa University. An analytical cross-sectional study involving 592 undergraduate medical students was conducted in November 2012. The academic performance of the study subjects was measured by self-reported cumulative grade point average (GPA) using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. Pearson's bivariate correlations, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of academic performance. The self-reported academic performance of students had been decreasing as the academic years progressed, with the highest and lowest performance being in the premedicine (mean GPA 3.47) and clinical I (mean GPA 2.71) years, respectively. One hundred and fifty-eight (26.7%) of the participants had ever been delayed, 37 (6.2%) had ever re-sat for examination, and two (0.3%) had ever been warned due to academic failure. The overall variation in self-reported academic performance of the students was 32.8%. Participant age alone explained 21.9% of the variation. On the other hand, university entrance examination results, substance use at university, and medicine as first choice by students were identified as predictors of variation in self-reported academic performance, accounting for 6.9%, 2.7%, and academic performance was explained by the studied variables. Hence, efficacious mechanisms should be designed to combat the intervenable determinants of self-reported academic performance, like substance use and a low medical school entrance examination result. Further studies should also be undertaken to gain a better understanding of other unstudied determinants, like personality, learning style, cognitive ability, and the system used for academic evaluation.

  4. Gluten causes gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects without celiac disease: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiekierski, Jessica R; Newnham, Evan D; Irving, Peter M; Barrett, Jacqueline S; Haines, Melissa; Doecke, James D; Shepherd, Susan J; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R

    2011-03-01

    Despite increased prescription of a gluten-free diet for gastrointestinal symptoms in individuals who do not have celiac disease, there is minimal evidence that suggests that gluten is a trigger. The aims of this study were to determine whether gluten ingestion can induce symptoms in non-celiac individuals and to examine the mechanism. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled rechallenge trial was undertaken in patients with irritable bowel syndrome in whom celiac disease was excluded and who were symptomatically controlled on a gluten-free diet. Participants received either gluten or placebo in the form of two bread slices plus one muffin per day with a gluten-free diet for up to 6 weeks. Symptoms were evaluated using a visual analog scale and markers of intestinal inflammation, injury, and immune activation were monitored. A total of 34 patients (aged 29-59 years, 4 men) completed the study as per protocol. Overall, 56% had human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8. Adherence to diet and supplements was very high. Of 19 patients (68%) in the gluten group, 13 reported that symptoms were not adequately controlled compared with 6 of 15 (40%) on placebo (P=0.0001; generalized estimating equation). On a visual analog scale, patients were significantly worse with gluten within 1 week for overall symptoms (P=0.047), pain (P=0.016), bloating (P=0.031), satisfaction with stool consistency (P=0.024), and tiredness (P=0.001). Anti-gliadin antibodies were not induced. There were no significant changes in fecal lactoferrin, levels of celiac antibodies, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, or intestinal permeability. There were no differences in any end point in individuals with or without DQ2/DQ8. "Non-celiac gluten intolerance" may exist, but no clues to the mechanism were elucidated.

  5. Stereotype Threat Lowers Older Adults' Self-Reported Hearing Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Lee, Soohyoung Rain

    2015-01-01

    Although stereotype threat is a well-documented phenomenon, previous studies examining it in older adults have almost exclusively focused on objective cognitive outcomes. Considerably less attention has been paid to the impact of stereotype threat on older adults' subjective assessments of their own abilities or to the impact of stereotype threat in noncognitive domains. Older adults are stereotyped as having experienced not only cognitive declines, but physical declines as well. The current study tested the prediction that stereotype threat can negatively influence older adults' subjective hearing abilities. To test this, 115 adults (mean age 50.03 years, range 41-67) read either a positive or negative description about how aging affects hearing. All participants then answered a questionnaire in which they assessed their own hearing abilities. The impact of stereotype threat on self-reported hearing was moderated by chronological age. Participants in their 40s and early 50s were unaffected by the stereotype threat manipulation. In contrast, participants in their late 50s and 60s rated their hearing as being subjectively worse when under stereotype threat. The current study provides a clear demonstration that stereotype threat negatively impacts older adults' subjective assessments of their own abilities. It is also the first study to demonstrate an effect of stereotype threat within the domain of hearing. These results have important implications for researchers investigating age-related hearing decline. Stereotype threat can lead to overestimation of the prevalence of age-related hearing decline. It can also serve as a confounding variable when examining the psychosocial correlates of hearing loss. Because of this, researchers studying age-related hearing loss should aim to provide a stereotype threat-free testing environment and also include assessments of stereotype threat within their studies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Stereotype threat lowers older adults’ self-reported hearing abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J.; Lee, Soohyoung Rain

    2016-01-01

    Background Although stereotype threat is a well-documented phenomenon, previous studies examining it in older adults have almost exclusively focused on objective cognitive outcomes. Considerably less attention has been paid to the impact of stereotype threat on older adults’ subjective assessments of their own abilities or to the impact of stereotype threat in non-cognitive domains. Objective Older adults are stereotyped as having experienced not only cognitive declines, but physical declines as well. The current study tested the prediction that stereotype threat can negatively influence older adult's subjective hearing abilities. Methods To test this, 115 adults (M age = 50.02, range = 41-67) read either a positive or negative description about how aging affects hearing. All participants then answered a questionnaire in which they assessed their own hearing abilities. Results The impact of stereotype threat on self-reported hearing was moderated by chronological age. Participants in their 40's and early 50's were unaffected by the stereotype threat manipulation. In contrast, participants in their late 50's and 60's rated their hearing as being subjectively worse when under stereotype threat. Conclusion The current study provides a clear demonstration that stereotype threat negatively impacts older adults’ subjective assessments of their own abilities. It is also the first study to demonstrate an effect of stereotype threat within the domain of hearing. These results have important implications for researchers investigating age-related hearing decline. Stereotype threat can lead to overestimation of the prevalence of age-related hearing decline. It can also serve as a confounding variable when examining the psychosocial correlates of hearing loss. Because of this, researchers studying age-related hearing loss should aim to provide a stereotype-threat free testing environment and also include assessments of stereotype threat within their studies. PMID:26461273

  7. Compliance and Subjective Patient Responses to Eyelid Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Yousef A; Camp, Andrew; Feuer, William; Karp, Carol L; Wellik, Sarah; Galor, Anat

    2017-07-01

    Lid hygiene is a commonly prescribed first-line therapy in patients with lid margin disease, yet compliance with therapy is not well characterized. The goals of this study were to assess patient compliance with lid hygiene and evaluate which factors predict a favorable symptomatic response to treatment. This was a cross-sectional study of patients seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic between August and December 2014. An evaluation was performed to assess dry eye symptoms and lid margin signs. All patients were then instructed to perform warm compresses and lid scrubs. A follow-up phone survey assessed compliance and subjective therapeutic response 6 weeks later. Two hundred seven of 211 (98%) patients (94% male, 60% white) completed the survey. Of the 207 patients, 188 (91%) completed the follow-up survey. Compliance with therapy was reported in 104 patients (55%); 66 reported complete improvement, 30 partial improvement, and 8 no improvement in symptoms. Patients who self-reported dry eye symptoms at first visit (n=86, 74%) were more likely to be compliant with lid hygiene than those who did not report symptoms (n=18, 25%) (Phygiene was longer time of self-reported dry eye symptoms. None of the other signs studied, including the presence of skin rosacea and lid margin telangiectasia, were associated with a differential response to lid hygiene. Patients with dry eye symptoms were moderately compliant with lid hygiene, and patients who performed the routine noted improvement in symptoms.

  8. Symptom Severity and Quality of Life Among Long-term Colorectal Cancer Survivors Compared With Matched Control Subjects: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Tae L; Charles, Susan T; Gunaratne, Mekhala; Baxter, Nancy N; Cotterchio, Michelle; Cohen, Zane; Gallinger, Steven

    2018-03-01

    Data are lacking regarding physical functioning, psychological well-being, and quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors >10 years postdiagnosis. The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported physical functioning, quality of life, and psychological well-being in long-term colorectal cancer survivors compared with age- and sex-matched unaffected control subjects. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey. The colorectal cancer survivors and unaffected control subjects were recruited from the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry. A population-based sample of colorectal cancer survivors (N = 296) and their age- and sex-matched unaffected control subjects (N = 255) were included. Survivors were, on average, 15 years postdiagnosis. Quality of life was measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General scale, bowel dysfunction with the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center scale, urinary dysfunction with the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form, fatigue with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale, and depression with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. In linear mixed-model analyses adjusting for income, education, race, and comorbid medical conditions, survivors reported good emotional, functional, physical, and overall quality of life, comparable to control subjects. Fatigue and urinary functioning did not differ significantly between survivors and control subjects. Survivors reported significantly higher social quality of life and lower depression compared with unaffected control subjects. The only area where survivors reported significantly worse deficits was in bowel dysfunction, but the magnitude of differences was relatively small. Generalizability is limited by moderately low participation rates. Findings are likely biased toward healthy participants. No baseline assessment was available to examine change in outcomes over time. Long

  9. A six-month prospective evaluation of personality traits, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in ayahuasca-naïve subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Cazorla, Irene Maurício; Giglio, Joel Sales; Strassman, Rick

    2009-09-01

    The authors assessed 23 subjects immediately before and six months (27.5 weeks) after their first ayahuasca experience in an urban Brazilian religious setting, either Santo Daime (N = 15) or União do Vegetal (N = 8). Measures included scores on instruments assessing psychiatric symptoms, personality variables and quality of life. Independent variables were the frequency of ayahuasca use throughout the period and the length of ayahuasca wash-out after six months. Santo Daime subjects had a significant reduction of minor psychiatric symptoms, improvement of mental health, and a change in attitude towards more confidence and optimism. The União do Vegetal group had a significant decrease in physical pain, and attitude change towards more independence. Independence was positively correlated with the frequency of ayahuasca use and negatively correlated with the wash-out period. We discuss possible mechanisms by which these changes may occur and suggest areas for future research.

  10. Size Constancy Is Preserved but Afterimages Are Prolonged in Typical Individuals with Higher Degrees of Self-Reported Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Irene; Unwin, Katy L.; Landry, Oriane; Chouinard, Philippe A.

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in perceptual constancies from early infancy have been proposed to contribute to autism and exacerbate its symptoms (Hellendoorn et al., "Frontiers in Psychology" 6:1-16, 2015). Here, we examined size constancy in adults from the general population (N = 106) with different levels of self-reported autistic traits using an…

  11. The Association Between Trait Gratitude and Self-Reported Sleep Quality Is Mediated by Depressive Mood State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Kotzin, Megan D; Waugaman, Debby L; Killgore, William D S

    2017-01-27

    It has been shown that higher levels of trait gratitude are associated with better self-reported sleep quality, possibly due to differences in presleep cognitions. However previous studies have not taken into account the role of depressive symptoms in this relationship. In this study, 88 nonclinical 18-29-year-olds completed the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (GRAT) as a measure of trait gratitude. The Glasgow Content of Thought Inventory (GCTI) was used to measure the intrusiveness of cognitions prior to sleep onset, the Motivation and Energy Inventory (MEI) assessed daytime fatigue, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess self-reported sleep quality. The BDI-II assessed self-reported depressive symptoms. Consistent with previous work, GRAT scores were positively associated with higher daytime energy and greater number of hours of sleep per night. Importantly, however, we further observed that depressive symptoms mediated the relationships between gratitude scores and sleep metrics. Depressive mood state appears to mediate the association between gratitude and self-reported sleep quality metrics. We suggest, as one plausible model of these phenomena, that highly grateful individuals have lower symptoms of depression, which in turn leads to fewer presleep worries, resulting in better perceived sleep quality. Future work should aim to disentangle the causal nature of these relationships in order to better understand how these important variables interact.

  12. Weak association between subjective symptoms of and objective testing for dry eyes and dry mouth: results from a population based study

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, E.; Thomas, E; Pal, B; Hajeer, A.; Chambers, H; Silman, A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine associations between symptoms of dry eyes and dry mouth and objective evidence of lacrimal and salivary gland dysfunction in a population based sample. To determine associations between these elements and the presence of autoantibodies.
METHODS—A cross sectional population based survey. Subjects were interviewed and examined (Schirmer-1 test and unstimulated salivary flow) for the presence of dry eyes and mouth. Antibodies (anti-Ro [SS-A], anti-La [SS-B], rheumatoid fa...

  13. School, peer and family relationships and adolescent substance use, subjective wellbeing and mental health symptoms in Wales: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Graham; Cox, Rebecca; Evans, Rhiannon; Hallingberg, Britt; Hawkins, Jemma; Littlecott, Hannah; Long, Sara; Murphy, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Positive relationships with family, friends and school staff are consistently linked with health and wellbeing during adolescence, though fewer studies explore how these micro-systems interact to influence adolescent health. This study tests the independent and interacting roles of family, peer and school relationships in predicting substance use, subjective wellbeing and mental health symptoms among 11–16 year olds in Wales. It presents cross-sectional analyses of the 2013 Health Behaviour i...

  14. Self reported skin morbidity and ethnicity: a population-based study in a Western community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Bernadette

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown ethnic differences concerning cardio-vascular disease, diabetes and mental health. Little is known about ethnic differences in skin morbidity. The purpose of this study was to describe possible ethnic differences in self-reported skin morbidity in a Western urban community. Methods The design was cross sectional. 40 888 adults in Oslo, Norway, received a postal questionnaire providing information on socio-demographic factors and self-reported health, including items on skin complaints. Results 18770 individuals answered the questionnaire. In the sample 84% were from Norway. The largest immigrant group was from Western countries (5% and the Indian Subcontinent (3%. Itch was the most prevalent reported skin symptom (7%, and was significantly more reported by men from East Asia (18% and Middle East/North Africa (13%. The same observations were seen for reported dry and sore skin. Hair loss was a dominating complaint for men from the Indian Subcontinent and the Middle East/North Africa (23% and 25% and for women from the same ethnic groups. Women from Sub-Saharan Africa reported significantly more pimples than in the other groups (17%. Conclusion The study showed that there were significant differences in self-reported skin complaints among ethnic groups. Issues concerning the cultural value of some skin symptoms should be examined further.

  15. Self-reported knee joint instability is related to passive mechanical stiffness in medial knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creaby, Mark W; Wrigley, Tim V; Lim, Boon-Whatt; Hinman, Rana S; Bryant, Adam L; Bennell, Kim L

    2013-11-20

    Self-reported knee joint instability compromises function in individuals with medial knee osteoarthritis and may be related to impaired joint mechanics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between self-reported instability and the passive varus-valgus mechanical behaviour of the medial osteoarthritis knee. Passive varus-valgus angular laxity and stiffness were assessed using a modified isokinetic dynamometer in 73 participants with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. All participants self-reported the absence or presence of knee instability symptoms and the degree to which instability affected daily activity on a 6-point likert scale. Forward linear regression modelling identified a significant inverse relationship between passive mid-range knee stiffness and symptoms of knee instability (r = 0.27; P 0.05). Conceivably, a stiffer passive system may contribute toward greater joint stability during functional activities. Importantly however, net joint stiffness is influenced by both active and passive stiffness, and thus the active neuromuscular system may compensate for reduced passive stiffness in order to maintain joint stability. Future work is merited to examine the role of active stiffness in symptomatic joint stability.

  16. Screening for oropharyngeal dysphagia in older adults: A systematic review of self-reported questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães Junior, Hipólito V; Pernambuco, Leandro de Araújo; Lima, Kenio C; Ferreira, Maria Angela F

    2018-04-03

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a swallowing disorder with signs and symptoms which may be present in older adults, but they are rarely noticed as a health concern by older people. The earliest possible identification of this clinical condition is needed by self-reported population-based screening questionnaire, which are valid and reliable for preventing risks to nutritional status, increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this systematic review was to identify self-reported screening questionnaires for oropharyngeal dysphagia in older adults to evaluate their methodological quality for population-based studies. An extensive search of electronic databases (PubMed (MEDLINE), Ovid MEDLINE(R), Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science (WOS), PsycINFO (APA), Lilacs and Scielo) was conducted in the period from April to May 2017 using previously established search strategies by the two evaluators. The methodological quality and the psychometric properties of the included studies were evaluated by the COSMIN (Consensus based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments) checklist and the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues, respectively. The analysed information was extracted from three articles which had conducted studies on the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia by self-reported screening questionnaires, showing poor methodological quality and flaws in the methodological description to demonstrate its psychometric properties. This study did not find any self-reported screening questionnaires for oropharyngeal dysphagia with suitable methodological quality and appropriate evidence in its psychometric properties for elders. Therefore, the self-reported questionnaires within the diagnostic proposal require greater details in its process for obtaining valid and reliable evidence. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Predictors of self-reported academic performance among undergraduate medical students of Hawassa University, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedefaw A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abel Gedefaw,1 Birkneh Tilahun,2 Anteneh Asefa3 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, 3School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia Background: This study was conducted to identify predictors of self-reported academic performance in undergraduate medical students at Hawassa University. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study involving 592 undergraduate medical students was conducted in November 2012. The academic performance of the study subjects was measured by self-reported cumulative grade point average (GPA using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. Pearson's bivariate correlations, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of academic performance. Results: The self-reported academic performance of students had been decreasing as the academic years progressed, with the highest and lowest performance being in the premedicine (mean GPA 3.47 and clinical I (mean GPA 2.71 years, respectively. One hundred and fifty-eight (26.7% of the participants had ever been delayed, 37 (6.2% had ever re-sat for examination, and two (0.3% had ever been warned due to academic failure. The overall variation in self-reported academic performance of the students was 32.8%. Participant age alone explained 21.9% of the variation. On the other hand, university entrance examination results, substance use at university, and medicine as first choice by students were identified as predictors of variation in self-reported academic performance, accounting for 6.9%, 2.7%, and <1% of the variation, respectively. Students who had never used tobacco, alcohol, or khat after starting university were twice as likely to score a self-reported cumulative GPA above 3.0 (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, 95

  18. Prevalence and association of self-reported anxiety, pain, and oral parafunctional habits with temporomandibular disorders in Japanese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karibe, Hiroyuki; Shimazu, Kisaki; Okamoto, Ayuko; Kawakami, Tomomi; Kato, Yuichi; Warita-Naoi, Sachie

    2015-01-21

    Associations between temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and psychological variables, pain conditions, and daily activities have been reported more commonly in middle-aged individuals than in children. However, to determine factor-specific preventive programs for TMD, it is important to evaluate the associations between multiple factors and TMD symptoms during childhood. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between TMD symptoms and other orofacial pain conditions, daily activities, and trait anxiety in a population-based cross-sectional survey of Japanese children and adolescents. A total of 1,415 subjects (11-15 years old) self-reported their TMD symptoms, headache, neck pain, and toothache, and completed questionnaire scales that assessed 15 daily activities. Trait anxiety was assessed using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children-Trait (STAIC-T) scale. Subjects were dichotomized into a TMD group or control group, based on whether they reported at least 1 TMD symptom: the TMD group (≥1 TMD symptom, n = 182) and the control group (no TMD symptoms, n = 1,233). Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prevalence rates for headache and neck pain were significantly higher in the TMD group than in the control group (44.0% vs. 24.7% and 54.4% vs. 30.0%, respectively; both P anxiety. Diurnal clenching was strongly associated with TMD symptoms. Health professionals should carefully consider these factors when developing appropriate management strategies for TMD in children and adolescents.

  19. Visual Impairment Is Associated With Depressive Symptoms-Results From the Nationwide German DEGS1 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Alexander K; Tesarz, Jonas; Rezapour, Jasmin; Beutel, Manfred E; Bertram, Bernd; Pfeiffer, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    Visual impairment (VI) is associated with a variety of comorbidities including physical and mental health in industrial countries. Our aim is to examine associations between self-reported impairment and depressive symptoms in the German population. The point prevalence of self-reported VI in Germany was computed using data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for adults from 2008 to 2011 ( N  = 7.783, 50.5% female, age range 18-79 years). VI was surveyed by two questions, one for seeing faces at a distance of 4 m and one for reading newspapers. Depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 questionnaire and 2-week prevalence was computed with weighted data. Depressive symptoms were defined by a value of ≥10. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze an association between self-reported VI and depressive symptoms. Multivariable analysis including adjustment for age, gender, socioeconomic status, and chronic diseases were carried out with weighted data. The 2-week prevalence of depressive symptoms was 20.8% (95% CI: 16.6-25.7%) for some difficulties in distance vision and 14.4% (95% CI: 7.5-25.9%) for severe difficulties in distance vision, while 17.0% (95% CI: 13.3-21.4%), respectively, 16.7% (95% CI: 10.7-25.1%) for near vision. Analysis revealed that depressive symptoms were associated with self-reported VI for reading, respectively, with low VI for distance vision. Multivariable regression analysis including potential confounders confirmed these findings. Depressive symptoms are a frequent finding in subjects with difficulties in distance and near vision with a prevalence of up to 24%. Depressive comorbidity should therefore be evaluated in subjects reporting VI.

  20. Electronic Self-report Assessment--Cancer (ESRA-C): Working towards an integrated survey system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karras, Bryant T; Wolpin, Seth; Lober, William B; Bush, Nigel; Fann, Jesse R; Berry, Donna L

    2006-01-01

    The Clinical Informatics Research Group and Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Systems at the University of Washington are working with interdisciplinary teams to improve patient care and tracking of patient-reported symptoms and outcomes by creating an extensible web-based survey and intervention platform. The findings and cumulative experience from these processes have led to incremental improvements and variations in each new implementation of the platform. This paper presents progress in the first year of a three-year NIH study entitled Electronic Self Report Assessment--Cancer (ESRA-C). The project's goals are to enhance and evaluate the web-based computerized patient self-reporting and assessment system at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. Preliminary work and lessons learned in the modification of the platform and enhancements to the system will be described.

  1. The unique relationship between fear of cognitive dyscontrol and self-reports of problematic drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koven, Nancy S; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A

    2005-03-01

    Research has established positive associations between anxiety sensitivity (AS) and problematic drinking in clinical samples. The present study confirmed this relationship in a nonclinical sample (N=162) and investigated which AS dimension best predicts self-reports of problematic drinking. Only one AS facet, fear of cognitive dyscontrol (FCC), was associated with symptoms of alcohol dependence, severity of drinking problems, and alcohol-related expectations of global, positive changes, sexual enhancement, and tension reduction. The possible role of depression in these relationships was also evaluated. A series of hierarchical regressions revealed that, when trait anxiety, anxious arousal, and anxious apprehension were statistically removed, depression did not contribute significant variance beyond the effects of FMC and other anxiety measures. Results suggest that FCC is uniquely associated with self-reports of problematic drinking behaviors and attitudes. Implications for tension-reduction models of alcohol are discussed.

  2. Validation of self-reported diabetes in a representative sample of São Paulo city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane de Mello Fontanelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate the self-reported diabetes mellitus in adults and older adults living in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS We have used data of 569 subjects (284 adults and 285 older adults, participants of the population-based cross-sectional study Inquérito de Saúde do Município de São Paulo (Health Survey of São Paulo. Fasting glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL and/or use of drugs (oral hypoglycemic and/or insulin defined the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. We have validated the self-reported diabetes mellitus by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values. We have used Poisson regression with robust variance to verify the factors associated with the sensitivity of the self-reported datum. For all analyses, we have considered the sample design of the study. RESULTS The sensitivity of self-reported diabetes mellitus was 63.8% (95%CI 49.2–76.3, specificity was 99.7% (95%CI 99.1–99.9, positive predictive value was 95.5% (95%CI 84.4–98.8, and negative predictive value was 96.9% (95%CI 94.9–98.2. The correct reporting of diabetes mellitus was more prevalent among older adults (PR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2–3.5 than among adults. CONCLUSIONS The use of the datum of self-reported diabetes mellitus is valid, especially among older adults living in the city of São Paulo. The results highlight the need to track diabetes mellitus in asymptomatic subjects who have one or more risk factors for it, mainly in the adult population of this city.

  3. Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes toward Drug Testing in High Schools with Random Student Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…

  4. Predictors of men's sexual response to erotic film stimuli: the role of affect and self-reported thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cátia; Laja, Pedro; Carvalho, Joana; Quinta Gomes, Ana; Vilarinho, Sandra; Janssen, Erick; Nobre, Pedro J

    2014-11-01

    Both emotions and cognitions seem to play a role in determining sexual arousal. However, no studies to date have tested the effects of self-reported thoughts on subjective sexual arousal and genital response using psychophysiological methods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of self-reported thoughts and affect during exposure to erotic material in predicting subjective and genital responses in sexually healthy men. Twenty-seven men were presented with two explicit films, and genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, self-reported thoughts, and positive and negative affect were assessed. Men's genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, affective responses, and self-reported thoughts during exposure to sexual stimulus were measured. Regression analyses revealed that genital responses were predicted by self-reported thoughts (explaining 20% of the variance) but not by affect during exposure to erotic films. On the other hand, subjective sexual arousal was significantly predicted by both positive and negative affect (explaining 18% of the variance) and self-reported thoughts (explaining 37% of the variance). Follow-up analyses using the single predictors showed that "sexual arousal thoughts" were the only significant predictor of subjective response (β = 0.64; P < 0.01) and that "distracting/disengaging thoughts" were the best predictor of genital response (β = -0.51; P < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that both affect and sexual arousal thoughts play an important role in men's subjective sexual response, whereas genital response seems to be better predicted by distracting thoughts. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Are students' symptoms and health complaints associated with perceived stress at university? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Haghgoo, Ghollamreza

    2014-09-26

    This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively). A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, living arrangements during semester, income sufficiency), lifestyle (tobacco smoking, illicit drug/s use, alcohol consumption frequency), and health variables (subjective health status, health awareness, BMI), along with religiosity, and quality of life. Factor analysis categorized the 21 self-reported symptoms into four components. Correlation analysis and linear regression tested the associations between the self-reported symptoms and stress. Factor analysis of the health symptoms generated four symptom groups for each of the UK and Egypt (psychological; circulatory/breathing; gastrointestinal; and, pains/aches), and factor loadings were quite similar for both countries. Whilst the two samples showed similarities as to the kind of symptoms most frequently reported by students, the Egyptian sample had significantly higher frequency than the UK for every symptom. Frequent complaints (both countries) included difficulties to concentrate, fatigue, headaches, nervousness/anxiety, and back pain (UK) and mood swings (Egypt). Significantly more Egyptian students reported ≥ 4 symptoms over the past year than the UK. For each of the UK and Egypt, across each of the four symptom groups, there was a stepladder appearance whereby the frequency of symptoms increased with increasing quartiles of perceived stress. Not controlling for other variables, for both countries, there were significant positive correlations between each of the four symptom groups and stress; the highest correlation

  6. Are Students’ Symptoms and Health Complaints Associated with Perceived Stress at University? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively. A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, living arrangements during semester, income sufficiency, lifestyle (tobacco smoking, illicit drug/s use, alcohol consumption frequency, and health variables (subjective health status, health awareness, BMI, along with religiosity, and quality of life. Factor analysis categorized the 21 self-reported symptoms into four components. Correlation analysis and linear regression tested the associations between the self-reported symptoms and stress. Factor analysis of the health symptoms generated four symptom groups for each of the UK and Egypt (psychological; circulatory/breathing; gastrointestinal; and, pains/aches, and factor loadings were quite similar for both countries. Whilst the two samples showed similarities as to the kind of symptoms most frequently reported by students, the Egyptian sample had significantly higher frequency than the UK for every symptom. Frequent complaints (both countries included difficulties to concentrate, fatigue, headaches, nervousness/anxiety, and back pain (UK and mood swings (Egypt. Significantly more Egyptian students reported ≥4 symptoms over the past year than the UK. For each of the UK and Egypt, across each of the four symptom groups, there was a stepladder appearance whereby the frequency of symptoms increased with increasing quartiles of perceived stress. Not controlling for other variables, for both countries, there were significant positive correlations between each of the four symptom groups and stress; the highest

  7. Are Students’ Symptoms and Health Complaints Associated with Perceived Stress at University? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Haghgoo, Ghollamreza

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively). A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, living arrangements during semester, income sufficiency), lifestyle (tobacco smoking, illicit drug/s use, alcohol consumption frequency), and health variables (subjective health status, health awareness, BMI), along with religiosity, and quality of life. Factor analysis categorized the 21 self-reported symptoms into four components. Correlation analysis and linear regression tested the associations between the self-reported symptoms and stress. Factor analysis of the health symptoms generated four symptom groups for each of the UK and Egypt (psychological; circulatory/breathing; gastrointestinal; and, pains/aches), and factor loadings were quite similar for both countries. Whilst the two samples showed similarities as to the kind of symptoms most frequently reported by students, the Egyptian sample had significantly higher frequency than the UK for every symptom. Frequent complaints (both countries) included difficulties to concentrate, fatigue, headaches, nervousness/anxiety, and back pain (UK) and mood swings (Egypt). Significantly more Egyptian students reported ≥4 symptoms over the past year than the UK. For each of the UK and Egypt, across each of the four symptom groups, there was a stepladder appearance whereby the frequency of symptoms increased with increasing quartiles of perceived stress. Not controlling for other variables, for both countries, there were significant positive correlations between each of the four symptom groups and stress; the highest correlation was

  8. Self-reported Physical Activity Predicts Pain Inhibitory and Facilitatory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Kelly M.; Riley, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests regular physical activity can reduce chronic pain symptoms. Dysfunction of endogenous facilitatory and inhibitory systems has been implicated in multiple chronic pain conditions. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between levels of physical activity and descending pain modulatory function. Purpose This study’s purpose was to determine whether self-reported levels of physical activity in healthy adults predicted 1) pain sensitivity to heat and cold stimuli, 2) pain facilitatory function as tested by temporal summation of pain (TS), and 3) pain inhibitory function as tested by conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and offset analgesia. Methods Forty-eight healthy adults (age range 18–76) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the following pain tests: heat pain thresholds (HPT), heat pain suprathresholds, cold pressor pain (CPP), temporal summation of heat pain, conditioned pain modulation, and offset analgesia. The IPAQ measured levels of walking, moderate, vigorous and total physical activity over the past seven days. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to determine the relationship between each pain test and self-reported levels of physical activity, while controlling for age, sex and psychological variables. Results Self-reported total and vigorous physical activity predicted TS and CPM (p’s pain and greater CPM. The IPAQ measures did not predict any of the other pain measures. Conclusion Thus, these results suggest that healthy older and younger adults who self-report greater levels of vigorous and total physical activity exhibit enhanced descending pain modulatory function. Improved descending pain modulation may be a mechanism through which exercise reduces or prevents chronic pain symptoms. PMID:23899890

  9. Prevalence and Characterization of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom van Gils

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing number of individuals reports symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food in the absence of celiac disease. Yet the actual prevalence is not well established. Methods: Between April 2015 and March 2016, unselected adults visiting marketplaces, dental practices and a university in The Netherlands were asked to complete a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported gluten sensitivity (srGS. Results: Among the 785 adults enquired, two had celiac disease. Forty-nine (6.2% reported symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food. These individuals were younger, predominantly female and lived more frequently in urban regions compared with the other respondents. Symptoms reported included bloating (74%, abdominal discomfort (49% and flatulence (47%. A total of 23 (47% srGS individuals reported having had tried a gluten-free or gluten-restricted diet. Abdominal discomfort related to fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP-containing food was more often reported in srGS individuals compared with the other respondents (73.5% vs. 21.7%, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Self-reported GS is common in The Netherlands, especially in younger individuals, females and urban regions, although the prevalence was lower than in a comparable recent UK study. It cannot be excluded that FODMAPs are in part responsible for these symptoms.

  10. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS: utility in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gray

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1, in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD.Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students’ self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1–2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ and executive functioning (BDEFS.Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47, and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66. The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63 and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74. Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores.Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current

  11. Self-Reported Visual Perceptual Abnormalities Are Strongly Associated with Core Clinical Features in Psychotic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Keane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPast studies using the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (hereafter, Bonn Scale have shown that self-reported perceptual/cognitive disturbances reveal which persons have or will soon develop schizophrenia. Here, we focused specifically on the clinical value of self-reported visual perceptual abnormalities (VPAs since they are underexplored and have been associated with suicidal ideation, negative symptoms, and objective visual dysfunction.MethodUsing the 17 Bonn Scale vision items, we cross-sectionally investigated lifetime occurrence of VPAs in 21 first-episode psychosis and 22 chronic schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SZ/SA patients. Relationships were probed between VPAs and illness duration, symptom severity, current functioning, premorbid functioning, diagnosis, and age of onset.ResultsIncreased VPAs were associated with: earlier age of onset; more delusions, hallucinations, bizarre behavior, and depressive symptoms; and worse premorbid social functioning, especially in the childhood and early adolescent phases. SZ/SA participants endorsed more VPAs as compared to those with schizophreniform or psychotic disorder-NOS, especially in the perception of color, bodies, faces, object movement, and double/reversed vision. The range of self-reported VPAs was strikingly similar between first-episode and chronic patients and did not depend on the type or amount of antipsychotic medication. As a comparative benchmark, lifetime occurrence of visual hallucinations did not depend on diagnosis and was linked only to poor premorbid social functioning.ConclusionA brief 17-item interview derived from the Bonn Scale is strongly associated with core clinical features in schizophrenia. VPAs hold promise for clarifying diagnosis, predicting outcome, and guiding neurocognitive investigations.

  12. Self-reported knowledge and awareness about blood pressure and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Ina; Thomsen, Marie D; Lindholt, Jes S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In general, it is assumed that patient education, by increasing knowledge, may change behavior and lifestyle and promote health. In this context, it is a surprise that knowledge and awareness about blood pressure and hypertension among elderly people is poor. We hypothesized...... that knowledge about blood pressure and hypertension would be better among individuals with self-reported hypertension compared with subjects without self-reported hypertension. METHODS: We mailed a questionnaire to a random sample of 1,000 subjects living in the municipality of Silkeborg, Denmark. The study...... often had a family history of hypertension. More than 80% reported that overweight and obesity increases blood pressure. More than 60% reported that untreated hypertension may cause heart disease or stroke. More than half of the responders did not know their blood pressure, and only 21% knew...

  13. Self-Reported Mental Health Predicts Acute Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lizzie; Barrett, Bruce; Chase, Joseph; Brown, Roger; Ewers, Tola

    2015-06-01

    Poor mental health conditions, including stress and depression, have been recognized as a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory infection. Very few studies have considered the role of general mental health in acute respiratory infection occurrence. The aim of this analysis is to determine if overall mental health, as assessed by the mental component of the Short Form 12 Health Survey, predicts incidence, duration, or severity of acute respiratory infection. Data utilized for this analysis came from the National Institute of Health-funded Meditation or Exercise for Preventing Acute Respiratory Infection (MEPARI) and MEPARI-2 randomized controlled trials examining the effects of meditation or exercise on acute respiratory infection among adults aged > 30 years in Madison, Wisconsin. A Kendall tau rank correlation compared the Short Form 12 mental component, completed by participants at baseline, with acute respiratory infection incidence, duration, and area-under-the-curve (global) severity, as assessed by the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey. Participants were recruited from Madison, Wis, using advertisements in local media. Short Form 12 mental health scores significantly predicted incidence (P = 0.037) of acute respiratory infection, but not duration (P = 0.077) or severity (P = 0.073). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) negative emotion measure significantly predicted global severity (P = 0.036), but not incidence (P = 0.081) or duration (P = 0.125). Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores significantly predicted incidence of acute respiratory infection (P = 0.040), but not duration (P = 0.053) or severity (P = 0.70). The PHQ-9, PSS-10, and PANAS positive measures did not show significant predictive associations with any of the acute respiratory infection outcomes. Self-reported overall mental health, as measured by the mental component of Short Form 12, predicts acute respiratory infection incidence.

  14. Association between psychiatric symptoms and erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Ricca, Valdo; Bandini, Elisa; Mannucci, Edoardo; Petrone, Luisa; Fisher, Alessandra D; Lotti, Francesco; Balercia, Giancarlo; Faravelli, Carlo; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2008-02-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is often associated with a wide array of psychiatric symptoms, although few studies systematically address their specific association with ED determinants. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between ED (as assessed by SIEDY Structured Interview, a 13-item tool which identifies and quantifies the contribution of organic, relational, and intrapsychic domains of ED) and different psychopathological symptoms (as assessed by the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire, a self-reported test for the screening of mental disorders in a nonpsychiatric setting). A consecutive series of 1,388 (mean age 51 +/- 13 years) male patients with ED was studied. Several hormonal and biochemical parameters were investigated, along with SIEDY Interview and the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire. Psychiatric symptoms resulted differentially associated with SIEDY domains. Depressive and phobic-anxiety symptoms were associated with the relational domain, somatization with the organic one, while free-floating anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and phobic symptoms were significantly related with higher intrapsychic SIEDY scores. In addition, relevant depressive symptomatology was associated with hypogonadism, the presence of low frequency of intercourse, hypoactive sexual desire (HSD), and conflictual relationships within the couple and the family. Patients with high free-floating anxiety symptoms were younger, and complained of an unsatisfactory work and a conflictual relationship within family. Conversely, subjects with higher phobic anxious symptoms displayed a more robust relational functioning. Similar results were observed in subjects with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, who also reported a lower prevalence of HSD. Finally, subjects with somatization symptoms showed the worst erectile function. The main value of this study is that it alters various clinicians' belief that many psychiatric symptoms can be found among ED patients. Systematic testing of

  15. No Association of BDNF, COMT, MAOA, SLC6A3, and SLC6A4 Genes and Depressive Symptoms in a Sample of Healthy Colombian Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Giraldo, Yeimy; Camargo, Andrés; López-León, Sandra; Forero, Diego A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the second cause of years lived with disability around the world. A large number of studies have been carried out to identify genetic risk factors for MDD and related endophenotypes, mainly in populations of European and Asian descent, with conflicting results. The main aim of the current study was to analyze the possible association of five candidate genes and depressive symptoms in a Colombian sample of healthy subjects. Methods and Materials. The Spanish adaptation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to one hundred eighty-eight healthy Colombian subjects. Five functional polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-based assays: BDNF-Val66Met (rs6265), COMT-Val158Met (rs4680), SLC6A4-HTTLPR (rs4795541), MAOA-uVNTR, and SLC6A3-VNTR (rs28363170). Result. We did not find significant associations with scores of depressive symptoms, derived from the HADS, for any of the five candidate genes (nominal p values >0.05). In addition, we did not find evidence of significant gene-gene interactions. Conclusion. This work is one of the first studies of candidate genes for depressive symptoms in a Latin American sample. Study of additional genetic and epigenetic variants, taking into account other pathophysiological theories, will help to identify novel candidates for MDD in populations around the world.

  16. Subject-chosen activities in occupational therapy for the improvement of psychiatric symptoms of inpatients with chronic schizophrenia: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshii, Junko; Yotsumoto, Kayano; Tatsumi, Eri; Tanaka, Chito; Mori, Takashi; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2013-07-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects of subject-chosen and therapist-chosen activities in occupational therapy for inpatients with chronic schizophrenia. Prospective comparative study. A psychiatric hospital in Japan. Fifty-nine patients with chronic schizophrenia who had been hospitalized for many years. The subjects received six-months occupational therapy, participating in either activities of their choice (subject-chosen activity group, n = 30) or activities chosen by occupational therapists based on treatment recommendations and patient consent (therapist-chosen activity group, n = 29). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale were used to evaluate psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial function, respectively. After six-months occupational therapy, suspiciousness and hostility scores of the positive scale and preoccupation scores of the general psychopathology scale significantly improved in the subject-chosen activity group compared with the therapist-chosen activity group, with 2(2) (median (interquartile range)) and 3(1.25), 2(1) and 2.5(1), and 2(1) and 3(1), respectively. There were no significant differences in psychosocial functions between the two groups. In within-group comparisons before and after occupational therapy, suspiciousness scores of the positive scale, preoccupation scores of the general psychopathology scale, and psychosocial function significantly improved only in the subject-chosen activity group, with 3(1) to 2(2), 3(1) to 2(1), and 40(9) to 40(16) respectively, but not in the therapist-chosen activity group. The results suggested that the subject-chosen activities in occupational therapy could improve the psychiatric symptoms, suspiciousness, and preoccupation of the inpatients with chronic schizophrenia.

  17. Clinical Assessment of Self-Reported Acute Flaccid Paralysis in a Population-Based Setting in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejvar, James J.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Arvelo, Wences; Padilla, Norma; Pringle, Kimberly; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Farnon, Eileen; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Dueger, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Historically, poliovirus infection has been an important cause of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) worldwide; however, successful elimination of wild-type poliovirus in much of the world has highlighted the importance of other causes of AFP. Despite the evolving etiology, AFP surveillance in most developing countries still focuses on poliovirus detection and fails to detect many AFP cases, particularly among adults. We assessed 41 subjects self-reporting symptoms suggestive of AFP during a population-based health survey in the Department of Santa Rosa, Guatemala. Thirty-five (85%) of the suspected cases were not hospitalized. Most subjects (37) did not have features consistent with AFP or had other diagnoses explaining weakness. We identified two adults who had not received medical attention for a clinical illness consistent with Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most important cause of non-poliovirus AFP. Usual surveillance methods for AFP, particularly in developing countries, may underestimate the true burden of non-poliovirus AFP. PMID:20348524

  18. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Okbay (Aysu); Baselmans, B.M.L. (Bart M.L.); J.E. de Neve (Jan-Emmanuel); P. Turley (Patrick); M. Nivard (Michel); Fontana, M.A. (Mark Alan); Meddens, S.F.W. (S. Fleur W.); Linnér, R.K. (Richard Karlsson); Rietveld, C.A. (Cornelius A); J. Derringer; J. Gratten (Jacob); J.J. Lee (James J.); Liu, J.Z. (Jimmy Z); R. de Vlaming (Ronald); SAhluwalia, T. (Tarunveer); Buchwald, J. (Jadwiga); A. Cavadino (Alana); A.C. Frazier-Wood (Alexis C.); Furlotte, N.A. (Nicholas A); Garfield, V. (Victoria); Geisel, M.H. (Marie Henrike); J.R. Gonzalez (Juan R.); Haitjema, S. (Saskia); R. Karlsson (Robert); Der Laan, S.W. (Sander Wvan); K.-H. Ladwig (Karl-Heinz); J. Lahti (Jari); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); P.A. Lind (Penelope); Liu, T. (Tian); Matteson, L. (Lindsay); E. Mihailov (Evelin); M. Miller (Mike); CMinica, C. (Camelia); MNolte, I. (Ilja); D.O. Mook-Kanamori (Dennis); P.J. van der Most (Peter); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); Y. Qian (Yong); O. Raitakari (Olli); R. Rawal (R.); A. Realo; Rueedi, R. (Rico); Schmidt, B. (Börge); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); E. Stergiakouli (Evangelia); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); K.D. Taylor (Kent); Wedenoja, J. (Juho); Wellmann, J. (Juergen); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); MWillems, S. (Sara); Zhao, W. (Wei); L.C. Study (LifeLines Cohort); N. Amin (Najaf); Bakshi, A. (Andrew); P.A. Boyle (Patricia); Cherney, S. (Samantha); Cox, S.R. (Simon R); G. Davies (Gail); O.S.P. Davis (Oliver S.); J. Ding (Jun); N. Direk (Nese); Eibich, P. (Peter); R. Emeny (Rebecca); Fatemifar, G. (Ghazaleh); J.D. Faul; L. Ferrucci (Luigi); A.J. Forstner (Andreas); C. Gieger (Christian); Gupta, R. (Richa); T.B. Harris (Tamara); J.M. Harris (Juliette); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); P.L. de Jager (Philip); M. Kaakinen (Marika); E. Kajantie (Eero); Karhunen, V. (Ville); I. Kolcic (Ivana); M. Kumari (Meena); L.J. Launer (Lenore); L. Franke (Lude); Li-Gao, R. (Ruifang); Koini, M. (Marisa); A. Loukola (Anu); P. Marques-Vidal; G.W. Montgomery (Grant); M. Mosing (Miriam); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); A. Pattie (Alison); K. Petrovic (Katja); Pulkki-R'back, L. (Laura); L. Quaye (Lydia); R'ikkönen, K. (Katri); I. Rudan (Igor); R. Scott (Rodney); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); A.R. Sutin; Trzaskowski, M. (Maciej); Vinkhuyze, A.E. (Anna E.); L. Yu (Lei); D. Zabaneh (Delilah); J. Attia (John); D.A. Bennett (David A.); Berger, K. (Klaus); L. Bertram (Lars); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H. Snieder (Harold); Chang, S.-C. (Shun-Chiao); F. Cucca (Francesco); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); K. Hagen (Knut); U. Bültmann (Ute); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); T. Hansen (T.); Hartman, C.A. (Catharine A); C.M.A. Haworth (Claire M.); C. Hayward (Caroline); A.C. Heath (Andrew C.); D.A. Hinds (David A.); E. Hypponen (Elina); W.G. Iacono (William); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); K.-H. JöCkel (Karl-Heinz); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); Keltikangas-J'rvinen, L. (Liisa); P. Kraft (Peter); Kubzansky, L.D. (Laura D.); Lehtim'ki, T. (Terho); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. McGue (Matt); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Mills (Melinda); R. de Mutsert (Reneé); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); R. Plomin (Robert); O. Polasek (Ozren); C. Power (Christopher); S.S. Rich (Stephen); F.R. Rosendaal (Frits); H.M. den Ruijter (Hester ); Schlessinger, D. (David); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); R. Svento (Rauli); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); B.Z. Alizadeh (Behrooz); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); DSpector, T. (Tim); Steptoe, A. (Andrew); A. Terracciano; A.R. Thurik (Roy); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Vollenweider (Peter); Wagner, G.G. (Gert G.); D.R. Weir (David); J. Yang (Joanna); Conley, D.C. (Dalton C.); G.D. Smith; Hofman, A. (Albert); M. Johannesson (Magnus); D. Laibson (David); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M.N. Meyer (Michelle N.); Pickrell, J.K. (Joseph K.); Esko, T. (T'nu); R.F. Krueger; J.P. Beauchamp (Jonathan); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.); M. Bartels (Meike); D. Cesarini (David)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVery few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data.

  19. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okbay, Aysu; Baselmans, Bart M L; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Turley, Patrick; Nivard, Michel G; Fontana, Mark Alan; Meddens, S Fleur W; Linnér, Richard Karlsson; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Derringer, Jaime; Gratten, Jacob; Lee, James J; Liu, Jimmy Z; de Vlaming, Ronald; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Cavadino, Alana; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Garfield, Victoria; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Gonzalez, Juan R; Haitjema, Saskia; Karlsson, Robert; van der Laan, Sander W; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Tian; Matteson, Lindsay; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B; Minica, Camelia C; Nolte, Ilja M; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; van der Most, Peter J; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rawal, Rajesh; Realo, Anu; Rueedi, Rico; Schmidt, Börge; Smith, Albert V; Stergiakouli, Evie; Tanaka, Toshiko; Taylor, Kent; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Willems, Sara M; Zhao, Wei; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Boyle, Patricia A; Cherney, Samantha; Cox, Simon R; Davies, Gail; Davis, Oliver S P; Ding, Jun; Direk, Nese; Eibich, Peter; Emeny, Rebecca T; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Faul, Jessica D; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forstner, Andreas; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Richa; Harris, Tamara B; Harris, Juliette M; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; De Jager, Philip L; Kaakinen, Marika A; Kajantie, Eero; Karhunen, Ville; Kolcic, Ivana; Kumari, Meena; Launer, Lenore J; Franke, Lude; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Koini, Marisa; Loukola, Anu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Montgomery, Grant W; Mosing, Miriam A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Petrovic, Katja E; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Quaye, Lydia; Räikkönen, Katri; Rudan, Igor; Scott, Rodney J; Smith, Jennifer A; Sutin, Angelina R; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Vinkhuyzen, Anna E; Yu, Lei; Zabaneh, Delilah; Attia, John R; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Boomsma, Dorret I; Snieder, Harold; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Bültmann, Ute; de Geus, Eco J C; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hansen, Torben; Hartman, Catharine A; Haworth, Claire M A; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kraft, Peter; Kubzansky, Laura D; Lehtimäki, Terho; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mills, Melinda; de Mutsert, Renée; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L; Plomin, Robert; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Christine; Rich, Stephen S; Rosendaal, Frits R; den Ruijter, Hester M; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Svento, Rauli; Schmidt, Reinhold; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Steptoe, Andrew; Terracciano, Antonio; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, André G; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagner, Gert G; Weir, David R; Yang, Jian; Conley, Dalton C; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Laibson, David I; Medland, Sarah E; Meyer, Michelle N; Pickrell, Joseph K; Esko, Tõnu; Krueger, Robert F; Beauchamp, Jonathan P; Koellinger, Philipp D; Benjamin, Daniel J; Bartels, Meike; Cesarini, David

    Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted

  20. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okbay, A.; Baselmans, B.M.L.; de Neve, J.E.; Turley, P.; Nivard, M.G.; Fontana, M.A.; Meddens, S.F.W.; Karlsson Linnér, R.; Rietveld, C.A.; Derringer, J.; de Vlaming, R.; Minica, C.C.; Hottenga, J.J.; Vinkhuyzen, A.A.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Medland, S.E.; Meyer, M.N.; Pickrell, J.K.; Esko, T.; Krueger, R.F.; Beauchamp, J.; Koellinger, P.D.; Benjamin, D.J.; Bartels, M.; Cesarini, D.

    2016-01-01

    Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted

  1. Effect of gender on hospital admissions for asthma and prevalence of self-reported asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women are more often admitted to hospital for asthma than men. A study was undertaken to determine whether this is caused by gender differences in the prevalence or severity of the disease. METHODS: Admissions to hospital for asthma in 13,540 subjects were followed from 1977 to 1993....... RESULTS: At baseline 315 subjects (2.3%) reported asthma, 2.2% of women and 2.5% of men. During follow up 160 subjects were admitted to hospital for asthma. After controlling for self-reported asthma and smoking, women had a higher risk of being admitted to hospital than men (relative risk 1.7, 95...

  2. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toar, Magzoub; O'Brien, Kirsty K; Fahey, Tom

    2009-06-30

    Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60) and refugees (n = 28) from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36), presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2-17.9) and depression/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2-15.4), while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3-12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1), high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4) or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9-60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.3) were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (chi2 = 19.74, df = 1, P refugees, while no significant difference was found between these groups for use of dentists, medication, hospitalisation or mental health services. Asylum seekers have a higher level of self reported

  3. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toar, Magzoub

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. METHODS: Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60) and refugees (n = 28) from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36), presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety\\/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. RESULTS: Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2-17.9) and depression\\/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2-15.4), while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3-12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1), high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4) or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9-60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.3) were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression\\/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression\\/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (chi2 = 19.74, df = 1, P < 0.001).In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found between these groups

  4. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahey Tom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. Methods Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60 and refugees (n = 28 from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36, presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. Results Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2–17.9 and depression/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2–15.4, while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3–12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2–10.1, high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1–11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0–10.4 or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9–60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.3 were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (χ2 = 19.74, df = 1, P In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found

  5. Comparison of CO breath testing and women's self-reporting of smoking behaviour for identifying smoking during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipton Deborah

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare services often use a carbon monoxide (CO breath test to validate self-reported smoking and to assess reductions in smoking habit. A cut-off level of ≥ 8 parts per million (p.p.m. is used to identify smoking. This cut-off requires further validation in pregnant women. Methods Data on self-reported smoking were assessed in conjunction with breath CO levels. Subjects in the study were 2548 women attending antenatal booking during 12 months. Results 546/2584 (21.4% women self-reported as current smokers. A cut-off of 8 ppm identified only 325/546 self-reported smokers (sensitivity 59.4%. 27/2002 self-reported non-smokers had levels greater than 8 ppm (specificity 98.7%. Sensitivity and specificity analysis revealed that CO cut-off levels of 2 or 3 p.p.m. resulted in the best sensitivity and specificity for discriminating apparent smokers and non-smokers. A cut-off of 2 p.p.m. would have identified 468/546 of self-reported smokers (sensitivity 86%. 206/2002 self-reported non-smokers had levels > 2 ppm (specificity 90 %. If all these women were 'true' smokers, the real prevalence of smoking in pregnancy was 26.5% (752/2548 and 27% of true smokers provided false answers to the self-reported question at maternity booking. Conclusion At 8 ppm, many smokers are missed and there may be gross underestimating of levels of smoking in a pregnant population. Results emphasise the need to support a lower cut-off level for the breath CO test closer to 2 or 3 p.p.m. These cut-offs may be more appropriate in the antenatal