WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjective rating scale

  1. Phenomenological features of dreams: Results from dream log studies using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Tracey L; Claudatos, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Self-ratings of dream experiences were obtained from 144 college women for 788 dreams, using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS). Consistent with past studies, dreams were characterized by a greater prevalence of vision, audition, and movement than smell, touch, or taste, by both positive and negative emotion, and by a range of cognitive processes. A Principal Components Analysis of SERS ratings revealed ten subscales: four sensory, three affective, one cognitive, and two structural (events/actions, locations). Correlations (Pearson r) among subscale means showed a stronger relationship among the process-oriented features (sensory, cognitive, affective) than between the process-oriented and content-centered (structural) features--a pattern predicted from past research (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008). Notably, cognition and positive emotion were associated with a greater number of other phenomenal features than was negative emotion; these findings are consistent with studies of the qualitative features of waking autobiographical memory (e.g., Fredrickson, 2001). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  3. The sensitivity and specificity of subjective memory complaints and the subjective memory rating scale, deterioration cognitive observee, mini-mental state examination, six-item screener and clock drawing test in dementia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlall, S; Chipps, J; Bhigjee, A I; Pillay, B J

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of dementia screening depends on the availability of suitable screening tools with good sensitivity and specificity to confidently distinguish normal age-related cognitive decline from dementia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminant validity of 7 screening measures for dementia. A sample of 140 participants aged ≥60 years living in a residential facility for the aged were assessed clinically and assigned caseness for dementia using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revised diagnostic criteria. Sensitivity and specificity of a selection of the following screening measures were tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for individual and combined tests: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Six-Item Screener (SIS), Subjective Memory Complaint, Subjective Memory Complaint Clinical (SMCC), Subjective Memory Rating Scale (SMRS), Deterioration Cognitive Observee (DECO) and the Clock Drawing Test (CDT). Using ROC analyses, the SMCC, MMSE and CDT were found to be 'moderately accurate' in screening for dementia with an area under the curve (AUC) >0.70. The AUCs for the SIS (0.526), SMRS (0.661) and DECO (0.687) classified these measures as being 'less accurate'. At recommended cutoff scores, the SMCC had a sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 45.7%; the MMSE had a sensitivity of 63.6% and a specificity of 76.0%, and the CDT had a sensitivity of 44.4% and a specificity of 88.9%. Combining the SMCC and MMSE did not improve their predictive power except for a modest increase when using the sequential rule. The SMCC is composed of valid screening questions that have high sensitivity, are simple to administer and ideal for administration at the community or primary health care level as a first level of 'rule-out' screening. The MMSE can be included at a second stage of screening at the general hospital level and the CDT in specialist clinical settings. Sequential use of the

  4. Intensity modulation of cutaneous electrical stimulation: : EPs and subjective ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, E.M.; Buitenweg, Jan R.; Marani, Enrico; Rutten, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Chronic pain research is increasingly focused on the neuroplastic mechanisms underlying subjective pain experience. The latter is often measured using reported pain intensity, e.g. using a numeric rating scale (NRS). Evoked Potentials (EPs) reflect the cortical representation of applied stimuli and

  5. Tackling the sheer scale of subjective QoE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkovski, V.; Exarchakos, G.; Liotta, A.; Atzoni, L.; Delgado, J.; Giusto, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS) used as a method for subjective assessment of video quality alleviates the inconveniencies associated with high variation and biases common in rating methods. However, the number of tests in a MLDS study rises fairly quickly with the number of samples

  6. Symptom rating scale for assessing hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, I; Trzepacz, P T; Roberts, M; Levey, G S

    1988-02-01

    A hyperthyroid symptom scale (HSS) was designed and administered to ten subjects with untreated Graves' disease. All subjects had clinical and chemical evidence of hyperthyroidism and reproducible HSS scores of 20 or more points. During sequential treatments with propranolol hydrochloride (phase 2) followed by propylthiouracil (phase 3) there was a significant decline in the HSS scores at each phase. Accompanying the decrease in HSS scores was a decrease in heart rate, but there was no change in thyroid function test results at phase 2 and a decrease in heart rate, thyroid function test results, and goiter size at phase 3. This new scale includes ten categories of symptoms, it is sensitive to changes in both the adrenergic and metabolic components of hyperthyroidism, and it is useful in the clinical assessment and management of patients with thyrotoxicosis.

  7. Agreement between paper and pen visual analogue scales and a wristwatch-based electronic appetite rating system (PRO-Diary©), for continuous monitoring of free-living subjective appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, P L S; Dodd-Reynolds, C J; Stevenson, E

    2013-10-01

    Electronic capture of free-living subjective appetite data can provide a more reliable alternative to traditional pen and paper visual analogue scales (P&P VAS), whilst reducing researcher workload. Consequently, the aim of this study was to explore the agreement between P&P VAS and a wristwatch-based electronic appetite rating system known as the PRO-Diary© technique, for monitoring free-living appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children. On one occasion, using a within-subject design, the 12 children (n=6 boys; n=6 girls) recorded their subjective appetite (hunger, prospective food consumption, and fullness), at two time points before lunch (11:30 and 12:00) and every 60 min thereafter until 21:00. The agreement between the P&P VAS and PRO-Diary© technique was explored using 95% limits of agreement and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) calculated using the Bland and Altman (1986) technique. For hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness, the 95% limits of agreement were -1±25 mm (95% CI: lower limit -8mm; upper limit +6mm), 0±21 mm (95% CI: lower limit -6mm; upper limit +6mm) and -6±24 mm (95% CI: lower limit -14 mm; upper limit +1mm), respectively. Given the advantages associated with electronic data capture (inexpensive; integrated alarm; data easily downloaded), we conclude that the PRO-Diary© technique is an equivalent method to employ when continuously monitoring free-living appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children, but should not be used interchangeably with P&P VAS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Translation and Validation of the Malay Subjective Happiness Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2008-01-01

    The Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky and Lepper, "Social Indicators Research," 46, 137-155, 1999) is a brief measure for assessing subjective happiness. The reliability and validity of the Malay version of the Subjective Happiness Scale was investigated in a community sample of 290 Chinese and 227 Malays in Malaysia. Results…

  9. National Image Interpretablility Rating Scales

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Interactive Media Element This presentation media demonstrates the NIIRS scale and resolution numbers and presents a problem statement to help the student gain an intuitive understanding of the numbers. Last modified: 5/18/2009 ME3XXX Military Applications of Unmanned Air Vehicles/Remotely Operated Aircraft (UAV/ROA)

  10. Test Review: Autism Spectrum Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simek, Amber N.; Wahlberg, Andrea C.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Autism Spectrum Rating Scales (ASRS) which are designed to measure behaviors in children between the ages of 2 and 18 that are associated with disorders on the autism spectrum as rated by parents/caregivers and/or teachers. The rating scales include items related to behaviors associated with Autism, Asperger's Disorder, and…

  11. Rate of injury and subjective benefits of gravitational wellness weightlifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, David T; Bell, Regina; Al-Adawi, Samir; Alexandroni, Ariel; Dorvlo, Atsu; Burke, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary study using the "gravitational wellness" weightlifting technique demonstrated this to be a unique technique for loading the musculoskeletal system with extremely high loads over short arcs. This leads to rapid weekly strength gains using 30-minute weekly training sessions. This study was designed to further assess the benefit-risk ratio of the gravitational wellness weightlifting technique. This descriptive/retrospective study examined musculoskeletal and well-being outcomes as well as injuries reported by consecutive participants at one gravitational wellness gym. All adults presenting for training at the Atlanta, Georgia, gravitational wellness system facility over a 6-month period were invited to participate. Data were obtained by telephone interview concerning the presenting complaint/objective of training, subjective outcome, weights lifted, and injuries incurred during training. Of the 77 participants contacted via telephone, 92% agreed to participate (male, n=40; female, n=31). The participants ranged in age from 18 years to 69 years, with a mean age of 48.6 years. Of these, 42 (59%) presented to the gym with the objective of improving a defined musculoskeletal issue. The modal of these was chronic low-back pain. The subjects realized improvement on a 5-point Likert scale of 4.2/5 for their presenting complaint, and improved by 4.27/5 in their overall subjective health. There were no injuries. This study of consecutive participants at a gravitational wellness gym found that by lifting large weights over short arcs 3 0 minutes per week, participants significantly increased their strength, reduced their musculoskeletal pain, improve their subjective well-being, and reported a low rate of injury.

  12. Rate of injury and subjective benefits of gravitational wellness weightlifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke DT

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available David T Burke,1 Regina Bell,1 Samir Al-Adawi,2 Ariel Alexandroni,1 Atsu Dorvlo,3 Daniel P Burke4 1Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Emory University, GA, USA; 2Department of Behavioral Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, 3Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman; 4Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, GA, USA Background: A preliminary study using the "gravitational wellness" weightlifting technique demonstrated this to be a unique technique for loading the musculoskeletal system with extremely high loads over short arcs. This leads to rapid weekly strength gains using 30-minute weekly training sessions. This study was designed to further assess the benefit–risk ratio of the gravitational wellness weightlifting technique. Purpose: This descriptive/retrospective study examined musculoskeletal and well-being outcomes as well as injuries reported by consecutive participants at one gravitational wellness gym. Materials and methods: All adults presenting for training at the Atlanta, Georgia, gravitational wellness system facility over a 6-month period were invited to participate. Data were obtained by telephone interview concerning the presenting complaint/objective of training, subjective outcome, weights lifted, and injuries incurred during training. Results: Of the 77 participants contacted via telephone, 92% agreed to participate (male, n=40; female, n=31. The participants ranged in age from 18 years to 69 years, with a mean age of 48.6 years. Of these, 42 (59% presented to the gym with the objective of improving a defined musculoskeletal issue. The modal of these was chronic low-back pain. The subjects realized improvement on a 5-point Likert scale of 4.2/5 for their presenting complaint, and improved by 4.27/5 in their overall subjective health. There were no injuries. Conclusion: This study of consecutive participants at a gravitational

  13. Modelling of rate effects at multiple scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, R.R.; Simone, A.; Sluys, L. J.

    2008-01-01

    , the length scale in the meso-model and the macro-model can be coupled. In this fashion, a bridging of length scales can be established. A computational analysis of  a Split Hopkinson bar test at medium and high impact load is carried out at macro-scale and meso-scale including information from  the micro-scale.......At the macro- and meso-scales a rate dependent constitutive model is used in which visco-elasticity is coupled to visco-plasticity and damage. A viscous length scale effect is introduced to control the size of the fracture process zone. By comparison of the widths of the fracture process zone...

  14. Self-stimulating rats combine subjective reward magnitude and subjective reward rate multiplicatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, M I; Gallistel, C R

    1998-07-01

    For rats that bar pressed for intracranial electrical stimulation in a 2-lever matching paradigm with concurrent variable interval schedules of reward, the authors found that the time allocation ratio is based on a multiplicative combination of the ratio of subjective reward magnitudes and the ratio of the rates of reward. Multiplicative combining was observed in a range covering approximately 2 orders of magnitude in the ratio of the rates of reward from about 1:10 to 10:1) and an order of magnitude change in the size of rewards. After determining the relation between the pulse frequency of stimulation and subjective reward magnitude, the authors were able to predict from knowledge of the subjective magnitudes of the rewards and the obtained relative rates of reward the subject's time allocation ratio over a range in which it varied by more than 3 orders of magnitude.

  15. Computer-Administered Interviews and Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Howard N.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the value of computer-administered interviews and rating scales, the following topics are reviewed in the present article: (a) strengths and weaknesses of structured and unstructured assessment instruments, (b) advantages and disadvantages of computer administration, and (c) the validity and utility of computer-administered interviews…

  16. Prediction of subjective ratings of emotional pictures by EEG features

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dennis J.; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Sarnacki, William A.; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Emotion dysregulation is an important aspect of many psychiatric disorders. Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology could be a powerful new approach to facilitating therapeutic self-regulation of emotions. One possible BCI method would be to provide stimulus-specific feedback based on subject-specific electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to emotion-eliciting stimuli. Approach. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we studied the relationships between emotional valence/arousal and three EEG features: amplitude of alpha activity over frontal cortex; amplitude of theta activity over frontal midline cortex; and the late positive potential over central and posterior mid-line areas. For each feature, we evaluated its ability to predict emotional valence/arousal on both an individual and a group basis. Twenty healthy participants (9 men, 11 women; ages 22-68) rated each of 192 pictures from the IAPS collection in terms of valence and arousal twice (96 pictures on each of 4 d over 2 weeks). EEG was collected simultaneously and used to develop models based on canonical correlation to predict subject-specific single-trial ratings. Separate models were evaluated for the three EEG features: frontal alpha activity; frontal midline theta; and the late positive potential. In each case, these features were used to simultaneously predict both the normed ratings and the subject-specific ratings. Main results. Models using each of the three EEG features with data from individual subjects were generally successful at predicting subjective ratings on training data, but generalization to test data was less successful. Sparse models performed better than models without regularization. Significance. The results suggest that the frontal midline theta is a better candidate than frontal alpha activity or the late positive potential for use in a BCI-based paradigm designed to modify emotional reactions.

  17. Rating scales in general practice depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Paykel, Eugene; Sireling, Lester

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our objective was to investigate to what extent the Clinical Interview for Depression (CID) used in the general practice setting covers clinically valid subscales (depression, anxiety, and apathy) which can measure outcome of antidepressant therapy as well as identifying subsyndromes...... within major depressive disorder. The CID was compared to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17). METHODS: 146 patients from a previous study in general practice with the CID were investigated. The item response theory model established by Rasch was used to investigate the scalability (a scale...... (approximately 20%) had an atypical depression. LIMITATIONS: The samples were derived from a single study and were all rated by a single rater. CONCLUSION: The CID contains subscales of depression, anxiety, and apathy with an acceptable scalability for use in general practice. A subsyndrome of atypical...

  18. Dynamics of a seismogenic fault subject to variable strain rate

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dragoni; A. Piombo

    2011-01-01

    The behaviour of seismogenic faults is generally investigated under the assumption that they are subject to a constant strain rate. We consider the effect of a slowly variable strain rate on the recurrence times of earthquakes generated by a single fault. To this aim a spring-block system is employed as a low-order analog of the fault. Two cases are considered: a sinusoidal oscillation in the driver velocity and a monotonic change from one velocity value to another. In the f...

  19. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS scale: A methodological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strelow Frank

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper compiles data from different sources to get a first comprehensive picture of psychometric and other methodological characteristics of the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS scale. The scale was designed and standardized as a self-administered scale to (a to assess symptoms/complaints of aging women under different conditions, (b to evaluate the severity of symptoms over time, and (c to measure changes pre- and postmenopause replacement therapy. The scale became widespread used (available in 10 languages. Method A large multinational survey (9 countries in 4 continents from 2001/ 2002 is the basis for in depth analyses on reliability and validity of the MRS. Additional small convenience samples were used to get first impressions about test-retest reliability. The data were centrally analyzed. Data from a postmarketing HRT study were used to estimate discriminative validity. Results Reliability measures (consistency and test-retest stability were found to be good across countries, although the sample size for test-retest reliability was small. Validity: The internal structure of the MRS across countries was astonishingly similar to conclude that the scale really measures the same phenomenon in symptomatic women. The sub-scores and total score correlations were high (0.7–0.9 but lower among the sub-scales (0.5–0.7. This however suggests that the subscales are not fully independent. Norm values from different populations were presented showing that a direct comparison between Europe and North America is possible, but caution recommended with comparisons of data from Latin America and Indonesia. But this will not affect intra-individual comparisons within clinical trials. The comparison with the Kupperman Index showed sufficiently good correlations, illustrating an adept criterion-oriented validity. The same is true for the comparison with the generic quality-of-life scale SF-36 where also a sufficiently close association

  20. Not all group hypnotic suggestibility scales are created equal: individual differences in behavioral and subjective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sean M; Lynn, Steven Jay; Pekala, Ronald J

    2009-03-01

    To examine the influence of hypnotic suggestibility testing as a source of individual differences in hypnotic responsiveness, we compared behavioral and subjective responses on three scales of hypnotic suggestibility: The Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS: A; Shor, R. E., Orne, E. C. (1962). Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. Berlin: Consulting Psychologists Press); the Carleton University Responsiveness to Suggestion Scale (CURSS; Spanos, N. P., Radtke, H. L., Hodgins, D. C., Stam, H. J., Bertrand, L. D. (1983b). The Carleton University Responsiveness to Suggestion Scale: Normative data and psychometric properties. Psychological Reports, 53, 523-535); and the Group Scale of Hypnotic Ability (GSHA; Hawkins, R., Wenzel, L. (1999). The Group Scale of Hypnotic Ability and response booklet. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 27, 20-31). Behavioral and subjective responses to the CURSS were significantly different than those on the HGSHS: A and GSHA. More participants were classified as "low suggestible" on the CURSS and they reported subjective experiences more similar to everyday mentation. Attitudes and expectancies of participants who received the GSHA were less predictive of responding, but rates of responding and subjective experiences were similar on the GSHA and the HGSHS: A. Discussion focuses on implications for the use of group hypnotic suggestibility scales.

  1. Outcome Rating Scale and Session Rating Scale in Psychological Practice: Clinical Utility of Ultra-Brief Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alistair; Hemsley, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS) were evaluated against existing longer measures, including the Outcome Questionnaire-45, Working Alliance Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Quality of Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. The measures…

  2. Heart rate detection from an electronic weighing scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Landaeta, R; Casas, O; Pallàs-Areny, R

    2008-01-01

    We propose a novel technique for beat-to-beat heart rate detection based on the ballistocardiographic (BCG) force signal from a subject standing on a common electronic weighing scale. The detection relies on sensing force variations related to the blood acceleration in the aorta, works even if wearing footwear and does not require any sensors attached to the body because it uses the load cells in the scale. We have devised an approach to estimate the sensitivity and frequency response of three commercial weighing scales to assess their capability to detect the BCG force signal. Static sensitivities ranged from 490 nV V −1 N −1 to 1670 nV V −1 N −1 . The frequency response depended on the subject's mass but it was broad enough for heart rate estimation. We have designed an electronic pulse detection system based on off-the-shelf integrated circuits to sense heart-beat-related force variations of about 0.24 N. The signal-to-noise ratio of the main peaks of the force signal detected was higher than 30 dB. A Bland–Altman plot was used to compare the RR time intervals estimated from the ECG and BCG force signals for 17 volunteers. The error was ±21 ms, which makes the proposed technique suitable for short-term monitoring of the heart rate

  3. Evaluation of subjective thermal strain in different kitchen working environments using subjective judgment scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, Yasuo; Muto, Takashi; Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Ito, Akiyoshi; Tomita, Shigeru; Muto, Shigeki; Haratani, Takashi; Seo, Akihiko; Ayabe, Makoto; Katamoto, Shizuo

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate the subjective thermal strain of workers in kitchen working environments, we performed a cross-sectional study involving 991 workers in 126 kitchen facilities in Japan, using a self-reporting questionnaire survey and subjective judgment scales (SJS). The ambient temperature, mean radiant temperature (MRT), and wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index were measured in 10 kitchen facilities of the 126 kitchens. The association of SJS with the types of kitchen was estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Of the 991 kitchen workers, 809 (81%) responded to the questionnaire survey. Compared with the electric kitchens, the proportion of workers who perceived the room temperature as hot to very hot was significantly higher, and the ambient temperature, MRT, and WBGT were significantly higher in the gas kitchens. Compared with the electric kitchens, workers in gas kitchens had a more than fivefold (males) and tenfold (females) higher SJS adjusted for confounding factors (male odds ratio (OR), 5.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-15.9; and female OR, 10.9; 95%CI, 3.89-30.5). Although SJS was affected by some confounding factors, our results suggest that workers in gas kitchens might be exposed to a higher heat strains than those in electric kitchens.

  4. The heart field effect: Synchronization of healer-subject heart rates in energy therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Christine Caldwell

    2008-01-01

    Recent health research has focused on subtle energy and vibrational frequency as key components of health and healing. In particular, intentional direction of bioenergy is receiving increasing scientific attention. This study investigates the effect of the healer's electromagnetic (EM) heart field upon subjects during energy healing as measured by synchronization of heart rates and scores on a Subjective Units of Distress (SUD) scale and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) inventory. A nonequivalent pretest-posttest design was used based on heart rate comparisons between healer and subject and correlated with pre-and posttest SUD and POMS scores. Subjects included those who sat within the 3- to 4-foot "strong" range of the independent variable, the healer's heart field, while performing self-application of WHEE (the wholistic hybrid derived from EMDR [eye movement desensitization and reprocessing], and EFT [emotional freedom technique]), a meridian-based tapping technique (n=50); and those who performed the same process beyond the 15- to 18-foot range of the healer's EM heart field (n=41). The dependent variables were heart rate, SUD, and POMS inventory. All subjects completed these measures within 1 hour. Study results showed statistically significant heart-rate synchronization with the intervention population. In addition, SUD and POMS scores demonstrated considerably more improvement than in the control population, indicating additional benefit beyond the meridian-based therapies, such as WHEE, alone. Additional findings and future research recommendations are presented in this article.

  5. Subjective Happiness of Lebanese College Youth in Lebanon: Factorial Structure and Invariance of the Arabic Subjective Happiness Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghnie, Lamia; Kazarian, Shahe S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the subjective happiness of Lebanese college youth using a multi-item rather than a single-item subjective happiness measure. An Arabic translation of the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) was administered to 273 Lebanese college youth from state- and private-run higher institutions of learning, as was the Arabic Adult…

  6. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  7. Subjective assessment of impairment in scale-space-coded images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de H.; Majoor, G.M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Direct category scaling and a scaling procedure in accordance with Functional Measurement Theory (Anderson, 1982) have been used to assess impairment in scale-space-coded illlages, displayed on a black-and-white TV monitor. The image of a complex scene was passed through a Gaussian filter of limited

  8. Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Adler, Lenard A.; Qiao, Meihua; Saylor, Keith E.; Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James A.; Schuh, Kory J.; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) that measures aspects of ADHD in adults. Method: Psychometric properties of the AISRS total and AISRS subscales are analyzed and compared to the Conners' Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV)…

  9. Increased strength of concrete subject to high loading rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curbach, M.

    1987-01-01

    Within the scope of this work various problems are discussed which occur in connection with concrete under high tensile loading rates (e.g. when a plane crashes on a nuclear power plant very high loads occur which act only for a very short time). Particularly the causes for the already frequently noticed increases in strength with increasing loading rates are investigated and also the question whether this increased strength can be taken into account when dimensioning a construction. (MM) [de

  10. Modeling the time--varying subjective quality of HTTP video streams with rate adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Choi, Lark Kwon; de Veciana, Gustavo; Caramanis, Constantine; Heath, Robert W; Bovik, Alan C

    2014-05-01

    Newly developed hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)-based video streaming technologies enable flexible rate-adaptation under varying channel conditions. Accurately predicting the users' quality of experience (QoE) for rate-adaptive HTTP video streams is thus critical to achieve efficiency. An important aspect of understanding and modeling QoE is predicting the up-to-the-moment subjective quality of a video as it is played, which is difficult due to hysteresis effects and nonlinearities in human behavioral responses. This paper presents a Hammerstein-Wiener model for predicting the time-varying subjective quality (TVSQ) of rate-adaptive videos. To collect data for model parameterization and validation, a database of longer duration videos with time-varying distortions was built and the TVSQs of the videos were measured in a large-scale subjective study. The proposed method is able to reliably predict the TVSQ of rate adaptive videos. Since the Hammerstein-Wiener model has a very simple structure, the proposed method is suitable for online TVSQ prediction in HTTP-based streaming.

  11. Scale modeling of reinforced concrete structures subjected to seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    Reinforced concrete, Category I structures are so large that the possibility of seismicly testing the prototype structures under controlled conditions is essentially nonexistent. However, experimental data, from which important structural properties can be determined and existing and new methods of seismic analysis benchmarked, are badly needed. As a result, seismic experiments on scaled models are of considerable interest. In this paper, the scaling laws are developed in some detail so that assumptions and choices based on judgement can be clearly recognized and their effects discussed. The scaling laws developed are then used to design a reinforced concrete model of a Category I structure. Finally, how scaling is effected by various types of damping (viscous, structural, and Coulomb) is discussed

  12. Exploring cognitive complaints in schizophrenia: the subjective scale to investigate cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stip, E; Caron, J; Renaud, S; Pampoulova, T; Lecomte, Y

    2003-01-01

    While it has become commonplace to test the various components of memory in schizophrenia with paper-and-pencil or in-lab tasks, very little data exist on the subjective complaints of patients regarding their memory. Few instruments have been designed to collect systematically the complaints of patients with schizophrenia. We present a work in progress on the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), a 21-item, Likert-type scale that is simple and easy to use. It allows a quantitative approach to the subjective and cognitive dimensions of schizophrenia. Stip constructed the scale based on a questionnaire covering several cognitive domains: memory (working memory, explicit long-term memory), attention (divided, distractibility, alertness, sustained), language, and praxia. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the SSTICS in a population of 114 French-speaking patients in Montreal. Patients were recruited in the community and assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale (ESRS). Cognition was measured using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) (long-term memory), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (verbal fluency), and Trails A and B. Preliminary analyses showed very good internal consistency for the global score (alpha=0.88), and alphas varying from 0.57 to 0.72 for the subscales. Stability over time was very good. The principal components analysis accounted for a multiple structure. Correlations between subjective scores and objective cognitive assessment were significant for several domains. Validation of the SSTICS needs to be completed through further exploration of the factorial structure and testing of the English version.

  13. Decision Tree Rating Scales for Workload Estimation: Theme and Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietwille, W. W.; Skipper, J. H.; Rieger, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of workload in several different types of aircrew tasks. The MCH scale was examined to determine if certain variations of the scale might provide even greater sensitivity and to determine the reasons for the sensitivity of the scale. The MCH scale and five newly devised scales were studied in two different aircraft simulator experiments in which pilot loading was treated as an independent variable. Results indicate that while one of the new scales may be more sensitive in a given experiment, task dependency is a problem. The MCH scale exhibits consistent sensitivity and remains the scale recommended for general use. The results of the rating scale experiments are presented and the questionnaire results which were directed at obtaining a better understanding of the reasons for the relative sensitivity of the MCH scale and its variations are described.

  14. The impact of food viscosity on eating rate, subjective appetite, glycemic response and gastric emptying rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV and a high viscosity (HV semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020, with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively while fullness was higher (P<0.001. In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001, higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001 and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001. However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods.

  15. PENGUKURAN BEBAN KERJA MENTAL DALAM SEARCHING TASK DENGAN METODE RATING SCALE MENTAL EFFORT (RSME)

    OpenAIRE

    Ari Widyanti; Addie Johnson; Dick de Waard

    2012-01-01

    Metode pengukuran beban kerja mental meliputi metode obyektif dan subyektif. Metode pengukuran beban kerja mental secara subyektif yang banyak diaplikasikan di Indonesia adalah Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT) dan NASA TLX (NASA Task Load Index). SWAT dan NASA TLX adalah pengukuran subyektif yang bersifat multidimensional (multidimensional scaling) yang relatif membutuhkan waktu dalam aplikasinya. Sebagai alternatif SWAT dan NASA TLX, Rating Scale Mental Effort (...

  16. Effective Rating Scale Development for Speaking Tests: Performance Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…

  17. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  18. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.; Barisic, N.; Baxter, P.; Brankovic-Sreckovic, V.; Calabrò, G. E.; Catsman-Berrevoets, C.; de Coo, Ifm; Craiu, D.; Dan, B.; Gburek-Augustat, J.; Kammoun-Feki, F.; Kennedy, C.; Mancini, F.; Mirabelli-Badenier, M.; Nemeth, A.; Newton, R.; Poll-The, B. T.; Steinlin, M.; Synofzik, M.; Topcu, M.; Triki, C.; Valente, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean age 10y 5mo

  19. Textured insoles reduce vertical loading rate and increase subjective plantar sensation in overground running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael; Ewen, Alistair; Caplan, Nicholas; O'leary, David; Smith, Neil; Stoneham, Richard; Saxby, Lee

    2018-05-01

    The effect of textured insoles on kinetics and kinematics of overground running was assessed. 16 male injury-free-recreational runners attended a single visit (age 23 ± 5 yrs; stature 1.78 ± 0.06 m; mass 72.6 ± 9.2 kg). Overground 15-m runs were completed in flat, canvas plimsolls both with and without textured insoles at self-selected velocity on an indoor track in an order that was balanced among participants. Average vertical loading rate and peak vertical force (F peak ) were captured by force platforms. Video footage was digitised for sagittal plane hip, knee and ankle angles at foot strike and mid stance. Velocity, stride rate and length and contact and flight time were determined. Subjectively rated plantar sensation was recorded by visual scale. 95% confidence intervals estimated mean differences. Smallest worthwhile change in loading rate was defined as standardised reduction of 0.54 from a previous comparison of injured versus non-injured runners. Loading rate decreased (-25 to -9.3 BW s -1 ; 60% likely beneficial reduction) and plantar sensation was increased (46-58 mm) with the insole. F peak (-0.1 to 0.14 BW) and velocity (-0.02 to 0.06 m s -1 ) were similar. Stride length, flight and contact time were lower (-0.13 to -0.01 m; -0.02 to-0.01 s; -0.016 to -0.006 s) and stride rate was higher (0.01-0.07 steps s -1 ) with insoles. Textured insoles elicited an acute, meaningful decrease in vertical loading rate in short distance, overground running and were associated with subjectively increased plantar sensation. Reduced vertical loading rate could be explained by altered stride characteristics.

  20. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Rating Scales with a Brief Review of the "Connors Teacher Rating Scale" (1998)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Matthew, McLaughlin, T. F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) definition of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) (ADHD). The use of rating scales to diagnose ADHD was evaluated. Rating scales have been used since the 1970s and are highly influential in the detection…

  1. Measuring Subjective Happiness by Newly Developed Scale in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Happiness as one of the main positive health indicators has drawn more attention in recent years among policy makers and health system managers. There are few studies performed to measure happiness in population-based settings in Iran. In response to this need, our study tends to assess Iranians subjective happiness in Tehran, Capital city of Iran.Materials and Methods: Present study was conducted in Tehran, Capital of Iran, with more than 7 Million populations in January 2013, using a two-step approach. In first step c conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness was developed. In the second phase of study, a survey recruiting 700 participants was conducted. Stratified cluster sampling method was employed. Participants were recruited from all the 22 municipal divisions of Tehran as strata, proportional to the population size and its gender and age distribution. Happiness was measure by a 40-item questionnaire with scores ranged among 40 to 200.Results: Conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness based on reviewed documents and consensus building process was the product of first step. At second step, from a pool of 700 persons, 696 (97% agreed to participate and filled out the questionnaire completely.  The mean of happiness score was 143.9 (95% confidence interval, 142.5 to 145.4. The results show that the happiness score of jobless people (135.1, 95%CI: 128.1-142.0 and widowed singles (126.6, 95%CI: 113.0-140.2 were significantly lower than other corresponding groups. There was no significant association between gender, age group, educational level as determinants and happiness.Conclusion: Happiness level of Tehranians is somewhat higher than the moderate level. This finding is consistent with findings of other conducted studies in country. However, it is not consistent with some of international reports of happiness, For instance, Happy Planet Index. Due to inadequate information, it is necessary to conduct more research to

  2. A consensus definition and rating scale for minimalist shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esculier, Jean-Francois; Dubois, Blaise; Dionne, Clermont E; Leblond, Jean; Roy, Jean-Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    While minimalist running shoes may have an influence on running biomechanics and on the incidence of overuse injuries, the term "minimalist" is currently used without standardisation. The objectives of this study were to reach a consensus on a standard definition of minimalist running shoes, and to develop and validate a rating scale that could be used to determine the degree of minimalism of running shoes, the Minimalist Index (MI). For this modified Delphi study, 42 experts from 11 countries completed four electronic questionnaires on an optimal definition of minimalist shoes and on elements to include within the MI. Once MI was developed following consensus, 85 participants subjectively ranked randomly assigned footwear models from the most to the least minimalist and rated their degree of minimalism using visual analog scales (VAS), before evaluating the same footwear models using MI. A subsample of thirty participants reassessed the same shoes on another occasion. Construct validity and inter- and intra-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]; Gwet's AC1) of MI were evaluated. The following definition of minimalist shoes was agreed upon by 95 % of participants: "Footwear providing minimal interference with the natural movement of the foot due to its high flexibility, low heel to toe drop, weight and stack height, and the absence of motion control and stability devices". Characteristics to be included in MI were weight, flexibility, heel to toe drop, stack height and motion control/stability devices, each subscale carrying equal weighing (20 %) on final score. Total MI score was highly correlated with VAS (r = 0.91). A significant rank effect (p minimalism, and may help to decrease injuries related to footwear transition.

  3. The Secret to the "Best" Ratings from Any Evaluation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    Most faculty developers have a wide variety of rating scales that fly across their desk tops as their incremental program activities unfold during the academic year. The primary issue for this column is: What is the quality of those ratings used for decisions about people and programs? When students, faculty, and administrators rate a program or…

  4. ASSESSMENT OF SUBJECTIVE PERCEIVED EXERTION AT THE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD WITH THE BORG CR-10 SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio R. Zamunér

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anaerobic threshold (AT with a graphic visual method for estimating the intensity of ventilatory and metabolic exertion and to determine the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE on the Borg CR-10 scale during a continuous ramp type exercise test (CT-R. Forty healthy, physically active and sedentary young women (age 23.1 ± 3.52 years were divided into two groups according to their fitness level: active group (AG and sedentary group (SG and were submitted to a CT-R on a cycloergometer with 20 to 25 W/min increments. Shortly before the end of each one-minute period, the subjects were asked to rate dyspnea (RPE-D and leg fatigue (RPE-L on the Borg CR-10 scale. After the AT was determined with the graphic visual method, the score that the volunteers gave on the Borg CR10 scale was verified. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney and Spearman correlation tests with the significance level set at 5%. The mean ratings of RPE-L and RPE-D at the AT level were not significantly different between groups (p > 0.05. Significant correlations were found between VO2, heart rate (HR, power output and RPE for both groups. The muscular and respiratory RPE, according to the Borg CR-10 scale, were correlated with the AT, suggesting that scores close to 5, which correspond to a "strong" perception, may be used as parameters for quantifying aerobic exercise intensity for active and sedentary individuals. The similar perception of exercise intensity, which corresponded to the AT of different individuals, makes it possible to prescribe exercise at an intensity equivalent to the AT by means of the RPE.

  5. Museum activities in dementia care: Using visual analog scales to measure subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joana; Culverwell, Alison; Hulbert, Sabina; Robertson, Mitch; Camic, Paul M

    2017-07-01

    Introduction Previous research has shown that people with dementia and caregivers derive wellbeing-related benefits from viewing art in a group, and that facilitated museum object handling is effective in increasing subjective wellbeing for people with a range of health conditions. The present study quantitatively compared the impact of two museum-based activities and a social activity on the subjective wellbeing of people with dementia and their caregivers. Methods A quasi-experimental crossover design was used. People with early to middle stage dementia and caregivers ( N = 66) participated in museum object handling, a refreshment break, and art viewing in small groups. Visual analog scales were used to rate subjective wellbeing pre and post each activity. Results Mixed-design analysis of variances indicated wellbeing significantly increased during the session, irrespective of the order in which the activities were presented. Wellbeing significantly increased from object handling and art viewing for those with dementia and caregivers across pooled orders, but did not in the social activity of a refreshment break. An end-of-intervention questionnaire indicated that experiences of the session were positive. Conclusion Results provide a rationale for considering museum activities as part of a broader psychosocial, relational approach to dementia care and support the use of easy to administer visual analog scales as a quantitative outcome measure. Further partnership working is also supported between museums and healthcare professionals in the development of nonclinical, community-based programs for this population.

  6. [Preliminary study on civil capacity rating scale for mental disabled patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin-Ting; Pang, Yan-Xia; Cai, Wei-Xiong; Tang, Tao; Huang, Fu-Yin

    2010-10-01

    To create civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients, and explore its feasibility during the forensic psychiatric expertise. The civil capacity-related items were determined after discussion and consultation. The civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients was established and the manual was created according to the logistic sequence of the assessment. The rating scale was used during the civil assessment in four institutes. There were 14 items in civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients. Two hundred and two subjects were recruited and divided into three groups according to the experts' opinion on their civil capacities: full civil capacity, partial civil capacity and no civil capacity. The mean score of the three groups were 2.32 +/- 2.45, 11.62 +/- 4.01 and 25.02 +/- 3.90, respectively, and there was statistical differences among the groups. The Cronbach alpha of the rating scale was 0.9724, and during the split-reliability test, the two-splited part of the rating scale were highly correlated (r = 0.9729, P = 0.000). The Spearman correlative coefficient between each item and the score of the rating scale was from 0.643 to 0.882 (P = 0.000). There was good correlation between the conclusion according to the rating scale and the experts' opinion (kappa = 0.841, P = 0.000). When the discriminate analysis was used, 7 items were included into the discrimination equation, and 92.6% subjects were identified as the correct groups using the equation. There is satisfied reliability and validity on civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients. The rating scale can be used as effective tools to grade their civil capacity during the forensic expertise.

  7. The un-making of a method: From rating scales to the study of psychological processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Philip J.; Valsiner, Jaan

    2011-01-01

    Rating scales are standard instruments in psychology. They force the research participant to provide a numerical estimate of an assumed “degree” of some characteristic along a linear scale. We prove that such numerical estimates are artifacts based on unknown psychological processes that are used...... in terms of the study of microgenesis of rating processes allows psychology access to the reality of the workings of the human mind....... in the making of a rating. Psychology’s current use of rating scales entails reliance upon unexplored and abbreviated introspection. It superimposes upon the rater the use of real numbers for the subjective construction of the ratings. The axiomatic superimposition of the notion of “degree” of subjective...

  8. Development and testing of the circumvaginal muscles rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, A M; Dougherty, M C; McKey, P L

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop an instrument for clinical assessment of the circumvaginal muscles (CVM), to test the reliability of the instrument, and to correlate sample characteristics with this instrument. The 9-point CVM Rating Scale is based on four components: pressure, duration, muscle ribbing, and position of the examiner's finger during examination. Reliability of the CVM Rating Scale was ascertained by use of interrater and test-retest reliability. Interrater reliability was tested on two separate occasions, N = 10, rho = 0.6, p less than .04; N = 10, rho = 0.7, p less than .05. A test-retest sequence was conducted 10 days apart, N = 10, rho = 0.9, p less than .003. Results from these tests indicated that the CVM Rating Scale is a reliable instrument for assessing CVM. A convenience sample of 30 women, aged 18-37, in good general health was tested, using the CVM Rating Scale. Women with a history of pelvic floor reconstructive surgery were excluded. A significant positive correlation between self-reported orgasm and the CVM Rating Scale total scores was found, chi 2 = 7.5, p less than .02. No significant correlations were found between age, race, parity, episiotomy, or self-reported Kegel exercises and the CVM Rating Scale total scores. The scale is a cost-effective, time-efficient, systematic assessment, accessible in clinical settings.

  9. Development of a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale for Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Research Product 2018-06 Development of a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale for Leadership Tatiana H. Toumbeva Krista L...anchored Rating Scale for Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W5J9CQ-11-D-0004 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62278 6...observer- based behavioral measure to help instructors more reliably and accurately evaluate the development of leadership attributes and competencies

  10. K-State Problem Identification Rating Scales for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, John M.; Benton, Stephen L.; Newton, Fred B.; Downey, Ronald G.; Marsh, Patricia A.; Benton, Sheryl A.; Tseng, Wen-Chih; Shin, Kang-Hyun

    2006-01-01

    The K-State Problem Identification Rating Scales, a new screening instrument for college counseling centers, gathers information about clients' presenting symptoms, functioning levels, and readiness to change. Three studies revealed 7 scales: Mood Difficulties, Learning Problems, Food Concerns, Interpersonal Conflicts, Career Uncertainties,…

  11. Effects of caffeine on alcohol reinforcement: Beverage choice, self-administration, and subjective ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M.; Meredith, Steven E.; Evatt, Daniel P.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Combining alcohol and caffeine is associated with increased alcohol consumption, but no prospective experimental studies have examined whether added caffeine increases alcohol consumption. Objectives This study examined how caffeine alters alcohol self-administration and subjective reinforcing effects in healthy adults. Methods Thirty-one participants completed six double-blind alcohol self-administration sessions: three sessions with alcohol only (e.g., Beverage A) and three sessions with alcohol and caffeine (e.g., Beverage B). Participants chose which beverage to consume on a subsequent session (e.g., Beverage A or B). Effects of caffeine on overall beverage choice, number of self-administered drinks, subjective ratings (e.g., Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale), and psychomotor performance were examined. Results A majority of participants (65%) chose to drink the alcohol beverage containing caffeine on their final self-administration session. Caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks. Caffeine significantly increased stimulant effects, decreased sedative effects, and attenuated decreases in psychomotor performance attributable to alcohol. Relative to nonchoosers, caffeine choosers reported overall lower stimulant ratings, and reported greater drinking behavior prior to the study. Conclusions Although caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks, most participants chose the alcohol beverage containing caffeine. Given the differences in subjective ratings and pre-existing differences in self-reported alcohol consumption for caffeine choosers and nonchoosers, these data suggest decreased stimulant effects of alcohol and heavier self-reported drinking may predict subsequent choice of combined caffeine and alcohol beverages. These predictors may identify individuals who would benefit from efforts to reduce risk behaviors associated with combining alcohol and caffeine. PMID:28108773

  12. Psychometric Evaluation of the Tagalog and German Subjective Happiness Scales and a Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin; Dressler, Stefan G.; Eisma, Laura; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) has recently been developed as a more complete measure for the assessment of molar subjective happiness. In the present study, we report on the translation and validation of German and Tagalog versions of the SHS and conduct an initial cross-cultural examination of subjective happiness. In Study 1, 960…

  13. Subjective discount rates in the general population and their predictive power for energy saving behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruderer Enzler, Heidi; Diekmann, Andreas; Meyer, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Why do people sometimes refrain from saving energy even if it would pay off in monetary terms? Subjective discount rates present one possible explanation for this lack of foresight, but little is known about their level and reliability in the general population. With regard to behavior, persons with lower discount rates are expected to accept additional costs upfront more readily than those with higher discount rates. Based on a representative nation-wide study, the Swiss Environmental Survey 2007, and a follow-up survey, our analyses reveal that on average subjective discount rates are well above market interest rates and moderately stable over a time interval of four years. Income and education are negatively correlated with discount rates. Contrary to expectations, we did not find convincing support for an impact of discount rates on energy saving behavior. - Highlights: • Results of a large panel study in Switzerland. • Mean subjective discount rates in population are well above market interest rates. • Subjective discount rates are moderately stable over four years. • Theory suggests impact of subjective discount rates on energy saving behavior. • However, subjective discount rates do not contribute to explanation of energy saving behavior

  14. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  15. Adaptation of the Rating Scale Mental Effort (RSME) for use in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyanti, Ari; Johnson, Addie; de Waard, Dick

    The Rating Scale Mental Effort (RSME) is a unidimensional instrument used to measure subjective mental workload. The RSME consists of a line with a length of 150 mm marked with nine anchor points, each accompanied by a descriptive label indicating a degree of effort. The RSME has been widely used in

  16. Rating scales for dystonia in cerebral palsy: reliability and validity

    OpenAIRE

    Monbaliu, Elegast; Ortibus, Els; Roelens, F; Desloovere, Kaat; Declerck, Jan; Prinzie, Peter; De Cock, Paul; Feys, Hilde

    2010-01-01

    AIM: This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS), the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale (BFMMS), and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) in patients with bilateral dystonic cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: Three raters independently scored videotapes of 10 patients (five males, five females; mean age 13 y 3 mo, SD 5 y 2 mo, range 5-22 y). One patient each was classified at levels I-IV in the Gross Motor Function Classification System a...

  17. Observing relationships in Finnish adoptive families: Oulu Family Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienari, Pekka; Wynne, Lyman C; Sorri, Anneli; Lahti, Ilpo; Moring, Juha; Nieminen, Pentti; Joukamaa, Matti; Naarala, Mikko; Seitamaa, Markku; Wahlberg, Karl-Erik; Miettunen, Jouko

    2005-01-01

    Adoption studies were intended to separate genetic from environmental "causal" factors. In earlier adoption studies, psychiatric diagnostic labels for the adoptive parents were used as a proxy for the multiple dimensions of the family rearing environment. In the Finnish Adoption Study, research design provided the opportunity to study directly the adoptive family rearing environment. For this purpose 33 sub-scales were selected creating what we call Oulu Family Rating Scale (OPAS, Oulun PerheArviointiSkaala). In this paper, the manual for scoring of these sub-scales is presented.

  18. Hazard rate for a two-channel protective system subject to a high demand rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.; Youngblood, R.; Melo, P.F.F.

    1989-01-01

    A basic figure of merit associated with a protective system for an industrial plant is the number of accidents expected to occur in the plant within a given period of time, with the system installed. By definition, in a plant equipped with a protective system, an accident can only happen if an initiating event (a demand) occurs while the protective system is unavailable, that is, while it is in one of its possible failed states. This means that the hazard rate or accident frequency depends on the demand rate and on the unavailability of the protective systems. It has long been recognized that the demand rate influences the unavailability of the protective system, and practical expressions incorporating that effect have been developed for single-channel (Lees, 1982) and multi-channel (Kumamoto and Henley 1978) protective systems. The effect has also been incorporated into a Markovian treatment of a plant protection system (Papazoglou and Cho, 1985). In a previous paper (Oliveira and Netto, 1987) a Markovian approach was used to derive analytical expressions for the evaluation of the plant hazard rate for a single-channel protective system, properly accounting for the effects of the demand and the repair rates. In this paper the authors present an extension of that model to the case of a plant equipped with a two-channel protective system

  19. Reliability and Validity of the Clinical Dementia Rating for Community-Living Elderly Subjects without an Informant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR scale is widely used to assess cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. It requires collateral information from a reliable informant who is not available in many instances. We adapted the original CDR scale for use with elderly subjects without an informant (CDR-NI and evaluated its reliability and validity for assessing mild cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia among community-dwelling elderly subjects. Method: At two consecutive visits 1 week apart, nurses trained in CDR assessment interviewed, observed and rated cognitive and functional performance according to a protocol in 90 elderly subjects with suboptimal cognitive performance [Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE Results: The CDR-NI scores (0, 0.5, 1 showed good internal consistency (Crohnbach's a 0.83-0.84, inter-rater reliability (κ 0.77-1.00 for six domains and 0.95 for global rating and test-retest reliability (κ 0.75-1.00 for six domains and 0.80 for global rating, good agreement (κ 0.79 with the clinical assessment status of MCI (n = 37 and dementia (n = 4 and significant differences in the mean scores for MMSE, MOCA and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ANOVA global p Conclusion: Owing to the protocol of the interviews, assessments and structured observations gathered during the two visits, CDR-NI provides valid and reliable assessment of MCI and dementia in community-living elderly subjects without an informant.

  20. Reliability and Validity of the Clinical Dementia Rating for Community-Living Elderly Subjects without an Informant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Chong, Mei Sian; Lim, Wee Shiong; Lee, Tih Shih; Yap, Philip; Ng, Tze Pin

    2013-01-01

    The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale is widely used to assess cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. It requires collateral information from a reliable informant who is not available in many instances. We adapted the original CDR scale for use with elderly subjects without an informant (CDR-NI) and evaluated its reliability and validity for assessing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia among community-dwelling elderly subjects. At two consecutive visits 1 week apart, nurses trained in CDR assessment interviewed, observed and rated cognitive and functional performance according to a protocol in 90 elderly subjects with suboptimal cognitive performance [Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) reliability (κ 0.77-1.00 for six domains and 0.95 for global rating) and test-retest reliability (κ 0.75-1.00 for six domains and 0.80 for global rating), good agreement (κ 0.79) with the clinical assessment status of MCI (n = 37) and dementia (n = 4) and significant differences in the mean scores for MMSE, MOCA and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ANOVA global p reliable assessment of MCI and dementia in community-living elderly subjects without an informant.

  1. Psychometric Properties of a Portuguese Version of the Subjective Happiness Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, Paola; Caetano, Antonio; Silva, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) constitutes an instrument for assessing subjective happiness. This study aims to present the validation of the SHS in a Portuguese adult population. A large representative sample (1,017 participants), from five different age groups was considered. Configurational invariance of the unidimensional structure of…

  2. The Strauss and Carpenter Prognostic Scale in subjects clinically at high risk of psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieman, D. H.; Velthorst, E.; Becker, H. E.; de Haan, L.; Dingemans, P. M.; Linszen, D. H.; Birchwood, M.; Patterson, P.; Salokangas, R. K. R.; Heinimaa, M.; Heinz, A.; Juckel, G.; von Reventlow, H. G.; Morrison, A.; Schultze-Lutter, F.; Klosterkötter, J.; Ruhrmann, S.; McGorry, Patrick D.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Knapp, Martin; van de Fliert, Reinaud; Klaassen, Rianne; Picker, Heinz; Neumann, Meike; Brockhaus-Dumke, Anke; Pukrop, Ralf; Svirskis, Tanja; Huttunen, Jukka; Laine, Tiina; Ilonen, Tuula; Ristkari, Terja; Hietala, Jarmo; Skeate, Amanda; Gudlowski, Yehonala; Ozgürdal, Seza; French, Paul; Stevens, Helen

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the predictive value of the Strauss and Carpenter Prognostic Scale (SCPS) for transition to a first psychotic episode in subjects clinically at high risk (CHR) of psychosis. Two hundred and forty-four CHR subjects participating in the European Prediction of Psychosis Study were

  3. Assessment of nasal obstruction with rhinomanometry and subjective scales and outcomes of surgical and medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Sánchez, Hugo; Álvarez Nuño, Candelas; Gil-Carcedo Sañudo, Elisa; Mayo Iscar, Agustín; Vallejo Valdezate, Luis Ángel

    Prospective study of patients with nasal obstruction (NO) in order to measure therapeutic success by anterior active rhinomanometry (AAR), Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scale and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and to establish the correlation between these tests. Patients with NO, on whom we performed an AAR, NOSE and VAS scales at baseline and after medical treatment (topical nasal steroid) or surgery (septoplasty, turbinoplasty or septoplasty and turbinoplasty). The nasal flow obtained by the AAR and the score of both subjective scales (NOSE and VAS) were compared and analyzed. A total of 102 patients were included in the study. Surgical treatment resulted in statistically significant differences with the AAR and the subjective scales. While in patients with medical treatment there was an increase in the AAR nasal flow but without statistical significance (P=.1363). The correlation between the AAR, the NOSE and VAS scales was measured finding a strong correlation between the NOSE and VAS scales only (r=.83327). The patients with NO treated surgically have better results when these are evaluated by AAR or with subjective scales. There is no significant correlation between AAR, NOSE and VAS scales, this is considered to be because the AAR and subjective scales are complementary and measure different aspects of NO. The AAR and subjective scales are useful tools to be used together for the follow up of patients with NO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  4. Review: Design parameters of rating scales for Web sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of the Internet, more and more online questionnaires are being conducted. However, little research is being done on their construction, in particular on their design. The authors of this paper have conducted such a study, within the scope of rating scales for Web

  5. Exploring Incomplete Rating Designs with Mokken Scale Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Stefanie A.; Patil, Yogendra J.

    2018-01-01

    Recent research has explored the use of models adapted from Mokken scale analysis as a nonparametric approach to evaluating rating quality in educational performance assessments. A potential limiting factor to the widespread use of these techniques is the requirement for complete data, as practical constraints in operational assessment systems…

  6. ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklists, Norms, and Clinical Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the "ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklist, norms, and clinical interpretation," is a norm-referenced checklist that measures the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric…

  7. Preliminary Validation of the Motor Skills Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Claire E.; Chen, Wei-Bing; Blodgett, Julia; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Brock, Laura L.; Grissmer, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a questionnaire designed for classroom teachers of children in early elementary school. Items were developed with the guidance of two occupational therapists, and factor structure was examined with an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The resulting model showed…

  8. Evaluation of the ADHD Rating Scale in Youth with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; de Marchena, Ashley; Watkins, Marley W.; Antezana, Ligia; Power, Thomas J.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists and clinicians regularly use clinical screening tools for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to assess comorbidity without empirical evidence that these measures are valid in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of youth meeting ADHD criteria on the ADHD rating scale fourth edition…

  9. Psychometric analysis of subjective sedation scales used for critically ill paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaohua; Zhang, Tingting; Zhou, Lingling

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of subjective sedation scales using one psychometric scoring system to identify the appropriate scale that is most suitable for clinical care practice. A number of published sedation assessment scales for paediatric patients are currently used to attempt to achieve a moderate depth of sedation to avoid the undesirable effects caused by over- or undersedation. However, there has been no systematic review of these scales. We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, etc., to obtain relevant articles. The quality of the selected studies was evaluated according to the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments checklist. Articles that had been published or were in press and discussed the psychometric properties of sedation scales were included. The population comprised critically ill infants and non-verbal children ranging in age from 0 to 18 years who underwent sedation in an intensive care unit. Data were independently extracted by two investigators using a standard data extraction checklist: 43 articles were included in this review, and 13 sedation scales were examined. The quality of the psychometric evidence for the Comfort Scale and Comfort Behaviour Scale was 'very good', with the Comfort Scale having a higher quality (total weighted scores, Comfort Scale = 17·3 and Comfort Behaviour Scale = 15·5). We suggest that the scales be systematically and comprehensively tested in terms of development method, reliability, validation, feasibility and correlation with clinical outcome. The Comfort Scale and Comfort Behaviour Scale are useful tools for measuring sedation in paediatric patients. Nursing staff should choose one subjective sedation scale that is suitable for assessing paediatric patients' depth of sedation. We recommend the Comfort Scale and Comfort Behaviour Scale as optimal choices if the clinical

  10. Nonlinear Analysis and Scaling Laws for Noncircular Composite Structures Subjected to Combined Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Results from an analytical study of the response of a built-up, multi-cell noncircular composite structure subjected to combined internal pressure and mechanical loads are presented. Nondimensional parameters and scaling laws based on a first-order shear-deformation plate theory are derived for this noncircular composite structure. The scaling laws are used to design sub-scale structural models for predicting the structural response of a full-scale structure representative of a portion of a blended-wing-body transport aircraft. Because of the complexity of the full-scale structure, some of the similitude conditions are relaxed for the sub-scale structural models. Results from a systematic parametric study are used to determine the effects of relaxing selected similitude conditions on the sensitivity of the effectiveness of using the sub-scale structural model response characteristics for predicting the full-scale structure response characteristics.

  11. The impact of education on subjective discount rate in Ugandan villages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Michal; Chytilová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2010), s. 643-669 ISSN 0013-0079 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Keywords : education * subjective discount rate * rural populations * Uganda Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.392, year: 2010

  12. Construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adami Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Figure rating scales were developed as a tool to determine body dissatisfaction in women, men, and children. However, it lacks in the literature the validation of the scale for body silhouettes previously adapted. We aimed to obtain evidence for construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents. Methods The study was carried out with adolescent students attending three public schools in an urban region of the municipality of Florianopolis in the State of Santa Catarina (SC. The sample comprised 232 10-19-year-old students, 106 of whom are boys and 126 girls, from the 5th "series" (i.e. year of Primary School to the 3rd year of Secondary School. Data-gathering involved the application of an instrument containing 8 body figure drawings representing a range of children's and adolescents' body shapes, ranging from very slim (contour 1 to obese (contour 8. Weights and heights were also collected, and body mass index (BMI was calculated later. BMI was analyzed as a continuous variable, using z-scores, and as a dichotomous categorical variable, representing a diagnosis of nutritional status (normal and overweight including obesity. Results Results showed that both males and females with larger BMI z-scores chose larger body contours. Girls with higher BMI z-scores also show higher values of body image dissatisfaction. Conclusion We provided the first evidence of validity for a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents.

  13. Scale factor measure method without turntable for angular rate gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Fangyi; Han, Xuefei; Yao, Yanqing; Xiong, Yuting; Huang, Yuqiong; Wang, Hua

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a scale factor test method without turntable is originally designed for the angular rate gyroscope. A test system which consists of test device, data acquisition circuit and data processing software based on Labview platform is designed. Taking advantage of gyroscope's sensitivity of angular rate, a gyroscope with known scale factor, serves as a standard gyroscope. The standard gyroscope is installed on the test device together with a measured gyroscope. By shaking the test device around its edge which is parallel to the input axis of gyroscope, the scale factor of the measured gyroscope can be obtained in real time by the data processing software. This test method is fast. It helps test system miniaturized, easy to carry or move. Measure quarts MEMS gyroscope's scale factor multi-times by this method, the difference is less than 0.2%. Compare with testing by turntable, the scale factor difference is less than 1%. The accuracy and repeatability of the test system seems good.

  14. Calibration of a Credit Rating Scale for Polish Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wójcicka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing number of bankruptcy announcements means that even greater attention is being paid to the correct evaluation of the probability of default (PD and decisions made on the basis of it. Reliable estimation of the likelihood of a company's bankruptcy reduces risk, not only for the company itself but also for all co-operating companies and financial institutions. The financial crisis has led to a tightening up of the conditions for gaining finance from banks. However, it is not only the evaluation of PD itself that is so important but also the correct classification of companies according to their PD level ("good" or "bad" companies. There is very little consideration about possible adjustments of the credit risk scale, as usually the American scale is adopted with no changes which seems incorrect.This paper stresses the importance of correct calibration of the credit rating scale. It should not be assumed (as it was in the past that once a scale is defined it remains fixed and independent of the country. Therefore, the research carried out on Polish companies shows that the credit rating scale should be changed and the default point (i.e. "cut-off" point should be higher than in the past. The author uses a modified classification matrix based on the probability of default. The paper compares the classification of quoted Polish companies according to their credit risk level (PD with the actual occurrence of default when various default "cut-off" points are used. (original abstract

  15. Logical error rate scaling of the toric code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Fern H E; Barrett, Sean D

    2014-01-01

    To date, a great deal of attention has focused on characterizing the performance of quantum error correcting codes via their thresholds, the maximum correctable physical error rate for a given noise model and decoding strategy. Practical quantum computers will necessarily operate below these thresholds meaning that other performance indicators become important. In this work we consider the scaling of the logical error rate of the toric code and demonstrate how, in turn, this may be used to calculate a key performance indicator. We use a perfect matching decoding algorithm to find the scaling of the logical error rate and find two distinct operating regimes. The first regime admits a universal scaling analysis due to a mapping to a statistical physics model. The second regime characterizes the behaviour in the limit of small physical error rate and can be understood by counting the error configurations leading to the failure of the decoder. We present a conjecture for the ranges of validity of these two regimes and use them to quantify the overhead—the total number of physical qubits required to perform error correction. (paper)

  16. Comparing the Scale of Web Subject Directories Precision in Technical-Engineering Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdokht Wazirpour Keshmiri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to compare the scale of web subject directories precision in information retrieval of technical-engineering science. Information gathering was documentary and webometric. Keywords of technical-engineering science were chosen at twenty different subjects from IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and engineering magazines that situated in sciencedirect site. These keywords are used at five subject directories Yahoo, Google, Infomine, Intute, Dmoz, that were web directories high-utilization. Usually first results in searching tools are connected to searching keywords. Because, first ten results was evaluated in every search. These assessments to consist of scale of precision, scale of error, scale retrieval items in technical-engineering categories to retrieval items entirely. The used criteria for determining the scale of precision that was according to high-utilization standards in different documents, to consist of presence of the keywords in title, appearance of keywords at the part of web retrieved pages, keywords adjacency, URL of page, page description and subject categories. Information analysis was according to Kruskal-Wallis Test and L.S.D fisher. Results revealed that there was meaningful difference about precision of web subject directories in information retrieval of technical-engineering science, Therefore this theory was confirmed.web subject directories ranked from point of precision as follows. Google, Yahoo, Intute, Dmoz, and Infomine. The scale of observed error at the first results was another criterion that was used for comparing web subject directories. In this research, Yahoo had minimum scale of error and Infomine had most of error. This research also compared the scale of retrieval items in all of categories web subject directories entirely to retrieval items in technical-engineering categories, results revealed that there was meaningful difference between them. And

  17. Reduced nicotine content cigarette advertising: How false beliefs and subjective ratings affect smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Saddleson, Megan L; Gup, Emily; Halstead, Angela; Mays, Darren; Strasser, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco advertising can create false beliefs about health harms that are reinforced by product design features. Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes may reduce harm, but research has not addressed advertising influences. This study examined RNC cigarette advertising effects on false harm beliefs, and how these beliefs - along with initial subjective ratings of RNC cigarettes - affect subsequent smoking behaviors. We further explored whether subjective ratings moderate associations between false beliefs and behavior. Seventy-seven daily, non-treatment-seeking smokers (66.2% male) participated in the first 15days of a randomized, controlled, open-label RNC cigarette trial. Participants viewed an RNC cigarette advertisement at baseline before completing a 5-day period of preferred brand cigarette use, followed by a 10-day period of RNC cigarette use (0.6mg nicotine yield). Participants provided pre- and post-advertisement beliefs, and subjective ratings and smoking behaviors for cigarettes smoked during laboratory visits. Viewing the advertisement increased beliefs that RNC cigarettes contain less nicotine and are healthier than regular cigarettes (p'saffected smoking behaviors. Significant interactions of strength and taste ratings with beliefs (p'ssmokers with less negative initial subjective ratings, greater false beliefs were associated with greater RNC cigarette consumption. Smokers may misconstrue RNC cigarettes as less harmful than regular cigarettes. These beliefs, in conjunction with favorable subjective ratings, may increase product use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevison, Laurie S.; Woerner, August E.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Kelley, Joanna L.; Veeramah, Krishna R.; McManus, Kimberly F.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Hammer, Michael F.; Wall, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and population history. Nature 499:471–475). We also identified species-specific recombination hotspots in each group using a modified LDhot framework, which greatly improves statistical power to detect hotspots at varying strengths. We show that fewer hotspots are shared among chimpanzee subspecies than within human populations, further narrowing the time scale of complete hotspot turnover. Further, using species-specific PRDM9 sequences to predict potential binding sites (PBS), we show higher predicted PRDM9 binding in recombination hotspots as compared to matched cold spot regions in multiple great ape species, including at least one chimpanzee subspecies. We found that correlations between broad-scale recombination rates decline more rapidly than nucleotide divergence between species. We also compared the skew of recombination rates at centromeres and telomeres between species and show a skew from chromosome means extending as far as 10–15 Mb from chromosome ends. Further, we examined broad-scale recombination rate changes near a translocation in gorillas and found minimal differences as compared to other great ape species perhaps because the coordinates relative to the chromosome ends were unaffected. Finally, on the basis of multiple linear regression analysis, we found that various correlates of recombination rate persist throughout the African great apes including repeats, diversity, and divergence. Our study is the first to analyze within- and between-species genome-wide recombination rate variation in several close relatives. PMID:26671457

  19. Flow rates in the head and neck lymphatics after food stimulation in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thommesen, P.; Buhl, J.; Jansen, K.; Funch-Jensen, P.

    1981-02-01

    In 22 healthy subjects lymph transport flow rates was studied in the head lymphatics after food stimulation, mastication (chewing) and taste. After food stimulation there was a significantly higher transport rate (0.67 meter/hour) than after taste (0.57 meter/hour) and mastication (0.55 meter/hour). The calculation of transport flow rate was independent of quantitative distribution of radioactivity in the head and neck lymphatics, and it could therefore perhaps be of clinical value.

  20. SUBJECTIVE CURE RATES AFTER TVT PROCEDURE FOR TREATMENT OF FEMALE URINARY INCONTINENCE – A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor But

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to assess the subjective cure rate after the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT procedure in patients with stress (SUI and mixed (MUI urinary incontinence.Methods. This is a questionnaire based study done in 43 patients with SUI and 52 patients with MUI. In the assessement of the subjective cure rate the visual analogue scale and the symptom assessment index (SAI were used. Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics.Results. The subjective cure rate assessed 19.6 months after TVT amounted to 89.3%. Urinary incontinence after TVT procedure was noted in 26 patients (27.4% and the majority of these women (73.1% were diagnosed with MUI. In patients with SUI and postoperative stable bladder a higher success rate was observed (96.7%. In 18.6% patients with SUI, de novo overactive bladder symptoms occurred. These patients estimated a significantly (p = 0.027 lower cure rate (81.9% after TVT procedure. In patients with MUI, the cure rate after TVT amounted to 85.6%. The subjective cure rate was lower (79.4% in case of persistent overactive bladder symptoms. However, it was significantly higher (97.5% in case of a postoperatively stable bladder (p = 0.016. In the group of MUI patients, the symptoms of overactive bladder disease resolved spontaneously in 17 patients (32.7% postoperatively. The patients were satisfied with TVT and 92.6% would recommend this procedure to others.Conclusions. The TVT procedure is a very effective method of treatment for stress as well as mixed urinary incontinence. The success rate of the procedure is high, however, it is influenced by bladder activity.

  1. Hypnosis modulates behavioural measures and subjective ratings about external and internal awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demertzi, Athena; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Noirhomme, Quentin; Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth; Laureys, Steven

    2015-12-01

    In altered subjective states, the behavioural quantification of external and internal awareness remains challenging due to the need for reports on the subjects' behalf. With the aim to characterize the behavioural counterpart of external and internal awareness in a modified subjective condition, we used hypnosis during which subjects remain fully responsive. Eleven right-handed subjects reached a satisfactory level of hypnotisability as evidenced by subjective reports on arousal, absorption and dissociation. Compared to normal wakefulness, in hypnosis (a) participants' self-ratings for internal awareness increased and self-ratings for external awareness decreased, (b) the two awareness components tended to anticorrelate less and the switches between external and internal awareness self-ratings were less frequent, and (c) participants' reaction times were higher and lapses in key presses were more frequent. The identified imbalance between the two components of awareness is considered as of functional relevance to subjective (meta)cognition, possibly mediated by allocated attentional properties brought about by hypnosis. Our results highlight the presence of a cognitive counterpart in resting state, indicate that the modified contents of awareness are measurable behaviourally, and provide leverage for investigations of more challenging altered conscious states, such as anaesthesia, sleep and disorders of consciousness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SIEDY scale 3, a new instrument to detect psychological component in subjects with erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Ricca, Valdo; Bandini, Elisa; Rastrelli, Giulia; Casale, Helen; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Sforza, Alessandra; Forti, Gianni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2012-08-01

    We previously developed and validated a structured interview (SIEDY) dealing with the organic (Scale 1), relational (Scale 2), and psychological (Scale 3) components of erectile dysfunction (ED). To identify a pathological threshold for SIEDY Scale 3 and to analyze Scale 3 score with biological and psychological correlates in subjects with sexual dysfunction. A pathological threshold of SIEDY Scale 3 score in predicting subjects with a medical history of psychopathology and using psychiatric drugs was identified through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis in a sample of 484 patients (Sample A). Sensitivity and specificity, along with possible interactions with biological and psychological (Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire, MHQ-score) correlates were verified in a further sample of 1,275 patients (Sample B). In sample A, 39 (8%) and 60 (12.4%) subjects reported a positive medical history for psychiatric disturbances or for the use of psychotropic medication, respectively. The association with both conditions was present in 28 (5.8%) subjects. ROC curve showed that SIEDY Scale 3 score predicts psychopathology with an accuracy of 69.5 ± 5.9% (Pfloating anxiety), MHQ-S (somatized anxiety) and MHQ-D (depressive symptoms) subscales, even after adjustment for age and Σ-MHQ (a broader index of general psychopathology). In the same sample, we also confirmed that pathological Scale 3 score was related to a higher risk of psychopathology at medical history or to the use of psychotropic drugs as well as with risky lifestyle behaviors, including smoking and alcohol abuse, and elevated BMI. SIEDY represents an easy tool for the identification of patients with a relevant intra-psychic component who should be considered for psychological/psychiatric treatment. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Reliability and validity of the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Chau

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolfram syndrome (WFS is a rare, neurodegenerative disease that typically presents with childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, followed by optic atrophy, diabetes insipidus, deafness, and neurological and psychiatric dysfunction. There is no cure for the disease, but recent advances in research have improved understanding of the disease course. Measuring disease severity and progression with reliable and validated tools is a prerequisite for clinical trials of any new intervention for neurodegenerative conditions. To this end, we developed the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS to measure the severity and individual variability of WFS symptoms. The aim of this study is to develop and test the reliability and validity of the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS. Methods A rating scale of disease severity in WFS was developed by modifying a standardized assessment for another neurodegenerative condition (Batten disease. WFS experts scored the representativeness of WURS items for the disease. The WURS was administered to 13 individuals with WFS (6-25 years of age. Motor, balance, mood and quality of life were also evaluated with standard instruments. Inter-rater reliability, internal consistency reliability, concurrent, predictive and content validity of the WURS were calculated. Results The WURS had high inter-rater reliability (ICCs>.93, moderate to high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.78-0.91 and demonstrated good concurrent and predictive validity. There were significant correlations between the WURS Physical Assessment and motor and balance tests (rs>.67, ps>.76, ps=-.86, p=.001. The WURS demonstrated acceptable content validity (Scale-Content Validity Index=0.83. Conclusions These preliminary findings demonstrate that the WURS has acceptable reliability and validity and captures individual differences in disease severity in children and young adults with WFS.

  4. The development and validation of the Memory Support Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason Y; Worrell, Frank C; Harvey, Allison G

    2016-06-01

    Patient memory for treatment information is poor, and worse memory for treatment information is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. Memory support techniques have been harnessed to improve patient memory for treatment. However, a measure of memory support used by treatment providers during sessions has yet to be established. The present study reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Memory Support Rating Scale (MSRS)-an observer-rated scale designed to measure memory support. Adults with major depressive disorder (MDD; N = 42) were randomized to either cognitive therapy plus memory support (CT + MS; n = 22) or cognitive therapy as-usual (CT-as-usual; n = 20). At posttreatment, patients freely recalled treatment points via the patient recall task. Sessions (n = 171) were coded for memory support using the MSRS, 65% of which were also assessed for the quality of cognitive therapy via the Cognitive Therapy Rating Scale (CTRS). A unidimensional scale composed of 8 items was developed using exploratory factor analysis, though a larger sample is needed to further assess the factor structure of MSRS scores. High interrater and test-retest reliabilities of MSRS scores were observed across 7 MSRS coders. MSRS scores were higher in the CT + MS condition compared with CT-as-usual, demonstrating group differentiation ability. MSRS scores were positively associated with patient recall task scores but not associated with CTRS scores, demonstrating convergent and discriminant validity, respectively. Results indicate that the MSRS yields reliable and valid scores for measuring treatment providers' use of memory support while delivering cognitive therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Scale dependence of rock friction at high work rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Takizawa, Shigeru; Xu, Shiqing; Kawakata, Hironori

    2015-12-10

    Determination of the frictional properties of rocks is crucial for an understanding of earthquake mechanics, because most earthquakes are caused by frictional sliding along faults. Prior studies using rotary shear apparatus revealed a marked decrease in frictional strength, which can cause a large stress drop and strong shaking, with increasing slip rate and increasing work rate. (The mechanical work rate per unit area equals the product of the shear stress and the slip rate.) However, those important findings were obtained in experiments using rock specimens with dimensions of only several centimetres, which are much smaller than the dimensions of a natural fault (of the order of 1,000 metres). Here we use a large-scale biaxial friction apparatus with metre-sized rock specimens to investigate scale-dependent rock friction. The experiments show that rock friction in metre-sized rock specimens starts to decrease at a work rate that is one order of magnitude smaller than that in centimetre-sized rock specimens. Mechanical, visual and material observations suggest that slip-evolved stress heterogeneity on the fault accounts for the difference. On the basis of these observations, we propose that stress-concentrated areas exist in which frictional slip produces more wear materials (gouge) than in areas outside, resulting in further stress concentrations at these areas. Shear stress on the fault is primarily sustained by stress-concentrated areas that undergo a high work rate, so those areas should weaken rapidly and cause the macroscopic frictional strength to decrease abruptly. To verify this idea, we conducted numerical simulations assuming that local friction follows the frictional properties observed on centimetre-sized rock specimens. The simulations reproduced the macroscopic frictional properties observed on the metre-sized rock specimens. Given that localized stress concentrations commonly occur naturally, our results suggest that a natural fault may lose its

  6. Isometric arm strength and subjective rating of upper limb fatigue in two-handed carrying tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Way; Chiu, Wen-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Sustained carrying could result in muscular fatigue of the upper limb. Ten male and ten female subjects were recruited for measurements of isometric arm strength before and during carrying a load for a period of 4 minutes. Two levels of load of carrying were tested for each of the male and female subjects. Exponential function based predictive equations for the isometric arm strength were established. The mean absolute deviations of these models in predicting the isometric arm strength were in the range of 3.24 to 17.34 N. Regression analyses between the subjective ratings of upper limb fatigue and force change index (FCI) for the carrying were also performed. The results indicated that the subjective rating of muscular fatigue may be estimated by multiplying the FCI with a constant. The FCI may, therefore, be adopted as an index to assess muscular fatigue for two-handed carrying tasks.

  7. Rating scales for dystonia in cerebral palsy: reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monbaliu, E; Ortibus, E; Roelens, F; Desloovere, K; Deklerck, J; Prinzie, P; de Cock, P; Feys, H

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS), the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale (BFMMS), and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) in patients with bilateral dystonic cerebral palsy (CP). Three raters independently scored videotapes of 10 patients (five males, five females; mean age 13 y 3 mo, SD 5 y 2 mo, range 5-22 y). One patient each was classified at levels I-IV in the Gross Motor Function Classification System and six patients were classified at level V. Reliability was measured by (1) intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for interrater reliability, (2) standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable difference (SDD), and (3) Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. Validity was assessed by Pearson's correlations among the three scales used and by content analysis. Moderate to good interrater reliability was found for total scores of the three scales (ICC: BADS=0.87; BFMMS=0.86; UDRS=0.79). However, many subitems showed low reliability, in particular for the UDRS. SEM and SDD were respectively 6.36% and 17.72% for the BADS, 9.88% and 27.39% for the BFMMS, and 8.89% and 24.63% for the UDRS. High internal consistency was found. Pearson's correlations were high. Content validity showed insufficient accordance with the new CP definition and classification. Our results support the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the scales; however, taking into consideration the limitations in reliability, including the large SDD values and the content validity, further research on methods of assessment of dystonia is warranted.

  8. Development of a work environment rating scale for kindergarten teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yau-ho P

    2015-08-01

    Kindergarten education in Hong Kong serves children aged 32-68 months. However, there is no extant scale that measures kindergarten teachers' perceived work environment, an important influence on their well-being. To develop a new instrument, the Teachers' Perceived Work Environment (TPWE) scale, and to assess whether kindergarten teachers with higher TPWE ratings had higher scores for job satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health. A 25-item rating scale was developed and used with a sample of in-service kindergarten teachers. Their perceived work environment was represented by five factors (ergonomics, staffing, teaching space, work hours and social space). These teachers also completed three well-being inventories: the Job Satisfaction Survey, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory and the General Health Questionnaire-12. In a second stage, a new sample of in-service kindergarten teachers was used to cross-validate the findings from the earlier assessment. In the first sample of 141 teachers and the second of 125, social space, staffing and work hours were associated with job satisfaction, while ergonomics was a significant negative predictor of mental health complaints. The TPWE exhibited satisfactory reliability and validity. Some factors were differentially associated with specific types of well-being. The results may inform future studies of the working conditions of kindergarten teachers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Relationship between manual dexterity and the unified parkinson's disease rating scale-motor exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sujin; Song, Chiang-Soon

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between manual dexterity and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam as a clinical tool for quantifying upper extremity function in persons with Parkinson's disease. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two persons with idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated in this study. This study measured two clinical outcomes, the box-and-block test and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam, to investigate the relationships between manual dexterity and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam. [Results] The box-and-block test on the more affected side was positive relationship with the box-and-block test on the less affected side. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-motor exam score had a negative correlation with the box-and-block test results for both sides. [Conclusion] A positive association was noted between manual dexterity and motor function in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease. The results of this study suggest that the box-and-block test and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam are good clinical measures that quantify upper extremity function and are necessary for the accurate evaluation of patients and to plan intervention strategies.

  10. Measuring aging rates of mice subjected to caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; van Heemst, Diana; van Bodegom, David; Bonkowski, Michael S; Sun, Liou Y; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling have been shown to counteract aging in mice. The effects of these interventions on aging are examined through age-dependent survival or through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale fitted to the Gompertz model. However, these methods have limitations that impede a fully comprehensive disclosure of these effects. Here we examine the effects of these interventions on murine aging through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale without fitting them to a model like the Gompertz model. Whereas these interventions negligibly and non-consistently affected the aging rates when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale, they caused the aging rates to increase at higher ages and to higher levels when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale. These results add to the debate whether these interventions postpone or slow aging and to the understanding of the mechanisms by which they affect aging. Since different methods yield different results, it is worthwhile to compare their results in future research to obtain further insights into the effects of dietary, genetic, and other interventions on the aging of mice and other species.

  11. Psychometric evaluation of the Dutch version of the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Riezebos, T.G.M.; Staak, C.P.F. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the 16-item Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS). The SOWS measures withdrawal symptoms at the time of assessment. METHODS: The Dutch SOWS was repeatedly administered to a sample of 272 opioid-dependent inpatients of four

  12. Pengukuran Beban Kerja Mental Dalam Searching Task Dengan Metode Rating Scale Mental Effort (Rsme)

    OpenAIRE

    Widyanti, Ari; Johnson, Addie; de Waard, Dick

    2010-01-01

    Metode pengukuran beban kerja mental meliputi metode obyektif dan subyektif. Metodepengukuran beban kerja mental secara subyektif yang banyak diaplikasikan di Indonesia adalahSubjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT) dan NASA TLX (NASA Task Load Index).SWAT dan NASA TLX adalah pengukuran subyektif yang bersifat multidimensional (multidimensionalscaling) yang relatif membutuhkan waktu dalam aplikasinya. Sebagai alternatif SWAT dan NASA TLX,Rating Scale Mental Effort (RSME) adalah satu me...

  13. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by the fractal ... rate scaling is that exercise-induced maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is ... muscle stress limitation, and maximized oxygen delivery and metabolic rates.

  14. Persian version of the Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale: psychometric study among subjects with physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajati, Fatemeh; Ghanbari, Masoud; Hasandokht, Tolou; Hosseini, Seyed Younes; Akbarzadeh, Rasool; Ashtarian, Hossein

    2017-11-01

    Self-efficacy plays a key role in varying areas of human conditions which can be measured by different scales. The present study was aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES) in Iranian Subjects with Physical Disability (SWPD). Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and self-report surveys from 214 subjects. The face and content validity, and reliability were evaluated. Discriminates were evaluated between the sub-groups of disability levels, physical activity, and health condition levels. The concurrent, convergent, divergent, and construct validity were assessed by short form health survey scale (SF-36), general self-efficacy scale (GSES), hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), respectively. Replaceable exploratory factor analysis was evaluated. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. There were acceptable face and content validity, and reliability. Furthermore, significant correlation was found between PSES and SF-36 (p disability levels (p = 0.02), physical activity levels (p disability problems. Implications for rehabilitation Psychometric properties of the Persian version of self-Efficacy scale (PSES) appear to be similar to original, English version. The PSES has been shown to have validity and reliability in Persian physical disables and can be used for patients with more different types of physical disability than individuals suffering from only Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). The PSES can be used in clinical practice and research work to evaluate the patients' confidence in performing daily activities.

  15. Personality in Free-Ranging Hanuman Langur (Semnopithecus entellus) Males: Subjective Ratings and Recorded Behavior

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečná, M.; Lhota, S.; Weiss, A.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Adamová, T.; Pluháček, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 4 (2008), s. 379-389 ISSN 0735-7036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : trait rating * questionnaires * behavioral indices Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.081, year: 2008

  16. 29 CFR 4.118 - Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.118 Contracts for carriage... carriage. The contracts excluded from the reach of the Act by this exemption are typically those where... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates. 4...

  17. A Framework for Control System Design Subject to Average Data-Rate Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Eduardo; Derpich, Milan; Østergaard, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies discrete-time control systems subject to average data-rate limits. We focus on a situation where a noisy linear system has been designed assuming transparent feedback and, due to implementation constraints, a source-coding scheme (with unity signal transfer function) has to be ...

  18. Quantitative regional validation of the visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Christiane; Benedictus, Marije R.; Koedam, Esther L.G.M.; Scheltens, Philip; Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Versteeg, Adriaan; Wattjes, Mike P.; Barkhof, Frederik; Vrenken, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Validate the four-point visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) on magnetic resonance images (MRI) through quantitative grey matter (GM) volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to justify its use in clinical practice. Two hundred twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 128 with subjective memory complaints underwent 3T MRI. PCA was rated according to the visual rating scale. GM volumes of six posterior structures and the total posterior region were extracted using IBASPM and compared among PCA groups. To determine which anatomical regions contributed most to the visual scores, we used binary logistic regression. VBM compared local GM density among groups. Patients were categorised according to their PCA scores: PCA-0 (n = 122), PCA-1 (n = 143), PCA-2 (n = 79), and PCA-3 (n = 13). All structures except the posterior cingulate differed significantly among groups. The inferior parietal gyrus volume discriminated the most between rating scale levels. VBM showed that PCA-1 had a lower GM volume than PCA-0 in the parietal region and other brain regions, whereas between PCA-1 and PCA-2/3 GM atrophy was mostly restricted to posterior regions. The visual PCA rating scale is quantitatively validated and reliably reflects GM atrophy in parietal regions, making it a valuable tool for the daily radiological assessment of dementia. (orig.)

  19. Quantitative regional validation of the visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Christiane; Benedictus, Marije R.; Koedam, Esther L.G.M.; Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Center, Alzheimer Center and Department of Neurology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje M. van der [VU University Medical Center, Alzheimer Center and Department of Neurology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Versteeg, Adriaan; Wattjes, Mike P.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrenken, Hugo [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Validate the four-point visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) on magnetic resonance images (MRI) through quantitative grey matter (GM) volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to justify its use in clinical practice. Two hundred twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 128 with subjective memory complaints underwent 3T MRI. PCA was rated according to the visual rating scale. GM volumes of six posterior structures and the total posterior region were extracted using IBASPM and compared among PCA groups. To determine which anatomical regions contributed most to the visual scores, we used binary logistic regression. VBM compared local GM density among groups. Patients were categorised according to their PCA scores: PCA-0 (n = 122), PCA-1 (n = 143), PCA-2 (n = 79), and PCA-3 (n = 13). All structures except the posterior cingulate differed significantly among groups. The inferior parietal gyrus volume discriminated the most between rating scale levels. VBM showed that PCA-1 had a lower GM volume than PCA-0 in the parietal region and other brain regions, whereas between PCA-1 and PCA-2/3 GM atrophy was mostly restricted to posterior regions. The visual PCA rating scale is quantitatively validated and reliably reflects GM atrophy in parietal regions, making it a valuable tool for the daily radiological assessment of dementia. (orig.)

  20. Subjective assessment of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) personality: reliability and stability of trait ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Diane M

    2008-10-01

    A 46-item rating scale was used to obtain personality ratings from 75 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from 7 zoological parks. Factor analysis revealed five personality dimensions similar to those found in previous research on primate personality: Agreeableness, Dominance, Neuroticism, Extraversion and Intellect. There were significant sex and age differences in ratings on these dimensions, with males rated more highly on Dominance and older chimpanzees rated as more agreeable but less extraverted than younger chimpanzees. Interobserver agreement for most individual trait items was high, but tended to be less reliable for trait terms expressing more subtle social or cognitive abilities. Personality ratings for one zoo were found to be largely stable across a 3-year period, but highlighted the effects of environmental factors on the expression of personality in captive chimpanzees.

  1. Flow rates in the head and neck lymphatics after food stimulation in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thommesen, P.; Buhl, J.; Jansen, K.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Central Hospital Randers; Municipal Hospital Aarhus

    1981-01-01

    In 22 healthy subjects lymph transport flow rates was studied in the head lymphatics after food stimulation, mastication (chewing) and taste. After food stimulation there was a significantly higher transport rate (0.67 meter/hour) than after taste (0.57 meter/hour) and mastication (0.55 meter/hour). The calculation of transport flow rate was independent of quantitative distribution of radioactivity in the head and neck lymphatics, and it could therefore perhaps be of clinical value. (orig.) [de

  2. Subjective thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate: analysis and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    , it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...... the exergy concept to the built indoor environment, additional results are going to be explored. By using the data available so far of operative temperature (to), the human body exergy consumption rates increase as to increases above 24°C or decreases below 22°C at relative humidity (RH) lower than 50...

  3. Construction and evaluation of a self rating scale for stress-induced exhaustion disorder, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besèr, Aniella; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Kristina; Peterson, Ulla; Nygren, Ake; Asberg, Marie

    2014-02-01

    Prolonged stress (≥ six months) may cause a condition which has been named exhaustion disorder (ED) with ICD-10 code F43.8. ED is characterised by exhaustion, cognitive problems, poor sleep and reduced tolerance to further stress. ED can cause long term disability and depressive symptoms may develop. The aim was to construct and evaluate a self-rating scale, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), for the assessment of ED symptoms. A second aim was to examine the relationship between self-rated symptoms of ED, depression, and anxiety using KEDS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Items were selected based on their correspondence to criteria for ED as formulated by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW), with seven response alternatives in a Likert-format. Self-ratings performed by 317 clinically assessed participants were used to analyse the scale's psychometric properties. KEDS consists of nine items with a scale range of 0-54. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated that a cut-off score of 19 was accompanied by high sensitivity and specificity (each above 95%) in the discrimination between healthy subjects and patients with ED. Reliability was satisfactory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that ED, depression and anxiety are best regarded as different phenomena. KEDS may be a useful tool in the assessment of symptoms of Exhaustion Disorder in clinical as well as research settings. There is evidence that the symptom clusters of ED, anxiety and depression, respectively, reflect three different underlying dimensions. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Criterion Noise in Ratings-Based Recognition: Evidence from the Effects of Response Scale Length on Recognition Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Aaron S.; Tullis, Jonathan G.; Lee, Ji Hae

    2013-01-01

    Rating scales are a standard measurement tool in psychological research. However, research has suggested that the cognitive burden involved in maintaining the criteria used to parcel subjective evidence into ratings introduces "decision noise" and affects estimates of performance in the underlying task. There has been debate over whether…

  5. Evaluation of the Life Satisfaction and Subjective Happiness Scales with Mexican American High School and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lerma, Eunice; Ikonomopoulos, James

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the psychometric properties of two meaningful measures of subjective well-being among Mexican American high school and college students. Participants completed the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) or Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) as measures of subjective well-being. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)…

  6. Assessment of competence for caesarean section with global rating scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.N.; Ali, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish as reliable and valid the nine-point global rating scale for assessing residents' independent performance of Caesarean Section. Methods: The validation study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Aga Khan University Hospital, from April to December 2008, and comprised 15 residents during 40 Caesarean Sections over 9 months. Independently two evaluators rated each procedure and the difficulty of each case. Results: The observations per faculty ranged from 1-8 (mean 4.07+- 2.56). The Year 4 residents were observed the most i.e. 32 (40%), followed by Year 3, 30 (37.5%); Year 2; 14 (17.5%); and Year 1, 4 (5%). Mean time required for observation of the surgery was 43.81+-14.28 (range: 20-90) with a mode of 45 min. Mean aggregate rating on all items showed gradual progression with the year of residency. The assessment tool had an internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) of 0.9097 with low inter-rater reliability. Conclusion: The evaluation tool was found to be reliable and valid for evaluating a resident's competence for performing Caesarean Section. Training of the assessors is required for a better inter-rater agreement. (author)

  7. Merging physical parameters and laboratory subjective ratings for the soundscape assessment of urban squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Giovanni; Maffei, Luigi; Di Gabriele, Maria; Gallo, Veronica

    2013-07-01

    An experimental study was carried out in 20 squares in the center of Rome, covering a wide range of different uses, sonic environments, geometry, and architectural styles. Soundwalks along the perimeter of each square were performed during daylight and weekdays taking binaural and video recordings, as well as spot measurements of illuminance. The cluster analysis performed on the physical parameters, not only acoustic, provided two clusters that are in satisfactory agreement with the "a priori" classification. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to five physical parameters, two main components were obtained which might be associated to two environmental features, namely, "chaotic/calm" and "open/enclosed." On the basis of these two features, six squares were selected for the laboratory audio-video tests where 32 subjects took part filling in a questionnaire. The PCA performed on the subjective ratings on the sonic environment showed two main components which might be associated to two emotional meanings, namely, "calmness" and "vibrancy." The linear regression modeling between five objective parameters and the mean value of subjective ratings on chaotic/calm and enclosed/open attributes showed a good correlation. Notwithstanding these interesting results being limited to the specific data set, it is worth pointing out that the complexity of the soundscape quality assessment can be more comprehensively examined merging the field measurements of physical parameters with the subjective ratings provided by field and/or laboratory tests.

  8. Acute Consumption of Resistant Starch Reduces Food Intake but Has No Effect on Appetite Ratings in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ble-Castillo, Jorge L; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A; García-Vázquez, Carlos; Servin-Cruz, Magda Z; Rodríguez-Hernández, Arturo; Araiza-Saldaña, Claudia I; Nolasco-Coleman, Ana M; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C

    2017-07-04

    Previous studies have shown the benefits of native banana starch (NBS) supplementation in improving glucose metabolism and reducing body weight (BW) in humans. However, the effect of this starch on appetite regulation is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of NBS rich resistant starch on subjective measurements of appetite, energy intake, and appetite hormones in healthy subjects. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were also assessed. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 28 healthy young subjects consumed a beverage containing either 40 g of NBS or 40 g of digestible corn starch (DCS) on two separate occasions. Effects on appetite were estimated using visual analogue scales (VAS) and satiety hormone responses. At the end of the intervention, participants were provided with a pre-weighed ad libitum homogeneous test meal. After a washout period of 1 week, subjects received the alternative treatment. NBS supplementation induced a reduction in food intake, glucose area under the curve (AUC)-180 min, and insulin AUC-180 min. However, there was no associated effect on the subjective appetite ratings or gut hormones. NBS supplementation may help to reduce meal size and control BW.

  9. Psilocybin links binocular rivalry switch rate to attention and subjective arousal levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Olivia L; Hasler, Felix; Pettigrew, John D; Wallis, Guy M; Liu, Guang B; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2007-12-01

    Binocular rivalry occurs when different images are simultaneously presented to each eye. During continual viewing of this stimulus, the observer will experience repeated switches between visual awareness of the two images. Previous studies have suggested that a slow rate of perceptual switching may be associated with clinical and drug-induced psychosis. The objective of the study was to explore the proposed relationship between binocular rivalry switch rate and subjective changes in psychological state associated with 5-HT2A receptor activation. This study used psilocybin, the hallucinogen found naturally in Psilocybe mushrooms that had previously been found to induce psychosis-like symptoms via the 5-HT2A receptor. The effects of psilocybin (215 microg/kg) were considered alone and after pretreatment with the selective 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (50 mg) in ten healthy human subjects. Psilocybin significantly reduced the rate of binocular rivalry switching and increased the proportion of transitional/mixed percept experience. Pretreatment with ketanserin blocked the majority of psilocybin's "positive" psychosis-like hallucinogenic symptoms. However, ketanserin had no influence on either the psilocybin-induced slowing of binocular rivalry or the drug's "negative-type symptoms" associated with reduced arousal and vigilance. Together, these findings link changes in binocular rivalry switching rate to subjective levels of arousal and attention. In addition, it suggests that psilocybin's effect on binocular rivalry is unlikely to be mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor.

  10. Fractal scaling behavior of heart rate variability in response to meditation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Rodríguez, E.; Echeverría, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The scaling properties of heart rate variability in premeditation and meditation states were studied. • Mindfulness meditation induces a decrement of the HRV long-range scaling correlations. • Mindfulness meditation can be regarded as a type of induced deep sleep-like dynamics. - Abstract: The rescaled range (R/S) analysis was used for analyzing the fractal scaling properties of heart rate variability (HRV) of subjects undergoing premeditation and meditation states. Eight novice subjects and four advanced practitioners were considered. The corresponding pre-meditation and meditation HRV data were obtained from the Physionet database. The results showed that mindfulness meditation induces a decrement of the HRV long-range scaling correlations as quantified with the time-variant Hurst exponent. The Hurst exponent for advanced meditation practitioners decreases up to values of 0.5, reflecting uncorrelated (e.g., white noise-like) HRV dynamics. Some parallelisms between mindfulness meditation and deep sleep (Stage 4) are discussed, suggesting that the former can be regarded as a type of induced deep sleep-like dynamics.

  11. Subjective evaluation with FAA criteria: A multidimensional scaling approach. [ground track control management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Parkin, L.; Wempe, T. E.; Huff, E. F.

    1975-01-01

    Perceived orderliness in the ground tracks of five A/C during their simulated flights was studied. Dynamically developing ground tracks for five A/C from 21 separate runs were reproduced from computer storage and displayed on CRTS to professional pilots and controllers for their evaluations and preferences under several criteria. The ground tracks were developed in 20 seconds as opposed to the 5 minutes of simulated flight using speedup techniques for display. Metric and nonmetric multidimensional scaling techniques are being used to analyze the subjective responses in an effort to: (1) determine the meaningfulness of basing decisions on such complex subjective criteria; (2) compare pilot/controller perceptual spaces; (3) determine the dimensionality of the subjects' perceptual spaces; and thereby (4) determine objective measures suitable for comparing alternative traffic management simulations.

  12. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  13. Creation of the physical appearance and the body image rating scale for the Czech context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Šrámková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem and methods: Physical appearance is one of the key components of selfperception from early childhood. An individual’s perceived physical attractiveness is largely conditioned by geographical, cultural and historical factors. Every culture develops its own criteria of attractiveness and any deviations to those are often a cause of ostracism, for example through exclusion or rejection. Still, there are certain universal principles of attractiveness (e.g. a higher waist-hip ratio, facial symmetry, sexually dimorphic features, which exist across cultures and time periods with little variation. To measure a person’s level of satisfaction with his/her physical appearance, psychologists regularly employ figure rating scales. The primary goal of our work was to develop and verify an updated visual body rating scale called the Basic Olomouc Body Rating (BOBR, making sure that it is widely usable, valid and reliable. The scale was created using the method of document analysis of academic papers according body-rating scales and a method of interview with potential probands. In the pilot data gathering phase, a group of respondents was presented with the 3 scales commonly used in the European context, i.e. FDS (Stunkard, Sorensen & Schulsinger, 1983, CDRS (Thompson & Gray, 1995 and BIAS-BD (Gardner, Jappe & Gardner, 2009. The purpose of this was to get feedback on these scales and find out if people are able to use these scales to rate themselves. New schematic figure rating scale for both men and women which would do away with the limitations of the scales used so far was developed. Results: The result is creation of a body-rating scale widely usable in further research and practical consulting. The paper briefly summarizes results of an additional study – the goal definition phase was followed by online research on the subject of body image and the self-perceived sexual attractiveness. Altogether, 5,616 respondents from the Czech Republic

  14. Assessment of potential Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, clays when subjected to high rates of heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filgueira, R.L.; Pereira, L.M.; Dutra, R.P.S.; Nascimento, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we study three clays of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, to evaluate the potential them when subjected to high rates of heating. The samples were formed by pressing and subject to rates of 5 deg C / min, 10 deg C / min and 15 deg C / min, with temperature of 950 deg C. This study determined the technological properties of the samples. The mineralogical composition was identified by X-ray diffraction. The chemical composition was determined by Xray fluorescence. The Atterberg limits, were used to classify the samples on the plasticity. Were also performed: dilatometry, size analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The examination of the processing variables and the intrinsic characteristics of each material indicates that the RX clay showed the best results for the manufacture of blocks and tiles. The techniques used in this study were efficient and the initial objectives were achieved. (author)

  15. A single dose of dark chocolate increases parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Machado DUARTE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of a single dose of dark chocolate (70% cocoa on blood pressure and heart rate variability. Methods: Thirty-one healthy subjects (aged 18-25 years; both sexes were divided into two groups: 10 subjects in the white chocolate (7.4 g group and 21 in the dark chocolate (10 g group; measurements were performed at the university's physiology lab. An electrocardiogram measured the sympathovagal balance by spectral and symbolic analysis. Results: A single dose of dark chocolate significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate. After consuming 10 g of dark chocolate, significant increases were observed for heart rate variability, standard deviation of RR intervals standard deviation of all NN intervals, square root of the mean squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals root mean square of successive differences, and an increase in the high frequency component in absolute values, representing the parasympathetic modulation. Conclusion: In conclusion the importance of our results lies in the magnitude of the response provoked by a single dose of cocoa. Just 10 g of cocoa triggered a significant increase in parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability. These combined effects can potentially increase life expectancy because a reduction in heart rate variability is associated with several cardiovascular diseases and higher mortality.

  16. Instantaneous Metabolic Cost of Walking: Joint-Space Dynamic Model with Subject-Specific Heat Rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustyn Roberts

    Full Text Available A subject-specific model of instantaneous cost of transport (ICOT is introduced from the joint-space formulation of metabolic energy expenditure using the laws of thermodynamics and the principles of multibody system dynamics. Work and heat are formulated in generalized coordinates as functions of joint kinematic and dynamic variables. Generalized heat rates mapped from muscle energetics are estimated from experimental walking metabolic data for the whole body, including upper-body and bilateral data synchronization. Identified subject-specific energetic parameters-mass, height, (estimated maximum oxygen uptake, and (estimated maximum joint torques-are incorporated into the heat rate, as opposed to the traditional in vitro and subject-invariant muscle parameters. The total model metabolic energy expenditure values are within 5.7 ± 4.6% error of the measured values with strong (R2 > 0.90 inter- and intra-subject correlations. The model reliably predicts the characteristic convexity and magnitudes (0.326-0.348 of the experimental total COT (0.311-0.358 across different subjects and speeds. The ICOT as a function of time provides insights into gait energetic causes and effects (e.g., normalized comparison and sensitivity with respect to walking speed and phase-specific COT, which are unavailable from conventional metabolic measurements or muscle models. Using the joint-space variables from commonly measured or simulated data, the models enable real-time and phase-specific evaluations of transient or non-periodic general tasks that use a range of (aerobic energy pathway similar to that of steady-state walking.

  17. Gait in children with cerebral palsy : observer reliability of Physician Rating Scale and Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maathuis, KGB; van der Schans, CP; van Iperen, A; Rietman, HS; Geertzen, JHB

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the Physician Rating Scale (PRS) and the Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing (GAIT) scale for use in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Both assessment scales are quantitative observational scales, evaluating

  18. Prognostic value of ambulatory heart rate revisited in 6928 subjects from 6 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine Willum; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence relating mortality and morbidity to heart rate remains inconsistent. We performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 6928 subjects (not on beta-blockers; mean age: 56.2 years; 46.5% women) enrolled in prospective population studies in Denmark, Belgium, Japan, Sweden......, Uruguay, and China. We computed standardized hazard ratios for heart rate, while stratifying for cohort, and adjusting for blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. Over 9.6 years (median), 850, 325, and 493 deaths accrued for total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality......, respectively. The incidence of fatal combined with nonfatal end points was 805, 363, 439, and 324 for cardiovascular, stroke, cardiac, and coronary events, respectively. Twenty-four-hour heart rate predicted total (hazard ratio: 1.15) and noncardiovascular (hazard ratio: 1.18) mortality but not cardiovascular...

  19. A Scale for Rating Fire-Prevention Contactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.L. Doolittle

    1979-01-01

    A scale is constructed to help fire-prevention program administrators determine if an individual contactor is effective at influencing people. The 24 items in the scale indicate the qualities that an effective contactor should have.

  20. A Computational Framework to Optimize Subject-Specific Hemodialysis Blood Flow Rate to Prevent Intimal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Javid; Wlodarczyk, Marta; Cassel, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    Development of excessive intimal hyperplasia (IH) in the cephalic vein of renal failure patients who receive chronic hemodialysis treatment results in vascular access failure and multiple treatment complications. Specifically, cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) is known to exacerbate hypertensive blood pressure, thrombosis, and subsequent cardiovascular incidents that would necessitate costly interventional procedures with low success rates. It has been hypothesized that excessive blood flow rate post access maturation which strongly violates the venous homeostasis is the main hemodynamic factor that orchestrates the onset and development of CAS. In this article, a computational framework based on a strong coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and shape optimization is proposed that aims to identify the effective blood flow rate on a patient-specific basis that avoids the onset of CAS while providing the adequate blood flow rate required to facilitate hemodialysis. This effective flow rate can be achieved through implementation of Miller's surgical banding method after the maturation of the arteriovenous fistula and is rooted in the relaxation of wall stresses back to a homeostatic target value. The results are indicative that this optimized hemodialysis blood flow rate is, in fact, a subject-specific value that can be assessed post vascular access maturation and prior to the initiation of chronic hemodialysis treatment as a mitigative action against CAS-related access failure. This computational technology can be employed for individualized dialysis treatment.

  1. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Olesen, Bjarne W. [ICIEE/BYG, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Iwamatsu, Toshiya [Faculty of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Asada, Hideo [Architech Consulting Co., Tokyo (Japan); Dovjak, Mateja [Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Schellen, Lisje [Eindhoven University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning (Netherlands); Shukuya, Masanori [Laboratory of Building Environment, Tokyo City University, Yokohama (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Application of the exergy concept to research on the built environment is a relatively new approach. It helps to optimize climate conditioning systems so that they meet the requirements of sustainable building design. As the building should provide a healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation. Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy consumption rates increase as the operative temperature increases above 24 C or decreases below 22 C. With the data available so far, a second-order polynomial relationship between thermal sensation and the exergy consumption rate was established. (author)

  2. Relationship Between Pretraining Subjective Wellness Measures, Player Load, and Rating-of-Perceived-Exertion Training Load in American College Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govus, Andrew D; Coutts, Aaron; Duffield, Rob; Murray, Andrew; Fullagar, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between pretraining subjective wellness and external and internal training load in American college football is unclear. To examine the relationship of pretraining subjective wellness (sleep quality, muscle soreness, energy, wellness Z score) with player load and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE-TL) in American college football players. Subjective wellness (measured using 5-point, Likert-scale questionnaires), external load (derived from GPS and accelerometry), and s-RPE-TL were collected during 3 typical training sessions per week for the second half of an American college football season (8 wk). The relationship of pretraining subjective wellness with player load and s-RPE training load was analyzed using linear mixed models with a random intercept for athlete and a random slope for training session. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) denote the effect magnitude. A 1-unit increase in wellness Z score and energy was associated with trivial 2.3% (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.5, 4.2; SMD 0.12) and 2.6% (90% CI 0.1, 5.2; SMD 0.13) increases in player load, respectively. A 1-unit increase in muscle soreness (players felt less sore) corresponded to a trivial 4.4% (90% CI -8.4, -0.3; SMD -0.05) decrease in s-RPE training load. Measuring pretraining subjective wellness may provide information about players' capacity to perform in a training session and could be a key determinant of their response to the imposed training demands American college football. Hence, monitoring subjective wellness may aid in the individualization of training prescription in American college football players.

  3. Adaptation of abbreviated mathematics anxiety rating scale for engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.

  4. A Real-Time Analysis Method for Pulse Rate Variability Based on Improved Basic Scale Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Chou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Base scale entropy analysis (BSEA is a nonlinear method to analyze heart rate variability (HRV signal. However, the time consumption of BSEA is too long, and it is unknown whether the BSEA is suitable for analyzing pulse rate variability (PRV signal. Therefore, we proposed a method named sliding window iterative base scale entropy analysis (SWIBSEA by combining BSEA and sliding window iterative theory. The blood pressure signals of healthy young and old subjects are chosen from the authoritative international database MIT/PhysioNet/Fantasia to generate PRV signals as the experimental data. Then, the BSEA and the SWIBSEA are used to analyze the experimental data; the results show that the SWIBSEA reduces the time consumption and the buffer cache space while it gets the same entropy as BSEA. Meanwhile, the changes of base scale entropy (BSE for healthy young and old subjects are the same as that of HRV signal. Therefore, the SWIBSEA can be used for deriving some information from long-term and short-term PRV signals in real time, which has the potential for dynamic PRV signal analysis in some portable and wearable medical devices.

  5. Subjective Ratings of Beauty and Aesthetics: Correlations With Statistical Image Properties in Western Oil Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Thomas; Redies, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    For centuries, oil paintings have been a major segment of the visual arts. The JenAesthetics data set consists of a large number of high-quality images of oil paintings of Western provenance from different art periods. With this database, we studied the relationship between objective image measures and subjective evaluations of the images, especially evaluations on aesthetics (defined as artistic value) and beauty (defined as individual liking). The objective measures represented low-level statistical image properties that have been associated with aesthetic value in previous research. Subjective rating scores on aesthetics and beauty correlated not only with each other but also with different combinations of the objective measures. Furthermore, we found that paintings from different art periods vary with regard to the objective measures, that is, they exhibit specific patterns of statistical image properties. In addition, clusters of participants preferred different combinations of these properties. In conclusion, the results of the present study provide evidence that statistical image properties vary between art periods and subject matters and, in addition, they correlate with the subjective evaluation of paintings by the participants. PMID:28694958

  6. Standardized laryngeal videostroboscopic rating : Differences between untrained and trained male and female subjects, and effects of varying sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Schutte, HK; Miller, DG

    To determine the influence of the factors gender, vocal training, sound intensity, pitch, and aging on vocal function, videolaryngostroboscopic images of 214 subjects, subdivided according to gender and status of vocal training, were evaluated by three judges with standardized rating scales,

  7. Subjective assessment of acute mountain sickness: investigating the relationship between the Lake Louise Self-Report, a visual analogue scale and psychological well-being scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühauf, Anika; Burtscher, Martin; Pocecco, Elena; Faulhaber, Martin; Kopp, Martin

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing discussion how to assess acute mountain sickness (AMS) in real life conditions. Next to more-item scales with a cut off like the Lake Louise Self-Report (LLS), some authors suggested to use visual analog scales (VAS) to assess AMS. This study tried to contribute to this question using VAS items used for the Subjective Ratings of Drug Effects, including an additional single item for AMS. Furthermore, we investigated if instruments developed to assess psychological well-being might predict AMS assessed via LLS or VAS. 32 (19 Female) adult persons with known AMS susceptibility filled in questionnaires (Feeling Scale, Felt Arousal Scale, Activation Deactivation Check List, LLS, VAS) at a height of 3650 m above sea level. Correlation and regression analysis suggest a moderate to high relationship between the LLS score and the VAS items, including one VAS item asking for the severity of AMS, as well as psychological well-being. In conclusion, using VAS items to assess AMS can be a more precise alternative to questionnaires like LLS, for people knowledgeable with AMS. Furthermore, researchers should be aware that psychological well-being might be an important parameter influencing the assessment of AMS.

  8. Effects of air pollutants on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David

    2004-01-01

    Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours to diffe...... to different air quality conditions. A re-analysis of the CO2 measurements obtained in two independent studies showed that human CO2 emission rates were affected by air quality (P......Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours...

  9. Operators and scales: diagnostic and rating issues in psychiatric PET research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aagren, H.

    1992-01-01

    In psychiatric research that for various reasons has to restrict itself to a limited number of subjects, such as studies involving expensive positron emission tomography techniques, issues concerning the parsimonious description of patients gain in importance. The number of descriptive variables must be optimally small. This paper offers a conceptual back-ground for the choice of operators in operational diagnostic systems designed to delimit pathological types, and of rating scales designed to measure syndromal severity in a dimensional way. A practical suggestion in five tenets for the organization of clinical research of this kind is presented. (author)

  10. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels.

  11. Serum C-reactive protein and thioredoxin levels in subjects with mildly reduced glomerular filtration rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishimura Eiji

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a newly recognized high-risk condition for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and previous studies reported the changes in inflammation and oxidative stress in advanced stages of CKD. We compared the levels of serum biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress between subjects with normal and mildly reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Methods The subjects were 182 participants of a health check-up program including those with normal (≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2, N = 79 and mildly reduced eGFR (60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2, N = 103 which was calculated based on serum creatinine, age and sex. We excluded those with reduced eGFR 2. No one had proteinuria. We measured serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP and thioredoxin (TRX as the markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, respectively. Results As compared with subjects with normal eGFR, those with mildly reduced eGFR had increased levels of both CRP and TRX. Also, eGFR was inversely correlated with these biomarkers. The associations of eGFR with these biomarkers remained significant after adjustment for age and sex. When adjustment was done for eight possible confounders, CRP showed significant association with systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and non-HDL-C, whereas TRX was associated with sex significantly, and with eGFR and systolic blood pressure at borderline significance. Conclusions We showed the increased levels of CRP and TRX in subjects with mildly reduced eGFR. The eGFR-CRP link and the eGFR-TRX link appeared to be mediated, at least partly, by the alterations in blood pressure and plasma lipids in these subjects.

  12. Characterization of a New Fully Recycled Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Subjected to High Strain Rate Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, H.; Tamboura, S.; Fitoussi, J.; BenDaly, H.; Tcharkhtchi, A.

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is the complete physicochemical characterization and strain rate effect multi-scale analysis of a new fully recycled carbon fiber reinforced composites for automotive crash application. Two composites made of 20% wt short recycled carbon fibers (CF) are obtained by injection molding. The morphology and the degree of dispersion of CF in the matrixes were examined using a new ultrasonic method and SEM. High strain tensile behavior up to 100 s-1 is investigated. In order to avoid perturbation due to inertial effect and wave propagation, the specimen geometry was optimized. The elastic properties appear to be insensitive to the strain rate. However, a high strain rate effect on the local visco-plasticity of the matrix and fiber/matrix interface visco-damageable behavior is emphasized. The predominant damage mechanisms evolve from generalized matrix local ductility at low strain rate regime to fiber/matrix interface debonding and fibers pull-out at high strain rate regime.

  13. Combining agreement and frequency rating scales to optimize psychometrics in measuring behavioral health functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Ni, Pengsheng; Chan, Leighton; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Jette, Alan M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this article was to investigate optimal functioning of using frequency vs. agreement rating scales in two subdomains of the newly developed Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery: the Mood & Emotions and Behavioral Control scales. A psychometric study comparing rating scale performance embedded in a cross-sectional survey used for developing a new instrument to measure behavioral health functioning among adults applying for disability benefits in the United States was performed. Within the sample of 1,017 respondents, the range of response category endorsement was similar for both frequency and agreement item types for both scales. There were fewer missing values in the frequency items than the agreement items. Both frequency and agreement items showed acceptable reliability. The frequency items demonstrated optimal effectiveness around the mean ± 1-2 standard deviation score range; the agreement items performed better at the extreme score ranges. Findings suggest an optimal response format requires a mix of both agreement-based and frequency-based items. Frequency items perform better in the normal range of responses, capturing specific behaviors, reactions, or situations that may elicit a specific response. Agreement items do better for those whose scores are more extreme and capture subjective content related to general attitudes, behaviors, or feelings of work-related behavioral health functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Validity and Reliability of Clinical Dementia Rating Scale among the Elderly in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sadeghi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common cause of dementia among the elderly is Alzheimer’s disease. Given the increasing population of the elderly, achieving a screening tool with high reliability and validity is an essential need for all communities. The main objective of the project was to determine the Persian version of Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (P-CDR1. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects were randomly selected from among 150, 50-70 year old people, who were illiterate and not mentally retarded, residing in the nursing home; and they were given the Persian version of CDR scale (test. After three months, the group was given the test again. Results: The findings showed that from the specialists’ standpoint CDR scale had acceptable validity, and the test validity was achieved 0.05 at the significant level with Cronbach’s alpha and reliability coefficients 73% and 89%, respectively. Conclusion: CDR scale is a reliable instrument for evaluation of clinical dementia rating among the elderly in Iran. It can be used in screening dementia, Alzheimer, and diagnosis of the severity and stages of Alzheimer.

  15. The Spanish-Version of the Subjective Vitality Scale: Psychometric Properties and Evidence of Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Isabel; Tomás, Inés; Balaguer, Isabel

    2017-06-05

    The Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS) assess the subjective experience of being full of energy and alive, a clinically relevant outcome measure of positive psychological well-being. The purpose of this paper was to translate the 7-item SVS into Spanish and examine its psychometric properties. In Study 1 (n = 790 adolescents) and Study 2 (n = 130 athletes) reliability and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were carried out. In Study 1 and Study 3 (n = 197 dancers) evidence of validity of inferences based on SVS scores estimating relationships with other variables (life satisfaction, global self-esteem and emotional and physical exhaustion) was obtained. In Study 2 invariance across time was tested. Finally in Study 3, the factorial structure was cross-validated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results of EFA showed a one-factor solution. CFA also supported a unidimensional factor structure for the Spanish 6-item SVS (RMSEA = .050 (90% CI = .00, .080); NNFI = .993; CFI = .996). Reliability analysis indicated a strong internal consistency in all study samples (α ranged from .82 to .89). Further, results from multi-sample analysis supported the replicability of SVS factor structure across time. Finally, the SVS scores showed the expected correlations patterns (all them significant, p < .01) with the measured outcomes. In conclusion, the Spanish version of the SVS demonstrated adequate psychometric properties, indicating that the scale can be confidently used to measure the experience of possessing energy and aliveness; furthermore, differences across time can be meaningfully carried out.

  16. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida counts in subjects with xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sandra R; Peixoto, Camila Bernardo; Caldas, Daniele Manhães; Silva, Eline Barboza; Akiti, Tiyomi; Nucci, Márcio; de Uzeda, Milton

    2002-02-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between salivary flow and Candida colony counts in the saliva of patients with xerostomia. Sialometry and Candida colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were taken from 112 subjects who reported xerostomia in a questionnaire. Chewing-stimulated whole saliva was collected and streaked in Candida plates and counted in 72 hours. Species identification was accomplished under standard methods. There was a significant inverse relationship between salivary flow and Candida CFU counts (P =.007) when subjects with high colony counts were analyzed (cutoff point of 400 or greater CFU/mL). In addition, the median sialometry of men was significantly greater than that of women (P =.003), even after controlling for confounding variables like underlying disease and medications. Sjögren's syndrome was associated with low salivary flow rate (P =.007). There was no relationship between the median Candida CFU counts and gender or age. There was a high frequency (28%) of mixed colonization. Candida albicans was the most frequent species, followed by C parapsilosis, C tropicalis, and C krusei. In subjects with high Candida CFU counts there was an inverse relationship between salivary flow and Candida CFU counts.

  17. Bilateral hegu acupoints have the same effect on the heart rate variability of the healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangjun, Wang; Yuying, Tian; Shuyong, Jia; Wenting, Zhou; Weibo, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Background. The specificity of acupuncture points (acupoints) is one of the key concepts in traditional acupuncture theory, but the question of whether there is adequate scientific evidence to prove or disprove specificity has been vigorously debated in recent years. Acupoint laterality is an important aspect of acupoint specificity. Data is particularly scarce regarding the laterality of the same channel, namesake acupoint located on opposite sides of the body. Our previous study results suggest that Neiguan acupoint (PC6) has the laterality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Hegu (LI4) also has laterality from the perspective of heart rate variability. Methods. A total of twenty-eight healthy female volunteers were recruited for this study and were randomly separated into the group I (n = 14) and the group II (n = 14) according to the register order. In the group I, left LI4 was stimulated in the first epoch and the right LI4 was stimulated in the second epoch. In the group II, right LI4 was stimulated in the first epoch and left LI4 was stimulated in the second epoch. Electrocardiogram was recorded and heart rate variability was analyzed. Results. The results show that there were no significant differences of heart rate variablity between the group I and the group II in the time domain and in the frequency domain. Conclusions. Bilateral Hegu acupoints have the same effect on the heart rate variability of the healthy subjects.

  18. Bilateral Hegu Acupoints Have the Same Effect on the Heart Rate Variability of the Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The specificity of acupuncture points (acupoints is one of the key concepts in traditional acupuncture theory, but the question of whether there is adequate scientific evidence to prove or disprove specificity has been vigorously debated in recent years. Acupoint laterality is an important aspect of acupoint specificity. Data is particularly scarce regarding the laterality of the same channel, namesake acupoint located on opposite sides of the body. Our previous study results suggest that Neiguan acupoint (PC6 has the laterality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Hegu (LI4 also has laterality from the perspective of heart rate variability. Methods. A total of twenty-eight healthy female volunteers were recruited for this study and were randomly separated into the group I (n=14 and the group II (n=14 according to the register order. In the group I, left LI4 was stimulated in the first epoch and the right LI4 was stimulated in the second epoch. In the group II, right LI4 was stimulated in the first epoch and left LI4 was stimulated in the second epoch. Electrocardiogram was recorded and heart rate variability was analyzed. Results. The results show that there were no significant differences of heart rate variablity between the group I and the group II in the time domain and in the frequency domain. Conclusions. Bilateral Hegu acupoints have the same effect on the heart rate variability of the healthy subjects.

  19. Estimation of Circadian Body Temperature Rhythm Based on Heart Rate in Healthy, Ambulatory Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Soo Young; Joo, Kwang Min; Kim, Han Byul; Jang, Seungjin; Kim, Beomoh; Hong, Seungbum; Kim, Sungwan; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-03-01

    Core body temperature is a reliable marker for circadian rhythm. As characteristics of the circadian body temperature rhythm change during diverse health problems, such as sleep disorder and depression, body temperature monitoring is often used in clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, the use of current thermometers in circadian rhythm monitoring is impractical in daily life. As heart rate is a physiological signal relevant to thermoregulation, we investigated the feasibility of heart rate monitoring in estimating circadian body temperature rhythm. Various heart rate parameters and core body temperature were simultaneously acquired in 21 healthy, ambulatory subjects during their routine life. The performance of regression analysis and the extended Kalman filter on daily body temperature and circadian indicator (mesor, amplitude, and acrophase) estimation were evaluated. For daily body temperature estimation, mean R-R interval (RRI), mean heart rate (MHR), or normalized MHR provided a mean root mean square error of approximately 0.40 °C in both techniques. The mesor estimation regression analysis showed better performance than the extended Kalman filter. However, the extended Kalman filter, combined with RRI or MHR, provided better accuracy in terms of amplitude and acrophase estimation. We suggest that this noninvasive and convenient method for estimating the circadian body temperature rhythm could reduce discomfort during body temperature monitoring in daily life. This, in turn, could facilitate more clinical studies based on circadian body temperature rhythm.

  20. Psychometric Properties of ADHD Rating Scales among Children with Mental Retardation I: Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael L.; Fee, Virginia E.; Netterville, Amanda K.

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) rating scales in children with mental retardation was assessed. Parents, teachers, and teaching assistants completed ADHD rating scales on 48 children aged 5-12 diagnosed with mental retardation. Measures included the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Conners Rating Scales, the…

  1. Item Response Theory Analyses of the Parent and Teacher Ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-01-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., "Journal of Child Psychology and…

  2. Assertive communication in condom negotiation: Insights from late adolescent couples’ subjective ratings of self and partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Amy; Leonard, Noelle R.; Ritchie, Amanda S.; Gwadz, Marya V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Assertive communication has been associated with higher levels of condom use among youth using self-report survey methodology. The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective ratings of assertiveness among young, romantically-involved couples in the context of a condom negotiation task. Methods Using an innovative video-recall procedure, 32 couples (64 youth) engaged in a videotaped condom negotiation task and then rated self and partners’ level of assertiveness. Both individual ratings of assertiveness and couple-level assertiveness were assessed using dyadic hierarchical linear modeling. Results Individuals’ assertiveness was positively associated with condom use. Unexpectedly, the overall level of assertiveness in couples showed a curvilinear association with condom use. Very high and very low assertiveness was associated with lower condom use, while moderate levels of assertiveness were associated with higher condom use. Conclusions Moderate levels of assertiveness during condom negotiation may facilitate condom use in young couples. Increasing condom use among romantic partners may require developing interventions that strengthen youths’ ability to engage in assertive communication strategies that balance emotional intimacy with self-advocacy. PMID:25937470

  3. Assertive Communication in Condom Negotiation: Insights From Late Adolescent Couples' Subjective Ratings of Self and Partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Amy; Leonard, Noelle R; Ritchie, Amanda S; Gwadz, Marya V

    2015-07-01

    Assertive communication has been associated with higher levels of condom use among youth using self-report survey methodology. The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective ratings of assertiveness among young, romantically involved couples in the context of a condom negotiation task. Using an innovative video-recall procedure, 32 couples (64 youth) engaged in a videotaped condom negotiation task and then rated self and partners' level of assertiveness. Both individual ratings of assertiveness and couple-level assertiveness were assessed using dyadic hierarchical linear modeling. Individuals' assertiveness was positively associated with condom use. Unexpectedly, the overall level of assertiveness in couples showed a curvilinear association with condom use. Very high and very low assertiveness was associated with lower condom use, whereas moderate levels of assertiveness were associated with higher condom use. Moderate levels of assertiveness during condom negotiation may facilitate condom use in young couples. Increasing condom use among romantic partners may require developing interventions that strengthen youths' ability to engage in assertive communication strategies that balance emotional intimacy with self-advocacy. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Personality, self-rated health, and subjective age in a life-span sample: the moderating role of chronological age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Demulier, Virginie; Terracciano, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The present study tested whether chronological age moderates the association between subjective age and self-rated health and personality in a community-dwelling life-span sample (N = 1,016; age range: 18-91 years). Self-rated health, extraversion, and openness to experience were associated with a younger subjective age at older ages. Conscientious individuals felt more mature early in life. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, and agreeableness were not related to subjective age at older ages. These findings suggest that with aging self-rated health and personality traits are increasingly important for subjective age. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Validation of the Peripheral Ultrasound-guided Vascular Access Rating Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Stine C.; Weile, Jesper; Clemmesen, Louise

    2018-01-01

    rating scale (P =.029, one-way ANOVA), and the P-UGVA rating scale scores also correlated strongly with the overall performance evaluations (rho=0.87, PPearson correlation). We calculated a pass/fail score of 29, which lead to a theoretical false positive rate of 26.5% and false negative rate of 8...

  6. Description of signature scales in a floating wind turbine model wake subjected to varying turbulence intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadum, Hawwa; Rockel, Stanislav; Holling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim; Cal, Raul Bayon

    2017-11-01

    The wake behind a floating model horizontal axis wind turbine during pitch motion is investigated and compared to a fixed wind turbine wake. An experiment is conducted in an acoustic wind tunnel where hot-wire data are acquired at five downstream locations. At each downstream location, a rake of 16 hot-wires was used with placement of the probes increasing radially in the vertical, horizontal, and diagonally at 45 deg. In addition, the effect of turbulence intensity on the floating wake is examined by subjecting the wind turbine to different inflow conditions controlled through three settings in the wind tunnel grid, a passive and two active protocols, thus varying in intensity. The wakes are inspected by statistics of the point measurements, where the various length/time scales are considered. The wake characteristics for a floating wind turbine are compared to a fixed turbine, and uncovering its features; relevant as the demand for exploiting deep waters in wind energy is increasing.

  7. High Strain Rate Response of 7055 Aluminum Alloy Subject to Square-spot Laser Shock Peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rujian; Zhu, Ying; Li, Liuhe; Guo, Wei; Peng, Peng

    2017-12-01

    The influences of laser pulse energy and impact time on high strain rate response of 7055 aluminum alloy subject to square-spot laser shock peening (SLSP) were investigate. Microstructural evolution was characterized by OM, SEM and TEM. Microhardness distribution and in-depth residual stress in 15 J with one and two impacts and 25 J with one and two impacts were analyzed. Results show that the original rolling structures were significantly refined due to laser shock induced recrystallization. High density of microdefects was generated, such as dislocation tangles, dislocation wall and stacking faults. Subgrains and nanograins were induced in the surface layer, resulting in grain refinement in the near surface layer after SLSP. Compressive residual stresses with maximum value of more than -200 MPa and affected depths of more than 1 mm can be generated after SLSP. Impact time has more effectiveness than laser pulse energy in increasing the magnitude of residual stress and achieving thicker hardening layer.

  8. Subjective evaluation of HDTV stereoscopic videos in IPTV scenarios using absolute category rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Barkowsky, M.; Cousseau, R.; Brunnström, K.; Olsson, R.; Le Callet, P.; Sjöström, M.

    2011-03-01

    Broadcasting of high definition (HD) stereobased 3D (S3D) TV are planned, or has already begun, in Europe, the US, and Japan. Specific data processing operations such as compression and temporal and spatial resampling are commonly used tools for saving network bandwidth when IPTV is the distribution form, as this results in more efficient recording and transmission of 3DTV signals, however at the same time it inevitably brings quality degradations to the processed video. This paper investigated observers quality judgments of state of the art video coding schemes (simulcast H.264/AVC or H.264/MVC), with or without added temporal and spatial resolution reduction of S3D videos, by subjective experiments using the Absolute Category Rating method (ACR) method. The results showed that a certain spatial resolution reduction working together with high quality video compressing was the most bandwidth efficient way of processing video data when the required video quality is to be judged as "good" quality. As the subjective experiment was performed in two different laboratories in two different countries in parallel, a detailed analysis of the interlab differences was performed.

  9. Large Scale System Safety Integration for Human Rated Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Michael J.

    2005-12-01

    Since the 1960s man has searched for ways to establish a human presence in space. Unfortunately, the development and operation of human spaceflight vehicles carry significant safety risks that are not always well understood. As a result, the countries with human space programs have felt the pain of loss of lives in the attempt to develop human space travel systems. Integrated System Safety is a process developed through years of experience (since before Apollo and Soyuz) as a way to assess risks involved in space travel and prevent such losses. The intent of Integrated System Safety is to take a look at an entire program and put together all the pieces in such a way that the risks can be identified, understood and dispositioned by program management. This process has many inherent challenges and they need to be explored, understood and addressed.In order to prepare truly integrated analysis safety professionals must gain a level of technical understanding of all of the project's pieces and how they interact. Next, they must find a way to present the analysis so the customer can understand the risks and make decisions about managing them. However, every organization in a large-scale project can have different ideas about what is or is not a hazard, what is or is not an appropriate hazard control, and what is or is not adequate hazard control verification. NASA provides some direction on these topics, but interpretations of those instructions can vary widely.Even more challenging is the fact that every individual/organization involved in a project has different levels of risk tolerance. When the discrete hazard controls of the contracts and agreements cannot be met, additional risk must be accepted. However, when one has left the arena of compliance with the known rules, there can be no longer be specific ground rules on which to base a decision as to what is acceptable and what is not. The integrator must find common grounds between all parties to achieve

  10. Are dentists happy? A study among dental practitioners in coastal Andhra Pradesh using subjective happiness scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar Kaipa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of dental professionals in the society is vital. This profession allows the flexibility to balance a professional and personal life. Practice of dentistry at times is quite stressful, and stress impedes happiness and subjective well-being. Several studies have reported about stress among dental professionals and their various effects; however, studies evaluating the level of happiness (happiness index among dentists are few and lack in this geographic region. Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the subjective happiness level among dental professionals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 194 dentists in Andhra Pradesh, India. A questionnaire measuring dimensions of professional satisfaction by Subjective Happiness Scale was used to assess the happiness level. The results were expressed in percentages, means, and mean rank. Independent samples nonparametric tests (Mann–Whitney U-test and Kruskal–Wallis test and multivariable analyses were used to assess the determinants of happiness. Results: The mean happiness index of the respondents was 21.71 (0.26 standard error. Overall 67% of the respondents had an above average happiness score. Higher happiness score was found to be significantly associated with age, postgraduate degree, male gender, type of professional attachment, duration of practice, urban location of practice, and spouse employment status in univariate analysis. However, multivariable analysis showed association with type of professional attachment only. Conclusion: Although dentistry has been recognized as a stressful profession, majority of the dentists under study had a happiness score above the mean, and the level of satisfaction was influenced by various sociodemographic factors.

  11. Standardization of Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale in Iranian subjects with Cerebrovascular Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Alireza Derakhshanrad1

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resilience is a personal trait that can influence the stroke subjects’ attitudes toward future opportunities and facilitate the transitional process and adaptation in them. Assessment of this trait in stroke subjects with a standardized tool would promote the rehabilitation protocols and occupational therapy interventions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to standardize the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC for Persian Iranian people who have had strokes. Methods: A descriptive observational study was adopted in order to standardize the CD-RISC in stroke population. The population was comprised of 34 female and 29 male subjects with a mean age of 51.4±10.6 years and the history of ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accidents. Subjects were recruited based on inclusion criteria within the period of two months between May and July of 2014. Descriptive statistics were calculated along with the Cronbach’s alpha to determine reliability. Standard multiple regression analyses searched for any correlation between variables and resilience. Results: Statistical parameters revealed a mean of 58.4±15.5 for CD-RISC raw scores. Percentile ranks were also calculated from raw data. Cronbach’s alpha of 0.892 revealed that the CD-RISC had high reliability for the population of this study. Multiple regression analyses showed that the functional status was the only variable that uniquely predicted subjects’ resilience (ß=0.41; P<0.01. Conclusion: The findings of this research confirmed applicability of CDRISC in Iranian people who have had strokes. The standardized CD-RISC was determined to be suitable for use in the clinic and for utilization in research studies in Iranian people status post-stroke.

  12. The Apraxia of Speech Rating Scale: a tool for diagnosis and description of apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Edythe A; Duffy, Joseph R; Clark, Heather M; Josephs, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe an initial version of the Apraxia of Speech Rating Scale (ASRS), a scale designed to quantify the presence or absence, relative frequency, and severity of characteristics frequently associated with apraxia of speech (AOS). In this paper we report intra-judge and inter-judge reliability, as well as indices of validity, for the ASRS which was completed for 133 adult participants with a neurodegenerative speech or language disorder, 56 of whom had AOS. The overall inter-judge ICC among three clinicians was 0.94 for the total ASRS score and 0.91 for the number of AOS characteristics identified as present. Intra-judge ICC measures were high, ranging from 0.91 to 0.98. Validity was demonstrated on the basis of strong correlations with independent clinical diagnosis, as well as strong correlations of ASRS scores with independent clinical judgments of AOS severity. Results suggest that the ASRS is a potentially useful tool for documenting the presence and severity of characteristics of AOS. At this point in its development it has good potential for broader clinical use and for better subject description in AOS research. The Apraxia of Speech Rating Scale: A new tool for diagnosis and description of apraxia of speech 1. The reader will be able to explain characteristics of apraxia of speech. 2. The reader will be able to demonstrate use of a rating scale to document the presence and severity of speech characteristics. 3. The reader will be able to explain the reliability and validity of the ASRS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of personality, measured by the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), on symptoms among subjects in suspected sick buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runeson, R; Norbäck, D; Klinteberg, B; Edling, C

    2004-12-01

    The aim was to study possible relationships between personality traits as measured by the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), a self-report personality inventory based on psychobiological theory, and medical symptoms, in subjects with previous work history in suspected sick buildings. The study comprised 195 participants from 19 consecutive cases of suspected sick buildings, initially collected in 1988-92. In 1998-89, the KSP inventory and a symptoms questionnaire were administered in a postal follow-up study. There were 16 questions on symptoms, including symptoms from the eyes, nose, throat, skin, and headache, tiredness, and a symptom score (SC), ranging from 0 to 16, was calculated. The questionnaire also requested information on personal factors, including age, gender, smoking habits, allergy and diagnosed asthma. The KSP ratings in the study group did not differ from the mean personality scale norm scores, calculated from an external reference group. Females had higher scores for somatic anxiety (P < 0.01), muscular tension (P < 0.001), psychic anxiety (P < 0.01), psychasthenia (P < 0.05), indirect aggression (P < 0.05), and guilt (P < 0.05), while males scored higher on detachment (P < 0.001). Subjects with higher SC were found to display higher degree of somatic anxiety (P < 0.001), muscular tension (P < 0.001), psychic anxiety (P < 0.001), psychasthenia (P < 0.001), inhibition of aggression (P < 0.05), detachment (P < 0.05), suspicion (P < 0.01), indirect aggression (P < 0.01), and verbal aggression (P < 0.05). In addition, ocular, respiratory, dermal, and systemic symptoms (headache and tiredness) were significantly related to anxiety- and aggressivity-related scales. There were associations between personality scales and change of symptom score (SC) during the 9-year period. The associations between KSP personality traits and symptoms were more pronounced in females. In conclusion, there are gender differences in personality and SBS symptoms

  14. Are self-report scales as effective as clinician rating scales in measuring treatment response in routine clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Walsh, Emily; Friedman, Michael; Boerescu, Daniela A; Attiullah, Naureen

    2018-01-01

    Recent treatment guidelines have suggested that outcome should be measured in routine clinical practice. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we compared three self-report scales of depressive symptoms and the two most widely used clinician administered scales in treatment studies in their sensitivity to change and evaluation of treatment response in depressed patients treated in routine practice. At baseline and 4-month follow-up 153 depressed outpatients with DSM-IV MDD completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-report version (QIDS-SR), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The patients were rated on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). On each scale treatment response was defined as a 50% or greater reduction in scores from baseline. While there were some differences in the percentage of patients considered to be responders on the different scales, a large effect size was found for each scale, with little variability amongst the scales. The level of agreement between the three self-report scales and the clinician rating scales was approximately the same LIMITATIONS: The present study was conducted in a single clinical practice in which the majority of the patients were white, female, and had health insurance. When measuring outcome in clinical practice the magnitude of change in depressive symptoms is as great on self-report scales as on clinician rating scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dysautonomia rating scales in Parkinson's disease: sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation--critique and recommendations by movement disorders task force on rating scales for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evatt, Marian L; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Chou, Kelvin L; Cubo, Ester; Hinson, Vanessa; Kompoliti, Katie; Yang, Chengwu; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Olivier; Sampaio, Cristina; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G

    2009-04-15

    Upper and lower gastrointestinal dysautonomia symptoms (GIDS)--sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and often socially as well as physically disabling for patients. Available invasive quantitative measures for assessing these symptoms and their response to therapy are time-consuming, require specialized equipment, can cause patient discomfort and present patients with risk. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned a task force to assess available clinical rating scales, critique their clinimetric properties, and make recommendations regarding their clinical utility. Six clinical researchers and a biostatistician systematically searched the literature for scales of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation, evaluated the scales' previous use, performance parameters, and quality of validation data (if available). A scale was designated "Recommended" if the scale was used in clinical studies beyond the group that developed it, has been specifically used in PD reports, and clinimetric studies have established that it is a valid, reliable, and sensitive. "Suggested" scales met at least part of the above criteria, but fell short of meeting all. Based on the systematic review, scales for individual symptoms of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation were identified along with three global scales that include these symptoms in the context of assessing dysautonomia or nonmotor symptoms. Three sialorrhea scales met criteria for Suggested: Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale (DSFS), Drooling Rating Scale, and Sialorrhea Clinical Scale for PD (SCS-PD). Two dysphagia scales, the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ) and Dysphagia-Specific Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL), met criteria for Suggested. Although Rome III constipation module is widely accepted in the gastroenterology community, and the earlier version from the Rome II criteria has been used in a single study of PD patients, neither met criteria for Suggested or Recommended

  16. Dose titration of BAF312 attenuates the initial heart rate reducing effect in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legangneux, Eric; Gardin, Anne; Johns, Donald

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown transient decreases in heart rate (HR) following administration of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators including BAF312. This study was conducted to determine whether dose titration of BAF312 reduces or eliminates these effects. Fifty-six healthy subjects were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive BAF312 in one of two dose titration (DT) regimens (DT1 and DT2: 0.25-10 mg over 9-10 days), no titration (10 mg starting dose) or placebo. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed. Neither DT1 nor DT2 resulted in clinically significant bradycardia or atrioventricular conduction effects. Both titration regimens showed a favourable difference on each of days 1-12 vs. the non-titration regimen on day 1 for HR effects (P titration was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13, 1.23) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.09, 1.18) for DT2 (both P titration HRs showed considerable separation from placebo throughout the study. There was no statistically significant reduction in HR vs. placebo on day 1 in either titration regimen. On days 3-7 subjects in DT1 and DT2 experienced minor reductions in HR vs. placebo (approximately 5 beats min⁻¹; P ≤ 0.0001). From days 9-12, HRs in both titration regimens were comparable with placebo. Both titration regimens effectively attenuated the initial bradyarrhythmia observed on day 1 of treatment with BAF312 10 mg. © 2012 Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research (NIBIR). British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Study on reasonable curtailment rate of large scale renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Yuan, Bo; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2018-02-01

    Energy curtailment rate of renewable energy generation is an important indicator to measure renewable energy consumption, it is also an important parameters to determine the other power sources and grids arrangement in the planning stage. In general, to consume the spike power of the renewable energy which is just a small proportion, it is necessary to dispatch a large number of peaking resources, which will reduce the safety and stability of the system. In planning aspect, if it is allowed to give up a certain amount of renewable energy, overall peaking demand of the system will be reduced, the peak power supply construction can be put off to avoid the expensive cost of marginal absorption. In this paper, we introduce the reasonable energy curtailment rate into the power system planning, and use the GESP power planning software, conclude that the reasonable energy curtailment rate of the regional grids in China is 3% -10% in 2020.

  18. Orbit width scaling of TAE instability growth rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, H.V.; Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The growth rate of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) driven unstable by resonant coupling of energetic charged particles is evaluated in the ballooning limit over a wide range of parameters. All damping effects are ignored. Variations in orbit width, aspect ratio, and the ratio of alfven velocity to energetic particle birth velocity, are explored. The relative contribution of passing and trapped particles, and finite Larmor radius effects, are also examined. The phase space location of resonant particles with interact strongly with the modes is described. The accuracy of the analytic results with respect to growth rate magnitude and parametric dependence is investigated by comparison with numerical results

  19. Orbit width scaling of TAE instability growth rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, H.V.; Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.

    1995-01-01

    The growth rate of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) driven unstable by resonant coupling of energetic charged particles is evaluated in the 'ballooning' limit over a wide range of parameters. All damping effects are ignored. Variations in orbit width, aspect ratio and the ratio of Alfven velocity to energetic particle 'birth' velocity are explored. The relative contribution of passing and trapped particles, and finite Larmor radius effects, are also examined. The phase space location of resonant particles that interact strongly with the modes is described. The accuracy of the analytic results with respect to growth rate magnitude and parametric dependence is investigated by comparison with numerical results. (author). 16 refs, 8 figs

  20. Development of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Lian-Hwang

    1987-01-01

    Developed a teacher's rating scale of self-esteem for children. Participants were 231 school children in grades K-7. Used sociometric measures, popularity ranking by teachers, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to estimate validity. The Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (SERSC) included 12 behavioral characteristics rated most…

  1. Two New Rating Scales for Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Italian Preschool Children: A Comparison between Parent and Teacher Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Anna Maria; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Two new rating scales are presented for the assessment of ADHD symptoms in Italian preschool children, and the agreement between parents and teachers on the presence of an ADHD profile is examined. Method: The scales were administered to parents and teachers of 180 children with a mean age of 5 years and 9 months, attending final year…

  2. Adaptation and Assessment of a Public Speaking Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberri-Shea, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Prominent spoken language assessments such as the Oral Proficiency Interview and the Test of Spoken English have been primarily concerned with speaking ability as it relates to conversation. This paper looks at an additional aspect of spoken language ability, namely public speaking. This study used an adapted form of a public speaking rating scale…

  3. Customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS): climate satisfaction evaluation based on subjective perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Yang, Shing-Ru; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Climate not only influences the behavior of people in urban environments but also affects people's schedules and travel plans. Therefore, providing people with appropriate long-term climate evaluation information is crucial. Therefore, we developed an innovative climate assessment system based on field investigations conducted in three cities located in Northern, Central, and Southern Taiwan. The field investigations included the questionnaire surveys and climate data collection. We first analyzed the relationship between the participants and climate parameters comprising physiologically equivalent temperature, air temperature, humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, cloud cover, and precipitation. Second, we established the neutral value, comfort range, and dissatisfied range of each parameter. Third, after verifying that the subjects' perception toward the climate parameters vary based on individual preferences, we developed the customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS) approach, which featured functions such as personalized and default climate suitability information to be used by users exhibiting varying demands. Finally, we performed calculations using the climate conditions of two cities during the past 10 years to demonstrate the performance of the CRACS approach. The results can be used as a reference when planning activities in the city or when organizing future travel plans. The flexibility of the assessment system enables it to be adjusted for varying regions and usage characteristics.

  4. Analysis of the Professional Choice Self-Efficacy Scale Using the Rasch-Andrich Rating Scale Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambiel, Rodolfo A. M.; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto; de Francisco Carvalho, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze the psychometrics properties of the professional choice self-efficacy scale (PCSES), using the Rasch-Andrich rating scale model. The PCSES assesses four factors: self-appraisal, gathering occupational information, practical professional information search and future planning. Participants were 883 Brazilian…

  5. Psychometric evaluation of the Dutch version of the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; Krabbe, Paul F M; Riezebos, Truus G M; van der Staak, Cees P F; De Jong, Cor A J

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the 16-item Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS). The SOWS measures withdrawal symptoms at the time of assessment. The Dutch SOWS was repeatedly administered to a sample of 272 opioid-dependent inpatients of four addiction treatment centers during rapid detoxification with or without general anesthesia. Examination of the psychometric properties of the SOWS included exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion validity. Exploratory factor analysis of the SOWS revealed a general pattern of four factors with three items not always clustered in the same factors at different points of measurement. After excluding these items from factor analysis four factors were identified during detoxification (temperature dysregulation, tractus locomotorius, tractus gastro-intestinalis and facial disinhibition). The 13-item SOWS shows high internal consistency and test-retest reliability and good validity at different stages of withdrawal. The 13-item SOWS is a reliable and valid instrument to assess opioid withdrawal during rapid detoxification. Three items were deleted because their content does not correspond directly with opioid withdrawal symptoms. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The Development of the Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale: A New Rating Scale for the Assessment of Nasolabial Appearance in Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosmuller, David G M; Mennes, Lisette M; Prahl, Charlotte; Kramer, Gem J C; Disse, Melissa A; van Couwelaar, Gijs M; Niessen, Frank B; Griot, J P W Don

    2017-09-01

      The development of the Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale, a simple and reliable photographic reference scale for the assessment of nasolabial appearance in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients.   A blind retrospective analysis of photographs of cleft lip and palate patients was performed with this new rating scale.   VU Medical Center Amsterdam and the Academic Center for Dentistry of Amsterdam.   Complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients at the age of 6 years.   Photographs that showed the highest interobserver agreement in earlier assessments were selected for the photographic reference scale. Rules were attached to the rating scale to provide a guideline for the assessment and improve interobserver reliability. Cropped photographs revealing only the nasolabial area were assessed by six observers using this new Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale in two different sessions.   Photographs of 62 children (6 years of age, 44 boys and 18 girls) were assessed. The interobserver reliability for the nose and lip together was 0.62, obtained with the intraclass correlation coefficient. To measure the internal consistency, a Cronbach alpha of .91 was calculated. The estimated reliability for three observers was .84, obtained with the Spearman Brown formula.   A new, easy to use, and reliable scoring system with a photographic reference scale is presented in this study.

  7. Dynamics of heart rate variability analysed through nonlinear and linear dynamics is already impaired in young type 1 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Naiara M; Giacon, Thais R; Pacagnelli, Francis L; Barbosa, Marianne P C R; Valenti, Vitor E; Vanderlei, Luiz C M

    2016-10-01

    Autonomic diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus, and studies using heart rate variability to investigate these individuals have shown inconclusive results regarding autonomic nervous system activation. Aims To investigate the dynamics of heart rate in young subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus through nonlinear and linear methods of heart rate variability. We evaluated 20 subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 23 healthy control subjects. We obtained the following nonlinear indices from the recurrence plot: recurrence rate (REC), determinism (DET), and Shanon entropy (ES), and we analysed indices in the frequency (LF and HF in ms2 and normalised units - nu - and LF/HF ratio) and time domains (SDNN and RMSSD), through analysis of 1000 R-R intervals, captured by a heart rate monitor. There were reduced values (p<0.05) for individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with healthy subjects in the following indices: DET, REC, ES, RMSSD, SDNN, LF (ms2), and HF (ms2). In relation to the recurrence plot, subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus demonstrated lower recurrence and greater variation in their plot, inter-group and intra-group, respectively. Young subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus have autonomic nervous system behaviour that tends to randomness compared with healthy young subjects. Moreover, this behaviour is related to reduced sympathetic and parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system.

  8. Korean Version of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98: Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jian; Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Hwi-Jung; Shin, Im Hee; Kim, Jeong-Lan; Trzepacz, Paula T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aims of the present study were 1) to standardize the validity and reliability of the Korean version of Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98-K) and 2) to establish the optimum cut-off value, sensitivity, and specificity for discriminating delirium from other non-delirious psychiatric conditions. Methods Using DSM-IV criteria, 157 subjects (69 delirium, 29 dementia, 32 schizophrenia, and 27 other psychiatric patients) were enrolled. Subjects were evaluated using DRS-R98-K, DRS-K, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K), and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale. Results DRS-R98-K total and severity scores showed high correlations with DRS-K. They were significantly different across all groups (p=0.000). However, neither MMSE-K nor CGI-S distinguished delirium from dementia. All DRS-R98-K diagnostic items (#14-16) and items #1 and 2 significantly discriminated delirium from dementia. Cronbach's alpha coefficient revealed high internal consistency for DRS-R98-K total (r=0.91) and severity (r=0.89) scales. Interrater reliability (ICC between 0.96 and 1) was very high. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve of DRS-R98-K total score was 0.948 between the delirium group and all other groups and 0.873 between the delirium and dementia groups. The best cut-off scores in DRS-R98-K total score were 18.5 and 19.5 between the delirium and the other three groups and 20.5 between the delirium and dementia groups. Conclusion We demonstrated that DRS-R98-K is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing delirium severity and diagnosis and discriminating delirium from dementia and other psychiatric disorders in Korean patients. PMID:21519534

  9. Large scale high strain-rate tests of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiefer R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the stages of development of some innovative equipment, based on Hopkinson bar techniques, for performing large scale dynamic tests of concrete specimens. The activity is centered at the recently upgraded HOPLAB facility, which is basically a split Hopkinson bar with a total length of approximately 200 m and with bar diameters of 72 mm. Through pre-tensioning and suddenly releasing a steel cable, force pulses of up to 2 MN, 250 μs rise time and 40 ms duration can be generated and applied to the specimen tested. The dynamic compression loading has first been treated and several modifications in the basic configuration have been introduced. Twin incident and transmitter bars have been installed with strong steel plates at their ends where large specimens can be accommodated. A series of calibration and qualification tests has been conducted and the first real tests on concrete cylindrical specimens of 20cm diameter and up to 40cm length have commenced. Preliminary results from the analysis of the recorded signals indicate proper Hopkinson bar testing conditions and reliable functioning of the facility.

  10. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 541 - Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject to the Requirements of This Standard B Appendix B to Part 541... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD Pt. 541, App. B...

  11. Objective and subjective rating of tonal noise radiated from UK wind farms: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This final report provides data on the assessment of tonal noise radiation from wind turbines in the United Kingdom. Both objective and subjective assessments of the noise pollution from various wind farms are incorporated in the study. Previous subjective tests are verified here using a larger subject and sample size compared to the initial study. The study also aims to produce an objective automatic tonal assessment procedure which identifies tones and broad band masking noise in wind farm radiated noise spectra. (UK)

  12. High Strain Rate Deformation Mechanisms of Body Centered Cubic Material Subjected to Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, William

    Low carbon steel is the most common grade of structural steel used; it has carbon content of 0.05% to 0.25% and very low content of alloying elements. It is produced in great quantities and provides material properties that are acceptable for many engineering applications, particularly in the construction industry in which low carbon steel is widely used as the strengthening phase in civil structures. The overall goal of this dissertation was to investigate the deformation response of A572 grade 50 steel when subjected to impact loading. This steel has a 0.23% by weight carbon content and has less than 2% additional alloying elements. The deformation mechanisms of this steel under shock loading conditions include both dislocation motion and twin formation. The goal of this work was achieved by performing experimental, analytical and numerical research in three integrated tasks. The first is to determine the relationship between the evolution of deformation twins and the impact pressure. Secondly, a stress criterion for twin nucleation during high strain rate loading was developed which can account for the strain history or initial dislocation density. Lastly, a method was applied for separating the effects of dislocations and twins generated by shock loading in order to determine their role in controlling the flow stress of the material. In this regard, the contents of this work have been categorically organized. First, the active mechanisms in body centered cubic (BCC) low carbon steel during shock loading have been determined as being a composed of the competing mechanisms of dislocations and deformation twins. This has been determined through a series of shock loading tests of the as-received steel. The shock loading tests were done by plate impact experiments at several impact pressures ranging from 2GPa up to 13GPa using a single stage light gas gun. A relationship between twin volume fraction and impact pressure was determined and an analytical model was

  13. Question order sensitivity of subjective well-being measures: focus on life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy in survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.

  14. Ten-year review of rating scales. III: scales assessing suicidality, cognitive style, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Nancy C; Myers, Kathleen; Proud, Laura

    2002-10-01

    This is the third article in a series of 10-year reviews of rating scales. Here, the authors review scales that are useful in tapping the affective disturbances experienced with various psychiatric disorders, including suicidality, cognitive style, and self-esteem. The authors sampled articles incorporating these constructs over the past 25 years and selected scales with established uses or new development. Those presented here have adequate psychometric properties and high utility for efficiently elucidating youths' functioning, plus either wide literature citations or a special niche. These scales were developed bimodally. Many were developed in the 1980s when internalizing disorders were elucidated, but there has been a resurgence of interest in these constructs. Scales assessing suicidality have clear constructs, whereas scales of cognitive style demonstrate deficits in developmental relevance, and scales of self-esteem suffer from lax constructs. The constructs underlying these scales tap core symptoms of internalizing disorders, mediate the expression of affective disturbances associated with various disorders, and depict the impairments resulting from these disorders. Overall, the psychometrics of these scales are adequate. These scales provide a broader representation of youths' functioning than that conveyed with diagnostic scales alone.

  15. Reflex control of heart rate in normal subjects in relation to age: a data base for cardiac vagal neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, W.; van Brederode, J. F.; de Rijk, L. G.; Borst, C.; Dunning, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    We examined the heart rate changes induced by forced breathing and by standing up in 133 healthy subjects in the age range 10-65 years in order to establish a data base for studies on parasympathetic heart rate control in autonomic neuropathy. Test results declined with age. Log-transformation was

  16. Development and Validation of a Rating Scale for Wind Jazz Improvisation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a rating scale for collegiate wind jazz improvisation performance. The 14-item Wind Jazz Improvisation Evaluation Scale (WJIES) was constructed and refined through a facet-rational approach to scale development. Five wind jazz students and one professional jazz educator were asked to record…

  17. Psychometric properties of ADHD rating scales among children with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael L; Fee, Virginia E; Jones, Christie J

    2004-01-01

    The validity of hyperactivity rating scales in children with mental retardation was evaluated. Forty-eight children with mental retardation were rated by parents, teachers and teaching assistants on rating scales measuring Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as part of a related investigation. In addition, direct observations were conducted using the Abikoff Classroom Observation Code. The concurrent validity of each scale was examined. Scales completed by both teachers and teaching assistants were found to provide valid information for the assessment of ADHD in mentally retarded children. Results provided the best support for the ABC-C in the assessment of ADHD in mentally retarded children.

  18. The Effect of Rubric Rating Scale on the Evaluation of Engineering Design Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ahn, Beung-uk

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the rubric rating scale on the evaluation of projects from a first year engineering design course.Asmall experiment was conducted in which twenty-one experienced graders scored five technical posters using one of four rating scales. All rating scales tested...... produced excellent results in terms of inter-rater reliability and validity. However, there were significant differences in the performance of each of the scales. Based on the experiment’s results and past experience, we conclude that increasing the opportunities for raters to deduct points results...

  19. The scaling of maximum and basal metabolic rates of mammals and birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lauro A.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.

    2006-01-01

    Allometric scaling is one of the most pervasive laws in biology. Its origin, however, is still a matter of dispute. Recent studies have established that maximum metabolic rate scales with an exponent larger than that found for basal metabolism. This unpredicted result sets a challenge that can decide which of the concurrent hypotheses is the correct theory. Here, we show that both scaling laws can be deduced from a single network model. Besides the 3/4-law for basal metabolism, the model predicts that maximum metabolic rate scales as M, maximum heart rate as M, and muscular capillary density as M, in agreement with data.

  20. Rating scale for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: scale development and clinimetric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianci, Vittoria; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Condino, Francesca; Mauvais, Hélène Somma; Farnarier, Guy; Labate, Angelo; Latella, Maria Adele; Gasparini, Sara; Branca, Damiano; Pucci, Franco; Vazzana, Francesco; Gambardella, Antonio; Aguglia, Umberto

    2011-06-01

    Our aim was to develop a clinimetric scale evaluating motor phenomena, associated features, and severity of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Sixty video/EEG-recorded PNES induced by suggestion maneuvers were evaluated. We examined the relationship between results from this scale and results from the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale to validate this technique. Interrater reliabilities of the PNES scale for three raters were analyzed using the AC1 statistic, Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The relationship between the CGI and PNES scales was evaluated with Spearman correlations. The AC1 statistic demonstrated good interrater reliability for each phenomenon analyzed (tremor/oscillation, tonic; clonic/jerking, hypermotor/agitation, atonic/akinetic, automatisms, associated features). KCC and the ICC showed moderate interrater agreement for phenomenology, associated phenomena, and total PNES scores. Spearman's correlation of mean CGI score with mean total PNES score was 0.69 (Pscale described here accurately evaluates the phenomenology of PNES and could be used to assess and compare subgroups of patients with PNES. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Koukopoulos Mixed Depression Rating Scale (KMDRS): An International Mood Network (IMN) validation study of a new mixed mood rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Gabriele; Vöhringer, Paul A; Barroilhet, Sergio A; Koukopoulos, Alexia E; Ghaemi, S Nassir

    2018-05-01

    It has been proposed that the broad major depressive disorder (MDD) construct is heterogenous. Koukopoulos has provided diagnostic criteria for an important subtype within that construct, "mixed depression" (MxD), which encompasses clinical pictures characterized by marked psychomotor or inner excitation and rage/anger, along with severe depression. This study provides psychometric validation for the first rating scale specifically designed to assess MxD symptoms cross-sectionally, the Koukopoulos Mixed Depression Rating Scale (KMDRS). 350 patients from the international mood network (IMN) completed three rating scales: the KMDRS, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). KMDRS' psychometric properties assessed included Cronbach's alpha, inter-rater reliability, factor analysis, predictive validity, and Receiver Operator Curve analysis. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.76; 95% CI 0.57, 0.94) and interrater reliability (kappa = 0.73) were adequate. Confirmatory factor analysis identified 2 components: anger and psychomotor excitation (80% of total variance). Good predictive validity was seen (C-statistic = 0.82 95% CI 0.68, 0.93). Severity cut-off scores identified were as follows: none (0-4), possible (5-9), mild (10-15), moderate (16-20) and severe (> 21) MxD. Non DSM-based diagnosis of MxD may pose some difficulties in the initial use and interpretation of the scoring of the scale. Moreover, the cross-sectional nature of the evaluation does not verify the long-term stability of the scale. KMDRS was a reliable and valid instrument to assess MxD symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. On the distance scale of planetary nebulae and white dwarf birth rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidemann, V.

    1977-01-01

    Arguments are presented which favor an increase of the distance scale of planetary nebulae by 30% compared to the Seaton-Webster scale. The consequences for evolutionary tracks, PN and white dwarf relations, and birth rates are discussed. It is concluded that opposite to Smith jr. (1976) underestimated, and that the proposed change in distance scale of PN brings white dwarf and PN birth rates into almost complete agreement. (orig.) [de

  3. Rating Scales for Movement Disorders With Sleep Disturbances: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Forjaz, Maria João; Kurtis, Monica M.; Balestrino, Roberta; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, a wide variety of rating scales and questionnaires for movement disorders have been developed and published, making reviews on their contents, and attributes convenient for the potential users. Sleep disorders are frequently present in movement disorders, and some movement disorders are accompanied by specific sleep difficulties. Aim: The aim of this study is to perform a narrative review of the most frequently used rating scales for movement disorders with sleep problems, with special attention to those recommended by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society. Methods: Online databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Google Scholar), related references from papers and websites and personal files were searched for information on comprehensive or global rating scales which assessed sleep disturbances in the following movement disorders: akathisia, chorea, dystonia, essential tremor, myoclonus, multiple system atrophy, Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and tics and Tourette syndrome. For each rating scale, its objective and characteristics, as well as a summary of its psychometric properties and recommendations of use are described. Results: From 22 rating scales identified for the selected movement disorders, only 5 included specific questions on sleep problems. Movement Disorders Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating scale (MDS-UPDRS), Non-Motor Symptoms Scale and Questionnaire (NMSS and NMSQuest), Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease (SCOPA)-Autonomic and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Rating Scale (PSPRS) were the only rating scales that included items for assessing sleep disturbances. Conclusions: Despite sleep problems are frequent in movement disorders, very few of the rating scales addresses these specific symptoms. This may contribute to an infra diagnosis and mistreatment of the sleep problems in patients with movement disorders.

  4. A new method for calculating energy release rate in tunnel excavation subjected to high in situ stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qinghua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on energy theory, energy release rate (EER and local energy release rate (LEER, a new index called FERR (Fractional Energy Release Rate is proposed, and this method can not only evaluate the risk of rock burst, but also can point out the location of high risk and the scale of rockburst. The FERR index is applied to the TBM assembling tunnel in Jinping Hydro Power Station II to evaluate the scale and intensity of rockburst, as well as the location where rockburst occurs. With FDM method adopted, the energy release rate of 3 excavation plans are calculated and the scale and risk of rockburst is evaluated, and the location of high risk of rockburst is also mapped. With FERR used in the evaluation, the rockburst is nicely controlled which ensured the safety and construction schedule of the project.

  5. Validity and reliability of Verbal Online Subjective Opinion (VOSO and Modified Cooper-Harper scales in measuring of mental workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Charkhandaz Yeganeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High mental workload is one of the important factors that results in errors in safety and occupational health scope and its measurement has high importance. So, this study aimed to determine validity and reliability of Verbal Online Subjective Opinion (VOSO and Modified Cooper-Harper (MCH scales in measuring mental workload. Methods: This study was conducted on 90 male students of Iran University of Medical Sciences. In this study, the Forward-Backward translation was used for translation of scales. Moreover, Content Validity Ratio (CVR and Content Validity Index (CVI were calculated by having suggestion of 6 Ergonomics and Occupational health experts. The Hybrid Memory Search Task software was used to create mental workload. Convergent validity of scales was calculated using correlation of scales with reaction time and then Test-Retest method was used to determine the reliability of scales. Results: Content and convergent validity of scales were confirmed and correlation of both scales with reaction time were higher than 0.8. Moreover for determination of scales reliabilities, Pearson correlation coefficient between scales values in test and retest trials were 0.86 and 0.91 for VOSO and MCH respectively. Conclusion: It seems that in regard to confirmation of validity and reliability of VOSO and MCH in this study and their high correlation with reaction time, it can use these scales in measurement of mental workload.

  6. The Impact of Employment and Self-Rated Economic Condition on the Subjective Well-Being of Older Korean Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung; Lee, Yura; Sangalang, Cindy; Harris, Lesley M

    2015-09-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated a relationship between socioeconomic factors and health among older adults, yet fewer studies have explored this relationship with older immigrants. This study aims to examine the influence of employment and self-rated economic condition on the subjective well-being of older Korean immigrants in the United States. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study of 205 older Korean immigrants, aged 65 to 90, in Los Angeles County. Hierarchical regression was employed to explore the independent and interactive effects of employment status and self-rated economic condition. The study found that employment and self-rated economic status were positively associated with subjective well-being. Also, the interaction between employment and self-rated economic status was significantly associated with higher levels of subjective well-being, such that the influence of self-rated economic condition was stronger for unemployed older Korean immigrants compared with those who were employed. This population-based study provides empirical evidence that employment and self-rated economic condition are directly associated with subjective well-being for older Korean immigrants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Approximate entropy and point correlation dimension of heart rate variability in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storella, R J; Wood, H W; Mills, K M

    1999-01-01

    The contribution of nonlinear dynamics to heart rate variability in healthy humans was examined using surrogate data analysis. Several measures of heart rate variability were used and compared. Heart rates were recorded for three hours and original data sets of 8192 R-R intervals created. For each...... original data set (n = 34), three surrogate data sets were made by shuffling the order of the R-R intervals while retaining their linear correlations. The difference in heart rate variability between the original and surrogate data sets reflects the amount of nonlinear structure in the original data set....... Heart rate variability was analyzed by two different nonlinear methods, point correlation dimension and approximate entropy. Nonlinearity, though under 10 percent, could be detected with both types of heart rate variability measures. More importantly, not only were the correlations between...

  8. Geometrical scaling and modal decay rates in periodic arrays of deeply subwavelength Terahertz resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isić, Goran; Gajić, Radoš

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that due to the high conductivity of noble metals at terahertz frequencies and scalability of macroscopic Maxwell equations, a geometrical downscaling of a terahertz resonator results in the linear upscaling of its resonance frequency. However, the scaling laws of modal decay rates, important for the resonator excitation efficiency, are much less known. Here, we investigate the extent to which the scale-invariance of decay rates is violated due to the finite conductivity of the metal. We find that the resonance quality factor or the excitation efficiency may be substantially affected by scaling and show that this happens as a result of the scale-dependence of the metal absorption rate, while the radiative decay and the dielectric cavity absorption rates are approximately scale-invariant. In particular, we find that by downscaling overcoupled resonators, their excitation efficiency increases, while the opposite happens with undercoupled resonators

  9. Hands-free administration of subjective workload scales: acceptability in a surgical training environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, C Melody; Lio, Cindy H; Grant, Russell; Klein, Martina I; Clarke, Duncan; Seales, W Brent; Strup, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    Subjective workload measures are usually administered in a visual-manual format, either electronically or by paper and pencil. However, vocal responses to spoken queries may sometimes be preferable, for example when experimental manipulations require continuous manual responding or when participants have certain sensory/motor impairments. In the present study, we evaluated the acceptability of the hands-free administration of two subjective workload questionnaires - the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and the Multiple Resources Questionnaire (MRQ) - in a surgical training environment where manual responding is often constrained. Sixty-four undergraduates performed fifteen 90-s trials of laparoscopic training tasks (five replications of 3 tasks - cannulation, ring transfer, and rope manipulation). Half of the participants provided workload ratings using a traditional paper-and-pencil version of the NASA-TLX and MRQ; the remainder used a vocal (hands-free) version of the questionnaires. A follow-up experiment extended the evaluation of the hands-free version to actual medical students in a Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) training facility. The NASA-TLX was scored in 2 ways - (1) the traditional procedure using participant-specific weights to combine its 6 subscales, and (2) a simplified procedure - the NASA Raw Task Load Index (NASA-RTLX) - using the unweighted mean of the subscale scores. Comparison of the scores obtained from the hands-free and written administration conditions yielded coefficients of equivalence of r=0.85 (NASA-TLX) and r=0.81 (NASA-RTLX). Equivalence estimates for the individual subscales ranged from r=0.78 ("mental demand") to r=0.31 ("effort"). Both administration formats and scoring methods were equally sensitive to task and repetition effects. For the MRQ, the coefficient of equivalence for the hands-free and written versions was r=0.96 when tested on undergraduates. However, the sensitivity of the hands-free MRQ to task demands (

  10. Evaluating acute pain intensity relief: challenges when using an 11-point numerical rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauny, Jean-Marc; Paquet, Jean; Lavigne, Gilles; Marquis, Martin; Daoust, Raoul

    2016-02-01

    Percentage of pain intensity difference (PercentPID) is a recognized way of evaluating pain relief with an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) but is not without flaws. A new metric, the slope of relative pain intensity difference (SlopePID), which consists in dividing PercentPID by the time between 2 pain measurements, is proposed. This study aims to validate SlopePID with 3 measures of subjective pain relief: a 5-category relief scale (not, a little, moderate, very, complete), a 2-category relief question ("I'm relieved," "I'm not relieved"), and a single-item question, "Wanting other medication to treat pain?" (Yes/No). This prospective cohort study included 361 patients in the emergency department who had an initial acute pain NRS > 3 and a pain intensity assessment within 90 minutes after analgesic administration. Mean age was 50.2 years (SD = 19.3) and 59% were women. Area under the curves of receiver operating characteristic curves analyses revealed similar discriminative power for PercentPID (0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-0.88) and SlopePID (0.82; 95% CI, 0.77-0.86). Considering the "very" category from the 5-category relief scale as a substantial relief, the average cutoff for substantial relief was a decrease of 64% (95% CI, 59-69) for PercentPID and of 49% per hour (95% CI, 44-54) for SlopePID. However, when a cutoff criterion of 50% was used as a measure of pain relief for an individual patient, PercentPID underestimated pain-relieved patients by 12.1% (P pain intensity at baseline was an odd number compared with an even number (32.9% vs 45.0%, respectively). SlopePID should be used instead of PercentPID as a metric to evaluate acute pain relief on a 0 to 10 NRS.

  11. Valence Scaling of Dynamic Facial Expressions Is Altered in High-Functioning Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An FMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahko, Jukka S.; Paakki, Jyri-Johan; Starck, Tuomo H.; Nikkinen, Juha; Pauls, David L.; Katsyri, Jari V.; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira M.; Carter, Alice S.; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja K.; Remes, Jukka J.; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna A.; Sams, Mikko E.; Bolte, Sven; Ebeling, Hanna E.; Moilanen, Irma K.; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2012-01-01

    FMRI was performed with the dynamic facial expressions fear and happiness. This was done to detect differences in valence processing between 25 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and 27 typically developing controls. Valence scaling was abnormal in ASDs. Positive valence induces lower deactivation and abnormally strong activity in ASD…

  12. Centennial- to millennial-scale hard rock erosion rates deduced from luminescence-depth profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sohbati, Reza; Liu, Jinfeng; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew; Egholm, David; Paris, Richard; Guralnik, Benny

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of erosion and weathering rates in different geomorphic settings and over diverse temporal and spatial scales is fundamental to the quantification of rates and patterns of earth surface processes. A knowledge of the rates of these surface processes helps one to decipher their

  13. Children's and Teachers' Perspectives on Children's Self-Control: The Development of Two Rating Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Laura Lynn

    1982-01-01

    Compared parallel scales of children's self-control developed for teachers and children. Self-control ratings by teachers and children related to naturalistic observations and to teacher ratings of frustration tolerance and acting-out/aggressive problems. Teachers' ratings of self-control related to IQ and achievement. Supported the validity of…

  14. Validation of the Subjective Vitality Scale and study of the vitality of elderly people according to their physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Couto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to validate the Portuguese version of the Subjective Vitality Scale - SVS for the Portuguese elderly population through of confirmatory factorial analysis. The existence of differences in the perception of subjective vitality among sufficiently active and insufficiently active older adults was also analyzed. A total of 309 Portuguese elderly (242 females, 67 males aged 60-90 years (M = 68.59, SD = 6.60 participated in this study. Of the total sample, 256 are sufficiently active, while 53 are insufficiently active. The results show that the model was adjusted to data in a satisfactory way (χ² = 28.95; df = 9; CFI = .97; TLI = .94; SRMR = .04; RMSEA = .08; RMSEA 90% CI = .05 - .12, and show a concurrent validity with the Portuguese version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale. The data obtained allow us concluding that the Portuguese version of the Subjective Vitality Scale can be used as a measure of subjective vitality in the Portuguese elderly population. It was also verified that the subjective perception of vitality is greater among individuals sufficiently active compared with their peers that do not reach the amount of practice of recommended physical activity.

  15. Efficacy of Executive Functions Training (Response Inhibition on the Rate of Impulsivity in Preschool Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Single-Subject Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoush Kavianpour

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aims to investigate the efficacy of executive functions training (response inhibition on the rate of impulsivity in preschool children with developmental coordination disorder in Isfahan city.  Materials & Methods: The participants of this study were three preschool children which were recognized to have developmental coordination disorder. To collect data, we used NEPSY neuropsychology test, Conner’s parent rating scale, Wechsler intelligence scale for children, basic motor ability tests and clinical interview. A single-subject method with MBD design research methodology was used as well. Results: The results of the data chart analysis based on descriptive statistics' and visual analysis indices revealed that the intervention has been effective on the three participants (PND of 80%, 70% and 70% for test number one, two and three, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that response inhibition executive function training can reduce level of impulsivity.

  16. The Construction and Norm-Finding of a Rating Scale for Diagnosing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hooshyari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluation and diagnosis are determinants of treatment outcome; therefore, diagnostic tools should be accurate. The purpose of the present research is construction and norm-finding of a rating scale for the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Method: A checklist based on behavioral symptoms of ADHD from clinical sources was constructed, based on interview with patients and the medical records. After being studied by specialists, this checklist was reduced to items and arranged in a rating scale format. The study population included Tehran's elementary school students (boys and girls from which a sample of 800 children was chosen in a random-cluster manner. Then teachers were asked to rate the students according to the scale characteristics. After two weeks, the subjects were tested and interviewed using a corrected form of the scale, the rating scale of Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP-IV and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV. After data analysis the scale was reduced to 23 items. Results: According to the results of the analysis, the scale had two factors: The first factor was hyperactivity that explained 37.41%, and the second factor was attention deficit that explained 33.78% of the total variance . Cronbach's alpha was 0.96 and the alpha of the two subscales, hyperactivity and attention deficit, was 0.94 and 0.96, respectively. Spearman-Brown Coefficient was 0.78 and scale coefficient correlation with a similar from (SNAP-IV was 0.82. Criterion validity coefficient of the scale was 0.76 and the content validity of the scale was confirmed by the experts. According to sensitivity analysis of the trait, the cutoff point of the scale was 35. Considering the above findings, we can safely use the above scale in clinical studies. Conclusion: Considering the obtained values in the psychometric indexes and the consensus among specialists on the basis of test content validity and

  17. Explicit, Implicit, and Subjective Rating Measures of Situation Awareness in a Monitoring Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    range of the subjects’ weapon (referred to as "envelope sensitivity" and calculated as A’ see Macmillan and Creelman , 1990). In his experiment...1982). Design and analysis: A researchers handbook. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Macmillan, N. A., and Creelman , C. D. (1990). Response

  18. Nocturnal variations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in lower leg of normal human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B

    1991-01-01

    in central and local postural sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. During sleep, characteristic variations in subcutaneous blood flow were disclosed. The 133Xe washout curve could be divided into three segments with significantly different slopes. Approximately 90 min after the subject went to sleep...

  19. Microcrack Evolution and Associated Deformation and Strength Properties of Sandstone Samples Subjected to Various Strain Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Feng Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of micro-cracks in rocks under different strain rates is of great importance for a better understanding of the mechanical properties of rocks under complex stress states. In the present study, a series of tests were carried out under various strain rates, ranging from creep tests to intermediate strain rate tests, so as to observe the evolution of micro-cracks in rock and to investigate the influence of the strain rate on the deformation and strength properties of rocks. Thin sections from rock samples at pre- and post-failure were compared and analyzed at the microscale using an optical microscope. The results demonstrate that the main crack propagation in the rock is intergranular at a creep strain rate and transgranular at a higher strain rate. However, intergranular cracks appear mainly around the quartz and most of the punctured grains are quartz. Furthermore, the intergranular and transgranular cracks exhibit large differences in the different loading directions. In addition, uniaxial compressive tests were conducted on the unbroken rock samples in the creep tests. A comparison of the stress–strain curves of the creep tests and the intermediate strain rate tests indicate that Young’s modulus and the peak strength increase with the strain rate. In addition, more deformation energy is released by the generation of the transgranular cracks than the generation of the intergranular cracks. This study illustrates that the conspicuous crack evolution under different strain rates helps to understand the crack development on a microscale, and explains the relationship between the micro- and macro-behaviors of rock before the collapse under different strain rates.

  20. A Behavior Rating Scale for Emotionally Disturbed Students: The Pupil Observation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Hugg, Robin L.; And Others

    The paper describes development of the Pupil Observation Schedule (POS), a computer based system which provides a framework for assessing, evaluating, and reporting behavioral progress of emotionally disturbed students. The POS is used to rate five skill areas--computation, language, reading, reference, and psychomotor skills; and nine behavioral…

  1. Gravity waves as a probe of the Hubble expansion rate during an electroweak scale phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Zhou Peng

    2010-01-01

    Just as big bang nucleosynthesis allows us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was around 1 MeV, the measurement of gravity waves from electroweak scale first order phase transitions may allow us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was at the electroweak scale. We compute the simple transformation rule for the gravity wave spectrum under the scaling transformation of the Hubble expansion rate. We then apply this directly to the scenario of quintessence kination domination and show how gravity wave spectra would shift relative to Laser Interferometer Space Antenna and Big Bang Observer projected sensitivities.

  2. Use of Sine Shaped High-Frequency Rhythmic Visual Stimuli Patterns for SSVEP Response Analysis and Fatigue Rate Evaluation in Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Keihani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent EEG-SSVEP signal based BCI studies have used high frequency square pulse visual stimuli to reduce subjective fatigue. However, the effect of total harmonic distortion (THD has not been considered. Compared to CRT and LCD monitors, LED screen displays high-frequency wave with better refresh rate. In this study, we present high frequency sine wave simple and rhythmic patterns with low THD rate by LED to analyze SSVEP responses and evaluate subjective fatigue in normal subjects.Materials and Methods: We used patterns of 3-sequence high-frequency sine waves (25, 30, and 35 Hz to design our visual stimuli. Nine stimuli patterns, 3 simple (repetition of each of above 3 frequencies e.g., P25-25-25 and 6 rhythmic (all of the frequencies in 6 different sequences e.g., P25-30-35 were chosen. A hardware setup with low THD rate (<0.1% was designed to present these patterns on LED. Twenty two normal subjects (aged 23–30 (25 ± 2.1 yrs were enrolled. Visual analog scale (VAS was used for subjective fatigue evaluation after presentation of each stimulus pattern. PSD, CCA, and LASSO methods were employed to analyze SSVEP responses. The data including SSVEP features and fatigue rate for different visual stimuli patterns were statistically evaluated.Results: All 9 visual stimuli patterns elicited SSVEP responses. Overall, obtained accuracy rates were 88.35% for PSD and > 90% for CCA and LASSO (for TWs > 1 s. High frequency rhythmic patterns group with low THD rate showed higher accuracy rate (99.24% than simple patterns group (98.48%. Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant difference between rhythmic pattern features (P < 0.0005. Overall, there was no significant difference between the VAS of rhythmic [3.85 ± 2.13] compared to the simple patterns group [3.96 ± 2.21], (P = 0.63. Rhythmic group had lower within group VAS variation (min = P25-30-35 [2.90 ± 2.45], max = P35-25-30 [4.81 ± 2.65] as well as least individual pattern VAS (P25

  3. Long-term effect of yogic practices on diurnal metabolic rates of healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic rate is an indicator of autonomic activity. Reduced sympathetic arousal probably resulting in hypometabolic states has been reported in several yogic studies. Aim: The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga training on diurnal metabolic rates in yoga practitioners at two different times of the day (at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m.. Methods and Material: Eighty eight healthy volunteers were selected and their metabolic rates assessed at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. using an indirect calorimeter at a yoga school in Bangalore, India. Results and conclusions: The results show that the average metabolic rate of the yoga group was 12% lower than that of the non-yoga group ( P < 0.001 measured at 9 p.m. and 16% lower at 6 a.m. ( P < 0.001. The 9 p.m. metabolic rates of the yoga group were almost equal to their predicted basal metabolic rates (BMRs whereas the metabolic rate was significantly higher than the predicted BMR for the non-yoga group. The 6 a.m. metabolic rate was comparable to their predicted BMR in the non-yoga group whereas it was much lower in the yoga group ( P < 0.001. The lower metabolic rates in the yoga group at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. may be due to coping strategies for day-to-day stress, decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and probably, a stable autonomic nervous system response (to different stressors achieved due to training in yoga.

  4. Long-term effect of yogic practices on diurnal metabolic rates of healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The metabolic rate is an indicator of autonomic activity. Reduced sympathetic arousal probably resulting in hypometabolic states has been reported in several yogic studies. Aim : The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga training on diurnal metabolic rates in yoga practitioners at two different times of the day (at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m.. Materials and Methods : Eighty eight healthy volunteers were selected and their metabolic rates assessed at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. using an indirect calorimeter at a yoga school in Bangalore, India. Results and conclusions: The results show that the average metabolic rate of the yoga group was 12% lower than that of the non-yoga group ( P < 0.001 measured at 9 p.m. and 16% lower at 6 a.m. ( P < 0.001. The 9 p.m. metabolic rates of the yoga group were almost equal to their predicted basal metabolic rates (BMRs whereas the metabolic rate was significantly higher than the predicted BMR for the non-yoga group. The 6 a.m. metabolic rate was comparable to their predicted BMR in the non-yoga group whereas it was much lower in the yoga group ( P < 0.001. The lower metabolic rates in the yoga group at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. may be due to coping strategies for day-to-day stress, decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and probably, a stable autonomic nervous system response (to different stressors achieved due to training in yoga.

  5. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    of the present study confirmed previously indicated trends that lowest human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation close to neutrality. Moreover, higher acceptability was in general associated with lower human body exergy consumption rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady...... between the human-body exergy consumption rate and subjective assessment of thermal environment represented by thermal sensation as well as to extend the investigation towards thermal acceptability votes. Comparison of steady-state and unsteady-state model showed that results from both models were...

  6. Multi-scale Analysis of MEMS Sensors Subject to Drop Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zerbini

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of accidental drops on MEMS sensors are examined within the frame-work of a multi-scale finite element approach. With specific reference to a polysilicon MEMSaccelerometer supported by a naked die, the analysis is decoupled into macro-scale (at dielength-scale and meso-scale (at MEMS length-scale simulations, accounting for the verysmall inertial contribution of the sensor to the overall dynamics of the device. Macro-scaleanalyses are adopted to get insights into the link between shock waves caused by the impactagainst a target surface and propagating inside the die, and the displacement/acceleration his-tories at the MEMS anchor points. Meso-scale analyses are adopted to detect the most stresseddetails of the sensor and to assess whether the impact can lead to possible localized failures.Numerical results show that the acceleration at sensor anchors cannot be considered an ob-jective indicator for drop severity. Instead, accurate analyses at sensor level are necessary toestablish how MEMS can fail because of drops.

  7. Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation Change Patterns During 6-min Walk Test in Subjects With Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Takeshi; Terada, Jiro; Yahaba, Misuzu; Kawata, Naoko; Jujo, Takayuki; Nagashima, Kengo; Sakao, Seiichiro; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-12-26

    The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is commonly performed to assess functional status in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. However, changes in heart rate and oxygen saturation ( S pO 2 ) patterns during 6MWT in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension remain unclear. Thirty-one subjects with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were retrospectively evaluated to examine the relationships between the change in heart rate (Δheart rate), heart rate acceleration time, slope of heart rate acceleration, heart rate recovery during the first minute after 6MWT (HRR1), change in S pO 2 (Δ S pO 2 ), S pO 2 reduction time, and S pO 2 recovery time during 6MWT, and the severity of pulmonary hemodynamics assessed by right heart catheterization and echocardiography. Subjects with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension had significantly longer heart rate acceleration time (144.9 ± 63.9 s vs 96.0 ± 42.5 s, P = .033), lower Δheart rate (47.4 ± 16.9 vs 61.8 ± 13.6 beats, P = .02), and lower HRR1 (13.3 ± 9.0 beats vs 27.1 ± 9.2 beats, P pulmonary hypertension. Subjects with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension also had significantly longer S pO 2 reduction time (178.3 ± 70.3 s vs 134.3 ± 58.4 s, P = .03) and S pO 2 recovery time (107.6 ± 35.3 s vs 69.8 ± 32.7 s, P = .004) than did subjects with mild chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed only mean pulmonary arterial pressure independently was associated with heart rate acceleration time and slope of heart rate acceleration. Heart rate and S pO 2 change patterns during 6MWT is predominantly associated with pulmonary hemodynamics in subjects with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Evaluating heart rate and S pO 2 change patterns during 6MWT may serve a safe and convenient way to follow the change in pulmonary hemodynamics. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  8. Sleep electroencephalography and heart rate variability interdependence amongst healthy subjects and insomnia/schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro-Vargas, Ramiro; Schilling, Claudia; Schredl, Michael; Cvetkovic, Dean

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of interdependencies within autonomic nervous system has gained increasing importance to characterise healthy and psychiatric disordered subjects. The present work introduces a biosignal processing approach, suggesting a computational resource to estimate coherent or synchronised interactions as an eventual supportive aid in the diagnosis of primary insomnia and schizophrenia pathologies. By deploying linear, nonlinear and statistical methods upon 25 electroencephalographic and electrocardiographic overnight sleep recordings, the assessment of cross-correlation, wavelet coherence and [Formula: see text]:[Formula: see text] phase synchronisation is focused on tracking discerning features amongst the clinical cohorts. Our results indicate that certain neuronal oscillations interact with cardiac power bands in distinctive ways responding to standardised sleep stages and patient groups, which promotes the hypothesis of subtle functional dynamics between neuronal assembles and (para)sympathetic activity subject to pathophysiological conditions.

  9. Transcultural adaption and validation of the Spanish version of the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS-S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarró, Salvador; Madre, Mercè; Fernández-Corcuera, Paloma; Valentí, Marc; Goikolea, José M; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Berk, Michael; Amann, Benedikt L

    2015-02-01

    The Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS) arguably better captures symptoms in bipolar depression especially depressive mixed states than traditional unipolar depression rating scales. The psychometric properties of the Spanish adapted version, BDRS-S, are reported. The BDRS was translated into Spanish by two independent psychiatrists fluent in English and Spanish. After its back-translation into English, the BDRS-S was administered to 69 DSMI-IV bipolar I and II patients who were recruited from two Spanish psychiatric hospitals. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were concurrently administered. 42 patients were reviewed via video by four psychiatrists blind to the psychopathological status of those patients. In order to assess the BDRS-S intra-rater or test-retest validity, 22 subjects were assessed by the same investigator performing two evaluations within five days. The BDRS-S had a good internal consistency (Cronbach׳s α=0.870). We observed strong correlations between the BDRS-S and the HDRS (r=0.874) and MADRS (r=0.854) and also between the mixed symptom cluster score of the BDRS-S and the YMRS (r=0.803). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three factor solution: psychological depressive symptoms cluster, somatic depressive symptoms cluster and mixed symptoms cluster. A relatively small sample size for a 20-item scale. The BDRS-S provides solid psychometric performance and in particular captures depressive or mixed symptoms in Spanish bipolar patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In-Flight Validation of a Pilot Rating Scale for Evaluating Failure Transients in Electronic Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Kevin F.; Tucker, George E.; Moralez, Ernesto, III

    2006-01-01

    Engineering development and qualification of a Research Flight Control System (RFCS) for the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A has motivated the development of a pilot rating scale for evaluating failure transients in fly-by-wire flight control systems. The RASCAL RFCS includes a highly-reliable, dual-channel Servo Control Unit (SCU) to command and monitor the performance of the fly-by-wire actuators and protect against the effects of erroneous commands from the flexible, but single-thread Flight Control Computer. During the design phase of the RFCS, two piloted simulations were conducted on the Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) to help define the required performance characteristics of the safety monitoring algorithms in the SCU. Simulated failures, including hard-over and slow-over commands, were injected into the command path, and the aircraft response and safety monitor performance were evaluated. A subjective Failure/Recovery Rating (F/RR) scale was developed as a means of quantifying the effects of the injected failures on the aircraft state and the degree of pilot effort required to safely recover the aircraft. A brief evaluation of the rating scale was also conducted on the Army/NASA CH-47B variable stability helicopter to confirm that the rating scale was likely to be equally applicable to in-flight evaluations. Following the initial research flight qualification of the RFCS in 2002, a flight test effort was begun to validate the performance of the safety monitors and to validate their design for the safe conduct of research flight testing. Simulated failures were injected into the SCU, and the F/RR scale was applied to assess the results. The results validate the performance of the monitors, and indicate that the Failure/Recovery Rating scale is a very useful tool for evaluating failure transients in fly-by-wire flight control systems.

  11. Summary scores captured changes in subjects' QoL as measured by the multiple scales of the EORTC QLQ-C30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Rachel; Gandhi, Mihir; Cheung, Yin Bun; Findlay, Michael P; Win, Khin Maung; Hai, Hoang Hoa; Yang, Jin Mo; Lobo, Rolley Rey; Soo, Khee Chee; Chow, Pierce K H

    2015-08-01

    To examine the performance of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) global health status/quality of life (QoL) scale and two summary scores to detect changes in the QoL profile over time, according to changes in the individual scales. Data came from 167 clinical trial patients with unresectable (advanced) hepatocellular carcinoma. The global health status/QoL scale of the questionnaire contained two items: overall health and overall QoL. Nordin and Hinz proposed summary scores for the questionnaire. A mixed-effect model was fitted to estimate trends in scores over time. Predominantly the individual scale scores declined over time; however, the global health status/QoL score was stable [rate of change = -0.3 per month; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.2, 0.6]. Nordin's summary score, which gave equal weight to the 15 questionnaire scales, and Hinz's summary score, which gave equal weight to the 30 questionnaire items, showed a statistically significant decline over time, 3.4 (95% CI: -4.5, -2.4) and 4.2 (95% CI: -5.3, -3.0) points per month, respectively. In contrast to the global health status/QoL scale, the summary scores proposed by Nordin and Hinz detected changes in subjects' QoL profile described by the EORTC QLQ-C30 individual scales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MOTOR UNIT FIRING RATES DURING SPASMS IN THENAR MUSCLES OF SPINAL CORD INJURED SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge eZijdewind

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Involuntary contractions of paralyzed muscles (spasms commonly disrupt daily activities and rehabilitation after human spinal cord injury. Our aim was to examine the recruitment, firing rate modulation, and derecruitment of motor units that underlie spasms of thenar muscles after cervical spinal cord injury. Intramuscular electromyographic activity (EMG, surface EMG, and force were recorded during thenar muscle spasms that occurred spontaneously or that were triggered by movement of a shoulder or leg. Most spasms were submaximal (mean: 39%, SD: 33 of the force evoked by median nerve stimulation at 50 Hz with strong relationships between EMG and force (R2>0.69. Unit recruitment occurred over a wide force range (0.2-103% of 50 Hz force. Significant unit rate modulation occurred during spasms (frequency at 25% maximal force: 8.8 Hz, 3.3 SD; at maximal force: 16.1 Hz, 4.1 SD. Mean recruitment frequency (7.1 Hz, 3.2 SD was significantly higher than derecruitment frequency (5.4 Hz, 2.4 SD. Coactive unit pairs that fired for more than 4 s showed high (R2>0.7, n=4 or low (R2:0.3-0.7, n=12 rate-rate correlations, and derecruitment reversals (21 pairs, 29%. Later recruited units had higher or lower maximal firing rates than lower threshold units. These discrepant data show that coactive motoneurons are driven by both common inputs and by synaptic inputs from different sources during muscle spasms. Further, thenar motoneurons can still fire at high rates in response to various peripheral inputs after spinal cord injury, supporting the idea that low maximal voluntary firing rates and forces in thenar muscles result from reduced descending drive.

  13. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, K S; Zareena; Hegde, Shashikanth; Arun Kumar, M S

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group.

  14. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Conclusion: Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group.

  15. Genetic and evolutionary correlates of fine-scale recombination rate variation in Drosophila persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevison, Laurie S; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-12-01

    Recombination is fundamental to meiosis in many species and generates variation on which natural selection can act, yet fine-scale linkage maps are cumbersome to construct. We generated a fine-scale map of recombination rates across two major chromosomes in Drosophila persimilis using 181 SNP markers spanning two of five major chromosome arms. Using this map, we report significant fine-scale heterogeneity of local recombination rates. However, we also observed "recombinational neighborhoods," where adjacent intervals had similar recombination rates after excluding regions near the centromere and telomere. We further found significant positive associations of fine-scale recombination rate with repetitive element abundance and a 13-bp sequence motif known to associate with human recombination rates. We noted strong crossover interference extending 5-7 Mb from the initial crossover event. Further, we observed that fine-scale recombination rates in D. persimilis are strongly correlated with those obtained from a comparable study of its sister species, D. pseudoobscura. We documented a significant relationship between recombination rates and intron nucleotide sequence diversity within species, but no relationship between recombination rate and intron divergence between species. These results are consistent with selection models (hitchhiking and background selection) rather than mutagenic recombination models for explaining the relationship of recombination with nucleotide diversity within species. Finally, we found significant correlations between recombination rate and GC content, supporting both GC-biased gene conversion (BGC) models and selection-driven codon bias models. Overall, this genome-enabled map of fine-scale recombination rates allowed us to confirm findings of broader-scale studies and identify multiple novel features that merit further investigation.

  16. Measuring Cognitive Load during Simulation-Based Psychomotor Skills Training: Sensitivity of Secondary-Task Performance and Subjective Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A.; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance…

  17. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. The effect of Web-based Braden Scale training on the reliability of Braden subscale ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Morris A; Maklebust, JoAnn

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Web-based Braden Scale training on the reliability of Braden Scale subscale ratings made by nurses working in acute care hospitals. A secondary purpose was to describe the distribution of reliable Braden subscale ratings before and after Web-based Braden Scale training. Secondary analysis of data from a recently completed quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest, interrater reliability study. A convenience sample of RNs working at 3 Michigan medical centers voluntarily participated in the study. RN participants included nurses who used the Braden Scale regularly at their place of employment ("regular users") as well as nurses who did not use the Braden Scale at their place of employment ("new users"). Using a pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental design, pretest interrater reliability data were collected to identify the percentage of nurses making reliable Braden subscale assessments. Nurses then completed a Web-based Braden Scale training module after which posttest interrater reliability data were collected. The reliability of nurses' Braden subscale ratings was determined by examining the level of agreement/disagreement between ratings made by an RN and an "expert" rating the same patient. In total, 381 RN-to-expert dyads were available for analysis. During both the pretest and posttest periods, the percentage of reliable subscale ratings was highest for the activity subscale, lowest for the moisture subscale, and second lowest for the nutrition subscale. With Web-based Braden Scale training, the percentage of reliable Braden subscale ratings made by new users increased for all 6 subscales with statistically significant improvements in the percentage of reliable assessments made on 3 subscales: sensory-perception, moisture, and mobility. Training had virtually no effect on the percentage of reliable subscale ratings made by regular users of the Braden Scale. With Web-based Braden Scale training the

  19. The Palin Parent Rating Scales: Parents' Perspectives of Childhood Stuttering and Its Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Sharon K.; Davis, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study is to explore the psychometric properties of the Parent Rating Scales-V1 (S. K. Millard, S. Edwards, & F. M. Cook, 2009), an assessment tool for parents of children who stutter, and to refine the measure accordingly. Method: We included 259 scales completed prior to therapy. An exploratory factor analysis…

  20. Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression scale for detection of depression in nursing home residents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Teerenstra, S.; Smalbrugge, M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to test the accuracy of the Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression (NORD) scale, a new short scale for screening of depression in nursing home (NH) residents with and without dementia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study with 103 residents with dementia (N = 19 depressed) and

  1. Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression scale for detection of depression in nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.; Teerenstra, S.; Smalbrugge, M.; Koopmans, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims to test the accuracy of the Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression (NORD) scale, a new short scale for screening of depression in nursing home (NH) residents with and without dementia. Methods This cross-sectional study with 103 residents with dementia (N = 19 depressed) and 72

  2. Analyzing data from a fuzzy rating scale-based questionnaire. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, María Ángeles; Lubiano, María Asunción; de la Rosa de Sáa, Sara; Sinova, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The fuzzy rating scale was introduced to cope with the imprecision of human thought and experience in measuring attitudes in many fields of Psychology. The flexibility and expressiveness of this scale allow us to properly describe the answers to many questions involving psychological measurement. Analyzing the responses to a fuzzy rating scale-based questionnaire is indeed a critical problem. Nevertheless, over the last years, a methodology is being developed to analyze statistically fuzzy data in such a way that the information they contain is fully exploited. In this paper, a summary review of the main procedures is given. The methods are illustrated by their application on the dataset obtained from a case study with nine-year-old children. In this study, children replied to some questions from the well-known TIMSS/PIRLS questionnaire by using a fuzzy rating scale. The form could be filled in either on the computer or by hand. The study indicates that the requirements of background and training underlying the fuzzy rating scale are not too demanding. Moreover, it is clearly shown that statistical conclusions substantially often differ depending on the responses being given in accordance with either a Likert scale or a fuzzy rating scale.

  3. Subjective rating and objective evaluation of the acoustic and indoor climate conditions in video conferencing rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauervig-Jørgensen, Charlotte; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Toftum, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    Today, face-to-face meetings are frequently replaced by video conferences in order to reduce costs and carbon footprint related to travels and to increase the company efficiency. Yet, complaints about the difficulty of understanding the speech of the participants in both rooms of the video...... conference occur. The aim of this study is to find out the main causes of difficulties in speech communication. Correlation studies between subjective perceptions were conducted through questionnaires and objective acoustic and indoor climate parameters related to video conferencing. Based on four single...

  4. Motor unit firing rates during spasms in thenar muscles of spinal cord injured subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Bakels, Robert; Thomas, Christine K.

    2014-01-01

    Involuntary contractions of paralyzed muscles (spasms) commonly disrupt daily activities and rehabilitation after human spinal cord injury (SCI). Our aim was to examine the recruitment, firing rate modulation, and derecruitment of motor units that underlie spasms of thenar muscles after cervical

  5. Changes of Aldosterone Secretion Rate Following Furosemide Administration in Normotensive Subjects with High Sodium Intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ho Kyung; Ryu, Yong Wun; Koh, Joo Hwan

    1976-01-01

    Marked augmentation of urinary aldosterone excretion following furosemide administration was observed in previous experiment. In this study, author measured the changes of aldosterone secretion after furosemide administration in normotensive young volunteers with high sodium intake. After intravenous injection of 1.2- 3 H-aldosterone, urine samples were collected in course of time until 24 hours after the injection. Furosemide administration was done at 30 minutes prior to aldosterone injection. Specific activities of 3H-aldosterone during and after diuresis were measured and aldosterone secretion rates were calculated dividing the doses by specific activities. Results were as followed. 1) Furosemide resulted in a marked increase in urinary aldosterone excretion. 2) Furosemide lead to an increase in both sodium and potassium excretion. 3) Aldosterone secretion rate was also increase d during furosemide diuresis, but the rate was smaller than that of urinary excretion. 4) Continuous modest increase in aldosterone secretion rate was shown after diuresis and total excess amount of aldosterone secretion for 24 hrs was equivalent to the amount of aldosterone excretion produced by diruesis. 5) Abrupt marked loss of circulating aldosterone produced by diuresis was supplemented by long lasting increase in secretion for over twenty four hours.

  6. Error rates of a full-duplex system over EGK fading channels subject to laplacian interference

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza; Elsawy, Hesham; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    modulation schemes is studied and a unified closed-form expression for the average symbol error rate is derived. To this end, we show the effective downlink throughput gain, harvested by employing FD communication at a BS that serves HD users, as a function

  7. Cortical atrophy rates in Alzheimer's patients and subjects with mild cognitive impairment from the AddNeuroMed data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Westman, Eric; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida

    2010-01-01

    Background: The AddNeuroMed project is a multi-centre European project which aims to identify biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we measured the rate of cortical atrophy in AD patients, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls (HC) using MRI. Methods...... quality control for both the acquisition and image processing were included in the study. Cortical thickness was measured using FACE (fast accurate cortex extraction) and averaged within main lobes using a stereotaxic atlas. Atrophy rates were calculated as percent decrease in cortical thickness and rate...

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Orgasm Rating Scale in Context of Sexual Relationship in a Spanish Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos-Romero, Ana Isabel; Moyano, Nieves; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2018-05-01

    The Orgasm Rating Scale (ORS) is one of the few self-reported measures that evaluates the multidimensional subjective experience of orgasm. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the ORS in context of sex-with-partner in a Spanish sample. We examined a sample of 842 adults from the general Spanish population (310 men, 532 women; mean age = 27.12 years, SD = 9.8). The sample was randomly divided into two, with a balanced proportion of men and women between each sub-sample. Sub-sample 1 consisted of 100 men and 200 women (33.3% and 66.6%) with a mean age of 27.77 years (SD = 10.05). Sub-sample 2 consisted of 210 men and 332 women (38.7% and 61.3%) with a mean age of 26.77 years (SD = 9.65). The ORS, together with the Sexual Opinion Survey-6 and the Massachusetts General Hospital-Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, was administered online. The survey included a consent form, in which confidentiality and anonymity were guaranteed. Based on exploratory factor analysis, we obtained a reduced 25-item version of the ORS, distributed along 4 dimensions (affective, sensory, intimacy, and rewards). We performed both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The Spanish version of the ORS had adequate values of reliability that ranged from .78-.93. The 4 factors explained 59.78% of the variance. The factor structure was invariant across gender at a configural level. Scores from the ORS positively correlated with erotophilia and sexual satisfaction. The scale was useful to differentiate between individuals with orgasmic difficulties and individuals with no difficulties. We found that individuals with orgasmic difficulties showed a lower intensity in the affective, intimacy, and sensorial manifestations of orgasm. This version of the ORS could provide an optimum measure for the clinical assessment to identify individuals with difficulties in their orgasmic capacity, thus, it could be used as screening device for orgasmic

  9. Influence of Subjectivity in Geological Mapping on the Net Penetration Rate Prediction for a Hard Rock TBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongbeom; Macias, Francisco Javier; Jakobsen, Pål Drevland; Bruland, Amund

    2018-05-01

    The net penetration rate of hard rock tunnel boring machines (TBM) is influenced by rock mass degree of fracturing. This influence is taken into account in the NTNU prediction model by the rock mass fracturing factor ( k s). k s is evaluated by geological mapping, the measurement of the orientation of fractures and the spacing of fractures and fracture type. Geological mapping is a subjective procedure. Mapping results can therefore contain considerable uncertainty. The mapping data of a tunnel mapped by three researchers were compared, and the influence of the variation in geological mapping was estimated to assess the influence of subjectivity in geological mapping. This study compares predicted net penetration rates and actual net penetration rates for TBM tunneling (from field data) and suggests mapping methods that can reduce the error related to subjectivity. The main findings of this paper are as follows: (1) variation of mapping data between individuals; (2) effect of observed variation on uncertainty in predicted net penetration rates; (3) influence of mapping methods on the difference between predicted and actual net penetration rate.

  10. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria eRuffini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT on ANS activity through changes of High Frequency, a heart rate variability index indicating the parasympathetic activity, in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group.Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults, both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in 3 groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920.Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 minutes.Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency rate (p<0.001, and decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency rate (p<0.01; results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p<0.001 and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p<0.05. Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing parasympathetic function and decreasing sympathetic activity, compared to sham therapy and control group.

  11. High performance multi-scale and multi-physics computation of nuclear power plant subjected to strong earthquake. An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Shinobu; Kawai, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Shin'ichiro; Hori, Muneo; Nakajima, Norihiro; Kobayashi, Kei

    2010-01-01

    Recently importance of nuclear energy has been recognized again due to serious concerns of global warming and energy security. In parallel, it is one of critical issues to verify safety capability of ageing nuclear power plants (NPPs) subjected to strong earthquake. Since 2007, we have been developing the multi-scale and multi-physics based numerical simulator for quantitatively predicting actual quake-proof capability of ageing NPPs under operation or just after plant trip subjected to strong earthquake. In this paper, we describe an overview of the simulator with some preliminary results. (author)

  12. Reliability of the MacArthur scale of subjective social status - Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatti, Luana; Camelo, Lidyane do Valle; Rodrigues, Jôsi Fernandes de Castro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-12-20

    The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status intend to measure the subjective social status using a numbered stepladder image. This study investigated the reliability of the MacArthur scale in a subsample of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Three scales were employed using different references: 1) the overall socioeconomic position; 2) the socioeconomic situation of the participant's closer community; 3) the workplace as a whole. A total of 245 of the ELSA participants from six states were involved. They were interviewed twice by the same person within an interval of seven to fourteen days. The reliability of the scale was assessed with weighted Kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI). Kappa values were 0.62(0.58 to 0.64) for the society ladder; 0.58(0.56 to 0.61) for the community-related ladder; and 0.67(0.66 to 0.72) for the work-related ladder. The ICC ranged from 0.75 for the work ladder to 0.64 for the community ladder. These values differed slightly according to the participants' age, sex and education category. The three ladders showed good stability in the test-retest, except the community ladder that showed moderate stability. Because the social structure in Brazil is rapidly changing, future qualitative and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm and understand the construct underlying the MacArthur Scale in the country.

  13. Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scales Based on Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Paul D; Hersey, Denise P; Leder, Steven B

    2016-06-01

    Identification of pharyngeal residue severity located in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses has always been a primary goal during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Pharyngeal residue is a clinical sign of potential prandial aspiration making an accurate description of its severity an important but difficult challenge. A reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scale for FEES would be beneficial. A systematic review of the published English language literature since 1995 was conducted to determine the quality of existing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales based on FEES. Databases were searched using controlled vocabulary words and synonymous free text words for topics of interest (deglutition disorders, pharyngeal residue, endoscopy, videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic technology, aspiration, etc.) and outcomes of interest (scores, scales, grades, tests, FEES, etc.). Search strategies were adjusted for syntax appropriate for each database/platform. Data sources included MEDLINE (OvidSP 1946-April Week 3 2015), Embase (OvidSP 1974-2015 April 20), Scopus (Elsevier), and the unindexed material in PubMed (NLM/NIH) were searched for relevant articles. Supplementary efforts to identify studies included checking reference lists of articles retrieved. Scales were compared using qualitative properties (sample size, severity definitions, number of raters, and raters' experience and training) and psychometric analyses (randomization, intra- and inter-rater reliability, and construct validity). Seven articles describing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales met inclusion criteria. Six of seven scales had insufficient data to support their use as evidenced by methodological weaknesses with both qualitative properties and psychometric analyses. There is a need for qualitative and psychometrically reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scales that are anatomically specific, image

  14. A study of diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rates in healthy adult female subjects in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Jayapal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR reflects the strength and condition of respiratory muscles and the degree of airflow limitation in large airways. PEFR shows hour to hour variation that follows a specific pattern in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Adequate data is not available for the diurnal variation in normal individuals who are students in professional courses and had a sedentary life style. Hence, this study was undertaken to study the diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rates in healthy adult female subjects in South India. Materials and Methods: Peak expiratory flow rate was recorded in 50 adult healthy female students aged 18-23 years and studying in professional courses. Mini Wright′s peak flow meter was used to measure the peak expiratory flow rate. PEFR were recorded at 7-8 a.m., 10-11 a.m., 1-2 p.m., 4-5 p.m., and 7-8 p.m. for two consecutive days. Results: On analysis of PEFR records of individual subjects, it was seen that there was an overall dip in the morning at 7-8 h PEFR, which increased in the daytime, peaking in the afternoon at 1-2 p.m. and eventually decreased in the night. Subjects did not show the peak PEFR values at the same time point, 10% of subjects had a rise in PEFR in the early morning, afternoon (1-2 p.m. peak was observed in 48% subjects and evening (4-5 p.m. peak was observed in 16% subjects. 14% subjects showed a peak in the night time (7-8 p.m. PEFR values. Conclusion: This study provided the preliminary reference data of diurnal variation of peak expiratory flow rate in healthy adults. Since, there is a variation in the peak expiratory flow rate recorded during different time points of the day; hence, to compare the PEFR between individuals it is advisable to record the PEFR at the same time point.

  15. Error rates of a full-duplex system over EGK fading channels subject to laplacian interference

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2017-07-31

    This paper develops a mathematical paradigm to study downlink error rates and throughput for half-duplex (HD) terminals served by a full-duplex (FD) base station (BS). Particularly, we study the dominant intra-cell interferer problem that appears between HD users scheduled on the same FD-channel. The distribution of the dominant interference is first characterized via its distribution function, which is derived in closed-form. Assuming Nakagami-m fading, the probability of error for different modulation schemes is studied and a unified closed-form expression for the average symbol error rate is derived. To this end, we show the effective downlink throughput gain, harvested by employing FD communication at a BS that serves HD users, as a function of the signal-to-interference-ratio when compared to an idealized HD interference and noise free BS operation.

  16. On a class of adjustable rate mortgage loans subject to a strict balance principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    We describe the background and the basic funding mechanisms for the type of adjustable rate mortgageloans that were introduced in the Danish market in 1996. Each loan is funded separately by tap issuingpass-through mortgage bonds (`strict balance principle'). The novelty is a funding mechanism...... that usesa roll-over strategy, where long term loans are funded by sequentially issuing short term pass-throughbonds, and the first issuer of these loans obtained a patent on the funding principles in 1999. Publiclyavailable descriptions of the principles leave an impression of very complicated numerical...... algorithms.The algorithms described here show that the essentials can be reduced to a `back of an envelope' complexity.Keywords: Adjustable rate mortgages, balance principle, patent, yield curve riding...

  17. Living Subjectivity: Time Scales, Language, and the Fluidity of the Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Madsen, Jens Koed

    2014-01-01

    in general, we extend this argument by looking at multi-scalar temporalities that influence the emergence and potential of the self. In particular, we argue that the self is best understood as a relational entity that immerses contextually in a distributed, non-stable, and temporally multi-scalar manner......, contextually immersed subjectivity is compatible with tracing language and cognition to how cultural resources extend human embodiment (this frames the potential for cognition, subjectivity, and the self). Second, while distributed and fragmented, the construction of temporal experience can become...... an organizing principle for the construction of the self. Through this lens, cognition binds what is learned from introspection with contextual immersion that uses skills in temporal integration. This challenges views of self and cognition as stable internal phenomena and, conversely, shows that philosophy...

  18. Medical students' subjective ratings of stress levels and awareness of student support services about mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa Li-Wey; Norgren Jaconelli, Sanna; Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S; Hunt, Glenn

    2013-06-01

    To descriptively assess medical students' concerns for their mental and emotional state, perceived need to conceal mental problems, perceived level of support at university, knowledge and use of student support services, and experience of stresses of daily life. From March to September 2011, medical students at an Australian university were invited to complete an anonymous online survey. 475 responses were received. Students rated study and examinations (48.9%), financial concerns (38.1%), isolation (19.4%) and relationship concerns (19.2%) as very or extremely stressful issues. Knowledge of available support services was high, with 90.8% indicating they were aware of the university's medical centre. Treatment rates were modest (31.7%). Students' concerns about their mental state were generally low, but one in five strongly felt they needed to conceal their emotional problems. Despite widespread awareness of appropriate support services, a large proportion of students felt they needed to conceal mental and emotional problems. Overall treatment rates for students who were greatly concerned about their mental and emotional state appeared modest, and, although comparable with those of similarly aged community populations, may reflect undertreatment. It would be appropriate for universities to address stressors identified by students. Strategies for encouraging distressed students to obtain appropriate assessment and treatment should also be explored. Those students who do seek healthcare are most likely to see a primary care physician, suggesting an important screening role for these health professionals.

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Working Memory Rating Scale for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Grimm, Ryan; Gerber, Michael; Orosco, Michael; Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) was designed as a behavioral rating tool to assist teachers in identifying students at risk of working memory difficulties. The instrument was originally normed on 417 monolingual English-speaking children from the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the WMRS…

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Parent and Teacher ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Bilenberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Rating the severity of psychopathology and symptom load is essential in daily clinical practice and in research. The parent and teacher ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) includes...

  1. Should Global Items on Student Rating Scales Be Used for Summative Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the simplest indicators of teaching or course effectiveness is student ratings on one or more global items from the entire rating scale. That approach seems intuitively sound and easy to use. Global items have even been recommended by a few researchers to get a quick-read, at-a-glance summary for summative decisions about faculty. The…

  2. Further Psychometric Properties of the Tourette's Disorder Scale-Parent Rated Version (TODS-PR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Soto, Ohel; Sajid, Muhammad; Allen, Pam; Roberti, Jonathan W.; Killiany, Erin M.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Tourette's Disorder Scale-Parent Rated (TODS-PR), a 15-item parent-rated instrument that assesses a range of common symptoms seen in childhood Tourette's Disorder (TD) patients including tics, obsessions, compulsions, inattention, hyperactivity, aggression, and emotional disturbances.…

  3. Results of a pilot scale melter test to attain higher production rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Chapman, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A pilot-scale melter test was completed as part of the effort to enhance glass production rates. The experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of bulk glass temperature and feed oxide loading. The maximum glass production rate obtained, 86 kg/hr-m 2 , was over 200% better than the previous record for the melter used

  4. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-27

    Oct 27, 2016 ... maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is proportional to the fractal extent ... metabolic rate with body mass can be obtained by taking body .... blood takes place. ..... MMR and BMR is that MMR is owing mainly to respiration in skeletal .... the spectra of surface area scaling strategies of cells and organisms:.

  5. Perbandingan Kombinasi Tramadol Parasetamol Intravena dengan Tramadol Ketorolak Intravena terhadap Nilai Numeric Rating Scale dan Kebutuhan Opioid Pascahisterektomi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dendi Karmena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative pain is an important problem in surgery. This study aimed to compare the combination of intravenous tramadol paracetamol and tramadol ketorolac to numeric rating scale (NRS to postoperative opioid requirements in abdominal hysterectomy. Double blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 42 women (18–60 years with ASA physical status I–II who underwent abdominal hysterectomy surgery under general anesthesia in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung within the period of August–November 2014. Subjects were divided into two groups: 21 subjects received a combination of intravenous tramadol paracetamol and 21 subjects received combination of intravenous tramadol ketorolac that was given when peritoneum was closure. The assessment of postoperative pain was performed using a numeric rating scale both at rest and during mobilization. Correlation analysis is conducted using Mann-whitney test. Result shows that the value of the NRS in group tramadol paracetamol compared to tramadol ketorolac was not significantly different (p>0.05. This study concludes that the combinations of intravenous tramadol paracetamol and tramadol ketorolac are the same in terms of the NRS and postoperative opioid requirement after abdominal hysterectomy.

  6. Citation rate and perceived subject bias in the amphibian-decline literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmer, Michel E; Bishop, Phillip J

    2011-02-01

    As a result of global declines in amphibian populations, interest in the conservation of amphibians has grown. This growth has been fueled partially by the recent discovery of other potential causes of declines, including chytridiomycosis (the amphibian chytrid, an infectious disease) and climate change. It has been proposed that researchers have shifted their focus to these novel stressors and that other threats to amphibians, such as habitat loss, are not being studied in proportion to their potential effects. We tested the validity of this proposal by reviewing the literature on amphibian declines, categorizing the primary topic of articles within this literature (e.g., habitat loss or UV-B radiation) and comparing citation rates among articles on these topics and impact factors of journals in which the articles were published. From 1990 to 2009, the proportion of papers on habitat loss remained fairly constant, and although the number of papers on chytridiomycosis increased after the disease was described in 1998, the number of published papers on amphibian declines also increased. Nevertheless, papers on chytridiomycosis were more highly cited than papers not on chytridiomycosis and were published in journals with higher impact factors on average, which may indicate this research topic is more popular in the literature. Our results were not consistent with a shift in the research agenda on amphibians. We believe the perception of such a shift has been supported by the higher citation rates of papers on chytridiomycosis. ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Inter-subject FDG PET Brain Networks Exhibit Multi-scale Community Structure with Different Normalization Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Megan M; Kartha, Sonia; Granquist, Eric J; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2018-07-01

    Inter-subject networks are used to model correlations between brain regions and are particularly useful for metabolic imaging techniques, like 18F-2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Since FDG PET typically produces a single image, correlations cannot be calculated over time. Little focus has been placed on the basic properties of inter-subject networks and if they are affected by group size and image normalization. FDG PET images were acquired from rats (n = 18), normalized by whole brain, visual cortex, or cerebellar FDG uptake, and used to construct correlation matrices. Group size effects on network stability were investigated by systematically adding rats and evaluating local network connectivity (node strength and clustering coefficient). Modularity and community structure were also evaluated in the differently normalized networks to assess meso-scale network relationships. Local network properties are stable regardless of normalization region for groups of at least 10. Whole brain-normalized networks are more modular than visual cortex- or cerebellum-normalized network (p network resolutions where modularity differs most between brain and randomized networks. Hierarchical analysis reveals consistent modules at different scales and clustering of spatially-proximate brain regions. Findings suggest inter-subject FDG PET networks are stable for reasonable group sizes and exhibit multi-scale modularity.

  8. Performance of large-scale helium refrigerators subjected to pulsed heat load from fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, R.; Ghosh, P.; Chowdhury, K. [Cryogenic Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India)

    2012-07-01

    The immediate effect of pulsed heat load from fusion devices in helium refrigerators is wide variation in mass flow rate of low pressure stream returning to the cold-box. In this paper, a four expander based modified Claude cycle has been analyzed in quasi steady and dynamic simulations using Aspen HYSYS to identify critical equipment that may be affected due to such flow rate fluctuations at the return stream and their transient performance. Additional constraints on process parameters over steady state design have been identified. Suitable techniques for mitigation of fluctuation of return stream have also been explored. (author)

  9. Performance of large-scale helium refrigerators subjected to pulsed heat load from fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, R.; Ghosh, P.; Chowdhury, K.

    2012-01-01

    The immediate effect of pulsed heat load from fusion devices in helium refrigerators is wide variation in mass flow rate of low pressure stream returning to the cold-box. In this paper, a four expander based modified Claude cycle has been analyzed in quasi steady and dynamic simulations using Aspen HYSYS to identify critical equipment that may be affected due to such flow rate fluctuations at the return stream and their transient performance. Additional constraints on process parameters over steady state design have been identified. Suitable techniques for mitigation of fluctuation of return stream have also been explored. (author)

  10. Objective and subjective rating of tonal noise radiated from UK wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The radiation of noise to the environment is currently a major issue with regard to U.K. wind farm developments. The reason for this concern is not that wind turbines are unduly noisy, but rather because wind farms are often located in rural areas where background noise levels can fall very low. The fact that background noise levels fall so low in these areas means that the permissible noise radiation from wind farms must also be kept similarly low if nuisance to local residents is to be avoided. However, ensuring that the overall noise level of the wind farm does not exceed the pre-existing background noise level by more than a set amount is not the whole story. Noise radiated from wind turbines can exhibit characteristics that set it apart from the natural background noises typically found in quiet rural areas, where ''natural'' background noises might include the sound of the wind blowing through trees, or the sound of running water. One of the acoustic characteristics that can be attributed to some wind turbines is the radiation of tonal noise from mechanical plant located in the nacelles. It is well accepted that tonal components in otherwise broad band, or ''characterless'', noise, can increase the subjective perception of that noise. Account for increased annoyance due to tones is found in both of the British Standards which relate to environmental noise; BS4142 and BS7445. (UK)

  11. Measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) in normal and diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giampetro, O.; Clerico, A.; Cruschelli, L.; Miccoli, R.; Dipalma, L.; Navalesi, R.

    1987-01-01

    The chemico-clinical characteristics of two commercial RIA kits for the measurement of urinary albumin excretion in normal and diabetic subjects were compared. The chief difference between the two methods concerns the bound/free separation of the antigen, since one employs the second antybody plus PEG (Sclavo Kit), while the other uses the solid phase [antiserum bound to sepharose (Pharmacia kit)]. The two RIA methods have demonstrated a similar degree of sensitivity, feasibility and cost. The precision of the two RIAs was also similar, although the Sclavo kit has shown a better precision for lower albumin concentrations and the Pharmacia kit for higher values. In diabetic patients, elevated urinary albumin concentrations (>60 mg/L) have been found more frequently than low values (<5 mg/L); hence the Pharmacia kit seems to be preferable, because it less frequently needs dilution of urinary sample for measuring with a better precision supranormal urinary albumin values. A significant bias (about 15%) was found between the two RIAs. Bias between different albumin RIA methods could partially explain the differences of normal values previously reported in the literature

  12. Excellent reliability of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21) in Indonesia after training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istriana, Erita; Kurnia, Ade; Weijers, Annelies; Hidayat, Teddy; Pinxten, Lucas; de Jong, Cor; Schellekens, Arnt

    2013-09-01

    The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) is the most widely used depression rating scale worldwide. Reliability of HDRS has been reported mainly from Western countries. The current study tested the reliability of HDRS ratings among psychiatric residents in Indonesia, before and after HDRS training. The hypotheses were that: (i) prior to the training reliability of HDRS ratings is poor; and (ii) HDRS training can improve reliability of HDRS ratings to excellent levels. Furthermore, we explored cultural validity at item level. Videotaped HDRS interviews were rated by 30 psychiatric residents before and after 1 day of HDRS training. Based on a gold standard rating, percentage correct ratings and deviation from the standard were calculated. Correct ratings increased from 83% to 99% at item level and from 70% to 100% for the total rating. The average deviation from the gold standard rating improved from 0.07 to 0.02 at item level and from 2.97 to 0.46 for the total rating. HDRS assessment by psychiatric trainees in Indonesia without prior training is unreliable. A short, evidence-based HDRS training improves reliability to near perfect levels. The outlined training program could serve as a template for HDRS trainings. HDRS items that may be less valid for assessment of depression severity in Indonesia are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Physiological, biochemical and productive changes in sesame genotypes subjected to different rates of water replenishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. R. Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The sesame crop has stood out due to the high nutritional content of its seeds, in addition to being able to be cultivated in the tropical and subtropical regions such as Northeast Brazil. Thus, it is necessary to identify the physiological, biochemical and productive changes related to the tolerance to stress. Objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological, biochemical and productive aspects of sesame genotypes as a function of different rates of water replenishment. The experiment was carried out at the Embrapa Cotton Experimental Unit, located in the municipality of Barbalha-CE, Brazil, under field conditions. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, with treatments in a factorial scheme (4 × 6, corresponding to four irrigation depths (40, 70, 100 and 130% ETo and six sesame genotypes (G1 = T3-EGSGO3; G2 = T7-EGSGO7; G3 = T5-EGSGO5; G4 = T2-EGSGO2; G5 = T6-EGSGO6; G6 = T4-EGSG04, with three replicates. Data corresponding to the following variables were collected: leaf area, photosynthetic pigments, relative water content in leaf, electrolyte leakage, catalase, peroxidase, yield and oil content. The genotypes did not differ statistically and there were differences in the variables between the water replacement rates. Increments in growth and, consequently, in production, enzymatic activity, oil content and maximum production potential were observed with water depths between 75 and 90% ETo. Contents of chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids, were increased with the application of 80% ETo.

  14. Complete characteristics of rating estimations economic development of subjects of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamid Nurislamovich Gizatullin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper allocates complete characteristics of indicators of economic development of subjects of the Russian Federation. Their system representation has appeared more informative, than system of simple social and economic indexes as allows reflecting variety of communications between them, providing preserving and development of researched objects. It is established that at deterioration of state of the economy of regions of their structure change the role in formation of base indicators. At the first stage it is expressed by change of a vector of development with an opposite direction; on the second — in transition from an optimum condition of available structures on periphery; on the third — in the termination of their participation in forming of under laying echelons. At transition of subsystems of social and economic indexes from the first on the second echelon the contribution of the moved potential from structures «resource-product» and «process» for elements of activization increases, for structures «object», on the contrary, decreases, while for final elements the opposite situation is observed. As approaching the top echelon there is a reduction of interaction of base indicators from structures «resource-product» and «process», and on the contrary, growth to structures «object». The conclusion is drawn that successful social and economic activity of regions is determined by synchronous interaction of all allocated structures («resource-product», «process» and «object». Use of the offered algorithm on the basis of complete characteristics allows not only to find out problem regions, but also shows possibility of management on the basis of revealed statistical regularities their condition by forming of optimum mutual relations between the allocated subsystems and, finally, creation of the big possibilities for realization of the having potential

  15. Preliminary evaluation of child self-rating using the Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloes, Kelly Isaacs; Barfell, Kara S Francis; Horn, Paul S; Wu, Steve W; Jacobson, Sarah E; Hart, Kathleen J; Gilbert, Donald L

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate and compare how children with Tourette syndrome and parents rate tic and non-tic behavioral related impairment in home, school, and social domains; to compare these with clinician tic ratings; and to identify factors that may predict greater impairment. In a sample of 85 Tourette syndrome and 92 healthy control families, the Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale, designed for parent-report and which includes 37 items rated for tic and non-tic impairment, was administered to parents and, with the referent modified, to children ages 9 to 17 years. Tic severity was rated using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). Analyses utilized descriptive and multivariate statistics. Tourette syndrome children's and parents' impairment ratings were higher than HC (ptic impairment ratings correlated with YGTSS (r=0.36 to 0.37; ptic and all 37 non-tic impairment items. For 29 items, children self-rated impairment higher for tics than non-tics. Diagnoses of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder had larger effects on parent impairment ratings. The Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale appears informative for child self-rating in Tourette syndrome. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  16. Heart rate detection from single-foot plantar bioimpedance measurements in a weighing scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Delia H; Casas, Oscar; Pallas-Areny, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Electronic bathroom scales are an easy-to-use, affordable mean to measure physiological parameters in addition to body weight. They have been proposed to obtain the ballistocardiogram (BCG) and derive from it the heart rate, cardiac output and systolic blood pressure. Therefore, weighing scales may suit intermittent monitoring in e-health and patient screening. Scales intended for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) have also been proposed to estimate the heart rate by amplifying the pulsatile impedance component superimposed on the basal impedance. However, electronic weighing scales cannot easily obtain the BCG from people that have a single leg neither are bioimpedance measurements between both feet recommended for people wearing a pacemaker or other electronic implants, neither for pregnant women. We propose a method to detect the heart rate (HR) from bioimpedance measured in a single foot while standing on an bathroom weighting scale intended for BIA. The electrodes built in the weighing scale are used to apply a 50 kHz voltage between the outer electrode pair and to measure the drop in voltage across the inner electrode pair. The agreement with the HR simultaneously obtained from the ECG is excellent. We have also compared the drop in voltage across the waist and the thorax with that obtained when measuring bioimpedance between both feet to compare the possible risk of the proposed method to that of existing BIA scales.

  17. Reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal energy intake in overweight and obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether changes in appetite and energy intake (EI) can be detected and play a role in the effectiveness of interventions, it is necessary to identify their variability under normal conditions. We assessed the reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal EI after a standardised pre-load in overweight and obese males. Fifteen overweight and obese males (BMI 30.3 ± 4.9 kg/m(2), aged 34.9 ± 10.6 years) completed two identical test days, 7 days apart. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast (1676 kJ) and 5 h later an ad libitum pasta lunch. An electronic appetite rating system was used to assess subjective ratings before and after the fixed breakfast, and periodically during the postprandial period. EI was assessed at the ad libitum lunch meal. Sample size estimates for paired design studies were calculated. Appetite ratings demonstrated a consistent oscillating pattern between test days, and were more reproducible for mean postprandial than fasting ratings. The correlation between ad libitum EI on the two test days was r = 0.78 (P appetite and ad libitum test meal EI in overweight and obese males is comparable to previous reports in normal weight adults. Sample size requirements for studies vary depending on the parameter of interest and sensitivity needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-Wide Fine-Scale Recombination Rate Variation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun S.

    2012-01-01

    Estimating fine-scale recombination maps of Drosophila from population genomic data is a challenging problem, in particular because of the high background recombination rate. In this paper, a new computational method is developed to address this challenge. Through an extensive simulation study, it is demonstrated that the method allows more accurate inference, and exhibits greater robustness to the effects of natural selection and noise, compared to a well-used previous method developed for studying fine-scale recombination rate variation in the human genome. As an application, a genome-wide analysis of genetic variation data is performed for two Drosophila melanogaster populations, one from North America (Raleigh, USA) and the other from Africa (Gikongoro, Rwanda). It is shown that fine-scale recombination rate variation is widespread throughout the D. melanogaster genome, across all chromosomes and in both populations. At the fine-scale, a conservative, systematic search for evidence of recombination hotspots suggests the existence of a handful of putative hotspots each with at least a tenfold increase in intensity over the background rate. A wavelet analysis is carried out to compare the estimated recombination maps in the two populations and to quantify the extent to which recombination rates are conserved. In general, similarity is observed at very broad scales, but substantial differences are seen at fine scales. The average recombination rate of the X chromosome appears to be higher than that of the autosomes in both populations, and this pattern is much more pronounced in the African population than the North American population. The correlation between various genomic features—including recombination rates, diversity, divergence, GC content, gene content, and sequence quality—is examined using the wavelet analysis, and it is shown that the most notable difference between D. melanogaster and humans is in the correlation between recombination and

  19. Subjective social status and trajectories of self-rated health status: a comparative analysis of Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Fujiwara, Takeo; Nakayama, Takeo; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-11-28

    Japanese society is more egalitarian than the United States as is reflected by the lower degree of prevalence of social inequalities in health. We examined whether subjective socioeconomic status is associated with different trajectories of self-rated health (SRH), and whether this relationship differs between the United States and Japan. We analyzed the responses of 3968 Americans from the survey Midlife in the United States, 2004-06, and the responses of 989 Japanese from the survey Midlife in Japan, 2008. We conducted a multilevel analysis with three self-ratings of health (10 years ago, current and 10 years in the future) nested within individuals and nested within 10 levels of subjective social status. Age, sex, educational level and subjective financial situation were adjusted. After making statistical adjustments for confounding variables, respondents in Japan continued to report lower average levels of health. However, the rate of expected decline in SRH over the next decade was strongly socially patterned in the United States, whereas it was not in Japan. The Japanese showed no disparity in the anticipated trajectory of SRH over time, whereas the Americans showed a strong social class gradient in future trajectories of SRH. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Estimation of breathing rate in thermal imaging videos: a pilot study on healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Pereira, Carina; Yu, Xinchi; Czaplik, Michael; Blazek, Vladimir; Venema, Boudewijn; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2017-12-01

    Diverse studies have demonstrated the importance of monitoring breathing rate (BR). Commonly, changes in BR are one of the earliest and major markers of serious complications/illness. However, it is frequently neglected due to limitations of clinically established measurement techniques, which require attachment of sensors. The employment of adhesive pads or thoracic belts in preterm infants as well as in traumatized or burned patients is an additional paramount issue. The present paper proposes a new robust approach, based on data fusion, to remotely monitor BR using infrared thermography (IRT). The algorithm considers not only temperature modulation around mouth and nostrils but also the movements of both shoulders. The data of these four sensors/regions of interest need to be further fused to reach improved accuracy. To investigate the performance of our approach, two different experiments (phase A: normal breathing, phase B: simulation of breathing disorders) on twelve healthy volunteers were performed. Thoracic effort (piezoplethysmography) was simultaneously acquired to validate our results. Excellent agreements between BR estimated with IRT and gold standard were achieved. While in phase A a mean correlation of 0.98 and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.28 bpm was reached, in phase B the mean correlation and the RMSE hovered around 0.95 and 3.45 bpm, respectively. The higher RMSE in phase B results predominantly from delays between IRT and gold standard in BR transitions: eupnea/apnea, apnea/tachypnea etc. Moreover, this study also demonstrates the capability of IRT to capture varied breathing disorders, and consecutively, to assess respiratory function. In summary, IRT might be a promising monitoring alternative to the conventional contact-based techniques regarding its performance and remarkable capabilities.

  1. Pregnancy rate evaluation in lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination using injectable progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI protocols utilize progesterone (P4 as a hormonal source to achieve synchronization of estrus in cattle. The use of an injectable P4 source to control estrus would be an interesting pharmacological strategy owing to the practicality of parenteral application. However, the effects of injectable P4 on estrus cycle control in cattle remain poorly studied. In particular, no existing studies have investigated the effect of injectable P4 on the fertility of cows subjected to FTAI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rate of lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4. Of the 422 non-lactating cows in this study, 162 (38.3% became pregnant by 60 days post-FTAI. In the lactating group (n = 516, 166 (32.1% were pregnant by 60 days after treatment with injectable P4. The proportions of lactating and non-lactating cows becoming pregnant were compared using the chi-square test, adopting a significance level of P < 0.05. It was found that the pregnancy rate of the cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4 was influenced by lactation status. Lactating cows had lower reproductive performance, possibly because of their higher nutritional requirements. However, the use of injectable P4 shows promising results and may prove to be a useful strategy in large-scale livestock production.

  2. Diagnostic Accuracy of Rating Scales for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling-Yin; Wang, Mei-Yeh; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2016-03-01

    The Child Behavior Checklist-Attention Problem (CBCL-AP) scale and Conners Rating Scale-Revised (CRS-R) are commonly used behavioral rating scales for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. To evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of CBCL-AP and CRS-R in diagnosing ADHD in children and adolescents. PubMed, Ovid Medline, and other relevant electronic databases were searched for articles published up to May 2015. We included studies evaluating the diagnostic performance of either CBCL-AP scale or CRS-R for diagnosing ADHD in pediatric populations in comparison with a defined reference standard. Bivariate random effects models were used for pooling and comparing diagnostic performance. We identified and evaluated 14 and 11 articles on CBCL-AP and CRS-R, respectively. The results revealed pooled sensitivities of 0.77, 0.75, 0.72, and 0.83 and pooled specificities of 0.73, 0.75, 0.84, and 0.84 for CBCL-AP, Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised, Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised, and Conners Abbreviated Symptom Questionnaire (ASQ), respectively. No difference was observed in the diagnostic performance of the various scales. Study location, age of participants, and percentage of female participants explained the heterogeneity in the specificity of the CBCL-AP. CBCL-AP and CRS-R both yielded moderate sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing ADHD. According to the comparable diagnostic performance of all examined scales, ASQ may be the most effective diagnostic tool in assessing ADHD because of its brevity and high diagnostic accuracy. CBCL is recommended for more comprehensive assessments. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Association of salivary calcium, phosphate, pH and flow rate on oral health: A study on 90 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiyaz, Mohamed; Ramesh, Amitha; Ramalingam, Karthikeyan; Thomas, Biju; Shetty, Sucheta; Prakash, Prashanth

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, flow rate and pH of un-stimulated saliva and oral hygiene of healthy subjects, patients with periodontitis and dental caries and to correlate salivary calcium level with the number of intact teeth. The present study consisted of 90 patients aged between 18 and 55 years and were divided into three groups, periodontitis, dental caries and controls. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and number of teeth present, teeth with active carious lesions were recorded. Salivary flow rate and pH was recorded and subjected to biochemical investigation. Estimation of inorganic calcium and phosphate was performed by colorimetric method. Results showed statistically significant increase in salivary inorganic calcium and phosphate levels, poor oral hygiene status, pH and salivary flow rate in patients with periodontitis when compared with dental caries group and controls. Individuals who have increased salivary inorganic calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate and maintain poor oral hygiene could be at a higher risk for developing periodontitis and may have less dental caries and more number of intact teeth.

  4. Spectral analyses of systolic blood pressure and heart rate variability and their association with cognitive performance in elderly hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, W B; Matoso, J M D; Maltez, M; Gonçalves, T; Casanova, M; Moreira, I F H; Lourenço, R A; Monteiro, W D; Farinatti, P T V; Soares, P P; Oigman, W; Neves, M F T; Correia, M L G

    2015-08-01

    Systolic hypertension is associated with cognitive decline in the elderly. Altered blood pressure (BP) variability is a possible mechanism of reduced cognitive performance in elderly hypertensives. We hypothesized that altered beat-to-beat systolic BP variability is associated with reduced global cognitive performance in elderly hypertensive subjects. In exploratory analyses, we also studied the correlation between diverse discrete cognitive domains and indices of systolic BP and heart rate variability. Disproving our initial hypothesis, we have shown that hypertension and low education, but not indices of systolic BP and heart rate variability, were independent predictors of lower global cognitive performance. However, exploratory analyses showed that the systolic BP variability in semi-upright position was an independent predictor of matrix reasoning (B = 0.08 ± .03, P-value = 0.005), whereas heart rate variability in semi-upright position was an independent predictor of the executive function score (B = -6.36 ± 2.55, P-value = 0.02). We conclude that myogenic vascular and sympathetic modulation of systolic BP do not contribute to reduced global cognitive performance in treated hypertensive subjects. Nevertheless, our results suggest that both systolic BP and heart rate variability might be associated with modulation of frontal lobe cognitive domains, such as executive function and matrix reasoning.

  5. Measuring Math Anxiety (in Spanish) with the Rasch Rating Scale Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Gerardo; Delgado, Ana R

    2007-01-01

    Two successive studies probed the psychometric properties of a Math Anxiety questionnaire (in Spanish) by means of the Rasch Rating Scale Model. Participants were 411 and 216 Spanish adolescents. Convergent validity was examined by correlating the scale with both the Fennema and Sherman Attitude Scale and a math achievement test. The results show that the scores are psychometrically appropriate, and replicate those reported in meta-analyses: medium-sized negative correlations with achievement and with attitudes toward mathematics, as well as moderate sex-related differences (with girls presenting higher anxiety levels than boys).

  6. Revalidating the Arabic Scale for Teachers' Ratings of Basic Education Gifted Students' Characteristics Using Rasch Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Eldin Farah Atallah Bakheit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arabic scale for teachers' ratings of basic education gifted students' characteristics is one of the most common Arabic measures used for initial identification of gifted students in some Arabic countries. One of the shortcomings of this scale is that it is based on the classical the-ory of measurement. This study sought to reval-idate the scale in the light of Rasch modeling which rests upon the modern theory of meas-urement and to develop different criteria for in-terpreting the levels of individuals' traits. The scale was administered to 830 of Basic Educa-tion students in Khartoum (ages ranged from 7 to 12 years. Two groups of students partici-pated in the study: a calibration sample (N = 250 and a standardization sample (N = 580. The statistical treatments were performed using the PSAW 18 and RUMM 2020 programs ac-cording to Rasch's unidimentional model. Six of the scale's items were deleted for not conform-ing to Rasch Modeling. This left the scale with 31 items. Besides, new criteria for the scale were developed by obtaining the t-scores and special education scores that match the various ratings of the individuals' ability.

  7. On scaling cosmogenic nuclide production rates for altitude and latitude using cosmic-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desilets, Darin; Zreda, Marek

    2001-11-01

    The wide use of cosmogenic nuclides for dating terrestrial landforms has prompted a renewed interest in characterizing the spatial distribution of terrestrial cosmic rays. Cosmic-ray measurements from neutron monitors, nuclear emulsions and cloud chambers have played an important role in developing new models for scaling cosmic-ray neutron intensities and, indirectly, cosmogenic production rates. Unfortunately, current scaling models overlook or misinterpret many of these data. In this paper, we describe factors that must be considered when using neutron measurements to determine scaling formulations for production rates of cosmogenic nuclides. Over the past 50 years, the overwhelming majority of nucleon flux measurements have been taken with neutron monitors. However, in order to use these data for scaling spallation reactions, the following factors must be considered: (1) sensitivity of instruments to muons and to background, (2) instrumental biases in energy sensitivity, (3) solar activity, and (4) the way of ordering cosmic-ray data in the geomagnetic field. Failure to account for these factors can result in discrepancies of as much as 7% in neutron attenuation lengths measured at the same location. This magnitude of deviation can result in an error on the order of 20% in cosmogenic production rates scaled from 4300 m to sea level. The shapes of latitude curves of nucleon flux also depend on these factors to a measurable extent, thereby causing additional uncertainties in cosmogenic production rates. The corrections proposed herein significantly improve our ability to transfer scaling formulations based on neutron measurements to scaling formulations applicable to spallation reactions, and, therefore, constitute an important advance in cosmogenic dating methodology.

  8. Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, D.; Elsinga, G. E.; Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Buxton, O. R. H.

    2016-01-01

    The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor e(i), with the vorticity vector omega, is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and the probability density functions of the magnitude of the alignment cosines between the two unit vectors vertical bar e(i) . (omega) over cap vertical bar are examined. It is observed that the alignment tendencies are insensitive to the concurrent large-scale velocity fluctuations, but are quantitatively affected by the nature of the concurrent large-scale velocity-gradient fluctuations. It is confirmed that the small-scale (local) vorticity vector is preferentially aligned in parallel with the large-scale (background) extensive strain-rate eigenvector e(1), in contrast to the global tendency for omega to be aligned in parallelwith the intermediate strain-rate eigenvector [Hamlington et al., Phys. Fluids 20, 111703 (2008)]. When only data from regions of the flow that exhibit strong swirling are included, the so-called high-enstrophy worms, the alignment tendencies are exaggerated with respect to the global picture. These findings support the notion that the production of enstrophy, responsible for a net cascade of turbulent kinetic energy from large scales to small scales, is driven by vorticity stretching due to the preferential parallel alignment between omega and nonlocal e(1) and that the strongly swirling worms are kinematically significant to this process.

  9. Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, D.

    2016-10-24

    The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor e(i), with the vorticity vector omega, is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and the probability density functions of the magnitude of the alignment cosines between the two unit vectors vertical bar e(i) . (omega) over cap vertical bar are examined. It is observed that the alignment tendencies are insensitive to the concurrent large-scale velocity fluctuations, but are quantitatively affected by the nature of the concurrent large-scale velocity-gradient fluctuations. It is confirmed that the small-scale (local) vorticity vector is preferentially aligned in parallel with the large-scale (background) extensive strain-rate eigenvector e(1), in contrast to the global tendency for omega to be aligned in parallelwith the intermediate strain-rate eigenvector [Hamlington et al., Phys. Fluids 20, 111703 (2008)]. When only data from regions of the flow that exhibit strong swirling are included, the so-called high-enstrophy worms, the alignment tendencies are exaggerated with respect to the global picture. These findings support the notion that the production of enstrophy, responsible for a net cascade of turbulent kinetic energy from large scales to small scales, is driven by vorticity stretching due to the preferential parallel alignment between omega and nonlocal e(1) and that the strongly swirling worms are kinematically significant to this process.

  10. Measuring hunger and satiety in primary school children. Validation of a new picture rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carmel; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-07-01

    Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dementia Rating Scale psychometric study and its applicability in long term care institutions in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Ferrari Jacinto; Ana Cristina Procópio de Oliveira Aguiar; Fabio Gazelato de Melo Franco; Miriam Ikeda Ribeiro; Vanessa de Albuquerque Citero

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, andagreement of the Dementia Rating Scale with clinical diagnosis ofcognitive impairment and to compare its psychometric measureswith those from Mini Mental State Examination. Methods: Eighty-sixelders from a long-term care institution were invited to participatein a study, and fifty-eight agreed to participate. The global healthassessment protocol applied to these elders contained Mini MentalState Examination and Dementia Rating...

  12. Scaling of black silicon processing time by high repetition rate femtosecond lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Giorgio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface texturing of silicon substrates is performed by femtosecond laser irradiation at high repetition rates. Various fabrication parameters are optimized in order to achieve very high absorptance in the visible region from the micro-structured silicon wafer as compared to the unstructured one. A 70-fold reduction of the processing time is demonstrated by increasing the laser repetition rate from 1 kHz to 200 kHz. Further scaling up to 1 MHz can be foreseen.

  13. Effects of Contingency versus Constraints on the Body-Mass Scaling of Metabolic Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Glazier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available I illustrate the effects of both contingency and constraints on the body-mass scaling of metabolic rate by analyzing the significantly different influences of ambient temperature (Ta on metabolic scaling in ectothermic versus endothermic animals. Interspecific comparisons show that increasing Ta results in decreasing metabolic scaling slopes in ectotherms, but increasing slopes in endotherms, a pattern uniquely predicted by the metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis, as amended to include effects of the scaling of thermal conductance in endotherms outside their thermoneutral zone. No other published theoretical model explicitly predicts this striking variation in metabolic scaling, which I explain in terms of contingent effects of Ta and thermoregulatory strategy in the context of physical and geometric constraints related to the scaling of surface area, volume, and heat flow across surfaces. My analysis shows that theoretical models focused on an ideal 3/4-power law, as explained by a single universally applicable mechanism, are clearly inadequate for explaining the diversity and environmental sensitivity of metabolic scaling. An important challenge is to develop a theory of metabolic scaling that recognizes the contingent effects of multiple mechanisms that are modulated by several extrinsic and intrinsic factors within specified constraints.

  14. Subjective caregiver burden: validity of the 10-item short version of the Burden Scale for Family Caregivers BSFC-s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graessel, Elmar; Berth, Hendrik; Lichte, Thomas; Grau, Hannes

    2014-02-20

    Subjective burden is a central variable describing the situation encountered by family caregivers. The 10-item short version of the Burden Scale for Family Caregivers (BSFC-short/BSFC-s) was developed to provide an economical measure of this variable. The present study examined the reliability and validity of the BSFC-s. Comprehensive data from "the IDA project" were the basis of the calculations, which included 351 dyads and examined medical data on people with dementia, interview data from their family caregivers, and health insurance data. A factor analysis was performed to explore the structure of the BSFC-s; Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate the internal consistency of the scale. The items were analyzed to determine the item difficulty and the discriminatory power. Construct validity was tested with five hypotheses. To establish the predictive validity of the BSFC-s, predictors of institutionalization at a follow-up time of 2.5 years were analyzed (binary logistic regression). The BSFC-s score adhered to a one-factor structure. Cronbach's alpha for the complete scale was .92. A significant increase in the BSFC-s score was observed when dementia progressed, disturbing behavior occurred more frequently, care requirements increased, and when caregivers were diagnosed with depression. Caregiver burden was the second strongest predictor of institutionalization out of a total of four significant predictors. All hypotheses that referred to the construct validity were supported. The BSFC-short with its ten items is a very economical instrument for assessing the caregiver's total subjective burden in a short time frame. The BSFC-s score has predictive validity for the institutionalization of people with dementia. Therefore it is an appropriate outcome measure to evaluate caregiver interventions. The scale is available for free in 20 languages (http://www.caregiver-burden.eu). This availability facilitates the comparison of international research findings.

  15. A symptom self-rating scale for schizophrenia (4S): psychometric properties, reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Eva; Jedenius, Erik; Levander, Sten

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to validate a self-administrated symptom rating scale for use in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders by item analysis, exploration of factor structure, and analyses of reliability and validity. Data on 151 patients, initially treated by risperidone, obtained within the framework of a naturalistic Phase IV longitudinal study, were analysed by comparing patient and clinician ratings of symptoms, side-effects and global indices of illness. The Symptom Self-rating Scale for Schizophrenia (4S) is psychometrically adequate (item analysis, internal consistency, factor structure). Side-effect ratings were reliable. Symptom ratings displayed consistent associations with clinicians' ratings of corresponding symptom dimensions, suggesting construct validity. Patients had most difficulties assessing negative symptom items. Patients were well able to assess their own symptoms and drug side-effects. The factor structure of symptom ratings differs between patients and clinicians as well as how they construe global indices of illness. Clinicians focus on psychotic, patients on affective symptoms. Use of symptom self-ratings is one way to improve communication and thereby strengthen the therapeutic alliance and increase treatment adherence.

  16. Determinatio of Psychometrics Index of SNAP-IV Rating Scale in Parents Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Jalal Sadrosadat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: SNAP-IV rating scale to diagnosis Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD developed by Swanson, Nolan and Pelham. The aim of this study is determination of psychometrics specifications of this scale. Materials & Methods: This Descriptive research is a methodological, applied and validity assessment study. One thousand students at 7 to 12 age of primary school in Tehran city were selected by cluster sampling. Then the students mothers was asked to complete rating scale to consider behavior of their children.30 staff members of sample group were retest after one mounts. Diagnostic interview was administered at 36 members of sample group. Data were analyzed by using pearsonian correlation coefficient, Kolmogorof – Smirnoff and Behrens – Fisher T test. Results: Criterion validity was 48%, factor analysis was detected 3 factors that explain 56% of the total variance. Reliability coefficient was 82% . internal consistency coefficient was 90% and split –half coefficient was 76%, Cut-off point in scale and subscales was 1.57,1.47 and 1.9 respectively. Conclusion: The SNAP-IV Rating scales have fit psychometrics specifications. Therefore, it is useable in various diagnostic and therapeutic conditioning.

  17. Not Worth the Extra Cost? Diluting the Differentiation Ability of Highly Rated Products by Altering the Meaning of Rating Scale Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meissner, Martin; Heinzle, Stefanie Lena; Decker, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, the use of rating scales has grown in popularity in various fields, including customer online reviews and energy labels. Rating scales convey important information on attributes of products or services that consumers evaluate in their purchase decisions. By applying...... characteristics. In addition, two choice-based conjoint studies examine whether the way consumers make their choices among products can be influenced by changing the labeling of rating scale levels. The results show that a manipulation of the meaning of rating scale levels diminishes both the importance...

  18. [Acceptance and understandability of various methods of health valuations for the chronically ill: willingness to pay, visual analogue scale and rating scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meder, M; Farin, E

    2009-11-01

    Health valuations are one way of measuring patient preferences with respect to the results of their treatment. The study examines three different methods of health valuations--willingness to pay (WTP), visual analogue scale (VAS), and a rating question for evaluating the subjective significance. The goal is to test the understandability and acceptance of these methods for implementation in questionnaires. In various rehabilitation centres, a total of six focus groups were conducted with 5-9 patients each with a mean age of 57.1 years. The illnesses considered were chronic-ischaemic heart disease, chronic back pain, and breast cancer. Patients filled out a questionnaire that was then discussed in the group. In addition to the quantitative evaluation of the data in the questionnaire, a qualitative analysis of the contents of the group discussion protocols was made. We have results from a total of 42 patients. 14.6% of the patients had "great difficulties" understanding the WTP or rated it as "completely incomprehensible"; this value was 7.3% for VAS and 0% for the rating scale. With respect to acceptance, 31.0% of the patients indicated that they were "not really" or "not at all" willing to answer such a WTP question in a questionnaire; this was 6.6% for the VAS, and again 0% for the rating scale. The qualitative analysis provided an indication as to why some patients view the WTP question in particular in a negative light. Many difficulties in understanding it were related to the formulation of the question and the structure of the questionnaire. However, the patients' statements also made it apparent that the hypothetical nature of the WTP questionnaire was not always recognised. The most frequent reason for the lack of acceptance of the WTP was the patients' fear of negative financial consequences of their responses. With respect to understandability and acceptance, VAS questions appear to be better suited for reflecting patient preferences than WTP questions. The

  19. Evidence Based Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Social Phobia: A Critical Review of Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, Bogdan T.; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social…

  20. Identifying Dental Anxiety in Children's Drawings and correlating It with Frankl's Behavior Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Jyoti; Diwanji, Amish; Sarvaiya, Bhumi; Sharma, Dipal

    2017-01-01

    To develop a simple method to assess the level of anxiety by using children's drawings and correlating them with Frankl's behavior rating scale. A total of 178 patients aged of 3 to 14 years were handed out two-page forms which contained three sections on coloring and drawing, along with general information, and Frankl's behavior rating scale for the visit. The three types of drawing exercises given to the patients were geometric copy drawings, coloring a nonthreatening figure, and an empty sheet for freehand drawing. Out of 178 patients, 60 showed definitely positive behavior, 73 exhibited positive behavior, 37 showed negative behavior, and 8 were definitely negative on Frankl's behavior rating scale; 133 children had none or, 1 stress marker and 45 exhibited 2 or 3 stress markers in their drawings. Chi-square (χ 2 ) analysis was done with a 2 × 2 contingency table. Observed χ 2 value was 46.166, which at 1 degree of freedom was much greater than that at 0.995 percentile. Therefore, the result was highly significant. Children requiring specialized behavioral techniques can be identified by the presence of stress markers in their drawings. This nonverbal activity by itself can have an overall positive effect on the behavior displayed in the dental clinic. Mathur J, Diwanji A, Sarvaiya B, Sharma D. Identifying Dental Anxiety in Children's Drawings and correlating It with Frankl's Behavior Rating Scale. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):24-28.

  1. Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass within species by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass within species by the fractal dimension of the vascular system and body composition. ... The postulate bd = c is shown to hold for both these species within the limits of experimental error, with the crucian carp evidence being especially convincing, since b, c and d are estimated from ...

  2. Identifying Gifted Students in Puerto Rico: Validation of a Spanish Translation of the Gifted Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of correctly identifying gifted students is a critical issue. Gifted education in Puerto Rico is marked by insufficient support and a lack of appropriate identification methods. This study examined the reliability and validity of a Spanish translation of the "Gifted Rating Scales-School Form" (GRS) with a sample of 618…

  3. Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass between species by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The principal reason that basal metabolic rate (BMR) and MMR scale with different power exponents to whole body mass is that MMR is due mainly to respiration in skeletal muscle during exercise and BMR to respiration in the viscera during rest. It follows, therefore, from the self-similarity of the vascular system that BMR is ...

  4. Work Adjustment Theory: An Empirical Test Using a Fuzzy Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Beryl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A fuzzy graphic rating scale elicited work preferences and job perceptions of 166 (of 170) Australian bank employees. Correspondence between preferences and perceptions correlated significantly with job satisfaction. Satisfaction and performance related to tenure intentions; this relation was higher for poorer performers. (SK)

  5. Dependability and Treatment Sensitivity of Multi-Item Direct Behavior Rating Scales for Interpersonal Peer Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brian; Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2017-01-01

    Direct behavior rating (DBR) represents a feasible method for monitoring student behavior in the classroom; however, limited work to date has focused on the use of multi-item scales. The purposes of the study were to examine the (a) dependability of data obtained from a multi-item DBR designed to assess peer conflict and (b) treatment sensitivity…

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Teacher-Reported Motor Skills Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Murrah, William M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Grissmer, David

    2015-01-01

    Children's early motor competence is associated with social development and academic achievement. However, few studies have examined teacher reports of children's motor skills. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a 19-item measure of children's teacher-reported motor skills in the classroom.…

  7. Determination and Interpretation of the Norm Values of Preschool Social Skills Rating Scale Teacher Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeroglu, Esra; Buyukozturk, Sener; Aydogan, Yasemin; Cakan, Mehtap; Cakmak, Ebru Kilic; Ozyurek, Arzu; Akduman, Gulumser Gultekin; Gunindi, Yunus; Kutlu, Omer; Coban, Aysel; Yurt, Ozlem; Kogar, Hakan; Karayol, Seda

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine and interpret norms of the Preschool Social Skills Rating Scale (PSSRS) teacher form. The sample included 224 independent preschools and 169 primary schools. The schools are distributed among 48 provinces and 3324 children were included. Data were obtained from the PSSRS teacher form. The validity and reliability…

  8. Development of a student rating scale to evaluate teachers' competencies for facilitating reflective learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub-de Jong, Mirabelle A.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Dekker, Hanke; Verkerk, Marian; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    Context Teaching students in reflection calls for specific teacher competencies. We developed and validated a rating scale focusing on Student perceptions of their Teachers' competencies to Encourage Reflective Learning in small Groups (STERLinG). Methods We applied an iterative procedure to reduce

  9. Quality of Child Care Using the Environment Rating Scales: A Meta-Analysis of International Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Harrison, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study provides a systematic examination of child care quality around the globe, using the Environment Rating Scales (ERS). Additional goals of this study are to examine associations between ERS process quality and structural features (group size, caregiver-child ratio) that underpin quality and between ERS and more proximal aspects of…

  10. Validity Evidence for the Interpretation and Use of Essential Elements of Communication Global Rating Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nancy Rhoda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Clinical communication influences health outcomes, so medical schools are charged to prepare future physicians with the skills they need to interact effectively with patients. Communication leaders at The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) developed The Essential Elements of Communication-Global Rating Scale (EEC-GRS) to…

  11. Assessing ADHD Symptoms in Preschool Children: Use of the ADHD Symptoms Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Penny L.; Greenson, Jessica N.; Collett, Brent R.; Gimpel, Gretchen A.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric and normative properties of the ADHD-Symptoms Rating Scale with preschool children. Results shed light on normative levels of ADHD behaviors and preschool children and suggested that preschoolers may present with a somewhat different symptom pattern than school-age children. Parents were more likely to endorse…

  12. Validity study of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (Portuguese version by the Rasch Rating Scale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Quintão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to conduct a validation study of the Portuguese version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI by means of the Rasch Rating Scale Model, and then compare it with the most used scales of anxiety in Portugal. The sample consisted of 1,160 adults (427 men and 733 women, aged 18-82 years old (M=33.39; SD=11.85. Instruments were Beck Anxiety Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. It was found that Beck Anxiety Inventory's system of four categories, the data-model fit, and people reliability were adequate. The measure can be considered as unidimensional. Gender and age-related differences were not a threat to the validity. BAI correlated significantly with other anxiety measures. In conclusion, BAI shows good psychometric quality.

  13. Development and reliability of a structured interview guide for the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (SIGMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet B W; Kobak, Kenneth A

    2008-01-01

    The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) is often used in clinical trials to select patients and to assess treatment efficacy. The scale was originally published without suggested questions for clinicians to use in gathering the information necessary to rate the items. Structured and semi-structured interview guides have been found to improve reliability with other scales. To describe the development and test-retest reliability of a structured interview guide for the MADRS (SIGMA). A total of 162 test-retest interviews were conducted by 81 rater pairs. Each patient was interviewed twice, once by each rater conducting an independent interview. The intraclass correlation for total score between raters using the SIGMA was r=0.93, Preliability. Use of the SIGMA can result in high reliability of MADRS scores in evaluating patients with depression.

  14. The Parenting Anxious Kids Ratings Scale-Parent Report (PAKRS-PR): Initial Scale Development and Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessner, Christopher A; Murphy, Yolanda E; Brennan, Elle; D'Auria, Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Developmental models of pediatric anxiety posit multiple, maladaptive parenting behaviors as potential risk factors. Despite this, a standardized means of assessing multiple of these practices (i.e., anxiogenic parenting) in a comprehensive and efficient manner are lacking. In Study 1531 parents of children 7-17 years old completed an online survey via Amazon Mechanical Turk. In Study 2, a separate community sample (N = 109; 9-17 years old) was recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment battery as part of a larger study. All parents (Study 1 and 2 samples) completed the Parenting Anxious Kids Ratings Scale-Parent Report (PAKRS-PR), a measurement tool designed to assess anxiogenic parenting. Factor analysis conducted as part of Study 1 revealed a 32-item scale consisting of five factors: conflict, overinvolvement, accommodation/beliefs, modeling, and emotional warmth/support. Four of these factors were significantly correlated with parent-report of anxiety severity. Within Study 2, the parents of children diagnosed with an anxiety or related disorder reported significantly higher levels of anxiogenic parenting practices as compared to the parents of healthy controls. The PAKRS-PR and respective subscales demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity in both the internet (Study 1) and community (Study 2) samples. The PAKRS-PR may be a beneficial multidimensional parenting scale for use among anxious youths.

  15. Catestatin, vasostatin, cortisol, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, scores of the short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale and visual analog scale for stress and pain behavior in dogs before and after ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srithunyarat, Thanikul; Höglund, Odd V; Hagman, Ragnvi; Olsson, Ulf; Stridsberg, Mats; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Pettersson, Ann

    2016-08-02

    The stress reaction induced by surgery and associated pain may be detrimental for patient recovery and should be minimized. The neuropeptide chromogranin A (CGA) has shown promise as a sensitive biomarker for stress in humans. Little is known about CGA and its derived peptides, catestatin (CST) and vasostatin (VS), in dogs undergoing surgery. The objectives of this study were to investigate and compare concentrations of CGA epitopes CST and VS, cortisol, body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, scores of the short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale (CMPS-SF) and visual analog scales (VAS) for stress and pain behavior in dogs before and after ovariohysterectomy. Thirty healthy privately owned female dogs admitted for elective ovariohysterectomy were included. Physical examination, CMPS-SF, pain behavior VAS, and stress behavior VAS were recorded and saliva and blood samples were collected before surgery, 3 h after extubation, and once at recall 7-15 days after surgery. Dogs were premedicated with morphine and received carprofen as analgesia for 7 days during the postoperative period. At 3 h after extubation, CMPS-SF and pain behavior VAS scores had increased (p stress behavior VAS scores, temperature, respiratory rate (p stress and pain changed in dogs subjected to ovariohysterectomy. To further evaluate CST and VS usefulness as pain biomarkers, studies on dogs in acute painful situations are warranted.

  16. Overcoming time scale and finite size limitations to compute nucleation rates from small scale well tempered metadynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvalaglio, Matteo; Tiwary, Pratyush; Maggioni, Giovanni Maria; Mazzotti, Marco; Parrinello, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Condensation of a liquid droplet from a supersaturated vapour phase is initiated by a prototypical nucleation event. As such it is challenging to compute its rate from atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. In fact at realistic supersaturation conditions condensation occurs on time scales that far exceed what can be reached with conventional molecular dynamics methods. Another known problem in this context is the distortion of the free energy profile associated to nucleation due to the small, finite size of typical simulation boxes. In this work the problem of time scale is addressed with a recently developed enhanced sampling method while contextually correcting for finite size effects. We demonstrate our approach by studying the condensation of argon, and showing that characteristic nucleation times of the order of magnitude of hours can be reliably calculated. Nucleation rates spanning a range of 10 orders of magnitude are computed at moderate supersaturation levels, thus bridging the gap between what standard molecular dynamics simulations can do and real physical systems.

  17. Measuring the executive regulation of emotion with self-rating scales in a nonclinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    Prefrontal systems play an important role in the regulation of emotion as evidenced by clinical neuroimaging studies. Both subjective and objective neuropsychological tests provide functional evidence of executive dysfunction in emotional deregulation. The present authors evaluated these relationships here in a nonclinical community sample using the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale, Profile of Mood States (POMS), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS). Positive correlations uniformly emerged between prefrontal system dysfunction and negative emotional states (anger, depression, anxiety, stress, confusion, and fatigue), whereas positive emotion (vigor) showed a modest inverse correlation with prefrontal system dysfunction, even after control for demographic influences. These relationships may result from cognitive strategies for managing emotion mediated by reciprocal connections between prefrontal systems and the limbic system. The findings corroborated those of other methodologies, supporting the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe) as a valid tool to measure prefrontal function in nonclinical populations.

  18. Genomic study and Medical Subject Headings enrichment analysis of early pregnancy rate and antral follicle numbers in Nelore heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Junior, G. A.; Perez, B. C.; Cole, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    be considered in a functional enrichment analysis to identify biological mechanisms involved in fertility. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were detected using the MESHR package, allowing the extraction of broad meanings from the gene lists provided by the GWAS. The estimated heritability for HP was 0.28 +/- 0...... gains. In this study, we performed a genomewide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants associated with reproductive traits in Nelore beef cattle. Heifer pregnancy (HP) was recorded for 1,267 genotyped animals distributed in 12 contemporary groups (CG) with an average pregnancy rate of 0...

  19. Scaling in Rate-Changeable Birth and Death Processes with Random Removals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Jianhong; Lin Zhenquan; Chen Xiaoshuang

    2009-01-01

    We propose a monomer birth-death model with random removals, in which an aggregate of size k can produce a new monomer at a time-dependent rate I(t)k or lose one monomer at a rate J(t)k, and with a probability P (t) an aggregate of any size is randomly removed. We then analytically investigate the kinetic evolution of the model by means of the rate equation. The results show that the scaling behavior of the aggregate size distribution is dependent crucially on the net birth rate I(t) - J(t) as well as the birth rate I(t). The aggregate size distribution can approach a standard or modified scaling form in some cases, but it may take a scale-free form in other cases. Moreover, the species can survive finally only if either I(t) - J(t) ≥ P (t) or [J(t) + P (t) - I(t)]t ≅ 0 at t >> 1; otherwise, it will become extinct.

  20. A self-rating scale to measure tridoṣas in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchitra, S P; Nagendra, H R

    2013-10-01

    Self - rating inventories to assess the Prakṛti (constitution) and personality have been developed and validated for adults. To analyze the effect of personality development programs on Prakṛti of the children, standardized scale is not available. Hence, present study was carried out to develop and standardize Caraka Child Personality inventory (CCPI). The 77- item CCPI scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vātaja (a), pittaja (b) and kaphaja prakṛti (c) characteristics described in Ayurveda texts and by taking the opinions of 5 Ayurveda experts and psychologists. The scale was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years in New Generation National public school, Bangalore. This inventory was named CCPI and showed excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach's alpha for A, B and C scales were 0.54, 0.64 and 0.64 respectively. The Split - Half reliability scores for A, B and C subscales were 0.64. 0.60 and 0.66 respectively. Factor validity coefficient Scores on each item was above 0.4. Scores on vātaja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Test-retest reliability scores for A,B and C scales were 0.87,0.88 and 0.89 respectively. The result of CCPI was compared with a parent rating scale Ayurveda Child Personality Inventory (ACPI). Subscales of CCPI correlated significantly highly (above 0.80) with subscales of ACPI which was done for the purpose of cross-validation with respect to ACPI. The prakṛti of the children can be measured consistently by this scale. Correlations with ACPI pointed toward concurrent validity.

  1. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo A. Bisschoff, Ben Coetzee, Michael R. Esco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV, and heart rate recovery (HRR are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match, during (in-match, after (post-match and during rest periods (in-match rest of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014 was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626 and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085 and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258 for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  2. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschoff, Christo A; Coetzee, Ben; Esco, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV), and heart rate recovery (HRR) are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states) for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match), during (in-match), after (post-match) and during rest periods (in-match rest) of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014) was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626) and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085) and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258) for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  3. Effect of mental challenge induced by movie clips on action potential duration in normal human subjects independent of heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Nicholas; Hanson, Ben; Bishop, Martin; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Bostock, Julian; Western, David; Cooklin, Michael; O'Neil, Mark; Wright, Matthew; Razavi, Reza; Gill, Jaswinder; Taggart, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Mental stress and emotion have long been associated with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in animal models and humans. The effect of mental challenge on ventricular action potential duration (APD) in conscious healthy humans has not been reported. Activation recovery intervals measured from unipolar electrograms as a surrogate for APD (n=19) were recorded from right and left ventricular endocardium during steady-state pacing, whilst subjects watched an emotionally charged film clip. To assess the possible modulating role of altered respiration on APD, the subjects then repeated the same breathing pattern they had during the stress, but without the movie clip. Hemodynamic parameters (mean, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure, and rate of pressure increase) and respiration rate increased during the stressful part of the film clip (P=0.001). APD decreased during the stressful parts of the film clip, for example, for global right ventricular activation recovery interval at end of film clip 193.8 ms (SD, 14) versus 198.0 ms (SD, 13) during the matched breathing control (end film left ventricle 199.8 ms [SD, 16] versus control 201.6 ms [SD, 15]; P=0.004). Respiration rate increased during the stressful part of the film clip (by 2 breaths per minute) and was well matched in the respective control period without any hemodynamic or activation recovery interval changes. Our results document for the first time direct recordings of the effect of a mental challenge protocol on ventricular APD in conscious humans. The effect of mental challenge on APD was not secondary to emotionally induced altered respiration or heart rate. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Changes of subtests of Wechsler Memory Scale and cognitive function in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism following treatment with levothyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Rokhsareh; Khamseh, Mohammad E; Malek, Mojtaba; Hadian, Ali; Baradaran, Hamid R; Najafi, Laily; Emami, Zahra

    2012-12-20

    Subclinical hypothyroidism has been reported to be associated with disturbed cognitive function. In this study, changes of subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale and memory quotient were investigated in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism following treatment with levothyroxine. The aim of the study was a randomized double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Sixty subjects (51 females and 9 males) with subclinical hypothyroidism were enrolled. Memory quotient was evaluated at the beginning of the study and three months after enrollment, using Wechsler's memory test. Subclinical hypothyroidism was defined as serum TSH level between 4.5 mU/l and 10 mU/l in the presence of normal free-T4 (0.8-2 ng/dl) and positive anti-TPO-Ab. The intervention and control groups received levothyroxine and placebo respectively for 3 months. Re-evaluation was done using the Wechsler Memory Scale at the end of the study. The mean age was 34 ±10 years, mean TSH level was 8.25 ±3.64 muIU/l. Memory quotient was similar in both groups at the beginning of the study: 105.70 ±2.1 in intervention group vs. 105.87 ±2.1 in control group (p = 0.89). At the end of the study, the memory quotient rose by 9.3 points in the intervention group and by 3.23 in the controls (p = 0.002). Analysis of the scores of Wechsler Memory subtests in the intervention group indicated significant improvement of mental control (p = 0.002), logical memory (p < 0.001), associate learning (p = 0.014), age corrected score (p = 0.002), and memory quotient (p < 0.001). This study showed the efficacy of levothyroxine for cognitive function of subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism.

  5. Feeding rates affect stress and non-specific immune responses of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala subjected to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Fei; Xu, Chao; Tian, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding rates on stress response, innate immunity and hypoxia resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish were randomly assigned to one of six feeding rates (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7% of body weight/day) for 60 days. Then, fish were subjected to hypoxic conditions and haemato-immunological parameters were analyzed pre- and post-challenge. Low feed ration resulted in decreased liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduced glutathione contents. Inadequate feeding also adversely affected the immune functions of fish, as was characterized by the relatively low haemato-immunological parameters (including alternative complement (ACH50), myeloperoxidase (MPO), plasma protein profiles and transferring) and high hypoxia-induced mortality. High feed ration did not lead to the improvement in antioxidant capability, immune responses and survival. In addition, plasma cortisol, glucose and transferrin levels as well as lysozyme activities all increased significantly after hypoxia challenge, whereas the opposite was true for plasma ACH50 and MPO activities as well as protein profiles in terms of hypoxia challenge. An interaction between feeding rate and hypoxia was also observed in plasma cortisol, glucose and protein profiles. In conclusion, a feeding rate of 4-5% of body weight/day is optimal to boost the innate immunity of juvenile blunt snout bream. Low ration resulted in decreased antioxidant capability, compromised immune functions and reduced hypoxia resistance, while over feeding did not benefit the health status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The differentiated assessment of damage to economy of subjects of the Siberian Federal District from road and transport accident rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Artur I.; Svistunova, Vera A.; Petrova, Daria A.

    2018-01-01

    The results of assessment of damage from the road accident rate in subjects of the Siberian Federal District (SFD) of the Russian Federation are presented in the article. The thesis about spatial differentiation of the Gross Regional Product (GRP) losses in different regions of the country because of people’s death and injuries in the road accidents (RA) and due to formations of property and ecological damage was chosen as a working hypothesis. The calculations, carried out for 12 subjects of the SFD, confirmed this idea. The range of calculated values of economic damage from road accident rate (in % of GRP) was from 1.3 (Tomsk region) to 12.6 (Republic of Tyva) in 2015. In article the attempt to explain the received result by heterogeneous development of economics in various Russian regions is made. The consequence of it is a heterogeneous quality of people’s life and quite various perception of life value by inhabitants of different regions that influences their life safety level.

  7. [Primary study on characteristics of insulin secretion rate, metabolic clearance rate and sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects from multiplex diabetic pedigrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, J; Cheng, H; Li, F

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of insulin secretion rate (ISR), metabolic clearance rate (MCR-I) and sensitivity and to explore their relationship with obesity in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects from multiplex diabetic pedigrees (MDP). Fifteen subjects with normal glucose tolerance and 11 non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients from MDP were included in the study. Frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) was performed. Glucose, insulin (INS) and connecting-peptide (C-P) concentrations were measured. A computer procedure devised by our laboratory was used to calculate the value of ISR at each time point, then MCR-I was acquired. Insulin sensitivity index (SI) was calculated according to minimal model technique about glucose in FSIVGTT. The ISR curve in control group was biphasic, while in non-insulin. In non-insulin-dependent diabetic group, areas under the curves of C-P (AUCC) and ISR level (AUCS) measured during 0 approximately 16 min were 7.9 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 2.8 nmol.min(-1).L(-1), and 6.1 nmol +/- 2.2 nmol, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in control group 17.7 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 4.92 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) and 12.3 nmol +/- 3.9 nmol (P < 0.01). The two parameters were slightly higher than those in control group 155 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 44 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) vs 101 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 30 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) and 76 nmol +/- 26 nmol vs 54 nmol +/- 20.0 nmol (P < 0.05)measured during 16 approximately 180 min. There was no significant difference, between the two groups about the amount of insulin secretion during 3 hours (82 nmol +/- 28nmol vs 68 nmol +/- 21 nmol, P = 0.2). In control group, there were significant positive correlation, between AUCS, waist-hip ratio (WHR), and body surface area, (BSA) and significant negative correlation between MCR-I, SI and WHR, BSA (P < 0.01), and also between MCR-I and SI. In non-insulin-dependent diabetic group, AUCS were significantly correlated with body mass

  8. Subjective health complaints and self-rated health: are expectancies more important than socioeconomic status and workload?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, Eline; Odeen, Magnus; Eriksen, Hege R; Indahl, Aage; Ihlebæk, Camilla; Hetland, Jørn; Harris, Anette

    2014-06-01

    The associations between socioeconomic status (SES), physical and psychosocial workload and health are well documented. According to The Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS), learned response outcome expectancies (coping, helplessness, and hopelessness) are also important contributors to health. This is in part as independent factors for health, but coping may also function as a buffer against the impact different demands have on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effect of SES (as measured by level of education), physical workload, and response outcome expectancies on subjective health complaints (SHC) and self-rated health, and if response outcome expectancies mediate the effects of education and physical workload on SHC and self-rated health. A survey was carried out among 1,746 Norwegian municipal employees (mean age 44.2, 81 % females). Structural Equation Models with SHC and self-rated health as outcomes were conducted. Education, physical workload, and response outcome expectancies, were the independent 28 variables in the model. Helplessness/hopelessness had a stronger direct effect on self-rated health and SHC than education and physical workload, for both men and women. Helplessness/hopelessness fully mediated the effect of physical workload on SHC for men (0.121), and mediated 30 % of a total effect of 0.247 for women. For women, education had a small but significant indirect effect through helplessness/hopelessness on self-rated health (0.040) and SHC (-0.040), but no direct effects were found. For men, there was no effect of education on SHC, and only a direct effect on self-rated health (0.134). The results indicated that helplessness/hopelessness is more important for SHC and health than well-established measures on SES such as years of education and perceived physical workload in this sample. Helplessness/hopelessness seems to function as a mechanism between physical workload and health.

  9. German Validation of the Conners 3® Rating Scales for Parents, Teachers, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Hanna; Hirsch, Oliver; Drechsler, Renate; Wanderer, Sina; Knospe, Eva-Lotte; Günther, Thomas; Lidzba, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scales such as the Conners’ Rating Scales (CRS) are valuable adjuncts for diagnosis, since they offer parent, teacher, and self-ratings of children susceptible for ADHD. Even though the scales are widely used internationally, cross-cultural comparability has rarely been verified, and culture and language invariance have only been presumed. The Conners 3(®) rating scales are the updated version of the CRS, though hardly any studies report the psychometric properties apart from the results published in the test edition itself. To our knowledge there are no studies on the various adaptations of the Conners 3(®) in other languages. The German translations of the Conners 3(®) were completed by 745 children, 953 parents, and 741 teachers (children’s age range: 6–18 years, mean: 11.74 years of age). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on content scale items were conducted to obtain the factor structure for the German version and to replicate the factor structure of the original American models. Cronbach’s α was calculated to establish internal consistency. The exploratory analyses for the German model resulted in factor structures globally different from the American model, though confirmatory analyses revealed very good model fi ts with highly satisfying Cronbach’s αs. We were able to provide empirical evidence for the subscale Inattention which had only hypothetically been derived by Conners (2008). Even though the exploratory analyses resulted in different factor structures, the confirmatory analyses have such excellent psychometric properties that use of the German adaptation of the Conners 3(®) is justifi ed in international multicenter studies.

  10. Discriminant of validity the Wender Utah rating scale in Iranian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Farokhzadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the normalization of the Wender Utah rating scale which is used to detect adults with Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD as compared to 200 parents of normal children. Wender Utah rating scale, which has been designed to diagnose ADHD in adults, is filled out by each of the parents to most accurately diagnose of ADHD in parents. Wender Utah rating scale was divided into 6 sub scales which consist of dysthymia, oppositional defiant disorder; school work problems, conduct disorder, anxiety, and ADHD were analyzed with exploratory factor analysis method. The value of (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin KMO was 86.5% for dysthymia, 86.9% for oppositional defiant disorder, 77.5% for school related problems, 90.9% for conduct disorder, 79.6% for anxiety and 93.5% for Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, also the chi square value based on Bartlett's Test was 2242.947 for dysthymia, 2239.112 for oppositional defiant disorder, 1221.917 for school work problems, 5031.511 for conduct, 1421.1 for anxiety, and 7644.122 for ADHD. Since mentioned values were larger than the chi square critical values (P<0.05, it found that the factor correlation matrix is appropriate for factor analysis. Based on the findings, we can conclude that Wender Utah rating scale can be appropriately used for predicting dysthymia, oppositional defiant disorder, school work problems, conduct disorder, anxiety, in adults with ADHD.

  11. Discriminant of validity the Wender Utah rating scale in Iranian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhzadi, Farideh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the normalization of the Wender Utah rating scale which is used to detect adults with Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD as compared to 200 parents of normal children). Wender Utah rating scale, which has been designed to diagnose ADHD in adults, is filled out by each of the parents to most accurately diagnose of ADHD in parents. Wender Utah rating scale was divided into 6 sub scales which consist of dysthymia, oppositional defiant disorder; school work problems, conduct disorder, anxiety, and ADHD were analyzed with exploratory factor analysis method. The value of (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) KMO was 86.5% for dysthymia, 86.9% for oppositional defiant disorder, 77.5% for school related problems, 90.9% for conduct disorder, 79.6% for anxiety and 93.5% for Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, also the chi square value based on Bartlett's Test was 2242.947 for dysthymia, 2239.112 for oppositional defiant disorder, 1221.917 for school work problems, 5031.511 for conduct, 1421.1 for anxiety, and 7644.122 for ADHD. Since mentioned values were larger than the chi square critical values (P<0.05), it found that the factor correlation matrix is appropriate for factor analysis. Based on the findings, we can conclude that Wender Utah rating scale can be appropriately used for predicting dysthymia, oppositional defiant disorder, school work problems, conduct disorder, anxiety, in adults with ADHD.

  12. A Trial of Psychoeducational Group Leadership Treaining(5): Evaluation of Training Effects by Self-rating Scales.

    OpenAIRE

    古屋, 健; 音山, 若穂; 懸川, 武史

    2014-01-01

    Furuya, Kakegawa, and Otoyama(2013a)proposed a leadership training program for university students. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the program using self-rating scales. Two scales were constructed for this purpose;communication-anxiety scale that consisted of five subscales and leadership-efficacy scale that had two subscales. The score of four subscales of communication-anxiety scale decreased, and two subscales of leadership-efficacy scale improved after training. ...

  13. Grouping subjects based on conditioning criteria reveals differences in acquisition rates and in strength of conditioning-specific reflex modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Schreurs, Bernard G

    2017-11-01

    Averaging behavioral data such as the nictitating membrane response (NMR) across subjects can conceal important individual and group differences. Analyses were conducted of NMR data from rabbits that were grouped based on the point during NMR conditioning when subjects produced 8 conditioned responses (CR) in a set of 10 trials. This resulted in five groups (Early Day 1, Late Day 1, Early Day 2, Late Day 2, Early Day 3) in which group differences in CR acquisition rates were found. Percent (%) CRs were not found to increase monotonically and between-session differences in % CR were found. Conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM) of the NMR is a type of enhanced reflexive responding of the NMR that is detected when the unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented in the absence of the conditioned stimulus (CS) following paired classical conditioning. CRM occurred in some subjects in all five groups. Subjects from both the group that was fastest and the group that was slowest to reach the learning criterion had unconditioned response (UR) topographies following NMR conditioning that strongly resembled the CR-UR response sequence elicited during NMR conditioning. This finding was most pronounced when the US duration used to assess CRM was equivalent to that used during NMR conditioning, further evidence to support the hypothesis that CRM is a CR that has generalized from the CS to the US. While grouping data based on conditioning criteria did not facilitate identifying individuals more predisposed to exhibiting CRM, strong CRM only occurred in the groups that reached the conditioning criterion the fastest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A pilot rating scale for evaluating failure transients in electronic flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindson, William S.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.; Eshow, Michelle M.

    1990-01-01

    A pilot rating scale was developed to describe the effects of transients in helicopter flight-control systems on safety-of-flight and on pilot recovery action. The scale was applied to the evaluation of hardovers that could potentially occur in the digital flight-control system being designed for a variable-stability UH-60A research helicopter. Tests were conducted in a large moving-base simulator and in flight. The results of the investigation were combined with existing airworthiness criteria to determine quantitative reliability design goals for the control system.

  15. Regional scales of fire danger rating in the forest: improved technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Volokitina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wildland fires distribute unevenly in time and over area under the influence of weather and other factors. It is unfeasible to air patrol the whole forest area daily during a fire season as well as to keep all fire suppression forces constantly alert. Daily work and preparedness of forest fire protection services is regulated by the level of fire danger according to weather conditions (Nesterov’s index. PV-1 index, fire hazard class (Melekhov’s scale, regional scales (earlier called local scales. Unfortunately, there is still no unified comparable technique of making regional scales. As a result, it is difficult to maneuver forest fire protection resources, since the techniques currently used are not approved and not tested for their performance. They give fire danger rating incomparable even for neighboring regions. The paper analyzes the state-of-the-art in Russia and abroad. It is stated the irony is that with factors of fire danger measured quantitatively, the fire danger itself as a function has no quantitative expression. Thus, selection of an absolute criteria is of high importance for improvement of daily fire danger rating. On the example of the Chunsky forest ranger station (Krasnoyarsk Krai, an improved technique is suggested of making comparable local scales of forest fire danger rating based on an absolute criterion of fire danger rating – a probable density of active fires per million ha. A method and an algorithm are described of automatized local scales of fire danger that should facilitate effective creation of similar scales for any forest ranger station or aviation regional office using a database on forest fires and weather conditions. The information system of distant monitoring by Federal Forestry Agency of Russia is analyzed for its application in making local scales. To supplement the existing weather station net it is suggested that automatic compact weather stations or, if the latter is not possible, simple

  16. Psychometric properties of the communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia (CCRSA): phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Leora R; Babbitt, Edna M; Semik, Patrick; Heinemann, Allen W

    2011-01-01

    Confidence is a construct that has not been explored previously in aphasia research. We developed the Communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia (CCRSA) to assess confidence in communicating in a variety of activities and evaluated its psychometric properties using rating scale (Rasch) analysis. The CCRSA was administered to 21 individuals with aphasia before and after participation in a computer-based language therapy study. Person reliability of the 8-item CCRSA was .77. The 5-category rating scale demonstrated monotonic increases in average measures from low to high ratings. However, one item ("I follow news, sports, stories on TV/movies") misfit the construct defined by the other items (mean square infit = 1.69, item-measure correlation = .41). Deleting this item improved reliability to .79; the 7 remaining items demonstrated excellent fit to the underlying construct, although there was a modest ceiling effect in this sample. Pre- to posttreatment changes on the 7-item CCRSA measure were statistically significant using a paired samples t test. Findings support the reliability and sensitivity of the CCRSA in assessing participants' self-report of communication confidence. Further evaluation of communication confidence is required with larger and more diverse samples.

  17. Time Scale Analysis of Interest Rate Spreads and Output Using Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gallegati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper adds to the literature on the information content of different spreads for real activity by explicitly taking into account the time scale relationship between a variety of monetary and financial indicators (real interest rate, term and credit spreads and output growth. By means of wavelet-based exploratory data analysis we obtain richer results relative to the aggregate analysis by identifying the dominant scales of variation in the data and the scales and location at which structural breaks have occurred. Moreover, using the “double residuals” regression analysis on a scale-by-scale basis, we find that changes in the spread in several markets have different information content for output at different time frames. This is consistent with the idea that allowing for different time scales of variation in the data can provide a fruitful understanding of the complex dynamics of economic relationships between variables with non-stationary or transient components, certainly richer than those obtained using standard time domain methods.

  18. Validation of Montgomery-Åsberg Rating Scale and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia in Brazilian elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Maria da Glória; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Almeida, Cloyra; Barca, Maria Lage; Knapskog, Anne-Brita; Engedal, Knut; Laks, Jerson

    2012-08-01

    There are few studies on validation of depression scales in the elderly in Latin America. This study aimed to assess the validity of Montgomery-Åsberg. Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) in Brazilian elderly outpatients. A convenience sample of 95 outpatients was diagnosed for dementia and depression according to DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10, and PDC-dAD criteria. Receiver Operating Curves (ROC) were used to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) and to assess MADRS and CSDD cut-offs for each diagnostic criterion. Dementia was diagnosed in 71 of 95 patients. Depression was diagnosed in 35, 30, and 51 patients by ICD-10, DSM-IV, and PDC-dAD, respectively. MADRS cut-off score of 10 correctly diagnosed 67.4% and 66.3% patients as depressed according to DSM-IV and ICD-10. A cut-off of 9 correctly identified 74.7% by PDC-dAD criteria; a CSDD cut-off score of 13 best recognized depression according to DSM-IV and ICD-10. A score of 11 diagnosed depression according to PDC-dAD, while MADRS = 9 recognized depression in dementia. CSDD was more efficient in showing depression in mild than in moderate/severe dementia according to DSM-IV/ICD-10. PDC-dAD behaved nicely for any severity stage. MADRS and CSDD cut-offs of 10 and 13 were the optimal ones to diagnose depression in elderly, respectively. CSDD cut-offs are higher than those found in other countries. Other Latin American studies are needed to compare results with our study.

  19. Heart rate and blood pressure interactions during attempts to consciously raise or lower heart rate and blood pressure in normotensive subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdon, Peter; Murray, Alan; Langley, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the interaction between heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) during conscious control under visual biofeedback and background noise conditions. Normotensive volunteers were instructed to (i) decrease and (ii) increase HR (group A, n = 16) or BP (group B, n = 16). After instructions to lower HR or BP there was no significant change in HR or BP for either group. After instructions to raise HR, HR increased significantly (13.8 ± 1.3 beats min −1 , P < 0.0001) and BP did not change. However, following instructions to raise BP, both HR and BP increased significantly: systolic BP (5.2 ± 1.5 mmHg, P < 0.001), diastolic BP (3.5 ± 0.9 mmHg, P < 0.001) and HR (8.6 ± 1.3 beats min −1 , P < 0.0001). Biofeedback and background noise did not alter the relative change in HR or BP. In conclusion, normotensive subjects were unable to reduce BP or HR under conscious control. Subjects were able to increase both HR and BP, and voluntary increases in HR did not alter BP, while voluntary increases in BP also increased HR indicating distinct HR/BP interactions during conscious control

  20. French version validation of the psychotic symptom rating scales (PSYRATS for outpatients with persistent psychotic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favrod Jerome

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most scales that assess the presence and severity of psychotic symptoms often measure a broad range of experiences and behaviours, something that restricts the detailed measurement of specific symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS is a clinical assessment tool that focuses on the detailed measurement of these core symptoms. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the French version of the PSYRATS. Methods A sample of 103 outpatients suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders and presenting persistent psychotic symptoms over the previous three months was assessed using the PSYRATS. Seventy-five sample participants were also assessed with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Results ICCs were superior to .90 for all items of the PSYRATS. Factor analysis replicated the factorial structure of the original version of the delusions scale. Similar to previous replications, the factor structure of the hallucinations scale was partially replicated. Convergent validity indicated that some specific PSYRATS items do not correlate with the PANSS delusions or hallucinations. The distress items of the PSYRATS are negatively correlated with the grandiosity scale of the PANSS. Conclusions The results of this study are limited by the relatively small sample size as well as the selection of participants with persistent symptoms. The French version of the PSYRATS partially replicates previously published results. Differences in factor structure of the hallucinations scale might be explained by greater variability of its elements. The future development of the scale should take into account the presence of grandiosity in order to better capture details of the psychotic experience.

  1. Vaccination against hepatitis A and B in persons subject to homelessness in inner Sydney: vaccine acceptance, completion rates and immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Roslyn G; Ferson, Mark J; Orr, Karen J; McCarthy, Michele A; Botham, Susan J; Stern, Jerome M; Lucey, Adrienne

    2010-04-01

    To determine acceptance, completion rates and immunogenicity of the standard vaccination schedule for hepatitis A (HAV) and B (HBV) in persons subject to homelessness. A convenience sample of clients (n=201) attending a medical clinic for homeless and disadvantaged persons in Sydney was enrolled. Serological screening for HAV and HBV was undertaken. An appropriate vaccination program was instituted. Post-vaccination serology determined serological response. Although many clients had serological evidence of past infection, at least 138 (69%) clients had the potential to benefit from vaccination. For hepatitis A and B vaccinations, completion rates were 73% (73 of 100 clients) and 75% (69 of 92 clients), respectively; after vaccination, protective antibody was found in 98.2% (56 of 57) and 72% (36 of 50) of clients, respectively. A successful vaccination program can be mounted with a vulnerable population. We consider a clinic with a well-established history of acceptance and utilisation by the target group; a low staff turnover and regular clientele; inclusion of vaccination as part of routine client care; and counselling (part of pre- and post-serological testing) essential components in achieving good vaccination completion rates. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. A constitutive model for particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites subjected to high strain rates and high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wei-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-static and dynamic tension tests were conducted to study the mechanical properties of particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites at strain rates ranging from 0.0001/s to 1000/s and at temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 650 °C Based on the experimental results, a constitutive model, which considers the effects of strain rate and temperature on hot deformation behavior, was proposed for particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites subjected to high strain rates and high temperatures by using Zener-Hollomon equations including Arrhenius terms. All the material constants used in the model were identified by fitting Zener-Hollomon equations against the experimental results. By comparison of theoretical predictions presented by the model with experimental results, a good agreement was achieved, which indicates that this constitutive model can give an accurate and precise estimate for high temperature flow stress for the studied titanium matrix composites and can be used for numerical simulations of hot deformation behavior of the composites.

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of als Functional Rating Scale-Revised in Portuguese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Keyte; Pereira, Cecília; Pavan, Karina; Valério, Berenice Cataldo Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study is the cross-cultural, as well as to validate in Portuguese language the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale - Revised (ALSFRS-R). We performed a prospective study of individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) clinically defined. The scale, after obtaining the final version in Portuguese, was administered in 22 individuals and three weeks after re-applied. There were no significant differences between the application and reapplication of the scale (p=0.069). The linear regression and internal consistency measured by Pearson correlation and alpha Conbrach were significant with r=0.975 e alpha=0.934. The reliability test-retest demonstrated by intraclass correlation coefficient was strong with ICC=0.975. Therefore, this version proved to be applicable, reliable and easy to be conducted in clinical practice and research.

  4. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R98).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Steven; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Trzepacz, Paula T; Franco, Jose G; Meagher, David J; Lee, Yanghyun; Kim, Jeong-Lan; Furlanetto, Leticia M; Negreiros, Daniel; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Chun-Hsin; Kean, Jacob; Leonard, Maeve

    2015-01-01

    Principal components analysis applied to the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 contributes to understanding the delirium construct. Using a multisite pooled international delirium database, the authors applied confirmatory factor analysis to Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 scores from 859 adult patients evaluated by delirium experts (delirium, N=516; nondelirium, N=343). Confirmatory factor analysis found all diagnostic features and core symptoms (cognitive, language, thought process, sleep-wake cycle, motor retardation), except motor agitation, loaded onto factor 1. Motor agitation loaded onto factor 2 with noncore symptoms (delusions, affective lability, and perceptual disturbances). Factor 1 loading supports delirium as a single construct, but when accompanied by psychosis, motor agitation's role may not be solely as a circadian activity indicator.

  5. Effect of orientation and loading rate on compression behavior of small-scale Mo pillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, A.S.; Clark, B.G.; Frick, C.P.; Gruber, P.A.; Arzt, E.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, much work has focused on the size effect in face centered cubic (fcc) structures, however few pillar studies have focused on body centered cubic (bcc) metals. This paper explores the role of bcc crystal structure on the size effect, through compression testing of [001] and [235] Molybdenum (Mo) small-scale pillars manufactured by focused ion beam (FIB). The pillar diameters ranged from 200 nm to 5 μm. Results show that the relationship between yield stress and diameter exhibits an inverse relationship (σ y ∝ d -0.22 for [001] Mo and σ y ∝ d -0.34 for [235] Mo) weaker than that observed for face centered cubic (fcc) metals (σ y ∝ d -0.6to-1.0 ). Additional tests at various loading rates revealed that small-scale Mo pillars exhibit a strain rate sensitivity similar to bulk Mo.

  6. Professional Success and Gender in Family Medicine: Design of Scales and Examination of Gender Differences in Subjective and Objective Success Among Family Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ana; Saletti-Cuesta, Lorena; López-Fernández, Luis Andrés; Toro-Cárdenas, Silvia; Luna del Castillo, Juan de Dios

    2016-03-01

    Two components of professional success have been defined: objective career success (OCS) and subjective career success (SCS). Despite the increasing number of women practicing medicine, gender inequalities persist. The objectives of this descriptive, cross-sectional, and multicenter study were (a) to construct and validate OCS and SCS scales, (b) to determine the relationships between OCS and SCS and between each scale and professional/family characteristics, and (c) to compare these associations between male and female family physicians (FPs). The study sample comprised 250 female and 250 male FPs from urban health centers in Andalusia (Spain). Data were gathered over 6 months on gender, age, care load, professional/family variables, and family-work balance, using a self-administered questionnaire. OSC and SCS scales were examined by using exploratory factorial analysis and Cronbach's α, and scores were compared by gender-stratified bivariate and multiple regression analyses. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated using a multilevel analysis. The response rate was 73.6%. We identified three OCS factors and two SCS factors. Lower scores were obtained by female versus male FPs in the OCS dimensions, but there were no gender differences in either SCS dimension. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Effect of PGX, a novel functional fibre supplement, on subjective ratings of appetite in overweight and obese women consuming a 3-day structured, low-calorie diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacinik, V; Lyon, M; Purnama, M; Reimer, R A; Gahler, R; Green, T J; Wood, S

    2011-12-12

    Dietary factors that help control perceived hunger might improve adherence to calorie-reduced diets. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of supplementing a three-day, low-calorie diet with PolyGlycopleX (PGX), a highly viscous fibre, on subjective ratings of appetite compared with a placebo. In a double-blind crossover design with a 3-week washout, 45 women (aged 38±9 years, body mass index 29.9±2.8 kg m(-2)) were randomised to consume a 1000-kcal per day diet for 3 days, supplemented with 5 g of PGX or placebo at each of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Subjective appetite was assessed using 100 mm visual analogue scales that were completed daily before, between and after consumption of meals. Thirty-five women completed the study. Consumption of PGX compared with placebo led to significantly lower mean area under the curve for hunger on day 3 (440.4 versus 375.4; P=0.048), prospective consumption on day 3 (471.0 versus 401.8; P=0.017) and the overall 3-day average (468.6 versus 420.2; P=0.026). More specifically, on day 3 PGX significantly reduced total appetite, hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption for 2.5 and 4.5 h after lunch and before dinner times, with hunger also being reduced 2.5 h after dinner (P<0.05). The results show that adding 5 g of PGX to meals during consumption of a low-calorie diet reduces subjective ratings of prospective consumption and increases the feelings of satiety, especially during afternoon and evening. This highly viscous polysaccharide may be a useful adjunct to weight-loss interventions involving significant caloric reductions.

  8. Regional processes in mangrove ecosystems: Spatial scaling relationships, biomass, and turnover rates following catastrophic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, G.A.; Smith, T. J.; Whelan, K.R.T.; Doyle, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological processes and local-scale structural dynamics of mangroves are relatively well studied. Regional-scale processes, however, are not as well understood. Here we provide long-term data on trends in structure and forest turnover at a large scale, following hurricane damage in mangrove ecosystems of South Florida, U.S.A. Twelve mangrove vegetation plots were monitored at periodic intervals, between October 1992 and March 2005. Mangrove forests of this region are defined by a -1.5 scaling relationship between mean stem diameter and stem density, mirroring self-thinning theory for mono-specific stands. This relationship is reflected in tree size frequency scaling exponents which, through time, have exhibited trends toward a community average that is indicative of full spatial resource utilization. These trends, together with an asymptotic standing biomass accumulation, indicate that coastal mangrove ecosystems do adhere to size-structured organizing principles as described for upland tree communities. Regenerative dynamics are different between areas inside and outside of the primary wind-path of Hurricane Andrew which occurred in 1992. Forest dynamic turnover rates, however, are steady through time. This suggests that ecological, more-so than structural factors, control forest productivity. In agreement, the relative mean rate of biomass growth exhibits an inverse relationship with the seasonal range of porewater salinities. The ecosystem average in forest scaling relationships may provide a useful investigative tool of mangrove community biomass relationships, as well as offer a robust indicator of general ecosystem health for use in mangrove forest ecosystem management and restoration. ?? Springer 2006.

  9. Large-scale calculations of the beta-decay rates and r-process nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borzov, I N; Goriely, S [Inst. d` Astronomie et d` Astrophysique, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bruxelles (Belgium); Pearson, J M [Inst. d` Astronomie et d` Astrophysique, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bruxelles (Belgium); [Lab. de Physique Nucleaire, Univ. de Montreal, Montreal (Canada)

    1998-06-01

    An approximation to a self-consistent model of the ground state and {beta}-decay properties of neutron-rich nuclei is outlined. The structure of the {beta}-strength functions in stable and short-lived nuclei is discussed. The results of large-scale calculations of the {beta}-decay rates for spherical and slightly deformed nuclides of relevance to the r-process are analysed and compared with the results of existing global calculations and recent experimental data. (orig.)

  10. Actometry and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale in neuroleptic-induced akathisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janno, Sven; Holi, Matti M; Tuisku, Katinka; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS) and standardized lower limb actometry in quantifying neuroleptic-induced akathisia (NIA) in 99 schizophrenia patients. Both instruments discriminated well between NIA and non-NIA patients and they correlated weakly but significantly. BARS was superior to actometry in screening DSM-IV diagnosed NIA patients. The results of this methodological study provide BARS with objective validation through movement measuring, that it has been suggested to need.

  11. The reliability of a severity rating scale to measure stuttering in an unfamiliar language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Laura; Wilson, Linda; Copley, Anna; Hewat, Sally; Lim, Valerie

    2014-06-01

    With increasing multiculturalism, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are likely to work with stuttering clients from linguistic backgrounds that differ from their own. No research to date has estimated SLPs' reliability when measuring severity of stuttering in an unfamiliar language. Therefore, this study was undertaken to estimate the reliability of SLPs' use of a 9-point severity rating (SR) scale, to measure severity of stuttering in a language that was different from their own. Twenty-six Australian SLPs rated 20 speech samples (10 Australian English [AE] and 10 Mandarin) of adults who stutter using a 9-point SR scale on two separate occasions. Judges showed poor agreement when using the scale to measure stuttering in Mandarin samples. Results also indicated that 50% of individual judges were unable to reliably measure the severity of stuttering in AE. The results highlight the need for (a) SLPs to develop intra- and inter-judge agreement when using the 9-point SR scale to measure severity of stuttering in their native language (in this case AE) and in unfamiliar languages; and (b) research into the development and evaluation of practice and/or training packages to assist SLPs to do so.

  12. French version of the Rating Scale for Aggressive Behaviour in the Elderly (F-RAGE: Psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Adama

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aggressive behaviour is the most disturbing and distressing behaviour displayed by elderly people. The prevalence of aggressive behaviour is around 50% among psychogeriatric patients. Objective: This study sought to analyze the psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy of the French version of the Rating Scale for Aggressive Behaviour in the Elderly (F-RAGE. Methods: The F-RAGE was administered to 79 patients hospitalized in a geriatric psychiatry department. A psychiatrist, who was blind to the subjects' RAGE scores, performed the diagnosis for aggressivity based on global clinical impression. The F-RAGE and MMSE were applied by a trained researcher blind to subjects' clinical diagnoses while the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and Neuropsychiatric Inventory were administered by medical and nursing staff. Internal consistency, reliability, cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity for F-RAGE were estimated. Results: F-RAGE showed satisfactory validity and reliability measurements. Regarding reliability, Cronbach's a coefficient was satisfactory with a value of 0.758. For diagnostic accuracy, a cut-off point of 8 points (sensitivity=74.19%; specificity=97.98% and area under curve of 0.960 were estimated to distinguish between aggressive patients and control subjects. Discussion: F-RAGE showed acceptable psychometric properties, supported by evidence of validity and reliability for its use in the diagnosis of aggressive behaviour in elderly.

  13. Click trains and the rate of information processing: does "speeding up" subjective time make other psychological processes run faster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Luke A; Allely, Clare S; Wearden, John H

    2011-02-01

    A series of experiments demonstrated that a 5-s train of clicks that have been shown in previous studies to increase the subjective duration of tones they precede (in a manner consistent with "speeding up" timing processes) could also have an effect on information-processing rate. Experiments used studies of simple and choice reaction time (Experiment 1), or mental arithmetic (Experiment 2). In general, preceding trials by clicks made response times significantly shorter than those for trials without clicks, but white noise had no effects on response times. Experiments 3 and 4 investigated the effects of clicks on performance on memory tasks, using variants of two classic experiments of cognitive psychology: Sperling's (1960) iconic memory task and Loftus, Johnson, and Shimamura's (1985) iconic masking task. In both experiments participants were able to recall or recognize significantly more information from stimuli preceded by clicks than those preceded by silence.

  14. Estimation of Subjective Mental Work Load Level with Heart Rate Variability by Tolerance to Driver's Mental Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Michimasa; Oguri, Koji

    Most of the traffic accidents have been caused by inappropriate driver's mental state. Therefore, driver monitoring is one of the most important challenges to prevent traffic accidents. Some studies for evaluating the driver's mental state while driving have been reported; however driver's mental state should be estimated in real-time in the future. This paper proposes a way to estimate quantitatively driver's mental workload using heart rate variability. It is assumed that the tolerance to driver's mental workload is different depending on the individual. Therefore, we classify people based on their individual tolerance to mental workload. Our estimation method is multiple linear regression analysis, and we compare it to NASA-TLX which is used as the evaluation method of subjective mental workload. As a result, the coefficient of correlation improved from 0.83 to 0.91, and the standard deviation of error also improved. Therefore, our proposed method demonstrated the possibility to estimate mental workload.

  15. Large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavazanjian, Edward; Gutierrez, Angel

    2017-10-01

    A large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading was conducted to help validate a numerical model for performance based design of geomembrane liner systems. The test was conducted using the 240g-ton centrifuge at the University of California at Davis under the U.S. National Science Foundation Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Research (NEESR) program. A 0.05mm thin film membrane was used to model the liner. The waste was modeled using a peat-sand mixture. The side slope membrane was underlain by lubricated low density polyethylene to maximize the difference between the interface shear strength on the top and bottom of the geomembrane and the induced tension in it. Instrumentation included thin film strain gages to monitor geomembrane strains and accelerometers to monitor seismic excitation. The model was subjected to an input design motion intended to simulate strong ground motion from the 1994 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. Results indicate that downdrag waste settlement and seismic loading together, and possibly each phenomenon individually, can induce potentially damaging tensile strains in geomembrane liners. The data collected from this test is publically available and can be used to validate numerical models for the performance of geomembrane liner systems. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Heart rate variability analysis in healthy subjects, patients suffering from congestive heart failure and heart transplanted patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argentina Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find parameters to characterize heart rate variability (HRV and discriminate healthy subjects and patients with heart diseases. The parameters used for discrimination characterize the different components of HRV memory (short and long and are extracted from HRV recordings using parametric as well as non parametric methods. Thus, the parameters are: spectral components at low frequencies (LH and high frequencies (HF which are associated with the short memory of HRV and the long memory parameter (d obtained from autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (ARFIMA models. In the non parametric context, short memory (α1 and long memory (α2 parameters are obtained from detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. The sample used in this study contains 24-hour Holter HRV recordings of 30 subjects: 10 healthy individuals, 10 patients suffering from congestive heart failure and 10 heart transplanted patients from the Noltisalis database. It was found that short memory parameters present higher values for the healthy individuals whereas long memory parameters present higher values for the diseased individuals. Moreover, there is evidence that ARFIMA modeling allows the discrimination between the 3 groups under study, being advantageous over DFA.

  17. Girls, Boys and Subject Choice: A Report on Sex Differences in Participation Rates in Subjects in Western Australian Government Secondary Schools. Discussion Paper No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra; Fitzpatrick, Jim

    Many of the issues confronting schools and society relate to the changing roles of males and females. Concern has also been expressed over the preparedness of graduates to face an uncertain job market and rapid technological change. To study the relationship between school subject choice and career opportunities for Australian youth, school…

  18. Structured health care for subjects with diabetic foot ulcers results in a reduction of major amputation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective We tested the effects of structured health care for the diabetic foot in one region in Germany aiming to reduce the number of major amputations. Research design and methods In a prospective study we investigated patients with diabetic foot in a structured system of outpatient, in-patient and rehabilitative treatment. Subjects were recruited between January 1st, 2000 and December 31, 2007. All participants underwent a two-year follow-up. The modified University of Texas Wound Classification System (UT) was the basis for documentation and data analysis. We evaluated numbers of major amputations, rates of ulcer healing and mortality. In order to compare the effect of the structured health care program with usual care in patients with diabetic foot we evaluated the same parameters at another regional hospital without interdisciplinary care of diabetic foot (controls). Results 684 patients with diabetic foot and 508 controls were investigated. At discharge from hospital 28.3% (structured health care program, SHC) vs. 23.0% (controls) of all ulcers had healed completely. 51.5% (SHC) vs. 49.8% (controls) were in UT grade 1. Major amputations were performed in 32 subjects of the structured health care program group (4.7%) vs. 110 (21.7%) in controls (p<0.0001). Mortality during hospitalization was 2.5% (SHC) vs. 9.4% in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions With the structured health care program we achieved a significant reduction of major amputation rates by more than 75% as compared to standard care. PMID:23497152

  19. Sign and magnitude scaling properties of heart rate variability in patients with end-stage renal failure: Are these properties useful to identify pathophysiological adaptations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Claudia; Echeverría, Juan C.; Infante, Oscar; Pérez-Grovas, Héctor; González-Gómez, Hortensia

    2017-09-01

    The scaling properties of heart rate variability data are reliable dynamical features to predict mortality and for the assessment of cardiovascular risk. The aim of this manuscript was to determine if the scaling properties, as provided by the sign and magnitude analysis, can be used to differentiate between pathological changes and those adaptations basically introduced by modifications of the mean heart rate in distinct manoeuvres (active standing or hemodialysis treatment, HD), as well as clinical conditions (end stage renal disease, ESRD). We found that in response to active standing, the short-term scaling index (α1) increased in healthy subjects and in ESRD patients only after HD. The sign short-term scaling exponent (α1sign) increased in healthy subjects and ESRD patients, showing a less anticorrelated behavior in active standing. Both α1 and α1sign did show covariance with the mean heart rate in healthy subjects, while in ESRD patients, this covariance was observed only after HD. A reliable estimation of the magnitude short-term scaling exponent (α1magn) required the analysis of time series with a large number of samples (>3000 data points). This exponent was similar for both groups and conditions and did not show covariance with the mean heart rate. A surrogate analysis confirmed the presence of multifractal properties (α1magn > 0.5) in the time series of healthy subjects and ESDR patients. In conclusion, α1 and α1sign provided insights into the physiological adaptations during active standing, which revealed a transitory impairment before HD in ESRD patients. The presence of multifractal properties indicated that a reduced short-term variability does not necessarily imply a declined regulatory complexity in these patients.

  20. [Measuring subjective social status in health research with a German version of the MacArthur Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebel, Jens; Müters, S; Kuntz, B; Lange, C; Lampert, T

    2015-07-01

    In health research, socio-economic status (SES) is traditionally assessed using objective indicators (education, occupation, income). For a couple of years, there has been a growing body of studies that additionally assess the subjective social status (SSS) of respondents, mostly using the MacArthur Scale. The aim of this study was to examine the construct validity of a German-language version of this instrument and to investigate whether SSS is associated with health over and above objective SES. Analyses were based on data from a population-based pilot study carried out within the 'German Health Update' (GEDA) study conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (n = 1,571; age: 18-79 years). SSS was measured with the MacArthur scale asking respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung "social ladder". The strongest correlations to SSS were found with measures of similar constructs such as a multidimensional index of objective SES, income level, occupational position and educational attainment (r = 0.32-0.60; p social support, mental well-being, depressiveness, and body-mass-index (r = - 0.29-0.30; p social disadvantage may have health implications beyond the impact of objective SES.

  1. HEART RATE, MOOD STATES, AND RATING OF PERCEIVED EXERTION AMONG ELDERLY SUBJECTS DURING 3.5 HOURS OF RECREATIONAL ALPINE SKIING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Krautgasser

    2012-12-01

    immediate positive psychological effects on the elderly subjects. Furthermore, recreational alpine skiing has a positive effect on MS ratings reflecting wellbeing, while generating age-appropriate moderate RPE values in elderly alpine skiers.

  2. Up-Scaling Geochemical Reaction Rates for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Deep Saline Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Catherine A

    2013-02-28

    Geochemical reactions in deep subsurface environments are complicated by the consolidated nature and mineralogical complexity of sedimentary rocks. Understanding the kinetics of these reactions is critical to our ability to make long-term predictions about subsurface processes such as pH buffering, alteration in rock structure, permeability changes, and formation of secondary precipitates. In this project, we used a combination of experiments and numerical simulation to bridge the gap between our knowledge of these reactions at the lab scale and rates that are meaningful for modeling reactive transport at core scales. The focus is on acid-driven mineral dissolution, which is specifically relevant in the context of CO2-water-rock interactions in geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The project led to major findings in three areas. First, we modeled reactive transport in pore-network systems to investigate scaling effects in geochemical reaction rates. We found significant scaling effects when CO2 concentrations are high and reaction rates are fast. These findings indicate that the increased acidity associated with geological sequestration can generate conditions for which proper scaling tools are yet to be developed. Second, we used mathematical modeling to investigate the extent to which SO2, if co-injected with CO2, would acidify formation brines. We found that there exist realistic conditions in which the impact on brine acidity will be limited due to diffusion rate-limited SO2 dissolution from the CO2 phase, and the subsequent pH shift may also be limited by the lack of availability of oxidants to produce sulfuric acid. Third, for three Viking sandstones (Alberta sedimentary basin, Canada), we employed backscattered electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to statistically characterize mineral contact with pore space. We determined that for reactive minerals in sedimentary consolidated rocks, abundance alone is not a good predictor of

  3. Dose rates modeling of pressurized water reactor primary loop components with SCALE6.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijević, Mario; Pevec, Dubravko; Trontl, Krešimir

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Shielding analysis of the typical PWR primary loop components was performed. • FW-CADIS methodology was thoroughly investigated using SCALE6.0 code package. • Versatile ability of SCALE6.0/FW-CADIS for deep penetration models was proved. • The adjoint source with focus on specific material can improve MC modeling. - Abstract: The SCALE6.0 simulation model of a typical PWR primary loop components for effective dose rates calculation based on hybrid deterministic–stochastic methodology was created. The criticality sequence CSAS6/KENO-VI of the SCALE6.0 code package, which includes KENO-VI Monte Carlo code, was used for criticality calculations, while neutron and gamma dose rates distributions were determined by MAVRIC/Monaco shielding sequence. A detailed model of a combinatorial geometry, materials and characteristics of a generic two loop PWR facility is based on best available input data. The sources of ionizing radiation in PWR primary loop components included neutrons and photons originating from critical core and photons from activated coolant in two primary loops. Detailed calculations of the reactor pressure vessel and the upper reactor head have been performed. The efficiency of particle transport for obtaining global Monte Carlo dose rates was further examined and quantified with a flexible adjoint source positioning in phase-space. It was demonstrated that generation of an accurate importance map (VR parameters) is a paramount step which enabled obtaining Monaco dose rates with fairly uniform uncertainties. Computer memory consumption by the S N part of hybrid methodology represents main obstacle when using meshes with large number of cells together with high S N /P N parameters. Detailed voxelization (homogenization) process in Denovo together with high S N /P N parameters is essential for precise VR parameters generation which will result in optimized MC distributions. Shielding calculations were also performed for the reduced PWR

  4. Linear and nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability in healthy subjects and after acute myocardial infarction in patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Kunz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the use of linear and nonlinear methods for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV in healthy subjects and in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Heart rate (HR was recorded for 15 min in the supine position in 10 patients with AMI taking β-blockers (aged 57 ± 9 years and in 11 healthy subjects (aged 53 ± 4 years. HRV was analyzed in the time domain (RMSSD and RMSM, the frequency domain using low- and high-frequency bands in normalized units (nu; LFnu and HFnu and the LF/HF ratio and approximate entropy (ApEn were determined. There was a correlation (P < 0.05 of RMSSD, RMSM, LFnu, HFnu, and the LF/HF ratio index with the ApEn of the AMI group on the 2nd (r = 0.87, 0.65, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.64 and 7th day (r = 0.88, 0.70, 0.69, 0.69, and 0.87 and of the healthy group (r = 0.63, 0.71, 0.63, 0.63, and 0.74, respectively. The median HRV indexes of the AMI group on the 2nd and 7th day differed from the healthy group (P < 0.05: RMSSD = 10.37, 19.95, 24.81; RMSM = 23.47, 31.96, 43.79; LFnu = 0.79, 0.79, 0.62; HFnu = 0.20, 0.20, 0.37; LF/HF ratio = 3.87, 3.94, 1.65; ApEn = 1.01, 1.24, 1.31, respectively. There was agreement between the methods, suggesting that these have the same power to evaluate autonomic modulation of HR in both AMI patients and healthy subjects. AMI contributed to a reduction in cardiac signal irregularity, higher sympathetic modulation and lower vagal modulation.

  5. Scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates using analytical approximations to atmospheric cosmic-ray fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Nathaniel; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Dunai, Tibor J.

    2014-01-01

    Several models have been proposed for scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates from the relatively few sites where they have been measured to other sites of interest. Two main types of models are recognized: (1) those based on data from nuclear disintegrations in photographic emulsions combined with various neutron detectors, and (2) those based largely on neutron monitor data. However, stubborn discrepancies between these model types have led to frequent confusion when calculating surface exposure ages from production rates derived from the models. To help resolve these discrepancies and identify the sources of potential biases in each model, we have developed a new scaling model based on analytical approximations to modeled fluxes of the main atmospheric cosmic-ray particles responsible for in situ cosmogenic nuclide production. Both the analytical formulations and the Monte Carlo model fluxes on which they are based agree well with measured atmospheric fluxes of neutrons, protons, and muons, indicating they can serve as a robust estimate of the atmospheric cosmic-ray flux based on first principles. We are also using updated records for quantifying temporal and spatial variability in geomagnetic and solar modulation effects on the fluxes. A key advantage of this new model (herein termed LSD) over previous Monte Carlo models of cosmogenic nuclide production is that it allows for faster estimation of scaling factors based on time-varying geomagnetic and solar inputs. Comparing scaling predictions derived from the LSD model with those of previously published models suggest potential sources of bias in the latter can be largely attributed to two factors: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. Given that the LSD model generates flux spectra for each cosmic-ray particle of interest, it is also relatively straightforward to generate nuclide-specific scaling

  6. Measuring IBS patient reported outcomes with an abdominal pain numeric rating scale: results from the proof cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPIEGEL, B.; BOLUS, R.; HARRIS, L. A.; LUCAK, S.; NALIBOFF, B.; ESRAILIAN, E.; CHEY, W. D.; LEMBO, A.; KARSAN, H.; TILLISCH, K.; TALLEY, J.; MAYER, E.; CHANG, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Controversy exists about how to effectively measure patient reported outcomes in IBS clinical trials. Pain numeric rating scales (NRS) are widely used in the non-IBS pain literature. The FDA has proposed using the NRS in IBS. Aim To test the psychometrics of an abdominal pain NRS in IBS. Methods We analyzed data from a longitudinal cohort of Rome III IBS subjects. At entry, subjects completed a 10-point NRS, bowel symptoms, IBS severity measurements (IBSSS, FBDSI), health related quality of life indices (IBS-QOL, EQ5D), and the worker productivity activity index (WPAI). We repeated assessments at 3 months along with a response scale to calculate the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Results There were 277 subjects (82% women; age=42±15) at baseline and 90 at 3 months. The NRS correlated cross-sectionally with IBSSS (r=0.60; p<0.0011), FBDSI (r=0.49; p<0.0001), IBS-QOL (r=0.43; p<0.0001), EQ5D (r=0.48; p<0.0001), presenteeism (r=0.39; p<0.0001), absenteeism (r=0.17; p=0.04), and distension (r=0.46; p<0.0001), but not stool frequency or form. The MCID was 2.2 points, correlating with a 29.5% reduction over time. Conclusions An abdominal pain NRS exhibits excellent validity and can be readily interpreted with an MCID in patients with IBS. These data support the use of the NRS in IBS clinical trials. PMID:19751360

  7. Comparison of the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 with the parent-rated Kinder Infant Development Scale (KIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sayaka; Hashimoto, Keiji; Ikeda, Natsuha; Takekoh, Makoto; Fujiwara, Takeo; Morisaki, Naho; Mezawa, Hidetoshi; Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to extend our understanding of the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development (KSPD) by comparison with a parent-rated scale, the Kinder Infant Development Scale (KIDS). The participants of this study were 229 children aged 0-4, who were referred to the Developmental Evaluation Center of the National Center for Child Health and Development, due to a suspected developmental disorder/delay. The participants were divided into subgroups, depending on age and overall DQ. For each group separately, correlation analyses were conducted between the Developmental Quotient (DQ) of each KSPD domain and DQ of each KIDS subscale. For high DQ group, in all ages, the KSPD Postural-Motor (P-M) domain DQ demonstrated a high correlation with the KIDS Physical-Motor DQ, and at young ages, it was also found to be moderately or strongly associated with the KIDS Manipulation DQ. For high DQ group, the KSPD Cognitive-Adaptive (C-A) domain DQ was most consistently related to the KIDS Manipulation DQ, and was also moderately correlated with the KIDS Physical-Motor DQ, Receptive Language DQ, Social Relationship with Adults DQ, Discipline DQ, and Feeding DQ, depending on age. For high DQ group, the KSPD Language-Social (L-S) DQ most consistently showed a moderate or high correlation with the KIDS Receptive Language DQ and the Manipulation DQ, and also related to Physical-Motor DQ, Expressive Language DQ, Language Conception DQ, Social Relationship with Adults DQ, and Social Relationship with Children DQ for some age groups. The low DQ group demonstrated stronger relationships on many of the pairs of the DQ of a KSPD subdomain and the DQ of a KIDS subscale, regardless of the type of subdomains and subscales. For high DQ group, the KSPD P-M domain was consistently related to parent-reported physical/motor development, the C-A domain primarily reflected a child's fine motor skills and his/her ability to understand and follow verbal instructions provided by adults

  8. (99)Tc(VII) Retardation, Reduction, and Redox Rate Scaling in Naturally Reduced Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chongxuan; Kukkadapu, Ravi K; McKinley, James P; Zachara, John; Plymale, Andrew E; Miller, Micah D; Varga, Tamas; Resch, Charles T

    2015-11-17

    An experimental and modeling study was conducted to investigate pertechnetate (Tc(VII)O4(-)) retardation, reduction, and rate scaling in three sediments from Ringold formation at U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site, where (99)Tc is a major contaminant in groundwater. Tc(VII) was reduced in all the sediments in both batch reactors and diffusion columns, with a faster rate in a sediment containing a higher concentration of HCl-extractable Fe(II). Tc(VII) migration in the diffusion columns was reductively retarded with retardation degrees correlated with Tc(VII) reduction rates. The reduction rates were faster in the diffusion columns than those in the batch reactors, apparently influenced by the spatial distribution of redox-reactive minerals along transport paths that supplied Tc(VII). X-ray computed tomography and autoradiography were performed to identify the spatial locations of Tc(VII) reduction and transport paths in the sediments, and results generally confirmed the newly found behavior of reaction rate changes from batch to column. The results from this study implied that Tc(VII) migration can be reductively retarded at Hanford site with a retardation degree dependent on reactive Fe(II) content and its distribution in sediments. This study also demonstrated that an effective reaction rate may be faster in transport systems than that in well-mixed reactors.

  9. Linking soil DOC production rates and transport processes from landscapes to sub-basin scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y. Q.; Yu, Q.; Li, J.; Ye, C.

    2014-12-01

    Recent research rejects the traditional perspective that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) component in global carbon cycle are simply trivial, and in fact evidence demonstrates that lakes likely mediate carbon dynamics on a global scale. Riverine and estuarine carbon fluxes play a critical role in transporting and recycling carbon and nutrients, not only within watersheds but in their receiving waters. However, the underlying mechanisms that drive carbon fluxes, from land to rivers, lake and oceans, remain poorly understood. This presentation will report a research result of the scale-dependent DOC production rate in coastal watersheds and DOC transport processes in estuarine regions. We conducted a series of controlled experiments and field measurements for examining biogeochemical, biological, and geospatial variables that regulate downstream processing on global-relevant carbon fluxes. Results showed that increased temperatures and raised soil moistures accelerate decomposition rates of organic matter with significant variations between vegetation types. The measurements at meso-scale ecosystem demonstrated a good correlation to bulk concentration of DOC monitored in receiving waters at the outlets of sub-basins (R2 > 0.65). These field and experimental measurements improved the model of daily carbon exports through below-ground processes as a function of the organic matter content of surface soils, forest litter supply, and temperature. The study demonstrated a potential improvement in modeling the co-variance of CDOM and DOC with the unique terrestrial sources. This improvement indicated a significant promise for monitoring riverine and estuarine carbon flux from satellite images. The technical innovations include deployments of 1) mini-ecosystem (mesocosms) with soil as replicate controlled experiments for DOC production and leaching rates, and 2) aquatic mesocosms for co-variances of DOC and CDOM endmembers, and an instrumented incubation experiment for

  10. Effect of facial self-resemblance on the startle response and subjective ratings of erotic stimuli in heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, Andre; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    Cues of kinship are predicted to increase prosocial behavior due to the benefits of inclusive fitness, but to decrease approach motivation due to the potential costs of inbreeding. Previous studies have shown that facial resemblance, a putative cue of kinship, increases prosocial behavior. However, the effects of facial resemblance on mating preferences are equivocal, with some studies finding that facial resemblance decreases sexual attractiveness ratings, while other studies show that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity. To further investigate this issue, a psychophysiological measure of affective processing, the startle response, was used in this study, assuming that differences in approach motivation to erotic pictures will modulate startle. Male volunteers (n = 30) viewed 30 pictures of erotic female nudes while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by acoustic noise probes. The female nude pictures were digitally altered so that the face either resembled the male participant or another participant, or were not altered. Non-nude neutral pictures were also included. Importantly, the digital alteration was undetected by the participants. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant and clearly reduced startle eyeblink magnitude as compared to neutral pictures. Participants showed greater startle inhibition to self-resembling than to other-resembling or non-manipulated female nude pictures, but subjective pleasure and arousal ratings did not differ among the three erotic picture categories. Our data suggest that visual facial resemblance of opposite-sex nudes increases approach motivation in men, and that this effect was not due to their conscious evaluation of the erotic stimuli.

  11. Psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of the Subjective Happiness Scale: evidence from the Hong Kong FAMILY Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Hairong; Ni, Michael Y; Lee, Paul H; Tam, Wilson W S; Lam, Tai Hing; Leung, Gabriel M; McDowell, Ian

    2014-08-01

    With China's rapid economic growth in the past few decades, there is currently an emerging focus on happiness. Cross-cultural validity studies have indicated that the four-item Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) has high internal consistency and stable reliability. However, the psychometric characteristics of the SHS in broader Chinese community samples are unknown. We evaluated the factor structure and psychometric properties of the SHS in the Hong Kong general population. The Chinese SHS was derived using forward-backward translation. Of the Cantonese-speaking participants aged ≥15 years, 2,635 were randomly selected from the random sample component of the FAMILY Cohort, a territory-wide cohort study in Hong Kong. In addition to the SHS, a single-item overall happiness scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve (APGAR) scale, and the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item short-form version 2 (SF-12) mental and physical health scales were administered. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a single factor with high loadings for the four SHS items. Multiple group analyses indicated factor invariance across sex and age groups. Cronbach's alpha was 0.82, and 2-week test-retest reliability (n = 191) was 0.70. The SHS correlated significantly with single-item overall happiness (Spearman's rho [ρ] = 0.57), Family APGAR (ρ = 0.26), PHQ-9 (ρ = -0.34), and mental health-related quality of life (ρ = 0.40) but showed a lower correlation with physical health (ρ = 0.15). A regression model that included the PHQ-9 and Family APGAR scores explained 37% of the variance in SF-12 mental health scores; adding the SHS raised the variance explained to 41 %. Our results support the reliability and validity of the SHS as a relevant component in the measurement battery for mental well-being in a Chinese general population.

  12. Validation of a Spanish Version of the Lille Apathy Rating Scale for Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio García-Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To date, no rating scales for detecting apathy in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients have been validated in Spanish. For this reason, the aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of Lille apathy rating scale (LARS in a cohort of PD patients from Spain. Participants and Methods. 130 PD patients and 70 healthy controls were recruited to participate in the study. Apathy was measured using the Spanish version of LARS and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI. Reliability (internal consistency, test-retest, and interrater reliability and validity (construct, content, and criterion validity were measured. Results. Interrater reliability was 0.93. Cronbach’s α for LARS was 0.81. The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.97. The correlation between LARS and NPI scores was 0.61. The optimal cutoff point under the ROC curve was -14, whereas the value derived from healthy controls was -11. The prevalence of apathy in our population tested by LARS was 42%. Conclusions. The Spanish version of LARS is a reliable and useful tool for diagnosing apathy in PD patients. Total LARS score is influenced by the presence of depression and cognitive impairment. However, both disorders are independent identities with respect to apathy. The satisfactory reliability and validity of the scale make it an appropriate instrument for screening and diagnosing apathy in clinical practice or for research purposes.

  13. Nitrogen rate strategies for reducing yield-scaled nitrous oxide emissions in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Nafziger, Emerson D.; Pittelkow, Cameron M.

    2017-12-01

    Mitigating nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture without negatively impacting crop productivity is a pressing environmental and economic challenge. Reductions in N fertilizer rate are often highlighted as a solution, yet the degree to which crop yields and economic returns may be impacted at the field-level remains unclear, in part due to limited data availability. Farmers are risk averse and potential yield losses may limit the success of voluntary N loss mitigation protocols, thus understanding field-level yield tradeoffs is critical to inform policy development. Using a case study of soil N2O mitigation in the US Midwest, we conducted an ex-post assessment of two economic and two environmental N rate reduction strategies to identify promising practices for maintaining maize yields and economic returns while reducing N2O emissions per unit yield (i.e. yield-scaled emissions) compared to an assumed baseline N input level. Maize yield response data from 201 on-farm N rate experiments were combined with an empirical equation predicting N2O emissions as a function of N rate. Results indicate that the economic strategy aimed at maximizing returns to N (MRTN) led to moderate but consistent reductions in yield-scaled N2O emissions with small negative impacts on yield and slight increases in median returns. The economic optimum N rate strategy reduced yield-scaled N2O emissions in 75% of cases but increased them otherwise, challenging the assumption that this strategy will automatically reduce environmental impacts per unit production. Both environmental strategies, one designed to increase N recovery efficiency and one to balance N inputs with grain N removal, further reduced yield-scaled N2O emissions but were also associated with negative yield penalties and decreased returns. These results highlight the inherent tension between achieving agronomic and economic goals while reducing environmental impacts which is often overlooked in policy discussions. To enable the

  14. A Rating Scale for the Functional Assessment of Patients with Familial Dysautonomia (Riley Day Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Felicia B.; Rolnitzky, Linda; von Simson, Gabrielle Gold; Berlin, Dena; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a reliable rating scale to assess functional capacity in children with familial dysautonomia, evaluate changes over time and determine whether severity within a particular functional category at a young age affected survival. Study design Ten functional categories were retrospectively assessed in 123 patients with familial dysautonomia at age 7 years ± 6 months. Each of the ten Functional Severity Scale (FuSS) categories (motor development, cognitive ability, psychological status, expressive speech, balance, oral coordination, frequency of dysautonomic crisis, respiratory, cardiovascular and nutritional status) was scored from 1 (worst or severely affected) to 5 (best or no impairment). Changes over time were analyzed further in 22 of the 123 patients who were also available at ages 17 and 27 years. Results Severely impaired cardiovascular function and high frequency of dysautonomic crisis negatively affected survival (p<0.005 and p<0.001, respectively). In the 22 individuals followed up to age 27 years, psychological status significantly worsened (p=0.01), and expressive speech improved (p=0.045). From age 17 to 27 years, balance worsened markedly (p =0.048). Conclusion The FuSS scale is a reliable tool to measure functional capacity in patients with familial dysautonomia. The scale may prove useful in providing prognosis and as a complementary endpoint in clinical trials. PMID:22727867

  15. Reproducibility of heart rate variability parameters measured in healthy subjects at rest and after a postural change maneuver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Dantas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV provides important information about cardiac autonomic modulation. Since it is a noninvasive and inexpensive method, HRV has been used to evaluate several parameters of cardiovascular health. However, the internal reproducibility of this method has been challenged in some studies. Our aim was to determine the intra-individual reproducibility of HRV parameters in short-term recordings obtained in supine and orthostatic positions. Electrocardiographic (ECG recordings were obtained from 30 healthy subjects (20-49 years, 14 men using a digital apparatus (sampling ratio = 250 Hz. ECG was recorded for 10 min in the supine position and for 10 min in the orthostatic position. The procedure was repeated 2-3 h later. Time and frequency domain analyses were performed. Frequency domain included low (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz and high frequency (HF, 0.15-0.4 Hz bands. Power spectral analysis was performed by the autoregressive method and model order was set at 16. Intra-subject agreement was assessed by linear regression analysis, test of difference in variances and limits of agreement. Most HRV measures (pNN50, RMSSD, LF, HF, and LF/HF ratio were reproducible independent of body position. Better correlation indexes (r > 0.6 were obtained in the orthostatic position. Bland-Altman plots revealed that most values were inside the agreement limits, indicating concordance between measures. Only SDNN and NNv in the supine position were not reproducible. Our results showed reproducibility of HRV parameters when recorded in the same individual with a short time between two exams. The increased sympathetic activity occurring in the orthostatic position probably facilitates reproducibility of the HRV indexes.

  16. The validity of self-rating depression scales in patients with chronic widespread pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, Kirstine; Omerovic, Emina; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of depression in chronic pain patients by self-rating questionnaires developed and validated for use in normal and/or psychiatric populations is common. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) in a sample of ...... core of pain-related somatic symptoms. Careful consideration when interpreting questionnaire-derived scores of depression implemented in research and routine clinical care of patients with chronic pain is warranted.......BACKGROUND: Assessment of depression in chronic pain patients by self-rating questionnaires developed and validated for use in normal and/or psychiatric populations is common. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) in a sample...... and further aspects of validity, including fit of individual scale items to a unidimensional model indicating assessment of a single construct (depression), as a prerequisite for measurement. RESULTS: The Rasch analysis revealed substantial problems with the rating scale properties of the MDI and lack...

  17. German validation of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) II: reliability, validity, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, H; Kis, B; Hirsch, O; Matthies, S; Hebebrand, J; Uekermann, J; Abdel-Hamid, M; Kraemer, M; Wiltfang, J; Graf, E; Colla, M; Sobanski, E; Alm, B; Rösler, M; Jacob, C; Jans, T; Huss, M; Schimmelmann, B G; Philipsen, A

    2012-07-01

    The German version of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) has proven to show very high model fit in confirmative factor analyses with the established factors inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and problems with self-concept in both large healthy control and ADHD patient samples. This study now presents data on the psychometric properties of the German CAARS-self-report (CAARS-S) and observer-report (CAARS-O) questionnaires. CAARS-S/O and questions on sociodemographic variables were filled out by 466 patients with ADHD, 847 healthy control subjects that already participated in two prior studies, and a total of 896 observer data sets were available. Cronbach's-alpha was calculated to obtain internal reliability coefficients. Pearson correlations were performed to assess test-retest reliability, and concurrent, criterion, and discriminant validity. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC-analyses) were used to establish sensitivity and specificity for all subscales. Coefficient alphas ranged from .74 to .95, and test-retest reliability from .85 to .92 for the CAARS-S, and from .65 to .85 for the CAARS-O. All CAARS subscales, except problems with self-concept correlated significantly with the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), but not with the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). Criterion validity was established with ADHD subtype and diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were high for all four subscales. The reported results confirm our previous study and show that the German CAARS-S/O do indeed represent a reliable and cross-culturally valid measure of current ADHD symptoms in adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Disruptive behaviors in the classroom: initial standardization data on a new teacher rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G L; Owen, S M

    1990-10-01

    This study presents initial standardization data on the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory (SESBI), a teacher-completed measure of disruptive classroom behaviors. SESBIs were completed on 1116 children in kingergarten through fifth grade in a rural eastern Washington school district. Various analyses (Cronbach's alpha, corrected item-total correlations, average interitem correlations, principal components analyses) indicated that the SESBI provides a homogeneous measure of disruptive behaviors. Support was also found for three factors within the scale (e.g., overt aggression, oppositional behavior, and attentional difficulties). While the child's age did not have a significant effect on the SESBI, the child's gender did have a significant effect on scale scores as well as on most of the items, with males being rated more problematic than females. The SESBI was also able to discriminate between children in treatment for behavioral problems or learning disabilities and children not in treatment.

  19. Evaluation of Mackey Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale in Iran: What Are the Psychometric Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudi, Zahra; Tavousi, Mahmoud

    2016-06-01

    With the integration of the evaluation of patient satisfaction in the overall assessment of healthcare services, authorities can be assured about the alignment of these services with patient needs and the suitability of care provided at the local level. This study was conducted in 2013 in Zahedan, Iran, in order to assess the psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the mackey childbirth satisfaction rating scale (MCSRS). For this study, a methodological design was used. After translating the MCSRS and confirming its initial validity, the questionnaires were distributed among women with uncomplicated pregnancies and no prior history of cesarean section. The participants had given birth to healthy, full-term, singletons (with cephalic presentation) via normal vaginal delivery at hospitals within the past six months. Cronbach's alpha and test-retest (via the intraclass correlation coefficient) were applied to analyze the internal consistency and reliability of the scale. Moreover, the validity of the scale was tested via exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and convergent validity. The MCSRS consists of six subscales. Through the process of validation, two partner-related items ("partner" subscale) of the scale were excluded due to cultural barriers and hospital policies. Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0.78. It ranged between 0.70 and 0.86 for five subscales, and was 0.31 for the "baby" subscale. Factor analysis confirmed the subscales of "nurse," "physician," and "baby," which were identified in the original scale. However, in the translated version, the "self" subscale was divided into two separate dimensions. The six subscales explained 70.37% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fitness for the new model. Convergent validity showed a significant correlation between the MCSRS and the SERVQUAL scale (r = 0.72, P < 0.001). Moreover, the Farsi version of the MCSRS showed excellent repeatability (r = 0

  20. A Globally Stable Lyapunov Pointing and Rate Controller for the Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission (MMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neerav

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission (MMS) is scheduled to launch in late 2014. Its primary goal is to discover the fundamental plasma physics processes of reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. Each of the four MMS spacecraft is spin-stabilized at a nominal rate of 3 RPM. Traditional spin-stabilized spacecraft have used a number of separate modes to control nutation, spin rate, and precession. To reduce the number of modes and simplify operations, the Delta-H control mode is designed to accomplish nutation control, spin rate control, and precession control simultaneously. A nonlinear design technique, Lyapunov's method, is used to design the Delta-H control mode. A global spin rate controller selected as the baseline controller for MMS, proved to be insufficient due to an ambiguity in the attitude. Lyapunov's design method was used to solve this ambiguity, resulting in a controller that meets the design goals. Simulation results show the advantage of the pointing and rate controller for maneuvers larger than 90 deg and provide insight into the performance of this controller.

  1. [Standardization of the Greek version of Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samakouri, M; Bouhos, G; Kadoglou, M; Giantzelidou, A; Tsolaki, K; Livaditis, M

    2012-01-01

    Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), introduced by Zung, has been widely used in research and in clinical practice for the detection of anxiety. The present study aims at standardizing the Greek version of SAS. SAS consists of 20 items rated on a 1-4 likert type scale. The total SAS score may vary from 20 (no anxiety at all) to 80 (severe anxiety). Two hundred and fifty four participants (114 male and 140 female), psychiatric patients, physically ill and general population individuals, aged 45.40±11.35 years, completed the following: (a) a demographic characteristics' questionnaire, (b) the SAS Greek version, (c) the Spielberg's Modified Greek State-Trait Anxiety Scale (STAI-Gr.-X) and (d) the Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS). Seventy six participants answered the SAS twice within a 12th-day median period of time. The following parameters were calculated: (a) internal consistency of the SAS in terms of Cronbach's α co-efficient, (b) its test-retest reliability in terms of the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and (c) its concurrent and convergent validities through its score's Spearman's rho correlations with both the state and trait subscales of STAI-Gr X and the ZDRS. In addition, in order to evaluate SAS' discriminant validity, the scale's scores of the three groups of participants (psychiatric patients, physically ill and general population individuals) were compared among each other, in terms of Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. SAS Cronbach's alpha equals 0.897 while ICC regarding its test-retest reliability equals 0.913. Spearman's rho concerning validity: (a) when SAS is compared to STAI-Gr.-X (state), equals it 0.767, (b) when SAS is compared to STAI-Gr. X (trait), it equals 0.802 and (c) when SAS is compared to ZDRS, it equals 0.835. The mentally ill scored significantly higher in SAS compared to both the healthy and the general population. In conclusion, the SAS Greek version presents very satisfactory psychometric properties regarding

  2. Simple analytical approximation for rotationally inelastic rate constants based on the energy corrected sudden scaling law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, N.; Pritchard, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the energy corrected sudden (ECS) scaling law of De Pristo et al. when conbined with the power law assumption for the basis rates k/sub l/→0proportional[l(l+1)]/sup -g/ can accurately fit a wide body of rotational energy transfer data. We develop a simple and accurate approximation to this fitting law, and in addition mathematically show the connection between it and our earlier proposed energy based law which also has been successful in describing both theoretical and experimental data on rotationally inelastic collisions

  3. On the use of multi-dimensional scaling and electromagnetic tracking in high dose rate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Th I.; Ermer, M.; Salas-González, D.; Kellermeier, M.; Strnad, V.; Bert, Ch; Hensel, B.; Tomé, A. M.; Lang, E. W.

    2017-10-01

    High dose rate brachytherapy affords a frequent reassurance of the precise dwell positions of the radiation source. The current investigation proposes a multi-dimensional scaling transformation of both data sets to estimate dwell positions without any external reference. Furthermore, the related distributions of dwell positions are characterized by uni—or bi—modal heavy—tailed distributions. The latter are well represented by α—stable distributions. The newly proposed data analysis provides dwell position deviations with high accuracy, and, furthermore, offers a convenient visualization of the actual shapes of the catheters which guide the radiation source during the treatment.

  4. Effect of deposition rate on melting point of copper film catalyst substrate at atomic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimpul, Rinaldo; Syuhada, Ibnu; Rosikhin, Ahmad; Winata, Toto

    2018-03-01

    Annealing process of copper film catalyst substrate was studied by molcular dynamics simulation. This copper film catalyst substrate was produced using thermal evaporation method. The annealing process was limited in nanosecond order to observe the mechanism at atomic scale. We found that deposition rate parameter affected the melting point of catalyst substrate. The change of crystalline structure of copper atoms was observed before it had been already at melting point. The optimum annealing temperature was obtained to get the highest percentage of fcc structure on copper film catalyst substrate.

  5. Detecting Parental Deception Using a Behavior Rating Scale during Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that parents completing behavior rating scales during the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can deliberately manipulate the outcomes of the assessment. To detect these actions, items designed to detect over-reporting or under-reporting of results are sometimes embedded in such rating scales. This…

  6. Awareness of disease in dementia: Development of a multidimensional rating scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Dourado

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the development of the Assessment Scale of Psychosocial Impact of the Diagnosis of Dementia (ASPIDD, a multidimensional scale to evaluate awareness of disease in dementia. Method: The development of this scale was conducted in four steps. In step one, questions were drawn up after a review of the literature. The second step involved the suggestions offered by a neurologist regarding the skills considered important for the scale. The third step involved the re-writing and review of the domains and questions in the scale followed by a semantic evaluation performed by two independent psychiatrists. Step four consisted of the preliminary study aimed at evaluating the applicability of the ASPIDD. Results: In the semantic evaluation only minor changes were proposed. The preliminary sample had 52 patients, comprising 23 CDR 1 (male=9; female=14 and 29 CDR2 (male=13; female=16. Mean age of patients was 69.7±5.51 (CDR1 and 73.6±9.4 (CDR2, and age at onset was 66.4±5.7 years (CDR1 and 68.3±9.3 year (CDR2. Mean schooling was 9.0±4.3 years (CDR1 and 8.8±4.4 years (CDR2. Mean MMSE was 21.0±3.3 (CDR1 and 17.6±3.5 (CDR2. Mean Cornell was 4.8±2.3 (CDR1 and 4.2±1.9 (CDR2. The patient and caregiver dyads were aware of problems, mainly of those related to social, family and affective relations. The higher rates of discrepant responses were found on the awareness of cognitive deficits and changes in ADL. Conclusion: The ASPIDD is a multidimensional instrument to assess awareness of disease among AD patients.

  7. A Person-Centered Approach to Financial Capacity Assessment: Preliminary Development of a New Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A; Stoltman, Jonathan; Ficker, Lisa J; Iris, Madelyn; Mast, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Financial exploitation and financial capacity issues often overlap when a gerontologist assesses whether an older adult's financial decision is an autonomous, capable choice. Our goal is to describe a new conceptual model for assessing financial decisions using principles of person-centered approaches and to introduce a new instrument, the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS). We created a conceptual model, convened meetings of experts from various disciplines to critique the model and provide input on content and structure, and select final items. We then videotaped administration of the LFDRS to five older adults and had 10 experts provide independent ratings. The LFDRS demonstrated good to excellent inter-rater agreement. The LFDRS is a new tool that allows gerontologists to systematically gather information about a specific financial decision and the decisional abilities in question.

  8. Meso-Scale Finite Element Analysis of Mechanical Behavior of 3D Braided Composites Subjected to Biaxial Tension Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Curiel-Sosa, Jose L.; Bui, Tinh Quoc

    2018-04-01

    In many engineering applications, 3D braided composites are designed for primary loading-bearing structures, and they are frequently subjected to multi-axial loading conditions during service. In this paper, a unit-cell based finite element model is developed for assessment of mechanical behavior of 3D braided composites under different biaxial tension loadings. To predict the damage initiation and evolution of braiding yarns and matrix in the unit-cell, we thus propose an anisotropic damage model based on Murakami damage theory in conjunction with Hashin failure criteria and maximum stress criteria. To attain exact stress ratio, force loading mode of periodic boundary conditions which never been attempted before is first executed to the unit-cell model to apply the biaxial tension loadings. The biaxial mechanical behaviors, such as the stress distribution, tensile modulus and tensile strength are analyzed and discussed. The damage development of 3D braided composites under typical biaxial tension loadings is simulated and the damage mechanisms are revealed in the simulation process. The present study generally provides a new reference to the meso-scale finite element analysis (FEA) of multi-axial mechanical behavior of other textile composites.

  9. The tell-tale heart: heart rate fluctuations index objective and subjective events during a game of chess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, María J; Petroni, Agustín; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Sigman, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    During a decision-making process, the body changes. These somatic changes have been related to specific cognitive events and also have been postulated to assist decision-making indexing possible outcomes of different options. We used chess to analyze heart rate (HR) modulations on specific cognitive events. In a chess game, players have a limited time-budget to make about 40 moves (decisions) that can be objectively evaluated and retrospectively assigned to specific subjectively perceived events, such as setting a goal and the process to reach a known goal. We show that HR signals events: it predicts the conception of a plan, the concrete analysis of variations or the likelihood to blunder by fluctuations before to the move, and it reflects reactions, such as a blunder made by the opponent, by fluctuations subsequent to the move. Our data demonstrate that even if HR constitutes a relatively broad marker integrating a myriad of physiological variables, its dynamic is rich enough to reveal relevant episodes of inner thought.

  10. Crevicular Alkaline Phosphatase Activity and Rate of Tooth Movement of Female Orthodontic Subjects under Different Continuous Force Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study is aimed to compare the effects of two different orthodontic forces on crevicular alkaline phosphatase activity, rate of tooth movement, and root resorption. Materials and Methods. Twelve female subjects of class II division 1 malocclusion participated. Maxillary canines with bonded fixed appliances acted as the tested teeth, while their antagonists with no appliances acted as the controls. Canine retraction was performed using nickel titanium coil spring that delivered forces of 100 gm or 150 gm to either side. Crevicular fluid was analyzed for ALP activity, and study models were casted to measure tooth movements. Root resorption was assessed using periapical radiographs before and after the force application. Results. ALP activity at the mesial sites peaked at week 1 for 150 gm group with significant differences when compared with the 100 gm group. Cumulative canine movements were significantly greater in the 150 gm force (2.10 ± 0.50 mm than in the 100 gm force (1.57 ± 0.44 mm. No root resorption was in the maxillary canines after retraction. Conclusions. A force of 150 gm produced faster tooth movements and higher ALP activity compared with the 100 gm group and had no detrimental effects such as root resorption.

  11. An Assessment of Five (PANSS, SAPS, SANS, NSA-16, CGI-SCH) commonly used Symptoms Rating Scales in Schizophrenia and Comparison to Newer Scales (CAINS, BNSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Suneeta; Malik, Mansoor; Florival, Christina; Manalai, Partam; Sonje, Snezana

    2017-01-01

    Scales measuring positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia remain the primary mo Scales measuring positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia remain the primary mode of assessing and diagnosing schizophrenia by clinicians and researchers. The scales are mainly used to monitor the severity of positive and negative symptoms and track treatment response in schizophrenics. Although these scales are widely used, quality as well as general utility of each scale varies. The quality is determined by the validity and reliability of the scales. The utility of the scale is determined by the time of administration and the settings for which the scales can be administered in research or clinical settings. There are relatively fewer articles on the utility of newer scales like CAINS (Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms) and the BNSS (Brief Negative Symptom Scale) that compare them to the older scales PANSS (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale), SAPS (Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms) SANS (the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms), NSA-16 (Negative Symptom Assessment-16) and CGI-SCH (Clinical Global Impression Schizophrenia. The older scales were developed more than 30 years ago. Since then, our understanding of negative symptoms has evolved and currently there are newer rating scales evaluating the validity of negative symptoms. The older scales do not incorporate the latest research on negative symptoms. CAINS and BNSS are attractive for both their reliability and their concise accessible format, however, a scale that is simpler, accessible, user-friendly, that incorporates a multidimensional model of schizophrenia, addresses the psychosocial and cognitive component has yet to be developed.

  12. The reliability and validity of the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weixiong; Zhang, Qingting; Huang, Fuyin; Guan, Wei; Tang, Tao; Liu, Chao

    2014-03-01

    In China, the criminal responsibility of the mentally disordered offenders is divided into three levels, there are the whole responsibility, diminished responsibility and irresponsibility. According to the Criminal Law, "If a mental disordered patient causes harmful consequences at a time when he is unable to recognize or control his own conduct, upon verification and confirmation through legal procedure, he shall not bear criminal responsibility." That means there are two standards of assessing criminal responsibility, namely volitional and cognitive capacity. It is as equal as the Mc'Naughton Rule and the Irresistible Impulse Test. But for a long time, the criminal responsibility was assessed mainly by experience because of lacking of standardized assessment instrument. Recently, we have developed "the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders (RSCRs)". The scale includes eighteen items, namely criminal motivation, aura before offense, inducement of crime, time and place and object and tool selectivity of crime, emotion during the crime, shirking responsibility after offense, concealing the truth during inquest, camouflage, understanding the nature of the offense, estimating the consequence of the offense, impairment of life ability, impairment of learning or work, impairment of insight, impairment of reality testing, and impairment of self-control. This scale can be applicable for all cases and easy to use. This scale had been tried out in several forensic psychiatry institutes, the Cronbach α of the scale is 0.93, and all items have high correlation with the total score of the scale (r=0.50-0.89). Two factors were extracted by the factorial analysis, and the cumulative squared loading was 68.62%. The scores of the three levels were 9.66 ± 5.11, 26.54 ± 5.21 and 40.08 ± 7.90 respectively and highly significant differences were observed among groups. By establishing discrimination analysis among three levels, classification

  13. Subjective Well-Being in Older Chinese and Korean Immigrants in the United States: Effects of Self-Rated Health and Employment Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung; Jun, Hyeyoun; Lee, Jisun; Linton, Kristen; Kim, Meehye; Browne, Colette

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of association between self-rated health and employment status on subjective well-being among older Chinese and Korean immigrants in the United States. Data were collected from 171 Chinese and 205 Korean older adult immigrants living in Los Angeles County. The primary variables included demographic data, subjective index of well-being, self-rated health, and employment status. Data support the association between self-rated health and subjective well-being for both groups. Employment, education, and age were associated with the level of subjective well-being only for older Korean immigrants. Similarities and differences were noted in these two Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest the need to develop health promotion services for both populations and employment opportunities targeted more so for Korean older immigrants to further support their subjective well-being. Results may have implications for other for older immigrants.

  14. Comparative validation of proxy-based montgomery-asberg depression rating scale and cornell scale for depression in dementia in nursing home residents with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.F.J.; Smalbrugge, M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To 1) compare the accuracy of the Montgomery-̊Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) in nursing home residents with dementia when professional caregivers are the only available source of information and 2) explore different methods

  15. The Swedish Version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale: Revised (RAADS-R). A Validation Study of a Rating Scale for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lisa M. J.; Naswall, Katharina; Manouilenko, Irina; Nylander, Lena; Edgar, Johan; Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward; Bejerot, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of diagnostic instruments for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R), an 80-item self-rating scale designed to assist clinicians diagnosing ASD in adults. It was administered to 75…

  16. Global Rating Scales and Motion Analysis Are Valid Proficiency Metrics in Virtual and Benchtop Knee Arthroscopy Simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Justues; Banaszek, Daniel C; Gambrel, Jason; Bardana, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Work-hour restrictions and fatigue management strategies in surgical training programs continue to evolve in an effort to improve the learning environment and promote safer patient care. In response, training programs must reevaluate how various teaching modalities such as simulation can augment the development of surgical competence in trainees. For surgical simulators to be most useful, it is important to determine whether surgical proficiency can be reliably differentiated using them. To our knowledge, performance on both virtual and benchtop arthroscopy simulators has not been concurrently assessed in the same subjects. (1) Do global rating scales and procedure time differentiate arthroscopic expertise in virtual and benchtop knee models? (2) Can commercially available built-in motion analysis metrics differentiate arthroscopic expertise? (3) How well are performance measures on virtual and benchtop simulators correlated? (4) Are these metrics sensitive enough to differentiate by year of training? A cross-sectional study of 19 subjects (four medical students, 12 residents, and three staff) were recruited and divided into 11 novice arthroscopists (student to Postgraduate Year [PGY] 3) and eight proficient arthroscopists (PGY 4 to staff) who completed a diagnostic arthroscopy and loose-body retrieval in both virtual and benchtop knee models. Global rating scales (GRS), procedure times, and motion analysis metrics were used to evaluate performance. The proficient group scored higher on virtual (14 ± 6 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 10-18] versus 36 ± 5 [95% CI, 32-40], p virtual scope (579 ±169 [95% CI, 466-692] versus 358 ± 178 [95% CI, 210-507] seconds, p = 0.02) and benchtop knee scope + probe (480 ± 160 [95% CI, 373-588] versus 277 ± 64 [95% CI, 224-330] seconds, p = 0.002). The built-in motion analysis metrics also distinguished novices from proficient arthroscopists using the self-generated virtual loose body retrieval task scores (4 ± 1 [95% CI, 3

  17. Factor structure of Bech's version of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.S. Crippa

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the factor structure of Bech's version of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, translated into Portuguese. The BPRS was administered to a heterogeneous group of psychiatric inpatients (N = 98 and outpatients (N = 62 in a University Hospital. Each patient was evaluated from one to eight times. The interval between consecutive interviews was one week for the inpatients and one month for the outpatients. The results were submitted to factorial analysis. The internal consistency of the total scale and of each factor was also estimated. Factorial analysis followed by normalized orthogonal rotation (Varimax yielded four factors: Withdrawal-Retardation, Thinking Disorder, Anxious-Depression and Activation. Internal consistency measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranged from 0.766 to 0.879. The data show that the factor structure of the present instrument is similar to that of the American version of the BPRS which contains 18 items, except for the absence of the fifth factor of the latter scale, Hostile-Suspiciousness.

  18. Visual assessment of posterior atrophy development of a MRI rating scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koedam, Esther L.G.E.; Scheltens, Philip; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.L. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology and Alzheimer Centre, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lehmann, Manja; Fox, Nick [UCL Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Flier, Wiesje M. van der [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology and Alzheimer Centre, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department Epidemiology and Biostatistics, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barkhof, Frederik; Wattjes, Mike P. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    To develop a visual rating scale for posterior atrophy (PA) assessment and to analyse whether this scale aids in the discrimination between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. Magnetic resonance imaging of 118 memory clinic patients were analysed for PA (range 0-3), medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) (range 0-4) and global cortical atrophy (range 0-3) by different raters. Weighted-kappas were calculated for inter- and intra-rater agreement. Relationships between PA and MTA with the MMSE and age were estimated with linear-regression analysis. Intra-rater agreement ranged between 0.93 and 0.95 and inter-rater agreement between 0.65 and 0.84. Mean PA scores were higher in AD compared to controls (1.6 {+-} 0.9 and 0.6 {+-} 0.7, p < 0.01), and other dementias (0.8 {+-} 0.8, p < 0.01). PA was not associated with age compared to MTA (B = 1.1 (0.8) versus B = 3.1 (0.7), p < 0.01). PA and MTA were independently negatively associated with the MMSE (B = -1.6 (0.5), p < 0.01 versus B = -1.4 (0.5), p < 0.01). This robust and reproducible scale for PA assessment conveys independent information in a clinical setting and may be useful in the discrimination of AD from other dementias. (orig.)

  19. Visual assessment of posterior atrophy development of a MRI rating scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koedam, Esther L.G.E.; Scheltens, Philip; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.L.; Lehmann, Manja; Fox, Nick; Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Barkhof, Frederik; Wattjes, Mike P.

    2011-01-01

    To develop a visual rating scale for posterior atrophy (PA) assessment and to analyse whether this scale aids in the discrimination between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. Magnetic resonance imaging of 118 memory clinic patients were analysed for PA (range 0-3), medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) (range 0-4) and global cortical atrophy (range 0-3) by different raters. Weighted-kappas were calculated for inter- and intra-rater agreement. Relationships between PA and MTA with the MMSE and age were estimated with linear-regression analysis. Intra-rater agreement ranged between 0.93 and 0.95 and inter-rater agreement between 0.65 and 0.84. Mean PA scores were higher in AD compared to controls (1.6 ± 0.9 and 0.6 ± 0.7, p < 0.01), and other dementias (0.8 ± 0.8, p < 0.01). PA was not associated with age compared to MTA (B = 1.1 (0.8) versus B = 3.1 (0.7), p < 0.01). PA and MTA were independently negatively associated with the MMSE (B = -1.6 (0.5), p < 0.01 versus B = -1.4 (0.5), p < 0.01). This robust and reproducible scale for PA assessment conveys independent information in a clinical setting and may be useful in the discrimination of AD from other dementias. (orig.)

  20. Factor analysis of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broen, M P G; Moonen, A J H; Kuijf, M L; Dujardin, K; Marsh, L; Richard, I H; Starkstein, S E; Martinez-Martin, P; Leentjens, A F G

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have validated the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and reported adequate reliability and construct validity. However, the factorial validity of the HAMD has not yet been investigated. The aim of our analysis was to explore the factor structure of the HAMD in a large sample of PD patients. A principal component analysis of the 17-item HAMD was performed on data of 341 PD patients, available from a previous cross sectional study on anxiety. An eigenvalue ≥1 was used to determine the number of factors. Factor loadings ≥0.4 in combination with oblique rotations were used to identify which variables made up the factors. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure (KMO), Cronbach's alpha, Bartlett's test, communality, percentage of non-redundant residuals and the component correlation matrix were computed to assess factor validity. KMO verified the sample's adequacy for factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha indicated a good internal consistency of the total scale. Six factors had eigenvalues ≥1 and together explained 59.19% of the variance. The number of items per factor varied from 1 to 6. Inter-item correlations within each component were low. There was a high percentage of non-redundant residuals and low communality. This analysis demonstrates that the factorial validity of the HAMD in PD is unsatisfactory. This implies that the scale is not appropriate for studying specific symptom domains of depression based on factorial structure in a PD population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychometric validation of the Columbia-Suicide Severity rating scale in Spanish-speaking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrani Azcurra, Daniel

    2017-12-30

    Adolescent suicide is a major public health issue, and early and accurate detection is of great concern. There are many reliable instruments for this purpose, such as the Columbia-Suicide severity rating scale (C-SSRS), but no validation exists for Spanish speaking Latin American adolescents. To assess psychometric properties and cut-off scores of the C-SSRS in Spanish speaking adolescents. Exploratory assessment with principal component analysis (PCA) and Varimax rotation, and confirmatory analysis (CFA) were performed on two groups with 782 and 834 participants respectively (N=1616). Mean age was 24.8 years. A Receiver operator analysis was applied to distinguish between control and suicide-risk subgroups adolescents. Promax rotation yielded two 10-items factors, for suicide ideation and behavior respectively. C-SSRS was positively correlated with other suicide risk scales, such as Beck Depression Inventory-II, Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, or PHQ-9. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution as the best goodness of fit model. C-SSRS showed adequate ability to detect suicide risk group with positive predictive value of 68.3%. ROC analyses showed cutoff scores of ≥ 6 and ≥ 4 for suicide ideation and behavior scales respectively. This research offers data supporting psychometric validity and reliability of C-SSRS in nonclinical Spanish-speaking students. Added benefits are flexible scoring and management easiness. This questionnaire yields data on distinct aspects of suicidality, being more parsimonious than separate administration of a bunch of questionnaires.

  2. Validation of the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) with Supervisors' Self-Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Elisa M; Ehrhart, Mark G; Beidas, Rinad S; Farahnak, Lauren R; Finn, Natalie K; Aarons, Gregory A

    2018-01-01

    Although often discussed, there is a lack of empirical research on the role of leadership in the management and delivery of health services. The implementation leadership scale (ILS) assesses the degree to which leaders are knowledgeable, proactive, perseverant, and supportive during evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the ILS for leaders' self-ratings using a sample of mental health clinic supervisors (N = 119). Supervisors (i.e., leaders) completed surveys including self-ratings of their implementation leadership. Confirmatory factor analysis, reliability, and validity of the ILS were evaluated. The ILS factor structure was supported in the sample of supervisors. Results demonstrated internal consistency reliability and validity. Cronbach alpha's ranged from 0.92 to 0.96 for the ILS subscales and 0.95 for the ILS overall scale. The factor structure replication and reliability of the ILS in a sample of supervisors demonstrates its applicability with employees across organizational levels.

  3. Scaling rates of true polar wander in convecting planets and moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Ian; Buffett, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Mass redistribution in the convecting mantle of a planet causes perturbations in its moment of inertia tensor. Conservation of angular momentum dictates that these perturbations change the direction of the rotation vector of the planet, a process known as true polar wander (TPW). Although the existence of TPW on Earth is firmly established, its rate and magnitude over geologic time scales remain controversial. Here we present scaling analyses and numerical simulations of TPW due to mantle convection over a range of parameter space relevant to planetary interiors. For simple rotating convection, we identify a set of dimensionless parameters that fully characterize true polar wander. We use these parameters to define timescales for the growth of moment of inertia perturbations due to convection and for their relaxation due to true polar wander. These timescales, as well as the relative sizes of convective anomalies, control the rate and magnitude of TPW. This analysis also clarifies the nature of so called "inertial interchange" TPW events, and relates them to a broader class of events that enable large and often rapid TPW. We expect these events to have been more frequent in Earth's past.

  4. Evaporation of Liquid Droplet in Nano and Micro Scales from Statistical Rate Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Fei; He, Bin; Wei, Tao

    2015-04-01

    The statistical rate theory (SRT) is applied to predict the average evaporation flux of liquid droplet after the approach is validated in the sessile droplet experiments of the water and heavy water. The steady-state experiments show a temperature discontinuity at the evaporating interface. The average evaporation flux is evaluated by individually changing the measurement at a liquid-vapor interface, including the interfacial liquid temperature, the interfacial vapor temperature, the vapor-phase pressure, and the droplet size. The parameter study shows that a higher temperature jump would reduce the average evaporation flux. The average evaporation flux can significantly be influenced by the interfacial liquid temperature and the vapor-phase pressure. The variation can switch the evaporation into condensation. The evaporation flux is found to remain relative constant if the droplet is larger than a micro scale, while the smaller diameters in nano scale can produce a much higher evaporation flux. In addition, a smaller diameter of droplets with the same liquid volume has a larger surface area. It is suggested that the evaporation rate increases dramatically as the droplet shrinks into nano size.

  5. Scaling A Moment-Rate Function For Small To Large Magnitude Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Ralph; Ji, Chen

    2017-04-01

    Since the 1980's seismologists have recognized that peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) scale differently with magnitude for large and moderate earthquakes. In a recent paper (Archuleta and Ji, GRL 2016) we introduced an apparent moment-rate function (aMRF) that accurately predicts the scaling with magnitude of PGA, PGV, PWA (Wood-Anderson Displacement) and the ratio PGA/2πPGV (dominant frequency) for earthquakes 3.3 ≤ M ≤ 5.3. This apparent moment-rate function is controlled by two temporal parameters, tp and td, which are related to the time for the moment-rate function to reach its peak amplitude and the total duration of the earthquake, respectively. These two temporal parameters lead to a Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS) of displacement that has two corners in between which the spectral amplitudes decay as 1/f, f denotes frequency. At higher or lower frequencies, the FAS of the aMRF looks like a single-corner Aki-Brune omega squared spectrum. However, in the presence of attenuation the higher corner is almost certainly masked. Attempting to correct the spectrum to an Aki-Brune omega-squared spectrum will produce an "apparent" corner frequency that falls between the double corner frequency of the aMRF. We reason that the two corners of the aMRF are the reason that seismologists deduce a stress drop (e.g., Allmann and Shearer, JGR 2009) that is generally much smaller than the stress parameter used to produce ground motions from stochastic simulations (e.g., Boore, 2003 Pageoph.). The presence of two corners for the smaller magnitude earthquakes leads to several questions. Can deconvolution be successfully used to determine scaling from small to large earthquakes? Equivalently will large earthquakes have a double corner? If large earthquakes are the sum of many smaller magnitude earthquakes, what should the displacement FAS look like for a large magnitude earthquake? Can a combination of such a double-corner spectrum and random

  6. Autonomic neuropathy in nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects is associated with urinary albumin excretion rate and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure: the Fredericia Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Anne-Catherine; Vestbo, Else; Frøland, Anders

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of parental type 2 diabetes on the autonomic nervous system and to determine whether autonomic neuropathy is present and associated with changes in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in nondiabetic subjects......, Redmond, WA), and UAER was determined through three overnight urine samples. The subjects with parental type 2 diabetes had significantly lower heart rate variation in all three bedside tests (P

  7. Validation of the Spanish version of Mackey childbirth satisfaction rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Pablo; Delgado-García, Beatriz E; Orts-Cortes, Isabel; Moncho, Joaquin; Pereyra-Zamora, Pamela; Nolasco, Andreu

    2016-04-16

    The "Mackey Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale" (MCSRS) is a complete non-validated scale which includes the most important factors associated with maternal satisfaction. Our primary purpose was to describe the internal structure of the scale and validate the reliability and validity of concept of its Spanish version MCSRS-E. The MCSRS was translated into Spanish, back-translated and adapted to the Spanish population. It was then administered following a pilot test with women who met the study participant requirements. The scale structure was obtained by performing an exploratory factorial analysis using a sample of 304 women. The structures obtained were tested by conducting a confirmatory factorial analysis using a sample of 159 women. To test the validity of concept, the structure factors were correlated with expectations prior to childbirth experiences. McDonald's omegas were calculated for each model to establish the reliability of each factor. The study was carried out at four University Hospitals; Alicante, Elche, Torrevieja and Vinalopo Salud of Elche. The inclusion criteria were women aged 18-45 years old who had just delivered a singleton live baby at 38-42 weeks through vaginal delivery. Women who had difficulty speaking and understanding Spanish were excluded. The process generated 5 different possible internal structures in a nested model more consistent with the theory than other internal structures of the MCSRS applied hitherto. All of them had good levels of validation and reliability. This nested model to explain internal structure of MCSRS-E can accommodate different clinical practice scenarios better than the other structures applied to date, and it is a flexible tool which can be used to identify the aspects that should be changed to improve maternal satisfaction and hence maternal health.

  8. Psychometric evaluation of the altered states of consciousness rating scale (OAV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Studerus

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The OAV questionnaire has been developed to integrate research on altered states of consciousness (ASC. It measures three primary and one secondary dimensions of ASC that are hypothesized to be invariant across ASC induction methods. The OAV rating scale has been in use for more than 20 years and applied internationally in a broad range of research fields, yet its factorial structure has never been tested by structural equation modeling techniques and its psychometric properties have never been examined in large samples of experimentally induced ASC.The present study conducted a psychometric evaluation of the OAV in a sample of psilocybin (n = 327, ketamine (n = 162, and MDMA (n = 102 induced ASC that was obtained by pooling data from 43 experimental studies. The factorial structure was examined by confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, hierarchical item clustering (ICLUST, and multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC modeling. The originally proposed model did not fit the data well even if zero-constraints on non-target factor loadings and residual correlations were relaxed. Furthermore, ICLUST suggested that the "oceanic boundlessness" and "visionary restructuralization" factors could be combined on a high level of the construct hierarchy. However, because these factors were multidimensional, we extracted and examined 11 new lower order factors. MIMIC modeling indicated that these factors were highly measurement invariant across drugs, settings, questionnaire versions, and sexes. The new factors were also demonstrated to have improved homogeneities, satisfactory reliabilities, discriminant and convergent validities, and to differentiate well among the three drug groups.The original scales of the OAV were shown to be multidimensional constructs. Eleven new lower order scales were constructed and demonstrated to have desirable psychometric properties. The new lower order scales are most likely better suited to

  9. High pressure pulsed avalanche discharges: Scaling of required preionization rate for homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenning, N.; Axnaes, I.; Nilsson, J.O.; Eninger, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Homogeneous high-pressure discharges can be formed by pulsed avalanche breakdown, provided that the individual avalanche heads have diffused to a large enough radius to overlap before streamer breakdown occurs. The overlap condition can be met by using an external mechanism to preionize the neutral gas, e.g., x-rays or uv radiation. There are several scenarios, (1) to preionize the gas, and then trigger the discharge by the sudden application of an electric field, (2) to apply an overvoltage over the discharge and trigger the discharge by external ionization, or (3) to have a continuous rate of external ionization and let the E field rise, with a comparatively long time constant τ, across the breakdown value (E/n) 0 . The authors here study the last of these scenarios, which gives a very efficient use of the preionization source because the avalanche startpoint can accumulate during the pre-avalanche phase. The authors have found that the required avalanche startpoint density N st.p , defined as the density of individual single, or clusters of, electrons at the time when the electric field crosses the breakdown value, scales with pressure and rise time as N st.p ∝ p 21/4 τ -3/4 . This pressure scaling disagrees with the p 3/2 scaling found by Levatter and Lin (J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 210), while the rise time scaling agrees satisfactorily with their results. For an E field which rises slowly across the breakdown value, the pre-avalanche accumulation of electrons must be taken into account, as well as the fact that the density n e of free electrons becomes larger than the density N st.p of independent avalanche heads: when electron impact ionization closely balances attachment, individual electrons are replaced by clusters of electrons which are too close to form individual avalanche heads

  10. Comparing Cultural Differences in Two Quality Measures in Chinese Kindergartens: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and the Kindergarten Quality Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent to…

  11. Evaluation of three-dimensional navigator-gated whole heart MR coronary angiography: The importance of systolic imaging in subjects with high heart rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yenwen; Tadamura, Eiji; Yamamuro, Masaki; Kanao, Shotaro; Nakayama, Kazuki; Togashi, Kaori

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of heart rate (HR) on magnetic resonance coronary angiography (MRCA) image quality in diastolic and systolic phases. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven healthy volunteers (9 men; 33 ± 9 years, HR 53-110 bpm), were evaluated with the electrocardiography and three-dimensional navigator-gating MRCA in a 1.5-T MR scanner (Avanto, Siemens) in diastolic and systolic phases (steady-state free precession; TR/TE/flip angle = 3.2 ms/1.6 ms/90 o ). The timing of scanning was individually adapted to the cardiac rest periods obtained in the prescanning, by visually identifying when the movement of right coronary artery was minimized during diastole and systole. Images of two phases were side-by-side compared on a four-point scale (from 1 = poor to 4 = excellent visibility; score of 3 or 4 as diagnostic). Results: Of 13 subjects with HR ≤65 bpm (low HR group, mean 59.8 ± 4.9 bpm, range 53-65), the image quality scores were significantly better than that with higher heart rates (73.9 ± 9.0 bpm, range 68-110) in diastolic MRCA. The image quality was significantly improved during systole in high HR group. Overall, 91.3% of low HR group had MRCA image of diagnostic quality acquired at diastole, while 88.3% of high HR group had diagnostic images at systole by segmental analysis (p = NS). Conclusions: MRCA at systole offered superior quality in patients with high heart rates

  12. Allometry and Scaling of the Intraocular Pressure and Aqueous Humour Flow Rate in Vertebrate Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouache, Moussa A.; Eames, Ian; Samsudin, Amir

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates, intraocular pressure (IOP) is required to maintain the eye into a shape allowing it to function as an optical instrument. It is sustained by the balance between the production of aqueous humour by the ciliary body and the resistance to its outflow from the eye. Dysregulation of the IOP is often pathological to vision. High IOP may lead to glaucoma, which is in man the second most prevalent cause of blindness. Here, we examine the importance of the IOP and rate of formation of aqueous humour in the development of vertebrate eyes by performing allometric and scaling analyses of the forces acting on the eye during head movement and the energy demands of the cornea, and testing the predictions of the models against a list of measurements in vertebrates collated through a systematic review. We show that the IOP has a weak dependence on body mass, and that in order to maintain the focal length of the eye, it needs to be an order of magnitude greater than the pressure drop across the eye resulting from gravity or head movement. This constitutes an evolutionary constraint that is common to all vertebrates. In animals with cornea-based optics, this constraint also represents a condition to maintain visual acuity. Estimated IOPs were found to increase with the evolution of terrestrial animals. The rate of formation of aqueous humour was found to be adjusted to the metabolic requirements of the cornea, scaling as Vac0.67, where Vac is the volume of the anterior chamber. The present work highlights an interdependence between IOP and aqueous flow rate crucial to ocular function that must be considered to understand the evolution of the dioptric apparatus. It should also be taken into consideration in the prevention and treatment of glaucoma. PMID:26990431

  13. Design of a test device for subjecting materials to high strain rates: with application in nuclear area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todesco, Sergio R.; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Rossi, Jesualdo L., E-mail: sergio.todesco@usp.br, E-mail: csmucsi@ipen.br, E-mail: jelrossi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a design of a device to gather characteristic data of materials subjected to high strain rates, this device named after the eminent English engineer Sir Bertram Hopkinson 'Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar', from here will be designated SHPB. More specifically, this work is inseparably linked to the development of packing for transportation of highly radioactive substances as a part to the general scope of a CAPES project in partnership with the CCTM Materials Department of IPEN, Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, linked to the University of Sao Paulo. The development of the device is part of a scope, and collection of data necessary for the design and construction of this packing. The SHPB device can be divided into two parts, the first part concerning the mechanical design. The second, data collection that is indeed the challenging part of the device, and proper tests. The present paper, specifically, will only deals with the mechanical design of the device, importantly, divided into two parts, the size of the bars, which are the impact bar, the input bar, and the output bar, and the size of the impact device. The sizing of the bars involve knowledge of the concept of elastic waves in solid media for the length of the bars to serve as a wave-guide, which will cause a deformation of the specimen, and enables recording of these waves for data analysis. The impact device must be robust enough to produce the stress wave to deform the specimen, but not to plastically deform the bars, which have to continue throughout the test within the elastic range. (author)

  14. Effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia in non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in non-diabetic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Itoh, Harumi [Department of Radiology, Fukui Medical University, Matsuoka (Japan); Sadato, Norihiro; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui Medical University (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia (HG) on the non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlc). Five patients who had a meal within an hour before a fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) examination were recruited in this study. They underwent intermittent arterial blood sampling (measured input function), and, based on this sampling, CMRGlc was calculated using an autoradiographic method (CMRGlc{sub real}). Simulated input functions were generated based on standardised input function, body surface area and net injected dose of FDG, and simulated CMRGlc (CMRGlc{sub sim}) was also calculated. Percent error of the area under the curve (AUC) between measured (AUC{sub real}) and simulated input function (AUC{sub IFsim}) and percent error between CMRGlc{sub real} and CMRGlc{sub sim} were calculated. These values were compared with those obtained from a previous study conducted under fasting conditions (F). The serum glucose level in the HG group was significantly higher than that in the F group (165{+-}69 vs 100{+-}9 mg/dl, P=0.0007). Percent errors of AUC and CMRGlc in grey matter and white matter in HG were significantly higher than those in F (12.9%{+-}1.3% vs 3.5%{+-}2.2% in AUC, P=0.0015; 18.2%{+-}2.2% vs 2.9%{+-}1.9% in CMRGlc in grey matter, P=0.0028; 24.0%{+-}4.6% vs 3.4%{+-}2.2% in CMRGlc in white matter, P=0.0028). It is concluded that a non-invasive method of measuring CMRGlc should be applied only in non-diabetic subjects under fasting conditions. (orig.)

  15. Effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia in non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in non-diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Itoh, Harumi; Sadato, Norihiro; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia (HG) on the non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlc). Five patients who had a meal within an hour before a fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) examination were recruited in this study. They underwent intermittent arterial blood sampling (measured input function), and, based on this sampling, CMRGlc was calculated using an autoradiographic method (CMRGlc real ). Simulated input functions were generated based on standardised input function, body surface area and net injected dose of FDG, and simulated CMRGlc (CMRGlc sim ) was also calculated. Percent error of the area under the curve (AUC) between measured (AUC real ) and simulated input function (AUC IFsim ) and percent error between CMRGlc real and CMRGlc sim were calculated. These values were compared with those obtained from a previous study conducted under fasting conditions (F). The serum glucose level in the HG group was significantly higher than that in the F group (165±69 vs 100±9 mg/dl, P=0.0007). Percent errors of AUC and CMRGlc in grey matter and white matter in HG were significantly higher than those in F (12.9%±1.3% vs 3.5%±2.2% in AUC, P=0.0015; 18.2%±2.2% vs 2.9%±1.9% in CMRGlc in grey matter, P=0.0028; 24.0%±4.6% vs 3.4%±2.2% in CMRGlc in white matter, P=0.0028). It is concluded that a non-invasive method of measuring CMRGlc should be applied only in non-diabetic subjects under fasting conditions. (orig.)

  16. Design of a test device for subjecting materials to high strain rates: with application in nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todesco, Sergio R.; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Rossi, Jesualdo L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design of a device to gather characteristic data of materials subjected to high strain rates, this device named after the eminent English engineer Sir Bertram Hopkinson 'Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar', from here will be designated SHPB. More specifically, this work is inseparably linked to the development of packing for transportation of highly radioactive substances as a part to the general scope of a CAPES project in partnership with the CCTM Materials Department of IPEN, Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, linked to the University of Sao Paulo. The development of the device is part of a scope, and collection of data necessary for the design and construction of this packing. The SHPB device can be divided into two parts, the first part concerning the mechanical design. The second, data collection that is indeed the challenging part of the device, and proper tests. The present paper, specifically, will only deals with the mechanical design of the device, importantly, divided into two parts, the size of the bars, which are the impact bar, the input bar, and the output bar, and the size of the impact device. The sizing of the bars involve knowledge of the concept of elastic waves in solid media for the length of the bars to serve as a wave-guide, which will cause a deformation of the specimen, and enables recording of these waves for data analysis. The impact device must be robust enough to produce the stress wave to deform the specimen, but not to plastically deform the bars, which have to continue throughout the test within the elastic range. (author)

  17. Reliability, validity and treatment sensitivity of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Richard S E; Davis, Vicki G; Spagnola, Nathan B; Hilt, Dana; Dgetluck, Nancy; Ruse, Stacy; Patterson, Thomas D; Narasimhan, Meera; Harvey, Philip D

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive functioning can be assessed with performance-based assessments such as neuropsychological tests and with interview-based assessments. Both assessment methods have the potential to assess whether treatments for schizophrenia improve clinically relevant aspects of cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the reliability, validity and treatment responsiveness of interview-based measures, especially in the context of clinical trials. Data from two studies were utilized to assess these features of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS). One of the studies was a validation study involving 79 patients with schizophrenia assessed at 3 academic research centers in the US. The other study was a 32-site clinical trial conducted in the US and Europe comparing the effects of encenicline, an alpha-7 nicotine agonist, to placebo in 319 patients with schizophrenia. The SCoRS interviewer ratings demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability in several different circumstances, including those that did not involve treatment (ICC> 0.90), and during treatment (ICC>0.80). SCoRS interviewer ratings were related to cognitive performance as measured by the MCCB (r=-0.35), and demonstrated significant sensitivity to treatment with encenicline compared to placebo (Pcognition in schizophrenia, and may be useful for clinical practice. The weaknesses of the SCoRS include its reliance on informant information, which is not available for some patients, and reduced validity when patient's self-report is the sole information source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of effective coolant flow rate in advanced design of the small scale VHTR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Murakami, Tomoyuki.

    1988-02-01

    This report describes the evaluation of effective coolant flow rate in the advanced design of the small scale VHTR core. The analytical design study was carried out after the 2nd stage of detailed design in order to reduce the cost of construction. The summary of the analytical results are as follows: (1) Crossflow loss coefficient of flange type fuel block having 0.1 mm of sealing gap is about 100 times higher than that of dowel type block adopted in the 2nd stage of detailed design. (2) In case that coolant channel outer diameter is 52 mm and hydraulic diameter is 6 mm, the effective coolant flow rates using flange and dowel type fuel blocks are 80 % and 70 % respectively. Because the crossflow loss coefficients of dowel type are lower than that of flange type. (3) The effective coolant flow rate, when crossflow loss coefficients are distributed along with the axial direction, agrees well with that using mean value of crossflow loss coefficient i.e. 5 x 10 11 m -4 . (author)

  19. Scaling of Polymer Degradation Rate within a High-Reynolds-Number Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian; Solomon, Michael; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David; Ceccio, Steven

    2009-11-01

    An experiment conducted at the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model produced the first quantitative measurements of polymer molecular weight within a turbulent boundary layer. Testing was conducted at speeds to 20 m/s and downstream distance based Reynolds numbers to 220 million. These results showed that the rate of polymer degradation by scission of the polymer chains increases with increased speed, downstream distance and surface roughness. With the surface fully rough at 20 m/s there was no measureable level of drag reduction at the first measurement location (0.56 m downstream of injection). These results are scaled with the assumption that the rate of degradation is dependent on the polymer residence time in the flow and the local shear rate. A successful collapse of the data within the measurement uncertainty was achieved over a range of flow speed (6.6 to 20 m/s), surface roughness (smooth and fully rough) and downstream distance from injection (0.56 to 9.28 m).

  20. Usefulness of medial temporal lobe atrophy visual rating scale in detecting Alzheimer′s disease: Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyeok Heo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Korean version of Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE and the Korean version of Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination (K-ACE have been validated as quick neuropsychological tests for screening dementia in various clinical settings. Medial temporal atrophy (MTA is an early pathological characteristic of Alzheimer′s disease (AD. We aimed to assess the diagnostic validity of the fusion of the neuropsychological test and visual rating scale (VRS of MTA in AD. Materials and Methods: A total of fifty subjects (25 AD, 25 controls were included. The neuropsychological tests used were the K-MMSE and the K-ACE. T1 axial imaging visual rating scale (VRS was applied for assessing the grade of MTA. We calculated the fusion score with the difference of neuropsychological test and VRS of MTA. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve was used to determine optimal cut-off score, sensitivity and specificity of the fusion scores in screening AD. Results: No significant differences in age, gender and education were found between AD and control group. The values of K-MMSE, K-ACE, CDR, VRS and cognitive function test minus VRS were significantly lower in the AD group than control group. The AUC (Area under the curve, sensitivity and specificity for K-MMSE minus VRS were 0.857, 84% and 80% and for K-ACE minus VRS were 0.884, 80% and 88%, respectively. Those for K-MMSE only were 0.842, 76% and 72% and for K-ACE only were 0.868, 80% and 88%, respectively. Conclusions: The fusion of the neuropsychological test and VRS suggested clinical usefulness in their easy and superiority over neuropsychological test only. However, this study failed to find any difference. This may be because of small numbers in the study or because there is no true difference.

  1. Parkinson's disease-cognitive rating scale: psychometrics for mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Bobadilla, Ramón; Pagonabarraga, Javier; Martínez-Horta, Saül; Pascual-Sedano, Berta; Campolongo, Antonia; Kulisevsky, Jaime

    2013-09-01

    Lack of validated data on cutoff scores for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and sensitivity to change in predementia stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) limit the utility of instruments measuring global cognition as screening and outcome measures in therapeutic trials. Investigators who were blinded to PD-Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS) scores classified a cohort of prospectively recruited, nondemented patients into a PD with normal cognition (PD-NC) group and a PD with MCI (PD-MCI) group using Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale-2 (MDRS-2). The discriminative power of the PD-CRS for PD-MCI was examined in a representative sample of 234 patients (145 in the PD-NC group; 89 in the PD-MCI group) and in a control group of 98 healthy individuals. Sensitivity to change in the PD-CRS score (the minimal clinically important difference was examined with the Clinical Global Impression of Change scale and was calculated with a combination of distribution-based and anchor-based approaches) was explored in a 6-month observational multicenter trial involving a subset of 120 patients (PD-NC, 63; PD-MCI, 57). Regression analysis demonstrated that PD-CRS total scores (P < 0.001) and age (P = 0.01) independently differentiated PD-NC from PD-MCI. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis (AUC, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.90) indicated that a score ≤ 81 of 134 was the optimal cutoff point on the total score for the PD-CRS (sensitivity, 79%; specificity, 80%; positive predictive value, 59%; negative predictive value, 91%). A range of change from 10 to 13 points on the PD-CRS total score was indicative of clinically significant change. These findings suggest that the PD-CRS is a useful tool to identify PD-MCI and to track cognitive changes in nondemented patients with PD. © 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE)--A Systematic Review of Rating Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students' communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed in order to yield psychometrically

  3. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) - A Systematic Review of Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students’ communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Results Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Discussion Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed

  4. Predicting SF-6D utility scores from the Oswestry disability index and numeric rating scales for back and leg pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Leah Y; Glassman, Steven D; McDonough, Christine M; Rampersaud, Raja; Berven, Sigurd; Shainline, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Cross-sectional cohort. The purpose of this study is to provide a model to allow estimation of utility from the Short Form (SF)-6D using data from the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Back Pain Numeric Rating Scale (BPNRS), and the Leg Pain Numeric Rating Scale (LPNRS). Cost-utility analysis provides important information about the relative value of interventions and requires a measure of utility not often available from clinical trial data. The ODI and numeric rating scales for back (BPNRS) and leg pain (LPNRS), are widely used disease-specific measures for health-related quality of life in patients with lumbar degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study is to provide a model to allow estimation of utility from the SF-6D using data from the ODI, BPNRS, and the LPNRS. SF-36, ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS were prospectively collected before surgery, at 12 and 24 months after surgery in 2640 patients undergoing lumbar fusion for degenerative disorders. Spearman correlation coefficients for paired observations from multiple time points between ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS, and SF-6D utility scores were determined. Regression modeling was done to compute the SF-6D score from the ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS. Using a separate, independent dataset of 2174 patients in which actual SF-6D and ODI scores were available, the SF-6D was estimated for each subject and compared to their actual SF-6D. In the development sample, the mean age was 52.5 +/- 15 years and 34% were male. In the validation sample, the mean age was 52.9 +/- 14.2 years and 44% were male. Correlations between the SF-6D and the ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS were statistically significant (P < 0.0001) with correlation coefficients of 0.82, 0.78, and 0.72, respectively. The regression equation using ODI, BPNRS,and LPNRS to predict SF-6D had an R of 0.69 and a root mean square error of 0.076. The model using ODI alone had an R of 0.67 and a root mean square error of 0.078. The correlation coefficient between the observed and estimated

  5. Differential rate in decline in ovarian reserve markers in women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with control subjects: results of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asima K; Kao, Chia-Ning; Quinn, Molly; Lenhart, Nikolaus; Rosen, Mitchell; Cedars, Marcelle I; Huddleston, Heather

    2018-03-01

    To estimate rates of ovarian aging in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) subjects versus a community control population. Longitudinal. Tertiary academic center. PCOS subjects diagnosed according to the 2004 Rotterdam criteria were systematically enrolled in a PCOS cohort study. The comparison control subjects were from the Ovarian Aging study, a prospective longitudinal study of ovarian aging in healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. Clinical data collection over two study visits. Antral follicle count (AFC), ovarian volume (OV), and antimüllerian hormone level (AMH). PCOS subjects were found to have higher baseline values for all ovarian reserve markers compared with control subjects. Univariate models indicated that, compared with control subjects, PCOS patients experienced significantly faster rates of decline for both AFC and AMH. Change in OV did not differ significantly. To account for potential confounder effects, multiple analysis of covariance models were evaluated for the best fit, considering age, body mass index, and baseline ovarian reserve markers. Adjusted models demonstrated that PCOS patients do not experience a significant difference in AFC decline compared with control subjects, but they do experience a faster rate of decline in AMH (POvarian aging in PCOS is characterized by a more rapid decline in AMH and a slower decline in OV compared with control subjects. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dysautonomia Rating Scales in Parkinson’s Disease: Sialorrhea, Dysphagia, and Constipation—Critique and Recommendations by Movement Disorders Task Force on Rating Scales for Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evatt, Marian L.; Chaudhuri, K. Ray; Chou, Kelvin L.; Cubo, Ester; Hinson, Vanessa; Kompoliti, Katie; Yang, Chengwu; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Olivier; Sampaio, Cristina; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Upper and lower gastrointestinal dysautonomia symptoms (GIDS)—sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and often socially as well as physically disabling for patients. Available invasive quantitative measures for assessing these symptoms and their response to therapy are time-consuming, require specialized equipment, can cause patient discomfort and present patients with risk. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned a task force to assess available clinical rating scales, critique their clinimetric properties, and make recommendations regarding their clinical utility. Six clinical researchers and a biostatistician systematically searched the literature for scales of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation, evaluated the scales’ previous use, performance parameters, and quality of validation data (if available). A scale was designated “Recommended” if the scale was used in clinical studies beyond the group that developed it, has been specifically used in PD reports, and clinimetric studies have established that it is a valid, reliable, and sensitive. “Suggested” scales met at least part of the above criteria, but fell short of meeting all. Based on the systematic review, scales for individual symptoms of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation were identified along with three global scales that include these symptoms in the context of assessing dysautonomia or nonmotor symptoms. Three sialorrhea scales met criteria for Suggested: Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale (DSFS), Drooling Rating Scale, and Sialorrhea Clinical Scale for PD (SCS-PD). Two dysphagia scales, the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ) and Dysphagia-Specific Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL), met criteria for Suggested. Although Rome III constipation module is widely accepted in the gastroenterology community, and the earlier version from the Rome II criteria has been used in a single study of PD patients, neither met criteria for Suggested

  7. Natural-Scale Lava Flow Experiments on Video: Variations with Temperature, Slope, and Effusion Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karson, J. A.; Wysocki, R.; Edwards, B. R.; Lev, E.

    2013-12-01

    Investigations of active basaltic lava flows and analog materials show that flow dynamics and final flow morphology are strongly determined by the rapidly evolving rheology of the lava crust which constrains the downslope advance of the lava flow. The non-dimensional factor Ψ (ratio of the time scale of crust formation to advective heat loss) provides a useful means of comparing different flows. The key parameters that control Ψ include the melt viscosity, temperature, effusion rate, and slope. Experimental lava flows, up to several meters long created in the Syracuse University Lava Project permit these variables to be investigated independently and in combination in volume-limited flows (Pele), that provide additional information on lava crust development. New, continuous flow (cooling-limited) experiments show downslope variations under constant flow conditions.

  8. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, I.J. E-mail: i.graham@gns.cri.nz; Barry, B.J.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Whitehead, N.E

    2000-10-01

    {sup 7}Be produced in water targets by nuclear interactions of cosmic rays has been measured to determine cosmogenic nuclide production rates as a function of altitude (sea level to 2 km) and geomagnetic latitude (20-79 deg. S). Relative intensities of low energy cosmic ray neutrons have at the same time been measured using neutron monitors based on IGY/NM-64 designed to efficiently thermalise ca. 2-30 MeV neutrons. The research is on-going and we present here preliminary data from the past two years. Water target and neutron flux results are in general agreement, and are consistent with the altitude-dependent scaling factors of Lal [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104 (1991) 4241]. Significant differences between the sea level, latitude-dependent neutron flux data and Lal's predictions are possibly related to the response function of the detector.

  9. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, I J; Ditchburn, R G; Whitehead, N E

    2000-01-01

    sup 7 Be produced in water targets by nuclear interactions of cosmic rays has been measured to determine cosmogenic nuclide production rates as a function of altitude (sea level to 2 km) and geomagnetic latitude (20-79 deg. S). Relative intensities of low energy cosmic ray neutrons have at the same time been measured using neutron monitors based on IGY/NM-64 designed to efficiently thermalise ca. 2-30 MeV neutrons. The research is on-going and we present here preliminary data from the past two years. Water target and neutron flux results are in general agreement, and are consistent with the altitude-dependent scaling factors of Lal [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104 (1991) 4241]. Significant differences between the sea level, latitude-dependent neutron flux data and Lal's predictions are possibly related to the response function of the detector.

  10. Scaling the energy conversion rate from magnetic field reconnection to different bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozer, F. S.; Hull, A.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic field reconnection is often invoked to explain electromagnetic energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres, stellar coronae, and other astrophysical objects. Because of the huge dynamic range of magnetic fields in these bodies, it is important to understand energy conversion as a function of magnetic field strength and related parameters. It is conjectured theoretically and shown experimentally that the energy conversion rate per unit area in reconnection scales as the cube of an appropriately weighted magnetic field strength divided by the square root of an appropriately weighted density. With this functional dependence, the energy release in flares on the Sun, the large and rapid variation of the magnetic flux in the tail of Mercury, and the apparent absence of reconnection on Jupiter and Saturn, may be understood. Electric fields at the perihelion of the Solar Probe Plus mission may be tens of V/m.

  11. Predictive Validity of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale for Short-Term Suicidal Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Erlangsen, Annette; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2017-01-01

    adolescents (90.6% females) who participated at follow-up (85.9%) out of the 99 (49.7%) baseline respondents. All adolescents were recruited from a specialized suicide-prevention clinic in Denmark. Through multivariate logistic regression analyses, we examined whether baseline suicidal behavior predicted......Using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), we examined the predictive and incremental predictive validity of past-month suicidal behavior and ideation for short-term suicidal behavior among adolescents at high risk of suicide. The study was conducted in 2014 on a sample of 85...... subsequent suicidal behavior (actual attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, including preparatory acts, aborted, interrupted and actual attempts; mean follow-up of 80.8 days, SD = 52.4). Furthermore, we examined whether suicidal ideation severity and intensity incrementally predicted suicidal behavior...

  12. Validity and reliability of a new, short symptom rating scale in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härdén, Marie; Nyström, Britta; Kulich, Károly; Carlsson, Jonas; Bengtson, Ann; Edvardsson, Nils

    2009-07-15

    Symptoms related to atrial fibrillation and their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are often evaluated in clinical trials. However, there remains a need for a properly validated instrument. We aimed to develop and validate a short symptoms scale for patients with AF. One hundred and eleven patients with a variety of symptoms related to AF were scheduled for DC cardioversion. The mean age was 67.1 +/- 12.1 years, and 80% were men. The patients completed the new symptoms scale, the Toronto Symptoms Check List (SCL) and the generic Short Form 36 (SF-36) the day before the planned DC cardioversion. Compliance was excellent, with only 1 of 666 answers missing. One item, 'limitations in working capability', was deleted because of a low numerical response rate, as many of the patients were retired. The internal consistency reliability of the remaining six items was 0.81 (Cronbach's alpha). Patients scored highest in the items of 'dyspnoea on exertion', 'limitations in daily life due to AF' and 'fatigue due to AF', with scores of 4.5, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. There was a good correlation to all relevant SF-36 domains and to the relevant questions of the SCL. The Rasch analyses showed that the items are unidimensional and that they are clearly separated and cover an adequate range. Test-retest reliability was performed in patients who failed DC and was adequate for three of six items, > 0.70. The psychometric characteristics of the new short symptoms scale were found to have satisfactory reliability and validity.

  13. Validity and reliability of a new, short symptom rating scale in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtson Ann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptoms related to atrial fibrillation and their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL are often evaluated in clinical trials. However, there remains a need for a properly validated instrument. We aimed to develop and validate a short symptoms scale for patients with AF. Methods One hundred and eleven patients with a variety of symptoms related to AF were scheduled for DC cardioversion. The mean age was 67.1 ± 12.1 years, and 80% were men. The patients completed the new symptoms scale, the Toronto Symptoms Check List (SCL and the generic Short Form 36 (SF-36 the day before the planned DC cardioversion. Compliance was excellent, with only 1 of 666 answers missing. Results One item, 'limitations in working capability', was deleted because of a low numerical response rate, as many of the patients were retired. The internal consistency reliability of the remaining six items was 0.81 (Cronbach's α. Patients scored highest in the items of 'dyspnoea on exertion', 'limitations in daily life due to AF' and 'fatigue due to AF', with scores of 4.5, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. There was a good correlation to all relevant SF-36 domains and to the relevant questions of the SCL. The Rasch analyses showed that the items are unidimensional and that they are clearly separated and cover an adequate range. Test-retest reliability was performed in patients who failed DC and was adequate for three of six items, >0.70. Conclusion The psychometric characteristics of the new short symptoms scale were found to have satisfactory reliability and validity.

  14. The use of global rating scales for OSCEs in veterinary medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma K Read

    Full Text Available OSCEs (Objective Structured Clinical Examinations are widely used in health professions to assess clinical skills competence. Raters use standardized binary checklists (CL or multi-dimensional global rating scales (GRS to score candidates performing specific tasks. This study assessed the reliability of CL and GRS scores in the assessment of veterinary students, and is the first study to demonstrate the reliability of GRS within veterinary medical education. Twelve raters from two different schools (6 from University of Calgary [UCVM] and 6 from Royal (Dick School of Veterinary Studies [R(DSVS] were asked to score 12 students (6 from each school. All raters assessed all students (video recordings during 4 OSCE stations (bovine haltering, gowning and gloving, equine bandaging and skin suturing. Raters scored students using a CL, followed by the GRS. Novice raters (6 R(DSVS were assessed independently of expert raters (6 UCVM. Generalizability theory (G theory, analysis of variance (ANOVA and t-tests were used to determine the reliability of rater scores, assess any between school differences (by student, by rater, and determine if there were differences between CL and GRS scores. There was no significant difference in rater performance with use of the CL or the GRS. Scores from the CL were significantly higher than scores from the GRS. The reliability of checklist scores were .42 and .76 for novice and expert raters respectively. The reliability of the global rating scale scores were .7 and .86 for novice and expert raters respectively. A decision study (D-study showed that once trained using CL, GRS could be utilized to reliably score clinical skills in veterinary medicine with both novice and experienced raters.

  15. Utility of a Validated Rating Scale for Self-Assessment in Microsurgical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Aaron L; Temple-Oberle, Claire

    The purpose of this study is to determine the utility of self-assessment in microsurgical training using a previously validated rating scale. A prospective study of surgical residents taking a hands-on 5-day microsurgical training course. Learners completed multiple self-assessments of their technical skills using the University of Western Ontario Microsurgical Acquisition/Assessment instrument. Simultaneously, preceptors assessed the learners using the same scale. Self-assessment and preceptor scores were compared using the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC). There was a significant agreement noted between the 32 preceptor assessments and 36 self-assessments that were completed. Correlation between scores for the knot-tying (PCC = 0.62) and anastomosis modules (PCC = 0.77) was good and excellent, respectively. Preceptor scores and self-scores improved over the duration of the course: for preceptors, knot-tying scores increased from 58% on day 1 to 78% on day 5 (p = 0.02) and anastomosis scores improved from 56% to 82% (p = 0.004); for self-scores, knot-tying scores increased from 44% to 81% (p = 0.001) and anastomosis scores from 49% to 84% (p = 0.001). Learners with greater experience (higher postgraduate year level) tended to have higher self as well as preceptor ratings, albeit not statistically significant. Self-assessment using the University of Western Ontario Microsurgical Acquisition/Assessment instrument has good to excellent agreement with preceptor-assessment scores suggesting good interrater reliability. Self-assessment using such tools may, therefore, be used along with preceptor supervision and assessment to potentially improve self-directed learning during these courses. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Similar star formation rate and metallicity variability time-scales drive the fundamental metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars; McKinnon, Ryan; Marinacci, Federico; Simcoe, Robert A.; Springel, Volker; Pillepich, Annalisa; Naiman, Jill; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Weinberger, Rainer; Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy

    2018-06-01

    The fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) is a postulated correlation between galaxy stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and gas-phase metallicity. At its core, this relation posits that offsets from the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) at a fixed stellar mass are correlated with galactic SFR. In this Letter, we use hydrodynamical simulations to quantify the time-scales over which populations of galaxies oscillate about the average SFR and metallicity values at fixed stellar mass. We find that Illustris and IllustrisTNG predict that galaxy offsets from the star formation main sequence and MZR oscillate over similar time-scales, are often anticorrelated in their evolution, evolve with the halo dynamical time, and produce a pronounced FMR. Our models indicate that galaxies oscillate about equilibrium SFR and metallicity values - set by the galaxy's stellar mass - and that SFR and metallicity offsets evolve in an anticorrelated fashion. This anticorrelated variability of the metallicity and SFR offsets drives the existence of the FMR in our models. In contrast to Illustris and IllustrisTNG, we speculate that the SFR and metallicity evolution tracks may become decoupled in galaxy formation models dominated by feedback-driven globally bursty SFR histories, which could weaken the FMR residual correlation strength. This opens the possibility of discriminating between bursty and non-bursty feedback models based on the strength and persistence of the FMR - especially at high redshift.

  17. Fine scale distribution constrains cadmium accumulation rates in two geographical groups of Franciscana dolphin from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polizzi, P.S.; Chiodi Boudet, L.N.; Romero, M.B.; Denuncio, P.E.; Rodríguez, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Fine scale distribution of two Argentine stocks constrains the Cd accumulation rates. • Cadmium levels and accumulation patterns were different between geographic groups. • Marine diet has a major influence than the impact degree of origin environment. • Engraulis anchoita is the main Cd vector species in Argentine shelf for Franciscana. • Information is valuable for the conservation of Franciscana, a vulnerable species. -- Abstract: Franciscana dolphin is an endemic cetacean in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and is classified as Vulnerable A3d by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Cadmium accumulation was assessed in two geographic groups from Argentina; one inhabits the La Plata River estuary, a high anthropogenic impacted environment, and the other is distributed in marine coastal, with negligible pollution. Despite the environment, marine dolphins showed an increase of renal Cd concentrations since trophic independence; while in estuarine dolphins was from 6 years. This is associated with dietary Argentine anchovy which was absent in the diet of estuarine dolphins, being a trophic vector of cadmium in shelf waters of Argentina. Cluster analysis also showed high levels of cd in association with the presence of anchovy in the stomach. The difference in the fine scale distribution of species influences dietary exposure to Cd and, along with other data, indicates two stocks in Argentina

  18. Development and validation of the Affect in Play Scale-brief rating version (APS-BR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiano, Tori J Sacha; Russ, Sandra W; Short, Elizabeth J

    2008-01-01

    The Affect in Play Scale (APS; Russ, 1987, 2004) is one of few reliable, standardized measures of pretend play, yet the fact that it requires videotaping and extensive training to score compromises its clinical utility. In this study, we developed and validated a brief rating version (APS-BR) that does not require videotaping. Construct validity was established by comparing scores from the original APS and the APS-BR using an existing data set of videotaped play (n = 46). We examined associations between scores on the APS-BR and theoretically relevant measures of divergent thinking and emotional memories. Scores on the APS-BR related strongly to those on the APS, and the pattern of correlations for each scale and relevant criterion measures was similar in strength and direction, supporting the APS-BR as an alternate form of the APS. In addition, we completed a pilot study to examine the efficacy of using the APS-BR in its intended in vivo format (n = 28). Results from both studies suggest that the APS-BR is a promising brief measure of children's pretend play that can be substituted for the APS in clinical and research settings.

  19. Estimate of the global-scale joule heating rates in the thermosphere due to time mean currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roble, R.G.; Matsushita, S.

    1975-01-01

    An estimate of the global-scale joule heating rates in the thermosphere is made based on derived global equivalent overhead electric current systems in the dynamo region during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods. The equivalent total electric field distribution is calculated from Ohm's law. The global-scale joule heating rates are calculated for various monthly average periods in 1965. The calculated joule heating rates maximize at high latitudes in the early evening and postmidnight sectors. During geomagnetically quiet times the daytime joule heating rates are considerably lower than heating by solar EUV radiation. However, during geomagnetically disturbed periods the estimated joule heating rates increase by an order of magnitude and can locally exceed the solar EUV heating rates. The results show that joule heating is an important and at times the dominant energy source at high latitudes. However, the global mean joule heating rates calculated near solar minimum are generally small compared to the global mean solar EUV heating rates. (auth)

  20. Development and Validation of the User Version of the Mobile Application Rating Scale (uMARS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Hides, Leanne; Kavanagh, David J; Wilson, Hollie

    2016-06-10

    The Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS) provides a reliable method to assess the quality of mobile health (mHealth) apps. However, training and expertise in mHealth and the relevant health field is required to administer it. This study describes the development and reliability testing of an end-user version of the MARS (uMARS). The MARS was simplified and piloted with 13 young people to create the uMARS. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the uMARS was then examined in a second sample of 164 young people participating in a randomized controlled trial of a mHealth app. App ratings were collected using the uMARS at 1-, 3,- and 6-month follow up. The uMARS had excellent internal consistency (alpha = .90), with high individual alphas for all subscales. The total score and subscales had good test-retest reliability over both 1-2 months and 3 months. The uMARS is a simple tool that can be reliably used by end-users to assess the quality of mHealth apps.

  1. [Interpreting change scores of the Behavioural Rating Scale for Geriatric Inpatients (GIP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2013-09-01

    The Behavioural Rating Scale for Geriatric Inpatients (GIP) consists of fourteen, Rasch modelled subscales, each measuring different aspects of behavioural, cognitive and affective disturbances in elderly patients. Four additional measures are derived from the GIP: care dependency, apathy, cognition and affect. The objective of the study was to determine the reproducibility of the 18 measures. A convenience sample of 56 patients in psychogeriatric day care was assessed twice by the same observer (a professional caregiver). The median time interval between rating occasions was 45 days (interquartile range 34-58 days). Reproducibility was determined by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC agreement) for test-retest reliability. The minimal detectable difference (MDD) was calculated based on the standard error of measurement (SEM agreement). Test-retest reliability expressed by the ICCs varied from 0.57 (incoherent behaviour) to 0.93 (anxious behaviour). Standard errors of measurement varied from 0.28 (anxious behaviour) to 1.63 (care dependency). The results show how the GIP can be applied when interpreting individual change in psychogeriatric day care participants.

  2. Precision for Smallholder Farmers: A Small-Scale-Tailored Variable Rate Fertilizer Application Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle Van Loon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture technology at the hands of smallholder farmers in the developing world is often deemed far-fetched. Low-resource farmers, however, are the most susceptible to negative changes in the environment. Providing these farmers with the right tools to mitigate adversity and to gain greater control of the production process could unlock their potential and support rural communities to meet the increasing global food demand. In this study, a real-time variable rate fertilizer application system was developed and tested as an add-on kit to conventional farm machinery. In the context of low investment costs for smallholder farmers, high user-friendliness and easy installment were the main concerns for the system to be viable. The system used nitrogen (N-sensors to assess the plant nutrient status on the spot and subsequently adjust the amount of fertilizer deposited according to the plant’s needs. Test bench trials showed that the add-on kit performed well with basic operations, but more precision is required. Variability between N-sensors and metering systems, combined with power fluctuations, created inaccuracies in the resulting application rate. Nevertheless, this work is a stepping stone towards catalyzing the elaboration of more cutting-edge precision solutions to support small-scale farmers to become successful, high producing agro-entrepreneurs.

  3. Scaling of normalized mean energy and scalar dissipation rates in a turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Antonia, Robert Anthony

    2011-05-01

    Non-dimensional parameters for the mean energy and scalar dissipation rates Cɛ and Cɛθ are examined using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data obtained in a fully developed turbulent channel flow with a passive scalar (Pr = 0.71) at several values of the Kármán (Reynolds) number h+. It is shown that Cɛ and Cɛθ are approximately equal in the near-equilibrium region (viz., y+ = 100 to y/h = 0.7) where the production and dissipation rates of either the turbulent kinetic energy or scalar variance are approximately equal and the magnitudes of the diffusion terms are negligibly small. The magnitudes of Cɛ and Cɛθ are about 2 and 1 in the logarithmic and outer regions, respectively, when h+ is sufficiently large. The former value is about the same for the channel, pipe, and turbulent boundary layer, reflecting the similarity between the mean velocity and temperature distributions among these three canonical flows. The latter value is, on the other hand, about twice as large as in homogeneous isotropic turbulence due to the existence of the large-scale u structures in the channel. The behaviour of Cɛ and Cɛθ impacts on turbulence modeling. In particular, the similarity between Cɛ and Cɛθ leads to a simple relation for the scalar variance to turbulent kinetic energy time-scale ratio, an important ingredient in the eddy diffusivity model. This similarity also yields a relation between the Taylor and Corrsin microscales and analogous relations, in terms of h+, for the Taylor microscale Reynolds number and Corrsin microscale Peclet number. This dependence is reasonably well supported by both the DNS data at small to moderate h+ and the experimental data of Comte-Bellot [Ph. D. thesis (University of Grenoble, 1963)] at larger h+. It does not however apply to a turbulent boundary layer where the mean energy dissipation rate, normalized on either wall or outer variables, is about 30% larger than for the channel flow.

  4. Multiscale Investigation on Biofilm Distribution and Its Impact on Macroscopic Biogeochemical Reaction Rates: BIOFILM DISTRIBUTION AND RATE SCALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhifeng [Institute of Surface-Earth System Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin China; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Liu, Chongxuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen China; Liu, Yuanyuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; School of Earth Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Bailey, Vanessa L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-11-01

    Biofilms are critical locations for biogeochemical reactions in the subsurface environment. The occurrence and distribution of biofilms at microscale as well as their impacts on macroscopic biogeochemical reaction rates are still poorly understood. This paper investigated the formation and distributions of biofilms in heterogeneous sediments using multiscale models, and evaluated the effects of biofilm heterogeneity on local and macroscopic biogeochemical reaction rates. Sediment pore structures derived from X-ray computed tomography were used to simulate the microscale flow dynamics and biofilm distribution in the sediment column. The response of biofilm formation and distribution to the variations in hydraulic and chemical properties was first examined. One representative biofilm distribution was then utilized to evaluate its effects on macroscopic reaction rates using nitrate reduction as an example. The results revealed that microorganisms primarily grew on the surfaces of grains and aggregates near preferential flow paths where both electron donor and acceptor were readily accessible, leading to the heterogeneous distribution of biofilms in the sediments. The heterogeneous biofilm distribution decreased the macroscopic rate of biogeochemical reactions as compared with those in homogeneous cases. Operationally considering the heterogeneous biofilm distribution in macroscopic reactive transport models such as using dual porosity domain concept can significantly improve the prediction of biogeochemical reaction rates. Overall, this study provided important insights into the biofilm formation and distribution in soils and sediments as well as their impacts on the macroscopic manifestation of reaction rates.

  5. Ocean-scale patterns in community respiration rates along continuous transects across the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jesse M; Severson, Rodney; Beman, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Community respiration (CR) of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±8.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1) standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre) and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±7.32 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 10°N and 10°S) and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±45.6 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±13.9 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 156°E and the Australian coast). We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements.

  6. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-08-14

    concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before adding caustic. The work described in this report addresses the kinetics of caustic leach under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed at the lab-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to caustic leach chemistry to support a scale-up factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. The scale-up factor will take the form of an adjustment factor for the rate constant in the boehmite leach kinetic equation in the G2 model.

  7. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-01-01

    to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before adding caustic. The work described in this report addresses the kinetics of caustic leach under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed at the lab-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to caustic leach chemistry to support a scale-up factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. The scale-up factor will take the form of an adjustment factor for the rate constant in the boehmite leach kinetic equation in the G2 model

  8. Utility of the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale validity scales in identifying simulated attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and random responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Brittany D; Wallace, Elizabeth R; Brothers, Stacey L; Berry, David T R

    2017-12-01

    Recent concern about malingered self-report of symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in college students has resulted in an urgent need for scales that can detect feigning of this disorder. The present study provided further validation data for a recently developed validity scale for the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS), the CAARS Infrequency Index (CII), as well as for the Inconsistency Index (INC). The sample included 139 undergraduate students: 21 individuals with diagnoses of ADHD, 29 individuals responding honestly, 54 individuals responding randomly (full or half), and 35 individuals instructed to feign. Overall, the INC showed moderate sensitivity to random responding (.44-.63) and fairly high specificity to ADHD (.86-.91). The CII demonstrated modest sensitivity to feigning (.31-.46) and excellent specificity to ADHD (.91-.95). Sequential application of validity scales had correct classification rates of honest (93.1%), ADHD (81.0%), feigning (57.1%), half random (42.3%), and full random (92.9%). The present study suggests that the CII is modestly sensitive (true positive rate) to feigned ADHD symptoms, and highly specific (true negative rate) to ADHD. Additionally, this study highlights the utility of applying the CAARS validity scales in a sequential manner for identifying feigning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Validation of the Hebrew version of the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitser, Jennifer; Peretz, Chava; Ber David, Aya; Shabtai, Herzl; Ezra, Adi; Kestenbaum, Meir; Brozgol, Marina; Rosenberg, Alina; Herman, Talia; Balash, Yakov; Gadoth, Avi; Thaler, Avner; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G; Tilley, Barbara C; Luo, Sheng T; Liu, Yuanyuan; Giladi, Nir; Gurevich, Tanya

    2017-12-01

    The Movement Disorders Society (MDS) published the English new Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) as the official benchmark scale for Parkinson's disease (PD) in 2008. We aimed to validate the Hebrew version of the MDS-UPDRS, explore its dimensionality and compare it to the original English one. The MDS-UPDRS questionnaire was translated to Hebrew and was tested on 389 patients with PD, treated at the Movement Disorders Unit at Tel-Aviv Medical Center. The MDS-UPDRS is made up of four sections. The higher the score, the worst the clinical situation of the patient is. Confirmatory and explanatory factor analysis were applied to determine if the factor structure of the English version could be confirmed in the Hebrew version. The Hebrew version of the MDS-UPDRS showed satisfactory clinimetric properties. The internal consistency of the Hebrew-version was satisfactory, with Cronbach's alpha values 0.79, 0.90, 0.93, 0.80, for parts 1 to 4 respectively. In the confirmatory factor analysis, all four parts had high (greater than 0.90) comparative fit index (CFI) in comparison to the original English MDS-UPDRS with high factor structure (0.96, 0.99, 0.94, 1.00, respectively), thus confirming the pre-specified English factor structure. Explanatory factor analysis yielded that the Hebrew responses differed from the English one within an acceptable range: in isolated item differences in factor structure and in the findings of few items having cross loading on multiple factors. The Hebrew version of the MDS-UPDRS meets the requirements to be designated as the Official Hebrew Version of the MDS-UPDRS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Validity and reliability of menopause rating scale in colombian indigenous population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Monterrosa-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS measures quality of life in menopausal women. It compounds of three dimensions that assess somatic, psychological and urogenital menopausal-related symptoms. However, the validity of the scales may vary according to population characteristics, and there are no validations to date of MRS in American indigenous population. To assess the validity of MRS in Indigenous Colombian women during menopause. A research was done a sample of 914 indigenous women, 507 postmenopausal women and 407 premenopausal. They were between 40-49 years-old, with a mean age of 59.3 ± 5.9years. MRS was applied to all enrolled women. Cronbach's alpha was applied for the original proposed dimensions, and the dimensions from the results of factor analysis and maximum likelihood methods. A Promax rotation was applied to analysis. MRS showed a Cronbach's alpha: 0.86. The somatic dimension: 0.63, the psychological dimension: 0.75, and urogenital: 0.84. Score was greater in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal, 14.4 (±SD, 6.4 versus 8.4 (±SD, 5.9 (P<0.001. The factor analysis showed two dimensions. The first dimension included items 1,7,8,9,10,11; and accounted for 39.9% of variance. The second dimension included items 2,3,4,5,6; explaining 14.2% of variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0.86 for the first dimension and 0.81 for the second dimension. MRS showed high internal consistency and adequate nomological validity. The factor analysis resulted in two dimensions. These results evidence the need to better assess the validity of the instruments in different populations.

  11. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) for Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction Ratings; Multiple Group Invariance Analysis across Scales with Different Response Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Mehrdad; Theuns, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluates three hypothesized models on subjective well-being, comprising life domain ratings (LDR), overall satisfaction with life (OSWL), and overall dissatisfaction with life (ODWL), using structural equation modeling (SEM). A sample of 1,310 volunteering students, randomly assigned to six conditions, rated their overall life…

  12. Similar elimination rates of glucagon-like peptide-1 in obese type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Agersø, H; Krarup, T

    2003-01-01

    of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of GLP-1 in healthy subjects and type 2 diabetic patients after iv bolus doses ranging from 2.5-25 nmol/subject. Bolus injections iv of 2.5, 5, 15, and 25 nmol of GLP-1 and a meal test were performed in six type 2 diabetic patients [age, mean (range): 56 (48...... response seen after ingestion of a standard breakfast meal must therefore be caused by a decreased secretion of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic patients....

  13. Resting metabolic rate does not change in response to different types of training in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Brinkløv, Cecilie Fau; Thorsen, Ida Kær

    2017-01-01

    , total body mass (TBM), fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass were all associated with RMR. Changes in RMR were associated with changes in TBM and fat mass, and subjects who decreased body mass and fat mass also decreased their RMR. No associations were seen between changes in physical fitness, glycemic...... control, or FFM and changes in RMR. Conclusion: Neither short-term continuous or interval-type training, nor longer term interval training affects RMR in subjects with T2D when no overall changes in body composition are seen. If training occurs concomitant with a reduction in fat mass, however, RMR...

  14. Rate of mass deposition of scaling compounds from seawater on the outer surface of heat exchangers in MED evaporators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, W. [Department of Natural Resources and Chemical Engineering, Tafila Technical University, Tafila (Jordan); Ulrich, J. [FB Ingenieurwissenschaften, Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik/TVT, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    The scaling problem in Multi Effect Distillation (MED) evaporators is investigated by the experimental measurement of the deposition rate under different operating conditions. The measurements are conducted in a batch vessel containing artificial seawater, which is allowed to contact the outer surface of a hot pipe under controlled temperature, salinity and pH. The rate of mass deposition is higher at elevated temperature. The salinity of the seawater also influences the scaling process - an increase in salinity from 47-59 g/L leads to an increase of 75.6 % in the deposition rate. Decreasing the pH value of seawater to 2.01 results in a complete inhibition of scaling, whereas the severity of the scaling increases in neutral and basic mediums. Polyacrylic acid is tested as an antifoulant and it was found that its presence in seawater reduces the scaling process. The nature of the heat transfer surface material also plays an important role in the scaling process. It is found experimentally that the rate of scaling is higher in the case of a Cu-Ni alloy as the surface material of the tube rather than stainless steel. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Increased menopausal symptoms among Afro-Colombian women as assessed with the Menopause Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa, Alvaro; Blumel, Juan E; Chedraui, Peter

    2008-02-20

    Increased frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms have been associated to black race. However, this situation has not been described in any Latin American population. Compare frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms among Afro and non-Afro Hispanic Colombian climacteric women. In this cross-sectional study, healthy Afro and non-Afro-Colombian women aged 40-59 years were asked to fill out the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) questionnaire in order to compare symptom frequency and intensity. A total of 578 women were surveyed (201 Afro-Colombian and 377 non-Afro-Colombian). Mean age of the whole sample was 47.9+/-5.9 years (median 47), with no differences among studied groups in terms of age, parity, and hormone therapy (HT) use. Intensity of menopausal symptoms, assessed with the total MRS score, was found to be significantly higher among Afro-Colombian women (10.6+/-6.7 vs. 7.5+/-5.7, p=0.0001), which was due to higher somatic and psychological subscale scores. In this group, the frequency of somatic symptoms, heart discomfort and muscle and joint problems, was found to be higher than in non-Afro-Colombian women (38.8% vs. 26.8% and 77.1% vs. 43.5%, respectively, pColombian ones presented more bladder problems (24.9% vs. 14.9%, p=0.005). After adjusting for confounding factors, logistic regression analysis determined that black race increased the risk for presenting higher total MRS scorings (OR: 2.31; CI 95%: 1.55-3.45, p=0.0001). Despite the limitations of this study, as determined with the MRS Afro-Colombian women exhibited more impaired quality of life (QoL) when compared to non-Afro-Colombian ones, due to a higher rate and severity of menopausal somatic and psychological symptoms.

  16. Assessing Health Status in Inflammatory Bowel Disease using a Novel Single-Item Numeric Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surti, Bijal; Spiegel, Brennan; Ippoliti, Andrew; Vasiliauskas, Eric; Simpson, Peter; Shih, David; Targan, Stephan; McGovern, Dermot; Melmed, Gil Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background Current instruments used to measure disease activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are often cumbersome, time-consuming, and expensive; although used in clinical trials, they are not convenient for clinical practice. A numeric rating scale (NRS) is a quick, inexpensive, and convenient patient-reported outcome (PRO) that can capture the patient’s overall perception of health. Aims To assess the validity, reliability, and responsiveness of an NRS and evaluate its use in clinical practice in patients with CD and UC. Methods We prospectively evaluated patient-reported NRS scores and measured correlations between NRS and a range of severity measures, including physician-reported NRS, Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI), Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI), inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with CD. Subsequently, we evaluated the correlation between the NRS and standard measures of health status (HBI or simple colitis clinical activity index [SCCAI]) and laboratory tests (sedimentation rate [ESR], CRP, and fecal calprotectin) in patients with CD and UC. Results The patient-reported NRS showed excellent correlation with CDAI (R2=0.59, p<0.0001), IBDQ (R2=0.66, p<0.0001), and HBI (R2=0.32, p<0.0001) in patients with CD. The NRS showed poor, but statistically significant correlation with SCCAI (R2=0.25, p<0.0001) in patients with UC. The NRS did not correlate with CRP, ESR, or calprotectin. The NRS was reliable and responsive to change. Conclusions The NRS is a valid, reliable, and responsive measure that may be useful to evaluate patients with CD and possibly UC. PMID:23250673

  17. Male and female WorldSID and post mortem human subject responses in full-scale vehicle tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John; Pintar, Frank; Rhule, Heather; Moorhouse, Kevin; Suntay, Brian; Stricklin, Jim; Rudd, Rodney; Craig, Matthew

    2017-05-29

    This study compares the responses of male and female WorldSID dummies with post mortem human subject (PMHS) responses in full-scale vehicle tests. Tests were conducted according to the FMVSS-214 protocols and using the U.S. Side Impact New Car Assessment Program change in velocity to match PMHS experiments, published earlier. Moving deformable barrier (MDB) tests were conducted with the male and female surrogates in the left front and left rear seats. Pole tests were performed with the male surrogate in the left front seat. Three-point belt restraints were used. Sedan-type vehicles were used from the same manufacturer with side airbags. The PMHS head was instrumented with a pyramid-shaped nine-axis accelerometer package, with angular velocity transducers on the head. Accelerometers and angular velocity transducers were secured to T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes and sacrum. Three chest bands were secured around the upper, middle, and lower thoraces. Dummy instrumentation included five infrared telescoping rods for assessment of chest compression (IR-TRACC) and a chest band at the first abdomen rib, head angular velocity transducer, and head, T1, T4, T12, and pelvis accelerometers. Morphological responses of the kinematics of the head, thoracic spine, and pelvis matched in both surrogates for each pair. The peak magnitudes of the torso accelerations were lower for the dummy than for the biological surrogate. The brain rotational injury criterion (BrIC) response was the highest in the male dummy for the MDB test and PMHS. The probability of AIS3+ injuries, based on the head injury criterion, ranged from 3% to 13% for the PMHS and from 3% to 21% for the dummy from all tests. The BrIC-based metrics ranged from 0 to 21% for the biological and 0 to 48% for the dummy surrogates. The deflection profiles from the IR-TRACC sensors were unimodal. The maximum deflections from the chest band placed on the first abdominal rib were 31.7 mm and 25.4 mm for the male and female

  18. Rating scale for the assessment of competence in ultrasound-guided peripheral vascular access - a Delphi Consensus Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Stine C; Todsen, Tobias; Clemmesen, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    a global rating scale (RS) for assessment of UGVA competence based on opinions on the content from ultrasound experts in a modified Delphi consensus study. METHODS: We included experts from anesthesiology, emergency medicine and radiology across university hospitals in Denmark. Nine elements were drafted...... based on existing literature and recommendations from international societies. In a multi-round survey, the experts rated the elements on a five-point Likert scale according to importance, and suggested missing elements. The final Delphi round occurred when >80% of the experts rated all elements ≥4...... on the Likert scale. RESULTS: Sixteen experts consented to participate in the study, one withdrew consent prior to the first Delphi round, and 14 completed all three Delphi rounds. In the first Delphi round the experts excluded one element from the scale and changed the content of two elements. In the second...

  19. Evaluation of psychometric properties of Tinetti performance-oriented mobility assessment scale in subjects with knee osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Parveen, Huma; Noohu, Majumi M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) scale to measure balance and gait impairments in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: A convenient sample of 25 individuals with bilateral OA knee were recruited. The convergent validity was determined by correlation analysis between scores of Berg Balance Scale (BBS) with balance subscale (POMA-B) and the Timed Up and Go Test (TU...

  20. Study on influence of flow rates on voids in waxy crude oil subjected to dynamic and static cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girma T. Chala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The assumption of constant yield stress in the conventional restart pressure equation neglects the effects of thermal shrinkage and gas voids formation, which in turn resulted in an over-designed production piping systems. This paper presents a study on the effects of flow rates on the formation of voids in gelled waxy crude oil. A flow loop rig simulating offshore waxy crude oil transportation was used to produce a gel. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI was used to scan the gelled crude oil over the three planes. Waxy crude oil underwent both dynamic and static cooling to observe the effects of volume flow rates on the voids formed in wax-oil gel. Volume flow rate was found to have different influences on the intra-gel voids in the pipeline. A volume flow rate of 5 L/min resulted in a maximum total voids volume of 6.98% while 20 L/min produced a minimum total voids volume of 5.67% in the entire pipe. Slow flow rates resulted in a larger voids volume near the pipe wall. In contrast, faster flow rates produced insignificantly higher voids volume around pipe core. Generally, slower flow rates favoured the formation of higher total voids volume following sufficient steady time of wax crystal formation, producing larger voids areas in gelled waxy crude oil.

  1. The endoscopy Global Rating Scale – Canada: Development and implementation of a quality improvement tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, Donald; Dubé, Catherine; Hollingworth, Roger; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; Daniels, Sandra; Ghattas, George

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing use of gastrointestinal endoscopy, particularly for colorectal cancer screening, and increasing emphasis on health care quality highlight the need for endoscopy facilities to review the quality of the service they offer. OBJECTIVE: To adapt the United Kingdom Global Rating Scale (UK-GRS) to develop a web-based and patient-centred tool to assess and improve the quality of endoscopy services provided. METHODS: Based on feedback from 22 sites across Canada that completed the UK endoscopy GRS, and integrating results of the Canadian consensus on safety and quality indicators in endoscopy and other Canadian consensus reports, a working group of endoscopists experienced with the GRS developed the GRS-Canada (GRS-C). RESULTS: The GRS-C mirrors the two dimensions (clinical quality and quality of the patient experience) and 12 patient-centred items of the UK-GRS, but was modified to apply to Canadian health care infrastructure, language and current practice. Each item is assessed by a yes/no response to eight to 12 statements that are divided into levels graded D (basic) through A (advanced). A core team consisting of a booking clerk, charge nurse and the physician responsible for the unit is recommended to complete the GRS-C twice yearly. CONCLUSION: The GRS-C is intended to improve endoscopic services in Canada by providing endoscopy units with a straightforward process to review the quality of the service they provide. PMID:23472242

  2. Evaluation of Estimating Missed Answers in Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (Screening Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Farnaz; Moradi, Mohammad Hassan; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    Objective Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) is among the valid questionnaires for evaluating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in adults. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the validity of the estimation of missed answers in scoring the screening version of the Conners questionnaire, and to extract its principal components. Method This study was performed on 400 participants. Answer estimation was calculated for each question (assuming the answer was missed), and then a Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate the difference between the original answer and its estimation. In the next step, principal components of the questionnaire were extracted by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Finally the evaluation of differences in the whole groups was provided using the Multiple Comparison Procedure (MCP). Results Findings indicated that a significant difference existed between the original and estimated answers for some particular questions. However, the results of MCP showed that this estimation, when evaluated in the whole group, did not show a significant difference with the original value in neither of the questionnaire subscales. The results of PCA revealed that there are eight principal components in the CAARS questionnaire. Conclusion The obtained results can emphasize the fact that this questionnaire is mainly designed for screening purposes, and this estimation does not change the results of groups when a question is missed randomly. Notwithstanding this finding, more considerations should be paid when the missed question is a critical one. PMID:22952502

  3. The role of reactant unmixedness, strain rate, and length scale on premixed combustor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsen, S.; LaRue, J.; Vilayanur, S. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Lean premixed combustion provides a means to reduce pollutant formation and increase combustion efficiency. However, fuel-air mixing is rarely uniform in space and time. This nonuniformity in concentration will lead to relative increases in pollutant formation and decreases in combustion efficiency. The nonuniformity of the concentration at the exit of the premixer has been defined by Lyons (1981) as the {open_quotes}unmixedness.{close_quotes} Although turbulence properties such as length scales and strain rate are known to effect unmixedness, the exact relationship is unknown. Evaluating this relationship and the effect of unmixedness in premixed combustion on pollutant formation and combustion efficiency are an important part of the overall goal of US Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program and are among the goals of the program described herein. The information obtained from ATS is intended to help to develop and commercialize gas turbines which have (1) a wide range of operation/stability, (2) a minimal amount of pollutant formation, and (3) high combustion efficiency. Specifically, with regard to pollutants, the goals are to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions by at least 10%, obtain less than 20 PPM of both CO and UHC, and increase the combustion efficiency by 5%.

  4. The endoscopy Global Rating Scale-Canada: development and implementation of a quality improvement tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, Donald; Dubé, Catherine; Hollingworth, Roger; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander; Daniels, Sandra; Ghattas, George

    2013-02-01

    Increasing use of gastrointestinal endoscopy, particularly for colorectal cancer screening, and increasing emphasis on health care quality highlight the need for endoscopy facilities to review the quality of the service they offer. To adapt the United Kingdom Global Rating Scale (UK-GRS) to develop a web-based and patient-centred tool to assess and improve the quality of endoscopy services provided. Based on feedback from 22 sites across Canada that completed the UK endoscopy GRS, and integrating results of the Canadian consensus on safety and quality indicators in endoscopy and other Canadian consensus reports, a working group of endoscopists experienced with the GRS developed the GRS-Canada (GRS-C). The GRS-C mirrors the two dimensions (clinical quality and quality of the patient experience) and 12 patient-centred items of the UK-GRS, but was modified to apply to Canadian health care infrastructure, language and current practice. Each item is assessed by a yes⁄no response to eight to 12 statements that are divided into levels graded D (basic) through A (advanced). A core team consisting of a booking clerk, charge nurse and the physician responsible for the unit is recommended to complete the GRS-C twice yearly. The GRS-C is intended to improve endoscopic services in Canada by providing endoscopy units with a straightforward process to review the quality of the service they provide.

  5. Validation of the Italian version of the Movement Disorder Society--Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Angelo; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Tilley, Barbara; Huang, Jing; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G; Barone, Paolo; Bandettini di Poggio, Monica; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Di Stasio, Flavio; Tinazzi, Michele; Bovi, Tommaso; Ramat, Silvia; Meoni, Sara; Pezzoli, Gianni; Canesi, Margherita; Martinelli, Paolo; Maria Scaglione, Cesa Lorella; Rossi, Aroldo; Tambasco, Nicola; Santangelo, Gabriella; Picillo, Marina; Morgante, Letterio; Morgante, Francesca; Quatrale, Rocco; Sensi, MariaChiara; Pilleri, Manuela; Biundo, Roberta; Nordera, Giampietro; Caria, Antonella; Pacchetti, Claudio; Zangaglia, Roberta; Lopiano, Leonardo; Zibetti, Maurizio; Zappia, Mario; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Quattrone, Aldo; Salsone, Maria; Cossu, Gianni; Murgia, Daniela; Albanese, Alberto; Del Sorbo, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    The Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) has been available in English since 2008. As part of this process, the MDS-UPDRS organizing team developed guidelines for development of official non-English translations. We present here the formal process for completing officially approved non-English versions of the MDS-UPDRS and specifically focus on the first of these versions in Italian. The MDS-UPDRS was translated into Italian and tested in 377 native-Italian speaking PD patients. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses determined whether the factor structure for the English-language MDS-UPDRS could be confirmed in data collected using the Italian translation. To be designated an 'Official MDS translation,' the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) had to be ≥0.90 relative to the English-language version. For all four parts of the Italian MDS-UPDRS, the CFI, in comparison with the English-language data, was ≥0.94. Exploratory factor analyses revealed some differences between the two datasets, however these differences were considered to be within an acceptable range. The Italian version of the MDS-UPDRS reaches the criterion to be designated as an Official Translation and is now available for use. This protocol will serve as outline for further validation of this in multiple languages.

  6. Construction of behaviourally anchored rating scales (BARS for the measurement of managerial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Spangenberg

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available BARS were initially developed as indices of behavioural change and to ensure greater comparability of ratings from different raters. In this study, BARS were developed for a major producer-wholesaler company in the liquor industry to serve as an independent criterion in the validation of the company's assessment center, to assess the impact of development activities on the skill levels of assessment centre participants and as a diagnostic tool in identifying performance deficiencies. A step-by-step account of the four stages in the development of BARS is presented, together with examples of actual scales for the final steps. Opsomming Gedragsgeankerde skale (BARS is oorspronklik ontwikkel as indekse van verandering, en om die vergelykbaarheid tussen beroordelings van verskillende beoordelaars te verhoog. In hierdie studie is BARS vir 'n groothandelaar in die drankbedryf ontwikkel ten einde te dien as 'n onafhanklike kriterium in die validering van hulle takseersentrum; om die invloed van ontwikkelingsaktiwiteite op die vaardigheidsvlakke van deelnemers aan die takseersentrum te meet; en as 'n diagnostiese hulpmiddel in die indentifisering van ontoereikende prestasie. 'n Stap-vir-stap beskrywing van die vier stadia in die ontwikkeling van BARS word gegee, met voorbeelde van werklike skale vir die finale stappe.

  7. Measuring Supportive Music and Imagery Interventions: The Development of the Music Therapy Self-Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Anthony; Burns, Debra S; Perkins, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated modest benefits from music-based interventions, specifically music and imagery interventions, during cancer care. However, little attention has been paid to measuring the benefits of music-based interventions using measurement instruments specifically designed to account for the multidimensional nature of music-imagery experiences. The purpose of this study was to describe the development of, and psychometrically evaluate, the Music Therapy Self-Rating Scale (MTSRS) as a measure for cancer patients engaged in supportive music and imagery interventions. An exploratory factor analysis using baseline data from 76 patients who consented to participate in a music-based intervention study during chemotherapy. Factor analysis of 14 items revealed four domains: Awareness of Body, Emotionally Focused, Personal Resources, and Treatment Specific. Internal reliability was excellent (Cronbach alphas ranging from 0.75 to 0.88) and construct and divergent-discriminant validity supported. The MTSRS is a psychometrically sound, brief instrument that captures essential elements of patient experience during music and imagery interventions. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Evaluation of Estimating Missed Answers in Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (Screening Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Abootalebi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS is among the valid questionnaires for evaluating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in adults. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the validity of the estimation of missed answers in scoring the screening version of the Conners questionnaire, and to extract its principal components. "n Method: This study was performed on 400 participants. Answer estimation was calculated for each question (assuming the answer was missed, and then a Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate the difference between the original answer and its estimation. In the next step, principal components of the questionnaire were extracted by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Finally the evaluation of differences in the whole groups was provided using the Multiple Comparison Procedure (MCP. Results: Findings indicated that a significant difference existed between the original and estimated answers for some particular questions. However, the results of MCP showed that this estimation, when evaluated in the whole group, did not show a significant difference with the original value in neither of the questionnaire subscales. The results of PCA revealed that there are eight principal components in the CAARS questionnaire. Conclusion: The obtained results can emphasize the fact that this questionnaire is mainly designed for screening purposes, and this estimation does not change the results of groups when a question is missed randomly. Notwithstanding this finding, more considerations should be paid when the missed question is a critical one.

  9. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Rating Scale for Countertransference (RSCT to American English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mondrzak

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Rating Scale for Countertransference (RSCT - originally, Escala para Avaliação de Contratransferência (EACT - is a self-administered instrument comprising questions that assess 23 feelings (divided into three blocs, closeness, distance, and indifference that access conscious countertransferential emotions and sentiments. This paper describes the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the RSCT into American English. Methods: This study employed the guidelines proposed by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation which define 10 steps for translation and cross-cultural adaptation of self-report instruments. Additionally, semantic equivalence tools were employed to select the final versions of terms used. The author of the RSCT gave permission for translation and took part in the process. The instrument is available for use free of charge. Results: Analysis of the back-translation showed that just seven of the 23 terms needed to be adjusted to arrive at the final version in American English. Conclusions: This study applied rigorous standards to construct a version of the RSCT in American English. This version of the RSCT translated and adapted into American English should be of great use for accessing and researching countertransferential feelings that are part of psychodynamic treatment.

  10. Fixed dynamometry is more sensitive than vital capacity or ALS rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Patricia L; Allred, Margaret Peggy; Stephens, Helen E; Proffitt Bunnell, Mary; Siener, Catherine; Macklin, Eric A; Haines, Travis; English, Robert A; Fetterman, Katherine A; Kasarskis, Edward J; Florence, Julaine; Simmons, Zachary; Cudkowicz, Merit E

    2017-10-01

    Improved outcome measures are essential to efficiently screen the growing number of potential amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) therapies. This longitudinal study of 100 (70 male) participants with ALS compared Accurate Test of Limb Isometric Strength (ATLIS), using a fixed, wireless load cell, with ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) and vital capacity (VC). Participants enrolled at 5 U.S. sites. Data were analyzed from 66 participants with complete ATLIS, ALSFRS-R, and VC data over at least 3 visits. Change in ATLIS was less variable both within- and among-person than change in ALSFRS-R or VC. Additionally, participants who had normal ALSFRS-R arm and leg function averaged 12 to 32% below expected strength values measured by ATLIS. ATLIS was more sensitive to change than ALSFRS-R or VC and could decrease sample size requirements by approximately one-third. The ability of ATLIS to detect prefunctional change has potential value in early trials. Muscle Nerve 56: 710-715, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect of treatment with reserpine on the change in filtration rate of Mytilus edulis subjected to dissolved copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, R.; Grant, A.M.; Maccoy, N.E.J.

    1984-12-01

    Exposure of specimens of Mytilus edulis to dissolved copper leads to a fall in the filtration rate measured in whole animals. The copper concentration leading to a 50% reduction in the filtration rate was found to be 0.094 mg I/sup -1/. This effect was abolished on depletion of the monoamine content of the animal using reserpine. It is suggested that there may be a chemosensory mechanism present in the animals which responds to increased levels of metals in the seawater leading to a reduction in the rate of ciliary beating and mediated via the branchial nerve. 15 references, 2 figures.

  12. A rate-dependent multi-scale crack model for concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karamnejad, A.; Nguyen, V.P.; Sluys, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    A multi-scale numerical approach for modeling cracking in heterogeneous quasi-brittle materials under dynamic loading is presented. In the model, a discontinuous crack model is used at macro-scale to simulate fracture and a gradient-enhanced damage model has been used at meso-scale to simulate

  13. Ocean-scale patterns in community respiration rates along continuous transects across the Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Wilson

    Full Text Available Community respiration (CR of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m(-3 d(-1±8.0 mmol m(-3 d(-1 standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m(-3 d(-1±7.32 mmol m(-3 d(-1 between 10°N and 10°S and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m(-3 d(-1±45.6 mmol m(-3 d(-1 between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m(-3 d(-1±13.9 mmol m(-3 d(-1 between 156°E and the Australian coast. We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass, and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements.

  14. Condition-based maintenance for a system subject to a non-homogeneous wear process with a wear rate transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouladirad, Mitra, E-mail: mitra.fouladirad@utt.f [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay, FRE CNRS 2848, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Grall, Antoine [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay, FRE CNRS 2848, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France)

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this paper is to propose an adaptive maintenance model for a gradually deteriorating system. The system considered initially deteriorates with a nominal deterioration rate and at an unknown time the system's deterioration rate changes and the new deterioration rate is a time-dependent function. To deal with the transition of mode of deterioration in the framework of the maintenance decision rule an adequate online change detection algorithm is used. The maintenance decision rule is chosen in order to minimise the total maintenance cost including the cost of unavailability. The main result of this paper is to point out the interest of using a detection algorithm and hence the appreciation of a decision rule which takes into account transitions in the deterioration rate.

  15. Condition-based maintenance for a system subject to a non-homogeneous wear process with a wear rate transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouladirad, Mitra; Grall, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose an adaptive maintenance model for a gradually deteriorating system. The system considered initially deteriorates with a nominal deterioration rate and at an unknown time the system's deterioration rate changes and the new deterioration rate is a time-dependent function. To deal with the transition of mode of deterioration in the framework of the maintenance decision rule an adequate online change detection algorithm is used. The maintenance decision rule is chosen in order to minimise the total maintenance cost including the cost of unavailability. The main result of this paper is to point out the interest of using a detection algorithm and hence the appreciation of a decision rule which takes into account transitions in the deterioration rate.

  16. Shifts in mass-scaling of respiration, feeding, and growth rates across life-form transitions in marine pelagic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Hirst, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic rate of organisms may be viewed as a basic property from which other vital rates and many ecological patterns emerge and that follows a universal allometric mass scaling law, or it may be considered a property of the organism that emerges as a result of the adaptation to the environ...... and be the result of the optimization of trade-offs that allow sufficient feeding and growth rates to balance mortality...

  17. Cut points on 0-10 numeric rating scales for symptoms included in the edmonton symptom assessment scale in cancer patients: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. Oldenmenger (Wendy); P.J. de Raaf (Pleun); C. de Klerk (Cora); C.C.D. van der Rijt (Carin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractContext: To improve the management of cancer-related symptoms, systematic screening is necessary, often performed by using 0-10 numeric rating scales. Cut points are used to determine if scores represent clinically relevant burden. Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to

  18. Salivary protein concentration, flow rate, buffer capacity and pH estimation: A comparative study among young and elderly subjects, both normal and with gingivitis and periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaila, Mulki; Pai, G Prakash; Shetty, Pushparaj

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the salivary protein concentration in gingivitis and periodontitis patients and compare the parameters like salivary total protein, salivary albumin, salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and flow rate in both young and elderly patients with simple methods. One hundred and twenty subjects were grouped based on their age as young and elderly. Each group was subgrouped (20 subjects) as controls, gingivitis and periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from patients and flow rate was noted down during collection of the sample. Salivary protein estimation was done using the Biuret method and salivary albumin was assessed using the Bromocresol green method. pH was estimated with a pHmeter and buffering capacity was analyzed with the titration method. Student's t-test, Fisher's test (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD (ANOVA) tests were used for statistical analysis. A very highly significant rise in the salivary total protein and albumin concentration was noted in gingivitis and periodontitis subjects of both young and elderly. An overall decrease in salivary flow rate was observed among the elderly, and also the salivary flow rate of women was significantly lower than that of men. Significant associations between salivary total protein and albumin in gingivitis and periodontitis were found with simple biochemical tests. A decrease in salivary flow rate among elderly and among women was noted.

  19. Work-related psychopathology: rates in different work activities and relationship between subjective perception of work distress and psychiatric disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolfe, Giovanni; Mancini, Paola; Mancusi, Riccardo; Zontini, Gemma; Nolfe, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The link between work distress and negative mental health outcome is an emergent topic in the scientific literature. The studies that evaluated the risk of work-related psychopathologies in the different job sectors have obtained so far controversial and inconclusive results. The identification, by means of standardized evaluation tools, of the work activities at higher risk of poor mental health is a relevant target for the occupational psychiatry and medicine. To evaluate the relationship between the psychosocial work conditions and work related psychiatric disturbances and to verify the relationship between the higher pathogenic effect of work and specific job activities. A six-month diagnostic trial was conducted on 234 patients (35.4% women and 64.6% men). Psychiatric diagnoses were according to DSM-IV criteria; anxious and depressive dimensions were studied by means of Hamilton-Anxiety-Scale and Hamilton Scale for Depression; psychosocial work environments and bio-psycho-social features were measured by Naples-Questionnaire of Work Distress. Groups with higher and lower work-related pathogenesis were compared and their distribution among specific job activities was evaluated. Mood disorders were strongly linked to negative work environment. Patients with severe bullying obtained higher scores on Hamilton-Anxiety-Scale and Hamilton Scale for Depression than those with lower work-pathogenesis. The highest scores on Naples-Questionnaire of Work Distress were related to mood disorders, to poorer bio-psycho-social functioning and to higher work etiology. No significant relationship between work activities and work-related psychopathologies was found. Workplace bullying is predictive of work-related psychiatric disturbances with more severe clinical features and bio-psycho-social consequences. No significant differences were found about the relationship between work-related psychopathologies and work activities.

  20. Low-threshold mechanoreceptors play a frequency-dependent dual role in subjective ratings of mechanical allodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löken, Line S; Duff, Eugene P; Tracey, Irene

    2017-12-01

    In the setting of injury, myelinated primary afferent fibers that normally signal light touch are thought to switch modality and instead signal pain. In the absence of injury, touch is perceived as more intense when firing rates of Aβ afferents increase. However, it is not known if varying the firing rates of Aβ afferents have any consequence to the perception of dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA). We hypothesized that, in the setting of injury, the unpleasantness of DMA would be intensified as the firing rates of Aβ afferents increase. Using a stimulus-response protocol established in normal skin, where an increase in brush velocity results in an increase of Aβ afferent firing rates, we tested if brush velocity modulated the unpleasantness of capsaicin-induced DMA. We analyzed how changes in estimated low-threshold mechanoreceptor firing activity influenced perception and brain activity (functional MRI) of DMA. Brushing on normal skin was perceived as pleasant, but brushing on sensitized skin produced both painful and pleasant sensations. Surprisingly, there was an inverse relationship between Aβ firing rates and unpleasantness such that brush stimuli that produced low firing rates were most painful and those that elicited high firing rates were rated as pleasant. Concurrently to this, we found increased cortical activity in response to low Aβ firing rates in regions previously implicated in pain processing during brushing of sensitized skin, but not normal skin. We suggest that Aβ signals do not merely switch modality to signal pain during injury. Instead, they exert a high- and low-frequency-dependent dual role in the injured state, with respectively both pleasant and unpleasant consequences. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We suggest that Aβ signals do not simply switch modality to signal pain during injury but play a frequency-dependent and dual role in the injured state with both pleasant and unpleasant consequences. These results provide a framework to resolve the

  1. The importance of rating scale design in the measurement of patient-reported outcomes using questionnaires or item banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Jyoti; McAlinden, Colm; Gothwal, Vijaya K; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2012-06-26

    To investigate the effect of rating scale designs (question formats and response categories) on item difficulty calibrations and assess the impact that rating scale differences have on overall vision-related activity limitation (VRAL) scores. Sixteen existing patient-reported outcome instruments (PROs) suitable for cataract assessment, with different rating scales, were self-administered by patients on a cataract surgery waiting list. A total of 226 VRAL items from these PROs in their native rating scales were included in an item bank and calibrated using Rasch analysis. Fifteen item/content areas (e.g., reading newspapers) appearing in at least three different PROs were identified. Within each content area, item calibrations were compared and their range calculated. Similarly, five PROs having at least three items in common with the Visual Function (VF-14) were compared in terms of average item measures. A total of 614 patients (mean age ± SD, 74.1 ± 9.4 years) participated. Items with the same content varied in their calibration by as much as two logits; "reading the small print" had the largest range (1.99 logits) followed by "watching TV" (1.60). Compared with the VF-14 (0.00 logits), the rating scale of the Visual Disability Assessment (1.13 logits) produced the most difficult items and the Cataract Symptom Scale (0.24 logits) produced the least difficult items. The VRAL item bank was suboptimally targeted to the ability level of the participants (2.00 logits). Rating scale designs have a significant effect on item calibrations. Therefore, constructing item banks from existing items in their native formats carries risks to face validity and transmission of problems inherent in existing instruments, such as poor targeting.

  2. A Case for Adjusting Subjectively Rated Scores in the Advanced Placement Tests. Program Statistics Research. Technical Report No. 94-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    A case is presented for adjusting the scores for free response items in the Advanced Placement (AP) tests. Using information about the rating process from the reliability studies, administrations of the AP test for three subject areas, psychology, computer science, and English language and composition, are analyzed. In the reliability studies, 299…

  3. Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of a Polymer Matrix Composite with Different Microstructures Subjected to Off-Axis Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the comprehensive influence of three microstructure parameters (fiber cross-section shape, fiber volume fraction, and fiber off-axis orientation and strain rate on the macroscopic property of a polymer matrix composite. During the analysis, AS4 fibers are considered as elastic solids, while the surrounding PEEK resin matrix exhibiting rate sensitivities are described using the modified Ramaswamy-Stouffer viscoplastic state variable model. The micromechanical method based on generalized model of cells has been used to analyze the representative volume element of composites. An acceptable agreement is observed between the model predictions and experimental results found in the literature. The research results show that the stress-strain curves are sensitive to the strain rate and the microstructure parameters play an important role in the behavior of polymer matrix.

  4. The RID2 biofidelic rear impact dummy: a pilot study using human subjects in low speed rear impact full scale crash tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Arthur C; Philippens, Mathieu M G M

    2007-03-01

    Human subjects and the recently developed RID2 rear impact crash test dummy were exposed to a series of full scale, vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests. To evaluate the biofidelity of the RID2 anthropometric test dummy on the basis of calculated neck injury criterion (NIC) values by comparing these values to those obtained from human subjects exposed in the very same crashes. The widely used and familiar hybrid III dummy has been said to lack biofidelity in the special application of low speed rear impact crashes. Several attempts have been made to modify this dummy with only marginal success. Two completely new dummies have been developed; the BioRID and the RID2. Neither have been tested under real world crash boundary conditions in side-by-side comparisons with live human subjects. Volunteer subjects, including a 50th percentile male, a 95th percentile male, and a 50th percentile female, were placed in the driver's seat of a vehicle and subjected to a series of three low speed rear impact crashes each. The RID2 dummy, which is modeled after a 50th percentile male, was placed in the passenger seat in each case. Both subjects and dummy were fully instrumented and acceleration-time histories were recorded. From this data, velocities of the heads and torsos were determined and both were used to calculate the NIC values for both crash test subjects and the RID2. The RID2 demonstrated generally higher head accelerations and NIC values than those of the human subjects. Most of the observed variations might be explained on the basis of differing head restraint geometry, posture, and body size. The RID2 NIC values compared most favorably with those of the 50th percentile male subject. For the whole group, the correlations between RID2 and human subjects did not reach statistical significance. The small number of test subjects and crash tests limited the statistical power of this pilot study, and the correlation between the RID2 and human subject NIC values were not

  5. Use of Sine Shaped High-Frequency Rhythmic Visual Stimuli Patterns for SSVEP Response Analysis and Fatigue Rate Evaluation in Normal Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keihani, Ahmadreza; Shirzhiyan, Zahra; Farahi, Morteza; Shamsi, Elham; Mahnam, Amin; Makkiabadi, Bahador; Haidari, Mohsen R; Jafari, Amir H

    2018-01-01

    Background: Recent EEG-SSVEP signal based BCI studies have used high frequency square pulse visual stimuli to reduce subjective fatigue. However, the effect of total harmonic distortion (THD) has not been considered. Compared to CRT and LCD monitors, LED screen displays high-frequency wave with better refresh rate. In this study, we present high frequency sine wave simple and rhythmic patterns with low THD rate by LED to analyze SSVEP responses and evaluate subjective fatigue in normal subjects. Materials and Methods: We used patterns of 3-sequence high-frequency sine waves (25, 30, and 35 Hz) to design our visual stimuli. Nine stimuli patterns, 3 simple (repetition of each of above 3 frequencies e.g., P25-25-25) and 6 rhythmic (all of the frequencies in 6 different sequences e.g., P25-30-35) were chosen. A hardware setup with low THD rate ( 90% for CCA and LASSO (for TWs > 1 s). High frequency rhythmic patterns group with low THD rate showed higher accuracy rate (99.24%) than simple patterns group (98.48%). Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant difference between rhythmic pattern features ( P rhythmic [3.85 ± 2.13] compared to the simple patterns group [3.96 ± 2.21], ( P = 0.63). Rhythmic group had lower within group VAS variation (min = P25-30-35 [2.90 ± 2.45], max = P35-25-30 [4.81 ± 2.65]) as well as least individual pattern VAS (P25-30-35). Discussion and Conclusion: Overall, rhythmic and simple pattern groups had higher and similar accuracy rates. Rhythmic stimuli patterns showed insignificantly lower fatigue rate than simple patterns. We conclude that both rhythmic and simple visual high frequency sine wave stimuli require further research for human subject SSVEP-BCI studies.

  6. Association of metabolic syndrome and change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leehey, Maureen; Luo, Sheng; Sharma, Saloni; Wills, Anne-Marie A; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn L; Wong, Pei Shieen; Simon, David K; Schneider, Jay; Zhang, Yunxi; Pérez, Adriana; Dhall, Rohit; Christine, Chadwick W; Singer, Carlos; Cambi, Franca; Boyd, James T

    2017-10-24

    To explore the association between metabolic syndrome and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores and, secondarily, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). This is a secondary analysis of data from 1,022 of 1,741 participants of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Clinical Trials in Parkinson Disease Long-Term Study 1, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of creatine. Participants were categorized as having or not having metabolic syndrome on the basis of modified criteria from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Those who had the same metabolic syndrome status at consecutive annual visits were included. The change in UPDRS and SDMT scores from randomization to 3 years was compared in participants with and without metabolic syndrome. Participants with metabolic syndrome (n = 396) compared to those without (n = 626) were older (mean [SD] 63.9 [8.1] vs 59.9 [9.4] years; p metabolic syndrome experienced an additional 0.6- (0.2) unit annual increase in total UPDRS ( p = 0.02) and 0.5- (0.2) unit increase in motor UPDRS ( p = 0.01) scores compared with participants without metabolic syndrome. There was no difference in the change in SDMT scores. Persons with Parkinson disease meeting modified criteria for metabolic syndrome experienced a greater increase in total UPDRS scores over time, mainly as a result of increases in motor scores, compared to those who did not. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding. NCT00449865. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Measurement of mean cerebral blood flow using SPECT and dementia rating scales in the memory clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, Nobuya; Daitoh, Nobuyuki; Shirai, Fumie; Yoshikawa, Ayumi; Gotoh, Chiharu

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the association between mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) values using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and cognitive performance scores of three dementia rating scales (ADAS, MMSE, HDS-R). Mean CBF was measured by the 123 I-IMP-ARG method in a selected group of 51 out-patients aged 41 to 90 years and by the 99m Tc-ECD method in the other group of 57 out-patients aged 51 to 91 years. Simple regressions were calculated for each of the neuropsychological clusters and mCBF values. In 123 I-IMP-ARG-SPECT study, there was a significant correlation between the mCBF values and HDS-R scores (R=0.37, p=0.01). 99m Tc-ECD-SPECT study revealed statistically significant correlations between the mCBF values and ADAS scores (R=-0.48, p 123 I-IMP-ARG-SPECT study and 99m Tc-ECD-SPECT study showed the progressive declines of mCBF with advancing cognitive dysfunctions. Using the cut-off point study (23/24 scores in MMSE and 20/21 scores in HDS-R), we have found that the patients with cognitive dysfunctions had lower mCBF values than the patients with those in each group of aged 60-69 years, 70-79 years, and 80-89 years. However, the difference of mCBF values between the groups with cognitive dysfunctions and without those had decreased gradually with advancing age. The present study suggests that SPECT can provide important functional informations to assess the cognitive impairment in patients with the memory disturbance. (author)

  8. Differential Item Functioning of the Psychological Domain of the Menopause Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela-Buelvas, Katherin; Oviedo, Heidi C.; Herazo, Edwin; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quality of life could be quantified with the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), which evaluates the severity of somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in menopause. However, differential item functioning (DIF) analysis has not been applied previously. Objective. To establish the DIF of the psychological domain of the MRS in Colombian women. Methods. 4,009 women aged between 40 and 59 years, who participated in the CAVIMEC (Calidad de Vida en la Menopausia y Etnias Colombianas) project, were included. Average age was 49.0 ± 5.9 years. Women were classified in mestizo, Afro-Colombian, and indigenous. The results were presented as averages and standard deviation (X ± SD). A p value <0.001 was considered statistically significant. Results. In mestizo women, the highest X ± SD were obtained in physical and mental exhaustion (PME) (0.86 ± 0.93) and the lowest ones in anxiety (0.44 ± 0.79). In Afro-Colombian women, an average score of 0.99 ± 1.07 for PME and 0.63 ± 0.88 for anxiety was gotten. Indigenous women obtained an increased average score for PME (1.33 ± 0.93). The lowest score was evidenced in depressive mood (0.50 ± 0.81), which is different from other Colombian women (p < 0.001). Conclusions. The psychological items of the MRS show differential functioning according to the ethnic group, which may induce systematic error in the measurement of the construct. PMID:27847825

  9. Factor structure of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale as per DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Joungmin

    2016-02-01

    The DSM-5 recently proposed new diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although many new or updated tools have been developed since the DSM-IV was published in 1994, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) has been used consistently in ASD diagnosis and research due to its technical adequacy, cost-effectiveness, and practicality. Additionally, items in the CARS did not alter following the release of the revised DSM-IV because the CARS factor structure was found to be consistent with the revised criteria after factor analysis. For that reason, in this study confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify the factor structure of the CARS. Participants (n = 150) consisted of children with an ASD diagnosis or who met the criteria for broader autism or emotional/behavior disorder with comorbid disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, intellectual or developmental disabilities. Previous studies used one-, two-, and four-factor models, all of which we examined to confirm the best-fit model on confirmatory factor analysis. Appropriate comparative fit indices and root mean square errors were obtained for all four models. The two-factor model, based on DSM-5 criteria, was the most valid and reliable. The inter-item consistency of the CARS was 0.926 and demonstrated adequate reliability, thereby supporting the validity and reliability of the two-factor model of CARS. Although CARS was developed prior to the introduction of DSM-5, its psychometric properties, conceptual relevance, and flexible administration procedures support its continued role as a screening device in the diagnostic decision-making process. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Differential Item Functioning of the Psychological Domain of the Menopause Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa-Castro, Alvaro; Portela-Buelvas, Katherin; Oviedo, Heidi C; Herazo, Edwin; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quality of life could be quantified with the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), which evaluates the severity of somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in menopause. However, differential item functioning (DIF) analysis has not been applied previously. Objective . To establish the DIF of the psychological domain of the MRS in Colombian women. Methods . 4,009 women aged between 40 and 59 years, who participated in the CAVIMEC (Calidad de Vida en la Menopausia y Etnias Colombianas) project, were included. Average age was 49.0 ± 5.9 years. Women were classified in mestizo, Afro-Colombian, and indigenous. The results were presented as averages and standard deviation ( X ± SD). A p value <0.001 was considered statistically significant. Results . In mestizo women, the highest X ± SD were obtained in physical and mental exhaustion (PME) (0.86 ± 0.93) and the lowest ones in anxiety (0.44 ± 0.79). In Afro-Colombian women, an average score of 0.99 ± 1.07 for PME and 0.63 ± 0.88 for anxiety was gotten. Indigenous women obtained an increased average score for PME (1.33 ± 0.93). The lowest score was evidenced in depressive mood (0.50 ± 0.81), which is different from other Colombian women ( p < 0.001). Conclusions . The psychological items of the MRS show differential functioning according to the ethnic group, which may induce systematic error in the measurement of the construct.

  11. [Diagnostic value of Vanderbilt ADHD Parent Rating Scale in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhao-Hua; Wang, Qing-Hong; Luo, Tian-Tian; Zhong, Le

    2013-05-01

    To study the value of the Vanderbilt ADHD Parent Rating Scale (VADPRS) in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). VADPRS were completed by parents of 319 children with suspected ADHD. The children were then evaluated by a specialist based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) and 196 of them were diagnosed with ADHD. The value of VADPRS in the diagnosis of attention deficit and hyperactivity was evaluated using ROC curves. Diagnostic evaluation indexes at best operating point were calculated. Kappa values were calculated to explore the consistency of items in VADPRS and corresponding items in the DSM-IV criteria. The area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of attention deficit by VADPRS was 0.791. At the best operating point, its sensitivity was 0.83, specificity was 0.63, positive predictive value was 0.69 and negative predictive value was 0.79. The area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of hyperactivity by VADPRS was 0.855. At the best operating point, its sensitivity was 0.82, specificity was 0.76, positive predictive value was 0.65, and negative predictive value was 0.88. The negative predictive value of VADPRS in general population screen was 0.99, based on the results of this study. The consistency of items in the VADPRS and corresponding items in DSM-Ⅳ criteria was poor, with the Kappa value of most items being less than 0.40. VADPRS is suitable for a general population screen for ADHD and it is helpful in the clinical diagnosis of ADHD, but its results can be influenced by parents' awareness and perception of children's behavior, and cannot replace the interview and judgment of professionals.

  12. Using the raindrop size distribution to quantify the soil detachment rate at the laboratory scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, S.; Jaffrain, J.; Barry, D. A.; Berne, A.; Sander, G. C.

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall simulators are beneficial tools for studying soil erosion processes and sediment transport for different circumstances and scales. They are useful to better understand soil erosion mechanisms and, therefore, to develop and validate process-based erosion models. Simulators permit experimental replicates for both simple and complex configurations. The 2 m × 6 m EPFL erosion flume is equipped with a hydraulic slope control and a sprinkling system located on oscillating bars 3 m above the surface. It provides a near-uniform spatial rainfall distribution. The intensity of the precipitation can be adjusted by changing the oscillation interval. The flume is filled to a depth of 0.32 m with an agricultural loamy soil. Raindrop detachment is an important process in interrill erosion, the latter varying with the soil properties as well as the raindrop size distribution and drop velocity. Since the soil detachment varies with the kinetic energy of raindrops, an accurate characterization of drop size distribution (DSD, measured, e.g., using a laser disdrometer) can potentially support erosion calculations. Here, a laser disdrometer was used at different rainfall intensities in the EPFL flume to quantify the rainfall event in terms of number of drops, diameter and velocity. At the same time, soil particle motion was measured locally using splash cups. These cups measured the detached material rates into upslope and downslope compartments. In contrast to previously reported splash cup experiments, the cups used in this study were equipped at the top with upside-down funnels, the upper part having the same diameter as the soil sampled at the bottom. This ensured that the soil detached and captured by the device was not re-exposed to rainfall. The experimental data were used to quantify the relationship between the raindrop distribution and the splash-driven sediment transport.

  13. Measuring cognitive task demands using dual task methodology, subjective self-ratings, and expert judgments : A Validation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Révész, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Gilabert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the usefulness of dual-task methodology, self-ratings, and expert judgements in assessing task-generated cognitive demands as a way to provide validity evidence for manipulations of task complexity. The participants were 96 students and 61 ESL teachers. The students, 48 English

  14. Measuring Cognitive Task Demands Using Dual-Task Methodology, Subjective Self-Ratings, and Expert Judgments: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Gilabert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the usefulness of dual-task methodology, self-ratings, and expert judgments in assessing task-generated cognitive demands as a way to provide validity evidence for manipulations of task complexity. The participants were 96 students and 61 English as a second language (ESL) teachers. The students, 48 English native speakers and…

  15. The brief negative symptom scale: validation of the German translation and convergent validity with self-rated anhedonia and observer-rated apathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Martin; Obermann, Caitriona; Hartmann, Matthias N; Hager, Oliver M; Kirschner, Matthias; Kluge, Agne; Strauss, Gregory P; Kaiser, Stefan

    2016-11-22

    Negative symptoms are considered core symptoms of schizophrenia. The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) was developed to measure this symptomatic dimension according to a current consensus definition. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the German version of the BNSS. To expand former findings on convergent validity, we employed the Temporal Experience Pleasure Scale (TEPS), a hedonic self-report that distinguishes between consummatory and anticipatory pleasure. Additionally, we addressed convergent validity with observer-rated assessment of apathy with the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES), which was completed by the patient's primary nurse. Data were collected from 75 in- and outpatients from the Psychiatric Hospital, University Zurich diagnosed with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We assessed convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. We largely replicated the findings of the original version showing good psychometric properties of the BNSS. In addition, the primary nurses evaluation correlated moderately with interview-based clinician rating. BNSS anhedonia items showed good convergent validity with the TEPS. Overall, the German BNSS shows good psychometric properties comparable to the original English version. Convergent validity extends beyond interview-based assessments of negative symptoms to self-rated anhedonia and observer-rated apathy.

  16. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  17. Statistical analysis of error rate of large-scale single flux quantum logic circuit by considering fluctuation of timing parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanashi, Yuki; Masubuchi, Kota; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the timing margin and the error rate of the large-scale single flux quantum logic circuits is quantitatively investigated to establish a timing design guideline. We observed that the fluctuation in the set-up/hold time of single flux quantum logic gates caused by thermal noises is the most probable origin of the logical error of the large-scale single flux quantum circuit. The appropriate timing margin for stable operation of the large-scale logic circuit is discussed by taking the fluctuation of setup/hold time and the timing jitter in the single flux quantum circuits. As a case study, the dependence of the error rate of the 1-million-bit single flux quantum shift register on the timing margin is statistically analyzed. The result indicates that adjustment of timing margin and the bias voltage is important for stable operation of a large-scale SFQ logic circuit.

  18. Statistical analysis of error rate of large-scale single flux quantum logic circuit by considering fluctuation of timing parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanashi, Yuki, E-mail: yamanasi@ynu.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai 79-5, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Masubuchi, Kota; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai 79-5, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    The relationship between the timing margin and the error rate of the large-scale single flux quantum logic circuits is quantitatively investigated to establish a timing design guideline. We observed that the fluctuation in the set-up/hold time of single flux quantum logic gates caused by thermal noises is the most probable origin of the logical error of the large-scale single flux quantum circuit. The appropriate timing margin for stable operation of the large-scale logic circuit is discussed by taking the fluctuation of setup/hold time and the timing jitter in the single flux quantum circuits. As a case study, the dependence of the error rate of the 1-million-bit single flux quantum shift register on the timing margin is statistically analyzed. The result indicates that adjustment of timing margin and the bias voltage is important for stable operation of a large-scale SFQ logic circuit.

  19. When is best-worst best? A comparison of best-worst scaling, numeric estimation, and rating scales for collection of semantic norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Geoff; Westbury, Chris

    2018-02-01

    Large-scale semantic norms have become both prevalent and influential in recent psycholinguistic research. However, little attention has been directed towards understanding the methodological best practices of such norm collection efforts. We compared the quality of semantic norms obtained through rating scales, numeric estimation, and a less commonly used judgment format called best-worst scaling. We found that best-worst scaling usually produces norms with higher predictive validities than other response formats, and does so requiring less data to be collected overall. We also found evidence that the various response formats may be producing qualitatively, rather than just quantitatively, different data. This raises the issue of potential response format bias, which has not been addressed by previous efforts to collect semantic norms, likely because of previous reliance on a single type of response format for a single type of semantic judgment. We have made available software for creating best-worst stimuli and scoring best-worst data. We also made available new norms for age of acquisition, valence, arousal, and concreteness collected using best-worst scaling. These norms include entries for 1,040 words, of which 1,034 are also contained in the ANEW norms (Bradley & Lang, Affective norms for English words (ANEW): Instruction manual and affective ratings (pp. 1-45). Technical report C-1, the center for research in psychophysiology, University of Florida, 1999).

  20. Preliminary data concerning the reliability and psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the 20-item Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale (SWN-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arapidis Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 20-item Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale (SWN-20 is a self-report scale developed in order to assess the well-being of patients receiving antipsychotic medication independent of the improvement in their psychotic symptoms. The current study reports on the reliability and the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the SWN-20. Methods A total of 100 inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia (79 males and 21 females, aged 42.6 ± 11.35 years old from 3 different facilities were assessed with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS, the Calgary Depression Scale and the Simpson-Angus Scale, and completed the SWN-20. The statistical analysis included the calculation of Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, the Cronbach α and factor analysis with Varimax normalised rotation. Results The SWN-20 had an α value equal to 0.79 and all the items were equal. The factor analysis revealed the presence of seven factors explaining 66% of total variance. The correlation matrix revealed a moderate relationship of the SWN-20 and its factors with the PANSS-Negative (PANSS-N, PANSS-General Psychopathology (PANSS-G, the Simpson-Angus and the Calgary scales, and no relationship to age, education and income class. Discussion The Greek translation of the SWN-20 is reliable, with psychometric properties close to the original scale.

  1. The Stanford Microsurgery and Resident Training (SMaRT) Scale: validation of an on-line global rating scale for technical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterwhite, Thomas; Son, Ji; Carey, Joseph; Echo, Anthony; Spurling, Terry; Paro, John; Gurtner, Geoffrey; Chang, James; Lee, Gordon K

    2014-05-01

    We previously reported results of our on-line microsurgery training program, showing that residents who had access to our website significantly improved their cognitive and technical skills. In this study, we report an objective means for expert evaluators to reliably rate trainees' technical skills under the microscope, with the use of our novel global rating scale. "Microsurgery Essentials" (http://smartmicrosurgery.com) is our on-line training curriculum. Residents were randomly divided into 2 groups: 1 group reviewed this online resource and the other did not. Pre- and post-tests consisted of videotaped microsurgical sessions in which the trainee performed "microsurgery" on 3 different models: latex glove, penrose drain, and the dorsal vessel of a chicken foot. The SMaRT (Stanford Microsurgery and Resident Training) scale, consisting of 9 categories graded on a 5-point Likert scale, was used to assess the trainees. Results were analyzed with ANOVA and Student t test, with P less than 0.05 indicating statistical significance. Seventeen residents participated in the study. The SMaRT scale adequately differentiated the performance of more experienced senior residents (PGY-4 to PGY-6, total average score=3.43) from less experienced junior residents (PGY-1 to PGY-3, total average score=2.10, P0.05). Additionally, junior residents who had access to our website showed a significant increase in their graded technical performance by 0.7 points when compared to residents who did not have access to the website who showed an improvement of only 0.2 points (P=0.01). Our SMaRT scale is valid and reliable in assessing the microsurgical skills of residents and other trainees. Current trainees are more likely to use self-directed on-line education because of its easy accessibility and interactive format. Our global rating scale can help ensure residents are achieving appropriate technical milestones.

  2. Entorhinal cortex volume measured with 3T MRI is positively correlated with the Wechsler memory scale-revised logical/verbal memory score for healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Masami; Abe, Osamu; Takao, Hidemasa; Inano, Sachiko; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni; Miyati, Tosiaki; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Shigeki; Ino, Kenji; Iida, Kyouhito; Yano, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies revealed a correlation between local brain volume and cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between local gray matter volume and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) logical/verbal memory (WMS-R-verbal) score in healthy adults using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 1,169 healthy adults. The T1-weighted images in native space were bias-corrected, spatially normalized, and segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid images with Statistical Parametric Mapping 5. To investigate regionally the specific effects of the WMS-R-verbal score on the gray matter images, simple regression analysis was performed by VBM treating age, total intracranial volume, and gender as confounding covariates. A P value of less than 0.05 corrected with false discovery rate in voxel difference was considered to be statistically significant. Our study showed a significant positive correlation between the WMS-R-verbal score and the bilateral entorhinal cortex volume. In the right entorhinal, T value is 4.75, and the size of the clusters is 155 voxels. In the left entorhinal, T value is 4.08, and the size of the clusters is 23 voxels. A significant negative correlation was not found. To our knowledge, this is the first VBM study showing that entorhinal cortex volume is positively correlated with the WMS-R-verbal score for healthy subjects. Therefore, in our structural neuroimaging study, we add evidence to the hypothesis that the entorhinal cortex is involved in verbal memory processing. (orig.)

  3. Entorhinal cortex volume measured with 3T MRI is positively correlated with the Wechsler memory scale-revised logical/verbal memory score for healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Masami [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kanazawa University, Tsunomatyou, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Abe, Osamu; Takao, Hidemasa; Inano, Sachiko; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Miyati, Tosiaki [Kanazawa University, Tsunomatyou, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kabasawa, Hiroyuki [GE Healthcare, Japan Applied Science Laboratory, Hino (Japan); Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Ino, Kenji; Iida, Kyouhito; Yano, Keiichi [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Previous studies revealed a correlation between local brain volume and cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between local gray matter volume and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) logical/verbal memory (WMS-R-verbal) score in healthy adults using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 1,169 healthy adults. The T1-weighted images in native space were bias-corrected, spatially normalized, and segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid images with Statistical Parametric Mapping 5. To investigate regionally the specific effects of the WMS-R-verbal score on the gray matter images, simple regression analysis was performed by VBM treating age, total intracranial volume, and gender as confounding covariates. A P value of less than 0.05 corrected with false discovery rate in voxel difference was considered to be statistically significant. Our study showed a significant positive correlation between the WMS-R-verbal score and the bilateral entorhinal cortex volume. In the right entorhinal, T value is 4.75, and the size of the clusters is 155 voxels. In the left entorhinal, T value is 4.08, and the size of the clusters is 23 voxels. A significant negative correlation was not found. To our knowledge, this is the first VBM study showing that entorhinal cortex volume is positively correlated with the WMS-R-verbal score for healthy subjects. Therefore, in our structural neuroimaging study, we add evidence to the hypothesis that the entorhinal cortex is involved in verbal memory processing. (orig.)

  4. An investigation of the effect of pore scale flow on average geochemical reaction rates using direct numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molins, Sergi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Steefel, Carl I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Shen, Chaopeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division

    2012-03-30

    The scale-dependence of geochemical reaction rates hinders their use in continuum scale models intended for the interpretation and prediction of chemical fate and transport in subsurface environments such as those considered for geologic sequestration of CO2. Processes that take place at the pore scale, especially those involving mass transport limitations to reactive surfaces, may contribute to the discrepancy commonly observed between laboratory-determined and continuum-scale or field rates. In this study we investigate the dependence of mineral dissolution rates on the pore structure of the porous media by means of pore scale modeling of flow and multicomponent reactive transport. The pore scale model is composed of high-performance simulation tools and algorithms for incompressible flow and conservative transport combined with a general-purpose multicomponent geochemical reaction code. The model performs direct numerical simulation of reactive transport based on an operator-splitting approach to coupling transport and reactions. The approach is validated with a Poiseuille flow single-pore experiment and verified with an equivalent 1-D continuum-scale model of a capillary tube packed with calcite spheres. Using the case of calcite dissolution as an example, the high-resolution model is used to demonstrate that nonuniformity in the flow field at the pore scale has the effect of decreasing the overall reactivity of the system, even when systems with identical reactive surface area are considered. In conclusion, the effect becomes more pronounced as the heterogeneity of the reactive grain packing increases, particularly where the flow slows sufficiently such that the solution approaches equilibrium locally and the average rate becomes transport-limited.

  5. Development and validation of a Thai stressful life events rating scale for patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenic methamphetamine abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ek-uma Imkome; JintanaYunibhand; Waraporn Chaiyawat

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to psychometrically test a Thai Stressful Life Events Rating Scale (TSLERS). Factor analysis was done on data collected from 313 patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse in Thailand from April to May, 2015. Results identified the following problems impacting physical and mental health: social relationship and social concerns, money, family life, life security, and career. Evaluation of the psychometric scale properties demonstrated acceptable validity ...

  6. Measuring subjective sleepiness at work in hospital nurses: validation of a modified delivery format of the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger Brown, Jeanne; Wieroney, Margaret; Blair, Lori; Zhu, Shijun; Warren, Joan; Scharf, Steven M; Hinds, Pamela S

    2014-12-01

    Sleepiness during the work shift is common and can be hazardous to workers and, in the case of nurses, to patients under their care. Thus, measuring sleepiness in occupational studies is an important component of workplace health and safety. The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) is usually used as a momentary assessment of a respondent's state of sleepiness; however, end-of-shift measurement is sometimes preferred based on the study setting. We assessed the predictive validity of the KSS as an end-of-shift recall measurement, asking for "average" sleepiness over the shift and "highest" level of sleepiness during the shift. Hospital registered nurses (N=40) working 12-h shifts completed an end-of-shift diary over 4 weeks that included the National Aeronautical and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) work intensity items and the KSS (498 shifts over 4 weeks). Vigilant attention was assessed by measuring reaction time, lapses, and anticipations using a 10-min performance vigilance task (PVT) at the end of the shift. The Horne-Ostberg Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, General Sleep Disturbance Scale, and Cleveland Sleep Habits Questionnaire were also collected at baseline to assess factors that could be associated with higher sleepiness. We hypothesized that higher KSS scores would correlate with vigilant attention parameters reflective of sleepiness (slower reaction times and more lapses and anticipations on a performance vigilance task) and also with those factors known to produce higher sleepiness. These factors included the following: (1) working night shifts, especially for those with "morningness" trait; (2) working sequential night shifts; (3) having low physical and mental work demands and low time pressure; (4) having concomitant organic sleep disorders; and (5) having greater "trait" sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale). Linear mixed models and generalized linear m