WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjective rating scale

  1. Phenomenological features of dreams: Results from dream log studies using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Tracey L; Claudatos, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Self-ratings of dream experiences were obtained from 144 college women for 788 dreams, using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS). Consistent with past studies, dreams were characterized by a greater prevalence of vision, audition, and movement than smell, touch, or taste, by both positive and negative emotion, and by a range of cognitive processes. A Principal Components Analysis of SERS ratings revealed ten subscales: four sensory, three affective, one cognitive, and two structural (events/actions, locations). Correlations (Pearson r) among subscale means showed a stronger relationship among the process-oriented features (sensory, cognitive, affective) than between the process-oriented and content-centered (structural) features--a pattern predicted from past research (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008). Notably, cognition and positive emotion were associated with a greater number of other phenomenal features than was negative emotion; these findings are consistent with studies of the qualitative features of waking autobiographical memory (e.g., Fredrickson, 2001). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relation between food intake and visual analogue scale ratings of appetite and other sensations in healthy older and young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, B A; Sturm, K; MacIntosh, C G; Feinle, C; Horowitz, M; Chapman, I M

    2004-02-01

    Visual analogue scales are widely used in appetite research, yet the validity of these scales to evaluate appetite and mood has not been assessed in older subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the relations between food intake and visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of appetite and nonappetite sensations in healthy older and young subjects. Retrospective combined analysis of four single-blind, randomised, controlled appetite studies. All studies were conducted in the University of Adelaide, Department of Medicine, Adelaide, Australia. A total of 45 healthy young men (n=24) and women (n=21) aged 18-35 y and 45 healthy older men (n=24) and women (n=21) aged 65-85 y were recruited by advertisement. Oral, intraduodenal or intravenous administration of treatments which suppressed food intake were compared to control. Up to 90 min after treatment, a test meal was offered and subjects ate freely for between 30 and 60 min. Perceptions were assessed by 100-mm visual analogue scales administered at regular intervals. Food intake at the test meal was positively related to perceptions of hunger, drowsiness, and calmness at both baseline and premeal (r>0.16, P 0.2, P<0.05) in both older and young subjects. Food intake was related to VAS ratings at least as strongly, if not more so, in older as in young subjects. These observations (i) confirm that food intake is related to perceptions of hunger and fullness as assessed by VAS in healthy older and young subjects, and (ii) suggest that sensations, not obviously associated with appetite, including 'drowsiness' and 'calmness', are also associated with food intake.

  3. Measuring the subjective: revisiting the psychometric properties of three rating scales that assess the acute effects of hallucinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouso, José Carlos; Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo José; Gandy, Sam; Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel Ángel

    2016-09-01

    In the present study we explored the psychometric properties of three widely used questionnaires to assess the subjective effects of hallucinogens: the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS), the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI). These three questionnaires were administered to a sample of 158 subjects (100 men) after taking ayahuasca, a hallucinogen whose main active component is N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). A confirmatory factorial study was conducted to check the adjustment of previous data obtained via theoretical proposals. When this was not possible, we used an exploratory factor analysis without restrictions, based on tetrachoric and polychoric matrices and correlations. Our results sparsely match the theoretical proposals of the authors, perhaps because previous studies have not always employed psychometric methods appropriate to the data obtained. However, these data should be considered preliminary, pending larger samples to confirm or reject the proposed structures obtained. It is crucial that instruments of sufficiently precise measurement are utilized to make sense of the information obtained in the study of the subjective effects of psychedelic drugs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  5. Evaluation of 21-numbered circle and 10-centimeter horizontal line visual analog scales for physician and parent subjective ratings in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filocamo, Giovanni; Davì, Sergio; Pistorio, Angela; Bertamino, Marta; Ruperto, Nicolino; Lattanzi, Bianca; Consolaro, Alessandro; Magni-Manzoni, Silvia; Galasso, Roberta; Varnier, Giulia Camilla; Martini, Alberto; Ravelli, Angelo

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the measurement properties of 21-numbered circle visual analog scales (VAS) and traditional 10-cm horizontal line VAS for physician and parent subjective ratings in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We studied 2 patient samples in whom physician global rating of overall disease activity, parent global rating of the child's overall well-being, and parent rating of intensity of child's pain were performed using traditional 10-cm horizontal line VAS (n = 397) or 21-numbered circle VAS (n = 471). The measurement performances of the 2 VAS formats were examined by assessing construct validity, score distribution, responsiveness to change over time, and minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Most Spearman correlations with other JIA outcome measures yielded by 21-numbered circle VAS were greater than those obtained with 10-cm horizontal line VAS, revealing that the circle VAS format has better construct validity. Ceiling effects (i.e., score = 0) for physician and parent global ratings were 43.7% and 32.9%, respectively, on 21-numbered circle VAS, and 31.6% and 35.3%, respectively, on 10-cm horizontal line VAS. Responsiveness of 21-numbered circle VAS was good (standardized response mean > 0.8) or moderate (standardized response mean > 0.6) among patients classified as improved or worsened, respectively, by the physician or the parent. Overall, MCID values for 21-numbered circle VAS tended to be greater for worsening than for improvement. The 21-numbered circle VAS are a suitable alternative to the 10-cm horizontal line VAS and may facilitate incorporation of physician and parent subjective ratings in standard clinical practice.

  6. Comparison of the traditional paper visual analogue scale questionnaire with an Apple Newton electronic appetite rating system (EARS) in free living subjects feeding ad libitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, R J; Stubbs, R J; Hughes, D; King, N; Blundell, J E; Elia, M

    1998-10-01

    Assessing the value of a newly developed electronic visual analogue scale questionnaire (Apple Newton Message Pad) with the traditional paper method for appetite rating. In a random, crossover design, subjects completed both electronic and paper questionnaires to compare results obtained by the two methods; individual methods were completed consecutively to assess test-retest reliability; preference was established using a questionnaire. Healthy, free-living adults were studied for comparison of methods (n = 12), test-retest reliability (n = 8) and preference (n = 13). Visual analogue scales were completed each waking hour to assess appetite. Preference was assessed after both methods were completed. There was no significant difference in the hourly results obtained by the paper and electronic methods for 'desire to eat', 'how much can you eat now', 'urge to eat' and 'preoccupation with thoughts of food'. Small differences in 'hunger' and 'fullness' ratings were noted (approximately 5% mean difference between methods, P Apple Newton questionnaire is as sensitive and reliable as the paper method, has the advantage that it automatically records the time of data acquisition and data collection and processing are more efficient for the researcher. The two methods should not be used interchangeably.

  7. Self-rating scales assessing subjective well-being and distress correlate with rCBF in PTSD-sensitive regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, D; Högberg, G; Flumeri, F; Jacobsson, H; Larsson, S A; Hällström, T; Pagani, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in occupational-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subjects and to seek possible correlations between brain perfusion and self-rating scales (SRS) in order to cross-check their diagnostic value and to look for their neural correlates. A total of 13 traumatized underground and long-distance train drivers developing (S) and 17 not developing (NS) PTSD who had experienced a 'person under train' accident or who had been assaulted at work underwent clinical assessment and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT imaging during autobiographical trauma scripts. Statistical parametric mapping was applied to analyse rCBF changes in S as compared with NS and to search for correlations between rCBF and the administered SRS scores, modelling age, months to SPECT and the ratio 'grey matter/intra-cranial volume' as nuisance variables. Significantly higher activity was observed during trauma script in left posterior and anterior insula, posterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, precuneus, caudate and putamen in PTSD subjects as compared with the trauma-exposed control group. Impact of Event Scale and World Health Organisation (10) Well-Being Index scores highly correlated with tracer uptake to a great extent in the same regions in which rCBF differences between S and NS were found. These findings support the involvement of insular, cingulate and parietal cortices (as well as the basal ganglia) in the pathogenesis of PTSD and in the processing of related subjective well-being and distress.

  8. A comprehensive visual rating scale of brain magnetic resonance imaging: application in elderly subjects with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Won; Park, So Young; Park, Young Ho; Baek, Min Jae; Lim, Jae-Sung; Youn, Young Chul; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows cerebral structural changes. However, a unified comprehensive visual rating scale (CVRS) has seldom been studied. Thus, we combined brain atrophy and small vessel disease scales and used an MRI template as a CVRS. The aims of this study were to design a simple and reliable CVRS, validate it by investigating cerebral structural changes in clinical groups, and made comparison to the volumetric measurements. Elderly subjects (n = 260) with normal cognition (NC, n = 65), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 101), or Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 94) were evaluated with brain MRI according to the CVRS of brain atrophy and small vessel disease. Validation of the CVRS with structural changes, neuropsychological tests, and volumetric analyses was performed. The CVRS revealed a high intra-rater and inter-rater agreement and it reflected the structural changes of subjects with NC, MCI, and AD better than volumetric measures (CVRS-coronal: F = 13.5, p < 0.001; CVRS-axial: F = 19.9, p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operation curve (aROC) of the CVRS showed higher accuracy than volumetric analyses. (NC versus MCI aROC: CVRS-coronal, 0.777; CVRS-axial, 0.773; MCI versus AD aROC: CVRS-coronal, 0.680; CVRS-axial, 0.681). The CVRS can be used clinically to conveniently measure structural changes of brain. It reflected cerebral structural changes of clinical groups and correlated with the age better than volumetric measures.

  9. Scaling metabolic rate fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Labra, Fabio A.; Marquet, Pablo A.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Complex ecological and economic systems show fluctuations in macroscopic quantities such as exchange rates, size of companies or populations that follow non-Gaussian tent-shaped probability distributions of growth rates with power-law decay, which suggests that fluctuations in complex systems may be governed by universal mechanisms, independent of particular details and idiosyncrasies. We propose here that metabolic rate within individual organisms may be considered as an example of an emerge...

  10. Rating scales and Rasch measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessments with ratings in ordered categories have become ubiquitous in health, biological and social sciences. Ratings are used when a measuring instrument of the kind found in the natural sciences is not available to assess some property in terms of degree - for example, greater or smaller, better or worse, or stronger or weaker. The handling of ratings has ranged from the very elementary to the highly sophisticated. In an elementary form, and assumed in classical test theory, the ratings are scored with successive integers and treated as measurements; in a sophisticated form, and used in modern test theory, the ratings are characterized by probabilistic response models with parameters for persons and the rating categories. Within modern test theory, two paradigms, similar in many details but incompatible on crucial points, have emerged. For the purposes of this article, these are termed the statistical modeling and experimental measurement paradigms. Rather than reviewing a compendium of available methods and models for analyzing ratings in detail, the article focuses on the incompatible differences between these two paradigms, with implications for choice of model and inferences. It shows that the differences have implications for different roles for substantive researchers and psychometricians in designing instruments with rating scales. To illustrate these differences, an example is provided.

  11. Subjective well-being in schizophrenia as measured with the Subjective Well-Being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vothknecht, Sylke; Schoevers, Robert A.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    Objective: The Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale (SWN) is the most widely used self-rating scale in recent research of subjective well-being in schizophrenia. We reviewed all available publications on relevant research of subjective well-being using the SWN, in order to

  12. Subjective well-being in schizophrenia as measured with the Subjective Well-Being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vothknecht, Sylke; Schoevers, Robert A.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale (SWN) is the most widely used self-rating scale in recent research of subjective well-being in schizophrenia. We reviewed all available publications on relevant research of subjective well-being using the SWN, in order to

  13. Validity of four pain intensity rating scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Valente, Maria Alexandra; Pais-Ribeiro, José Luís; Jensen, Mark P

    2011-10-01

    The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), Verbal Rating Scale (VRS), and the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) are among the most commonly used measures of pain intensity in clinical and research settings. Although evidence supports their validity as measures of pain intensity, few studies have compared them with respect to the critical validity criteria of responsivity, and no experiment has directly compared all 4 measures in the same study. The current study compared the relative validity of VAS, NRS, VRS, and FPS-R for detecting differences in painful stimulus intensity and differences between men and women in response to experimentally induced pain. One hundred twenty-seven subjects underwent four 20-second cold pressor trials with temperature order counterbalanced across 1°C, 3°C, 5°C, and 7°C and rated pain intensity using all 4 scales. Results showed statistically significant differences in pain intensity between temperatures for each scale, with lower temperatures resulting in higher pain intensity. The order of responsivity was as follows: NRS, VAS, VRS, and FPS-R. However, there were relatively small differences in the responsivity between scales. A statistically significant sex main effect was also found for the NRS, VRS, and FPS-R. The findings are consistent with previous studies supporting the validity of each scale. The most support emerged for the NRS as being both (1) most responsive and (2) able to detect sex differences in pain intensity. The results also provide support for the validity of the scales for use in Portuguese samples. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Subjective Narcosis Assessment Scale: measuring the subjective experience of nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Charles H; Meintjes, W A J

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of subjective experiences and objective measures of neuropsychological performance during hyperbaric exposure has received less attention in the literature, in part due to the shortage of available and appropriately standardized measures. This study aimed to describe the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Subjective High Assessment Scale when used in the hyperbaric context, by exploring internal reliability, factor structure, associations with psychological variables and simple cognitive delayed recall, and the effect of task focus on the recall of subjective experience. Seventy qualified divers completed dry hyperbaric chamber dives to 607.95 kPa, and completed ratings of their subjective experiences. Some also completed a delayed recall task and psychological measures prior to their dives. The scale displayed good internal consistency, with four meaningful factors emerging. It showed some significant but small associations with trait anxiety and transient mood states, and a small to moderate correlation with recall performance. There was no significant effect of task focus on self-report of subjective experiences. The modified scale, renamed the Subjective Narcosis Assessment Scale here, has useful psychometric properties, and promising potential for future use.

  15. Analytic Methods for Adjusting Subjective Rating Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard V. L.; Nelson, Gary R.

    Statistical and econometric techniques of correcting for supervisor bias in models of individual performance appraisal were developed, using a variant of the classical linear regression model. Location bias occurs when individual performance is systematically overestimated or underestimated, while scale bias results when raters either exaggerate…

  16. Rating on life valuation scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapčević Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: World Health Organization (WHO Articles of Association defines health as the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease. According to this definition, the concept of health is enlarged and consists of public and personal needs, motives and psychological nature of a person, education, culture, tradition, religion, etc. All these needs do not have the same rank on life valuation scale. Objective: The objective of our study was ranking 6 most important values of life out of 12 suggested. Method: Questionnaire about Life Valuation Scale was used as method in our study. This questionnaire was created by the Serbian Medical Association and Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade. It analyzed 10% of all citizens in 18 places in Serbia, aged from 25 to 64 years, including Belgrade commune Vozdovac. Survey was performed in health institutions and in citizens’ residencies in 1995/96 by doctors, nurses and field nurses. Results: A total of 14,801 citizens was questioned in Serbia (42.57% of men, 57.25% of women, and 852 citizens in Vozdovac commune (34.62% of men, 65.38% of women. People differently value things in their lives. On the basis of life values scoring, the most important thing in people’s life was health. In Serbia, public rank of health was 4.79%, and 4.4% in Vozdovac commune. Relations in family were on the second place, and engagement in politics was on the last place. Conclusion: The results of our study in the whole Serbia and in Vozdovac commune do not differ significantly from each other, and all of them demonstrated that people attached the greatest importance to health on the scale of proposed values. Relationships in family were on the second place, and political activity was on the last place. High ranking of health and relationships in family generally shows that general practitioners in Serbia take important part in primary

  17. Litteraturstudie af forskning om environment rating scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Litteraturstudiet omhandler forskning om de internationalt anvendte evalueringssmetoder ECERS (Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale) og ITERS (Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale), der begge er instrumenter til måling af kvalitet og værktøjer til evaluering og udvikling af kvalitet i...

  18. Sternal pulse rate variability compared with heart rate variability on healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chreiteh, Shadi S; Belhage, Bo; Hoppe, Karsten; Branebjerg, Jens; Thomsen, Erik V

    2014-01-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) is a commonly used method to quantify the sympathetic and the parasympathetic modulation of the heart rate. HRV is mainly conducted on electrocardiograms (ECG). However, the use of photo-plethysmography (PPG) as a marker of the autonomic tone is emerging. In this study we investigated the feasibility of deriving pulse rate variability (PRV) using PPG signals recorded by a reflectance PPG sensor attached to the chest bone (sternum) and comparing it to HRV. The recordings were conducted on 9 healthy subjects being in a relaxed supine position and under forced respiration, where the subjects were asked to breathe following a visual scale with a rate of 27 breaths/min. HRV parameters such as the mean intervals (meanNN), the standard deviation of intervals (SDNN), the root mean square of difference of successive intervals (RMSSD), and the proportion of intervals differing more than 50 ms (pNN50) were calculated from the R peak-to-R peak (R-R) and pulse-to-pulse (P-P) intervals. In the frequency domain the low and high frequency ratio of the power spectral density (LF/HF) was also computed. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed significant correlation for all the parameters (r > 0.95 with p healthy subjects at.

  19. Rate of injury and subjective benefits of gravitational wellness weightlifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke DT

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available David T Burke,1 Regina Bell,1 Samir Al-Adawi,2 Ariel Alexandroni,1 Atsu Dorvlo,3 Daniel P Burke4 1Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Emory University, GA, USA; 2Department of Behavioral Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, 3Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman; 4Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, GA, USA Background: A preliminary study using the "gravitational wellness" weightlifting technique demonstrated this to be a unique technique for loading the musculoskeletal system with extremely high loads over short arcs. This leads to rapid weekly strength gains using 30-minute weekly training sessions. This study was designed to further assess the benefit–risk ratio of the gravitational wellness weightlifting technique. Purpose: This descriptive/retrospective study examined musculoskeletal and well-being outcomes as well as injuries reported by consecutive participants at one gravitational wellness gym. Materials and methods: All adults presenting for training at the Atlanta, Georgia, gravitational wellness system facility over a 6-month period were invited to participate. Data were obtained by telephone interview concerning the presenting complaint/objective of training, subjective outcome, weights lifted, and injuries incurred during training. Results: Of the 77 participants contacted via telephone, 92% agreed to participate (male, n=40; female, n=31. The participants ranged in age from 18 years to 69 years, with a mean age of 48.6 years. Of these, 42 (59% presented to the gym with the objective of improving a defined musculoskeletal issue. The modal of these was chronic low-back pain. The subjects realized improvement on a 5-point Likert scale of 4.2/5 for their presenting complaint, and improved by 4.27/5 in their overall subjective health. There were no injuries. Conclusion: This study of consecutive participants at a gravitational

  20. Construction of a Bilingual Attitude Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Ofelia

    A bilingual rating scale was constructed to determine teachers' ratings of attitude and proficiency among Anglo and Spanish children in Title VII classes. This instrument was designed to ascertain how teachers perceive the pupils in their classroom and how two teachers representing different backgrounds perceive children of similar and different…

  1. Rating scales for observer performance studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Robert M.; Jiang, Yulei; Metz, Charles E.

    2010-02-01

    We compared the performance of radiologists reading a set of screening mammograms with and without CADe as measured by the BI-RADS assessment scale to that measured by a 9-point rating scale. Eight MQSA radiologists read 300 screening mammograms, of which 66 cases contained at least one cancer and 234 were normal based on two-year follow-up. Both without and then with CADe, the radiologists gave their BI-RADS assessment for each case and, for each suspicious lesion in the image, reported their confidence on a 9-point scale (1=no evidence for recall; 5=equivocal; 9=overwhelming evidence for recall) that the lesion needed to be worked up. The radiologists were instructed to read the cases as they would clinically. We used MRMC ROC analysis employing PROPROC curve fitting to analyze the data, once for the BI-RADS data and again for that collected on the 9-point scale. Given that the radiologists were reading screening mammograms and were instructed to read in their normal clinical manner, not all radiologists used the full BI-RADS scale. Two radiologists used only BI-RADS 0,1 and 2, three used the full scale, and three used the full scale but employed categories 3, 4 and 5 sparingly. This mimics what occurs clinically, according to the literature. The BI-RADS and the 9-point rating scales gave similar results in terms of AUC. However, the 95% CIs of the estimates of AUC were substantially smaller for the 9-point scale.

  2. [Reliability and validity of Subjective Well-Being Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuko; Sagara, Junko; Ikeda, Masako; Kawaura, Yasuyuki

    2003-08-01

    In this study, a subjective well-being scale was developed, and its reliability and validity evaluated. The Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) had twelve items which covered four domains. It was administered to 1005 adults and 520 college students. Results indicated that for the students, college life satisfaction and self-esteem had positive correlations with SWBS score. For the adults, marital satisfaction, workplace satisfaction, and household income satisfaction had positive correlations with the score. These findings showed considerable constructive validity for SWBS. In addition, internal consistency was sufficiently high, indicating the measure's high reliability. SWBS may be a simple but reliable and valid measure, and it is useful for examining subjective well-being of both adults and college students.

  3. The use of subjective rating of exertion in Ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, P

    2002-01-01

    In Ergonomics, the use of psychophysical methods for subjectively evaluating work tasks and determining acceptable loads has become more common. Daily activities at the work site are studied not only with physiological methods but also with perceptual estimation and production methods. The psychophysical methods are of special interest in field studies of short-term work tasks for which valid physiological measurements are difficult to obtain. The perceived exertion, difficulty and fatigue that a person experiences in a certain work situation is an important sign of a real or objective load. Measurement of the physical load with physiological parameters is not sufficient since it does not take into consideration the particular difficulty of the performance or the capacity of the individual. It is often difficult from technical and biomechanical analyses to understand the seriousness of a difficulty that a person experiences. Physiological determinations give important information, but they may be insufficient due to the technical problems in obtaining relevant but simple measurements for short-term activities or activities involving special movement patterns. Perceptual estimations using Borg's scales give important information because the severity of a task's difficulty depends on the individual doing the work. Observation is the most simple and used means to assess job demands. Other evaluations integrating observation are the followings: indirect estimation of energy expenditure based on prediction equations or direct measurement of oxygen consumption; measurements of forces, angles and biomechanical parameters; measurements of physiological and neurophysiological parameters during tasks. It is recommended that determinations of performances of occupational activities assess rating of perceived exertion and integrate these measurements of intensity levels with those of activity's type, duration and frequency. A better estimate of the degree of physical activity

  4. Rating scales in general practice depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Paykel, Eugene; Sireling, Lester

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our objective was to investigate to what extent the Clinical Interview for Depression (CID) used in the general practice setting covers clinically valid subscales (depression, anxiety, and apathy) which can measure outcome of antidepressant therapy as well as identifying subsyndromes...... within major depressive disorder. The CID was compared to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17). METHODS: 146 patients from a previous study in general practice with the CID were investigated. The item response theory model established by Rasch was used to investigate the scalability (a scale......׳s psychometric adequacy) of the subscales, and principal component analysis was used to identify subsyndromes with the symptoms of major depression according to DSM-5 or ICD-10. RESULTS: Whereas the HAM-D17 was found not to have an acceptable scalability, the three brief CID subscales for depression (six items...

  5. Neutrophil Ingestion Rate Of Nitroblue Tetrazolium In Subjects With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the WBC count, absolute neutrophil count, CD4 +T cell count and neutrophil ingestion rate of nitroblue tetrazolium in subjects with Malaria and HIV Co-morbidity. Method and materials: 134 participants were recruited and group as follow: Symptomatic HIV infected participants ...

  6. Prediction of subjective ratings of emotional pictures by EEG features

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dennis J.; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Sarnacki, William A.; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Emotion dysregulation is an important aspect of many psychiatric disorders. Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology could be a powerful new approach to facilitating therapeutic self-regulation of emotions. One possible BCI method would be to provide stimulus-specific feedback based on subject-specific electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to emotion-eliciting stimuli. Approach. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we studied the relationships between emotional valence/arousal and three EEG features: amplitude of alpha activity over frontal cortex; amplitude of theta activity over frontal midline cortex; and the late positive potential over central and posterior mid-line areas. For each feature, we evaluated its ability to predict emotional valence/arousal on both an individual and a group basis. Twenty healthy participants (9 men, 11 women; ages 22-68) rated each of 192 pictures from the IAPS collection in terms of valence and arousal twice (96 pictures on each of 4 d over 2 weeks). EEG was collected simultaneously and used to develop models based on canonical correlation to predict subject-specific single-trial ratings. Separate models were evaluated for the three EEG features: frontal alpha activity; frontal midline theta; and the late positive potential. In each case, these features were used to simultaneously predict both the normed ratings and the subject-specific ratings. Main results. Models using each of the three EEG features with data from individual subjects were generally successful at predicting subjective ratings on training data, but generalization to test data was less successful. Sparse models performed better than models without regularization. Significance. The results suggest that the frontal midline theta is a better candidate than frontal alpha activity or the late positive potential for use in a BCI-based paradigm designed to modify emotional reactions.

  7. Does Ramadan fasting affect expiratory flow rates in healthy subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Mirza M F; Siddiqui, Qamar A; Khan, Mohammed N; Sabir, Salman

    2006-11-01

    To assess whether Ramadan fasting affects the expiratory flow rates in healthy subjects, and to know if these effects correlate to a change in other variables. This unmatched case-control longitudinal study includes 46 non-smoking healthy subjects who undertook lung function testing at the Aga Khan University, Pakistan. Expiratory flow rates and body mass were measured in 3 Islamic months, corresponding to November 2001 to January 2002. There was a significant reduction in body mass in Ramadan compared to pre and post Ramadan. No significant changes in expiratory flows were seen during Ramadan as compared to the pre Ramadan period. However, forced expiratory flow rates at 75% of vital capacity (FEF(75)) and between 75% and 85% of vital capacity (FEF(75-85)) showed a significant increase in the post Ramadan period compared to Ramadan. Changes in FEF(75) were negatively correlated to changes in body mass between Ramadan and post Ramadan. This study shows that Ramadan fasting will not affect expiratory flow rates in healthy subjects. Post Ramadan values did show an increase in FEF(75) and FEF(75-85), possibly due to changes in body water and fat content. The reductions in body mass were most probably due to lack of nutrition and not dehydration as the fasts were performed in winter. Collection of reference values or early phase clinical trials measuring expiratory flow rates should not be affected by Ramadan fasting.

  8. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS scale: A methodological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strelow Frank

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper compiles data from different sources to get a first comprehensive picture of psychometric and other methodological characteristics of the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS scale. The scale was designed and standardized as a self-administered scale to (a to assess symptoms/complaints of aging women under different conditions, (b to evaluate the severity of symptoms over time, and (c to measure changes pre- and postmenopause replacement therapy. The scale became widespread used (available in 10 languages. Method A large multinational survey (9 countries in 4 continents from 2001/ 2002 is the basis for in depth analyses on reliability and validity of the MRS. Additional small convenience samples were used to get first impressions about test-retest reliability. The data were centrally analyzed. Data from a postmarketing HRT study were used to estimate discriminative validity. Results Reliability measures (consistency and test-retest stability were found to be good across countries, although the sample size for test-retest reliability was small. Validity: The internal structure of the MRS across countries was astonishingly similar to conclude that the scale really measures the same phenomenon in symptomatic women. The sub-scores and total score correlations were high (0.7–0.9 but lower among the sub-scales (0.5–0.7. This however suggests that the subscales are not fully independent. Norm values from different populations were presented showing that a direct comparison between Europe and North America is possible, but caution recommended with comparisons of data from Latin America and Indonesia. But this will not affect intra-individual comparisons within clinical trials. The comparison with the Kupperman Index showed sufficiently good correlations, illustrating an adept criterion-oriented validity. The same is true for the comparison with the generic quality-of-life scale SF-36 where also a sufficiently close association

  9. Intensity resolution and subjective magnitude in psychophysical scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L M; Armstrong, J; Golestani, N

    1996-07-01

    Several successful theories of psychophysical judgment imply that exponents of power functions in scaling tasks should covary with measures of intensity resolution such as d' in the same tasks, whereas the prevailing metatheory of ideal psychophysical scaling asserts the independence of the two. In a direct test of this relationship, three prominent psychophysical scaling paradigms were studied: category judgment without an identification function, absolute magnitude estimation, and cross-modality matching with light intensity as the response continuum. Separate groups of subjects for each scaling paradigm made repeated judgments of the loudnesses of the pure tones that constituted each of two stimulus ensembles. The narrow- and wide-range ensembles shared six identical stimulus intensities in the middle of each set. Intensity resolution, as measured by d'-like distances, of these physically identical stimuli was significantly worse for the wide-range set for all three methods. Exponents of power functions fitted to geometric mean responses, and in magnitude estimation and cross-modality matching the geometric mean responses themselves, were also significantly smaller in the wide-range condition. The variation of power function exponents, and of psychophysical scale values, for stimulus intensities that were identical in the two stimulus sets with the intensities of other members of the ensembles is inconsistent with the metatheory on which modern psychophysical scaling practice is based, although it is consistent with other useful approaches to measurement of psychological magnitudes.

  10. Modelling of rate effects at multiple scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, R.R.; Simone, A.; Sluys, L. J.

    2008-01-01

    , the length scale in the meso-model and the macro-model can be coupled. In this fashion, a bridging of length scales can be established. A computational analysis of  a Split Hopkinson bar test at medium and high impact load is carried out at macro-scale and meso-scale including information from  the micro-scale....

  11. Outcome Rating Scale and Session Rating Scale in Psychological Practice: Clinical Utility of Ultra-Brief Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alistair; Hemsley, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS) were evaluated against existing longer measures, including the Outcome Questionnaire-45, Working Alliance Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Quality of Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. The measures…

  12. Rating scales measuring the severity of psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, S D; Rothschild, A J; Flint, A J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Unipolar psychotic depression (PD) is a severe and debilitating syndrome, which requires intensive monitoring. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the rating scales used to assess illness severity in PD. METHOD: Selective review of publications reporting results...... on non-self-rated, symptom-based rating scales utilized to measure symptom severity in PD. The clinical and psychometric validity of the identified rating scales was reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 14 rating scales meeting the predefined criteria were included in the review. These scales grouped...... into the following categories: (i) rating scales predominantly covering depressive symptoms, (ii) rating scales predominantly covering psychotic symptoms, (iii) rating scales covering delusions, and (iv) rating scales covering PD. For the vast majority of the scales, the clinical and psychometric validity had...

  13. Heart rate detection from an electronic weighing scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Landaeta, R; Casas, O; Pallàs-Areny, R

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel technique for heart rate detection on a subject that stands on a common electronic weighing scale. The detection relies on sensing force variations related to the blood acceleration in the aorta, works even if wearing footwear, and does not require any sensors attached to the body. We have applied our method to three different weighing scales, and estimated whether their sensitivity and frequency response suited heart rate detection. Scale sensitivities were from 490 nV/V/N to 1670 nV/V/N, all had an underdamped transient response and their dynamic gain error was below 19% at 10 Hz, which are acceptable values for heart rate estimation. We also designed a pulse detection system based on off-the-shelf integrated circuits, whose gain was about 70x10(3) and able to sense force variations about 240 mN. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the main peaks of the pulse signal detected was higher than 48 dB, which is large enough to estimate the heart rate by simple signal processing methods. To validate the method, the ECG and the force signal were simultaneously recorded on 12 volunteers. The maximal error obtained from heart rates determined from these two signals was +/-0.6 beats/minute.

  14. Rating scales for depression and anxiety: A current perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Snaith, R P; Taylor, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    1 Research now requires instruments capable of a better distinction between depressive and anxiety disorders. The study is concerned with two relatively recent clinician-rated scales, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Clinical Anxiety Scale together with two recent self-assessment scales, the Irritability-Depression-Anxiety Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The concurrent validity of these scales as measures of the separate concepts of anxiety and depres...

  15. A comparative study of pulse rate variability and heart rate variability in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jih-Sen; Lu, Wan-An; Wu, Kung-Tai; Liu, Margaret; Chen, Gau-Yang; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2012-04-01

    Both heart rate variability (HRV) and pulse rate variability (PRV) are noninvasive means for the assessment of autonomic nervous control of the heart. However, it is not settled whether or not the PRV obtained from either hand can be the surrogate of HRV. The HRV measures obtained from electrocardiographic signals and the PRV measures obtained from the pulse waves recorded from the index fingers of both hands were compared in normal subjects by using linear regression analysis and Bland and Altman method. Highly significant correlations (P heart rate and ultra-low frequency power (ULFP). The PRV of either hand is close to, but not the same as the HRV in healthy subjects. The HRV, right PRV and left PRV are not surrogates of one another in normal subjects except heart rate and ULFP. Since HRV is generally accepted as the standard method for the assessment of the autonomic nervous modulation of a subject, the PRV of either hand may not be suitable for the assessment of the cardiac autonomic nervous modulation of the subject.

  16. Comparison of numerical and verbal rating scales to measure pain exacerbations in patients with chronic cancer pain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brunelli, Cinzia; Zecca, Ernesto; Martini, Cinzia; Campa, Tiziana; Fagnoni, Elena; Bagnasco, Michela; Lanata, Luigi; Caraceni, Augusto

    2010-01-01

    Numerical rating scales (NRS), and verbal rating scales (VRS) showed to be reliable and valid tools for subjective cancer pain measurement, but no one of them consistently proved to be superior to the other...

  17. Psychometric properties of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and of the Short Parkinson's Evaluation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignoni, E; Franchignoni, F; Pasetti, C; Ferriero, G; Picco, D

    2003-10-01

    The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlation) and construct validity (factor analysis, intercorrelations, and relationship with Hoehn and Yahr staging and Schwab and England's ADL scale) of the sections "motor examination" and "activities of daily living" of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and of the Short Parkinson's Evaluation Scale (SPES) were analyzed in 59 subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) with various degrees of disability. Our results indicate that the SPES is easier and quicker than UPDRS and that it maintains many psychometric properties similar to those of the UPDRS, but with the reduction of a number of items and ordinal levels of each item studied here (producing more homogenous sections than the original versions). The tremor items would be better represented as a separate section in both scales.

  18. [Analysis of 4 sedation rating scales in the critical patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade Mera, M J; Guirao Moya, A; Esteban Sánchez, M E; Rivera Alvarez, J; Cruz Ramos, A M; Bretones Chorro, B; Viñas Sánchez, S; Jacue Izquierdo, S; Montane López, M

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the relationship between different Sedation Rating Scales (SRSs) for critical patients on mechanical ventilation and to know the relationship between the SRSs, clinical information and the dose of sedative and analgesia drugs (SAD). A longitudinal, prospective analytic pilot study conducted in a Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital from October-December 2006. The sample included patients who required administration of SAP and mechanical ventilation. The following biological parameters and scales were evaluated: patient's demographics, RAMSAY, Sedation Agitation Scale (SAS), Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS), Motor Activity Assessment Scale (MASS), SAD dose, mean blood pressure, cardiac rate, pupil diameter and respiratory frequency. Spearman coefficient of interrelation was used to compare the relationship between the different scales. A total of 2.412 measurements were made for each variable: SRS, clinical information and SAD dose in 30 patients with different diseases, 63 % males, age 52 +/- 19 years, APACHEII 24 +/- 8, SAPSII 44 +/- 16, with an ICU mortality UCI 34 %. Median and IQ range of stay in ICU 15.5 and 20 days, of mechanical ventilation 9 and 14 days, of SAD 6 and 5.5 days and of paralyzing drugs (PD) 2 and 5 days, respectively. Interrelation was detected between all the SRSs, with p < 0.0001. The relationship between SAS, RASS and MASS was direct, whereas these were related inversely to RAMSAY. No evidence of interrelation was found between the SRSs, the clinical information and the SAD doses. The RAMSAY scale that has not been validated in ICU patients has a strong interrelation with the other already validated SRSs. SRSs are subjective and do not correlate with the clinical information and the SAD doses, probably due to the sample's small size and heterogeneity.

  19. Sternal Pulse Rate Variability Compared with Heart Rate Variability on Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chreiteh, Shadi; Belhage, Bo; Hoppe, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) is a commonly used method to quantify the sympathetic and the parasympathetic modulation of the heart rate. HRV is mainly conducted on electrocardiograms (ECG). However, the use of photoplethysmography (PPG) as a marker of the autonomic tone is emerging....... In this study we investigated the feasibility of deriving pulse rate variability (PRV) using PPG signals recorded by a reflectance PPG sensor attached to the chest bone (sternum) and comparing it to HRV. The recordings were conducted on 9 healthy subjects being in a relaxed supine position and under forced...... the parameters (r > 0:95 with p using sternal PPG can be an alternative to HRV analysis on healthy subjects at rest....

  20. Subjective Happiness of Lebanese College Youth in Lebanon: Factorial Structure and Invariance of the Arabic Subjective Happiness Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghnie, Lamia; Kazarian, Shahe S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the subjective happiness of Lebanese college youth using a multi-item rather than a single-item subjective happiness measure. An Arabic translation of the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) was administered to 273 Lebanese college youth from state- and private-run higher institutions of learning, as was the Arabic Adult…

  1. Quantification of Subjective Scaling of Friction Using a Fingertip Biomechanical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdolvahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjective scaling of friction is important in many applications in haptic technology. A nonhomogeneous biomechanical finite element model of fingertip is proposed in order to predict neural response of sensitive mechanoreceptors to frictional stimuli (Slowly Adapting SAII receptors under the glabrous skin. In a guided psychophysical experiment, ten human subjects were asked to scale several standard surfaces based on the perception of their frictional properties. Contact forces deployed during the exploratory time of one of the participants were captured in order to estimate required parameters for the model of contact in the simulation procedure. Consequently, the strain energy density at the location of a selective mechanoreceptor in the finite element model as a measure of discharge rate of the neural unit was compared to the subject’s perceptual evaluation of the relevant stimuli. It was observed that the subject’s scores correlate with the discharge rate of the given receptor.

  2. Reliability and concurrent validity of visual analogue scale and modified verbal rating scale of pain assessment in adult patients with knee osteoathritis in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    M. O.B Olaogun; R. A. Adedoyin; R. O. Anifaloba

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and concurrent validity of two pain rating scales - Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Verbal Rating Scale (VRS). The verbal rating scale was modified by translating the English description of subjective pain experience into vernacular (Yoruba) equivalents and rating the knee pain when the patient was  standing with the knee  flexed . Twenty seven patients who were clinically and radiologically diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) and wi...

  3. Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Adler, Lenard A.; Qiao, Meihua; Saylor, Keith E.; Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James A.; Schuh, Kory J.; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) that measures aspects of ADHD in adults. Method: Psychometric properties of the AISRS total and AISRS subscales are analyzed and compared to the Conners' Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV)…

  4. College Student Self-Rating Scale of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; Fournet, Glenn P.

    1976-01-01

    The study involved designing an instrument on characteristics of a quality student and analyzing the changes in students' self-ratings on these characteristics. The instrument, a self-rating scale consisting of 37 characteristics of a quality student, was devised providing for three ratings during a semester on stamine scales. (Author)

  5. Psychometric properties of the Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptics Scale and the Subjective Deficit Syndrome Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, L.; Weisfelt, M.; Dingemans, P. M. A. J.; Linszen, D. H.; Wouters, L.

    2002-01-01

    Rationale: Subjective experience of antipsychotic drugs is relevant for medication compliance and quality of life. There is, however, sparse knowledge about the assessment of subjective experience. Objectives: To examine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, sensitivity to medication

  6. The Subjective Experiences of Psychosis Scale (SEPS): psychometric evaluation of a scale to assess outcome in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Gillian; Wood, Lisa; Watts, Rachel; Dunn, Graham; Morrison, Anthony P; Price, Jason

    2011-12-01

    A range of outcome measures has been developed to assess psychotic symptoms. Many of these are observer based assessments which rate the presence and severity of broad symptom types. There is a need for service-user generated multi-dimensional scales to assess psychosis. To investigate the psychometric properties of a service user generated, self-report scale to assess recovery in relation to psychotic symptoms. The reliability and validity of the Subjective Experiences of Psychosis Scale (SEPS) was investigated with 100 participants experiencing psychosis against observer rated assessments of psychosis and self report measures of affect, esteem, recovery and functioning. Two factors emerged representing positive and negative aspects of psychotic experiences. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency and sensitivity to change were good and the scales correlated with the PANSS, PSYRATS and measures of affect, esteem, recovery and functioning. The SEPS is a reliable and valid tool which can be used to evaluate outcome from treatment and which reflects the multi-dimensional experience of psychosis. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling the time--varying subjective quality of HTTP video streams with rate adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Choi, Lark Kwon; de Veciana, Gustavo; Caramanis, Constantine; Heath, Robert W; Bovik, Alan C

    2014-05-01

    Newly developed hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)-based video streaming technologies enable flexible rate-adaptation under varying channel conditions. Accurately predicting the users' quality of experience (QoE) for rate-adaptive HTTP video streams is thus critical to achieve efficiency. An important aspect of understanding and modeling QoE is predicting the up-to-the-moment subjective quality of a video as it is played, which is difficult due to hysteresis effects and nonlinearities in human behavioral responses. This paper presents a Hammerstein-Wiener model for predicting the time-varying subjective quality (TVSQ) of rate-adaptive videos. To collect data for model parameterization and validation, a database of longer duration videos with time-varying distortions was built and the TVSQs of the videos were measured in a large-scale subjective study. The proposed method is able to reliably predict the TVSQ of rate adaptive videos. Since the Hammerstein-Wiener model has a very simple structure, the proposed method is suitable for online TVSQ prediction in HTTP-based streaming.

  8. Confidentiality and Professional Affiliation Effects on Subject Ratings of Interviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, David W.; And Others

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of different statements regarding confidentiality (absolute; limited; nondirective) on subject impressions of interviewers. In addition, the professional affiliation of the interviewer was manipulated (psychologist, minister/pastoral counselor, social worker) to assess potential influence of…

  9. Decision Tree Rating Scales for Workload Estimation: Theme and Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietwille, W. W.; Skipper, J. H.; Rieger, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of workload in several different types of aircrew tasks. The MCH scale was examined to determine if certain variations of the scale might provide even greater sensitivity and to determine the reasons for the sensitivity of the scale. The MCH scale and five newly devised scales were studied in two different aircraft simulator experiments in which pilot loading was treated as an independent variable. Results indicate that while one of the new scales may be more sensitive in a given experiment, task dependency is a problem. The MCH scale exhibits consistent sensitivity and remains the scale recommended for general use. The results of the rating scale experiments are presented and the questionnaire results which were directed at obtaining a better understanding of the reasons for the relative sensitivity of the MCH scale and its variations are described.

  10. Scales for assessment of depression in schizophrenia: Factor analysis of calgary depression rating scale and hamilton depression rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Sahoo, Swapnajeet; Dua, Devakshi; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of Calgary depression rating scale (CDSS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) among patients with schizophrenia in acute and remission phase of illness by using exploratory factor analysis. For this, 267 patients with schizophrenia were assessed on CDSS and HDRS. Exploratory factor analysis of CDSS yielded 2 factor models for the whole sample, patients in clinical remission and patients not in clinical remission phase of schizophrenia. Factor analysis of HDRS yielded 3 factor models; however, there was significant difference in the factor structure between those in clinical remission and those not in clinical remission phase of schizophrenia. CDSS total score did not correlate with PANSS positive and negative subscale scores. In contrast, HDRS total score correlated positively with PANSS positive subscale score, PANSS negative subscale score and PANSS general psychopathology subscale score. To conclude, present study suggests while CDSS items separate out into 2 factors, which are stable across different stages of illness, whereas HDRS factor structure appears to be less stable across different stages of illness. Correlation analysis suggests that rating on HDRS may be affected by positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, whereas CDSS do not correlate with positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H; Kuiper, Marieke J; Lunsing, Roelinka J; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P; Sival, Deborah A

    2014-06-01

    To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean age 10y 5mo SD 3y 11mo). The investigated scales involved the commonly applied International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), the Brief Ataxia Rating Scale (BARS), and PEG-board tests. We investigated the interrelatedness between individual ataxia scales, the influence of age and sex, inter- and intra-observer agreement, and test-retest reliability. Spearman's rank correlations revealed strong correlations between ICARS, SARA BARS, and PEG-board test (all pataxia rating scales are reliable, but should include age-dependent interpretation in children up to 12 years of age. To enable longitudinal interpretation of quantitative ataxia rating scales in children, European paediatric normative values are necessary. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  12. Effective Rating Scale Development for Speaking Tests: Performance Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…

  13. Patient- and Family-Rated Scale for Bipolar Disorder Symptoms: Internal State Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Liang Huang

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of patients, by themselves and their caregivers, is very important in the prophylaxis of bipolar disorder. This study aimed to develop a Chinese-language version of an instrument for assessment of manic and depressive symptoms by patients and their families. Fifty-eight inpatients and outpatients with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnosis of bipolar disorder were recruited. All subjects underwent clinical psychopathologic assessment by experienced psychiatrists using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS. At the same time, each patient and key family members filled out the Chinese-language version of the Internal State Scale (ISS for monitoring mental symptoms. Patients were examined a second time if they had entered remission or a new episode of the opposite polarity. The ISS was divided into two subscales, of well-being/activation and of irritability. Patients' well-being/activation and irritability subscales were significantly correlated with YMRS scores and the well-being/activation subscale was also significantly correlated with the HDRS score. Family members' irritability subscales were significantly correlated with HDRS scores only. The reliability and constructive validity of the ISS was good in both patients with bipolar disorder and their families.

  14. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  15. Construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Frainer, Deivis Elton Schlickmann; Adami, Fernando; Almeida, Fernando de Souza; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E; Demarzo,Marcelo Marcos Piva; MONTEIRO, Carlos Bandeira de Mello; Oliveira, Fernando R.

    2012-01-01

    p. 1-6 Background Figure rating scales were developed as a tool to determine body dissatisfaction in women, men, and children. However, it lacks in the literature the validation of the scale for body silhouettes previously adapted. We aimed to obtain evidence for construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents. Methods The study was carried out with adolescent students attending three public schools in an urban region of the municipality of Florianopolis in the Sta...

  16. Factor Validity of a Proactive and Reactive Aggression Rating Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Kaat, Aaron; Farmer, Cristan; Gadow, Kenneth; Findling, Robert L.; Bukstein, Oscar; Arnold, L. Eugene; Bangalore, Srihari; McNamara, Nora; Aman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors can be classified into proactive and reactive functions, though there is disagreement about whether these are distinct constructs. Data suggest that proactive and reactive aggression have different etiologies, correlates, and response to treatment. Several rating scales are available to characterize aggressive behavior as proactive or reactive; one commonly used scale was originally developed for teacher ratings, referred to here as the Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS). Ho...

  17. The impact of food viscosity on eating rate, subjective appetite, glycemic response and gastric emptying rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV and a high viscosity (HV semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020, with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively while fullness was higher (P<0.001. In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001, higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001 and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001. However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods.

  18. A consensus definition and rating scale for minimalist shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esculier, Jean-Francois; Dubois, Blaise; Dionne, Clermont E; Leblond, Jean; Roy, Jean-Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    While minimalist running shoes may have an influence on running biomechanics and on the incidence of overuse injuries, the term "minimalist" is currently used without standardisation. The objectives of this study were to reach a consensus on a standard definition of minimalist running shoes, and to develop and validate a rating scale that could be used to determine the degree of minimalism of running shoes, the Minimalist Index (MI). For this modified Delphi study, 42 experts from 11 countries completed four electronic questionnaires on an optimal definition of minimalist shoes and on elements to include within the MI. Once MI was developed following consensus, 85 participants subjectively ranked randomly assigned footwear models from the most to the least minimalist and rated their degree of minimalism using visual analog scales (VAS), before evaluating the same footwear models using MI. A subsample of thirty participants reassessed the same shoes on another occasion. Construct validity and inter- and intra-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]; Gwet's AC1) of MI were evaluated. The following definition of minimalist shoes was agreed upon by 95 % of participants: "Footwear providing minimal interference with the natural movement of the foot due to its high flexibility, low heel to toe drop, weight and stack height, and the absence of motion control and stability devices". Characteristics to be included in MI were weight, flexibility, heel to toe drop, stack height and motion control/stability devices, each subscale carrying equal weighing (20 %) on final score. Total MI score was highly correlated with VAS (r = 0.91). A significant rank effect (p minimalism, and may help to decrease injuries related to footwear transition.

  19. The un-making of a method: From rating scales to the study of psychological processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Philip J.; Valsiner, Jaan

    2011-01-01

    Rating scales are standard instruments in psychology. They force the research participant to provide a numerical estimate of an assumed “degree” of some characteristic along a linear scale. We prove that such numerical estimates are artifacts based on unknown psychological processes that are used...... in the making of a rating. Psychology’s current use of rating scales entails reliance upon unexplored and abbreviated introspection. It superimposes upon the rater the use of real numbers for the subjective construction of the ratings. The axiomatic superimposition of the notion of “degree” of subjective...... in terms of the study of microgenesis of rating processes allows psychology access to the reality of the workings of the human mind....

  20. Cosmology from large-scale structure observations: a subjective review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilicki, Maciej; Hellwing, Wojciech A.

    2017-08-01

    In these lecture notes we give a brief overview of cosmological inference from the observed large-scale structure (LSS) of the Universe. After a general introduction, we briefly summarize the current status of the standard cosmological model, ΛCDM, and then discuss a few general puzzles related to this otherwise successful model. Next, after a concise presentation of LSS properties, we describe various observational cosmological probes, such as baryon acoustic oscillations, redshift space distortions and weak gravitational lensing. We also provide examples of how the rapidly developing technique of cross-correlations of cosmological datasets is applied. Finally, we briefly mention the promise brought to cosmology by gravitational wave detections.

  1. Reliability and validity of a Portuguese version of the Young Mania Rating Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.A. Vilela

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability and validity of a Portuguese version of the Young Mania Rating Scale were evaluated. The original scale was translated into and adapted to Portuguese by the authors. Definitions of clinical manifestations, a semi-structured anchored interview and more explicit rating criteria were added to the scale. Fifty-five adult subjects, aged 18 to 60 years, with a diagnosis of Current Manic Episode according to DSM-III-R criteria were assessed using the Young Mania Rating Scale as well as the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale in two sessions held at intervals from 7 to 10 days. Good reliability ratings were obtained, with intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.97 for total scores, and levels of agreement above 0.80 (P < 0.001 for all individual items. Internal consistency analysis resulted in an alpha = 0.67 for the scale as a whole, and an alpha = 0.72 for each standardized item (P < 0.001. For the concurrent validity, a correlation of 0.78 was obtained by the Pearson coefficient between the total scores of the Young Mania Rating Scale and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. The results are similar to those reported for the English version, indicating that the Portuguese version of the scale constitutes a reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of manic patients.

  2. Scaling of Growth Rate Volatility for Six Macroeconomic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Podobnik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the annual growth rates of six macroeconomic variables: public debt, public health expenditures, exports of goods, government consumption expenditures, total exports of goods and services, and total imports of goods and services. For each variable, we find (i that the distribution of the growth rate residuals approximately follows a double exponential (Laplace distribution and (ii that the standard deviation of growth rate residuals scales according to the size of the variable as a power law, with a scaling exponent similar to the scaling exponent found for GDP [Economics Letters 60, 335 (1998]. We hypothesise that the volatility scaling we find for these GDP constituents causes the volatility scaling found in GDP data.

  3. Objective and subjective memory ratings in cannabis-dependent adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Lydiard, Jessica B; Goddard, Scott D; Gray, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance worldwide, with an estimated 160 million users. Among adolescents, rates of cannabis use are increasing, while the perception of detrimental effects of cannabis use is declining. Difficulty with memory is one of the most frequently noted cognitive deficits associated with cannabis use, but little data exist exploring how well users can identify their own memory deficits, if present. The current secondary analysis sought to characterize objective verbal and visual memory performance via a neurocognitive battery in cannabis-dependent adolescents enrolled in a pharmacotherapeutic cannabis cessation clinical trial (N = 112) and compare this to a single self-reported item assessing difficulties with memory loss. Exploratory analyses also assessed dose-dependent effects of cannabis on memory performance. A small portion of the study sample (10%) endorsed a "serious problem" with memory loss. Those participants reporting "no problem" or "serious problem" scored similarly on visual and verbal memory tasks on the neurocognitive battery. Exploratory analyses suggested a potential relationship between days of cannabis use, amount of cannabis used, and gender with memory performance. This preliminary and exploratory analysis suggests that a sub-set of cannabis users may not accurately perceive difficulties with memory. Further work should test this hypothesis with the use of a control group, comprehensive self-reports of memory problems, and adult populations that may have more years of cannabis use and more severe cognitive deficits. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF SUBJECTIVE PERCEIVED EXERTION AT THE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD WITH THE BORG CR-10 SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio R. Zamunér

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anaerobic threshold (AT with a graphic visual method for estimating the intensity of ventilatory and metabolic exertion and to determine the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE on the Borg CR-10 scale during a continuous ramp type exercise test (CT-R. Forty healthy, physically active and sedentary young women (age 23.1 ± 3.52 years were divided into two groups according to their fitness level: active group (AG and sedentary group (SG and were submitted to a CT-R on a cycloergometer with 20 to 25 W/min increments. Shortly before the end of each one-minute period, the subjects were asked to rate dyspnea (RPE-D and leg fatigue (RPE-L on the Borg CR-10 scale. After the AT was determined with the graphic visual method, the score that the volunteers gave on the Borg CR10 scale was verified. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney and Spearman correlation tests with the significance level set at 5%. The mean ratings of RPE-L and RPE-D at the AT level were not significantly different between groups (p > 0.05. Significant correlations were found between VO2, heart rate (HR, power output and RPE for both groups. The muscular and respiratory RPE, according to the Borg CR-10 scale, were correlated with the AT, suggesting that scores close to 5, which correspond to a "strong" perception, may be used as parameters for quantifying aerobic exercise intensity for active and sedentary individuals. The similar perception of exercise intensity, which corresponded to the AT of different individuals, makes it possible to prescribe exercise at an intensity equivalent to the AT by means of the RPE.

  5. Measuring Subjective Happiness by Newly Developed Scale in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Happiness as one of the main positive health indicators has drawn more attention in recent years among policy makers and health system managers. There are few studies performed to measure happiness in population-based settings in Iran. In response to this need, our study tends to assess Iranians subjective happiness in Tehran, Capital city of Iran.Materials and Methods: Present study was conducted in Tehran, Capital of Iran, with more than 7 Million populations in January 2013, using a two-step approach. In first step c conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness was developed. In the second phase of study, a survey recruiting 700 participants was conducted. Stratified cluster sampling method was employed. Participants were recruited from all the 22 municipal divisions of Tehran as strata, proportional to the population size and its gender and age distribution. Happiness was measure by a 40-item questionnaire with scores ranged among 40 to 200.Results: Conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness based on reviewed documents and consensus building process was the product of first step. At second step, from a pool of 700 persons, 696 (97% agreed to participate and filled out the questionnaire completely.  The mean of happiness score was 143.9 (95% confidence interval, 142.5 to 145.4. The results show that the happiness score of jobless people (135.1, 95%CI: 128.1-142.0 and widowed singles (126.6, 95%CI: 113.0-140.2 were significantly lower than other corresponding groups. There was no significant association between gender, age group, educational level as determinants and happiness.Conclusion: Happiness level of Tehranians is somewhat higher than the moderate level. This finding is consistent with findings of other conducted studies in country. However, it is not consistent with some of international reports of happiness, For instance, Happy Planet Index. Due to inadequate information, it is necessary to conduct more research to

  6. Development of Behaviorally-Anchored Rating Scales for Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grussing, Paul G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen behaviorally-anchored rating scales were developed for a comprehensive measure of performance in pharmacy practice, including pharmacist selection, performance appraisal, and promotion activities. The scales (which are included) were also used to evaluate extern performance, and to serve as a criterion measure in studies of concurrent…

  7. Scaling relationship between tree respiration rates and biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dong-Liang; Li, Tao; Zhong, Quan-Lin; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2010-10-23

    The WBE theory proposed by West, Brown and Enquist predicts that larger plant respiration rate, R, scales to the three-quarters power of body size, M. However, studies on the R versus M relationship for larger plants (i.e. trees larger than saplings) have not been reported. Published respiration rates of field-grown trees (saplings and larger trees) were examined to test this relationship. Our results showed that for larger trees, aboveground respiration rates RA scaled as the 0.82-power of aboveground biomass MA, and that total respiration rates RT scaled as the 0.85-power of total biomass MT, both of which significantly deviated from the three-quarters scaling law predicted by the WBE theory, and which agreed with 0.81-0.84-power scaling of biomass to respiration across the full range of measured tree sizes for an independent dataset reported by Reich et al. (Reich et al. 2006 Nature 439, 457-461). By contrast, R scaled nearly isometrically with M in saplings. We contend that the scaling exponent of plant metabolism is close to unity for saplings and decreases (but is significantly larger than three-quarters) as trees grow, implying that there is no universal metabolic scaling in plants.

  8. Development of a scale to measure individuals’ ratings of peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The evolving concept of peace-building and the interplay between peace and health is examined in many venues, including at the World Health Assembly. However, without a metric to determine effectiveness of intervention programs all efforts are prone to subjective assessment. This paper develops a psychometric index that lays the foundation for measuring community peace stemming from intervention programs. Methods After developing a working definition of ‘peace’ and delineating a Peace Evaluation Across Cultures and Environments (PEACE) scale with seven constructs comprised of 71 items, a beta version of the index was pilot-tested. Two hundred and fifty subjects in three sites in the U.S. were studied using a five-point Likert scale to evaluate the psychometric functioning of the PEACE scale. Known groups validation was performed using the SOS-10. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed on 20 subjects. Results The preliminary data demonstrated that the scale has acceptable psychometric properties for measuring an individual’s level of peacefulness. The study also provides reliability and validity data for the scale. The data demonstrated internal consistency, correlation between data and psychological well-being, and test-retest reliability. Conclusions The PEACE scale may serve as a novel assessment tool in the health sector and be valuable in monitoring and evaluating the peace-building impact of health initiatives in conflict-affected regions. PMID:25298781

  9. Development of a scale to measure individuals' ratings of peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Howard; Ahn, Roy; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Blais, Mark; Nelson, Brett D; Burke, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    The evolving concept of peace-building and the interplay between peace and health is examined in many venues, including at the World Health Assembly. However, without a metric to determine effectiveness of intervention programs all efforts are prone to subjective assessment. This paper develops a psychometric index that lays the foundation for measuring community peace stemming from intervention programs. After developing a working definition of 'peace' and delineating a Peace Evaluation Across Cultures and Environments (PEACE) scale with seven constructs comprised of 71 items, a beta version of the index was pilot-tested. Two hundred and fifty subjects in three sites in the U.S. were studied using a five-point Likert scale to evaluate the psychometric functioning of the PEACE scale. Known groups validation was performed using the SOS-10. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed on 20 subjects. The preliminary data demonstrated that the scale has acceptable psychometric properties for measuring an individual's level of peacefulness. The study also provides reliability and validity data for the scale. The data demonstrated internal consistency, correlation between data and psychological well-being, and test-retest reliability. The PEACE scale may serve as a novel assessment tool in the health sector and be valuable in monitoring and evaluating the peace-building impact of health initiatives in conflict-affected regions.

  10. Effects of caffeine on alcohol reinforcement: beverage choice, self-administration, and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M; Meredith, Steven E; Evatt, Daniel P; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-03-01

    Combining alcohol and caffeine is associated with increased alcohol consumption, but no prospective experimental studies have examined whether added caffeine increases alcohol consumption. This study examined how caffeine alters alcohol self-administration and subjective reinforcing effects in healthy adults. Thirty-one participants completed six double-blind alcohol self-administration sessions: three sessions with alcohol only (e.g., beverage A) and three sessions with alcohol and caffeine (e.g., beverage B). Participants chose which beverage to consume on a subsequent session (e.g., beverage A or B). The effects of caffeine on overall beverage choice, number of self-administered drinks, subjective ratings (e.g., Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale), and psychomotor performance were examined. A majority of participants (65%) chose to drink the alcohol beverage containing caffeine on their final self-administration session. Caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks. Caffeine significantly increased stimulant effects, decreased sedative effects, and attenuated decreases in psychomotor performance attributable to alcohol. Relative to nonchoosers, caffeine choosers reported overall lower stimulant ratings and reported greater drinking behavior prior to the study. Although caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks, most participants chose the alcohol beverage containing caffeine. Given the differences in subjective ratings and pre-existing differences in self-reported alcohol consumption for caffeine choosers and nonchoosers, these data suggest that decreased stimulant effects of alcohol and heavier self-reported drinking may predict subsequent choice of combined caffeine and alcohol beverages. These predictors may identify individuals who would benefit from efforts to reduce risk behaviors associated with combining alcohol and caffeine.

  11. Reliability of the 7-point subjective global assessment scale in assessing nutritional status of dialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R.; Dekker, F. W.; Boeschoten, E. W.; Stevens, P.; Krediet, R. T.

    1999-01-01

    Subjective global assessment (SGA) is a method to score nutritional status in a standardized way. The original 3-point scale has been replaced by a 7-point scale. The reliability of the latter scale has never been tested. We therefore assessed inter-observer and intra-observer reliability.

  12. Adaptation of the Rating Scale Mental Effort (RSME) for use in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyanti, Ari; Johnson, Addie; de Waard, Dick

    The Rating Scale Mental Effort (RSME) is a unidimensional instrument used to measure subjective mental workload. The RSME consists of a line with a length of 150 mm marked with nine anchor points, each accompanied by a descriptive label indicating a degree of effort. The RSME has been widely used in

  13. Analysis of a scaling rate meter for geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreid, D.K.

    1980-03-01

    A research project was conducted to investigate an experimental technique for measuring the rate of formation of mineral scale and corrosion in geothermal systems. A literature review was performed first to identify and evaluate available techniques for measuring scale in heat transfer equipment. As a result of these evaluations, a conceptual design was proposed for a geothermal Scaling Rate Meter (SRM) that would combine features of certain techniques used (or proposed for use) in other applications. An analysis was performed to predict the steady-state performance and expected experimental uncertainty of the proposed SRM. Sample computations were then performed to illustrate the system performance for conditions typical of a geothermal scaling application. Based on these results, recommendations are made regarding prototype SRM construction and testing.

  14. [Correlations between Beck's suicidal ideation scale, suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and Hamilton's depression rating scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducher, J-L; Dalery, J

    2008-04-01

    Most of the people who will attempt suicide, talk about it beforehand. Therefore, recognition of suicidal risk is not absolutely impossible. Beck's suicidal ideation scale and Ducher's suicidal risk assessment scale (RSD) are common tools to help practicians in this way. These scales and the Hamilton's depression scale were included in an international multicentric, phase IV, double-blind study, according to two parallel groups who had been administered a fixed dose of fluvoxamin or fluoxetin for six weeks. This allowed examination of the correlations between these scales and the relations, which could possibly exist between suicidal risk, depression and anxiety. (a) Relationships between the Beck's suicidal ideation scale, the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and Hamilton's depression before treatment. Before treatment, the analysis was conducted with 108 male and female depressive outpatients, aged 18 or over. Results revealed a significant positive correlation (with a Pearson's correlation coefficient r equal to 0.69 and risk pRSD. These scales correlate less consistently with Hamilton's depression (Beck/Hamilton's depression: r=0.34; p=0.0004-RSD/Hamilton's depression: r=0.35; p=0.0002). We observed that the clinical anxiety scale by Snaith is also strongly correlated to these two suicidal risk assessment scales (Beck/CAS: r=0.48; pRSD/CAS: r=0.35; p=0.0005). Besides, the item "suicide" of Hamilton's depression scale accounts for more than a third of the variability of Beck's suicidal ideation scale and the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD. According to these results, the suicidal risk evaluated by these two scales seems to be significantly correlated with anxiety as much as with depression. On the other hand, the Clinical Global Impression is fairly significantly correlated with Beck's suicidal ideation scale (r=0.22; p=0.02), unlike the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD (r=0.42; pRSD and Hamilton's depression under treatment. The follow-up under

  15. Assessment of a new self-rating scale for post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J R; Book, S W; Colket, J T; Tupler, L A; Roth, S; David, D; Hertzberg, M; Mellman, T; Beckham, J C; Smith, R D; Davison, R M; Katz, R; Feldman, M E

    1997-01-01

    In post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) there is a need for self-rating scales that are sensitive to treatment effects and have been tested in a broad range of trauma survivors. Separate measures of frequency and severity may also provide an advantage. Three hundred and fifty-three men and women completed the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS), a 17-item scale measuring each DSM-IV symptom of PTSD on 5-point frequency and severity scales. These subjects comprised war veterans, survivors of rape or hurricane and a mixed trauma group participating in a clinical trial. Other scales were included as validity checks as follows: Global ratings, SCL-90-R, Eysenck Scale, Impact of Event Scale and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. The scale demonstrated good test-retest reliability (r = 0.86), internal consistency (r = 0.99). One main factor emerged for severity and a smaller one for intrusion. In PTSD diagnosed subjects, and the factor structure more closely resembled the traditional grouping of symptoms. Concurrent validity was obtained against the SCID, with a diagnostic accuracy of 83% at a DTS score of 40. Good convergent and divergent validity was obtained. The DTS showed predictive validity against response to treatment, as well as being sensitive to treatment effects. The DTS showed good reliability and validity, and offers promised as a scale which is particularly suited to assessing symptom severity, treatment outcome and in screening for the likely diagnosis of PTSD.

  16. Scaling of geochemical reaction rates via advective solute transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A G; Ghanbarian, B; Skinner, T E; Ewing, R P

    2015-07-01

    Transport in porous media is quite complex, and still yields occasional surprises. In geological porous media, the rate at which chemical reactions (e.g., weathering and dissolution) occur is found to diminish by orders of magnitude with increasing time or distance. The temporal rates of laboratory experiments and field observations differ, and extrapolating from laboratory experiments (in months) to field rates (in millions of years) can lead to order-of-magnitude errors. The reactions are transport-limited, but characterizing them using standard solute transport expressions can yield results in agreement with experiment only if spurious assumptions and parameters are introduced. We previously developed a theory of non-reactive solute transport based on applying critical path analysis to the cluster statistics of percolation. The fractal structure of the clusters can be used to generate solute distributions in both time and space. Solute velocities calculated from the temporal evolution of that distribution have the same time dependence as reaction-rate scaling in a wide range of field studies and laboratory experiments, covering some 10 decades in time. The present theory thus both explains a wide range of experiments, and also predicts changes in the scaling behavior in individual systems with increasing time and/or length scales. No other theory captures these variations in scaling by invoking a single physical mechanism. Because the successfully predicted chemical reactions include known results for silicate weathering rates, our theory provides a framework for understanding changes in the global carbon cycle, including its effects on extinctions, climate change, soil production, and denudation rates. It further provides a basis for understanding the fundamental time scales of hydrology and shallow geochemistry, as well as the basis of industrial agriculture.

  17. Development and validation of the Cancer Dyspnoea Scale: a multidimensional, brief, self-rating scale

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, K; Akechi, T; Okuyama, T.; Nishiwaki, Y.; Uchitomi, Y

    2000-01-01

    Dyspnoea is one of the most frequent and refractory symptoms in cancer patients. Lack of an appropriate assessment tool for dyspnoea seems to disturb establishment of management strategy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a brief self-rating scale to assess the multidimensional nature of dyspnoea in cancer patients. We developed a 12-item scale, the Cancer Dyspnoea Scale (CDS), composed of three factors (sense of effort/sense of anxiety/sense of discomfort), by using facto...

  18. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  19. Assistance to assessing rating students by language tuple- 4 scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Ngoc Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an assistance to assessing rating the annual learning and process training of students in the opinion of experts, the approach of hedge algebra. It is advisary to make optimally fuzzy parameters with neural network in order to scale tuple-4 in accordance with current regulations on student assessment annual ranking including 7 levels.

  20. Effects of Standard Extremity on Mixed Standard Scale Performance Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    standard rating scale: An) evaluation. Organizational B~ehavior and Human Performance, 1977, 18, 19-35. Thorndike , R. M. Correliationalprocedures for...Department of Psychiatry and Chapel Hill, NC 27514 " B(-havioral Science * Baltimore, MD 21205 [r. Edward E, Lawlr Un v’rsity of Southern Californi

  1. Evaluation of the ADHD Rating Scale in Youth with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; de Marchena, Ashley; Watkins, Marley W.; Antezana, Ligia; Power, Thomas J.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists and clinicians regularly use clinical screening tools for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to assess comorbidity without empirical evidence that these measures are valid in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of youth meeting ADHD criteria on the ADHD rating scale fourth edition…

  2. Psychometric Analysis of the Pittsburgh Insomnia Rating Scale among University Population of Poor Sleepers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veqar, Zubia; Moiz, Jamal Ali; Hussain, Mohammed Ejaz

    2014-04-01

    Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale is a 65 item self administered open source questionnaire. The scale is widely used in clinical practice but its psychometric properties are not well established. Therefore keeping in mind this lacuna the current study was designed for university population of poor sleepers in India. The purpose of this study was to establish the Pittsburgh sleep Quality Index test- retest reliability, validity and internal consistency of Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale. Twenty five subjects were randomly chosen from the screened population of poor sleepers. Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale, Pittsburgh sleep quality index and Insomnia severity index were administered on test day. Retest was administered after one week. Eight males and seventeen females with mean age 24 + 7.04 were recruited. The test retest reliability for Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale total score showed excellent reliability (ICC2,1-0.93). The results also show that the total score is moderately correlated with Pittsburgh sleep Quality Index (r-0.31) and moderately correlated with Insomnia severity index (r-0.49). Internal consistency for the test was excellent (Cronbach's alpha- 0.930). The study findings suggest that Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale has excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability and good validity for university population of poor sleepers in India. It is an important first line of assessment scale for screening of sleep problems.

  3. Cosmological constraints from large-scale structure growth rate measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Anatoly; Farooq, Omer; Ratra, Bharat

    2014-07-01

    We compile a list of 14 independent measurements of a large-scale structure growth rate between redshifts 0.067≤z≤0.8 and use this to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving general-relativistic dark energy cosmologies. With the assumption that gravity is well modeled by general relativity, we discover that growth-rate data provide restrictive cosmological parameter constraints. In combination with type Ia supernova apparent magnitude versus redshift data and Hubble parameter measurements, the growth rate data are consistent with the standard spatially flat ΛCDM model, as well as with mildly evolving dark energy density cosmological models.

  4. Psychometric Properties of a Portuguese Version of the Subjective Happiness Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, Paola; Caetano, Antonio; Silva, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) constitutes an instrument for assessing subjective happiness. This study aims to present the validation of the SHS in a Portuguese adult population. A large representative sample (1,017 participants), from five different age groups was considered. Configurational invariance of the unidimensional structure of…

  5. The Strauss and Carpenter Prognostic Scale in subjects clinically at high risk of psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieman, D. H.; Velthorst, E.; Becker, H. E.; de Haan, L.; Dingemans, P. M.; Linszen, D. H.; Birchwood, M.; Patterson, P.; Salokangas, R. K. R.; Heinimaa, M.; Heinz, A.; Juckel, G.; von Reventlow, H. G.; Morrison, A.; Schultze-Lutter, F.; Klosterkötter, J.; Ruhrmann, S.; McGorry, Patrick D.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Knapp, Martin; van de Fliert, Reinaud; Klaassen, Rianne; Picker, Heinz; Neumann, Meike; Brockhaus-Dumke, Anke; Pukrop, Ralf; Svirskis, Tanja; Huttunen, Jukka; Laine, Tiina; Ilonen, Tuula; Ristkari, Terja; Hietala, Jarmo; Skeate, Amanda; Gudlowski, Yehonala; Ozgürdal, Seza; French, Paul; Stevens, Helen

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the predictive value of the Strauss and Carpenter Prognostic Scale (SCPS) for transition to a first psychotic episode in subjects clinically at high risk (CHR) of psychosis. Two hundred and forty-four CHR subjects participating in the European Prediction of Psychosis Study were

  6. A clinical rating scale for the assessment of facial aging in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sumit; Choudhury, Supriyo; Gangopadhyay, Anusree; Halder, Chinmay; Biswas, Projna; Jain, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of facial aging has assumed growing importance due to the advent of several antiaging therapies. Evidence-based estimation of global facial aging is often necessary, especially for validation of these treatment modalities. Most available methods are expensive and have been used in fair skinned individuals. We attempted to develop a clinical rating scale for the estimation of global facial aging applied on an Indian population which has brown to black skin. We have also measured the association of this rating scale score with the chronological age. Initially, a 14- item summated rating scale was developed with inputs from five dermatologists and a clinical pharmacologist. The rating scale was applied to 105 consenting subjects with healthy facial skin between 30 to 90 years of age. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was assessed. The summated rating score showed a significant positive correlation with the chronological age (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.834, P age were identified on further computation. Participants of this study were limited to a particular ethnic group from West Bengal and other neighboring states of Eastern India. We have developed and validated a 13-item rating scale for the quantification of global facial aging suitable for Indian (brown to black) skin type. This scale can be utilized effectively for clinical estimation of global facial aging.

  7. Influence of deep breathing exercise on spontaneous respiratory rate and heart rate variability: a randomised controlled trial in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharion, Elizabeth; Samuel, Prasanna; Rajalakshmi, R; Gnanasenthil, G; Subramanian, Rajam Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Studies show that yogic type of breathing exercises reduces the spontaneous respiratory rate. However, there are no conclusive studies on the effects of breathing exercise on heart rate variability. We investigated the effects of non-yogic breathing exercise on respiratory rate and heart rate variability. Healthy subjects (21-33 years, both genders) were randomized into the intervention group (n=18), which performed daily deep breathing exercise at 6 breaths/min (0.1 Hz) for one month, and a control group (n=18) which did not perform any breathing exercise. Baseline respiratory rate and short-term heart rate variability indices were assessed in both groups. Reassessment was done after one month and the change in the parameters from baseline was computed for each group. Comparison of the absolute changes [median (inter-quartile ranges)] of the parameters between the intervention and control group showed a significant difference in the spontaneous respiratory rate [intervention group -2.50 (-4.00, -1.00), control group 0.00 (-1.00, 1.00), cycles/min, Prate and cardiac autonomic modulation of the intervention group were significant, when compared to the changes in the control group. Thus practice of deep slow breathing exercise improves heart rate variability in healthy subjects, without altering their cardiac autonomic balance. These findings have implications in the use of deep breathing exercises to improve cardiac autonomic control in subjects known to have reduced heart rate variability.

  8. Scaling laws in the dynamics of crime growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luiz G. A.; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Mendes, Renio S.

    2013-06-01

    The increasing number of crimes in areas with large concentrations of people have made cities one of the main sources of violence. Understanding characteristics of how crime rate expands and its relations with the cities size goes beyond an academic question, being a central issue for contemporary society. Here, we characterize and analyze quantitative aspects of murders in the period from 1980 to 2009 in Brazilian cities. We find that the distribution of the annual, biannual and triannual logarithmic homicide growth rates exhibit the same functional form for distinct scales, that is, a scale invariant behavior. We also identify asymptotic power-law decay relations between the standard deviations of these three growth rates and the initial size. Further, we discuss similarities with complex organizations.

  9. Scaling laws in the dynamics of crime growth rate

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, Luiz Gustavo de Andrade; Mendes, Renio dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of crimes in areas with large concentrations of people have made cities one of the main source of violence. Understanding characteristics of how crime rate expands and its relations with the cities size goes beyond an academic question, being a central issue for the contemporary society. Here, we characterize and analyze quantitative aspects of murders in the period from 1980 to 2009 in Brazilian cities. We find that the distribution of the annual, biannual and triannual logarithmic homicide growth rates exhibit the same functional form for distinct scales, that is, a scale invariant behaviour. We also identify asymptotic power-law decay relations between the standard deviations of these three growth rates and the initial size. Further, we discuss similarities with complex organizations.

  10. International versions of the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Hermann PG

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptom scales for aging women have clinically been used for years and the interest in measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL has increased in recent years. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS is a formally validated scale according to the requirements for quality of life instruments. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of the instrument particularly concerning versions of the scale in different languages. MRS versions available The translations were performed following international methodological recommendations for the linguistic & cultural adaptation of HRQoL instruments. The first translation was done from the German original scale into English (UK & USA. The English version was used as the source language for the translations into French, Spanish, Swedish, Mexican/Argentine, Brazilian, Turkish, and Indonesian languages (attached as additional PDF files. Conclusion The MRS scale is obviously a valuable tool for assessing health related quality of life of women in the menopausal transition and is used worldwide. The currently available 9 language versions have been translated following international standards for the linguistic and cultural translation of quality of life scales. Assistance is offered to help interested parties in the translation process.

  11. The Utility of Clinicians Ratings of Anxiety Using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Riddle, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinician ratings of anxiety hold the promise of clarifying discrepancies often found between child and parent reports of anxiety. The Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) is a clinician-administered instrument that assesses the frequency, severity, and impairment of common pediatric anxiety disorders and has been used as a primary outcome…

  12. Relationship between manual dexterity and the unified parkinson?s disease rating scale-motor exam

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Sujin; Song, Chiang-Soon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between manual dexterity and the Unified Parkinson?s Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam as a clinical tool for quantifying upper extremity function in persons with Parkinson?s disease. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two persons with idiopathic Parkinson?s disease participated in this study. This study measured two clinical outcomes, the box-and-block test and the Unified Parkinson?s Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam, to investigat...

  13. Construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adami Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Figure rating scales were developed as a tool to determine body dissatisfaction in women, men, and children. However, it lacks in the literature the validation of the scale for body silhouettes previously adapted. We aimed to obtain evidence for construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents. Methods The study was carried out with adolescent students attending three public schools in an urban region of the municipality of Florianopolis in the State of Santa Catarina (SC. The sample comprised 232 10-19-year-old students, 106 of whom are boys and 126 girls, from the 5th "series" (i.e. year of Primary School to the 3rd year of Secondary School. Data-gathering involved the application of an instrument containing 8 body figure drawings representing a range of children's and adolescents' body shapes, ranging from very slim (contour 1 to obese (contour 8. Weights and heights were also collected, and body mass index (BMI was calculated later. BMI was analyzed as a continuous variable, using z-scores, and as a dichotomous categorical variable, representing a diagnosis of nutritional status (normal and overweight including obesity. Results Results showed that both males and females with larger BMI z-scores chose larger body contours. Girls with higher BMI z-scores also show higher values of body image dissatisfaction. Conclusion We provided the first evidence of validity for a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents.

  14. Calibration of a Credit Rating Scale for Polish Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wójcicka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing number of bankruptcy announcements means that even greater attention is being paid to the correct evaluation of the probability of default (PD and decisions made on the basis of it. Reliable estimation of the likelihood of a company's bankruptcy reduces risk, not only for the company itself but also for all co-operating companies and financial institutions. The financial crisis has led to a tightening up of the conditions for gaining finance from banks. However, it is not only the evaluation of PD itself that is so important but also the correct classification of companies according to their PD level ("good" or "bad" companies. There is very little consideration about possible adjustments of the credit risk scale, as usually the American scale is adopted with no changes which seems incorrect.This paper stresses the importance of correct calibration of the credit rating scale. It should not be assumed (as it was in the past that once a scale is defined it remains fixed and independent of the country. Therefore, the research carried out on Polish companies shows that the credit rating scale should be changed and the default point (i.e. "cut-off" point should be higher than in the past. The author uses a modified classification matrix based on the probability of default. The paper compares the classification of quoted Polish companies according to their credit risk level (PD with the actual occurrence of default when various default "cut-off" points are used. (original abstract

  15. Factor Validity of a Proactive and Reactive Aggression Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaat, Aaron; Farmer, Cristan; Gadow, Kenneth; Findling, Robert L; Bukstein, Oscar; Arnold, L Eugene; Bangalore, Srihari; McNamara, Nora; Aman, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Aggressive behaviors can be classified into proactive and reactive functions, though there is disagreement about whether these are distinct constructs. Data suggest that proactive and reactive aggression have different etiologies, correlates, and response to treatment. Several rating scales are available to characterize aggressive behavior as proactive or reactive; one commonly used scale was originally developed for teacher ratings, referred to here as the Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS). However, no data are available on the psychometric properties of the ABS for parent ratings. This study examined the factor structure and convergent/divergent validity of the parent-rated ABS among 168 children aged 6-12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, a disruptive behavior disorder, and severe aggression enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Multidimensional item response theory was used to confirm the original factor structure. The proactive and reactive factors were distinct but moderately correlated; the algorithm items exhibited acceptable fit on the original factors. The non-algorithm items caused theoretical problems and model misfit. Convergent and divergent validity of the scale was explored between the ABS and other parent-report measures. Proactive and reactive aggression showed differential correlates consistent with expectations for externalizing symptoms. The subscales were correlated weakly or not at all with most non-externalizing symptoms, with some exceptions. Thus, the original factor structure was supported and we found preliminary evidence for the validity of the scale, though the results suggest that the constructs measured by the ABS may not be totally distinct from general behavior problems in this clinical sample.

  16. Nonlinear Analysis and Scaling Laws for Noncircular Composite Structures Subjected to Combined Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Results from an analytical study of the response of a built-up, multi-cell noncircular composite structure subjected to combined internal pressure and mechanical loads are presented. Nondimensional parameters and scaling laws based on a first-order shear-deformation plate theory are derived for this noncircular composite structure. The scaling laws are used to design sub-scale structural models for predicting the structural response of a full-scale structure representative of a portion of a blended-wing-body transport aircraft. Because of the complexity of the full-scale structure, some of the similitude conditions are relaxed for the sub-scale structural models. Results from a systematic parametric study are used to determine the effects of relaxing selected similitude conditions on the sensitivity of the effectiveness of using the sub-scale structural model response characteristics for predicting the full-scale structure response characteristics.

  17. Agreement between physicians' and patients' ratings on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Janet L; Wernroth, Lisa; von Knorring, Lars; Berglund, Lars; Ekselius, Lisa

    2011-12-01

    Self-rating scales developed for monitoring depression severity are potentially informative and cost effective tools. There is an increasing tendency to use the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the self-rating version (MADRS-S) interchangeably. 400 patients with major depressive disorder were included. Concordance between patient and physician ratings was measured by means of repeated MADRS and MADRS-S ratings during a six-month drug trial and one-year follow-up. Overall scores from patients and physicians show the same trends and both are sensitive to improvements. Our results, however, show only moderate to good agreement between patient and physician ratings. Intraclass coefficients ranged from 0.47 to 0.75 with highest agreement at week 8. Generalizability is restricted to outpatients in general practice with moderate to severe depression. MADRS-S and MADRS scale definitions are similar but not identical concerning language and are scaled differently, 0-6 vs. 0-3, respectively, which may have influenced the results. The exclusion criteria restricted the range of values for the item Suicidal thoughts/Zest for life, which may have reduced the correlations. MADRS-S is a suitable tool for following patients' symptoms on a regular basis over time and may also be used to compensate for bias in physicians' ratings in drug trials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A clinical rating scale for the assessment of facial aging in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimation of facial aging has assumed growing importance due to the advent of several antiaging therapies. Evidence-based estimation of global facial aging is often necessary, especially for validation of these treatment modalities. Most available methods are expensive and have been used in fair skinned individuals. Aim: We attempted to develop a clinical rating scale for the estimation of global facial aging applied on an Indian population which has brown to black skin. We have also measured the association of this rating scale score with the chronological age. Methods: Initially, a 14- item summated rating scale was developed with inputs from five dermatologists and a clinical pharmacologist. The rating scale was applied to 105 consenting subjects with healthy facial skin between 30 to 90 years of age. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was assessed. Results: The summated rating score showed a significant positive correlation with the chronological age (Pearson′s correlation coefficient 0.834, P < 0.001. We omitted one item from the scale due to a low inter-rater agreement. The resulting 13-item rating scale was internally consistent (Cronbach′s alpha: 0.905, with substantial inter- and intra-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.973 and 0.788, respectively. Principal components and predictive equation for perceptible age were identified on further computation. Limitations: Participants of this study were limited to a particular ethnic group from West Bengal and other neighboring states of Eastern India. Conclusions: We have developed and validated a 13-item rating scale for the quantification of global facial aging suitable for Indian (brown to black skin type. This scale can be utilized effectively for clinical estimation of global facial aging.

  19. Genome-scale rates of evolutionary change in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchêne, Sebastian; Holt, Kathryn E; Weill, François-Xavier; Le Hello, Simon; Hawkey, Jane; Edwards, David J; Fourment, Mathieu; Holmes, Edward C

    2016-11-01

    Estimating the rates at which bacterial genomes evolve is critical to understanding major evolutionary and ecological processes such as disease emergence, long-term host-pathogen associations and short-term transmission patterns. The surge in bacterial genomic data sets provides a new opportunity to estimate these rates and reveal the factors that shape bacterial evolutionary dynamics. For many organisms estimates of evolutionary rate display an inverse association with the time-scale over which the data are sampled. However, this relationship remains unexplored in bacteria due to the difficulty in estimating genome-wide evolutionary rates, which are impacted by the extent of temporal structure in the data and the prevalence of recombination. We collected 36 whole genome sequence data sets from 16 species of bacterial pathogens to systematically estimate and compare their evolutionary rates and assess the extent of temporal structure in the absence of recombination. The majority (28/36) of data sets possessed sufficient clock-like structure to robustly estimate evolutionary rates. However, in some species reliable estimates were not possible even with 'ancient DNA' data sampled over many centuries, suggesting that they evolve very slowly or that they display extensive rate variation among lineages. The robustly estimated evolutionary rates spanned several orders of magnitude, from approximately 10-5 to 10-8 nucleotide substitutions per site year-1. This variation was negatively associated with sampling time, with this relationship best described by an exponential decay curve. To avoid potential estimation biases, such time-dependency should be considered when inferring evolutionary time-scales in bacteria.

  20. Allometric scaling of mortality rates with body mass in abalones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A; Bevacqua, Daniele; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2012-04-01

    The existence of an allometric relationship between mortality rates and body mass has been theorized and extensively documented across taxa. Within species, however, the allometry between mortality rates and body mass has received substantially less attention and the consistency of such scaling patterns at the intra-specific level is controversial. We reviewed 73 experimental studies to examine the relationship between mortality rates and body size among seven species of abalone (Haliotis spp.), a marine herbivorous mollusk. Both in the field and in the laboratory, log-transformed mortality rates were negatively correlated with log-transformed individual body mass for all species considered, with allometric exponents remarkably similar among species. This regular pattern confirms previous findings that juvenile abalones suffer higher mortality rates than adult individuals. Field mortality rates were higher overall than those measured in the laboratory, and the relationship between mortality and body mass tended to be steeper in field than in laboratory conditions for all species considered. These results suggest that in the natural environment, additional mortality factors, especially linked to predation, could significantly contribute to mortality, particularly at small body sizes. On the other hand, the consistent allometry of mortality rates versus body mass in laboratory conditions suggests that other sources of mortality, beside predation, are size-dependent in abalone.

  1. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevison, Laurie S; Woerner, August E; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Kelley, Joanna L; Veeramah, Krishna R; McManus, Kimberly F; Bustamante, Carlos D; Hammer, Michael F; Wall, Jeffrey D

    2016-04-01

    We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and population history. Nature 499:471-475). We also identified species-specific recombination hotspots in each group using a modified LDhot framework, which greatly improves statistical power to detect hotspots at varying strengths. We show that fewer hotspots are shared among chimpanzee subspecies than within human populations, further narrowing the time scale of complete hotspot turnover. Further, using species-specific PRDM9 sequences to predict potential binding sites (PBS), we show higher predicted PRDM9 binding in recombination hotspots as compared to matched cold spot regions in multiple great ape species, including at least one chimpanzee subspecies. We found that correlations between broad-scale recombination rates decline more rapidly than nucleotide divergence between species. We also compared the skew of recombination rates at centromeres and telomeres between species and show a skew from chromosome means extending as far as 10-15 Mb from chromosome ends. Further, we examined broad-scale recombination rate changes near a translocation in gorillas and found minimal differences as compared to other great ape species perhaps because the coordinates relative to the chromosome ends were unaffected. Finally, on the basis of multiple linear regression analysis, we found that various correlates of recombination rate persist throughout the African great apes including repeats, diversity, and divergence. Our study is the first to analyze within- and between-species genome-wide recombination rate variation in several close relatives. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For

  2. Comparing the Scale of Web Subject Directories Precision in Technical-Engineering Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdokht Wazirpour Keshmiri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to compare the scale of web subject directories precision in information retrieval of technical-engineering science. Information gathering was documentary and webometric. Keywords of technical-engineering science were chosen at twenty different subjects from IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and engineering magazines that situated in sciencedirect site. These keywords are used at five subject directories Yahoo, Google, Infomine, Intute, Dmoz, that were web directories high-utilization. Usually first results in searching tools are connected to searching keywords. Because, first ten results was evaluated in every search. These assessments to consist of scale of precision, scale of error, scale retrieval items in technical-engineering categories to retrieval items entirely. The used criteria for determining the scale of precision that was according to high-utilization standards in different documents, to consist of presence of the keywords in title, appearance of keywords at the part of web retrieved pages, keywords adjacency, URL of page, page description and subject categories. Information analysis was according to Kruskal-Wallis Test and L.S.D fisher. Results revealed that there was meaningful difference about precision of web subject directories in information retrieval of technical-engineering science, Therefore this theory was confirmed.web subject directories ranked from point of precision as follows. Google, Yahoo, Intute, Dmoz, and Infomine. The scale of observed error at the first results was another criterion that was used for comparing web subject directories. In this research, Yahoo had minimum scale of error and Infomine had most of error. This research also compared the scale of retrieval items in all of categories web subject directories entirely to retrieval items in technical-engineering categories, results revealed that there was meaningful difference between them. And

  3. Reliability and validity of the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Chau

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolfram syndrome (WFS is a rare, neurodegenerative disease that typically presents with childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, followed by optic atrophy, diabetes insipidus, deafness, and neurological and psychiatric dysfunction. There is no cure for the disease, but recent advances in research have improved understanding of the disease course. Measuring disease severity and progression with reliable and validated tools is a prerequisite for clinical trials of any new intervention for neurodegenerative conditions. To this end, we developed the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS to measure the severity and individual variability of WFS symptoms. The aim of this study is to develop and test the reliability and validity of the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS. Methods A rating scale of disease severity in WFS was developed by modifying a standardized assessment for another neurodegenerative condition (Batten disease. WFS experts scored the representativeness of WURS items for the disease. The WURS was administered to 13 individuals with WFS (6-25 years of age. Motor, balance, mood and quality of life were also evaluated with standard instruments. Inter-rater reliability, internal consistency reliability, concurrent, predictive and content validity of the WURS were calculated. Results The WURS had high inter-rater reliability (ICCs>.93, moderate to high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.78-0.91 and demonstrated good concurrent and predictive validity. There were significant correlations between the WURS Physical Assessment and motor and balance tests (rs>.67, ps>.76, ps=-.86, p=.001. The WURS demonstrated acceptable content validity (Scale-Content Validity Index=0.83. Conclusions These preliminary findings demonstrate that the WURS has acceptable reliability and validity and captures individual differences in disease severity in children and young adults with WFS.

  4. Relationship between manual dexterity and the unified parkinson's disease rating scale-motor exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sujin; Song, Chiang-Soon

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between manual dexterity and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam as a clinical tool for quantifying upper extremity function in persons with Parkinson's disease. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two persons with idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated in this study. This study measured two clinical outcomes, the box-and-block test and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam, to investigate the relationships between manual dexterity and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam. [Results] The box-and-block test on the more affected side was positive relationship with the box-and-block test on the less affected side. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-motor exam score had a negative correlation with the box-and-block test results for both sides. [Conclusion] A positive association was noted between manual dexterity and motor function in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease. The results of this study suggest that the box-and-block test and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam are good clinical measures that quantify upper extremity function and are necessary for the accurate evaluation of patients and to plan intervention strategies.

  5. Scale dependence of rock friction at high work rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Takizawa, Shigeru; Xu, Shiqing; Kawakata, Hironori

    2015-12-01

    Determination of the frictional properties of rocks is crucial for an understanding of earthquake mechanics, because most earthquakes are caused by frictional sliding along faults. Prior studies using rotary shear apparatus revealed a marked decrease in frictional strength, which can cause a large stress drop and strong shaking, with increasing slip rate and increasing work rate. (The mechanical work rate per unit area equals the product of the shear stress and the slip rate.) However, those important findings were obtained in experiments using rock specimens with dimensions of only several centimetres, which are much smaller than the dimensions of a natural fault (of the order of 1,000 metres). Here we use a large-scale biaxial friction apparatus with metre-sized rock specimens to investigate scale-dependent rock friction. The experiments show that rock friction in metre-sized rock specimens starts to decrease at a work rate that is one order of magnitude smaller than that in centimetre-sized rock specimens. Mechanical, visual and material observations suggest that slip-evolved stress heterogeneity on the fault accounts for the difference. On the basis of these observations, we propose that stress-concentrated areas exist in which frictional slip produces more wear materials (gouge) than in areas outside, resulting in further stress concentrations at these areas. Shear stress on the fault is primarily sustained by stress-concentrated areas that undergo a high work rate, so those areas should weaken rapidly and cause the macroscopic frictional strength to decrease abruptly. To verify this idea, we conducted numerical simulations assuming that local friction follows the frictional properties observed on centimetre-sized rock specimens. The simulations reproduced the macroscopic frictional properties observed on the metre-sized rock specimens. Given that localized stress concentrations commonly occur naturally, our results suggest that a natural fault may lose its

  6. Reduced nicotine content cigarette advertising: How false beliefs and subjective ratings affect smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Saddleson, Megan L; Gup, Emily; Halstead, Angela; Mays, Darren; Strasser, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco advertising can create false beliefs about health harms that are reinforced by product design features. Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes may reduce harm, but research has not addressed advertising influences. This study examined RNC cigarette advertising effects on false harm beliefs, and how these beliefs - along with initial subjective ratings of RNC cigarettes - affect subsequent smoking behaviors. We further explored whether subjective ratings moderate associations between false beliefs and behavior. Seventy-seven daily, non-treatment-seeking smokers (66.2% male) participated in the first 15days of a randomized, controlled, open-label RNC cigarette trial. Participants viewed an RNC cigarette advertisement at baseline before completing a 5-day period of preferred brand cigarette use, followed by a 10-day period of RNC cigarette use (0.6mg nicotine yield). Participants provided pre- and post-advertisement beliefs, and subjective ratings and smoking behaviors for cigarettes smoked during laboratory visits. Viewing the advertisement increased beliefs that RNC cigarettes contain less nicotine and are healthier than regular cigarettes (p'sbelief that they are less likely to cause cancer (p=0.046). Neither false beliefs nor subjective ratings directly affected smoking behaviors. Significant interactions of strength and taste ratings with beliefs (p'sbeliefs were associated with greater RNC cigarette consumption. Smokers may misconstrue RNC cigarettes as less harmful than regular cigarettes. These beliefs, in conjunction with favorable subjective ratings, may increase product use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. SUBJECTIVE CURE RATES AFTER TVT PROCEDURE FOR TREATMENT OF FEMALE URINARY INCONTINENCE – A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor But

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to assess the subjective cure rate after the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT procedure in patients with stress (SUI and mixed (MUI urinary incontinence.Methods. This is a questionnaire based study done in 43 patients with SUI and 52 patients with MUI. In the assessement of the subjective cure rate the visual analogue scale and the symptom assessment index (SAI were used. Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics.Results. The subjective cure rate assessed 19.6 months after TVT amounted to 89.3%. Urinary incontinence after TVT procedure was noted in 26 patients (27.4% and the majority of these women (73.1% were diagnosed with MUI. In patients with SUI and postoperative stable bladder a higher success rate was observed (96.7%. In 18.6% patients with SUI, de novo overactive bladder symptoms occurred. These patients estimated a significantly (p = 0.027 lower cure rate (81.9% after TVT procedure. In patients with MUI, the cure rate after TVT amounted to 85.6%. The subjective cure rate was lower (79.4% in case of persistent overactive bladder symptoms. However, it was significantly higher (97.5% in case of a postoperatively stable bladder (p = 0.016. In the group of MUI patients, the symptoms of overactive bladder disease resolved spontaneously in 17 patients (32.7% postoperatively. The patients were satisfied with TVT and 92.6% would recommend this procedure to others.Conclusions. The TVT procedure is a very effective method of treatment for stress as well as mixed urinary incontinence. The success rate of the procedure is high, however, it is influenced by bladder activity.

  8. Sapwood Area as a Scaling Factor for Transpiration Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinonez-Pinon, R.; Valeo, C.

    2004-05-01

    The process of transpiration in forested areas is a function of the spatial and temporal variations in vegetation structural attributes. Therefore, it is possible to scale up the transpiration of a single tree to multi-tree scales using vegetation structural patterns. The main goal of this research is to generate, apply and verify a procedure for scaling up the process of transpiration in forested areas over a range of three spatial scales {tree, plot, and catchment} and within daily/monthly/seasonal scale. In order to accomplish this goal, it is necessary to identify vegetation characteristics that are appropriate scaling factors. Sapwood is the active part of the xylem for water and nutrients transport towards the leaves. Thus, sapwood area is an effective scaling factor for transpiration rates from a single point in a tree to the whole tree. Also, sapwood area establishes the limit on the quantity of foliage for a tree, and thus its vigour. The study area for this research is in the Montane eco-region of southern Alberta which includes species of Jack Pine, Lodgepole Pine, Black Spruce and Trembling Aspen. Sapwood area is estimated as the cross-sectional area of the outer vascular tissue responsible for transporting water in the acropetal way. As sapwood depth does not form a perfect ring around the tree trunk, it was measured in the four cardinal compass points and then an average value for the estimation of sapwood area was obtained. Two methods were used to estimate sapwood depth: dye infusion and microscopic identification of sapwood tissue. While the former method is widely used, it was deemed unsuccessful in our study area due to damage that vessels/tracheids suffered during the coring/extraction process. The latter is a laborious method, due to the detailed scale at which the analysis is performed. However, it assures accuracies of roughly 98%\\ for determining sapwood depth. A more detailed comparison of both methods is presented. Results demonstrate a

  9. Development of a work environment rating scale for kindergarten teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yau-ho P

    2015-08-01

    Kindergarten education in Hong Kong serves children aged 32-68 months. However, there is no extant scale that measures kindergarten teachers' perceived work environment, an important influence on their well-being. To develop a new instrument, the Teachers' Perceived Work Environment (TPWE) scale, and to assess whether kindergarten teachers with higher TPWE ratings had higher scores for job satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health. A 25-item rating scale was developed and used with a sample of in-service kindergarten teachers. Their perceived work environment was represented by five factors (ergonomics, staffing, teaching space, work hours and social space). These teachers also completed three well-being inventories: the Job Satisfaction Survey, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory and the General Health Questionnaire-12. In a second stage, a new sample of in-service kindergarten teachers was used to cross-validate the findings from the earlier assessment. In the first sample of 141 teachers and the second of 125, social space, staffing and work hours were associated with job satisfaction, while ergonomics was a significant negative predictor of mental health complaints. The TPWE exhibited satisfactory reliability and validity. Some factors were differentially associated with specific types of well-being. The results may inform future studies of the working conditions of kindergarten teachers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Comparison of the subjective sense of high or low metabolism and objectively measured resting metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallhuss, Andreas; Isik, Markus; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2010-09-01

    To measure caloric intake, physical activity level and resting metabolic rate in participants having the subjective opinion of either having a high or low metabolic rate. Recruitment by local advertising of healthy subjects feeling that they have high or low metabolism, i.e. either a tendency to easily stay lean ('high') or to very easily gain weight ('low') also when taking food intake in comparison with physical activity into account. Walking distance was estimated by pedometry, assessment of caloric intake was determined by food registration. Measurement of resting metabolic rate was performed in the fasting state. We recruited 44 participants with a sense of 'high' metabolism and 12 subjects in the contrasting group. Subjects with 'high' metabolism were leaner ('high': 20.4 +/- 2.1 kg/m(2), 'low': 27.8 +/- 7.5 kg/m(2), p difference in the measured resting metabolic rate between the two groups ('high': 7230 +/- 1233 kJ/24 h, 'low': 7430 +/- 1422 kJ/24 h, p = 0.6), nor was there any difference in physical activity measured by pedometry. Resting metabolic rate was negatively correlated with age and positively correlated with BMI in multivariate analyses of the total cohort. The sense of having a low or high metabolic rate is not related to actual resting metabolic rate.

  11. Development and initial validity of the Object Relations Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diguer, Louis; Gamache, Dominick; Laverdière, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report on the development and the initial validation of the Object Relations Rating Scale (ORRS), which is a measure of in-session enactments of object relations that draws on a psychodynamic conceptualization of personality organization. Forty participants were included in the study, distributed among neurotic, borderline and psychotic personality organizations (PO). Results showed that the interrater reliability of this new measure is good. Two tests of criterion validity support the validity of the measure: the ORRS discriminates well between the three PO groups and it correlates in expected ways with five PO dimensions. Finally, ORRS scales that pertain to the degree of in-session object relation enactments correlated with a measure of transference intensity (convergent validity), and correlations with therapists experience were low as expected (discriminant validity).

  12. Reliability and validity of a self-rated analogue scale for global measure of successful aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwee, Xinyi; Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Kua, Ee Heok; Jeste, Dilip V; Kumar, Rajeev; Ng, Tze Pin

    2014-08-01

    Dimension-specific objective measures are criticized for their limited perspective and failure to endorse subjective perceptions by respondents, but the validity and correlates of a subjective global measure of successful aging (SA) are still not well established. We evaluated the reliability and validity of a self-rated analogue scale of global SA in an elderly Singaporean population. Cross-sectional data analysis using a comprehensive questionnaire survey. 489 community-dwelling Singaporeans aged 65 years and over. Self-rated SA on an analogue scale from 1 (least successful) to 10 (most successful) was analyzed for its relationship to criterion-based measures of five specific dimensions (physical health and function, mental well-being, social engagement, psychological well-being, and spirituality/religiosity), as well as outcome measures (life satisfaction and quality of life). Self-rated SA was significantly correlated to measures of specific dimensions (standardized β from 0.11 to 0.39), most strongly with psychological functioning (β = 0.391). The five dimension-specific measures together accounted for 16.7% of the variance in self-rated SA. Self-rated SA best predicted life satisfaction (R(2) = 0.26) more than any dimension-specific measure (R(2) from 0.05 to 0.17). Self-rated SA, vis-à-vis dimension-specific measures, was related to a different set of correlates, and was notably independent of chronological age, sex, education, socioeconomic status, and medical comorbidity, but was significantly related to ethnicity. The self-rated analogue scale is a sensitive global measure of SA encompassing a spectrum of underlying dimensions and subjective perspectives and its validity is well supported in this study. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A clinical rating scale of speech dysfunction on Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison K. Thompson

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available The speech dysfunction of Parkinson's disease is complex and individually variable owing to the interaction of muscle rigidity, tremor and disturbance of movement. Eight speech dimensions which are characteristically disturbed in Parkinson's disease are discussed with reference to available research findings. In order to provide a more detailed description of the speech than could be obtained by clinical notes alone, a speech rating scale has been developed, and is presented in summarized form for clinical use. Incidence and progression of the speech dysfunction are considered in addition to the problems of assessment peculiar to the patient with Parkinson's disease.

  14. Psychometric evaluation of the Dutch version of the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Riezebos, T.G.M.; Staak, C.P.F. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the 16-item Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS). The SOWS measures withdrawal symptoms at the time of assessment. METHODS: The Dutch SOWS was repeatedly administered to a sample of 272 opioid-dependent inpatients of four

  15. The Role of Reading Comprehension in Large-Scale Subject-Matter Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed with the overall goal of understanding how difficulties in reading comprehension are associated with early adolescents' performance in large-scale assessments in subject domains including science and civic-related social studies. The current study extended previous research by taking a cognition-centered approach based on…

  16. Quantitative regional validation of the visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Christiane; Benedictus, Marije R.; Koedam, Esther L.G.M.; Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Center, Alzheimer Center and Department of Neurology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje M. van der [VU University Medical Center, Alzheimer Center and Department of Neurology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Versteeg, Adriaan; Wattjes, Mike P.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrenken, Hugo [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Validate the four-point visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) on magnetic resonance images (MRI) through quantitative grey matter (GM) volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to justify its use in clinical practice. Two hundred twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 128 with subjective memory complaints underwent 3T MRI. PCA was rated according to the visual rating scale. GM volumes of six posterior structures and the total posterior region were extracted using IBASPM and compared among PCA groups. To determine which anatomical regions contributed most to the visual scores, we used binary logistic regression. VBM compared local GM density among groups. Patients were categorised according to their PCA scores: PCA-0 (n = 122), PCA-1 (n = 143), PCA-2 (n = 79), and PCA-3 (n = 13). All structures except the posterior cingulate differed significantly among groups. The inferior parietal gyrus volume discriminated the most between rating scale levels. VBM showed that PCA-1 had a lower GM volume than PCA-0 in the parietal region and other brain regions, whereas between PCA-1 and PCA-2/3 GM atrophy was mostly restricted to posterior regions. The visual PCA rating scale is quantitatively validated and reliably reflects GM atrophy in parietal regions, making it a valuable tool for the daily radiological assessment of dementia. (orig.)

  17. Assessment of pruritus intensity: prospective study on validity and reliability of the visual analogue scale, numerical rating scale and verbal rating scale in 471 patients with chronic pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Ngoc Quan; Blome, Christine; Fritz, Fleur; Gerss, Joachim; Reich, Adam; Ebata, Toshiya; Augustin, Matthias; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Ständer, Sonja

    2012-09-01

    The most commonly used tool for self-report of pruritus intensity is the visual analogue scale (VAS). Similar tools are the numerical rating scale (NRS) and verbal rating scale (VRS). In the present study, initiated by the International Forum for the Study of Itch assessing reliability of these tools, 471 randomly selected patients with chronic itch (200 males, 271 females, mean age 58.44 years) recorded their pruritus intensity on VAS (100-mm line), NRS (0-10) and VRS (four-point) scales. Re-test reliability was analysed in a subgroup of 250 patients after one hour. Statistical analysis showed a high reliability and concurrent validity (r>0.8; pscales showed a high correlation. In conclusion, high reliability and concurrent validity was found for VAS, NRS and VRS. On re-test, higher correlation and less missing values were observed. A training session before starting a clinical trial is recommended.

  18. Disability rating scale for severe head trauma: coma to community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, M; Hall, K M; Hopkins, K; Belleza, T; Cope, D N

    1982-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop one instrument for assessing quantitatively the disability of severe head trauma patients so their rehabilitative progress could be followed from coma through different levels of awareness and functioning to their return to the community. This disability rating (DR) instrument was designed to be easily learned, quickly completed, valid, predictive of outcome and to have a high inter-rater reliability. The DR Scale consists of 8 items divided into 4 categories; 1. Arousal and awareness; 2. Cognitive ability to handle self-care functions; 3. Physical dependence upon others; 4. Psychosocial adaptability for work, housework, or school. Completed independently by several raters for more than 88 serious head injury patients, inter-rater correlations were highly significant. The admission DR was significantly related to clinical outcome at 1 year after injury and was significantly related to electrophysiologic measures of brain dysfunction as reflected in degree of abnormality of evoked brain potential patterns. The DR Scale is more sensitive than the Glasgow Outcome Scale in detecting and measuring clinical changes in individuals who have sustained severe head trauma. Also it can be used to help identify patients most likely to benefit from intensive rehabilitation care within a hospital setting. It provides a shorthand global description of a head injury patient's condition that facilitates understanding and communication.

  19. Criterion Noise in Ratings-Based Recognition: Evidence from the Effects of Response Scale Length on Recognition Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Aaron S.; Tullis, Jonathan G.; Lee, Ji Hae

    2013-01-01

    Rating scales are a standard measurement tool in psychological research. However, research has suggested that the cognitive burden involved in maintaining the criteria used to parcel subjective evidence into ratings introduces "decision noise" and affects estimates of performance in the underlying task. There has been debate over whether…

  20. Construction and evaluation of a self rating scale for stress-induced exhaustion disorder, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besèr, Aniella; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Kristina; Peterson, Ulla; Nygren, Ake; Asberg, Marie

    2014-02-01

    Prolonged stress (≥ six months) may cause a condition which has been named exhaustion disorder (ED) with ICD-10 code F43.8. ED is characterised by exhaustion, cognitive problems, poor sleep and reduced tolerance to further stress. ED can cause long term disability and depressive symptoms may develop. The aim was to construct and evaluate a self-rating scale, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), for the assessment of ED symptoms. A second aim was to examine the relationship between self-rated symptoms of ED, depression, and anxiety using KEDS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Items were selected based on their correspondence to criteria for ED as formulated by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW), with seven response alternatives in a Likert-format. Self-ratings performed by 317 clinically assessed participants were used to analyse the scale's psychometric properties. KEDS consists of nine items with a scale range of 0-54. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated that a cut-off score of 19 was accompanied by high sensitivity and specificity (each above 95%) in the discrimination between healthy subjects and patients with ED. Reliability was satisfactory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that ED, depression and anxiety are best regarded as different phenomena. KEDS may be a useful tool in the assessment of symptoms of Exhaustion Disorder in clinical as well as research settings. There is evidence that the symptom clusters of ED, anxiety and depression, respectively, reflect three different underlying dimensions. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Mobile app rating scale: a new tool for assessing the quality of health mobile apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Hides, Leanne; Kavanagh, David J; Zelenko, Oksana; Tjondronegoro, Dian; Mani, Madhavan

    2015-03-11

    The use of mobile apps for health and well being promotion has grown exponentially in recent years. Yet, there is currently no app-quality assessment tool beyond "star"-ratings. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable, multidimensional measure for trialling, classifying, and rating the quality of mobile health apps. A literature search was conducted to identify articles containing explicit Web or app quality rating criteria published between January 2000 and January 2013. Existing criteria for the assessment of app quality were categorized by an expert panel to develop the new Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) subscales, items, descriptors, and anchors. There were sixty well being apps that were randomly selected using an iTunes search for MARS rating. There were ten that were used to pilot the rating procedure, and the remaining 50 provided data on interrater reliability. There were 372 explicit criteria for assessing Web or app quality that were extracted from 25 published papers, conference proceedings, and Internet resources. There were five broad categories of criteria that were identified including four objective quality scales: engagement, functionality, aesthetics, and information quality; and one subjective quality scale; which were refined into the 23-item MARS. The MARS demonstrated excellent internal consistency (alpha = .90) and interrater reliability intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = .79). The MARS is a simple, objective, and reliable tool for classifying and assessing the quality of mobile health apps. It can also be used to provide a checklist for the design and development of new high quality health apps.

  2. The influence of negative mood on heart rate complexity measures and baroreflex sensitivity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbele, Ralf; Koschke, Mandy; Schulz, Steffen; Wagner, Gerd; Yeragani, Shravya; Ramachandraiah, Chaitra T; Voss, Andreas; Yeragani, Vikram K; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Decreased cardiac vagal function is linked with increased cardiac mortality and depression is associated with decreased heart rate variability. We have previously shown that the Mood Induction Procedure (MIP) in healthy subjects alters pain perception and thalamic activity during pain perception. To study the effect of negative emotion on heart rate variability and complexity measures as well as on baroreceptor sensitivity, as these parameters reflect cardiac autonomic function. We studied 20 healthy female controls before and after neutral MIP and 20 healthy female subjects before and after negative MIP. We investigated measures of valence of mood, heart rate variability and complexity and the baroreceptor sensitivity index. While there was a significant difference in the valence of mood between the neutral and the negative effect condition, there were no significant differences in any of the heart rate or baroreceptor sensitivity measures between the two groups. Our findings did not show any significant influence of acute negative MIP on heart rate variability and complexity measures and baroreceptor sensitivity, even though depressive disorder and stress are associated with decreased heart rate variability. These findings are discussed in the context of clinical depression and anxiety and the increased risk for cardiac mortality. In contrast to the presented results here, we have previously shown that MIP in healthy subjects alters pain perception and thalamic activity.

  3. Personality in Free-Ranging Hanuman Langur (Semnopithecus entellus) Males: Subjective Ratings and Recorded Behavior

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečná, M.; Lhota, S.; Weiss, A.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Adamová, T.; Pluháček, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 4 (2008), s. 379-389 ISSN 0735-7036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : trait rating * questionnaires * behavior al indices Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.081, year: 2008

  4. Nocturnal variations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in lower leg of normal human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate was measured in the lower leg of 22 normal human subjects over 12- to 20-h ambulatory conditions. The 133Xe washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit were used. The tracer depot was applied on the medial aspect...

  5. A Framework for Control System Design Subject to Average Data-Rate Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Eduardo; Derpich, Milan; Østergaard, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies discrete-time control systems subject to average data-rate limits. We focus on a situation where a noisy linear system has been designed assuming transparent feedback and, due to implementation constraints, a source-coding scheme (with unity signal transfer function) has to be ...

  6. Evaluation of the Life Satisfaction and Subjective Happiness Scales with Mexican American High School and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lerma, Eunice; Ikonomopoulos, James

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the psychometric properties of two meaningful measures of subjective well-being among Mexican American high school and college students. Participants completed the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) or Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) as measures of subjective well-being. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)…

  7. The Sexual Arousal and Desire Inventory (SADI): a multidimensional scale to assess subjective sexual arousal and desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Rachel; Pfaus, James

    2006-09-01

    Sexual arousal and desire are integral parts of the human sexual response that reflect physiological, emotional, and cognitive processes. Although subjective and physiological aspects of arousal and desire tend to be experienced concurrently, their differences become apparent in certain experimental and clinical populations in which one or more of these aspects are impaired. There are few subjective scales that assess sexual arousal and desire specifically in both men and women. (i) To develop a multidimensional, descriptor-based Sexual Arousal and Desire Inventory (SADI) to assess subjective sexual arousal and desire in men and women; (ii) to evaluate convergent and divergent validity of the SADI; and (iii) to assess whether scores on the SADI would be altered when erotic fantasy or exposure to an erotic film was used to increase subjective arousal. Adult men (N = 195) and women (N = 195) rated 54 descriptors as they applied to their normative experience of arousal and desire on a 5-point Likert scale. Another sample of men (N = 40) and women (N = 40) completed the SADI and other measures after viewing a 3-minute female-centered erotic film or engaging in a 3-minute period of erotic fantasy. Principal components analyses derived factors that the scale descriptors loaded onto. These factors were categorized as subscales of the SADI, and gender differences in ratings and internal validity were analyzed statistically. Factors were considered subscales of the SADI, and mean ratings for each subscale were generated and related to the other scales used to assess convergent and divergent validity. These scales included the Feeling Scale, the Multiple Indicators of Subjective Sexual Arousal, the Sexual Desire Inventory, and the Attitudes Toward Erotica Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Descriptors loaded onto four factors that accounted for 41.3% of the variance. Analysis of descriptor loadings > or = 0.30 revealed an

  8. [Psychometric properties of the French version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale and Brown's Attention Deficit Disorders Scale for adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, L; Legauffre, C; Mille, S; Chèze, N; Fougères, A-L; Marquez, S; Excoffier, A; Dubertret, C; Adès, J

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this work was to analyse the factorial structure of the two following instruments: (1) the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) evaluates the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) for adults, with 25 items: the subjects describe their own childhood behaviour when they were 7 years old, (from few to very much, 0 to 4). The items are grouped in four clusters: affects and emotional problems; impulsivity and conduct disorders; impulsivity-hyperactivity; and difficulties in attention. A score of 46 or more strongly suggests diagnosis of a hyperactivity disorder during infancy; (2) Brown's (1996) Attention Deficit Disorders Scale (ADD) is a 40-item self-report. This scale is composed of a range of symptoms beyond the DSM-IV inattention criteria for ADHD. A score of 50 or more is strongly suggestive of ADD. The five clusters of this scale are: organizing and activating work; sustaining attention and concentration; sustaining energy and effort; managing affective interference; utilizing "working memory" and accessing recall. For comparative purpose, we also used the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS), which evaluates ADHD with six items and accepts a cut-off of four or more; the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and the Personality Inventory Revised, essentially with the neuroticism cluster. A total of 259 adult subjects were enrolled in this study and allocated to three groups: healthy subjects, depressive patients and alcoholic patients. This study indicates that the internal consistency for the French version of the ADD and WURS scales is adequate (α=0.8-0.9). The WURS and ADD scales are not fully validated, as both sensitivity to change and concurrent validity for all groups are missing. However, these adapted versions are interesting because they facilitate the use of the questionnaires for research and clinical assessment within healthy general and clinical populations. The study confirmed the psychometric properties of the two scales evaluating ADHD

  9. Kvalitetsvurdering med Early Childhood Envirionment Rating Scale (ECERS-3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben; Pedersen, Birgitte Skov; Skytte, Karsten Brinkmann

    2017-01-01

    Denne rapport omhandler en undersøgelse af kvalitet i dagtilbud i Frederikshavn Kommune. I undersøgelsen anvendes den internationale evalueringssmetode ECERS-3 (Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, version 3 ), der er et instrument til måling af kvalitet og et værktøj til evaluering og...... gode, men for de kognitive kompetencers vedkommende udnyttes læringspotentialet ikke (standardafvigelse er 0,7). Gennemsnittet for sprog og literacy er noget lavt (2,57), hvilket vil kunne medføre, i tråd med andre undersøgelser (MBUL,2016a; Sylva et al, 2004), at der vil være børn, der ved skolestart...

  10. Inhomogeneous scaling behaviors in Malaysian foreign currency exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniandy, S. V.; Lim, S. C.; Murugan, R.

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fractal scaling behaviors of foreign currency exchange rates with respect to Malaysian currency, Ringgit Malaysia. These time series are examined piecewise before and after the currency control imposed in 1st September 1998 using the monofractal model based on fractional Brownian motion. The global Hurst exponents are determined using the R/ S analysis, the detrended fluctuation analysis and the method of second moment using the correlation coefficients. The limitation of these monofractal analyses is discussed. The usual multifractal analysis reveals that there exists a wide range of Hurst exponents in each of the time series. A new method of modelling the multifractal time series based on multifractional Brownian motion with time-varying Hurst exponents is studied.

  11. Assessing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults: focus on rating scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin R; Adler, Lenard A

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults can be a challenging process because it includes making judgments based on clinical interviews, rating scale results, informant ratings, and objective supporting evidence. The patient evaluation should gather information on the severity and frequency of symptoms, the establishment of childhood onset of symptoms, the chronicity and pervasiveness of symptoms, and the impact of symptoms on major life activities. Some of the rating scales being used in the adult population are the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales, the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale for Adults, the Wender Utah Rating Scale, the ADHD Rating Scale and ADHD Rating Scale-IV, the Current Symptoms Scale, and the recently-developed Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-v1.1 Symptom Checklist. More research is needed to establish the usefulness of self-administered rating scales compared with investigator-administered scales in the assessment and diagnosis of adult ADHD.

  12. Seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations and heart rates during sleep in obese subjects in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Maki; Kanikowska, Dominika; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sato, Motohiko; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2013-09-01

    During the past several decades, obesity has been increasing globally. In Japan, obesity is defined by a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or over; 28.6 % of men and 20.6 % of women are obese. Obese people have an increased incidence of developing cardiovascular, renal, and hormonal diseases and sleep disorders. Obese people also have shortened sleep durations. We investigated seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations, heart rates, and heart rate variability during sleep in obese subjects in Japan. Five obese (BMI, 32.0 ± 4.9 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23.2 ± 2.9 kg/m2) men participated in this study in the summer and winter. Electrocardiograms were measured continuously overnight in a climatic chamber at 26 °C with a relative humidity of 50 %. Saliva samples for melatonin were collected at 2300 hours, 0200 hours, and 0600 hours. We found that melatonin concentrations during sleep in obese subjects were significantly lower than those in non-obese subjects in the winter. Heart rate during sleep in winter was significantly higher than that in summer in both obese and non-obese subjects. Heart rate variability was not significantly different in the summer and winter in both obese and non-obese subjects. Our results show that decreased nocturnal melatonin concentrations during winter in obese men may be related to higher heart rates, and this may suggest that obese men are at an increased risk of a cardiovascular incident during sleep, especially in the winter.

  13. Scaling of standard metabolic rate in estuarine crocodiles Crocodylus porosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S; Gienger, C M; Brien, Matthew L; Tracy, Christopher R; Charlie Manolis, S; Webb, Grahame J W; Christian, Keith A

    2013-05-01

    Standard metabolic rate (SMR, ml O2 min(-1)) of captive Crocodylus porosus at 30 °C scales with body mass (kg) according to the equation, SMR = 1.01 M(0.829), in animals ranging in body mass of 3.3 orders of magnitude (0.19-389 kg). The exponent is significantly higher than 0.75, so does not conform to quarter-power scaling theory, but rather is likely an emergent property with no single explanation. SMR at 1 kg body mass is similar to the literature for C. porosus and for alligators. The high exponent is not related to feeding, growth, or obesity of captive animals. The log-transformed data appear slightly curved, mainly because SMR is somewhat low in many of the largest animals (291-389 kg). A 3-parameter model is scarcely different from the linear one, but reveals a declining exponent between 0.862 and 0.798. A non-linear model on arithmetic axes overestimates SMR in 70% of the smallest animals and does not satisfactorily represent the data.

  14. Subjective thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate: analysis and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    , it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...... the exergy concept to the built indoor environment, additional results are going to be explored. By using the data available so far of operative temperature (to), the human body exergy consumption rates increase as to increases above 24°C or decreases below 22°C at relative humidity (RH) lower than 50...

  15. Anxiety rating scales in Parkinson's disease: a validation study of the Hamilton anxiety rating scale, the Beck anxiety inventory, and the hospital anxiety and depression scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leentjens, Albert F G; Dujardin, Kathy; Marsh, Laura; Richard, Irene H; Starkstein, Sergio E; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2011-02-15

    Anxiety is a prevalent and disabling condition in Parkinson's disease (PD). The lack of anxiety rating scales validated for this population hampers research into anxiety in PD. The aim of this study is to assess the clinimetric properties of the Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HARS), the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI), and the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) in PD patients. Three hundred forty-two PD patients underwent a standardized assessment including a structured interview for diagnostic and statistical manual diagnoses of anxiety disorders and completion of the HARS, BAI, and HADS. Inter-rater reliability of the HARS was assessed in 60 patients; test-retest reliability of the BAI and HADS in 213 and 217 patients, respectively. Thirty-four percent of patients suffered from an anxiety disorder, whereas an additional 11.4% had clinically significant anxiety symptoms in the absence of a diagnosis of anxiety disorder. Acceptability, score distribution, and known groups validity over different levels of anxiety were adequate. Inter-rater reliability for the HARS and test-retest reliability for the BAI and HADS were good. The HARS, but not the BAI and HADS, had a satisfactory inter-item correlation, convergent validity and factorial structure. For all scales, the positive predictive value was poor, and the negative predictive value was moderate. Given the adequate known groups validity of all three rating scales, each of these scales is likely to be useful in clinical practice or research for evaluation of symptom severity. Limitations in the construct validity of the anxiety scales in this study raise questions regarding suitability for their use in PD. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  16. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 541 - Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject to the Requirements of This Standard B Appendix B to Part 541... Appendix B to Part 541—Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject...

  17. Relationship between heart rate variability and endothelial function in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Alexandra; Horvath, Tamas; Sarkozi, Adrienn; Kollai, Mark

    2012-08-16

    In various diseased states reduced cardiac vagal activity is accompanied by impaired endothelial function. Evidence from animal studies indicates interaction between the two systems, but such data from human studies is limited. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that cardiac vagal activity and endothelial function are related in healthy individuals. 46 young males were studied. From 10 minute long ECG recordings mean RR-interval and time and frequency domain vagal heart rate variability indices (RMSSD; pNN50 and HF, respectively) were determined. Heart rate variability indices were used to define cardiac vagal activity. Endothelial function was assessed by measuring brachial artery flow mediated dilation. Hyperemic, diastolic shear rate was used to normalize flow mediated dilation. All three vagal heart rate variability indices correlated significantly and positively with flow mediated dilation across subjects, with r values within the range of 0.43-0.52, pheart rate variability indices remained significantly associated with normalized flow mediated dilation. RR-interval was related to most heart rate variability indices, but was not related to flow mediated dilation. Our data demonstrate that vagal heart rate variability indices are related to flow mediated dilation across healthy male subjects. The results cannot serve as evidence of a causal relationship, but are of interest and render for further investigation into underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute Consumption of Resistant Starch Reduces Food Intake but Has No Effect on Appetite Ratings in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ble-Castillo, Jorge L; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A; García-Vázquez, Carlos; Servin-Cruz, Magda Z; Rodríguez-Hernández, Arturo; Araiza-Saldaña, Claudia I; Nolasco-Coleman, Ana M; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C

    2017-07-04

    Previous studies have shown the benefits of native banana starch (NBS) supplementation in improving glucose metabolism and reducing body weight (BW) in humans. However, the effect of this starch on appetite regulation is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of NBS rich resistant starch on subjective measurements of appetite, energy intake, and appetite hormones in healthy subjects. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were also assessed. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 28 healthy young subjects consumed a beverage containing either 40 g of NBS or 40 g of digestible corn starch (DCS) on two separate occasions. Effects on appetite were estimated using visual analogue scales (VAS) and satiety hormone responses. At the end of the intervention, participants were provided with a pre-weighed ad libitum homogeneous test meal. After a washout period of 1 week, subjects received the alternative treatment. NBS supplementation induced a reduction in food intake, glucose area under the curve (AUC)-180 min, and insulin AUC-180 min. However, there was no associated effect on the subjective appetite ratings or gut hormones. NBS supplementation may help to reduce meal size and control BW.

  19. Pilot Validation Study: Canadian Global Rating Scale for Colonoscopy Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Carpentier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The United Kingdom Global Rating Scale (GRS-UK measures unit-level quality metrics processes in digestive endoscopy. We evaluated the psychometric properties of its Canadian version (GRS-C, endorsed by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG. Methods. Prospective data collection at three Canadian endoscopy units assessed GRS-C validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change according to responses provided by physicians, endoscopy nurses, and administrative personnel. These responses were compared to national CAG endoscopic quality guidelines and GRS-UK statements. Results. Most respondents identified the overarching theme each GRS-C item targeted, confirming face validity. Content validity was suggested as 18 out of 23 key CAG endoscopic quality indicators (78%, 95% CI: 56–93% were addressed in the GRS-C; statements not included pertained to educational programs and competency monitoring. Concordance ranged 75–100% comparing GRS-C and GRS-UK ratings. Test-retest reliability Kappa scores ranged 0.60–0.83, while responsiveness to change scores at 6 months after intervention implementations were greater (P<0.001 in two out of three units. Conclusion. The GRS-C exhibits satisfactory metrics, supporting its use in a national quality initiative aimed at improving processes in endoscopy units. Data collection from more units and linking to actual patient outcomes are required to ensure that GRS-C implementation facilitates improved patient care.

  20. Achievable Rates and Scaling Laws for Cognitive Radio Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devroye Natasha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive radios have the potential to vastly improve communication over wireless channels. We outline recent information theoretic results on the limits of primary and cognitive user communication in single and multiple cognitive user scenarios. We first examine the achievable rate and capacity regions of single user cognitive channels. Results indicate that at medium SNR (0–20 dB, the use of cognition improves rates significantly compared to the currently suggested spectral gap-filling methods of secondary spectrum access. We then study another information theoretic measure, the multiplexing gain. This measure captures the number of point-to-point Gaussian channels contained in a cognitive channel as the SNR tends to infinity. Next, we consider a cognitive network with a single primary user and multiple cognitive users. We show that with single-hop transmission, the sum capacity of the cognitive users scales linearly with the number of users. We further introduce and analyze the primary exclusive radius, inside of which primary receivers are guaranteed a desired outage performance. These results provide guidelines when designing a network with secondary spectrum users.

  1. Merging physical parameters and laboratory subjective ratings for the soundscape assessment of urban squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Giovanni; Maffei, Luigi; Di Gabriele, Maria; Gallo, Veronica

    2013-07-01

    An experimental study was carried out in 20 squares in the center of Rome, covering a wide range of different uses, sonic environments, geometry, and architectural styles. Soundwalks along the perimeter of each square were performed during daylight and weekdays taking binaural and video recordings, as well as spot measurements of illuminance. The cluster analysis performed on the physical parameters, not only acoustic, provided two clusters that are in satisfactory agreement with the "a priori" classification. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to five physical parameters, two main components were obtained which might be associated to two environmental features, namely, "chaotic/calm" and "open/enclosed." On the basis of these two features, six squares were selected for the laboratory audio-video tests where 32 subjects took part filling in a questionnaire. The PCA performed on the subjective ratings on the sonic environment showed two main components which might be associated to two emotional meanings, namely, "calmness" and "vibrancy." The linear regression modeling between five objective parameters and the mean value of subjective ratings on chaotic/calm and enclosed/open attributes showed a good correlation. Notwithstanding these interesting results being limited to the specific data set, it is worth pointing out that the complexity of the soundscape quality assessment can be more comprehensively examined merging the field measurements of physical parameters with the subjective ratings provided by field and/or laboratory tests.

  2. Psilocybin links binocular rivalry switch rate to attention and subjective arousal levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Olivia L; Hasler, Felix; Pettigrew, John D; Wallis, Guy M; Liu, Guang B; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2007-12-01

    Binocular rivalry occurs when different images are simultaneously presented to each eye. During continual viewing of this stimulus, the observer will experience repeated switches between visual awareness of the two images. Previous studies have suggested that a slow rate of perceptual switching may be associated with clinical and drug-induced psychosis. The objective of the study was to explore the proposed relationship between binocular rivalry switch rate and subjective changes in psychological state associated with 5-HT2A receptor activation. This study used psilocybin, the hallucinogen found naturally in Psilocybe mushrooms that had previously been found to induce psychosis-like symptoms via the 5-HT2A receptor. The effects of psilocybin (215 microg/kg) were considered alone and after pretreatment with the selective 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (50 mg) in ten healthy human subjects. Psilocybin significantly reduced the rate of binocular rivalry switching and increased the proportion of transitional/mixed percept experience. Pretreatment with ketanserin blocked the majority of psilocybin's "positive" psychosis-like hallucinogenic symptoms. However, ketanserin had no influence on either the psilocybin-induced slowing of binocular rivalry or the drug's "negative-type symptoms" associated with reduced arousal and vigilance. Together, these findings link changes in binocular rivalry switching rate to subjective levels of arousal and attention. In addition, it suggests that psilocybin's effect on binocular rivalry is unlikely to be mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor.

  3. Gait in children with cerebral palsy : observer reliability of Physician Rating Scale and Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maathuis, KGB; van der Schans, CP; van Iperen, A; Rietman, HS; Geertzen, JHB

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the Physician Rating Scale (PRS) and the Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing (GAIT) scale for use in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Both assessment scales are quantitative observational scales, evaluating

  4. Validation of an Arabic translation of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Russel; Al Saif, Abdulaziz; el-din Mohamed, Gamal

    2005-01-01

    Depression is a common condition in primary care medicine in all population groups. We wanted to validate an Arabic translation Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale for Arabic speakers as it has been validated in a number of other languages. The hospital translation service translated the English version into Arabic, which was verified by back translation. This version was tested in a pilot study with 40 bilingual Arabic-English clinicians and Arabic linguistic experts. Revised questions were subjected to another translation-back translation and the final version tested in a clinical trial with 240 consenting bilingual English-Arabic speakers. The subjects were randomly assigned to answer either the English or Arabic version of the Zung questionnaire first, ensuring that subjects had no access to previous answers when answering the questionnaire in the other language. The scores obtained were tested for agreement using the kappa statistic. We found substantial agreement between the scores obtained from the two questionnaires. The kappa measurement of agreement was 0.652 (95% confidence interval, 0.571-0.732) We believe the Arabic translation of the English Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale is valid and reliable, and will be useful to practitioners who would like to use this tool in Arabic-speaking patients.

  5. Caffeine Enhances Heart Rate Variability in Middle-Aged Healthy, But Not Heart Failure Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarius, Catherine F; Floras, John S

    2012-06-01

    In chronic heart failure (CHF) due to left ventricular dysfunction, diminished heart rate variability (HRV) is an independent predictor of poor prognosis. Caffeine has been shown to increase HRV in young healthy subjects. Such an increase may be of potential benefit to patients with CHF. We hypothesized that intravenous infusion of caffeine would increase HRV in CHF, and in age-matched healthy control subjects. On two separate days, 11 patients (1F) with CHF (age=51.3±4.6 years; left ventricular ejection fraction=18.6±2.7%; mean±standard error) and 10 healthy control subjects (age=48.0±4.0) according to a double-blind randomization design, received either saline or caffeine (4 mg/kg) infusion. We assessed HRV over 7 minutes of supine rest (fast Fourier Transform analysis) to determine total spectral power as well as its high-frequency (HF) (0.15-0.50 Hz) and low-frequency (LF) (0.05-0.15 Hz) components, and recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) directly from the peroneal nerve (microneurography). In healthy control subjects, compared with saline, caffeine reduced both heart rate and sympathetic nerve traffic (p≤0.003) and increased the ratio of HF/total power (p≤0.05). Baseline LF power and the ratio LF/HF were significantly lower in CHF compared with controls (p=0.02), but caffeine had no effect on any element of HRV. Caffeine increases cardiac vagal heart rate modulation and reduces MSNA in middle-aged healthy subjects, but not in those with CHF.

  6. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  7. Disentangling preference ratings of concert hall acoustics using subjective sensory profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokki, Tapio; Pätynen, Jukka; Kuusinen, Antti; Tervo, Sakari

    2012-11-01

    Subjective evaluation of acoustics was studied by recording nine concert halls with a simulated symphony orchestra on a seat 12 m from the orchestra. The recorded music was spatially reproduced for subjective listening tests and individual vocabulary profiling. In addition, the preferences of the assessors and objective parameters were gathered. The results show that concert halls were discriminated using perceptual characteristics, such as Envelopment/Loudness, Reverberance, Bassiness, Proximity, Definition, and Clarity. With these perceptual dimensions the preference ratings can be explained. Seventeen assessors were divided into two groups based on their preferences. The first group preferred concert halls with relatively intimate sound, in which it is quite easy to hear individual instruments and melody lines. In contrast, the second group preferred a louder and more reverberant sound with good envelopment and strong bass. Even though all halls were recorded exactly at the same distance, the preference is best explained with subjective Proximity and with Bassiness, Envelopment, and Loudness to some extent. Neither the preferences nor the subjective ratings could be fully explained by objective parameters (ISO3382-1:2009), although some correlations were found.

  8. Personality profiles between obese and control subjects assessed with five standardized personality scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pantoja, José L; Cabranes, José A; Sanchez-Quintero, Sabrina; Velao, Manuel; Sanz, Montserrat; Torres-Pardo, Beatriz; Ancín, Inés; Cabrerizo, Lucio; Rubio, Miguel A; Lopez-Ibor, Juan J; Barabash, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathology may exert influence on developing and maintaining obesity. Studies of personality traits or psychopathology of personality in obesity are scarce and contradictory. The aim of this study was to compare personality profiles between obese and normal-weight subjects and to determine the most useful tool to detect differences, considering that psychological assessment and psychotherapeutical support should be included within the overall management of these patients.* We examined 55 obese subjects (mean BMI=43kg/ m2) and 66 controls (mean BMI =21.7kg/m2). We used the personality assessment tools: MCMI-II, TCI-R, EPQ-A, BIS-111 and SSS. Factorial multivariate analysis of variance was applied; with factors BMI, Gender and Age as a covariate. Significant differences between groups were more marked in the clinical syndrome scales of MCMI-II, particularly in Major-Depression, Thought-Disorder, Anxiety, Somatoform and Alcohol-Dependence. Among obese, women scored higher than men in all scales but not significantly. We have found significant differences in normal personality dimensions between both groups in TCI-R. Obese showed higher scores in Harm Avoidance, and lower in Novelty Seeking, Persistence and Self-transcendence. The remaining tests have not been useful for differentiating personality traits between both groups. Obese subjects showed different personality profiles than control subjects. The most useful scales for determining these differences might be those designed to assess pathological personality such as MCMI-II. Less important would be those intended to measure normal personality traits, such as TCI-R and EPQ-A.

  9. Classification of heart rate signals of healthy and pathological subjects using threshold based symbolic entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Wajid; Rafique, M; Ahmad, I; Arif, M; Habib, Nazneen; Nadeem, M S A

    2014-09-01

    The dynamical fluctuations of biological signals provide a unique window to construe the underlying mechanism of the biological systems in health and disease. Recent research evidences suggest that a wide class of diseases appear to degrade the biological complexity and adaptive capacity of the system. Heart rate signals are one of the most important biological signals that have widely been investigated during the last two and half decades. Recent studies suggested that heart rate signals fluctuate in a complex manner. Various entropy based complexity analysis measures have been developed for quantifying the valuable information that may be helpful for clinical monitoring and for early intervention. This study is focused on determining HRV dynamics to distinguish healthy subjects from patients with certain cardiac problems using symbolic time series analysis technique. For that purpose, we have employed recently developed threshold based symbolic entropy to cardiac inter-beat interval time series of healthy, congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation subjects. Normalized Corrected Shannon Entropy (NCSE) was used to quantify the dynamics of heart rate signals by continuously varying threshold values. A rule based classifier was implemented for classification of different groups by selecting threshold values for the optimal separation. The findings indicated that there is reduction in the complexity of pathological subjects as compared to healthy ones at wide range of threshold values. The results also demonstrated that complexity decreased with disease severity.

  10. Penilaian Kinerja Karyawan dengan Metode AHP dan Rating Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizka Shoumil Ilhami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available PT. X organizes the office promotion every year, however it has not implemented the performance appraisal concept. This study was conducted on junior analyst at Laboratory Department of Routine Test in PT.X which has the highest number of employees in PT. X. This research aimed to find out the performance appraisal criteria and sub criteria of the junior analysts, provide the weighting for each criteria and sub criteria using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method, and recommend the planning framework of performance appraisal for junior analyst using Rating-Scale method in order to conduct the office promotion. The main criteria derived from this research were attendance, working target attainment, work thoroughness, proactive, empathy, cooperation (team/organization, analytical thinking, and flexibility. The result showed the working target attainment as the most important of the criterion approximately 0.248. Moreover, the consistency ratio around 0.020. In addition, the result of this research is applicable and could be proposed for conducting performance appraisal of junior analysts at Laboratory Department of PT.X in order to perform the office promotion.

  11. Adaptation of abbreviated mathematics anxiety rating scale for engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.

  12. Psychiatric rating scales in Urdu: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmer, Syed; Faruqui, Rafey A; Aijaz, Anita

    2007-10-26

    Researchers setting out to conduct research employing questionnaires in non-English speaking populations need instruments that have been validated in the indigenous languages. In this study we have tried to review the literature on the status of cross-cultural and/or criterion validity of all the questionnaires measuring psychiatric symptoms available in Urdu language. A search of Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and http://www.pakmedinet.com was conducted using the search terms; Urdu psychiatric rating scale, and Urdu and Psychiatry. References of retrieved articles were searched. Only studies describing either cross-cultural or criterion validation of a questionnaire in Urdu measuring psychiatric symptoms were included. Thirty two studies describing validation of 19 questionnaires were identified. Six of these questionnaires were developed indigenously in Urdu while thirteen had been translated from English. Of the six indigenous questionnaires five had had their criterion validity examined. Of the thirteen translated questionnaires only four had had both their cross-cultural and criterion validity assessed. There is a paucity of validated questionnaires assessing psychiatric symptoms in Urdu. The BSI, SRQ and AKUADS are the questionnaires that have been most thoroughly evaluated in Urdu.

  13. Psychiatric rating scales in Urdu: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruqui Rafey A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers setting out to conduct research employing questionnaires in non-English speaking populations need instruments that have been validated in the indigenous languages. In this study we have tried to review the literature on the status of cross-cultural and/or criterion validity of all the questionnaires measuring psychiatric symptoms available in Urdu language. Methods A search of Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and http://www.pakmedinet.com was conducted using the search terms; Urdu psychiatric rating scale, and Urdu and Psychiatry. References of retrieved articles were searched. Only studies describing either cross-cultural or criterion validation of a questionnaire in Urdu measuring psychiatric symptoms were included. Results Thirty two studies describing validation of 19 questionnaires were identified. Six of these questionnaires were developed indigenously in Urdu while thirteen had been translated from English. Of the six indigenous questionnaires five had had their criterion validity examined. Of the thirteen translated questionnaires only four had had both their cross-cultural and criterion validity assessed. Conclusion There is a paucity of validated questionnaires assessing psychiatric symptoms in Urdu. The BSI, SRQ and AKUADS are the questionnaires that have been most thoroughly evaluated in Urdu.

  14. Uncinate process length in birds scales with resting metabolic rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tickle

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental function of the respiratory system is the supply of oxygen to meet metabolic demand. Morphological constraints on the supply of oxygen, such as the structure of the lung, have previously been studied in birds. Recent research has shown that uncinate processes (UP are important respiratory structures in birds, facilitating inspiratory and expiratory movements of the ribs and sternum. Uncinate process length (UPL is important for determining the mechanical advantage for these respiratory movements. Here we report on the relationship between UPL, body size, metabolic demand and locomotor specialisation in birds. UPL was found to scale isometrically with body mass. Process length is greatest in specialist diving birds, shortest in walking birds and intermediate length in all others relative to body size. Examination of the interaction between the length of the UP and metabolic demand indicated that, relative to body size, species with high metabolic rates have corresponding elongated UP. We propose that elongated UP confer an advantage on the supply of oxygen, perhaps by improving the mechanical advantage and reducing the energetic cost of movements of the ribs and sternum.

  15. Uncinate process length in birds scales with resting metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Peter; Nudds, Robert; Codd, Jonathan

    2009-05-27

    A fundamental function of the respiratory system is the supply of oxygen to meet metabolic demand. Morphological constraints on the supply of oxygen, such as the structure of the lung, have previously been studied in birds. Recent research has shown that uncinate processes (UP) are important respiratory structures in birds, facilitating inspiratory and expiratory movements of the ribs and sternum. Uncinate process length (UPL) is important for determining the mechanical advantage for these respiratory movements. Here we report on the relationship between UPL, body size, metabolic demand and locomotor specialisation in birds. UPL was found to scale isometrically with body mass. Process length is greatest in specialist diving birds, shortest in walking birds and intermediate length in all others relative to body size. Examination of the interaction between the length of the UP and metabolic demand indicated that, relative to body size, species with high metabolic rates have corresponding elongated UP. We propose that elongated UP confer an advantage on the supply of oxygen, perhaps by improving the mechanical advantage and reducing the energetic cost of movements of the ribs and sternum.

  16. Physical activity, heart rate variability-based stress and recovery, and subjective stress during a 9-month study period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föhr, T; Tolvanen, A; Myllymäki, T; Järvelä-Reijonen, E; Peuhkuri, K; Rantala, S; Kolehmainen, M; Korpela, R; Lappalainen, R; Ermes, M; Puttonen, S; Rusko, H; Kujala, U M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) and objective heart rate variability (HRV)-based stress and recovery with subjective stress in a longitudinal setting. Working-age participants (n = 221; 185 women, 36 men) were overweight (body mass index, 25.3-40.1 kg/m(2) ) and psychologically distressed (≥3/12 points on the General Health Questionnaire). Objective stress and recovery were based on HRV recordings over 1-3 work days. Subjective stress was assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale and PA level with a questionnaire. Data were collected at three time points: baseline, 10 weeks post intervention, and at the 36-week follow-up. We adopted a latent growth model to investigate the initial level and change in PA, objective stress and recovery, and subjective stress at the three measurement time points. The results showed that initial levels of PA (P stress (P = 0.001) and recovery (P stress. The results persisted after adjustment for intervention group. The present results suggest that high PA and objectively assessed low stress and good recovery have positive effects on changes in subjective stress in the long-term. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Measuring Numeracy in a Community College Context: Assessing the Reliability of the Subjective Numeracy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate S. Wolfe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, our goals were to assess the suitability of the Subjective Numeracy Scale (SNS, developed for health-care use, in a new context with predominantly minority students at a South Bronx community college and to identify any race/ ethnicity, gender, and ESL enrollment effects. The scale assesses perceptions of quantitative reasoning skills and preferences for data presentation. This scale was given to a convenience sample of students in behavioral sciences classes. Results show that the SNS scale was reliable with our sample using the full thirteen-question scale or the shorter eight-item version. Gender, race/ ethnicity, and English as a Second Language (ESL are related to perceptions of QR/QL. This study may help researchers see the SNS as a reliable instrument across samples and as a way to measure numeracy. The results of the multivariate analyses raise questions for future research about cultural differences for numerical presentation among these ethnic groups and our international student population.

  18. Standardized laryngeal videostroboscopic rating : Differences between untrained and trained male and female subjects, and effects of varying sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Schutte, HK; Miller, DG

    To determine the influence of the factors gender, vocal training, sound intensity, pitch, and aging on vocal function, videolaryngostroboscopic images of 214 subjects, subdivided according to gender and status of vocal training, were evaluated by three judges with standardized rating scales,

  19. The Mayo Clinic quadratic equation improves the prediction of glomerular filtration rate in diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigalleau, Vincent; Lasseur, Catherine; Raffaitin, Christelle; Perlemoine, Caroline; Barthe, Nicole; Chauveau, Philippe; Combe, Christian; Gin, Henri

    2007-03-01

    Although recommended, both the Cockcroft and Gault formula (CG) and the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation are not ideally predictive of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in diabetic subjects; we tested whether the new Mayo Clinic Quadratic (MCQ) equation performed better. In 200 diabetic subjects with a wide range of renal function, GFR was measured by 51Cr-EDTA clearance, and compared with the results of the three predictive equations by regression analysis and Bland and Altman procedures. The correlations with body mass index, age and albumin excretion rates were tested. The precisions (absolute difference as percentage), diagnostic accuracies [receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the diagnosis of moderate and severe chronic kidney disease (CKD)], and the results of stratification according to the KDOQ classification were compared. The CG and MCQ overestimated mean GFR, whereas the MDRD underestimated it. Correlation coefficients and areas under the ROC curves were better for the MDRD and the MCQ as compared with the CG, which was biased by body weight (+30% overestimation in obese diabetic subjects). The absolute differences with true GFR were slightly lower for the MDRD than the MCQ, and both better than the CG. Both the MDRD and MCQ correctly stratified 65% of the subjects (CG: 55%, P<0.05). In contrast with the MDRD, the MCQ did not underestimate normal GFR, and its performance for stratification was uniformly good over a wide GFR range. In diabetic subjects, the MCQ has a similar diagnostic performance to the MDRD, but it does not underestimate normal GFR, which is an important advantage.

  20. Relationship Between Pretraining Subjective Wellness Measures, Player Load, and Rating-of-Perceived-Exertion Training Load in American College Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govus, Andrew D; Coutts, Aaron; Duffield, Rob; Murray, Andrew; Fullagar, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between pretraining subjective wellness and external and internal training load in American college football is unclear. To examine the relationship of pretraining subjective wellness (sleep quality, muscle soreness, energy, wellness Z score) with player load and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE-TL) in American college football players. Subjective wellness (measured using 5-point, Likert-scale questionnaires), external load (derived from GPS and accelerometry), and s-RPE-TL were collected during 3 typical training sessions per week for the second half of an American college football season (8 wk). The relationship of pretraining subjective wellness with player load and s-RPE training load was analyzed using linear mixed models with a random intercept for athlete and a random slope for training session. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) denote the effect magnitude. A 1-unit increase in wellness Z score and energy was associated with trivial 2.3% (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.5, 4.2; SMD 0.12) and 2.6% (90% CI 0.1, 5.2; SMD 0.13) increases in player load, respectively. A 1-unit increase in muscle soreness (players felt less sore) corresponded to a trivial 4.4% (90% CI -8.4, -0.3; SMD -0.05) decrease in s-RPE training load. Measuring pretraining subjective wellness may provide information about players' capacity to perform in a training session and could be a key determinant of their response to the imposed training demands American college football. Hence, monitoring subjective wellness may aid in the individualization of training prescription in American college football players.

  1. Prognostic value of ambulatory heart rate revisited in 6928 subjects from 6 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine Willum; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence relating mortality and morbidity to heart rate remains inconsistent. We performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 6928 subjects (not on beta-blockers; mean age: 56.2 years; 46.5% women) enrolled in prospective population studies in Denmark, Belgium, Japan, Sweden......, Uruguay, and China. We computed standardized hazard ratios for heart rate, while stratifying for cohort, and adjusting for blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. Over 9.6 years (median), 850, 325, and 493 deaths accrued for total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality......, respectively. The incidence of fatal combined with nonfatal end points was 805, 363, 439, and 324 for cardiovascular, stroke, cardiac, and coronary events, respectively. Twenty-four-hour heart rate predicted total (hazard ratio: 1.15) and noncardiovascular (hazard ratio: 1.18) mortality but not cardiovascular...

  2. The Prognostic Value of Ambulatory Heart Rate Revisited in 6928 Subjects from 6 Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine Willum; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence relating mortality and morbidity to heart rate remains inconsistent. We performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 6928 subjects (not on β-blockers; mean age: 56.2 years; 46.5% women) enrolled in prospective population studies in Denmark, Belgium, Japan, Sweden, Uruguay......, and China. We computed standardized hazard ratios for heart rate, while stratifying for cohort, and adjusting for blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. Over 9.6 years (median), 850, 325, and 493 deaths accrued for total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality, respectively....... The incidence of fatal combined with nonfatal end points was 805, 363, 439, and 324 for cardiovascular, stroke, cardiac, and coronary events, respectively. Twenty-four-hour heart rate predicted total (hazard ratio: 1.15) and noncardiovascular (hazard ratio: 1.18) mortality but not cardiovascular mortality...

  3. [Diagnosis and symptom rating scale of restless legs syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi

    2009-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder, characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs and usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations. It begins or worsens during periods of rest or inactivity, is partially or totally relieved by movement and is exacerbated or occurs mainly in the evening or night. People suffering from RLS are estimated to represent 2-3% of the general Japanese population, which is relatively lower than the estimated prevalence in western countries. Supportive diagnostic critevia include family history, the presence of periodic-leg movements (PLM) when awake or asleep, and a positive response to dopaminergic treatment. RLS phenotypes include an early onset form that is usually idiopathic with frequent familial history and a late onset form that is usually secondary to other somatic conditions that are causative factors in RLS occurrence. In all patients presenting with complaints of insomnia or discomfort in the lower limbs, diagnosis of RLS should be considered. RLS should be differentiated from akathisia, which is an urge to move the whole body in the absence of uncomfortable sensations. Polysomnographic studies and the suggested immobilization test (SIT) can detect PLM in patients that are asleep or awake. RLS may cause severe sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, depressive and anxious symptoms, and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Secondary RLS may occur due to iron deficiency, end-stage renal disease, pregnancy, peripheral neuropathy and drug use including antipsychotics and antidepressants. Small fiber neuropathy can trigger RLS or mimic its symptoms. RLS is associated with many neurological disorders, including Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy; althoughit does not predispose to these diseases. A symptom rating scale for RLS authorized by the International RLS Study Group (IRLS) would facilitate accurate diagnosis of this condition.

  4. A Computational Framework to Optimize Subject-Specific Hemodialysis Blood Flow Rate to Prevent Intimal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Javid; Wlodarczyk, Marta; Cassel, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    Development of excessive intimal hyperplasia (IH) in the cephalic vein of renal failure patients who receive chronic hemodialysis treatment results in vascular access failure and multiple treatment complications. Specifically, cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) is known to exacerbate hypertensive blood pressure, thrombosis, and subsequent cardiovascular incidents that would necessitate costly interventional procedures with low success rates. It has been hypothesized that excessive blood flow rate post access maturation which strongly violates the venous homeostasis is the main hemodynamic factor that orchestrates the onset and development of CAS. In this article, a computational framework based on a strong coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and shape optimization is proposed that aims to identify the effective blood flow rate on a patient-specific basis that avoids the onset of CAS while providing the adequate blood flow rate required to facilitate hemodialysis. This effective flow rate can be achieved through implementation of Miller's surgical banding method after the maturation of the arteriovenous fistula and is rooted in the relaxation of wall stresses back to a homeostatic target value. The results are indicative that this optimized hemodialysis blood flow rate is, in fact, a subject-specific value that can be assessed post vascular access maturation and prior to the initiation of chronic hemodialysis treatment as a mitigative action against CAS-related access failure. This computational technology can be employed for individualized dialysis treatment.

  5. Subjective Ratings of Beauty and Aesthetics: Correlations With Statistical Image Properties in Western Oil Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Thomas; Redies, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    For centuries, oil paintings have been a major segment of the visual arts. The JenAesthetics data set consists of a large number of high-quality images of oil paintings of Western provenance from different art periods. With this database, we studied the relationship between objective image measures and subjective evaluations of the images, especially evaluations on aesthetics (defined as artistic value) and beauty (defined as individual liking). The objective measures represented low-level statistical image properties that have been associated with aesthetic value in previous research. Subjective rating scores on aesthetics and beauty correlated not only with each other but also with different combinations of the objective measures. Furthermore, we found that paintings from different art periods vary with regard to the objective measures, that is, they exhibit specific patterns of statistical image properties. In addition, clusters of participants preferred different combinations of these properties. In conclusion, the results of the present study provide evidence that statistical image properties vary between art periods and subject matters and, in addition, they correlate with the subjective evaluation of paintings by the participants. PMID:28694958

  6. Increase in perceived stress is correlated to lower heart rate variability in healthy young subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Câmara Batista da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Decreased heart rate variability (HRV is associated to increased mortality rates in certain heart diseases. Current study assessed the co-relation between perceived stress and HRV parameters. The correlation between psychological stress, measured by the perceived stress scale (PSS-14, and HRV parameters obtained during 5 min. at rest was evaluated. Data from 35 healthy young volunteers demonstrated a significant correlation between PSS-14 scores and Low Frequency-LF (ms2 by frequency domain HRV analysis. Other variables such as High Frequency and Standard Deviation of R-R intervals had also negative coefficients but did not have any significant correlation with PSS-14. No correlation between PSS-14 and sympathovagal balance parameters was found. Data interpretation demonstrated that increase in perceived stress was correlated to decrease in heart rate variability, which may point out an important mechanism in cardiovascular pathophysiology that should be further investigated.

  7. The Effect of Rubric Rating Scale on the Evaluation of Engineering Design Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ahn, Beung-uk

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the rubric rating scale on the evaluation of projects from a first year engineering design course.Asmall experiment was conducted in which twenty-one experienced graders scored five technical posters using one of four rating scales. All rating scales tested...

  8. Subjects for achievement of blast furnace operation with low reducing agent rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujisawa, Y.; Nakano, K.; Matsukura, Y.; Sunahara, K.; Komatsu, S.; Yamamoto, T. [Sumitomo Metal Industry Ltd., Kashima (Japan). Corp R& amp; D Labs.

    2006-12-15

    The technology which reduces the reducing agent rate by the improvement in the reaction efficiency of blast furnace leads to reduction of hot metal manufacturing cost, but also solution of recent CO{sub 2} emission reduction. The subjects for achievement of the blast furnace operation with low reducing agent rate were described on reduction measures of the carbon consumption and problem of the measures referring to the example of reducing agent rate of the present state blast furnace concerning blast operation and reactive improvement. And, carried out concrete measures were introduced in order to aim at the low reducing agent rate operation. The following results were obtained. 1) Since it has reached the already high reaction efficiency in present state blast furnace, it is not easy to attempt further reduction of the reducing agent rate. 2) The blast furnace use of high reactivity coke or reduced iron is equal level or over it in comparison with the reduction effect by the assumed blast operation in this paper. 3) The promotion of coke reaction load with the gasification is worried, when it aims at the low reducing agent rate operation by the high reactivity coke use. 4) It is estimated that the threshold also exists for the reducibility of competing ore, when it aims at the low reducing agent rate operation using the high reactivity coke. 5) The use of the low SiO{sub 2} sinter is effective for the improvement on the permeability in the blast furnace, when it aims at the low fuel rate operation. However, the new technology of the permeability improvement is desired, since there is a limit for low SiO{sub 2} of the sintered ore, when future raw material supply and demand is considered.

  9. Substances used and prevalence rates of pharmacological cognitive enhancement among healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Andreas G; Bagusat, Christiana; Rust, Sebastian; Engel, Alice; Lieb, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    Pharmacological "cognitive enhancement" (CE) is defined as the use of any psychoactive drug with the purpose of enhancing cognition, e.g. regarding attention, concentration or memory by healthy subjects. Substances commonly used as CE drugs can be categorized into three groups of drugs: (1) over-the-counter (OTC) drugs such as coffee, caffeinated drinks/energy drinks, caffeine tablets or Ginkgo biloba; (2) drugs being approved for the treatment of certain disorders and being misused for CE: drugs to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) such as the stimulants methylphenidate (MPH, e.g. Ritalin(®)) or amphetamines (AMPH, e.g. Attentin(®) or Adderall(®)), to treat sleep disorders such as modafinil or to treat Alzheimer's disease such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; (3) illicit drugs such as illicit AMPH, e.g. "speed", ecstasy, methamphetamine (crystal meth) or others. Evidence from randomized placebo-controlled trials shows that the abovementioned substances have limited pro-cognitive effects as demonstrated, e.g. regarding increased attention, increased cognitive speed or shortening of reaction times, but on the same time poses considerable safety risks on the consumers. Prevalence rates for the use of CE drugs among healthy subjects show a broad range from less than 1 % up to more than 20 %. The range in prevalence rates estimates results from several factors which are chosen differently in the available survey studies: type of subjects (students, pupils, special professions, etc.), degree of anonymity in the survey (online, face-to-face, etc.), definition of CE and substances used/misused for CE, which are assessed (OTC drugs, prescription, illicit drugs) as well as time periods of use (e.g. ever, during the past year/month/week, etc.). A clear and comprehensive picture of the drugs used for CE by healthy subjects and their adverse events and safety risks as well as comprehensive and comparable international data on the prevalence rates of

  10. Suboccipital decompression enhances heart rate variability indices of cardiac control in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Paul D; Hensel, Kendi L; Pacchia, Christina F; Smith, Michael L

    2013-02-01

    Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) focused on the upper cervical spine is theorized to affect the function of the vagus nerve and thereby influence the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. This study was designed to determine the acute effect of upper cervical spine manipulation on cardiac autonomic control as measured by heart rate variability. Nineteen healthy, young adult subjects underwent three different experimental interventions administered in random order: cervical OMT, sham manipulation, and time control. Six minutes of electrocardiographic data were collected before and after each intervention, and heart rate variability was assessed by both time-domain and frequency-domain measures. No differences in resting heart rate or any measure of heart rate variability were observed between the baseline periods prior to each intervention. The OMT protocol resulted in an increase in the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals (0.12±0.082 seconds, p0.11 for all variables). These data support the hypothesis that upper cervical spine manipulation can acutely affect measures of heart rate variability in healthy individuals.

  11. Suboccipital Decompression Enhances Heart Rate Variability Indices of Cardiac Control in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Paul D.; Hensel, Kendi L.; Pacchia, Christina F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) focused on the upper cervical spine is theorized to affect the function of the vagus nerve and thereby influence the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. This study was designed to determine the acute effect of upper cervical spine manipulation on cardiac autonomic control as measured by heart rate variability. Design Nineteen healthy, young adult subjects underwent three different experimental interventions administered in random order: cervical OMT, sham manipulation, and time control. Six minutes of electrocardiographic data were collected before and after each intervention, and heart rate variability was assessed by both time-domain and frequency-domain measures. Results No differences in resting heart rate or any measure of heart rate variability were observed between the baseline periods prior to each intervention. The OMT protocol resulted in an increase in the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals (0.12±0.082 seconds, p0.11 for all variables). Conclusions These data support the hypothesis that upper cervical spine manipulation can acutely affect measures of heart rate variability in healthy individuals. PMID:22994907

  12. Effects of music therapy on subjective sensations and heart rate variability in treated cancer survivors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chih-Yuan; Han, Wei-Ru; Li, Pei-Chun; Young, Shuenn-Tsong

    2010-10-01

    Data on the effects of music therapy on subjective sensations and the physiological parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) in treated cancer survivors are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not music therapy affects the sensations of fatigue, comfort, and relaxation in cancer survivors, and affects the activities of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems as indicated by HRV parameters. Twenty-three patients aged 30-67 years and with cancer that had been treated at least 6 months previously received music therapy for about 2h, which included singing, listening to music, learning the recorder, and performing music. Subjective sensations and electrocardiogram were recorded before and after the music therapy. The low-frequency and high-frequency components of HRV were assessed by the frequency analysis of sequential R wave to R wave intervals of electrocardiogram obtained from 5-min recordings. Subjective sensations were quantitatively assessed using a visual analog mood scale. Two hours of music therapy significantly increased relaxation sensations and significantly decreased fatigue sensation in treated cancer survivors. Moreover, the HRV parameters showed that parasympathetic nervous system activity increased and sympathetic nervous system activity decreased. This study provides preliminary evidence that music therapy may be clinically useful for promoting relaxation sensation and increasing parasympathetic nervous system activity in treated cancer survivors. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Characterization of a New Fully Recycled Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Subjected to High Strain Rate Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, H.; Tamboura, S.; Fitoussi, J.; BenDaly, H.; Tcharkhtchi, A.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is the complete physicochemical characterization and strain rate effect multi-scale analysis of a new fully recycled carbon fiber reinforced composites for automotive crash application. Two composites made of 20% wt short recycled carbon fibers (CF) are obtained by injection molding. The morphology and the degree of dispersion of CF in the matrixes were examined using a new ultrasonic method and SEM. High strain tensile behavior up to 100 s-1 is investigated. In order to avoid perturbation due to inertial effect and wave propagation, the specimen geometry was optimized. The elastic properties appear to be insensitive to the strain rate. However, a high strain rate effect on the local visco-plasticity of the matrix and fiber/matrix interface visco-damageable behavior is emphasized. The predominant damage mechanisms evolve from generalized matrix local ductility at low strain rate regime to fiber/matrix interface debonding and fibers pull-out at high strain rate regime.

  14. Convection and evaporation rate of planar liquid films subjected to impulsive superheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, J. T.; Hermanson, J. C.; Allen, J. S.

    2010-11-01

    The interfacial stability, convective structure, and evaporation rate of upward-facing, thin liquid films were studied experimentally. Four different working fluids were used. Films initially 5 mm to 100 μm thick were subjected to impulsive superheating. The films resided on a temperature controlled, gold-plated copper surface in a closed, initially degassed test chamber. Superheating was achieved by suddenly dropping the pressure of the saturated pure vapor in the test chamber. The dynamic film thickness was measured at multiple points using ultrasound, and instability wavelength and convective structure information was obtained by schlieren imaging. Considering previous quasi-steady results, the observed convection patterns in many cases suggest an initial, limited penetration of the convection structures into the film. The initial convection patterns and measured evaporation rate in these films are independent of the thermal boundary condition of the substrate. After a sufficiently long time, the convection pattern changes and approaches the previously observed quasi-steady condition.

  15. Enacted Sexual Stigma, Stigma Consciousness, and Subjective Happiness Scale Adaptation: A Two-Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizzi, Jenna; Fernández-Agis, Inmaculada; Parrón-Carreño, Tesifon; Alarcón-Rodríguez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Violence against people due to their sexual orientation is a phenomenon that exists within a framework of sexual stigma and sexual prejudice that can result in enacted stigma. The present study primarily aimed to validate the Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS; for lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB] populations) in the Spanish context by using samples from two countries (Spain [N = 157] and the United States [N = 83]). Also, to examine how the construct of stigma consciousness correlates with anti-LGBQ (anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer) hate crime victimization and violent incidents, as well as examine whether the former influences subjective happiness. The population from the United States reported higher stigma consciousness and received more anti-LGBQ threats and insults. Hate crime victimization was the same across the two samples and positively correlated with violent incidents in both samples. Subjective happiness was negatively correlated with SCQ, although its subscales it did not correlate with enacted stigma measures. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Biotic patterns of heart rate variation in depressed and psychotic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelli, H; Messer, J; Kovacevic, L; Walthall, K

    2011-01-01

    This article presents novel quantitative methods to study R to R interval (RRI) series that identify their characteristic pattern of organization, Bios, and their variation in psychiatric illness. In this study twenty-four hour series of RRI were extracted from Holter recordings of healthy subjects (N = 74) and small groups of patients with affective depression or psychosis. These data were analyzed with recurrence and statistical methods. In all subjects, RRI series showed complexes (clusters of recurrences), such as those observed with mathematically-generated biotic series but not in chaotic or random series. RRI series from healthy persons showed diversification (increase in variance with the duration of the series analyzed), novelty (less recurrence isometry than copies randomized by shuffling), causal order (more consecutive isometry than shuffled copies), and asymmetric statistical distribution. These imprints of creative processes are characteristic of mathematical Bios, and are absent in chaos. Bios can be distinguished from random walk series by the nonrandom pattern of the series of differences between heartbeats, as well as by measures of consecutive isometry and of partial autocorrelation. These defining characteristics of Bios are significant signs of health. In comparison with healthy controls, psychiatric patient groups showed more isometry and more consecutive isometry than healthy subjects. Psychiatric patients also showed no diversification. This study highlights the process that produces heart rate variation as being non-stationary and creative (bios, not equilibrium or chaos) and causal (not stochastically generated by the coexistence of multiple factors). These results thus are significant regarding psychiatric health.

  17. A new rate-dependent unidirectional composite model - Application to panels subjected to underwater blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoding; de Vaucorbeil, Alban; Tran, Phuong; Espinosa, Horacio D.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we developed a finite element fluid-structure interaction model to understand the deformation and failure mechanisms of both monolithic and sandwich composite panels. A new failure criterion that includes strain-rate effects was formulated and implemented to simulate different damage modes in unidirectional glass fiber/matrix composites. The laminate model uses Hashin's fiber failure criterion and a modified Tsai-Wu matrix failure criterion. The composite moduli are degraded using five damage variables, which are updated in the post-failure regime by means of a linear softening law governed by an energy release criterion. A key feature in the formulation is the distinction between fiber rupture and pull-out by introducing a modified fracture toughness, which varies from a fiber tensile toughness to a matrix tensile toughness as a function of the ratio of longitudinal normal stress to effective shear stress. The delamination between laminas is modeled by a strain-rate sensitive cohesive law. In the case of sandwich panels, core compaction is modeled by a crushable foam plasticity model with volumetric hardening and strain-rate sensitivity. These constitutive descriptions were used to predict deformation histories, fiber/matrix damage patterns, and inter-lamina delamination, for both monolithic and sandwich composite panels subjected to underwater blast. The numerical predictions were compared with experimental observations. We demonstrate that the new rate dependent composite damage model captures the spatial distribution and magnitude of damage significantly more accurately than previously developed models.

  18. Estimation of Circadian Body Temperature Rhythm Based on Heart Rate in Healthy, Ambulatory Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Soo Young; Joo, Kwang Min; Kim, Han Byul; Jang, Seungjin; Kim, Beomoh; Hong, Seungbum; Kim, Sungwan; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-03-01

    Core body temperature is a reliable marker for circadian rhythm. As characteristics of the circadian body temperature rhythm change during diverse health problems, such as sleep disorder and depression, body temperature monitoring is often used in clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, the use of current thermometers in circadian rhythm monitoring is impractical in daily life. As heart rate is a physiological signal relevant to thermoregulation, we investigated the feasibility of heart rate monitoring in estimating circadian body temperature rhythm. Various heart rate parameters and core body temperature were simultaneously acquired in 21 healthy, ambulatory subjects during their routine life. The performance of regression analysis and the extended Kalman filter on daily body temperature and circadian indicator (mesor, amplitude, and acrophase) estimation were evaluated. For daily body temperature estimation, mean R-R interval (RRI), mean heart rate (MHR), or normalized MHR provided a mean root mean square error of approximately 0.40 °C in both techniques. The mesor estimation regression analysis showed better performance than the extended Kalman filter. However, the extended Kalman filter, combined with RRI or MHR, provided better accuracy in terms of amplitude and acrophase estimation. We suggest that this noninvasive and convenient method for estimating the circadian body temperature rhythm could reduce discomfort during body temperature monitoring in daily life. This, in turn, could facilitate more clinical studies based on circadian body temperature rhythm.

  19. Metabolic clearance rate and blood production rate of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in normal subjects, during pregnancy, and in hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, J. M.; Forest, M. G.; Morera, A. M.; Bertrand, J.

    1972-01-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and blood production rate (BP) of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the conversion of plasma testosterone to plasma dihydrotestosterone, and the renal clearance of androstenedione, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone have been studied in man. In eight normal men, the MCRT (516±108 [SD] liters/m2/day) was significantly greater than the MCRDHT (391±71 [SD] liters/m2/day). In seven females, the MCRT (304±53 [SD] liters/m2/day) was also greater than the MCRDHT (209±45 [SD] liters/m2/day) and both values were less than their respective values in men (P hyperthyroidism, the MCR for testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were similar to those observed in pregnant females, but the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (2.78±1.7%) (SD) was greater, and similar to that found in men. In men the production of dihydrotestosterone was 0.39±0.1 (SD) mg/day, 50% being derived from the transformation of plasma testosterone. In women the production of DHT was 0.05±0.028 (SD) mg/day, only 10% coming from testosterone. During pregnancy, the production of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are similar to that in normal women. In three patients with testicular feminization syndrome (an adult with hyperthyroidism and two children) these two MCRs were greatly reduced compared to the normal females, but the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone was in the limits of normal male range In the normal subjects the renal clearance of androstenedione was greater than that of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Less than 20% of the dihydrotestosterone and less than 10% of the androstenedione in the urine is derived from the plasma dihydrotestosterone and androstenedione. PMID:5020435

  20. Vitamin B12 supplementation improves heart rate variability in healthy elderly Indian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucharita, S; Thomas, T; Antony, B; Vaz, M

    2012-05-21

    While vitamin B(12) deficiency is global, data in elderly Indians are lacking. The problem in India is likely to be higher because of vegetarianism and malabsorption related to gastro-intestinal parasites. Autonomic dysfunction is known to occur much earlier in pernicious anemia. However, what is not known is whether these changes are reflected in healthy elderly individuals. This study assessed cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic activity using heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy elderly individuals of low and high vitamin B(12) status and evaluated the effect of vitamin B(12) supplementation in those with low vitamin B(12) status. 140 elderly subjects aged ≥60 years were screened; 47 healthy subjects were assessed. They underwent blood sampling, anthropometry, HRV and nerve conduction assessment. Subjects were classified based on vitamin B(12) level (148 pmol/L) into deplete vitamin B(12) and replete vitamin B(12) groups. Elderly subjects with low vitamin B(12) status underwent cyanocobalamin supplementation (100 μg) for 3 months. Low frequency (LF) HRV in absolute units was significantly lower in the low vitamin B(12) group. Following supplementation, LF HRV in absolute units and total power rose significantly as compared to pre-supplementation values for the entire supplemented group. In conclusion, elderly with lower vitamin B(12) status have reduced low frequency HRV suggestive of sympathetic involvement. Supplementation with vitamin B(12) for 3 months results in a significant increase in low frequency HRV to values comparable with unsupplemented, but vitamin B(12) replete elderly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Apraxia of Speech Rating Scale: a tool for diagnosis and description of apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Edythe A; Duffy, Joseph R; Clark, Heather M; Josephs, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe an initial version of the Apraxia of Speech Rating Scale (ASRS), a scale designed to quantify the presence or absence, relative frequency, and severity of characteristics frequently associated with apraxia of speech (AOS). In this paper we report intra-judge and inter-judge reliability, as well as indices of validity, for the ASRS which was completed for 133 adult participants with a neurodegenerative speech or language disorder, 56 of whom had AOS. The overall inter-judge ICC among three clinicians was 0.94 for the total ASRS score and 0.91 for the number of AOS characteristics identified as present. Intra-judge ICC measures were high, ranging from 0.91 to 0.98. Validity was demonstrated on the basis of strong correlations with independent clinical diagnosis, as well as strong correlations of ASRS scores with independent clinical judgments of AOS severity. Results suggest that the ASRS is a potentially useful tool for documenting the presence and severity of characteristics of AOS. At this point in its development it has good potential for broader clinical use and for better subject description in AOS research. The Apraxia of Speech Rating Scale: A new tool for diagnosis and description of apraxia of speech 1. The reader will be able to explain characteristics of apraxia of speech. 2. The reader will be able to demonstrate use of a rating scale to document the presence and severity of speech characteristics. 3. The reader will be able to explain the reliability and validity of the ASRS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Factor Structure of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, James B., Jr.; Hendel, Darwin D.

    Subjects for this study were female participants in a mathematics anxiety treatment program at a midwestern university. A series of test instruments were administered. Statistical analysis indicates that for this female sample, the domain of mathematics anxiety is best described as primarily test anxiety and only secondarily as anxiety associated…

  3. The Wender Utah Rating Scale: an aid in the retrospective diagnosis of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M F; Wender, P H; Reimherr, F W

    1993-06-01

    In an attempt to surmount the problem of retrospectively establishing the childhood diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the authors constructed the 61-item Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) for adults to use to describe their own childhood behavior. In this paper they present their initial data collection and evaluation of the instrument's validity. The scale was administered to 81 adult outpatients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 100 "normal" adults, and 70 psychiatric adult outpatients with unipolar depression. The authors analyzed data from the 25 items of the scale that showed the greatest difference between the patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the normal comparison subjects and the relationship between the WURS and the patients' parents' judgment of childhood activity as measured by the Parents' Rating Scale. The patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had significantly higher mean scores on all 25 items than did the two comparison groups. The difference between the mean total scores of the patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the normal subjects was also highly significant. A cutoff score of 46 or higher correctly identified 86% of the patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 99% of the normal subjects, and 81% of the depressed subjects. Correlations obtained between WURS scores and Parents' Rating Scale scores were moderate but impressive. The ability of WURS scores to predict response to methylphenidate replicated the authors' finding regarding the ability of Parents' Rating Scale scores to predict response to pemoline. The WURS is sensitive in identifying childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and may be useful in recognizing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in patients with ambiguous adult psychopathology.

  4. Assessment of Subjective Perceived Exertion at the Anaerobic Threshold with the Borg CR-10 Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Zamunér, Antonio R.; Moreno, Marlene A.; Camargo, Taís M.; Graetz, Juliana P.; Rebelo, Ana C. S.; Tamburús, Nayara Y.; Ester da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anaerobic threshold (AT) with a graphic visual method for estimating the intensity of ventilatory and metabolic exertion and to determine the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) on the Borg CR-10 scale during a continuous ramp type exercise test (CT-R). Forty healthy, physically active and sedentary young women (age 23.1 ± 3.52 years) were divided into two groups according to their fitness level: active group (AG) and sedentary group (SG) and were...

  5. The Bipolar Affective Disorder Dimension Scale (BADDS – a dimensional scale for rating lifetime psychopathology in Bipolar spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Ian

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current operational diagnostic systems have substantial limitations for lifetime diagnostic classification of bipolar spectrum disorders. Issues include: (1 It is difficult to operationalize the integration of diverse episodes of psychopathology, (2 Hierarchies lead to loss of information, (3 Boundaries between diagnostic categories are often arbitrary, (4 Boundaries between categories usually require a major element of subjective interpretation, (5 Available diagnostic categories are relatively unhelpful in distinguishing severity, (6 "Not Otherwise Specified (NOS" categories are highly heterogeneous, (7 Subclinical cases are not accommodated usefully within the current diagnostic categories. This latter limitation is particularly pertinent in the context of the increasing evidence for the existence of a broader bipolar spectrum than has been acknowledged within existing classifications. Method We have developed a numerical rating system, the Bipolar Affective Disorder Dimension Scale, BADDS, that can be used as an adjunct to conventional best-estimate lifetime diagnostic procedures. The scale definitions were informed by (a the current concepts of mood syndrome recognized within DSMIV and ICD10, (b the literature regarding severity of episodes, and (c our own clinical experience. We undertook an iterative process in which we initially agreed scale definitions, piloted their use on sets of cases and made modifications to improve utility and reliability. Results BADDS has four dimensions, each rated as an integer on a 0 – 100 scale, that measure four key domains of lifetime psychopathology: Mania (M, Depression (D, Psychosis (P and Incongruence (I. In our experience it is easy to learn, straightforward to use, has excellent inter-rater reliability and retains the key information required to make diagnoses according to DSMIV and ICD10. Conclusions Use of BADDS as an adjunct to conventional categorical diagnosis provides a

  6. Description of signature scales in a floating wind turbine model wake subjected to varying turbulence intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadum, Hawwa; Rockel, Stanislav; Holling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim; Cal, Raul Bayon

    2017-11-01

    The wake behind a floating model horizontal axis wind turbine during pitch motion is investigated and compared to a fixed wind turbine wake. An experiment is conducted in an acoustic wind tunnel where hot-wire data are acquired at five downstream locations. At each downstream location, a rake of 16 hot-wires was used with placement of the probes increasing radially in the vertical, horizontal, and diagonally at 45 deg. In addition, the effect of turbulence intensity on the floating wake is examined by subjecting the wind turbine to different inflow conditions controlled through three settings in the wind tunnel grid, a passive and two active protocols, thus varying in intensity. The wakes are inspected by statistics of the point measurements, where the various length/time scales are considered. The wake characteristics for a floating wind turbine are compared to a fixed turbine, and uncovering its features; relevant as the demand for exploiting deep waters in wind energy is increasing.

  7. Assertive Communication in Condom Negotiation: Insights From Late Adolescent Couples' Subjective Ratings of Self and Partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Amy; Leonard, Noelle R; Ritchie, Amanda S; Gwadz, Marya V

    2015-07-01

    Assertive communication has been associated with higher levels of condom use among youth using self-report survey methodology. The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective ratings of assertiveness among young, romantically involved couples in the context of a condom negotiation task. Using an innovative video-recall procedure, 32 couples (64 youth) engaged in a videotaped condom negotiation task and then rated self and partners' level of assertiveness. Both individual ratings of assertiveness and couple-level assertiveness were assessed using dyadic hierarchical linear modeling. Individuals' assertiveness was positively associated with condom use. Unexpectedly, the overall level of assertiveness in couples showed a curvilinear association with condom use. Very high and very low assertiveness was associated with lower condom use, whereas moderate levels of assertiveness were associated with higher condom use. Moderate levels of assertiveness during condom negotiation may facilitate condom use in young couples. Increasing condom use among romantic partners may require developing interventions that strengthen youths' ability to engage in assertive communication strategies that balance emotional intimacy with self-advocacy. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maximizing measurement efficiency of behavior rating scales using Item Response Theory: An example with the Social Skills Improvement System - Teacher Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Christopher J; DiPerna, James C; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2016-04-01

    Measurement efficiency is an important consideration when developing behavior rating scales for use in research and practice. Although most published scales have been developed within a Classical Test Theory (CTT) framework, Item Response Theory (IRT) offers several advantages for developing scales that maximize measurement efficiency. The current study provides an example of using IRT to maximize rating scale efficiency with the Social Skills Improvement System - Teacher Rating Scale (SSIS - TRS), a measure of student social skills frequently used in practice and research. Based on IRT analyses, 27 items from the Social Skills subscales and 14 items from the Problem Behavior subscales of the SSIS - TRS were identified as maximally efficient. In addition to maintaining similar content coverage to the published version, these sets of maximally efficient items demonstrated similar psychometric properties to the published SSIS - TRS. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Longitudinal measurement equivalence of subjective language brokering experiences scale in Mexican American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Hou, Yang; Shen, Yishan; Zhang, Minyu

    2017-04-01

    Language brokering occurs frequently in immigrant families and can have significant implications for the well-being of family members involved. The present study aimed to develop and validate a measure that can be used to assess multiple dimensions of subjective language brokering experiences among Mexican American adolescents. Participants were 557 adolescent language brokers (54.2% female, Mage.wave1 = 12.96, SD = .94) in Mexican American families. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, we were able to identify 7 reliable subscales of language brokering: linguistic benefits, socioemotional benefits, efficacy, positive parent-child relationships, parental dependence, negative feelings , and centrality . Tests of factorial invariance show that these subscales demonstrate, at minimum, partial strict invariance across time and across experiences of translating for mothers and fathers, and in most cases, also across adolescent gender, nativity, and translation frequency. Thus, in general, the means of the subscales and the relations among the subscales with other variables can be compared across these different occasions and groups. Tests of criterion-related validity demonstrated that these subscales correlated, concurrently and longitudinally, with parental warmth and hostility, parent-child alienation, adolescent family obligation, depressive symptoms, resilience, and life meaning. This reliable and valid subjective language brokering experiences scale will be helpful for gaining a better understanding of adolescents' language brokering experiences with their mothers and fathers, and how such experiences may influence their development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Recommendations for aerobic endurance training based on subjective ratings of perceived exertion in healthy seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Zahner, Lukas; Cordes, Mareike; Hanssen, Henner; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Aarno; Faude, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated physiological responses during 2-km walking at a certain intensity of a previously performed maximal exercise test where moderate perceived exertion was reported. Twenty seniors were examined by an incremental walking treadmill test to obtain maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). A submaximal 2-km walking test was applied 1 wk later. The corresponding moderate perceived exertion (4 on the CR-10 scale) during the VO2max test was applied to the 2-km treadmill test. Moderate exertion (mean rating of perceived exertion [RPE]: 4 ± 1) led to 76% ± 8% of VO2max and 79% ± 6% of maximal heart rate. RPE values drifted with a significant time effect (p = .001, η(p) = .58) during the 2-km test from 3 ± 0.7 to 4.6 ± 0.8. Total energy expenditure (EE) was 3.3 ± 0.5 kcal/kg. No gender differences in ventilatory, heart-rate, or EE data occurred. Brisk walking at moderate RPE of 3-5 would lead to a beneficial physiological response during endurance training and a weekly EE of nearly 1,200 kcal when exercising 5 times/wk for 30 min.

  11. Decrease in heart rate variability response to task is related to anxiety and depressiveness in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinba, Toshikazu; Kariya, Nobutoshi; Matsui, Yasue; Ozawa, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that heart rate variability (HRV) measurement is useful in investigating the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders. The present study further examined its usefulness in evaluating the mental health of normal subjects with respect to anxiety and depressiveness. Heart rate (HR) and HRV were measured tonometrically at the wrist in 43 normal subjects not only in the resting condition but also during a task (random number generation) to assess the responsiveness. For HRV measurement, high-frequency (HF; 0.15-0.4 Hz) and low-frequency (LF; 0.04-0.15 Hz) components of HRV were obtained using MemCalc, a time series analysis technique that combines a non-linear least square method with maximum entropy method. For psychological evaluation of anxiety and depressiveness, two self-report questionnaires were used: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). No significant relation was observed between HR and HRV indices, and the psychological scores both in the resting and task conditions. By task application, HF decreased, and LF/HF and HR increased, and significant correlation with psychological scores was found in the responsiveness to task measured by the ratio of HRV and HR indices during the task to that at rest (task/rest ratio). A positive relationship was found between task/rest ratio for HF, and STAI and SDS scores. Task/rest ratio of HR was negatively correlated with STAI-state score. Decreased HRV response to task application is related to anxiety and depressiveness. Decreased autonomic responsiveness could serve as a sign of psychological dysfunction.

  12. Standardization of Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale in Iranian subjects with Cerebrovascular Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Alireza Derakhshanrad1

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resilience is a personal trait that can influence the stroke subjects’ attitudes toward future opportunities and facilitate the transitional process and adaptation in them. Assessment of this trait in stroke subjects with a standardized tool would promote the rehabilitation protocols and occupational therapy interventions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to standardize the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC for Persian Iranian people who have had strokes. Methods: A descriptive observational study was adopted in order to standardize the CD-RISC in stroke population. The population was comprised of 34 female and 29 male subjects with a mean age of 51.4±10.6 years and the history of ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accidents. Subjects were recruited based on inclusion criteria within the period of two months between May and July of 2014. Descriptive statistics were calculated along with the Cronbach’s alpha to determine reliability. Standard multiple regression analyses searched for any correlation between variables and resilience. Results: Statistical parameters revealed a mean of 58.4±15.5 for CD-RISC raw scores. Percentile ranks were also calculated from raw data. Cronbach’s alpha of 0.892 revealed that the CD-RISC had high reliability for the population of this study. Multiple regression analyses showed that the functional status was the only variable that uniquely predicted subjects’ resilience (ß=0.41; P<0.01. Conclusion: The findings of this research confirmed applicability of CDRISC in Iranian people who have had strokes. The standardized CD-RISC was determined to be suitable for use in the clinic and for utilization in research studies in Iranian people status post-stroke.

  13. Are dentists happy? A study among dental practitioners in coastal Andhra Pradesh using subjective happiness scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar Kaipa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of dental professionals in the society is vital. This profession allows the flexibility to balance a professional and personal life. Practice of dentistry at times is quite stressful, and stress impedes happiness and subjective well-being. Several studies have reported about stress among dental professionals and their various effects; however, studies evaluating the level of happiness (happiness index among dentists are few and lack in this geographic region. Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the subjective happiness level among dental professionals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 194 dentists in Andhra Pradesh, India. A questionnaire measuring dimensions of professional satisfaction by Subjective Happiness Scale was used to assess the happiness level. The results were expressed in percentages, means, and mean rank. Independent samples nonparametric tests (Mann–Whitney U-test and Kruskal–Wallis test and multivariable analyses were used to assess the determinants of happiness. Results: The mean happiness index of the respondents was 21.71 (0.26 standard error. Overall 67% of the respondents had an above average happiness score. Higher happiness score was found to be significantly associated with age, postgraduate degree, male gender, type of professional attachment, duration of practice, urban location of practice, and spouse employment status in univariate analysis. However, multivariable analysis showed association with type of professional attachment only. Conclusion: Although dentistry has been recognized as a stressful profession, majority of the dentists under study had a happiness score above the mean, and the level of satisfaction was influenced by various sociodemographic factors.

  14. Time course of subjective pain ratings, and wound and leg tenderness after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Dahl, J B; Erichsen, C J

    1997-01-01

    .0002). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that wound pressure algometry correlates to postoperative pain at rest and during movement and may be an alternative way of assessing wound pain and tenderness. Increased tenderness to mechanical stimulation remote from the surgical wound could not be demonstrated.......BACKGROUND: Little information is available on time course of wound tenderness and relationship to subjective pain ratings following surgery. Furthermore, it is not clarified whether surgical procedures may induce hyperalgesia to mechanical stimulation outside the area of the surgical incision. We...... have therefore assessed postoperative pain and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) adjacent to and remote from the surgical incision in 16 patients undergoing hysterectomy. METHODS: Pressure pain threshold was assessed with pressure algometry preoperatively, 4 and 6 and 1, 4 and 8 d after surgery...

  15. Subjective sleep quality in relation to inhibition and heart rate variability in patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Anders; Pallesen, Ståle; Hammar, Asa; Hansen, Anita Lill; Thayer, Julian F; Sivertsen, Børge; Tarvainen, Mika P; Nordhus, Inger Hilde

    2013-08-15

    Patients with panic disorder (PD) are known to report impaired sleep quality and symptoms of insomnia. PD is an anxiety disorder characterised by deficient physiological regulation as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), and reduced HRV, PD and insomnia have all been related to impaired inhibitory ability. The present study aimed to investigate the interrelationships between subjectively reported sleep impairment, cognitive inhibition and vagally mediated HRV in a sample characterised by variability on measures of all these constructs. Thirty-six patients with PD with or without agoraphobia were included. Cognitive inhibition was assessed with the Color-Word Interference Test from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), HRV was measured using high frequency (HF) power (ms(2)), and subjectively reported sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Cognitive inhibition was related to both Sleep latency and Sleep disturbances, whereas HRV was only related to Sleep disturbances. These relationships were significant also after controlling for depression. Correlational design. Cognitive inhibition is related to key insomnia symptoms: sleep initiation and sleep maintenance. The data supports the psychobiological inhibition model of insomnia, and extends previous findings. Possible clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptics Scale short form (SWN-K): reliability and validity in an Estonian speaking sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Liina; Mõttus, René; Jaanson, Peeter; Pilli, Raine; Mägi, Kairi; Maron, Eduard

    2013-09-11

    The Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale short form (SWN-K) is a self-rating scale developed to measure mentally ill patients' well-being under the antipsychotic drug treatment. This paper reports on adaptation and psychometric properties of the instrument in an Estonian psychiatric sample. In a naturalistic study design, 124 inpatients or outpatients suffering from the first psychotic episode or chronic psychotic illness completed the translated SWN-K instrument. Item content analysis, internal consistency analysis, exploratory principal components analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis were used to construct the Estonian version of the SWN-K (SWN-K-E). Additionally, socio-demographic and clinical data, observer-rated psychopathology, medication side effects, daily antipsychotic drug dosages, and general functioning were assessed at two time points, at baseline and after a 29-week period; the associations of the SWN-K-E scores with these variables were explored. After having selected 20 items for the Estonian adaptation, the internal consistency of the total SWN-K-E was 0.93 and the subscale consistencies ranged from 0.70 to 0.80. Good test-retest reliabilities were observed for the adapted scale scores, with the correlation of the total score over about 6 months being r = 0.70. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the presence of a higher-order factor (general well-being) and five first-order factors (mental functioning, physical functioning, social integration, emotional regulation, and self-control); the model fitted the data well. The results indicated a moderate-high correlations r = 0.54 between the SWN-K-E total score and the evaluation how satisfied patients were with their lives in generally. No significant correlations were found between the overall subjective well-being score and age, severity of the psychopathology, drug adverse effects, or prescribed drug dosage. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the Estonian

  17. Orbit width scaling of TAE instability growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, H.V.; Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The growth rate of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) driven unstable by resonant coupling of energetic charged particles is evaluated in the ballooning limit over a wide range of parameters. All damping effects are ignored. Variations in orbit width, aspect ratio, and the ratio of alfven velocity to energetic particle birth velocity, are explored. The relative contribution of passing and trapped particles, and finite Larmor radius effects, are also examined. The phase space location of resonant particles with interact strongly with the modes is described. The accuracy of the analytic results with respect to growth rate magnitude and parametric dependence is investigated by comparison with numerical results.

  18. Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback Stress Relief Program for Depression*. A Replicated Single-Subject Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartogs, Bregje M A; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Van der Ploeg, Karen; Bos, Elske H

    2017-07-19

    Depressive disorders often have a chronic course and the efficacy of evidence-based treatments may be overestimated. To examine the effectiveness of the Heart Rate Variability Stress Reduction Program (SRP) as a supplement to standard treatment in patients with depressive disorders. The SRP was individually administered in eight weekly sessions. Seven participants completed the full protocol and were enrolled in a single-subject ABA multiple baseline experimental design. To perform interrupted time-series analyses, daily measures were completed in a diary (depression, resilience, happiness, heart coherence and a personalized outcome measure). Five out of seven patients improved in depressed mood and/or a personalized outcome measure. The effect of treatment was reversed in four patients during the withdrawal phase. One patient reliably improved on depression, whereas two patients recovered on autonomy and one on social optimism. No consistent relationship was found between the heart rate variability-related level of coherence and self-reported mood levels. The SRP is beneficial in some domains and for some patients. A prolonged treatment or continued home practice may be required for enduring effects. The intervention had more clinical impact on resilience-related outcome measures than on symptoms. The small sample size does not permit generalization of the results. We recommend future investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the SRP.

  19. Heart rate variability in normotensive subjects with family history of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishnan, Krishnan; Balasubramanian, Kabali; Rao, Badanidiyur Viswanatha

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension (HT) is a major silent disease affecting young people because of their hereditary and modern lifestyles. Target organ damages occur before overt hypertension is diagnosed. Many offspring of HT parents show early changes in their cardiovascular autonomic functions. Heart rate variability (HRV) provides a window to understand the cardiac autonomic balance. This study was designed to quantify and to compare the HRV among the normotensive young male offspring without history of parenteral hypertension & diabetic (control group, n = 25, age 20.8 +/- 2.4, BMI 24.4 +/- 3.1) with parenteral history of hypertension & non diabetic (study group n = 25, age 19.7 +/- 1.9, 24.05 +/- 3.5). Blood pressure, heart rate (HR), indices of short term HRV during supine rest and quiet standing, HR variation during timed controlled deep breathing was compared between the two groups. There were significant difference in low frequency (LF) power, HF power, total power. LF and HF expressed also in normalized units at rest and standing. In time domain standard deviation of normal to normal RR interval (SDNN) at supine rest and standing were significant. Respiratory sinus arrthymia (RSA), HF in normalized units, deep breathing difference (BDD) and the ratio of maximum RR to minimum RR were also significant in the control group than study group. In the present study there was an increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activity in the study group. These findings are an early marker of cardiovascular autonomic impairment in subjects with parenteral history of hypertension.

  20. Quantifying behaviors of children with Sanfilippo syndrome: The Sanfilippo Behavior Rating Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Elsa G.; Nestrasil, Igor; Ahmed, Alia; Wey, Andrew; Rudser, Kyle; Delaney, Kathleen; Rumsey, Robin; Haslett, Patrick; Whitley, Chester B; Potegal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Sanfilippo Behavior Rating Scale (SBRS), a 68 item questionnaire, has been developed to assess the behavioral phenotype of children with Sanfilippo syndrome and its progression over time. Fifteen scales rate orality, movement/activity, attention/self-control, emotional function including anger and fear, and social interaction. Items within scales intercorrelate; measures of internal consistency are adequate. Twelve scales are grouped into 4 abnormality clusters: Movement, Lack of fear, So...

  1. Does Scale Length Matter? A Comparison of Nine- versus Five-Point Rating Scales for the Mini-CEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Educators must often decide how many points to use in a rating scale. No studies have compared interrater reliability for different-length scales, and few have evaluated accuracy. This study sought to evaluate the interrater reliability and accuracy of mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) scores, comparing the traditional mini-CEX…

  2. Translation and validation of International Restless Leg Syndrome Study Group rating scale in Hindi language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi; Lahan, Vivekananda; Goel, Deepak

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study is to translate and validate the International Restless Leg Syndrome Study Group rating scale (IRLS) in Hindi language. Thirty one consecutive patients diagnosed of Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) were included in the study. Control group comprised of 31 subjects not having any symptom of RLS. The scale was procured from MAPI research trust; and, permission for the translation was sought. The translation was done according to the guidelines provided by the publisher. After translation, final version of the scale was applied in both the groups to find out the reliability and clinical validity. RLS group had a predominance of females, and they were younger than the male counterparts (Age=36.80 ± 10.46 years vs 45.18 ± 8.34 years; t=2.28; P=0.03). There was no difference in the mean age between groups (RLS=39.77 ± 10.44 years vs Non RLS=38.29 ± 11.29 years; t=-0.53; P=0.59). IRLS scores were significantly different between both groups on all items (PHindi version of IRLS is reliable and a clinically valid tool that can be applied in Hindi speaking population.

  3. Interpretation of response categories in patient-reported rating scales: a controlled study among people with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knutsson Ida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unambiguous interpretation of ordered rating scale response categories requires distinct meanings of category labels. Also, summation of item responses into total scores assumes equal intervals between categories. While studies have identified problems with rating scale response category functioning there is a paucity of empirical studies regarding how respondents interpret response categories. We investigated the interpretation of commonly used rating scale response categories and attempted to identify distinct and roughly equally spaced response categories for patient-reported rating scales in Parkinson's disease (PD and age-matched control subjects. Methods Twenty-one rating scale response categories representing frequency, intensity and level of agreement were presented in random order to 51 people with PD (36 men; mean age, 66 years and 36 age-matched controls (14 men; mean age, 66. Respondents indicated their interpretation of each category on 100-mm visual analog scales (VAS anchored by Never - Always, Not at all - Extremely, and Totally disagree - Completely agree. VAS values were compared between groups, and response categories with mean values and non-overlapping 95% CIs corresponding to equally spaced locations on the VAS line were sought to identify the best options for three-, four-, five-, and six-category scales. Results VAS values did not differ between the PD and control samples (P = 0.286 or according to educational level (P = 0.220, age (P = 0.220, self-reported physical functioning (P = 0.501 and mental health (P = 0.238, or (for the PD sample PD duration (P = 0.213 or presence of dyskinesias (P = 0.212. Attempts to identify roughly equally spaced response categories for three-, four-, five-, and six-category scales were unsuccessful, as the 95% CIs of one or several of the identified response categories failed to include the criterion values for equal distances. Conclusions This study offers an evidence

  4. Nitric oxide and regulation of heart rate in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Alfredo; Okamoto, Luis E; Raj, Satish R; Diedrich, André; Shibao, Cyndya A; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo

    2013-02-01

    The objective is to study the role of nitric oxide (NO) on cardiovascular regulation in healthy subjects and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) patients. Reduced neuronal NO function, which could contribute to a hyperadrenergic state, and increased NO-induced vasodilation, which could contribute to orthostatic intolerance, have been reported in POTS. In protocol 1, 13 healthy volunteers (33 ± 3 years) underwent autonomic blockade with trimethaphan and were administered equipressor doses of Nω-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, a NO synthase inhibitor) and phenylephrine to determine the direct chronotropic effects of NO (independent of baroreflex modulation). In protocol 2, we compared the effects of L-NMMA in 9 POTS patients (31 ± 3 years) and 14 healthy (32 ± 2 years) volunteers, during autonomic blockade. During autonomic blockade, L-NMMA and phenylephrine produced similar increases in systolic blood pressure (27 ± 2 versus 27 ± 3 mm Hg). Phenylephrine produced only minimal heart rate changes, whereas L-NMMA produced a modest, but significant, bradycardia (-0.8 ± 0.4 versus -4.8 ± 1.2 bpm; P=0.011). There were no differences between POTS and healthy volunteers in the systolic blood pressure increase (22 ± 2 and 28 ± 5 mm Hg) or heart rate decrease (-6 ± 2 and -4 ± 1 bpm for POTS and controls, respectively) produced by L-NMMA. In the absence of baroreflex buffering, inhibition of endogenous NO synthesis results in a significant bradycardia, reflecting direct tonic modulation of heart rate by NO in healthy individuals. We found no evidence of a primary alteration in NO function in POTS. If NO dysfunction plays a role in POTS, it is through its interaction with the autonomic nervous system.

  5. Psychometric properties of the rating scale sports organizations EPOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Nuviala Nuviala

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of user satisfaction and consumers of services is a necessity for those responsible for them. There’s a variety of instruments that assess the perceived quality but are criticized for several reasons: concepts, procedures, lack of specificity... EPOD is a scale with 29 items integrated in four dimensions, direct practical application which had been previously validated. However, nobody had checked the psychometric properties of the instrument. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine them. The sample was 463 users of sports services who were given the instrument. The results show good internal and external validity, while it has a high reliability. Therefore, EPOD becomes a tool to assess the perceived quality of service provided by the sports organizations in a valid, reliable, simple and brief way, considering the different dimensions that make up the provision of sports services.

  6. Characteristics of heart rate variability in alcohol-dependent subjects and nondependent chronic alcohol users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpyak, Victor M; Romanowicz, Magdalena; Schmidt, John E; Lewis, Kriste A; Bostwick, John M

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is an objective and sensitive measure of integrated physiological functioning reflective of heart rhythm responsivity to internal and external demands. Reduced HRV is associated with vulnerability to stress and deterioration of medical and/or psychiatric conditions, while increased HRV is associated with a favorable treatment response and recovery from various medical and/or psychiatric conditions. Our previous review found that acute alcohol consumption caused decreased parasympathetic and increased sympathetic HRV effects in both nonalcoholic and chronic alcohol users. This review investigates the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on HRV in alcohol-dependent subjects and nondependent users. MEDLINE, Scopus, and PubMed were searched for human experimental and clinical trials that measured the effects of chronic alcohol use on HRV. Only publications that included a description of their study designs and clearly stated methodologies for data collections, and outcome measures were reviewed. We have reviewed a total of 24 articles. In nondependent users, low dose (approximating the recommended daily amount of 1 standard drink in women and 2 in men) use is associated with increased HRV parameters compared to those who drink less frequently or abstain altogether. A further increase in consumption is associated with decreased HRV compared to both abstainers and more moderate drinkers. HRV changes during withdrawal generally follow the same negative direction but are more complex and less understood. In dependent subjects, an improvement in HRV was seen following abstinence but remained reduced compared to nonalcoholic controls. This review demonstrates that HRV changes associated with chronic use follow a J-shaped curve. It supports recommendations that limit daily alcohol intake to no more than 2 drinks for men and 1 drink for women. Future studies should investigate HRV as a biomarker of alcoholism development and treatment response as

  7. Influence of arotinolol hydrochloride on heart rate spectrum in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasawa, Y; Imaizumi, T; Ando, S; Masaki, H; Harada, S; Momohara, M; Takeshita, A

    1994-05-01

    Influence of arotinolol hydrochloride and atenolol on the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems was evaluated in 8 hypertensive subjects by spectral analysis of heart rate (HR) and systemic blood pressure (BP). Before and after administration of either arotinolol (n = 7) or atenolol (n = 7) for 2 weeks, BP was continuously and non-invasively monitored by a finger-cuff manometry (Finapres). A time series of instantaneous HR was constructed from the BP signal. A time series of mean BP was also constructed. Spectral analysis was performed by the use of an autoregressive algorithm on these time series (approximately 180 sec). Each spectrum was subdivided into low-(0.05-0.15 Hz, LF) and high-frequency (0.15-0.4 Hz, HF) components, and each component was divided by the sum of the two for normalization. As a measure of the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF) was evaluated. Arotinolol increased fractional HF in the HR spectrum from 0.45 +/- 0.12 to 0.73 +/- 0.08 (p < 0.01) and decreased fractional LF from 0.55 +/- 0.12 to 0.27 +/- 0.08 (p < 0.01); consequently, it decreased LF/HF from 1.4 +/- 0.5 to 0.4 +/- 0.2 (p < 0.01). Atenolol had similar effects on these parameters. Neither of these beta-adrenergic blockades produced a discernible decrease in LF/HF in the BP spectrum. In conclusion, these beta-adrenergic blockades decreased LF/HF in the HR spectrum in hypertensive subjects, which suggests that they improved the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

  8. Dose titration of BAF312 attenuates the initial heart rate reducing effect in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legangneux, Eric; Gardin, Anne; Johns, Donald

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown transient decreases in heart rate (HR) following administration of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators including BAF312. This study was conducted to determine whether dose titration of BAF312 reduces or eliminates these effects. Fifty-six healthy subjects were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive BAF312 in one of two dose titration (DT) regimens (DT1 and DT2: 0.25-10 mg over 9-10 days), no titration (10 mg starting dose) or placebo. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed. Neither DT1 nor DT2 resulted in clinically significant bradycardia or atrioventricular conduction effects. Both titration regimens showed a favourable difference on each of days 1-12 vs. the non-titration regimen on day 1 for HR effects (P titration was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13, 1.23) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.09, 1.18) for DT2 (both P titration HRs showed considerable separation from placebo throughout the study. There was no statistically significant reduction in HR vs. placebo on day 1 in either titration regimen. On days 3-7 subjects in DT1 and DT2 experienced minor reductions in HR vs. placebo (approximately 5 beats min⁻¹; P ≤ 0.0001). From days 9-12, HRs in both titration regimens were comparable with placebo. Both titration regimens effectively attenuated the initial bradyarrhythmia observed on day 1 of treatment with BAF312 10 mg. © 2012 Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research (NIBIR). British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. An Evaluation of China's Kindergarten Quality Rating System through the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale--The Zhejiang Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Vong, Keang-Ieng; Mak, Miranda Chi Kuan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of one province's Kindergarten Quality Rating System in differentiating quality levels using the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS). Results confirmed that, except for the difference between the Standard and Level-3 Kindergartens, the CECERS was successful in detecting the differences…

  10. The other side of recovery: validation of the Portuguese version of the subjective experiences of psychosis scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Filipa; Soares, Sandra C; Bem-Haja, Pedro; Roque, Carolina; Madeira, Nuno

    2015-10-14

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a Portuguese version of The Subjective Experiences of Psychosis Scale (SEPS) for use in Portuguese-speaking populations in order to provide a self-report instrument to assess and monitor dimensions of psychotic experiences, translating patient's perspective and experience in terms of recovery from psychosis. The sample consisted of 30 participants with psychotic disorders who had recently experienced delusions or hallucinations. The SEPS was completed along with other observer-based assessments and self-report questionnaires, such as the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire and the Function Assessment Short Test. Two main factors representing the positive and negative components of each subscale were identified. We obtained good internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the positive and negative components of all subscales. The subscales of SEPS correlated with observer-based assessments and self-report questionnaires. The Portuguese version of the SEPS is a useful tool in the assessment and monitoring of psychotic symptoms.

  11. Reliability and concurrent validity of visual analogue scale and modified verbal rating scale of pain assessment in adult patients with knee osteoathritis in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O.B Olaogun

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and concurrent validity of two pain rating scales - Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Verbal Rating Scale (VRS. The verbal rating scale was modified by translating the English description of subjective pain experience into vernacular (Yoruba equivalents and rating the knee pain when the patient was  standing with the knee  flexed . Twenty seven patients who were clinically and radiologically diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA and with knee pain were purposively selected for the study. Two testers (physiotherapists independently rated the pain experienced by patients, when bearing full weight while standing on the affected leg with slight knee flexion, over a period of several days. For each patient pain was rated with the VAS and the modified VRS (MVRS. There were significant correlations between VAS and MVRS by the same tester (tester 1 and tester2 (r=0.92, p<0.01; r = 0.89,            p<0.01respectively, and between VAS and MVRS between tester 1 and tester 2 (r=0.91,p<0.01. There were no significant differences between VAS for tester 1 and VAS for tester 2, and between MVRS for tester 1and MVRS for tester 2 (p> 0.01.  According to this study, the two pain rating scales for knee OA are reliable. Our use of VAS and MVRS togetherwith the procedure involving the flexed knee posture is, therefore, recommended for wider clinical trials.

  12. Large scale high strain-rate tests of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiefer R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the stages of development of some innovative equipment, based on Hopkinson bar techniques, for performing large scale dynamic tests of concrete specimens. The activity is centered at the recently upgraded HOPLAB facility, which is basically a split Hopkinson bar with a total length of approximately 200 m and with bar diameters of 72 mm. Through pre-tensioning and suddenly releasing a steel cable, force pulses of up to 2 MN, 250 μs rise time and 40 ms duration can be generated and applied to the specimen tested. The dynamic compression loading has first been treated and several modifications in the basic configuration have been introduced. Twin incident and transmitter bars have been installed with strong steel plates at their ends where large specimens can be accommodated. A series of calibration and qualification tests has been conducted and the first real tests on concrete cylindrical specimens of 20cm diameter and up to 40cm length have commenced. Preliminary results from the analysis of the recorded signals indicate proper Hopkinson bar testing conditions and reliable functioning of the facility.

  13. Myotubes from severely obese type 2 diabetic subjects accumulate less lipids and show higher lipolytic rate than myotubes from severely obese non-diabetic subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siril S Bakke

    Full Text Available About 80% of patients with type 2 diabetes are classified as overweight. However, only about 1/3 of severely obese subjects have type 2 diabetes. This indicates that several severely obese individuals may possess certain characteristics that protect them against type 2 diabetes. We therefore hypothesized that this apparent paradox could be related to fundamental differences in skeletal muscle lipid handling. Energy metabolism and metabolic flexibility were examined in human myotubes derived from severely obese subjects without (BMI 44±7 kg/m2 and with type 2 diabetes (BMI 43±6 kg/m2. Lower insulin sensitivity was observed in myotubes from severely obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Lipolysis rate was higher, and oleic acid accumulation, triacylglycerol content, and fatty acid adaptability were lower in myotubes from severely obese subjects with type 2 diabetes compared to severely obese non-diabetic subjects. There were no differences in lipid distribution and mRNA and protein expression of the lipases HSL and ATGL, the lipase cofactor CGI-58, or the lipid droplet proteins PLIN2 and PLIN3. Glucose and oleic acid oxidation were also similar in cells from the two groups. In conclusion, myotubes established from severely obese donors with established type 2 diabetes had lower ability for lipid accumulation and higher lipolysis rate than myotubes from severely obese donors without diabetes. This indicates that a difference in intramyocellular lipid turnover might be fundamental in evolving type 2 diabetes.

  14. Open source database of images DEIMOS: extension for large-scale subjective image quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítek, Stanislav

    2014-09-01

    DEIMOS (Database of Images: Open Source) is an open-source database of images and video sequences for testing, verification and comparison of various image and/or video processing techniques such as compression, reconstruction and enhancement. This paper deals with extension of the database allowing performing large-scale web-based subjective image quality assessment. Extension implements both administrative and client interface. The proposed system is aimed mainly at mobile communication devices, taking into account advantages of HTML5 technology; it means that participants don't need to install any application and assessment could be performed using web browser. The assessment campaign administrator can select images from the large database and then apply rules defined by various test procedure recommendations. The standard test procedures may be fully customized and saved as a template. Alternatively the administrator can define a custom test, using images from the pool and other components, such as evaluating forms and ongoing questionnaires. Image sequence is delivered to the online client, e.g. smartphone or tablet, as a fully automated assessment sequence or viewer can decide on timing of the assessment if required. Environmental data and viewing conditions (e.g. illumination, vibrations, GPS coordinates, etc.), may be collected and subsequently analyzed.

  15. Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of a Polymer Matrix Composite with Different Microstructures Subjected to Off-Axis Loading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Xiaojun; Chen, Xuefeng; Zhai, Zhi; Yang, Zhibo; Li, Xiang; He, Zhengjia

    2014-01-01

    ... are often subjected to complex loadings under extreme circumstances [3, 4] in which the properties of the PMCs exhibit highly nonlinear and rate dependence, so it is necessary for structural design and an...

  16. Effects of short and prolonged transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation on heart rate variability in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Couck, M; Cserjesi, R; Caers, R; Zijlstra, W P; Widjaja, D; Wolf, N; Luminet, O; Ellrich, J; Gidron, Y

    2017-03-01

    The vagus nerve is strategically located in the body, and has multiple homeostatic and health-promoting effects. Low vagal activity predicts onset and progression of diseases. These are the reasons to activate this nerve. This study examined the effects of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (t-VNS) on a main index of vagal activity, namely heart rate variability (HRV). In Study 1, we compared short (10min) left versus right ear t-VNS versus sham (no stimulation) in a within-subjects experimental design. Results revealed significant increases in only one HRV parameter (standard deviation of the RR intervals (SDNN)) following right-ear t-VNS. Study 2 examined the prolonged effects of t-VNS (1h) in the right ear. Compared to baseline, right-t-VNS significantly increased the LF and LF/HF components of HRV, and SDNN in women, but not in men. These results show limited effects of t-VNS on HRV, and are discussed in light of neuroanatomical and statistical considerations and future directions are proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS): exploring its psychometric properties in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazbek, Hanan; Norton, Joanna; Capdevielle, Delphine; Larue, Aurore; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Raffard, Stéphane

    2014-08-01

    Apathy in schizophrenia patients is linked to marked functional impairments and can be defined as a quantitative reduction of voluntary, goal-directed behaviors. If there are now convincing arguments to consider apathy as a multidimensional psychopathological state (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral), there is a lack of validated and standardized instruments for detecting apathy and assessing its multidimensional aspects in schizophrenia. The Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS) is a semi-structured interview, yielding a global score and composite subscores for the different domains of apathy and has been validated in several different contexts but not in schizophrenia patients. The aim of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of the LARS and identify the distinct components of apathy in a sample of schizophrenia patients. One hundred-and-twelve schizophrenia patients were included and they completed the LARS, The Calgary Depression Scale in Schizophrenia, the Positive and the Negative Syndrome Scale and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms. The patient group was compared to 51 healthy control subjects. Principal component analysis showed that the LARS proved a single construct which forms the root of an oblique factor structure reflecting four dimensions: novelty and social life, behavioral involvement, emotional involvement, and judgment skills. The main psychometric properties of the LARS were satisfactory. Our findings show that the LARS has satisfactory psychometric properties when used in a different setting than the original version. The LARS is a promising instrument to examine apathy in schizophrenia through a multidimensional framework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Wender Utah rating scale. The short-version for the assessment of the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retz-Junginger, P; Retz, W; Blocher, D; Weijers, H G; Trott, G E; Wender, P H; Rössler, M

    2002-09-01

    This work presents a statistical analysis of the German version of the Wender Utah rating scale (WURS) for the retrospective diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. Data were obtained from 703 subjects. Item selection according to item-total correlation scores, frequency, and plausibility led to a short version of the scale that includes 21 items with item-total correlations from 0.19 to 0.61. Retest reliability of the WURS-k was r=0.9.

  19. Reliability and discriminant validity of ataxia rating scales in early onset ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Rick; Lawerman, Tjitske F; Kuiper, Marieke J; Lunsing, Roelineke J; Burger, Huibert; Sival, Deborah A

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether ataxia rating scales are reliable disease biomarkers for early onset ataxia (EOA). In 40 patients clinically identified with EOA (28 males, 12 females; mean age 15y 3mo [range 5-34y]), we determined interobserver and intraobserver agreement (interclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) and discriminant validity of ataxia rating scales (International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale [ICARS], Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia [SARA], and Brief Ataxia Rating Scale [BARS]). Three paediatric neurologists independently scored ICARS, SARA and BARS performances recorded on video, and also phenotyped the primary and secondary movement disorder features. When ataxia was the primary movement disorder feature, we assigned patients to the subgroup 'EOA with core ataxia' (n=26). When ataxia concurred with other prevailing movement disorders (such as dystonia, myoclonus, and chorea), we assigned patients to the subgroup 'EOA with comorbid ataxia' (n=12). ICC values were similar in both EOA subgroups of 'core' and 'comorbid' ataxia (0.92-0.99; ICARS, SARA, and BARS). Independent of the phenotype, the severity of the prevailing movement disorder predicted the ataxia rating scale scores (β=0.83-0.88; pataxia rating scales is high. However, the discriminative validity for 'ataxia' is low. For adequate interpretation of ataxia rating scale scores, application in uniform movement disorder phenotypes is essential. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  20. Construct and concurrent validation of OMNI-Kayak rating of Perceived Exertion Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Fábio Y; Perandini, Luiz A; Okuno, Nilo M; Borges, Thiago O; Bertuzzi, Rômulo C M; Robertson, Robert J

    2009-06-01

    This study tested the concurrent and construct validity of a newly developed OMNI-Kayak Scale, testing 8 male kayakers who performed a flatwater load-incremented "shuttle" test over a 500-m course and 3 estimation-production trials over a 1,000-m course. Velocity, blood lactate concentration, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE), using the OMNI-Kayak RPE Scale and the Borg 6-20 Scale were recorded. OMNI-Kayak Scale RPE was highly correlated with velocity, the Borg 6-20 Scale RPE, blood lactate, and heart rate for both load-incremented test (rs = .87-.96), and estimation trials (rs = .75-.90). There were no significant differences among velocities, heart rate and blood lactate concentration between estimation and production trials. The OMNI-Kayak RPE Scale showed concurrent and construct validity in assessing perception of effort in flatwater kayaking and is a valid tool for self-regulation of exercise intensity.

  1. Optimizing the compatibility between rating scales and measures of productive second language competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a systematic investigation concerning the performance of different rating scales used in the English section of a university entrance examination to assess 1,287 Japanese test takers' ability to write a third-person introduction speech. Although the rating scales did not conform to all of the expectations of the Rasch model, they successfully defined a meaningful continuum of English communicative competence. In some cases, the expectations of the Rasch model needed to be weighed against the specific assessment needs of the university entrance examination. This investigation also found that the degree of compatibility between the number of points allotted to the different rating scales and the various requirements of an introduction speech played a considerable role in determining the extent to which the different rating scales conformed to the expectations of the Rasch model. Compatibility thus becomes an important factor to consider for optimal rating scale performance.

  2. Load rating and retrofit testing of bridge timber piles subjected to eccentric loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report first evaluated the load rating procedure currently in use by the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) for rating timber : piles supporting multiple-span, simply supported bridges. For simplicity, these piles are often rated under...

  3. Question order sensitivity of subjective well-being measures: focus on life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy in survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.

  4. Scaling law of average failure rate and steady-state rate in rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shengwang; Liu, Chao; Wang, Yingchong; Chang, Fuqing

    2017-06-01

    The evolution properties in the steady stage of a rock specimen are reflective of the damage or weakening growth within and thus are used to determine whether an unstable transition occurs. In this paper, we report the experimental results for rock (granite and marble) specimens tested at room temperature and room humidity under three typical loading modes: quasi-static monotonic loading, brittle creep, and brittle creep relaxation. Deformed rock specimens in current experiments exhibit an apparent steady stage characterized by a nearly constant evolution rate, which dominates the lifetime of the rock specimens. The average failure rate presents a common power-law relationship with the evolution rate in the steady stage, although the exponent is different for different loading modes. The results indicate that a lower ratio of the slope of the secondary stage with respect to the average rate of the entire lifetime implies a more brittle failure.

  5. Impact of retrograde shear rate on brachial and superficial femoral artery flow-mediated dilation in older subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Green, D.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    An inverse, dose-dependent relationship between retrograde shear rate and brachial artery endothelial function exists in young subjects. This relationship has not been investigated in older adults, who have been related to lower endothelial function, higher resting retrograde shear rate and higher

  6. Scaled Experimental Study on Maximum Smoke Temperature along Corridors Subject to Room Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheli Xing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In room–corridor building geometry, the corridor smoke temperature is of great importance to fire protection engineering as indoor fires occur. Theoretical analysis and a set of reduced-scale model experiments were performed, and a virtual fire model was proposed, to investigate the correlations between the maximum smoke temperature in corridors and the smoke temperature in rooms. The results show that the dimensionless virtual fire heat release rate (HRR is characterized by quadratic-polynomial of the dimensionless smoke temperature in fire rooms. The dimensionless distance from a virtual fire source to the corridor ceiling varies linearly with the dimensionless smoke temperature in a room. Results of multiple regression indicate that, at the impingement area of virtual fire, the dimensionless maximum smoke temperature in corridors is only related to the dimensionless virtual fire HRR; in the non-impingement area of a virtual fire, the dimensionless maximum smoke temperature in corridors is a function of the dimensionless virtual fire HRR and dimensionless longitude distance. The viscosity and conduction exhibit an insignificant impact on the maximum temperature in the corridor. Through replacing the parameters of virtual fire with the dimensionless smoke temperature in fire rooms, the correlations between dimensionless maximum temperature in corridors and the dimensionless smoke temperature in fire rooms were proposed.

  7. Convergent Validity with the BERS-2 Teacher Rating Scale and the Achenbach Teacher's Report Form: A Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Gregory J.; Beaudoin, Kathleen; Mooney, Paul; Uhing, Brad M.; Pierce, Corey D.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we sought to extend instrument validation research for a strength-based emotional and behavior rating scale, the "Teacher Rating Scale of the Behavior and Emotional Rating Scale-Second Edition" (BERS-2; Epstein, M. H. (2004). "Behavioral and emotional rating scale" (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED) through…

  8. The clinically important difference on the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Lisa M; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Anderson, Karen E; Fishman, Paul S; Reich, Stephen G; Weiner, William J

    2010-01-01

    To determine the estimates of minimal, moderate, and large clinically important differences (CIDs) for the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Cross-sectional analysis of the CIDs for UPDRS total and motor scores was performed on patients with Parkinson disease (PD) using distribution- and anchor-based approaches based on the following 3 external standards: disability (10% on the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale), disease stage (1 stage on the Hoehn and Yahr Scale), and quality of life (1 SD on the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey). University of Maryland Parkinson Disease and Movement Disorders Center, Patients Six hundred fifty-three patients with PD. A minimal CID was 2.3 to 2.7 points on the UPDRS motor score and 4.1 to 4.5 on the UPDRS total score. A moderate CID was 4.5 to 6.7 points on the UPDRS motor score and 8.5 to 10.3 on the UPDRS total score. A large CID was 10.7 to 10.8 points on the UPDRS motor score and 16.4 to 17.8 on the UPDRS total score. Concordance among multiple approaches of analysis based on subjective and objective data show that reasonable estimates for the CID on the UPDRS motor score are 2.5 points for minimal, 5.2 for moderate, and 10.8 for large CIDs. Estimates for the UPDRS total score are 4.3 points for minimal, 9.1 for moderate, and 17.1 for large CIDs. These estimates will assist in determining clinically meaningful changes in PD progression and response to therapeutic interventions.

  9. The Construction and Norm-Finding of a Rating Scale for Diagnosing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hooshyari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluation and diagnosis are determinants of treatment outcome; therefore, diagnostic tools should be accurate. The purpose of the present research is construction and norm-finding of a rating scale for the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Method: A checklist based on behavioral symptoms of ADHD from clinical sources was constructed, based on interview with patients and the medical records. After being studied by specialists, this checklist was reduced to items and arranged in a rating scale format. The study population included Tehran's elementary school students (boys and girls from which a sample of 800 children was chosen in a random-cluster manner. Then teachers were asked to rate the students according to the scale characteristics. After two weeks, the subjects were tested and interviewed using a corrected form of the scale, the rating scale of Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP-IV and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV. After data analysis the scale was reduced to 23 items. Results: According to the results of the analysis, the scale had two factors: The first factor was hyperactivity that explained 37.41%, and the second factor was attention deficit that explained 33.78% of the total variance . Cronbach's alpha was 0.96 and the alpha of the two subscales, hyperactivity and attention deficit, was 0.94 and 0.96, respectively. Spearman-Brown Coefficient was 0.78 and scale coefficient correlation with a similar from (SNAP-IV was 0.82. Criterion validity coefficient of the scale was 0.76 and the content validity of the scale was confirmed by the experts. According to sensitivity analysis of the trait, the cutoff point of the scale was 35. Considering the above findings, we can safely use the above scale in clinical studies. Conclusion: Considering the obtained values in the psychometric indexes and the consensus among specialists on the basis of test content validity and

  10. Anxiety rating scales in Parkinson's disease: a critical review updating recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayaka, Nadeeka N W; Torbey, Elizabeth; Pachana, Nancy A

    2015-11-01

    Assessing anxiety in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been a recent focus, and a number of studies have extensively investigated the validity of anxiety rating scales in PD. The present review aims to provide an overview of anxiety scales widely used and/or validated in PD, and to highlight recommendations for future research required in this area. A literature search was performed using terms such as Parkinson* disease, psychiatric, depress*, anxiety, assessment, scales, and valid* in PsycInfo, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. Validation studies and reviews focussed on assessment of anxiety in PD were included. The literature search identified nine anxiety rating scales. The new Parkinson's Anxiety Scale (PAS) showed good psychometric properties. Having a simple design appropriate for older adults and items focussed on cognitive anxiety, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) also appeared promising for use in PD. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) did not demonstrate satisfactory psychometric characteristics when used in PD, while other scales had limited or no evidence of validity or reliability to infer judgments. PAS and GAI are can be recommended for use in PD without dementia. Usefulness of these scales to assess anxiety in dementia should be examined in the future. Moreover, the complex symptomatology of anxiety relating to "off" PD medication states were not addressed in these scales. Further research is required to develop an anxiety scale tailored for PD.

  11. Through-Put Rates Of Small-Scale Palm Nut Crackers Used In Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through-put rates and efficiencies of locally-fabricated small-scale palm nut cracking machines operated in the informal sector in Ghana were assessed using data from 24 field trials on eight cracker mills randomly selected from 13 mills. Cracking rates ranged from 349.9 to 1141.2 kg/h, with lower rates obtained for poorly ...

  12. Recurrence rate and subjective symptoms after standardized (Hamburg protocol) phototherapeutic keratectomy on recurrent corneal erosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlan, J; Steinberg, J; Traber, L; Katz, T; Linke, S J

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the objective and subjective outcome after phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) on recurrent corneal erosions (Hamburg protocol). For the standardized PTK according to Hamburg protocol a manual abrasio corneae performed with 20 % alcohol is followed by an excimer ablation depth of ≥15 μm (group1 15 μm; group 2 > 15 μm ablation depth) and 7 mm optical zone. All patients (N = 48) were invited for follow-up examinations and the evaluation of changes concerning subjective symptoms. A significantly reduced subjective impairment of night vision, significantly less pain and less foreign body sensations (for all p Hamburg Schema) is a safe and effective procedure to reduce subjective symptoms and improve discomfort in recurrent corneal erosion.

  13. Exploiting major trends in subject hierarchies for large-scale collection visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Charles-Antoine; Tirilly, Pierre; Leide, John E.; Guastavino, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Many large digital collections are currently organized by subject; however, these useful information organization structures are large and complex, making them difficult to browse. Current online tools and visualization prototypes show small localized subsets and do not provide the ability to explore the predominant patterns of the overall subject structure. This research addresses this issue by simplifying the subject structure using two techniques based on the highly uneven distribution of real-world collections: level compression and child pruning. The approach is demonstrated using a sample of 130K records organized by the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). Promising results show that the subject hierarchy can be reduced down to 42% of its initial size, while maintaining access to 81% of the collection. The visual impact is demonstrated using a traditional outline view allowing searchers to dynamically change the amount of complexity that they feel necessary for the tasks at hand.

  14. In-Flight Validation of a Pilot Rating Scale for Evaluating Failure Transients in Electronic Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Kevin F.; Tucker, George E.; Moralez, Ernesto, III

    2006-01-01

    Engineering development and qualification of a Research Flight Control System (RFCS) for the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A has motivated the development of a pilot rating scale for evaluating failure transients in fly-by-wire flight control systems. The RASCAL RFCS includes a highly-reliable, dual-channel Servo Control Unit (SCU) to command and monitor the performance of the fly-by-wire actuators and protect against the effects of erroneous commands from the flexible, but single-thread Flight Control Computer. During the design phase of the RFCS, two piloted simulations were conducted on the Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) to help define the required performance characteristics of the safety monitoring algorithms in the SCU. Simulated failures, including hard-over and slow-over commands, were injected into the command path, and the aircraft response and safety monitor performance were evaluated. A subjective Failure/Recovery Rating (F/RR) scale was developed as a means of quantifying the effects of the injected failures on the aircraft state and the degree of pilot effort required to safely recover the aircraft. A brief evaluation of the rating scale was also conducted on the Army/NASA CH-47B variable stability helicopter to confirm that the rating scale was likely to be equally applicable to in-flight evaluations. Following the initial research flight qualification of the RFCS in 2002, a flight test effort was begun to validate the performance of the safety monitors and to validate their design for the safe conduct of research flight testing. Simulated failures were injected into the SCU, and the F/RR scale was applied to assess the results. The results validate the performance of the monitors, and indicate that the Failure/Recovery Rating scale is a very useful tool for evaluating failure transients in fly-by-wire flight control systems.

  15. The Impact of Employment and Self-Rated Economic Condition on the Subjective Well-Being of Older Korean Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung; Lee, Yura; Sangalang, Cindy; Harris, Lesley M

    2015-09-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated a relationship between socioeconomic factors and health among older adults, yet fewer studies have explored this relationship with older immigrants. This study aims to examine the influence of employment and self-rated economic condition on the subjective well-being of older Korean immigrants in the United States. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study of 205 older Korean immigrants, aged 65 to 90, in Los Angeles County. Hierarchical regression was employed to explore the independent and interactive effects of employment status and self-rated economic condition. The study found that employment and self-rated economic status were positively associated with subjective well-being. Also, the interaction between employment and self-rated economic status was significantly associated with higher levels of subjective well-being, such that the influence of self-rated economic condition was stronger for unemployed older Korean immigrants compared with those who were employed. This population-based study provides empirical evidence that employment and self-rated economic condition are directly associated with subjective well-being for older Korean immigrants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. A cross-syndrome evaluation of a new attention rating scale: The Scale of Attention in Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Nerelie C; Gray, Kylie M; Taffe, John R; Cornish, Kim M

    2016-10-01

    Whilst neuropsychological research has enhanced our understanding of inattentive and hyperactive behaviours among children with intellectual disability (ID), the absence of rating scales developed for this group continues to be a gap in knowledge. This study examined these behaviours in 176 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Down Syndrome (DS), or idiopathic ID using a newly developed teacher rating scale, the Scale of Attention in Intellectual Disability. Findings suggested that children with ASD had a significantly greater breadth of hyperactive/impulsive behaviours than those with DS or idiopathic ID. These findings support existing research suggesting differing profiles of attention and activity across groups. Understanding disorder-specific profiles has implications for developing strategies to support students with ID in the classroom. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Choice of rating scale labels: implication for minimizing patient satisfaction response ceiling effect in telemedicine surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Caterina; Lam, Tony C M

    2014-12-01

    Lack of response variability is problematic in surveys because of its detrimental effects on sensitivity and consequently reliability of the responses. In satisfaction surveys, this problem is caused by the ceiling effect resulting from high satisfaction ratings. A potential solution strategy is to manipulate the labels of the rating scale to create greater discrimination of responses on the high end of the response continuum. This study examined the effects of a positive-centered scale on the distribution and reliability of telemedicine satisfaction responses in a highly positive respondent population. In total, 216 telemedicine participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions as defined by the form of Likert scale: (1) 5-point Balanced Equal-Interval, (2) 5-point Positive-Packed, and (3) 5-point Positive-Centered Equal-Interval. Although the study findings were not statistically significant, partially because of sample size, the distribution and internal consistency reliability of responses occurred in the direction hypothesized. Loading the rating scale with more positive labels appears to be a useful strategy for reducing the ceiling effect and increases the discrimination ability of survey responses. The current research provides a survey design strategy to minimize ceiling effects. Although the findings provide some evidence suggesting the benefit of using rating scales loaded with positive labels, more research is needed to confirm this, as well as extend it to examine other types of rating scales and the interaction between rating scale formats and respondent characteristics.

  18. Temporal stability of the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale for high- and low-scoring normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, André; Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Böcker, Koen B.E.; de Haan, Edward H.F.

    1999-01-01

    It has been documented that many normal people report hallucinatory experiences. The Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale is widely used to investigate differences between subjects who score high or low in hallucinatory predisposition. In this study we addressed the question of whether scores remain

  19. Valence Scaling of Dynamic Facial Expressions Is Altered in High-Functioning Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An FMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahko, Jukka S.; Paakki, Jyri-Johan; Starck, Tuomo H.; Nikkinen, Juha; Pauls, David L.; Katsyri, Jari V.; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira M.; Carter, Alice S.; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja K.; Remes, Jukka J.; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna A.; Sams, Mikko E.; Bolte, Sven; Ebeling, Hanna E.; Moilanen, Irma K.; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2012-01-01

    FMRI was performed with the dynamic facial expressions fear and happiness. This was done to detect differences in valence processing between 25 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and 27 typically developing controls. Valence scaling was abnormal in ASDs. Positive valence induces lower deactivation and abnormally strong activity in ASD…

  20. Preliminary evaluation of child self-rating using the Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloes, Kelly Isaacs; Barfell, Kara S Francis; Horn, Paul S; Wu, Steve W; Jacobson, Sarah E; Hart, Kathleen J; Gilbert, Donald L

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate and compare how children with Tourette syndrome and parents rate tic and non-tic behavioral related impairment in home, school, and social domains; to compare these with clinician tic ratings; and to identify factors that may predict greater impairment. In a sample of 85 Tourette syndrome and 92 healthy control families, the Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale, designed for parent-report and which includes 37 items rated for tic and non-tic impairment, was administered to parents and, with the referent modified, to children ages 9 to 17 years. Tic severity was rated using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). Analyses utilized descriptive and multivariate statistics. Tourette syndrome children's and parents' impairment ratings were higher than HC (pTourette Syndrome Impairment Scale appears informative for child self-rating in Tourette syndrome. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Evidence for substantial fine-scale variation in recombination rates across the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Dana C; Bhangale, Tushar; Li, Na; Hellenthal, Garrett; Rieder, Mark J; Nickerson, Deborah A; Stephens, Matthew

    2004-07-01

    Characterizing fine-scale variation in human recombination rates is important, both to deepen understanding of the recombination process and to aid the design of disease association studies. Current genetic maps show that rates vary on a megabase scale, but studying finer-scale variation using pedigrees is difficult. Sperm-typing experiments have characterized regions where crossovers cluster into 1-2-kb hot spots, but technical difficulties limit the number of studies. An alternative is to use population variation to infer fine-scale characteristics of the recombination process. Several surveys reported 'block-like' patterns of diversity, which may reflect fine-scale recombination rate variation, but limitations of available methods made this impossible to assess. Here, we applied a new statistical method, which overcomes these limitations, to infer patterns of fine-scale recombination rate variation in 74 genes. We found extensive rate variation both within and among genes. In particular, recombination hot spots are a common feature of the human genome: 47% (35 of 74) of genes showed substantive evidence for a hot spot, and many more showed evidence for some rate variation. No primary sequence characteristics are consistently associated with precise hot-spot location, although G+C content and nucleotide diversity are correlated with local recombination rate.

  2. From beat rate variability in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived pacemaker cells to heart rate variability in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Meital; Schick, Revital; Barad, Lili; Novak, Atara; Ben-Ari, Erez; Lorber, Avraham; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Rosen, Michael R; Weissman, Amir; Binah, Ofer

    2014-10-01

    We previously reported that induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes manifest beat rate variability (BRV) resembling heart rate variability (HRV) in the human sinoatrial node. We now hypothesized the BRV-HRV continuum originates in pacemaker cells. To investigate whether cellular BRV is a source of HRV dynamics, we hypothesized 3 levels of interaction among different cardiomyocyte entities: (1) single pacemaker cells, (2) networks of electrically coupled pacemaker cells, and (3) the in situ sinoatrial node. We measured BRV/HRV properties in single pacemaker cells, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived contracting embryoid bodies (EBs), and electrocardiograms from the same individual. Pronounced BRV/HRV was present at all 3 levels. The coefficient of variance of interbeat intervals and Poincaré plot indices SD1 and SD2 for single cells were 20 times greater than those for EBs (P heart (the latter two were similar; P > .05). We also compared BRV magnitude among single cells, small EBs (~5-10 cells), and larger EBs (>10 cells): BRV indices progressively increased with the decrease in the cell number (P heart rhythm. The decreased BRV magnitude in transitioning from the single cell to the EB suggests that the HRV of in situ hearts originates from the summation and integration of multiple cell-based oscillators. Hence, complex interactions among multiple pacemaker cells and intracellular Ca(2+) handling determine HRV in humans and cardiomyocyte networks. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rate dependence of grain boundary sliding via time-scaling atomistic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Farah; Kulkarni, Yashashree

    2017-02-01

    Approaching experimentally relevant strain rates has been a long-standing challenge for molecular dynamics method which captures phenomena typically on the scale of nanoseconds or at strain rates of 107 s-1 and higher. Here, we use grain boundary sliding in nanostructures as a paradigmatic problem to investigate rate dependence using atomistic simulations. We employ a combination of time-scaling computational approaches, including the autonomous basin climbing method, the nudged elastic band method, and kinetic Monte Carlo, to access strain rates ranging from 0.5 s-1 to 107 s-1. Combined with a standard linear solid model for viscoelastic behavior, our simulations reveal that grain boundary sliding exhibits noticeable rate dependence only below strain rates on the order of 10 s-1 but is rate independent and consistent with molecular dynamics at higher strain rates.

  4. Single-subject research design: recommendations for levels of evidence and quality rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiser Logan, Lynne; Hickman, Robbin R; Harris, Susan R; Heriza, Carolyn B

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this article is to present a set of evidence levels, accompanied by 14 quality or rigor questions, to foster a critical review of published single-subject research articles. In developing these guidelines, we reviewed levels of evidence and quality/rigor criteria that are in wide use for group research designs, e.g. randomized controlled trials, such as those developed by the Treatment Outcomes Committee of the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine. We also reviewed methodological articles on how to conduct and critically evaluate single-subject research designs (SSRDs). We then subjected the quality questions to interrater agreement testing and refined them until acceptable agreement was reached. We recommend that these guidelines be implemented by clinical researchers who plan to conduct single-subject research or who incorporate SSRD studies into systematic reviews, and by clinicians who aim to practise evidence-based medicine and who wish to critically review pediatric single-subject research.

  5. Subjective rating and objective evaluation of the acoustic and indoor climate conditions in video conferencing rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauervig-Jørgensen, Charlotte; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Toftum, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    Today, face-to-face meetings are frequently replaced by video conferences in order to reduce costs and carbon footprint related to travels and to increase the company efficiency. Yet, complaints about the difficulty of understanding the speech of the participants in both rooms of the video...... conference occur. The aim of this study is to find out the main causes of difficulties in speech communication. Correlation studies between subjective perceptions were conducted through questionnaires and objective acoustic and indoor climate parameters related to video conferencing. Based on four single......-room and three combined-room measurements, it was found that the traditional measure of speech, such as the speech transmission index, was not correlated with the subjective classifications. Thus, a correlation analysis was conducted as an attempt to find the hidden factors behind the subjective perceptions...

  6. Approximate entropy and point correlation dimension of heart rate variability in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storella, R J; Wood, H W; Mills, K M

    1999-01-01

    The contribution of nonlinear dynamics to heart rate variability in healthy humans was examined using surrogate data analysis. Several measures of heart rate variability were used and compared. Heart rates were recorded for three hours and original data sets of 8192 R-R intervals created. For each...... original data set (n = 34), three surrogate data sets were made by shuffling the order of the R-R intervals while retaining their linear correlations. The difference in heart rate variability between the original and surrogate data sets reflects the amount of nonlinear structure in the original data set....... Heart rate variability was analyzed by two different nonlinear methods, point correlation dimension and approximate entropy. Nonlinearity, though under 10 percent, could be detected with both types of heart rate variability measures. More importantly, not only were the correlations between...

  7. Psychometric evaluation of the altered states of consciousness rating scale (OAV)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Studerus, Erich; Gamma, Alex; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2010-01-01

    .... The OAV rating scale has been in use for more than 20 years and applied internationally in a broad range of research fields, yet its factorial structure has never been tested by structural equation...

  8. Assessment of executive function in ADHD adolescents: contribution of performance tests and rating scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Virginia; Amador-Campos, Juan Antonio

    2017-10-18

    This study aimed to analyze performance on measures of neuropsychological and behavioral executive functions (EF) in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to evaluate the utility of performance-based tests for predicting scores on behavioral EF ratings. One hundred eighteen adolescents (75 ADHD and 43 controls) aged 12-16 years performed neuropsychological tests and completed a behavior rating scale of EF. The ADHD group presented significantly lower scores than controls on Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and all indexes of the WISC-IV, except the verbal comprehension index (VCI). The ADHD group had significantly lower scores on performance-based tests of working memory, planning and inhibition, and on EF rating scales. Scores on the cognitive EF working memory, planning and flexibility modestly predicted performance on behavioral EF. The results suggest that the combined use of performance-based tests and rating scales provides valuable complementary information that can improve the assessment of executive domains in ADHD.

  9. Reliability and Validity of a Rating Scale for Assessing Career Choice Appropriateness in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Bert W.; Sanford, Eleanor E.; Waters, Sandy

    1999-01-01

    A rating scale to assess career choices was tested with 143 high school students. Scores correlated with an objective testing method based on the American College Test (ACT) Career Planning Program. (SK)

  10. Verification of energy dissipation rate scalability in pilot and production scale bioreactors using computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris; Natarajan, Venkatesh; Antoniou, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Suspension mammalian cell cultures in aerated stirred tank bioreactors are widely used in the production of monoclonal antibodies. Given that production scale cell culture operations are typically performed in very large bioreactors (≥ 10,000 L), bioreactor scale-down and scale-up become crucial in the development of robust cell-culture processes. For successful scale-up and scale-down of cell culture operations, it is important to understand the scale-dependence of the distribution of the energy dissipation rates in a bioreactor. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations can provide an additional layer of depth to bioreactor scalability analysis. In this communication, we use CFD analyses of five bioreactor configurations to evaluate energy dissipation rates and Kolmogorov length scale distributions at various scales. The results show that hydrodynamic scalability is achievable as long as major design features (# of baffles, impellers) remain consistent across the scales. Finally, in all configurations, the mean Kolmogorov length scale is substantially higher than the average cell size, indicating that catastrophic cell damage due to mechanical agitation is highly unlikely at all scales. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  11. Optimal protruding node length of bicycle seats determined using cycling postures and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Liu, Yi-Nan

    2014-07-01

    This study examined body posture, subjective discomfort, and stability, requiring the participants to ride a stationary bicycle for 20 min (cadence: 60 rpm; workrate: 120 W), using various combinations of two handle heights and five seat-protruding node lengths (PNLs). The results indicated that bicycle handle height significantly influenced body posture, and that seat PNL caused differences in the riders' subjective discomfort and stability scores. The various PNLs affected only the trunk angle (approximately 6°), but had significantly positive (r = 0.994, p bicycle seat designs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression scale for detection of depression in nursing home residents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Teerenstra, S.; Smalbrugge, M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to test the accuracy of the Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression (NORD) scale, a new short scale for screening of depression in nursing home (NH) residents with and without dementia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study with 103 residents with dementia (N = 19 depressed) and

  13. Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiscaletti, D.; Elsinga, G.E.; Attili, A; Bisetti, F; Buxton, O.R.H.

    2016-01-01

    The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor ei, with the vorticity vector ω, is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and

  14. A Measure for the Reliability of a Rating Scale Based on Longitudinal Clinical Trial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenen, Annouschka; Alonso, Ariel; Molenberghs, Geert

    2007-01-01

    A new measure for reliability of a rating scale is introduced, based on the classical definition of reliability, as the ratio of the true score variance and the total variance. Clinical trial data can be employed to estimate the reliability of the scale in use, whenever repeated measurements are taken. The reliability is estimated from the…

  15. Discrete Scale Invariance in the Cascade Heart Rate Variability Of Healthy Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Der Chyan

    2004-01-01

    Evidence of discrete scale invariance (DSI) in daytime healthy heart rate variability (HRV) is presented based on the log-periodic power law scaling of the heart beat interval increment. Our analysis suggests multiple DSI groups and a dynamic cascading process. A cascade model is presented to simulate such a property.

  16. The Palin Parent Rating Scales: Parents' Perspectives of Childhood Stuttering and Its Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Sharon K.; Davis, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study is to explore the psychometric properties of the Parent Rating Scales-V1 (S. K. Millard, S. Edwards, & F. M. Cook, 2009), an assessment tool for parents of children who stutter, and to refine the measure accordingly. Method: We included 259 scales completed prior to therapy. An exploratory factor analysis…

  17. Effects of flow and water chemistry on lead release rates from pipe scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanjiao; Giammar, Daniel E

    2011-12-01

    Lead release from pipe scales was investigated under different water compositions, stagnation times, and flow regimes. Pipe scales containing PbO(2) and hydrocerussite (Pb(3)(OH)(2)(CO(3))(2)) were developed on lead pipes by conditioning the pipes with water containing free chlorine for eight months. Water chemistry and the composition of the pipe scales are two key factors affecting lead release from pipe scales. The water rarely reached equilibrium with pipe scales within one day, which makes solid-water contact time and corrosion product dissolution rates the controlling factors of lead concentrations for the conditions tested. Among five water compositions studied, a solution with orthophosphate had the lowest dissolved lead release rate and highest particulate lead release rate. Free chlorine also decreased the dissolved lead release rate at stagnant conditions. Water flow increased rates of release of both dissolved and particulate lead by accelerating the mass transfer of lead out of the porous pipe scales and by physically destabilizing pipe scales. Dissolved lead comprised the majority of the lead released at both stagnant and laminar flow conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analyzing data from a fuzzy rating scale-based questionnaire. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, María Ángeles; Lubiano, María Asunción; de la Rosa de Sáa, Sara; Sinova, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The fuzzy rating scale was introduced to cope with the imprecision of human thought and experience in measuring attitudes in many fields of Psychology. The flexibility and expressiveness of this scale allow us to properly describe the answers to many questions involving psychological measurement. Analyzing the responses to a fuzzy rating scale-based questionnaire is indeed a critical problem. Nevertheless, over the last years, a methodology is being developed to analyze statistically fuzzy data in such a way that the information they contain is fully exploited. In this paper, a summary review of the main procedures is given. The methods are illustrated by their application on the dataset obtained from a case study with nine-year-old children. In this study, children replied to some questions from the well-known TIMSS/PIRLS questionnaire by using a fuzzy rating scale. The form could be filled in either on the computer or by hand. The study indicates that the requirements of background and training underlying the fuzzy rating scale are not too demanding. Moreover, it is clearly shown that statistical conclusions substantially often differ depending on the responses being given in accordance with either a Likert scale or a fuzzy rating scale.

  19. The spatial preference map of Dutch entrepreneurs : Subjective rating of locations, 1983, 1993 and 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, Wilhelm J.; Pellenbarg, Pieter H.

    2006-01-01

    Location decisions are often based on inaccurate information about potential locations. Decision-makers seem to be guided by their subjective interpretation of reality, not so much by reality itself. Twenty years ago this fundamental idea was the starting point for a research programme of the

  20. Effects of air pollutants on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David

    2004-01-01

    Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours...

  1. Methodological problems in the measurement of pain: a comparison between the verbal rating scale and the visual analogue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnhaus, E E; Adler, R

    1975-12-01

    The effect of analgesics on pathological pain in a double-blind, complete cross-over design was assessed by means of two rating scales, a verbal rating scale (VRS) and visual analogue scale (VAS). The VRS is widely used, but has several disadvantages as compared to the VAS. The results obtained by means of the VRS showed higher F-ratios (analysis of variance and Kruskall-Wallis H-test) than those obtained by means of the VAS. The VRS, which transfers a continuous feeling into a digital system, seems to augment artificially the measurement of effects produced by analgesics, and the VAS seems to assess more closely what a patient actually experiences with respect to change in pain intensities. The correlation between the two scales was highly significant (r = 0.81, P less than 0.001). The calculated regression line (y=-29.6 + 0.55-x) was not similar to the line of identity and showed much lower values for the VAS, supporting our interpretation. The distribution of the variances of the values obtained by means of both scales was not homogenous. This indicates that the homogeneity of the distribution of variances should always be checked and a Kruskall-Wallis H-test used, if they are inhomogenously distributed.

  2. Urban-rural differences in social capital in relation to self-rated health and subjective well-being in older residents of six regions in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Zawisza, Katarzyna

    2017-06-12

    The aim of the study was to assess the differences between rural and urban areas as regards the role of social capital and its effect on self-rated health and subjective well-being among older people in Poland. The sample was selected on the basis of multi-stage clustered design from the non-institutionalized adult population. Analysis was based on 1,299 elderly people aged 65 and over from the general Polish population who participated in the COURAGE in Europe project. Six regions of Poland were distinguished according to first level of Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics (NUTS) classification . As an indicator of social capital, the COURAGE Social Network Index, the OSLO-3 Social Support Scale, and the three item UCLA Loneliness scale were used, as well as social participation and trust was assessed. Self-rated health (SRH) was measured by WHO-Europe recommended version (ranging from 'very good' to 'very bad'). Well-being was assessed by the Day Reconstruction Method. Results: The results showed that in urban areas, social network and social participation supported positive self-rated health; in rural, older residents the number of years of education and social support played the same role, while self-rated health decreased with an increasing level of loneliness. Self-rated health decreased in both groups of older people with a growing number of diseases. The multivariate linear regression model of predictors of well-being in older age also confirmed differences between urban and rural elderly residents. In rural residents, subjective well-being significantly increased with the positive effect of the social network. In both urban and rural areas, poor assessment of subjective well-being in older age increased with a higher level of loneliness and growing number of chronic diseases.

  3. 29 CFR 4.118 - Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.118 Contracts for carriage..., railway line or oil or gas pipeline where published tariff rates are in effect”. In order for this... is actually governed by published tariff rates in effect pursuant to State or Federal law for such...

  4. Effects of alprazolam and clonidine on carbon dioxide-induced increases in anxiety rating in healthy human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, S.W.; Krystal, J.H.; Heninger, G.R.; Charney, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    In order to investigate possible neurobiologic mechanisms underlying carbon dioxide-induced anxiety, the effects of oral alprazolam 0.75 mg and intravenous clonidine 2 mcg/kg on CO/sub 2/-induced increases in ratings of subjective anxiety, pulse rate, and ventilation were measured in healthy human subjects. Pretreatment with alprazolam but not with clonidine significantly reduced the CO/sub 2/-induced increases in ratings of anxiety. Neither drug altered CO/sub 2/-induced increases in pulse rate or ventilatory responses. Clonidine did produce potent sedative and hypotensive effects. The behavioral data suggest that the mechanisms through which CO/sub 2/ induces anxiety-like effects involve neural systems regulated by benzodiazepine receptors and, secondly, that they appear not to require normal functioning of noradrenergic systems. Carbon dioxide may provide a useful model system for identification of new drugs with anxiolytic properties.

  5. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady...... between the human-body exergy consumption rate and subjective assessment of thermal environment represented by thermal sensation as well as to extend the investigation towards thermal acceptability votes. Comparison of steady-state and unsteady-state model showed that results from both models were...... of the present study confirmed previously indicated trends that lowest human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation close to neutrality. Moreover, higher acceptability was in general associated with lower human body exergy consumption rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Miotic and subject-rated effects of therapeutic doses of tapentadol, tramadol, and hydromorphone in occasional opioid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, William W; Glaser, Paul E A; Rush, Craig R

    2013-07-01

    Tapentadol is a novel analgesic that activates mu-opioid receptors and blocks norepinephrine reuptake. There is very little information available regarding the non-analgesic pharmacodynamic effects of tapentadol. This outpatient study evaluated the physiological, subject-rated, and performance effects of therapeutic doses of tapentadol compared to two control drugs in humans. This double-blind, within-subject study examined the effects of oral placebo, tapentadol (25, 50, and 75 mg), tramadol (50, 100, and 150 mg), and hydromorphone (2, 4, and 6 mg). Nine occasional opioid users completed the study. Pharmacodynamic drug effects were measured before and for 6 h after drug administration. All three doses of the tested drugs produced comparable, time-dependent decreases in pupil diameter, but the effects were generally not dose dependent. The high dose of tapentadol, as well as all three doses of tramadol and hydromorphone, increased positive subject-rated effects (e.g., "Good Effects" and "Like the Drug") as a function of time. Only tramadol increased negative subject-rated effects (e.g., "Bad Effects" and "Nauseous"); however, these were of low magnitude. The highest tested dose of tapentadol produced a profile of positive effects comparable to that of hydromorphone, whereas tramadol produced positive and negative subject-rated effects. The mixed findings for tramadol are consistent with previous findings indicating that it has a distinct profile of effects relative to prototypic opioids. Future research should examine the effects of higher tapentadol doses, as well as the factors contributing to the different subject-rated profile of effects observed for tramadol relative to tapentadol and hydromorphone.

  7. Dumping syndrome following gastric bypass: validation of the dumping symptom rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenius, Anna; Olbers, Torsten; Näslund, Ingmar; Karlsson, Jan

    2013-06-01

    There is a lack of prevalent data for dumping syndrome (DS) and methods discriminating between different symptoms of the DS. A self-assessment questionnaire, the Dumping Symptom Rating Scale (DSRS), was developed. The aim was to measure the severity and frequency of nine dumping symptoms and to evaluate the construct validity of the DSRS. Pre- and 1 and 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, 47 adults and 82 adolescents completed the DSRS. Cognitive interview was performed. Reliability and construct validity were tested. Effect sizes (ES) of changes were calculated. Patients found the questionnaire relevant. A high proportion of the respondents reported no symptoms affecting them negatively at all (floor effects). However, 12 % stated, quite severe, severe, or very severe problems regarding fatigue after meal and half of them were so tired that they needed to lie down. Nearly 7 % reported quite severe, severe, or very severe problems dominated by nausea and 6 % dominated by fainting esteem. The internal consistency reliability was adequate for both severity (0.81-0.86) and frequency (0.76-0.84) scales. ES were small, since some subjects experienced symptoms already preoperatively. Although most patients reported no or mild dumping symptoms 1 and 2 years after gastric bypass surgery, around 12 % had persistent symptoms, in particular, postprandial fatigue, and needed to lie down. Another 7 % had problems with nausea and 6 % had problems with fainting esteem. The DSRS is a reliable screening tool to identify these patients.

  8. Multi-scale Analysis of MEMS Sensors Subject to Drop Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zerbini

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of accidental drops on MEMS sensors are examined within the frame-work of a multi-scale finite element approach. With specific reference to a polysilicon MEMSaccelerometer supported by a naked die, the analysis is decoupled into macro-scale (at dielength-scale and meso-scale (at MEMS length-scale simulations, accounting for the verysmall inertial contribution of the sensor to the overall dynamics of the device. Macro-scaleanalyses are adopted to get insights into the link between shock waves caused by the impactagainst a target surface and propagating inside the die, and the displacement/acceleration his-tories at the MEMS anchor points. Meso-scale analyses are adopted to detect the most stresseddetails of the sensor and to assess whether the impact can lead to possible localized failures.Numerical results show that the acceleration at sensor anchors cannot be considered an ob-jective indicator for drop severity. Instead, accurate analyses at sensor level are necessary toestablish how MEMS can fail because of drops.

  9. The psychometric properties of an Arabic numeric pain rating scale for measuring osteoarthritis knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to translate the numeric rating scale (NRS) into Arabic and to evaluate the test-retest reliability and convergent validity of an Arabic Numeric Pain Rating Scale (ANPRS) for measuring pain in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. The English version of the NRS was translated into Arabic as per the translation process guidelines for patient-rated outcome scales. One hundred twenty-one consecutive patients with OA of the knee who had experienced pain for more than 6 months were asked to report their pain levels on the ANPRS, visual analogue scale (VAS), and verbal rating scale (VRS). A second assessment was performed 48 h after the first to assess test-retest reliability. The test-retest reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1). The convergent validity was assessed using Spearman rank correlation coefficient. In addition, the minimum detectable change (MDC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were also assessed. The repeatability of ANPRS was good to excellent (ICC 0.89). The SEM and MDC were 0.71 and 1.96, respectively. Significant correlations were found with the VAS and VRS scores (p Arabic numeric pain rating scale is a valid and reliable scale for measuring pain levels in OA of the knee. Implications for Rehabilitation The Arabic Numeric Pain Rating Scale (ANPRS) is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring pain in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, with psychometric properties in agreement with other widely used scales. The ANPRS is well correlated with the VAS and NRS scores in patients with OA of the knee. The ANPRS appears to measure pain intensity similar to the VAS, NRS, and VRS and may provide additional advantages to Arab populations, as Arabic numbers are easily understood by this population.

  10. Heart rate variability for assessing comatose patients with different Glasgow Coma Scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Ferrer, Yazmina; Estévez, Mario; Machado, Calixto; Hernández-Cruz, Adrián; Carrick, Frederick R; Leisman, Gerry; Melillo, Robert; Defina, Phillip; Chinchilla, Mauricio; Machado, Yanín

    2013-03-01

    To assess the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in coma by heart rate variability (HRV). Sixteen comatose patients and 22 normal subjects with comparable ages and genders were studied. Patients were classified in two subgroups according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Time, frequency, and informational HRV domain indices were calculated. A notable reduction of HRV was found in patients. Regarding the time domain indices, the triangular index, and the Delta_RRs, were significantly reduced in the subgroup with GCS=3. Absolute power for the whole frequency spectrum decreased whenever GCS scores were lower. A significant decrement was found for absolute power of the VLF and LF bands in the subgroup of GCS=3, and although it was lower for the HF band in these patients, those changes were not statistically significantly different. The LF/HF ratio and the Shannon´s entropy indices were significantly reduced in the subgroup with GCS=3. Our results are discussed regarding the progressive dysfunction the ANS networks when coma deepens. The HRV procedure is a powerful tool to assess the ANS in comatose patients. HRV is a minimally invasive, low-cost methodology, suitable for assessing the ANS in coma. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing nursing students' basic communication and interviewing skills: the development and testing of a rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, D

    1999-03-01

    This study explores the communication skills of a group of nursing students who were required to interview a simulated client as part of their studies. In order to assess the students and to improve the process of learning discrete skills, an instrument was developed and tested as part of this process. The subjects were 212 nurses enrolled in a bachelor of nursing programme, in New South Wales, Australia, who were studying a problem-based learning package the focus of which was 'alcohol early intervention'. The sub-groups within the sample included registered nurses, a significant percentage of whom had completed their basic nursing education in overseas countries. The Simulated Client Interview Rating Scale (SCIRS) was developed to assess basic humanistic communication skills as well as beginning motivational interviewing skills. The students were required to interview a simulated client and demonstrate competence in interviewing. This was assessed by the SCIRS which was completed by the students and the simulated clients. The instrument proved to be a reliable and valid means of assessing student interview technique as well as a flexible educational tool, while valuable insights into students' interviewing techniques were gained.

  12. Modeling multiple time scale firing rate adaptation in a neural network of local field potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Brian Nils

    2015-02-01

    In response to stimulus changes, the firing rates of many neurons adapt, such that stimulus change is emphasized. Previous work has emphasized that rate adaptation can span a wide range of time scales and produce time scale invariant power law adaptation. However, neuronal rate adaptation is typically modeled using single time scale dynamics, and constructing a conductance-based model with arbitrary adaptation dynamics is nontrivial. Here, a modeling approach is developed in which firing rate adaptation, or spike frequency adaptation, can be understood as a filtering of slow stimulus statistics. Adaptation dynamics are modeled by a stimulus filter, and quantified by measuring the phase leads of the firing rate in response to varying input frequencies. Arbitrary adaptation dynamics are approximated by a set of weighted exponentials with parameters obtained by fitting to a desired filter. With this approach it is straightforward to assess the effect of multiple time scale adaptation dynamics on neural networks. To demonstrate this, single time scale and power law adaptation were added to a network model of local field potentials. Rate adaptation enhanced the slow oscillations of the network and flattened the output power spectrum, dampening intrinsic network frequencies. Thus, rate adaptation may play an important role in network dynamics.

  13. Stress and depression scales in aphasia: relation between the aphasia depression rating scale, stroke aphasia depression questionnaire-10, and the perceived stress scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S; Farina, Matthew; Moore, Elliot; Russell, Scott

    2017-03-01

    Assessment and diagnosis of post-stroke depression (PSD) among patients with aphasia presents unique challenges. A gold standard assessment of PSD among this population has yet to be identified. The first aim was to investigate the association between two depression scales developed for assessing depressive symptoms among patients with aphasia. The second aim was to evaluate the relation between these scales and a measure of perceived stress. Twenty-five (16 male; 9 female) individuals with history of left hemisphere cerebrovascular accident (CVA) were assessed for depression and perceived stress using the Stroke Aphasic Depression Questionnaire-10 (SADQ-10), the Aphasia Depression Rating Scale (ADRS), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). SADQ-10 and ADRS ratings were strongly correlated with each other (r = 0.708, p perceived stress may also be an important factor in assessment of depressive symptoms.

  14. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Conclusion: Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group.

  15. Self-reported and behavioral sound avoidance in tinnitus and hyperacusis subjects, and association with anxiety ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaesing, Lena; Kroener-Herwig, Birgit

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the role of sound avoidance and anxiety in tinnitus subjects with hyperacusis, defined as hypersensitivity to low to moderate intensity sounds. A group of tinnitus subjects with hyperacusis was compared to tinnitus subjects without hyperacusis, and healthy controls. For assessing noise avoidance, a questionnaire was developed (noise avoidance questionnaire, NAQ) and the duration of self-exposure to a pure tone was assessed as a behavioral index. Different self-rating instruments concerning tinnitus (STI, TF-12), hyperacusis (GÜF), and anxiety (BAI, STAI-T) were used, as well as a psychoacoustic indicator of hyperacusis (ULL). Fifty-six tinnitus subjects with/without hyperacusis and 30 controls without tinnitus and hyperacusis participated in the experiment. The findings indicate that subjects with hyperacusis reported significantly more noise-related avoidance in daily life and show significantly shorter exposure to a pure tone than non-hyperacusic subjects, while discomfort was at the same level for each individual. Self-reported avoidance behavior correlated significantly with distress attributed to hyperacusis (r =0.81), and with anxiety ratings. These results suggest that hyperacusis is associated with noise-related avoidance behavior and anxiety. Systematic exposure to sound could play a significant role in the treatment of hyperacusis.

  16. Psychopathological rating scales for diagnostic use in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösler, M; Retz, W; Thome, J; Schneider, M; Stieglitz, R-D; Falkai, P

    2006-09-01

    The diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is a complex procedure which should include retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms either by patient recall or third party information, diagnostic criteria according to DSM-IV, current adult ADHD psychopathology including symptom severity and pervasiveness, functional impairment, quality of life and comorbidity. In order to obtain a systematic database for the diagnosis and evaluation of the course ADHD rating scales can be very useful. This article reviews rating instruments that have found general acceptance. The Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and the Childhood Symptoms Scale by Barkley and Murphy try to make a retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms. The Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Current Symptoms Scales by Barkley and Murphy (CSS), the Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS) by Adler et al. and Kessler et al. or the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder--Self Report Scale (ADHD-SR by Rösler et al.) are self report rating scales focusing mainly on the DSM-IV criteria. The CAARS and the CSS have other report forms too. The Brown ADD Rating Scale (Brown ADD-RS) and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder--Other Report Scale (ADHD-OR by Rösler et al.) are instruments for use by clinicians or significant others. Both self rating scales and observer report scales quantify the ADHD symptoms by use of a Likert scale mostly ranging from 0 to 3. This makes the instruments useful to follow the course of the disease quantitatively. Comprehensive diagnostic interviews not only evaluate diagnostic criteria, but also assess different psychopathological syndrome scores, functional disability measures, indices of pervasiveness and information about comorbid disorders. The most comprehensive procedures are the Brown ADD Diagnostic Form and the Adult Interview (AI) by Barkley and Murphy. An instrument of particular interest is the Wender Reimherr Interview (WRI

  17. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms in Chinese Urban Schoolchildren: Assessment With the Chinese ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Home Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi Esther; Wang, Hong; Geng, Yao-Guo; Sun, Ling; Du, Ya-Song; Fan, Fang; Su, Lin-Yan

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD RS-IV): Home Version and to explore parent ratings of ADHD symptoms in a large sample of urban schoolchildren in China. Parents of a representative sample of 1,616 schoolchildren (aged 6-17) in 12 Chinese cities completed the ADHD RS-IV: Home Version. The Chinese ADHD RS-IV: Home Version demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, test-retest reliability, parent-teacher correlation, discriminant validity, and convergent validity. Factor analysis revealed the DSM-IV two-factor model with "inattention" and "hyperactivity-impulsivity" dimensions, accounting for equal variances. Parent ratings revealed lower/similar scores for Chinese schoolchildren compared with the U.S. The ADHD RS-IV: Home Version is a reliable and valid ADHD rating scale in China. The factor structure is similar but not identical to the U.S. Normative data reveal cultural differences in some aspects of the parent ratings of ADHD. © The Author(s) 2012.

  18. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Measuring Cognitive Load during Simulation-Based Psychomotor Skills Training: Sensitivity of Secondary-Task Performance and Subjective Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A.; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance…

  20. On a class of adjustable rate mortgage loans subject to a strict balance principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    We describe the background and the basic funding mechanisms for the type of adjustable rate mortgageloans that were introduced in the Danish market in 1996. Each loan is funded separately by tap issuingpass-through mortgage bonds (`strict balance principle'). The novelty is a funding mechanism...... algorithms.The algorithms described here show that the essentials can be reduced to a `back of an envelope' complexity.Keywords: Adjustable rate mortgages, balance principle, patent, yield curve riding...

  1. Frame rate vs resolution: A subjective evaluation of spatiotemporal perceived quality under varying computational budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Debattista, K.; Bugeja, K.; Spina, S.; Bashford-Rogers, T.; V. Hulusic

    2017-01-01

    Maximising performance for rendered content requires making compromises on quality parameters depending on the computational resources available. Yet, it is currently unclear which parameters best maximise perceived quality. This work investigates perceived quality across computational budgets for the primary spatio-temporal parameters of resolution and frame rate. Three experiments are conducted. Experiment 1 (n = 26) shows that participants prefer fixed frame rates of 60 frames per second (...

  2. Frame rate vs resolution : a subjective evaluation of spatiotemporal perceived quality under varying computational budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Debattista, Kurt; Bugeja, Keith; Spina, Sandro; Bashford-Rogers, Thomas; Hulusić, Vedad

    2017-01-01

    Maximizing performance for rendered content requires making compromises on quality parameters depending on the computational resources available . Yet, it is currently unclear which parameters best maximize perceived quality. This work investigates perceived quality across computational budgets for the primary spatiotemporal parameters of resolution and frame rate. Three experiments are conducted. Experiment 1 (n = 26) shows that participants prefer fixed frame rates of 60 frames per second (...

  3. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria eRuffini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT on ANS activity through changes of High Frequency, a heart rate variability index indicating the parasympathetic activity, in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group.Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults, both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in 3 groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920.Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 minutes.Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency rate (p<0.001, and decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency rate (p<0.01; results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p<0.001 and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p<0.05. Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing parasympathetic function and decreasing sympathetic activity, compared to sham therapy and control group.

  4. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central postulation of the present approach to metabolic rate scaling is that exercise-induced maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is proportional to the fractal extent (V) of an animal. Total fractal extent can be calculated from the sum of the fractal extents of the capillary service units, as specified by the formula V ...

  5. The Treatment Engagement Rating scale (TER) for forensic outpatient treatment : Description, psychometric properties, and norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieschner, Klaus Heinrich; Boomsma, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Treatment Engagement Rating scale (TER) is a Dutch therapist rating instrument for treatment engagement (TE) of forensic outpatients. It yields scores for nine components of TE, which are aggregated in a total score. Following an analysis of the concept of TE, the TER is described, and various

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Working Memory Rating Scale for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Grimm, Ryan; Gerber, Michael; Orosco, Michael; Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) was designed as a behavioral rating tool to assist teachers in identifying students at risk of working memory difficulties. The instrument was originally normed on 417 monolingual English-speaking children from the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the WMRS…

  7. Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscaletti, D.; Elsinga, G. E.; Attili, A.; Bisetti, F.; Buxton, O. R. H.

    2016-10-01

    The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor ei, with the vorticity vector ω , is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and the probability density functions of the magnitude of the alignment cosines between the two unit vectors | ei.ω ̂| are examined. It is observed that the alignment tendencies are insensitive to the concurrent large-scale velocity fluctuations, but are quantitatively affected by the nature of the concurrent large-scale velocity-gradient fluctuations. It is confirmed that the small-scale (local) vorticity vector is preferentially aligned in parallel with the large-scale (background) extensive strain-rate eigenvector e1, in contrast to the global tendency for ω to be aligned in parallel with the intermediate strain-rate eigenvector [Hamlington et al., Phys. Fluids 20, 111703 (2008), 10.1063/1.3021055]. When only data from regions of the flow that exhibit strong swirling are included, the so-called high-enstrophy worms, the alignment tendencies are exaggerated with respect to the global picture. These findings support the notion that the production of enstrophy, responsible for a net cascade of turbulent kinetic energy from large scales to small scales, is driven by vorticity stretching due to the preferential parallel alignment between ω and nonlocal e1 and that the strongly swirling worms are kinematically significant to this process.

  8. Cross-cultural evaluation of the modified Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale across disease stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virués-Ortega, Javier; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Micheli, Federico; Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier; Serrano-Dueñas, Marcos; Martínez-Martín, Pablo

    2010-07-30

    This study assessed the psychometric attributes of the modified Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale (mPPRS). In an attempt to improve scale's scaling assumptions and content validity, all types of hallucinations were rated and all items were scored based on intensity. The scale was cross-culturally adapted to four Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, and Paraguay). Acceptability, internal consistency, factor structure, convergent and known-groups validity, and precision (standard error of measurement, SEM) were explored. A total of 388 patients with PD were included in the study (age, 64.5 +/- 10.7 years; 59.8% males; PD duration, 8.2 +/- 4.9 years). The mPPRS was highly usable in terms of missing values generated and scores distribution (total computable scores, 99.7%, ceiling effect, Hoehn and Yahr stage (P scale's content validity and internal consistency. (c) 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Body mass index, Stunkard Figure Rating Scale, and sexuality in young Italian women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotti, Elena; Battaglia, Bruno; Paradisi, Roberto; Persico, Nicola; Zampieri, Marina; Venturoli, Stefano; Battaglia, Cesare

    2013-04-01

    Increased body mass index is associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic diseases, depression, and sexual dysfunction. In obese patients, the perception of an altered body image may influence health and psychologically related behaviors. Furthermore, there is a significant positive relationship between sexual function, sexual satisfaction, and all body image variables. To evaluate the relationship between body weight, perceived body image, and sexual behavior. Ninety women underwent ultrasonographic clitoral volume measurement and color Doppler evaluation of the clitoral and ophthalmic arteries. The subjects filled the McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire (MFSQ), the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS), and the Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) questionnaire. Clitoral volume, clitoral and ophthalmic artery pulsatility index (PI), MFSQ, FRS, and BDI. The women were distributed into three groups: lean (N = 47); overweight (N = 22); and obese (N = 21). The ophthalmic artery showed lower PI in lean (1.72 ± 0.39) than in overweight (1.99 ± 0.30) and obese women (2.08 ± 0.19). The obese subjects presented the worst clitoral vascularization. The MFSQ for sexuality was higher in lean (45.8 ± 11.8) than in overweight (36.4 ± 15.0) and obese (36.1 ± 10.8) women. The frequency of intercourse per week was higher in lean (2.2 ± 1.4) than in overweight (1.3 ± 0.7) and obese (1.2 ± 0.4) women. The percentage of anorgasmic women was higher in obese (23%) than in lean subjects (6%). The FRS evidenced that the lean subjects represented themselves with a mean value (3.5 ± 1.0) lower than overweight (4.8 ± 0.7) and obese women (5.9 ± 0.6). The silhouette that represented their own ideal was significantly higher in obese (4.0 ± 0.4) than in overweight (3.3 ± 0.5) and lean (2.9 ± 0.7) subjects. The mean BDI was significantly higher in obese (15.8 ± 5.4) than in lean (8.4 ± 6.8) women

  10. Large-scale international validation of the ADO index in subjects with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puhan, Milo A; Hansel, Nadia N; Sobradillo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    -year mortality and to update it in order to make prediction of mortality in COPD patients as generalisable as possible. DESIGN: Individual subject data analysis of 10 European and American cohorts (n=13 914). SETTING: Population-based, primary, secondary and tertiary care. PATIENTS: COPD GOLD stages I...

  11. The Apathy Evaluation Scale: A Comparison of Subject, Informant, and Clinician Report in Cognitively Normal Elderly and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercio, Brendan J; Donovan, Nancy J; Munro, Catherine E; Aghjayan, Sarah L; Wigman, Sarah E; Locascio, Joseph J; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Marshall, Gad A

    2015-01-01

    Apathy is a common neuropsychiatric symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Detecting apathy accurately may facilitate earlier diagnosis of AD. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) is a promising tool for measurement of apathy in prodromal and possibly preclinical AD. To compare the three AES sub-scales - subject-reported (AES-S), informant-reported (AES-I), and clinician-reported (AES-C) - over time in individuals at risk for AD due to MCI and advanced age (cognitively normal [CN] elderly). Mixed effects longitudinal models were used to assess predictors of score for each AES sub-scale. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess which AES sub-scales predict progression from MCI to AD dementia. Fifty-seven MCI and 18 CN subjects (ages 53-86) were followed for 1.4 ± 1.2 years and 0.7 ± 0.7 years, respectively. Across the three mixed effects longitudinal models, the common findings were associations between greater apathy and greater years in study, a baseline diagnosis of MCI (compared to CN), and male gender. CN elderly self-reported greater apathy compared to that reported by informants and clinicians, while individuals with MCI under-reported their apathy compared to informants and clinicians. Of the three sub-scales, the AES-C best predicted transition from MCI to AD dementia. In a sample of CN elderly and elderly with MCI, apathy increased over time, particularly in men and those with MCI. AES-S scores may be more sensitive than AES-I and AES-C scores in CN elderly, but less reliable if subjects have MCI. Moreover, the AES-C sub-scale predicted progression from MCI to AD dementia.

  12. Large-scale dynamo growth rates from numerical simulations and implications for mean-field theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiwan; Blackman, Eric G; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2013-05-01

    Understanding large-scale magnetic field growth in turbulent plasmas in the magnetohydrodynamic limit is a goal of magnetic dynamo theory. In particular, assessing how well large-scale helical field growth and saturation in simulations match those predicted by existing theories is important for progress. Using numerical simulations of isotropically forced turbulence without large-scale shear with its implications, we focus on several additional aspects of this comparison: (1) Leading mean-field dynamo theories which break the field into large and small scales predict that large-scale helical field growth rates are determined by the difference between kinetic helicity and current helicity with no dependence on the nonhelical energy in small-scale magnetic fields. Our simulations show that the growth rate of the large-scale field from fully helical forcing is indeed unaffected by the presence or absence of small-scale magnetic fields amplified in a precursor nonhelical dynamo. However, because the precursor nonhelical dynamo in our simulations produced fields that were strongly subequipartition with respect to the kinetic energy, we cannot yet rule out the potential influence of stronger nonhelical small-scale fields. (2) We have identified two features in our simulations which cannot be explained by the most minimalist versions of two-scale mean-field theory: (i) fully helical small-scale forcing produces significant nonhelical large-scale magnetic energy and (ii) the saturation of the large-scale field growth is time delayed with respect to what minimalist theory predicts. We comment on desirable generalizations to the theory in this context and future desired work.

  13. Discriminant of validity the Wender Utah rating scale in Iranian adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Farideh Farokhzadi; Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Maryam Salmanian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the normalization of the Wender Utah rating scale which is used to detect adults with Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD as compared to 200 parents of normal children). Wender Utah rating scale, which has been designed to diagnose ADHD in adults, is filled out by each of the parents to most accurately diagnose of ADHD in parents. Wender Utah rating...

  14. Development and Initial Validation of a Multidimensional Scale Assessing Subjective Well-Being: The Well-Being Scale (WeBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, P Priscilla; Fernando, Gaithri A

    2017-01-01

    Numerous scales currently exist that assess well-being, but research on measures of well-being is still advancing. Conceptualization and measurement of subjective well-being have emphasized intrapsychic over psychosocial domains of optimal functioning, and disparate research on hedonic, eudaimonic, and psychological well-being lacks a unifying theoretical model. Lack of systematic investigations on the impact of culture on subjective well-being has also limited advancement of this field. The goals of this investigation were to (1) develop and validate a self-report measure, the Well-Being Scale (WeBS), that simultaneously assesses overall well-being and physical, financial, social, hedonic, and eudaimonic domains of this construct; (2) evaluate factor structures that underlie subjective well-being; and (3) examine the measure's psychometric properties. Three empirical studies were conducted to develop and validate the 29-item scale. The WeBS demonstrated an adequate five-factor structure in an exploratory structural equation model in Study 1. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that a bifactor structure best fit the WeBS data in Study 2 and Study 3. Overall WeBS scores and five domain-specific subscale scores demonstrated adequate to excellent internal consistency reliability and construct validity. Mean differences in overall well-being and its five subdomains are presented for different ethnic groups. The WeBS is a reliable and valid measure of multiple aspects of well-being that are considered important to different ethnocultural groups.

  15. Assessment of Competence in EVAR Procedures: A Novel Rating Scale Developed by the Delphi Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, M; Lönn, L; Bech, B; Schroeder, T V; Konge, L

    2017-07-01

    To develop a procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of operator competence in endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). A Delphi approach was used to achieve expert consensus. A panel of 32 international experts (median 300 EVAR procedures, range 200-3000) from vascular surgery (n = 21) and radiology (n = 11) was established. The first Delphi round was based on a review of endovascular skills assessment papers, stent graft instructions for use, and structured interviews. It led to a primary pool of 83 items that were formulated as global rating scale items with tentative anchors. Iterative Delphi rounds were executed. The panellists rated the importance of each item on a 5 point Likert scale. Consensus was defined as 80% of the panel rating an item 4 or 5 in the primary round and 90% in subsequent rounds. Consensus on the final assessment tool was defined as Cronbach's alpha > .8 after a minimum of three rounds. Thirty-two of 35 invited experts participated. Three rounds of surveys were completed with a completion rate of 100% in the first two rounds and 91% in round three. The 83 primary assessment items were supplemented with five items suggested by the panel and reduced to seven pivotal assessment items that reached consensus, Cronbach's alpha = 0.82. The seven item rating scale covers key elements of competence in EVAR stent placement and deployment. Each item has well defined grades with explicit anchors at unacceptable, acceptable, and superior performance on a 5 point Likert scale. The Delphi methodology allowed for international consensus on a new procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of competence in EVAR. The resulting scale, EndoVascular Aortic Repair Assessment of Technical Expertise (EVARATE), represents key elements in the procedure. EVARATE constitutes an assessment tool for providing structured feedback to endovascular operators in training. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier

  16. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia: A Rasch analysis of its properties in subjects with low back and more widespread pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgård, Elin; Fors, Terese; Anke, Audny; Røe, Cecilie

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia in patients with low back pain and in patients with more widespread pain distribution including low back pain. A total of 120 subjects, 48 with isolated low back pain and 72 with more widespread pain distribution were included. The Norwegian translation of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, Hopkins Symptom Check List 25 question version and Fear Avoidance Behaviour Questionnaire were completed. The properties of the Norwegian translation of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia were explored by a Rasch analysis. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia fitted the Rasch model and passed the independent t-test for a unidimensional scale. The response categories for some of the items needed to be collapsed from 4 to 3 levels. Only the item "It's not really safe for a person with a condition like mine to be physically active" was significantly different in men and women. The Norwegian translation of Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia seems to reflect a unidimensional construct of kinesiophobia. The scale seemed to be quite robust across age and gender, and the response patterns to the items were similar in patients with low back pain and widespread pain distribution including low back pain.

  17. Microscale consolidation analysis of relaxation behavior of single living chondrocytes subjected to varying strain-rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Dung; Oloyede, Adekunle; Singh, Sanjleena; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-09-01

    Besides the elastic stiffness, the relaxation behavior of single living cells is also of interest of various researchers when studying cell mechanics. It is hypothesized that the relaxation response of the cells is governed by both intrinsic viscoelasticity of the solid phase and fluid-solid interactions mechanisms. There are a number of mechanical models have been developed to investigate the relaxation behavior of single cells. However, there is lack of model enable to accurately capture both of the mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, the porohyperelastic (PHE) model, which is an extension of the consolidation theory, combined with inverse Finite Element Analysis (FEA) technique was used at the first time to investigate the relaxation response of living chondrocytes. This model was also utilized to study the dependence of relaxation behavior of the cells on strain-rates. The stress-relaxation experiments under the various strain-rates were conducted with the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results have demonstrated that the PHE model could effectively capture the stress-relaxation behavior of the living chondrocytes, especially at intermediate to high strain-rates. Although this model gave some errors at lower strain-rates, its performance was acceptable. Therefore, the PHE model is properly a promising model for single cell mechanics studies. Moreover, it has been found that the hydraulic permeability of living chondrocytes reduced with decreasing of strain-rates. It might be due to the intracellular fluid volume fraction and the fluid pore pressure gradients of chondrocytes were higher when higher strain-rates applied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On the depth and scale of metabolic rate variation: scaling of oxygen consumption rates and enzymatic activity in the Class Cephalopoda (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Brad A

    2007-01-01

    Recent ecological theory depends, for predictive power, on the apparent similarity of metabolic rates within broad taxonomic or functional groups of organisms (e.g. invertebrates or ectotherms). Such metabolic commonality is challenged here, as I demonstrate more than 200-fold variation in metabolic rates independent of body mass and temperature in a single class of animals, the Cephalopoda, over seven orders of magnitude size range. I further demonstrate wide variation in the slopes of metabolic scaling curves. The observed variation in metabolism reflects differential selection among species for locomotory capacity rather than mass or temperature constraints. Such selection is highest among epipelagic squids (Lolignidae and Ommastrephidae) that, as adults, have temperature-corrected metabolic rates higher than mammals of similar size.

  19. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F A Sekeff-Sallem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical dystonia (CD is a prevalent and incapacitating movement disorder which needs a thorough clinical evaluation of every patient to better tailor treatment strategies. In Brazil, there are no validated CD scales that measure the burden of dystonia. The aim of our study was to translate and adapt the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS to Brazilian Portuguese. After translation and back-translation according to international methods, a pre-test was carried out with 30 patients. Patients under 8 years of formal schooling had severe difficulty in understanding the whole scale. The scale went through a remodeling process, without loss of its conceptual and semantic properties. The new scale was tested in 15 patients, with good understanding scores. We are now in the process of validation of the adapted scale.

  20. Subjective Ratings of Annoyance Produced by Rotary-Wing Aircraft Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    nov "is ossoLaTa Unclassified SECURITY CLASSFICATION 5.Frs PARE FW- D Eneredt- 𔃻 5 7 W Unclassified 69CURITY CLASIFICATION OF THIS PAG9(Vhw Da...paths followed during the various maneuvers relative to the location of the observers rendering the ratings. The observers were 25 adults hired on a

  1. Subjective ratings of prospective memory deficits in chronic heavy alcohol users

    OpenAIRE

    Heffernan, Tom; Moss, Mark; Ling, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse has a detrimental effect on retrospective memory. Less is known about its putative effects on everyday memory. This study looked at self-ratings of prospective memory (PM) (memory for future events). After controlling for other drug and strategy use, chronic heavy alcohol users showed global impairments in PM, when compared to matched controls. The underlying mechanisms are discussed.

  2. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Based upon Heart Rate at Aerobic Threshold in Obese Elderly Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Pietro Emerenziani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In obese diabetic subjects, a correct life style, including diet and physical activity, is part of a correct intervention protocol. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training intervention, based on heart rate at aerobic gas exchange threshold (AerTge, on clinical and physiological parameters in obese elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes (OT2DM. Thirty OT2DM subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG or control group (CG. The IG performed a supervised aerobic exercise training based on heart rate at AerTge whereas CG maintained their usual lifestyle. Anthropometric measures, blood analysis, peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak, metabolic equivalent (METpeak, work rate (WRpeak, and WRAerTge were assessed at baseline and after intervention. After training, patients enrolled in the IG had significantly higher (P<0.001 V˙O2peak, METpeak, WRpeak, and WRAerTge and significantly lower (P<0.005 weight, BMI, %FM, and waist circumference than before intervention. Both IG and CG subjects had lower glycated haemoglobin levels after intervention period. No significant differences were found for all the other parameters between pre- and posttraining and between groups. Aerobic exercise prescription based upon HR at AerTge could be a valuable physical intervention tool to improve the fitness level and metabolic equilibrium in OT2DM patients.

  3. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ): factorial structure, relations to global subjective memory ratings, and Swedish norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnlund, Michael; Mäntylä, Timo; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2008-02-01

    The factorial structure of the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ; Smith et al., 2000) was examined in a Swedish population based sample (N= 540, age range; 35-90 years). Concurrent validity was assessed by relating PRMQ to global ratings of memory. Confirmatory factor analyses of the PRMQ items indicated a superior fit of a three-factor model, with prospective and retrospective memory as orthogonal factors and episodic memory as a common factor. Furthermore, the PRMQ scales correlated with the global ratings of memory, suggesting that each rating contributed with unique variance in predicting PRMQ scores. Given differences in levels of complaints as compared with prior research (Crawford et al., 2003) norms for the Swedish version are provided. In conclusion, the present findings extend earlier work by providing additional support for the construct and concurrent validity of the PRMQ scales.

  4. Error rates of a full-duplex system over EGK fading channels subject to laplacian interference

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2017-07-31

    This paper develops a mathematical paradigm to study downlink error rates and throughput for half-duplex (HD) terminals served by a full-duplex (FD) base station (BS). Particularly, we study the dominant intra-cell interferer problem that appears between HD users scheduled on the same FD-channel. The distribution of the dominant interference is first characterized via its distribution function, which is derived in closed-form. Assuming Nakagami-m fading, the probability of error for different modulation schemes is studied and a unified closed-form expression for the average symbol error rate is derived. To this end, we show the effective downlink throughput gain, harvested by employing FD communication at a BS that serves HD users, as a function of the signal-to-interference-ratio when compared to an idealized HD interference and noise free BS operation.

  5. Dynamic Evaluation of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Subjected to High-Strain-Rate Compressive Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions 10 5. References 11 Distribution List 13 iv List of Figures Figure 1. ASTM D 638-03 dog bone...1. ASTM D 638-03 dog bone. When designing the specimen for tensile testing, it is important that the tensile specimen be built such that the...2006, 45 (1), 18–24. 8. Lee, W. S.; Lin, C. F. Plastic Deformation and Fracture Behaviour of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Loaded With High Strain Rate Under

  6. Clearance and synthesis rates of beta 2-microglobulin in patients undergoing hemodialysis and in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floege, J.; Bartsch, A.; Schulze, M.; Shaldon, S.; Koch, K.M.; Smeby, L.C. (Department of Nephrology, University Hospital of Hannover (Germany))

    1991-08-01

    Retention of {beta} 2-microglobulin in patients undergoing hemodialysis is associated with a {beta} 2-microglobulin-derived amyloidosis. Removal of {beta} 2-microglobulin by renal replacement therapy has been proposed for the prevention of this amyloidosis. Currently, however, data on the {beta} 2-microglobulin synthesis rate in patients undergoing hemodialysis are scarce, and consequently it remains speculative how much removal would be necessary to counterbalance synthesis. The plasma kinetics of iodine 131-labeled {beta} 2-microglobulin were therefore examined in 11 patients with anuria who were undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Five healthy persons served as controls. Kinetic modeling of the plasma curves showed that the data fitted a two-pool model (r2 greater than 0.96) consisting of a rapid 2 to 4 hour distribution phase followed by a less steep curve, described by the plasma (metabolic) clearance (Clp). Synthetic rates were calculated from Clp and the {beta} 2-microglobulin steady state plasma concentration (plus {beta} 2-microglobulin removal during hemodialysis in the case of high flux hemodialysis). The results showed a significantly higher Clp in normal controls as compared with patients undergoing hemodialysis (65.5 {plus minus} 12.8 ml/min (mean {plus minus} SD) versus 3.4 {plus minus} 0.7 ml/min). In contrast, the {beta} 2-microglobulin synthesis rate in the patient group (3.10 {plus minus} 0.79 mg/kg/day) was not significantly different from that of normal controls (2.40 {plus minus} 0.67 mg/kg/day), which was due to markedly elevated {beta} 2-microglobulin plasma concentrations in the patients (37.6 {plus minus} 14.1 mg/L vs 1.92 {plus minus} 0.27 mg/L). These findings suggest that the presence of end-stage renal disease does not have a significant impact on the beta 2-microglobulin generation rate.

  7. Effects of alcohol on subjective ratings of prospective and everyday memory deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Jonathan; Heffernan, Tom; Buchanan, Tom; Rodgers, Jacqui; Scholey, Andrew; Parrott, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that heavy alcohol use has a detrimental effect on retrospective memory. Less is known about the effect of alcohol on everyday memory. Methods: This study examined self-ratings of two aspects of memory performance: prospective memory (for example, forgetting to pass on a message) and everyday memory (measured by cognitive failures, such as telling someone a joke that you have told them before). To ensure anonymity and expand on the numbers of participants used i...

  8. Not Worth the Extra Cost? Diluting the Differentiation Ability of Highly Rated Products by Altering the Meaning of Rating Scale Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meissner, Martin; Heinzle, Stefanie Lena; Decker, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    multidimensional scaling, this paper reveals that the meaning of the levels of a rating scale can be altered by manipulating the labeling of the rating scale levels. The study reveals that consumers perceive product attributes as being more similar if the labels share similar or identical linguistic or visual...... characteristics. In addition, two choice-based conjoint studies examine whether the way consumers make their choices among products can be influenced by changing the labeling of rating scale levels. The results show that a manipulation of the meaning of rating scale levels diminishes both the importance...

  9. Genome-wide fine-scale recombination rate variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andrew H; Jenkins, Paul A; Song, Yun S

    2012-01-01

    Estimating fine-scale recombination maps of Drosophila from population genomic data is a challenging problem, in particular because of the high background recombination rate. In this paper, a new computational method is developed to address this challenge. Through an extensive simulation study, it is demonstrated that the method allows more accurate inference, and exhibits greater robustness to the effects of natural selection and noise, compared to a well-used previous method developed for studying fine-scale recombination rate variation in the human genome. As an application, a genome-wide analysis of genetic variation data is performed for two Drosophila melanogaster populations, one from North America (Raleigh, USA) and the other from Africa (Gikongoro, Rwanda). It is shown that fine-scale recombination rate variation is widespread throughout the D. melanogaster genome, across all chromosomes and in both populations. At the fine-scale, a conservative, systematic search for evidence of recombination hotspots suggests the existence of a handful of putative hotspots each with at least a tenfold increase in intensity over the background rate. A wavelet analysis is carried out to compare the estimated recombination maps in the two populations and to quantify the extent to which recombination rates are conserved. In general, similarity is observed at very broad scales, but substantial differences are seen at fine scales. The average recombination rate of the X chromosome appears to be higher than that of the autosomes in both populations, and this pattern is much more pronounced in the African population than the North American population. The correlation between various genomic features-including recombination rates, diversity, divergence, GC content, gene content, and sequence quality-is examined using the wavelet analysis, and it is shown that the most notable difference between D. melanogaster and humans is in the correlation between recombination and diversity.

  10. Medical students' subjective ratings of stress levels and awareness of student support services about mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa Li-Wey; Norgren Jaconelli, Sanna; Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S; Hunt, Glenn

    2013-06-01

    To descriptively assess medical students' concerns for their mental and emotional state, perceived need to conceal mental problems, perceived level of support at university, knowledge and use of student support services, and experience of stresses of daily life. From March to September 2011, medical students at an Australian university were invited to complete an anonymous online survey. 475 responses were received. Students rated study and examinations (48.9%), financial concerns (38.1%), isolation (19.4%) and relationship concerns (19.2%) as very or extremely stressful issues. Knowledge of available support services was high, with 90.8% indicating they were aware of the university's medical centre. Treatment rates were modest (31.7%). Students' concerns about their mental state were generally low, but one in five strongly felt they needed to conceal their emotional problems. Despite widespread awareness of appropriate support services, a large proportion of students felt they needed to conceal mental and emotional problems. Overall treatment rates for students who were greatly concerned about their mental and emotional state appeared modest, and, although comparable with those of similarly aged community populations, may reflect undertreatment. It would be appropriate for universities to address stressors identified by students. Strategies for encouraging distressed students to obtain appropriate assessment and treatment should also be explored. Those students who do seek healthcare are most likely to see a primary care physician, suggesting an important screening role for these health professionals.

  11. Laboratory-Scale Melter for Determination of Melting Rate of Waste Glass Feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Buchmiller, William C.; Matyas, Josef

    2012-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to develop the laboratory-scale melter (LSM) as a quick and inexpensive method to determine the processing rate of various waste glass slurry feeds. The LSM uses a 3 or 4 in. diameter-fused quartz crucible with feed and off-gas ports on top. This LSM setup allows cold-cap formation above the molten glass to be directly monitored to obtain a steady-state melting rate of the waste glass feeds. The melting rate data from extensive scaled-melter tests with Hanford Site high-level wastes performed for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant have been compiled. Preliminary empirical model that expresses the melting rate as a function of bubbling rate and glass yield were developed from the compiled database. The two waste glass feeds with most melter run data were selected for detailed evaluation and model development and for the LSM tests so the melting rates obtained from LSM tests can be compared with those from scaled-melter tests. The present LSM results suggest the LSM setup can be used to determine the glass production rates for the development of new glass compositions or feed makeups that are designed to increase the processing rate of the slurry feeds.

  12. Depression in older people: visual impairment and subjective ratings of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Karen J; Kerse, Ngaire M; La Grow, Steven J; Wouldes, Trecia; Robertson, M Clare; Campbell, A John

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of depression in a sample of older adults with impaired vision and investigate associations between physical and visual disability and depression. We analyzed cross-sectional baseline data from 391 participants aged >or=75 years with visual acuity of 6/24 (20/80) or less, recruited for a randomized controlled trial of interventions to prevent falls (the VIP trial). Measures included the geriatric depression scale (GDS-15), the state-trait anxiety index, activities of daily living (Nottingham extended ADL scale), physical activity (human activity profile), an index of visual functioning (VF-14), health-related quality of life (SF-36), objective measures of physical ability, and a measure of visual acuity. Regression models were developed to investigate the association between depression scores and physical, psychological, and visual disability. About 29.4% (115 of 391) of participants were identified as potentially depressed (GDS-15 score >4). Physical function, physical activity, physical ability, visual function, anxiety, and self-reported physical and mental health were significantly worse for those with depressive symptomatology. Physical, visual, and psychological factors collectively explained 41% of the variance in the depression score in a linear regression model (R=0.421, adjusted R=0.410, F (7,382)=39.680, pvisual impairment. Impaired visual and physical functions were associated with symptoms of depression. The effect of visual disability was independent of the effect of physical disability. The strength of this relationship, and the results of the regression analyses, indicate that a person who is visually or physically disabled is more likely to suffer from depression.

  13. Up-Scaling Geochemical Reaction Rates for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Deep Saline Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, W Brent

    2009-03-03

    The overall goal of the project was to bridge the gap between our knowledge of small-scale geochemical reaction rates and reaction rates meaningful for modeling transport at core scales. The working hypothesis was that reaction rates, determined from laboratory measurements based upon reactions typically conducted in well mixed batch reactors using pulverized reactive media may be significantly changed in in situ porous media flow due to rock microstructure heterogeneity. Specifically we hypothesized that, generally, reactive mineral surfaces are not uniformly accessible to reactive fluids due to the random deposition of mineral grains and to the variation in flow rates within a pore network. Expected bulk reaction rates would therefore have to be correctly up-scaled to reflect such heterogeneity. The specific objective was to develop a computational tool that integrates existing measurement capabilities with pore-scale network models of fluid flow and reactive transport. The existing measurement capabilities to be integrated consisted of (a) pore space morphology, (b) rock mineralogy, and (c) geochemical reaction rates. The objective was accomplished by: (1) characterizing sedimentary sandstone rock morphology using X-ray computed microtomography, (2) mapping rock mineralogy using back-scattered electron microscopy (BSE), X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and CMT, (3) characterizing pore-accessible reactive mineral surface area, and (4) creating network models to model acidic CO{sub 2} saturated brine injection into the sandstone rock samples.

  14. Subjective stress, objective heart rate variability-based stress, and recovery on workdays among overweight and psychologically distressed individuals: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föhr, Tiina; Tolvanen, Asko; Myllymäki, Tero; Järvelä-Reijonen, Elina; Rantala, Sanni; Korpela, Riitta; Peuhkuri, Katri; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Puttonen, Sampsa; Lappalainen, Raimo; Rusko, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate how subjective self-reported stress is associated with objective heart rate variability (HRV)-based stress and recovery on workdays. Another aim was to investigate how physical activity (PA), body composition, and age are associated with subjective stress, objective stress, and recovery. Working-age participants (n = 221; 185 women, 36 men) in this cross-sectional study were overweight (body mass index, 25.3-40.1 kg/m(2)) and psychologically distressed (≥3/12 points on the General Health Questionnaire). Objective stress and recovery were based on HRV recordings over 1-3 workdays. Subjective stress was assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale. PA level was determined by questionnaire, and body fat percentage was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Subjective stress was directly associated with objective stress (P = 0.047) and inversely with objective recovery (P = 0.046). These associations persisted after adjustments for sex, age, PA, and body fat percentage. Higher PA was associated with lower subjective stress (P = 0.037). Older age was associated with higher objective stress (P subjective stress (P = 0.043). The present results suggest that subjective self-reported stress is associated with objective physiological stress, but they are also apparently affected by different factors. However, some of the found associations among these overweight and psychologically distressed participants with low inter-individual variation in PA are rather weak and the clinical value of the present findings should be studied further among participants with greater heterogeneity of stress, PA and body composition. However, these findings suggest that objective stress assessment provides an additional aspect to stress evaluation. Furthermore, the results provide valuable information for developing stress assessment methods.

  15. Global Rating of Change Scales: A Review of Strengths and Weaknesses and Considerations for Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamper, Steven J; Maher, Christopher G; Mackay, Grant

    2009-01-01

    Most clinicians ask their patients to rate whether their health condition has improved or deteriorated over time and then use this information to guide management decisions. Many studies also use patient-rated change as an outcome measure to determine the efficacy of a particular treatment. Global rating of change (GRC) scales provide a method of obtaining this information in a manner that is quick, flexible, and efficient. As with any outcome measure, however, meaningful interpretation of results can only be undertaken with due consideration of the clinimetric properties, strengths, and weaknesses of the instrument. The purpose of this article is to summarize this information to assist appropriate interpretation of the GRC results and to provide evidence-informed advice to guide design and administration of GRC scales. These considerations are relevant and applicable to the use of GRC scales both in the clinic and in research. PMID:20046623

  16. Combining Dual Scaling with Semi-Structured Interviews to Interpret Rating Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Childs

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dual scaling, a variation of multidimensional scaling, can reveal the dimensions underlying scores, such as raters' judgments. This study illustrates the use of a dual scaling analysis with semi-structured interviews of raters to investigate the differences among the raters as captured by the dimensions. Thirty applications to a one-year post-Bachelor's degree teacher education program were rated by nine teacher educators. Eight of the raters were subsequently interviewed about how they rated the responses. A three-dimensional model was found to explain most of the variance in the ratings for two of the questions and a two-dimensional model was most interpretable for the third question. The interviews suggested that the dimensions reflected, in addition to differences in raters' stringency, differences in their beliefs about their roles as raters and about the types of insights that were required of applicants.

  17. Assessment of patient interpersonal behavior: Development and validation of a rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtberg, Samantha; Jakob, Marion; Höfling, Volkmar; Weck, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Patient in-session interpersonal behavior, as part of the therapeutic alliance, is an important aspect of the psychotherapy process and impacts treatment outcome. In the present study, the development and validation of a rating scale of patient in-session interpersonal behavior is described. A 10-item rating scale, the Assessment Form of Patient Interpersonal Behavior (AFPIB), was developed using an inductive procedure. The AFPIB was then validated in a sample of patients with hypochondriasis (N = 30), by having two independent raters assess patients' interpersonal behaviors shown in videotaped psychotherapy sessions (N = 60). The AFPIB demonstrated good reliability and validity. Thus, the AFPIB seems to be a promising rating scale for the assessment of patient interpersonal behavior shown in psychotherapy sessions.

  18. Validation of the Portuguese version of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS)

    OpenAIRE

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Barbosa-Rocha, Nuno; Gama-Marques, João; Moreira, Ana L; Alves-Moreira, Cátia; Saraiva, Sérgio; Antunes, Filipa; Almeida, Carolina; Machado, Sérgio; Haddock, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS) is a clinical assessment tool that focuses on the detailed measurement of delusions and hallucinations in patients with psychosis. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the PSYRATS. A sample of 92 outpatients suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders and presenting persistent psychotic symptoms was assessed using the PSYRATS and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS...

  19. Entropy-rate clustering: cluster analysis via maximizing a submodular function subject to a matroid constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Yu; Tuzel, Oncel; Ramalingam, Srikumar; Chellappa, Rama

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new objective function for clustering. This objective function consists of two components: the entropy rate of a random walk on a graph and a balancing term. The entropy rate favors formation of compact and homogeneous clusters, while the balancing function encourages clusters with similar sizes and penalizes larger clusters that aggressively group samples. We present a novel graph construction for the graph associated with the data and show that this construction induces a matroid--a combinatorial structure that generalizes the concept of linear independence in vector spaces. The clustering result is given by the graph topology that maximizes the objective function under the matroid constraint. By exploiting the submodular and monotonic properties of the objective function, we develop an efficient greedy algorithm. Furthermore, we prove an approximation bound of (1/2) for the optimality of the greedy solution. We validate the proposed algorithm on various benchmarks and show its competitive performances with respect to popular clustering algorithms. We further apply it for the task of superpixel segmentation. Experiments on the Berkeley segmentation data set reveal its superior performances over the state-of-the-art superpixel segmentation algorithms in all the standard evaluation metrics.

  20. Validation of a pediatric vocal fold nodule rating scale based on digital video images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Roger C; Ward, Jessica; Recko, Thomas; Huang, Lin; Woodnorth, Geralyn Harvey

    2012-01-01

    We sought to create a validated scale of vocal fold nodules in children, based on digital video clips obtained during diagnostic fiberoptic laryngoscopy. We developed a 4-point grading scale of vocal fold nodules in children, based upon short digital video clips. A tutorial for use of the scale, including schematic drawings of nodules, static images, and 10-second video clips, was presented to 36 clinicians with various levels of experience. The clinicians then reviewed 40 short digital video samples from pediatric patients evaluated in a voice clinic and rated the nodule size. Statistical analysis of the ratings provided inter-rater reliability scores. Thirty-six clinicians with various levels of experience rated a total of 40 short video clips. The ratings of experienced raters (14 pediatric otolaryngology attending physicians and pediatric otolaryngology fellows) were compared with those of inexperienced raters (22 nurses, medical students, otolaryngology residents, physician assistants, and pediatric speech-language pathologists). The overall intraclass correlation coefficient for the ratings of nodule size was quite good (0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.74). The p value for experienced raters versus inexperienced raters was 0.1345, indicating no statistically significant difference in the ratings by these two groups. The intraclass correlation coefficient for intra-rater reliability was very high (0.89). The use of a dynamic scale of pediatric vocal fold nodule size most realistically represents the clinical assessment of nodules during an office visit. The results of this study show a high level of agreement between experienced and inexperienced raters. This scale can be used with a high level of reliability by clinicians with various levels of experience. A validated grading scale will help to assess long-term outcomes of pediatric patients with vocal fold nodules.

  1. C-reactive protein, heart rate variability and prognosis in community subjects with no apparent heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, A; Nielsen, OW; Rasmussen, Verner

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Increased C-reactive protein (CRP) and reduced heart rate variability (HRV) both indicate poor prognosis. An inverse association between HRV and CRP has been reported, suggesting an interaction between inflammatory and autonomic systems. However, the prognostic impact...... of this interaction has not been studied. We thus investigated the prognostic impact of CRP, HRV and their combinations. DESIGN: Population-based study. SUBJECTS: A total of 638 middle-aged and elderly subjects with no apparent heart disease from community. METHODS: All were studied by clinical and laboratory...... of four HRV measures were significantly associated with increased rate of death or myocardial infarction. In a Cox model with CRP >or=2.5 microg mL(-1), standard deviation for the mean value of the time between normal complexes...

  2. Discriminant of validity the Wender Utah rating scale in Iranian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhzadi, Farideh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the normalization of the Wender Utah rating scale which is used to detect adults with Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD as compared to 200 parents of normal children). Wender Utah rating scale, which has been designed to diagnose ADHD in adults, is filled out by each of the parents to most accurately diagnose of ADHD in parents. Wender Utah rating scale was divided into 6 sub scales which consist of dysthymia, oppositional defiant disorder; school work problems, conduct disorder, anxiety, and ADHD were analyzed with exploratory factor analysis method. The value of (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) KMO was 86.5% for dysthymia, 86.9% for oppositional defiant disorder, 77.5% for school related problems, 90.9% for conduct disorder, 79.6% for anxiety and 93.5% for Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, also the chi square value based on Bartlett's Test was 2242.947 for dysthymia, 2239.112 for oppositional defiant disorder, 1221.917 for school work problems, 5031.511 for conduct, 1421.1 for anxiety, and 7644.122 for ADHD. Since mentioned values were larger than the chi square critical values (PWender Utah rating scale can be appropriately used for predicting dysthymia, oppositional defiant disorder, school work problems, conduct disorder, anxiety, in adults with ADHD.

  3. Reliability and validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Michael

    2005-06-01

    The Wender Utah Rating Scale was developed to assess adults' retrospective account of the childhood occurrence of symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As little work has focused on psychometric properties of the scale for college students, it was administered to 111 college students. Because college students with ADHD experience more symptoms of depression than other students, three measures of mood-related symptoms were also administered. One month later, the Wender scale and the Beck Depression Inventory were readministered to 67 participants. On both occasions, the Wender scale had high internal consistency (r> or =2.87) and was modestly but significantly correlated with measures of mood disorder symptoms (rs ranging from .33 to .47). The scale had high test-retest reliability (r = .68). These results support its use as a component of assessment of ADHD in college students.

  4. Reactivity in pain-free subjects and a clinical pain population: evaluation of the Kohn Reactivity Scale-dutch Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Noordermeer, Siri D S; van Wijck, Albert J M; Snijders, Tom J; Geenen, Rinie

    2013-07-01

    Patients with pain are more reactive to various types of sensations, not limited to pain alone. A potential useful instrument to assess reactivity is the Kohn Reactivity Scale (KRS). This study examines the psychometric characteristics of the KRS-Dutch version and its ability to differentiate between subjects with and without pain. Internal consistency, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability of the Dutch translation of the KRS were assessed in 321 pain-free control subjects and different subgroups of this sample. Subsequently, reactivity scores were compared between the pain-free subjects and 291 pain patients who were referred to a pain clinic for treatment. Reliability analyses indicated good internal consistency (α ≥ 0.77) and high test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation = 0.95) of the KRS in the control subjects. Validity analyses yielded positive correlations of the KRS with related constructs like pain vigilance and awareness (r = 0.37), symptom severity (r = 0.29), and the personality characteristic neuroticism (r = 0.20). Pain patients had overall significantly higher KRS scores than the pain-free subjects indicating increased reactivity, particularly for the patients with medically unexplained pain. These findings indicate that the KRS is a useful instrument to screen for reactivity in pain patients, which may be of particular relevance for those suffering from medically unexplained pain. © 2012 The Authors Pain Practice © 2012 World Institute of Pain.

  5. Characteristics of depression in Parkinson's disease: evaluating with Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Fumio; Oishi, Kenichi; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kuga, Atsushi; Kobessho, Hiroshi; Shirafuji, Toshihiko; Higuchi, Masatsugu; Ishihara, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to elucidate characteristics of depression in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifty-eight PD patients were evaluated with Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Scores for "suicidal ideation" on the SDS correlated with posture and gait disturbances on the UPDRS. Twenty-six patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) were also evaluated with the SDS. SDS scores for "indecisiveness" and "constipation" were significantly higher in PD patients than SCD patients. Our results suggest that depression is common in disabled persons but PD patients might have a characteristic clinical presentation.

  6. Isometric size-scaling of metabolic rate and the size abundance distribution of phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete-Ortega, María; Cermeño, Pedro; Calvo-Díaz, Alejandra; Marañón, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between phytoplankton cell size and abundance has long been known to follow regular, predictable patterns in near steady-state ecosystems, but its origin has remained elusive. To explore the linkage between the size-scaling of metabolic rate and the size abundance distribution of natural phytoplankton communities, we determined simultaneously phytoplankton carbon fixation rates and cell abundance across a cell volume range of over six orders of magnitude in tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic Ocean. We found an approximately isometric relationship between carbon fixation rate and cell size (mean slope value: 1.16; range: 1.03–1.32), negating the idea that Kleiber's law is applicable to unicellular autotrophic protists. On the basis of the scaling of individual resource use with cell size, we predicted a reciprocal relationship between the size-scalings of phytoplankton metabolic rate and abundance. This prediction was confirmed by the observed slopes of the relationship between phytoplankton abundance and cell size, which have a mean value of −1.15 (range: −1.29 to −0.97), indicating that the size abundance distribution largely results from the size-scaling of metabolic rate. Our results imply that the total energy processed by carbon fixation is constant along the phytoplankton size spectrum in near steady-state marine ecosystems. PMID:22171079

  7. Pregnancy rate evaluation in lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination using injectable progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI protocols utilize progesterone (P4 as a hormonal source to achieve synchronization of estrus in cattle. The use of an injectable P4 source to control estrus would be an interesting pharmacological strategy owing to the practicality of parenteral application. However, the effects of injectable P4 on estrus cycle control in cattle remain poorly studied. In particular, no existing studies have investigated the effect of injectable P4 on the fertility of cows subjected to FTAI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rate of lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4. Of the 422 non-lactating cows in this study, 162 (38.3% became pregnant by 60 days post-FTAI. In the lactating group (n = 516, 166 (32.1% were pregnant by 60 days after treatment with injectable P4. The proportions of lactating and non-lactating cows becoming pregnant were compared using the chi-square test, adopting a significance level of P < 0.05. It was found that the pregnancy rate of the cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4 was influenced by lactation status. Lactating cows had lower reproductive performance, possibly because of their higher nutritional requirements. However, the use of injectable P4 shows promising results and may prove to be a useful strategy in large-scale livestock production.

  8. Cortical atrophy rates in Alzheimer's patients and subjects with mild cognitive impairment from the AddNeuroMed data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Westman, Eric; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida

    Background: The AddNeuroMed project is a multi-centre European project which aims to identify biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we measured the rate of cortical atrophy in AD patients, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls (HC) using MRI. Methods......: High resolution sagittal 3D T1w MP-RAGE scans were acquired from patients diagnosed with AD (n = 58,MMSE:21.6 ± 4.4), MCI subjects (n = 85,MMSE:27.2 ± 1.6), and HC (n = 75,MMSE:29.0 ± 1.3) at baseline, and at three and 12 months follow-up. Only subjects with three completed scans which all passed...... rates can be found in AD patients compared to HC and MCI. Even three months after baseline accelerated atrophy can be observed in AD compared to HC, however, the results indicate that three months is too short a period to distinguish the atrophy rates in AD and MCI. The results suggest that atrophy...

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Parent and Teacher ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Bilenberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Rating the severity of psychopathology and symptom load is essential in daily clinical practice and in research. The parent and teacher ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) includes......, was used to test the psychometric properties of this scale in a sample of 566 Danish school children between 6 and 16 years of age. The results indicated that parents and teachers had different frames of reference when rating symptoms in the mADHD-RS. There was support for the unidimensionality...... of the three subscales when parent and teacher ratings were analyzed independently. Nonetheless, evidence for differential item functioning was found across gender and age for specific items within each of the subscales. The findings expand existing psychometric information about the mADHD-RS and support its...

  10. Cytoprotective Efficacy of Amifostine Against Radiation- Induced Rectal Toxicity: Objective and Subjective Grading Scales for Radiomucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Kouvaris

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Curative radiation therapy of pelvic malignancies, frequently results in doselimitingtoxicities such as serous, mucoid, or more rarely, bloody diarrhea. Several studieshave evaluated the cytoprotective effects of amifostine in preventing rectal mucositisassociated with radiation treatment. We searched Medline for published comparativestudies that evaluated the use of amifostine to reduce radiation-induced toxicity associatedwith pelvic irradiation. In ten studies there was an evidence-based cytoprotection (P less than 0.05by amifostine. Although results are variable, current evidence suggests that amifostine mayhave a radioprotective effect in the rectal mucosa, particularly when administeredintrarectally. Significant improvements were seen in both symptomatic and objective(rectosigmoidoscopy end points. There is a need to conduct well-designed clinical trialswith sufficient numbers of participants to confirm these findings together with a costbenefitstudy. Objective measurements using rectosigmoidoscopy are superior tosubjective measures such as WHO or RTOG/EORTC toxicity grading scales.

  11. On Growth Rate of Wind Waves: Impact of Short-Scale Breaking Modulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Chapron, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    The wave generation model based on the rapid distortion concept significantly underestimates empirical values of the wave growth rate. As suggested before, inclusion of the aerodynamic roughness modulations effect on the amplitude of the slope-correlated surface pressure could potentially reconcile this model approach with observations. This study explores the role of short-scale breaking modulations to amplify the growth rate of modulating longer waves. As developed, airflow separations from...

  12. Measuring hunger and satiety in primary school children. Validation of a new picture rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carmel; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-07-01

    Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, D.

    2016-10-24

    The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor e(i), with the vorticity vector omega, is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and the probability density functions of the magnitude of the alignment cosines between the two unit vectors vertical bar e(i) . (omega) over cap vertical bar are examined. It is observed that the alignment tendencies are insensitive to the concurrent large-scale velocity fluctuations, but are quantitatively affected by the nature of the concurrent large-scale velocity-gradient fluctuations. It is confirmed that the small-scale (local) vorticity vector is preferentially aligned in parallel with the large-scale (background) extensive strain-rate eigenvector e(1), in contrast to the global tendency for omega to be aligned in parallelwith the intermediate strain-rate eigenvector [Hamlington et al., Phys. Fluids 20, 111703 (2008)]. When only data from regions of the flow that exhibit strong swirling are included, the so-called high-enstrophy worms, the alignment tendencies are exaggerated with respect to the global picture. These findings support the notion that the production of enstrophy, responsible for a net cascade of turbulent kinetic energy from large scales to small scales, is driven by vorticity stretching due to the preferential parallel alignment between omega and nonlocal e(1) and that the strongly swirling worms are kinematically significant to this process.

  14. [Acceptance and understandability of various methods of health valuations for the chronically ill: willingness to pay, visual analogue scale and rating scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meder, M; Farin, E

    2009-11-01

    Health valuations are one way of measuring patient preferences with respect to the results of their treatment. The study examines three different methods of health valuations--willingness to pay (WTP), visual analogue scale (VAS), and a rating question for evaluating the subjective significance. The goal is to test the understandability and acceptance of these methods for implementation in questionnaires. In various rehabilitation centres, a total of six focus groups were conducted with 5-9 patients each with a mean age of 57.1 years. The illnesses considered were chronic-ischaemic heart disease, chronic back pain, and breast cancer. Patients filled out a questionnaire that was then discussed in the group. In addition to the quantitative evaluation of the data in the questionnaire, a qualitative analysis of the contents of the group discussion protocols was made. We have results from a total of 42 patients. 14.6% of the patients had "great difficulties" understanding the WTP or rated it as "completely incomprehensible"; this value was 7.3% for VAS and 0% for the rating scale. With respect to acceptance, 31.0% of the patients indicated that they were "not really" or "not at all" willing to answer such a WTP question in a questionnaire; this was 6.6% for the VAS, and again 0% for the rating scale. The qualitative analysis provided an indication as to why some patients view the WTP question in particular in a negative light. Many difficulties in understanding it were related to the formulation of the question and the structure of the questionnaire. However, the patients' statements also made it apparent that the hypothetical nature of the WTP questionnaire was not always recognised. The most frequent reason for the lack of acceptance of the WTP was the patients' fear of negative financial consequences of their responses. With respect to understandability and acceptance, VAS questions appear to be better suited for reflecting patient preferences than WTP questions. The

  15. Experiments with nano-scaled helium bubbles in water subjected to standing acoustic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancelos, Silvina, E-mail: silvina.cancelos@upr.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus, Mayagüez, PR 00681 (United States); Villamizar, Gabriel; Saavedra-Ruiz, Andres; Garcia-Rodriguez, William; Filoni, Pablo T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus, Mayagüez, PR 00681 (United States); Marin, Carlos [Department of Engineering Science and Materials, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Cavitation activity increases with the presence of helium nanobubbles in water. • The antinode region of the standing acoustic field gets depleted of nanobubbles. • Nanobubbles behave as solid particles when subjected to a standing acoustic field. - Abstract: Understanding the stability of gas filled bubbles dispersed in water, and the features that due to their presence must been taken into account in multiphase flow research, is amongst the most recent and relevant issue in a number of technological, physical and biological fields. Cavitation experiments were designed and conducted using one high-Q acoustic resonator that is able to oscillate at very well controlled conditions, allowing for the characterization of the effect that helium nanobubbles dispersed in water have on the cavitation activity. An increase in the inertial cavitation activity that correlates directly to the presence of the nanobubbles at the antinode was found. The results seem to indicate that the nanobubbles grow under tension to collapse under the compression phase. By other side, they behave as rigid entities under the influence of standing acoustic fields, moving away from the antinode region.

  16. The VAGUS insight into psychosis scale--self-report and clinician-rated versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Philip; Remington, Gary; Borlido, Carol; Quilty, Lena; Hassan, Sabrina; Polsinelli, Gina; Teo, Celine; Mar, Wanna; Simon, Regina; Menon, Mahesh; Pothier, David D; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Caravaggio, Fernando; Mamo, David C; Rajji, Tarek K; Mulsant, Benoit H; Deluca, Vincenzo; Ganguli, Rohan; Pollock, Bruce G; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2014-12-30

    The aim of this study was to develop self-report and clinician-rated versions of an insight scale that would be easy to administer, sensitive to small changes, and inclusive of the core dimensions of clinical insight into psychosis. Ten-item self-report (VAGUS-SR) and five-item clinician-rated (VAGUS-CR) scales were designed to measure the dimensions of insight into psychosis and evaluated in 215 and 140 participants, respectively (www.vagusonline.com). Tests of reliability and validity were performed. Both the VAGUS-SR and VAGUS-CR showed good internal consistency and reliability. They demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. Both versions were strongly correlated with one another and with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight and Birchwood Insight Scale. Exploratory factor analyses identified three possible latent components of insight. The VAGUS-CR and VAGUS-SR are valid, reliable and easy to administer. They are build on previous insight scales with separate clinician-rated and self-report versions. The VAGUS-SR exhibited a multidimensional factor structure. Using a 10-point Likert scale for each item, the VAGUS has the capacity to detect small, temporally sensitive changes in insight, which is essential for intervention studies with neurostimulation or rapidly acting medications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The VAGUS insight into psychosis scale – Self-report & clinician-rated versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Philip; Remington, Gary; Borlido, Carol; Quilty, Lena; Hassan, Sabrina; Polsinelli, Gina; Teo, Celine; Mar, Wanna; Simon, Regina; Menon, Mahesh; Pothier, David D.; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Caravaggio, Fernando; Mamo, David C.; Rajji, Tarek K.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Deluca, Vincenzo; Ganguli, Rohan; Pollock, Bruce G.; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop self-report and clinician-rated versions of an insight scale that would be easy to administer, sensitive to small changes, and inclusive of the core dimensions of clinical insight into psychosis. Ten-item self-report (VAGUS-SR) and five-item clinician-rated (VAGUS-CR) scales were designed to measure the dimensions of insight into psychosis and evaluated in 215 and 140 participants, respectively (www.vagusonline.com). Tests of reliability and validity were performed. Both the VAGUS-SR and VAGUS-CR showed good internal consistency and reliability. They demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. Both versions were strongly correlated with one another and with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight and Birchwood Insight Scale. Exploratory factor analyses identified three possible latent components of insight. The VAGUS-CR and VAGUS-SR are valid, reliable and easy to administer. They are build on previous insight scales with separate clinician-rated and self-report versions. The VAGUS-SR exhibited a multidimensional factor structure. Using a 10-point Likert scale for each item, the VAGUS has the capacity to detect small, temporally sensitive changes in insight, which is essential for intervention studies with neurostimulation or rapidly acting medications. PMID:25246410

  18. A scaling method for combustion stability rating of coaxial gas liquid injectors in a subscale chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Chae Hoon; Kim, Young Jun [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Mog [Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Pikalov, Valery P. [Research Institute of Chemical Machine Building, Sergiev Posad (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    A scaling method to examine combustion stability characteristics of a coaxial injector is devised based on the acoustics and combustion dynamics in a chamber. The method is required for a subscale test of stability rating with a model chamber, which is cost effective compared with an actual full scale test. First, scaling and similarity rules are considered for stability rating and thereby, three conditions of acoustic, hydrodynamic, and flame condition similarities are proposed. That is, for acoustic similarity, the natural or resonant frequencies in the actual chamber should be maintained in the model chamber. And, two parameters of density ratio and velocity ratio are derived for the requirement of hydrodynamic and flame condition similarities between the actual and the model conditions. Next, one example of an actual combustion chamber with high performance is selected and the proposed scaling method is applied to the chamber for understanding of the method. The design operating condition for a model test is presented by mass flow rates of propellants. Stability boundaries can be identified on the coordinate plane of chamber pressure and mixture ratio of fuel and oxidizer by applying the scaling method.

  19. Reliability and discriminant validity of ataxia rating scales in early onset ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Lawerman, Tjitske F.; Kuiper, Marieke J; Lunsing, Roelineke J; Burger, Huibert; Sival, Deborah A

    AIM: To determine whether ataxia rating scales are reliable disease biomarkers for early onset ataxia (EOA). METHOD: In 40 patients clinically identified with EOA (28 males, 12 females; mean age 15y 3mo [range 5-34y]), we determined interobserver and intraobserver agreement (interclass correlation

  20. The development and validation of a rating scale for ESL essay writing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes an empirical procedure for developing and validating a rating scale for assessing essays in English as a second language. The study was motivated by a concern for the validity of the scoring grid currently used to assess ESL essay writing at Grade 12 in the final end-of-year examination in South Africa ...

  1. Rasch analysis in the development of a rating scale for assessment of mobility after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, A; Garde, B; Kreiner, S

    1995-01-01

    The study describes the development of a rating scale for assessment of mobility after stroke. It was based on 74 first-stroke patients, 40 men and 34 women, each assessed three times during rehabilitation. Their median age was 69 years, and they represented all degrees of severity of paresis. Co...

  2. THE THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP - A STUDY ON THE VALUE OF THE THERAPIST CLIENT RATING-SCALE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BLAAUW, E; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    1994-01-01

    This article reports on some psychometric features of the Therapist Client Rating Scale (TCRS), an instrument that claims to measure the therapeutic relationship in behaviour therapy sessions. A study is described in which the TCRS was completed after each therapy session by 28 obsessive-compulsive

  3. Developing a Teacher Administered Anxiety Rating Scale Suitable for Five to Seven-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results of twin studies pertinent to the development of a rating scale designed for use by teachers to identify anxious and shy children, aged 5 to 7 years, in Kindergarten and Grade One. Currently, no instruments designed specifically for this purpose exist. Children experiencing difficulty with internalizing disorders such as…

  4. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  5. Technical Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale--Second Edition--Teacher Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Clark, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and validity of scores on the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-second edition-teacher version (DBRS-II-T) was analyzed. The DBRS-II-T was designed to assess teacher observations of students referred for behavioral difficulties. The five-factor model fit the data poorly, but convergent and diagnostic validities were excellent.…

  6. Turbulence-induced contact rates of plankton : the question of scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; MacKenzie, Brian

    1998-01-01

    methodology can bias encounter rate estimates in turbulent situations. We show that a scale based on the predator's reactive distance is more appropriate, as it has clear theoretical support, and is consistent with other mathematical treatments of encounter problems. Applying the reactive distance...

  7. Reliability and discriminant validity of ataxia rating scales in early onset ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, R.; Lawerman, T. F.; Kuiper, M. J.; Geffen, van Joke; Lunsing, I. J.; Burger, H.; de Koning, T. J.; de Vries, J. J.; de Koning-Tijssen, M. A. J.; Sival, D. A.

    Objective: To determine observer-agreement and discriminantvalidity of ataxia rating scales.Background: In children and young adults, Early Onset Ataxia(EOA) is frequently concurrent with other Movement Disorders,resulting in moderate inter-observer agreement among MovementDisorder professionals. To

  8. Reliability and discriminant validity of ataxia rating scales in early onset ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Lawerman, Tjitske F.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelineke J.; Burger, Huibert; Sival, Deborah A.

    AIM To determine whether ataxia rating scales are reliable disease biomarkers for early onset ataxia (EOA). METHOD In 40 patients clinically identified with EOA (28 males, 12 females; mean age 15y 3mo [range 5-34y]), we determined interobserver and intraobserver agreement (interclass correlation

  9. Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass between species by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that the whole body fractal vascular dimension D is also applicable to all organs or collections of organs such as the viscera and skeletal muscle. The principal reason that basal metabolic rate (BMR) and MMR scale with different power exponents to whole body mass is that MMR is due mainly to respiration in ...

  10. Evidence Based Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Social Phobia: A Critical Review of Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, Bogdan T.; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social…

  11. Factor Structure of the Rorschach Prognostic Rating Scale and Its Relation to Therapeutic Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Stephen M.; Edinger, Jack D.

    1976-01-01

    This study evaluated the factor structure of the Rorschach Prognostic Rating Scale (RPRS) in order to: (a) test the assumption that the RPRS represents a unitary response system and (b) determine the efficacy of employing population specific factor scores as predictors of therapy outcome. (Author/NG)

  12. An Examination of the Structure and Construct Validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Kasey; Watson, David

    2016-01-01

    The Wender Utah Rating Scale (Ward, Wender, & Reimherr, 1993 ) has been widely used in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) research to assess childhood symptoms retrospectively, but little research has examined its factor structure and specificity in predicting ADHD versus other psychopathology. Consequently, this study had 2 goals: (a) to examine the Wender Utah Rating Scale's structure, and (b) to explicate the construct validity of this measure by relating factors from our structural analyses to other ADHD, psychopathology, and personality measures. Structural analyses in an adult community sample (N = 294) yielded a 3-factor structure of aggression (e.g., angry), internalizing distress (e.g., depressed), and academic difficulties (e.g., underachiever). Correlational and regression analyses indicated that these factors failed to display specificity in their associations with ADHD versus other psychopathology. Aggression and internalizing distress associated most strongly with indicators of externalizing (e.g., ill temper, manipulativeness) and internalizing psychopathology (e.g., depression, anxiety), respectively. Academic difficulties associated most strongly with ADHD symptoms, but these relations were relatively weak. Taken together, these findings raise concerns about the Wender Utah Rating Scale's construct validity, although additional longitudinal research is needed to clarify to what extent the Wender Utah Rating Scale validly assesses childhood ADHD symptoms.

  13. The Wender Utah Rating Scale: Adult ADHD Diagnostic Tool or Personality Index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B.D.; Pella, Russell D.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Jones, Glenn N.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) is used to retroactively assess ADHD symptoms. This study sought to determine whether the WURS actually functions as an index of dysfunctional personality traits. Method: Five hundred twenty-two adult participants completed the WURS and at least one of the following measures: Wechsler Adult…

  14. Response and Remission in Adolescent Mania: Signal Detection Analyses of the Young Mania Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nick C.; Patrick, Danielle M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine optimal criteria for defining response and remission in adolescents with acute mania. Method: Data were analyzed from three treatment studies of adolescents with acute mania (N = 99). Trained raters completed the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and clinicians completed the Clinical Global…

  15. Design of Web Questionnaires : The Effect of Layout in Rating Scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toepoel, V.; Das, J.W.M.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2006-01-01

    This article shows that respondents gain meaning from visual cues in a web survey as well as from verbal cues (words).We manipulated the layout of a five point rating scale using verbal, graphical, numerical, and symbolic language. This paper extends the existing literature in four directions: (1)

  16. The validity of self-rating depression scales in patients with chronic widespread pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, K; Omerovic, E; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    2016-01-01

    and further aspects of validity, including fit of individual scale items to a unidimensional model indicating assessment of a single construct (depression), as a prerequisite for measurement. RESULTS: The Rasch analysis revealed substantial problems with the rating scale properties of the MDI and lack......BACKGROUND: Assessment of depression in chronic pain patients by self-rating questionnaires developed and validated for use in normal and/or psychiatric populations is common. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) in a sample...... of unidimensionality. In contrast to somatic items, MDI items related to depressed mood and negative view of oneself were distributed at the higher end of the item difficulty measurement scale, indicating low endorsement of these items. DISCUSSION: From the perspective of the Rasch measurement model, the MDI...

  17. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale as a predictor of peak aerobic capacity and ambulatory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Frederick M; Katzel, Leslie I; Sorkin, John D; Macko, Richard F; Shulman, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) is a widely applied index of disease severity. Our objective was to assess the utility of UPDRS for predicting peak aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and ambulatory function. Participants (n = 70) underwent evaluation for UPDRS (Total and Motor ratings), VO2 peak, 6-minute walk distance (6MW), and 30-foot self-selected walking speed (SSWS). Using regression, we determined the extent to which the Total and Motor UPDRS scores predicted each functional capacity measure after adjusting for age and sex. We also tested whether adding the Hoehn and Yahr scale (H-Y) to the model changed predictive power of the UPDRS. Adjusted for age and sex, both the Total UPDRS and Motor UPDRS subscale failed to predict VO2 peak. The Total UPDRS did weakly predict 6MW and SSWS (both p scales do not predict VO2 peak, but that a weak relationship exists between Total UPDRS and measures of ambulatory function.

  18. Validity study of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (Portuguese version by the Rasch Rating Scale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Quintão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to conduct a validation study of the Portuguese version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI by means of the Rasch Rating Scale Model, and then compare it with the most used scales of anxiety in Portugal. The sample consisted of 1,160 adults (427 men and 733 women, aged 18-82 years old (M=33.39; SD=11.85. Instruments were Beck Anxiety Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. It was found that Beck Anxiety Inventory's system of four categories, the data-model fit, and people reliability were adequate. The measure can be considered as unidimensional. Gender and age-related differences were not a threat to the validity. BAI correlated significantly with other anxiety measures. In conclusion, BAI shows good psychometric quality.

  19. Identifying Young Gifted Children Using the Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Steven I; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted preschool and kindergarten students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. An examination of the standardization sample using diagnostic efficiency statistics provides support for the diagnostic accuracy of the GRS-P Intellectual Ability and Academic Ability scales identifying intellectual giftedness, irrespective of the IQ cut score used to demarcate giftedness. The present findings extend the analysis of the standardization sample reported in the test manual and provide additional support for the GRS-P as a gifted screening tool.

  20. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady...... of the present study confirmed previously indicated trends that lowest human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation close to neutrality. Moreover, higher acceptability was in general associated with lower human body exergy consumption rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......-state thermal environments. Therefore, the first objective of the current paper was to compare a recently introduced unsteady-state model with previously used steady-state model using data obtained under both constant and transient temperature conditions. The second objective was to explore a relationship...

  1. Predicting self-rated mental and physical health: the contributions of subjective socioeconomic status and personal relative deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Mitchell J; Kim, Hyunji; Matthews, William J

    2015-01-01

    Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD) relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people's perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others) and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints). Across six studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES), with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4-6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability) or response biases between the measures.

  2. The Parenting Anxious Kids Ratings Scale-Parent Report (PAKRS-PR): Initial Scale Development and Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessner, Christopher A; Murphy, Yolanda E; Brennan, Elle; D'Auria, Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Developmental models of pediatric anxiety posit multiple, maladaptive parenting behaviors as potential risk factors. Despite this, a standardized means of assessing multiple of these practices (i.e., anxiogenic parenting) in a comprehensive and efficient manner are lacking. In Study 1531 parents of children 7-17 years old completed an online survey via Amazon Mechanical Turk. In Study 2, a separate community sample (N = 109; 9-17 years old) was recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment battery as part of a larger study. All parents (Study 1 and 2 samples) completed the Parenting Anxious Kids Ratings Scale-Parent Report (PAKRS-PR), a measurement tool designed to assess anxiogenic parenting. Factor analysis conducted as part of Study 1 revealed a 32-item scale consisting of five factors: conflict, overinvolvement, accommodation/beliefs, modeling, and emotional warmth/support. Four of these factors were significantly correlated with parent-report of anxiety severity. Within Study 2, the parents of children diagnosed with an anxiety or related disorder reported significantly higher levels of anxiogenic parenting practices as compared to the parents of healthy controls. The PAKRS-PR and respective subscales demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity in both the internet (Study 1) and community (Study 2) samples. The PAKRS-PR may be a beneficial multidimensional parenting scale for use among anxious youths.

  3. The Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS): Ratings of Dominance, Familiarity, Subjective Age of Acquisition and Sensory Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, José A; Rincón-Pérez, Irene; Romero-Ferreiro, M Verónica; Martínez-García, Natalia; Villalba-García, Cristina; Montoro, Pedro R; Pozo, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    The current study presents ratings by 540 Spanish native speakers for dominance, familiarity, subjective age of acquisition (AoA), and sensory experience (SER) for the 875 Spanish words included in the Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS). The norms can be downloaded as supplementary materials for this manuscript from https://figshare.com/s/8e7b445b729527262c88 These ratings may be of potential relevance to researches who are interested in characterizing the interplay between language and emotion. Additionally, with the aim of investigating how the affective features interact with the lexicosemantic properties of words, we performed correlational analyses between norms for familiarity, subjective AoA and SER, and scores for those affective variables which are currently included in the MADs. A distinct pattern of significant correlations with affective features was found for different lexicosemantic variables. These results show that familiarity, subjective AoA and SERs may have independent effects on the processing of emotional words. They also suggest that these psycholinguistic variables should be fully considered when formulating theoretical approaches to the processing of affective language.

  4. A comparison of visual analogue and numerical rating scale formats for the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS): does format affect patient ratings of symptoms and quality of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollen, P J; Gralla, R J; Kris, M G; McCoy, S; Donaldson, G W; Moinpour, C M

    2005-04-01

    The Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS), a site-specific health-related quality of life measure for patients with lung cancer, was originally developed using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) format. However, the VAS format is not readily compatible with data management and software programs using scanning. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the convergence of ratings obtained with a Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), with an 11-pt response category format, to those obtained with a VAS format. The intent was to determine the degree of agreement between two formats to generalize the existing psychometric properties for the original measure to the new presentation. This methodological study evaluated the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a NRS format for the LCSS. The study was conducted at two cancer centers in New York City. PATIENTS/PROCEDURES: Sixty-eight patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) completed both versions of the LCSS along with demographic and feasibility questions on a single occasion. The VAS form was administered first, followed by the NRS form to prevent bias. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate agreement and to characterize bias. Cronbach's alpha for the NRS format total score was 0.89 for the 68 patients with NSCLC. Agreement was excellent, with both the ICC and CCC > or = 0.90 for the two summary scores (total score and average symptom burden index) for the LCSS. Only five of the nine individual items showed this level of strict agreement. An agreement criterion of > or = 0.80 (representing excellent) was observed for seven of the nine individual items (all but appetite loss and hemoptysis). Mean differences tended to be slightly lower for the VAS format compared to the NRS format (more so for the appetite and hemoptysis items), with evidence of scale shift for the same two items. The summary measures showed good concordance

  5. Using local scale exponent to characterize heart rate variability in response to postural changes in people with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyuan eLiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV is a promising marker for evaluating the remaining autonomic function in people with spinal cord injury (SCI. HRV is commonly assessed by spectral analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. This study aimed to investigate whether local scale exponent α(t can reveal new features of HRV that cannot be reflected by spectral measures and DFA coefficients. We studied 12 participants with SCI and 15 healthy able-bodied controls. ECG signals were continually recorded during 10 min sitting and 10 min prone postures. α(t was calculated for scales between 4 s and 60 s. Because α(t could be overestimated at small scales, we developed an approach for correcting α(t based on previous studies. The simulation results on simulated monofractal time series with α between 0.5 and 1.3 showed that the proposed method can yield improved estimation of α(t. We applied the proposed method to raw RR interval series. The results showed that α(t in healthy controls monotonically decreased with scale at scales between 4 s and 12 s (0.083-0.25 Hz in both the sitting and prone postures, whereas in participants with SCI, α(t slowly decreased at almost all scales. The sharp decreasing trend in α(t in controls suggests a more complex dynamics of HRV in controls. α(t at scales between 4 s (0.25 Hz and around 7 s (0.143 Hz was lower in subjects with SCI than in controls in the sitting posture; α(t at a narrow range of scales around 12 s (0.083 Hz was higher in participants with SCI than in controls in the prone posture. However, none of normalized low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz power, the ratio of low frequency power to high frequency (0.15-0.4 Hz power and long-term (>11 beats DFA coefficient showed significant difference between healthy controls and subjects with SCI in the prone posture. Our results suggest that α(t can reveal more detailed information in comparison to spectral measures and the standard DFA parameters.

  6. Using local scale exponent to characterize heart rate variability in response to postural changes in people with spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fuyuan; Liau, Ben-Yi; Rice, Ian M.; Elliott, Jeannette; Brooks, Ian; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a promising marker for evaluating the remaining autonomic function in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). HRV is commonly assessed by spectral analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). This study aimed to investigate whether local scale exponent α(t) can reveal new features of HRV that cannot be reflected by spectral measures and DFA coefficients. We studied 12 participants with SCI and 15 healthy able-bodied controls. ECG signals were continually recorded during 10 min sitting and 10 min prone postures. α(t) was calculated for scales between 4 and 60 s. Because α(t) could be overestimated at small scales, we developed an approach for correcting α(t) based on previous studies. The simulation results on simulated monofractal time series with α between 0.5 and 1.3 showed that the proposed method can yield improved estimation of α(t). We applied the proposed method to raw RR interval series. The results showed that α(t) in healthy controls monotonically decreased with scale at scales between 4 and 12 s (0.083–0.25 Hz) in both the sitting and prone postures, whereas in participants with SCI, α(t) slowly decreased at almost all scales. The sharp decreasing trend in α(t) in controls suggests a more complex dynamics of HRV in controls. α(t) at scales between 4 (0.25 Hz) and around 7 s (0.143 Hz) was lower in subjects with SCI than in controls in the sitting posture; α(t) at a narrow range of scales around 12 s (0.083 Hz) was higher in participants with SCI than in controls in the prone posture. However, none of normalized low frequency (0.04–0.15 Hz) power, the ratio of low frequency power to high frequency (0.15–0.4 Hz) power and long-term (>11 beats) DFA coefficient showed significant difference between healthy controls and subjects with SCI in the prone posture. Our results suggest that α(t) can reveal more detailed information in comparison to spectral measures and the standard DFA parameters. PMID:26029112

  7. The association between the subjective memory complaints scale and depressive state and cognitive impairment: a factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Tetsu; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sugawara, Norio; Takahashi, Ippei; Sawada, Kaori; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to discriminate individuals with depressive state from individuals with cognitive impairment among community-dwelling people using the subjective memory complaints (SMC) scale. The study group consisted of 289 volunteers (over 60 years old; 104 males and 185 females). Participants' SMCs were assessed using the SMC scale. The Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination were administered. Participants whose Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression scores were 16 or higher were defined as the depressive group and participants whose Mini-Mental State Examination scores were less than 24 were defined as the cognitive impairment group. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify the factor structure of the items of the SMC scale. A multiple logistic regression analysis of the association between depressive state and cognitive impairment and the score of each factor was performed. In the final factor analysis model, six items of the SMC scale remained, and a two-factor structure was adequate. Factor 1 included the items 8, 9, and 10 about thought or the ability to think; thus, Factor 1 was defined as "thought disturbance factor". Factor 2 included the items 1, 2, and 4 about memory or forgetfulness; thus, Factor 2 was defined as "memory disturbance factor". In the multiple logistic regression analysis, Factor 1 was significantly associated with depressive state and Factor 2 was significantly associated with cognitive impairment. For individuals with SMCs, we might be able to discriminate depressive state or depression from cognitive impairment or dementia through a detailed investigation using the SMC scale.

  8. Linguistic and cultural adaptation into Polish of the IKDC 2000 subjective knee evaluation form and the Lysholm scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, Tomasz; Ciemniewska-Gorzela, Kinga; Naczk, Jakub; Cichy, Kamil; Szulc, Andrzej

    2012-11-07

    The aim of the following paper was Polish cultural and linguistic adaptation including adaptation of particular questions, instructions and possible answers to 2000 IKDC knee form and Lysholm's scale. The cultural adaptation process of this questionnaire was made according to indicators of International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) project, placed in Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. Testing version (pre-final test) was carried out on 30 patients suffering from instability of a knee. Patients underwent arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. The period from operation to filling in the questionnaires took 2 years. The questionnaire was filled up twice, at intervals from 2 days to 2 weeks. We received cultural and linguistic adapted knee evaluation scales which are similar to the original version according to the psychometric proprieties such as accuracy of a single question and whole scales. We were able to develop a reliable, ISAKOS/ESSKA-compliant instrument for subjective knee function evaluation to be used in the population of Polish patients following arthroscopic reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament. Polish version of IKDC 2000 questionnaire is more reliable--i.e. more useful in clinical evaluation of patients with ACL damage--than the Polish rendition of Lysholm scale.

  9. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS as outcome measure for hormone treatment? A validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnitker Jörg

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The Menopause Rating Scale is a health-related Quality of Life scale developed in the early 1990s and step-by-step validated since then. No methodologically detailed work on the utility of the scale to assess health-related changes after treatment was published before. Method We analysed an open, uncontrolled post-marketing study with over 9000 women with pre- and post-treatment data of the MRS scale to critically evaluate the capacity of the scale to measure the health-related effects of hormone treatment independent from the severity of complaints at baseline. Results The improvement of complaints during treatment relative to the baseline score was 36% in average. Patients with little/no complaints before therapy improved by 11%, those with mild complaints at entry by 32%, with moderate by 44%, and with severe symptoms by 55% – compared with the baseline score. We showed that the distribution of complaints in women before therapy returned to norm values after 6 months of hormone treatment. We also provided weak evidence that the MRS results may well predict the assessment of the treating physician. Limitations of the study, however, may have lead to overestimating the utility of the MRS scale as outcome measure. Conclusion The MRS scale showed some evidence for its ability to measure treatment effects on quality of life across the full range of severity of complaints in aging women. This however needs confirmation in other and better-designed clinical/outcome studies.

  10. Scale dependence of mineral dissolution rates within single pores and fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Steefel, Carl I.; Yang, Li

    2008-01-01

    The possibility that gradients in concentration may develop within single pores and fractures, potentially giving rise to scale-dependent mineral dissolution rates, was investigated with experimentally validated reactive transport modeling. Three important subsurface mineral phases that dissolve at widely different rates, calcite, plagioclase, and iron hydroxide, were considered. Two models for analyzing mineral dissolution kinetics within a single pore were developed: (1) a Poiseuille Flow model that applies laboratory-measured dissolution kinetics at the pore or fracture wall and couples this to a rigorous treatment of both advective and diffusive transport within the pore, and (2) a Well-Mixed Reactor model that assumes complete mixing within the pore, while maintaining the same reactive surface area, average flow rate, geometry, and multicomponent chemistry as the Poiseuille Flow model. For the case of a single fracture, a 1D Plug Flow Reactor model was also considered to quantify the effects of longitudinal versus transverse mixing. Excellent agreement was obtained between results from the Poiseuille Flow model and microfluidic laboratory experiments in which pH 4 and 5 solutions were flowed through a single 500 μm diameter by 4000 μm long cylindrical pore in calcite. The numerical modeling and time scale analysis indicated that rate discrepancies arise primarily where concentration gradients develop under two necessary conditions: (1) comparable rates of reaction and advective transport, and (2) incomplete mixing via molecular diffusion. For plagioclase and iron hydroxide, the scaling effects are negligible at the single pore and fracture scale because of their slow rates. In the case of calcite, where dissolution rates are rapid, scaling effects can develop at high flow rates from 0.1 to 1000 cm/s and for fracture lengths less than 1 cm. Under more normal flow conditions where flow is usually slower than 0.001 cm/s, however, mixing via molecular diffusion

  11. Validation of computer-administered clinical rating scale: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale assessment with Interactive Voice Response technology--Japanese version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunugi, Hiroshi; Koga, Norie; Hashikura, Miyako; Noda, Takamasa; Shimizu, Yu; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Yamanaka, Jun; Kanemoto, Noriaki; Higuchi, Teruhiko

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Interactive Voice Response (IVR) program to rate the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) score in Japanese depressive patients. Depression severity was assessed in 60 patients by a clinician and psychologists using HAM-D. Scoring by the IVR program was conducted on the same and the following days. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and concurrent validity for total HAM-D scores were examined by calculating intraclass correlation coefficient, Cronbach's alpha, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Inter-rater consistency for each HAM-D item was examined by Cohen's kappa. Test-retest reliability of the IVR program was high (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.93). Internal consistency of each total score obtained by the clinician, psychologists, and IVR program was high (Cronbach's alpha: 0.77, 0.79, 0.78, and 0.83). Regarding concurrent validity, correlation coefficients between total scores obtained by the clinician versus IVR and that by the clinician versus psychologists were high (0.81 and 0.93). The HAM-D total score rated by the clinician was 3 points lower than that of IVR. Inter-rater consistency for each HAM-D item evaluated by the clinician versus IVR was estimated to be fair (Cohen's kappa coefficient: 0.02-0.50). Our results suggest that the Japanese IVR HAM-D program is reliable and valid to assess 17-item HAM-D total score in Japanese depressive patients. However, the current program tends to overestimate depression severity, and the score of each item did not always show high agreement with clinician's rating, which warrants further improvement in the program. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. Crash and traffic violation rates before and after licensure for novice California drivers subject to different driver licensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Eric A; Masten, Scott V; Browning, Kelly K

    2014-09-01

    How do crash and traffic violation rates for novice 16-17-year-old drivers change over the months before and after licensure under a graduated driver licensing (GDL) program relative to those for older novices who are not subject to GDL? Plots and Poisson regression comparing overall rates and subtypes of crashes and traffic violations among California novice drivers ages 16 to 35 years over time before and after unsupervised licensure. Majorities of 16-year-olds (57%) and 17-year-olds (73%) actually hold their learner permits longer than the required 6 months; majorities (67%-81%) of age 18 or older novices hold their learner permits less than 6 months. Crash rates of novice 16- and 17-year-olds-as well as most other age groups-are highest almost immediately after they are licensed to drive unsupervised, after which their rates decline quickly during their first year of licensure and at a slower rate for the second and third years. Novice 16- and 17-year-olds' traffic violation rates reach their zenith long after their total crash rates peak and decline, whereas violation rates for older novices peak during their first year of licensure. Over 70% of 16- and 17-year-old novices are crash-free for the first 3 years of licensure. While novice 16- and 17-year-olds' highest crash rates occur almost immediately after they are licensed, their peak traffic violation rates are delayed until around the time they turn age 18. Both pre-licensure crash rates and post-licensure crash peaks were more pronounced for some older age groups of novices than was the case for 16-17-year-olds. Extending learner permit holding periods for 16-17-year-old novices appears consistent with their actual behavior; requiring older novices-particularly those ages 18 to 20-to hold permits for minimum periods may reduce their initial crash rates. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Discriminant of validity the Wender Utah rating scale in Iranian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Farokhzadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the normalization of the Wender Utah rating scale which is used to detect adults with Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD as compared to 200 parents of normal children. Wender Utah rating scale, which has been designed to diagnose ADHD in adults, is filled out by each of the parents to most accurately diagnose of ADHD in parents. Wender Utah rating scale was divided into 6 sub scales which consist of dysthymia, oppositional defiant disorder; school work problems, conduct disorder, anxiety, and ADHD were analyzed with exploratory factor analysis method. The value of (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin KMO was 86.5% for dysthymia, 86.9% for oppositional defiant disorder, 77.5% for school related problems, 90.9% for conduct disorder, 79.6% for anxiety and 93.5% for Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, also the chi square value based on Bartlett's Test was 2242.947 for dysthymia, 2239.112 for oppositional defiant disorder, 1221.917 for school work problems, 5031.511 for conduct, 1421.1 for anxiety, and 7644.122 for ADHD. Since mentioned values were larger than the chi square critical values (P<0.05, it found that the factor correlation matrix is appropriate for factor analysis. Based on the findings, we can conclude that Wender Utah rating scale can be appropriately used for predicting dysthymia, oppositional defiant disorder, school work problems, conduct disorder, anxiety, in adults with ADHD.

  14. Evaluating machine learning algorithms estimating tremor severity ratings on the Bain-Findley scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohanandan, Shivanthan A. C.; Jones, Mary; Peppard, Richard; Tan, Joy L.; McDermott, Hugh J.; Perera, Thushara

    2016-12-01

    Tremor is a debilitating symptom of some movement disorders. Effective treatment, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), is contingent upon frequent clinical assessments using instruments such as the Bain-Findley tremor rating scale (BTRS). Many patients, however, do not have access to frequent clinical assessments. Wearable devices have been developed to provide patients with access to frequent objective assessments outside the clinic via telemedicine. Nevertheless, the information they report is not in the form of BTRS ratings. One way to transform this information into BTRS ratings is through linear regression models (LRMs). Another, potentially more accurate method is through machine learning classifiers (MLCs). This study aims to compare MLCs and LRMs, and identify the most accurate model that can transform objective tremor information into tremor severity ratings on the BTRS. Nine participants with upper limb tremor had their DBS stimulation amplitude varied while they performed clinical upper-extremity exercises. Tremor features were acquired using the tremor biomechanics analysis laboratory (TREMBAL). Movement disorder specialists rated tremor severity on the BTRS from video recordings. Seven MLCs and 6 LRMs transformed TREMBAL features into tremor severity ratings on the BTRS using the specialists’ ratings as training data. The weighted Cohen’s kappa ({κ\\text{w}} ) defined the models’ rating accuracy. This study shows that the Random Forest MLC was the most accurate model ({κ\\text{w}}   =  0.81) at transforming tremor information into BTRS ratings, thereby improving the clinical interpretation of tremor information obtained from wearable devices.

  15. Changes in pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood oxygenation, perfusion index, skin conductance, and their variability induced during and after grounding human subjects for 40 minutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Gaetan

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that grounding produces quantifiable physiologic changes. This study was set up to reproduce and expand earlier electrophysiologic and physiologic parameters measured immediately after grounding with improved methodology and state-of-the-art equipment. A multiparameter double-blind experiment was conducted with 14 men and 14 women (age range: 18-80) in relatively good health. Subjects were screened for health problems using a commonly used health questionnaire. They were seated in a comfortable recliner and measured during 2-hour grounding sessions, leaving time for signals to stabilize before, during, and after grounding (40 minutes for each period). Sham 2-hour grounding sessions were also recorded with the same subjects as controls. This report presents results for 5 of the 18 parameters measured. The parameters reported here are: skin conductance (SC), blood oxygenation (BO), respiratory rate (RR), pulse rate (PR), and perfusion index (PI). This study was performed in a rented facility in Encinitas, California. The facility was chosen in a quiet area for its very low electromagnetic noise. For each session, statistical analyses were performed on four 10-minute segments: before and after grounding (sham grounding for control session) and before and after ungrounding (sham ungrounding). There was an immediate decrease in SC at grounding and an immediate increase at ungrounding on all subjects. RR increased during grounding, and the effect lasted after ungrounding. RR variance increased immediately after grounding then decreased. BO variance decreased during grounding, followed by a dramatic increase after ungrounding. PR and PI variances increased toward the end of the grounding period, and this change persisted after ungrounding. These results warrant further research to determine how grounding affects the body. Grounding could become important for relaxation, health maintenance and disease prevention.

  16. Regional scales of fire danger rating in the forest: improved technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Volokitina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wildland fires distribute unevenly in time and over area under the influence of weather and other factors. It is unfeasible to air patrol the whole forest area daily during a fire season as well as to keep all fire suppression forces constantly alert. Daily work and preparedness of forest fire protection services is regulated by the level of fire danger according to weather conditions (Nesterov’s index. PV-1 index, fire hazard class (Melekhov’s scale, regional scales (earlier called local scales. Unfortunately, there is still no unified comparable technique of making regional scales. As a result, it is difficult to maneuver forest fire protection resources, since the techniques currently used are not approved and not tested for their performance. They give fire danger rating incomparable even for neighboring regions. The paper analyzes the state-of-the-art in Russia and abroad. It is stated the irony is that with factors of fire danger measured quantitatively, the fire danger itself as a function has no quantitative expression. Thus, selection of an absolute criteria is of high importance for improvement of daily fire danger rating. On the example of the Chunsky forest ranger station (Krasnoyarsk Krai, an improved technique is suggested of making comparable local scales of forest fire danger rating based on an absolute criterion of fire danger rating – a probable density of active fires per million ha. A method and an algorithm are described of automatized local scales of fire danger that should facilitate effective creation of similar scales for any forest ranger station or aviation regional office using a database on forest fires and weather conditions. The information system of distant monitoring by Federal Forestry Agency of Russia is analyzed for its application in making local scales. To supplement the existing weather station net it is suggested that automatic compact weather stations or, if the latter is not possible, simple

  17. The influence of large-scale lapse-rate changes on the European summer climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner, Nico; Kotlarski, Sven; Lüthi, Daniel; Fischer, Erich; Schär, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    The record-breaking summer heatwaves in 2003 and 2010 had large socio-economic impacts. Over recent decades a strong increase in European summer temperatures has been observed especially in the uppermost percentiles. Future climate projections provide strong evidence for this trend to continue. However, the processes driving the observed and projected changes in European summer climate and climate variability are not fully understood. Different mechanisms were proposed including changes in soil moisture regime, cloud-cover changes or altered large-scale circulation patterns. So far, only few studies considered the regional feedbacks of a large-scale lapse-rate change. In the present study we apply the surrogate climate change technique to regional climate model simulations to disentangle this lapse-rate effect from other factors. One aspect considered is the pronounced south-north gradient in projected European summer warming, which has an opposite latitudinal direction in comparison to annual-mean large-scale conditions. The basic idea of the surrogate approach is to apply a large-scale warming to the lateral boundary conditions of a present-day RCM simulation, while maintaining relative humidity (and thus implicitly increasing the specific moisture content). Two runs of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with a grid spacing of approximately 50 km (EURO-CORDEX EUR-44 setup) are used as references: a regular control (1971-2000, CTRL) and scenario (2070-2099, SCEN) experiment driven by the global climate model MPI-ESM-LR and assuming the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas emission scenario. In a first experiment the warming (as estimated from SCEN-CTRL) is added to the CTRL simulation as a vertically and horizontally homogeneous warming and in a second case assumed to be a function of height, thereby accounting for lapse rate changes. Comparing these two cases allows to quantify the effect of a large-scale lapse rate change and to isolate the corresponding physical mechanisms

  18. Resting Metabolic Rate Does Not Change in Response to Different Types of Training in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Karstoft

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectivesAmbiguous results have been reported regarding the effects of training on resting metabolic rate (RMR, and the importance of training type and intensity is unclear. Moreover, studies in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D are sparse. In this study, we evaluated the effects of interval and continuous training on RMR in subjects with T2D. Furthermore, we explored the determinants for training-induced alterations in RMR.MethodsData from two studies, both including T2D subjects, were encompassed in this manuscript. Study 1 was a randomized, crossover study where subjects (n = 14 completed three, 2-week interventions [control, continuous walking training (CWT, interval-walking training (IWT] separated by washout periods. Training included 10 supervised treadmill sessions, 60 min/session. CWT was performed at moderate walking speed [aiming for 73% of walking peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak], while IWT was performed as alternating 3-min repetitions at slow (54% VO2peak and fast (89% VO2peak walking speed. Study 2 was a single-arm training intervention study where subjects (n = 23 were prescribed 12 weeks of free-living IWT (at least 3 sessions/week, 30 min/session. Before and after interventions, RMR, physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control parameters were assessed.ResultsNo overall intervention-induced changes in RMR were seen across the studies, but considerable inter-individual differences in RMR changes were seen in Study 2. At baseline, total body mass (TBM, fat-free mass (FFM, and fat mass were all associated with RMR. Changes in RMR were associated with changes in TBM and fat mass, and subjects who decreased body mass and fat mass also decreased their RMR. No associations were seen between changes in physical fitness, glycemic control, or FFM and changes in RMR.ConclusionNeither short-term continuous or interval-type training, nor longer term interval training affects RMR in subjects with T2D

  19. Resting Metabolic Rate Does Not Change in Response to Different Types of Training in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Brinkløv, Cecilie Fau; Thorsen, Ida Kær; Nielsen, Jens Steen; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Ambiguous results have been reported regarding the effects of training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), and the importance of training type and intensity is unclear. Moreover, studies in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are sparse. In this study, we evaluated the effects of interval and continuous training on RMR in subjects with T2D. Furthermore, we explored the determinants for training-induced alterations in RMR. Data from two studies, both including T2D subjects, were encompassed in this manuscript. Study 1 was a randomized, crossover study where subjects (n = 14) completed three, 2-week interventions [control, continuous walking training (CWT), interval-walking training (IWT)] separated by washout periods. Training included 10 supervised treadmill sessions, 60 min/session. CWT was performed at moderate walking speed [aiming for 73% of walking peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak)], while IWT was performed as alternating 3-min repetitions at slow (54% VO2peak) and fast (89% VO2peak) walking speed. Study 2 was a single-arm training intervention study where subjects (n = 23) were prescribed 12 weeks of free-living IWT (at least 3 sessions/week, 30 min/session). Before and after interventions, RMR, physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control parameters were assessed. No overall intervention-induced changes in RMR were seen across the studies, but considerable inter-individual differences in RMR changes were seen in Study 2. At baseline, total body mass (TBM), fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass were all associated with RMR. Changes in RMR were associated with changes in TBM and fat mass, and subjects who decreased body mass and fat mass also decreased their RMR. No associations were seen between changes in physical fitness, glycemic control, or FFM and changes in RMR. Neither short-term continuous or interval-type training, nor longer term interval training affects RMR in subjects with T2D when no overall changes in body composition are seen

  20. Visual analogue scale foot and ankle: validity and reliability of Thai version of the new outcome score in subjective form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angthong, Chayanin; Chernchujit, Bancha; Suntharapa, Thongchai; Harnroongroj, Thossart

    2011-08-01

    Nowadays, measuring score in the form of subjective questionnaires is the important tool for clinical evaluation of the foot and ankle-related problems. VisualAnalogue Scale-Foot and Ankle (VAS-FA) is the newly developed subjective questionnaire, which has sufficiency of validity and reliability from a previous study Translate the original English version of VAS-FA into the Thai version and evaluate the validity and reliability of Thai VAS-FA in patients with foot and ankle-related problems. According to the forward-backward translation protocol, original VAS-FA was translated into the Thai version. Thai VAS-FA and validated Thai Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaires were distributed to 42 Thai patients to complete. For validation, Thai VAS-FA scores were correlated with SF-36 scores. For reliability, the test-retest reliability and internal consistency were analyzed. Thai VAS-FA score demonstrated the sufficient correlations with physical functioning (PF), role physical (RP), bodily pain (BP) domains, and total score of SF-36 (statistically significant with p 0.5 values). The result of reliability revealed highly intra-class correlation coefficient as 0.995 from test-retest study. The internal consistency was excellent with Cronbach alpha: 0.995. The original VAS-FA score is a well-validated, subjective, visual-analogue-scale based outcome score. The Thai version of VAS-FA form maintained the validity and reliability of the original version. This newly translated-validated score can be distributed for the evaluation of the functions, symptoms, and limitation of activities in Thai patients with foot and ankle problems.

  1. Responsiveness of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia in Italian subjects with chronic low back pain undergoing motor and cognitive rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Marco; Ambrosini, Emilia; Rocca, Barbara; Foti, Calogero; Ferrante, Simona

    2016-09-01

    The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) is a commonly used measure for the assessment of kinesiophobia related to spinal diseases. The Italian version showed satisfactory psychometric properties, but its responsiveness has not yet been evaluated. This observational study is aimed at evaluating the responsiveness and minimal important changes (MICs) for the TSK in subjects with chronic low back pain. At the beginning and end of an 8-week multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme, 205 patients completed the TSK. After the programme, patients also completed the global perceived effect (GPE) scale, which was divided to produce a dichotomous outcome. Responsiveness was calculated by distribution [effect size (ES); standardised response mean (SRM)] and anchor-based methods [receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves; correlations between change scores of the TSK and GPE]. ROC curves were also used to compute the best cut-off levels between subjects with a "good" or "poor" outcome (MICs). The ES and the SRM were 1.49 and 1.36, respectively. The ROC analyses revealed a MIC value (AUC; sensitivity; specificity) of 5.5 (0.996; 95; 97). To avoid any dependence on the baseline scores, the MIC value [area under the curve (AUC); sensitivity; and specificity] was computed also based on the percentage of change from the baseline and a value of 18 % (0.998; 97; 98 %) was obtained. The correlation between change scores of the TSK and GPE was high (0.871). The TSK was sensitive in detecting clinical changes in subjects with chronic low back pain. We recommend taking the MICs provided into account when assessing patients' improvement or planning studies in this clinical context.

  2. Validation of Montgomery-Åsberg Rating Scale and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia in Brazilian elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Maria da Glória; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Almeida, Cloyra; Barca, Maria Lage; Knapskog, Anne-Brita; Engedal, Knut; Laks, Jerson

    2012-08-01

    There are few studies on validation of depression scales in the elderly in Latin America. This study aimed to assess the validity of Montgomery-Åsberg. Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) in Brazilian elderly outpatients. A convenience sample of 95 outpatients was diagnosed for dementia and depression according to DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10, and PDC-dAD criteria. Receiver Operating Curves (ROC) were used to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) and to assess MADRS and CSDD cut-offs for each diagnostic criterion. Dementia was diagnosed in 71 of 95 patients. Depression was diagnosed in 35, 30, and 51 patients by ICD-10, DSM-IV, and PDC-dAD, respectively. MADRS cut-off score of 10 correctly diagnosed 67.4% and 66.3% patients as depressed according to DSM-IV and ICD-10. A cut-off of 9 correctly identified 74.7% by PDC-dAD criteria; a CSDD cut-off score of 13 best recognized depression according to DSM-IV and ICD-10. A score of 11 diagnosed depression according to PDC-dAD, while MADRS = 9 recognized depression in dementia. CSDD was more efficient in showing depression in mild than in moderate/severe dementia according to DSM-IV/ICD-10. PDC-dAD behaved nicely for any severity stage. MADRS and CSDD cut-offs of 10 and 13 were the optimal ones to diagnose depression in elderly, respectively. CSDD cut-offs are higher than those found in other countries. Other Latin American studies are needed to compare results with our study.

  3. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo A. Bisschoff, Ben Coetzee, Michael R. Esco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV, and heart rate recovery (HRR are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match, during (in-match, after (post-match and during rest periods (in-match rest of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014 was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626 and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085 and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258 for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  4. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschoff, Christo A; Coetzee, Ben; Esco, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV), and heart rate recovery (HRR) are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states) for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match), during (in-match), after (post-match) and during rest periods (in-match rest) of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014) was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626) and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085) and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258) for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  5. Relationship between heart rate variability, blood pressure and arterial wall properties during air and oxygen breathing in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Beata; Szyndler, Anna; Czechowicz, Krzysztof; Kucharska, Wiesława; Graff, Grzegorz; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Laurent, Stephane; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies reported that normobaric hyperoxia influences heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are still not fully understood. Several factors are considered including degeneration of endothelium-derived nitric oxide by reactive oxygen species, the impact of oxygen-free radicals on tissues and alterations of autonomic nervous system function. Recently, new devices for the detailed non-invasive assessment of large and small arteries have been developed. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess heart rate variability (HRV) as a potential indicator of autonomic balance and its relation to blood pressure and vascular properties during medical air (MAB) and 100% oxygen breathing (OXB) in healthy volunteers. In 12 healthy subjects we assessed heart rate and blood pressure variability, baroreflex sensitivity, respiratory frequency, common carotid artery diameter and its wall distensibility, as well as changes in the digital artery pulse waveform, stroke index and systemic vascular resistance during MAB and OXB. Mean and systolic blood pressure have increased significantly while digital pulse amplitude and carotid artery diameter were significantly lower during hyperoxia. Heart rate variability measures did not differ during MAB and OXB. However, the correlations between spectral HRV components and those hemodynamic parameters which have changed due to hyperoxia varied substantially during MAB (correlated significantly) and OXB (no significant correlations were noted). Our findings suggest that autonomic nervous system might not be the main mediator of the cardiovascular changes during 100% oxygen breathing in healthy subjects. It seems that the direct vascular responses are initial consequences of hyperoxia and other cardiovascular parameter alterations are secondary to them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Salivary cortisol, heart rate, electrodermal activity and subjective stress responses to the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Tatyana; Schmahl, Christian; Wüst, Stefan; Bohus, Martin

    2012-06-30

    The availability of effective laboratory paradigms for inducing psychological stress is an important requirement for experimental stress research. Reliable protocols are scarce, usually laborious and manpower-intensive. In order to develop an economical, easily applicable standardized stress protocol, we have recently tailored the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST). This test has been shown to induce relatively high stress responses without focusing on social-evaluative components. In this study we evaluated changes in electrodermal activity and salivary cortisol in response to the MMST. The MMST simultaneously combines cognitive (mental arithmetic), emotional (affective pictures), acoustic (white noise) and motivational stressors (loss of money). This study comprised two independent experiments. For experiment 1, 80 female subjects were recruited; 30 subjects (15 females) participated in experiment 2. Significant changes in electrodermal activity and salivary cortisol levels in response to MMST exposure were found. Subjective stress and heart rate responses were significantly increased in both experiments. These results indicate that the MMST is an economical stress paradigm which is also applicable in larger cohorts or multicenter studies for investigating stress reactions. As social-evaluative threat is not the main stress component of the MMST, this procedure represents a useful and complementary alternative to other established stress protocols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heart Rate Dynamics and their Relation with the Cyclic Alternating Pattern of Sleep in Normal Subjects and NFLE Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jose S.; Dorantes, Guadalupe; Alba, Alfonso; Méndez, Martin O.; Camacho, Sergio; Luna-Rivera, Martin; Parrino, Liborio; Riccardi, Silvia; Terzano, Mario G.; Milioli, Giulia

    The aim of this work is to study the behavior of the autonomic system through variations in the heart rate (HR) during the Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP) which is formed by A-phases. The analysis was carried out in 10 healthy subjects and 10 patients with Nocturnal Front Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE) that underwent one whole night of polysomnographic recordings. In order to assess the relation of A-phases with the cardiovascular system, two time domain features were computed: the amplitude reduction and time delay of the minimum of the R-R intervals with respect to A-phases onset. In addition, the same process was performed over randomly chosen R-R interval segments during the NREM sleep for baseline comparisons. A non-parametric bootstrap procedure was used to test differences of the kurtosis values of two populations. The results suggest that the onset of the A-phases is correlated with a significant increase of the HR that peaks at around 4s after the A-phase onset, independently of the A-phase subtype and sleep time for both healthy subjects and NFLE patients. Furthermore, the behavior of the reduction in the R-R intervals during the A-phases was significantly different for NFLE patients with respect to control subjects.

  8. Factor Analysis of the Brief Agitation Rating Scale in a Large Sample of Norwegian Nursing Home Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sommer, Oskar H; Kirkevold, Øyvind; Cvancarova, Milada; Engedal, Knut

    2010-01-01

    ...: The data came from 1,870 nursing home patients. The primary caregivers were interviewed by research nurses using the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Lawton's Physical Self-Maintenance Scale and the BARS. Results...

  9. French version of the Rating Scale for Aggressive Behaviour in the Elderly (F-RAGE: Psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Adama

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aggressive behaviour is the most disturbing and distressing behaviour displayed by elderly people. The prevalence of aggressive behaviour is around 50% among psychogeriatric patients. Objective: This study sought to analyze the psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy of the French version of the Rating Scale for Aggressive Behaviour in the Elderly (F-RAGE. Methods: The F-RAGE was administered to 79 patients hospitalized in a geriatric psychiatry department. A psychiatrist, who was blind to the subjects' RAGE scores, performed the diagnosis for aggressivity based on global clinical impression. The F-RAGE and MMSE were applied by a trained researcher blind to subjects' clinical diagnoses while the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and Neuropsychiatric Inventory were administered by medical and nursing staff. Internal consistency, reliability, cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity for F-RAGE were estimated. Results: F-RAGE showed satisfactory validity and reliability measurements. Regarding reliability, Cronbach's a coefficient was satisfactory with a value of 0.758. For diagnostic accuracy, a cut-off point of 8 points (sensitivity=74.19%; specificity=97.98% and area under curve of 0.960 were estimated to distinguish between aggressive patients and control subjects. Discussion: F-RAGE showed acceptable psychometric properties, supported by evidence of validity and reliability for its use in the diagnosis of aggressive behaviour in elderly.

  10. Borg scale is valid for ratings of perceived exertion for individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penko, Amanda L; Barkley, Jacob E; Koop, Mandy Miller; Alberts, Jay L

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease that has traditionally been treated with anti-parkinsonian medication. There is increasing evidence that exercise is beneficial to those with PD, therefore, it is necessary to validate a measure of exertion that can be implemented across exercise settings that may not have the capability to actively monitor heart rate. The aim of this project was to determine the validity of the Borg RPE scale in individuals with PD undergoing a maximal progressive cycling exercise test. Thirty-eight males and females (58.5 ± 8.1 yrs) with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic PD, Hoehn and Yahr stage II-III, completed a maximal exercise test. Heart rate was monitored continuously, with RPE being recorded during the last minute of each stage of the test. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between RPE and continuous heart rate monitoring. A significant, positive correlation was present between RPE and heart rate and RPE and workload, r = 0.61 and r = 0.77 respectively. A separate mixed effects model regression analyses indicated that RPE was a significant predictor of heart rate (p 0.05). Significant, positive correlation between RPE and HR indicates that the Borg category ratio scale may be used in individuals with Parkinson's disease in which formal exercise testing may not be available.

  11. Validation of the Peripheral Ultrasound-guided Vascular Access Rating Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Stine C.; Weile, Jesper; Clemmesen, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Evidence-based standards in proficiency are needed for ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous access. In this study, we explored the validity of the Peripheral Ultrasound-Guided Vascular Access (P-UGVA) Rating Scale. We recruited 3 groups of physicians (5 novices, 5 intermediates, and 5 experts......) of increasing proficiency in peripheral ultrasound-guided intravenous access. All participants performed 3 peripheral ultrasound-guided intravenous accesses on three different patients. Performance was video-recorded by 3 cameras and the ultrasound image. Synchronized and anonymized split-screen film clips were.......5%. We present validity evidence for the P-UGVA rating scale and an evidence-based standard in proficiency for ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous access....

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R98).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Steven; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Trzepacz, Paula T; Franco, Jose G; Meagher, David J; Lee, Yanghyun; Kim, Jeong-Lan; Furlanetto, Leticia M; Negreiros, Daniel; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Chun-Hsin; Kean, Jacob; Leonard, Maeve

    2015-01-01

    Principal components analysis applied to the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 contributes to understanding the delirium construct. Using a multisite pooled international delirium database, the authors applied confirmatory factor analysis to Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 scores from 859 adult patients evaluated by delirium experts (delirium, N=516; nondelirium, N=343). Confirmatory factor analysis found all diagnostic features and core symptoms (cognitive, language, thought process, sleep-wake cycle, motor retardation), except motor agitation, loaded onto factor 1. Motor agitation loaded onto factor 2 with noncore symptoms (delusions, affective lability, and perceptual disturbances). Factor 1 loading supports delirium as a single construct, but when accompanied by psychosis, motor agitation's role may not be solely as a circadian activity indicator.

  13. Validation of the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Pfeiffer, Steven I; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper T; Mo, Guofang

    2008-01-01

    The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S), a teacher-completed rating scale, is designed to identify five types of giftedness and motivation. This study examines the reliability and validity of a Chinese-translated version of the GRS-S with a sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students ( N = 499). The Chinese GRSS was found to have high internal consistency. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis corroborated the six-factor solution of the original GRS-S. Comparison of the GRS-S scores and measures of academic performance provide preliminary support for the criterion validity of the Chinese-translated GRS-S. Significant age and gender differences on the Chinese GRS-S were found. Results provide preliminary support for the Chinese version of the GRS-S as a reliable and valid measure of giftedness for Chinese students.

  14. Bioreactor scale-up and oxygen transfer rate in microbial processes: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ochoa, Felix; Gomez, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    In aerobic bioprocesses, oxygen is a key substrate; due to its low solubility in broths (aqueous solutions), a continuous supply is needed. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) must be known, and if possible predicted to achieve an optimum design operation and scale-up of bioreactors. Many studies have been conducted to enhance the efficiency of oxygen transfer. The dissolved oxygen concentration in a suspension of aerobic microorganisms depends on the rate of oxygen transfer from the gas phase to the liquid, on the rate at which oxygen is transported into the cells (where it is consumed), and on the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) by the microorganism for growth, maintenance and production. The gas-liquid mass transfer in a bioprocess is strongly influenced by the hydrodynamic conditions in the bioreactors. These conditions are known to be a function of energy dissipation that depends on the operational conditions, the physicochemical properties of the culture, the geometrical parameters of the bioreactor and also on the presence of oxygen consuming cells. Stirred tank and bubble column (of various types) bioreactors are widely used in a large variety of bioprocesses (such as aerobic fermentation and biological wastewater treatments, among others). Stirred tanks bioreactors provide high values of mass and heat transfer rates and excellent mixing. In these systems, a high number of variables affect the mass transfer and mixing, but the most important among them are stirrer speed, type and number of stirrers and gas flow rate used. In bubble columns and airlifts, the low-shear environment compared to the stirred tanks has enabled successful cultivation of shear sensitive and filamentous cells. Oxygen transfer is often the rate-limiting step in the aerobic bioprocess due to the low solubility of oxygen in the medium. The correct measurement and/or prediction of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient, (k(L)a), is a crucial step in the design, operation and scale-up of

  15. Sign and magnitude scaling properties of heart rate variability in patients with end-stage renal failure: Are these properties useful to identify pathophysiological adaptations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Claudia; Echeverría, Juan C.; Infante, Oscar; Pérez-Grovas, Héctor; González-Gómez, Hortensia

    2017-09-01

    The scaling properties of heart rate variability data are reliable dynamical features to predict mortality and for the assessment of cardiovascular risk. The aim of this manuscript was to determine if the scaling properties, as provided by the sign and magnitude analysis, can be used to differentiate between pathological changes and those adaptations basically introduced by modifications of the mean heart rate in distinct manoeuvres (active standing or hemodialysis treatment, HD), as well as clinical conditions (end stage renal disease, ESRD). We found that in response to active standing, the short-term scaling index (α1) increased in healthy subjects and in ESRD patients only after HD. The sign short-term scaling exponent (α1sign) increased in healthy subjects and ESRD patients, showing a less anticorrelated behavior in active standing. Both α1 and α1sign did show covariance with the mean heart rate in healthy subjects, while in ESRD patients, this covariance was observed only after HD. A reliable estimation of the magnitude short-term scaling exponent (α1magn) required the analysis of time series with a large number of samples (>3000 data points). This exponent was similar for both groups and conditions and did not show covariance with the mean heart rate. A surrogate analysis confirmed the presence of multifractal properties (α1magn > 0.5) in the time series of healthy subjects and ESDR patients. In conclusion, α1 and α1sign provided insights into the physiological adaptations during active standing, which revealed a transitory impairment before HD in ESRD patients. The presence of multifractal properties indicated that a reduced short-term variability does not necessarily imply a declined regulatory complexity in these patients.

  16. Measuring cognitive load during simulation-based psychomotor skills training: sensitivity of secondary-task performance and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-12-01

    As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance (signal detection rate, SDR and recognition reaction time, RRT) as measures of CL. In phase 1 of the study, novice learners and expert surgeons attempted a visual-monitoring task under two conditions: single-task (monitoring a virtual patient's heart-rate) and dual-task (tying surgical knots on a bench-top simulator while monitoring the virtual patient's heart-rate). Novices demonstrated higher mental effort and inferior secondary-task performance on the dual-task compared to experts (RRT 1.76 vs. 0.73, p = 0.012; SDR 0.27 vs. 0.97, p instructional design research are discussed.

  17. Quantifying behaviors of children with Sanfilippo syndrome: the Sanfilippo Behavior Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Elsa G; Nestrasil, Igor; Ahmed, Alia; Wey, Andrew; Rudser, Kyle R; Delaney, Kathleen A; Rumsey, Robin K; Haslett, Patrick A J; Whitley, Chester B; Potegal, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The Sanfilippo Behavior Rating Scale (SBRS), a 68 item questionnaire, has been developed to assess the behavioral phenotype of children with Sanfilippo syndrome and its progression over time. Fifteen scales rate orality, movement/activity, attention/self-control, emotional function including anger and fear, and social interaction. Items within scales intercorrelate; measures of internal consistency are adequate. Twelve scales are grouped into 4 abnormality clusters: Movement, Lack of fear, Social/emotional and Executive Dysfunction. A Loess age-trajectory analysis showed that Lack of Fear, Social/Emotional and Executive Dysfunction increased steadily with age; Orality and Mood/Anger/Aggression leveled off. Movement peaked around 6years, then declined as children's excessive/purposeless actions stopped. Compared with standard scales, SBRS Movement was appropriately associated with the Vineland Motor scale; SBRS Lack of Fear had significant associations with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), indicating a symptom overlap between Sanfilippo syndrome and autism. This suggests that reduced fearfulness may be the most salient/sensitive SBRS marker of disease progression. Volumetric MRI showed that increased Lack of Fear was significantly associated with reduced amygdala volume, consistent with our hypothesis that the behavior seen in Sanfilippo syndrome is a variant of Klüver-Bucy syndrome. Hippocampal volume loss had twice the effect on Social-Emotional Dysfunction as amygdala loss, consistent with a hippocampal role in attachment and social emotions. In conclusion, the SBRS assesses the Sanfilippo behavioral phenotype; it can measure behavior change that accompanies disease progression and/or results from treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Subjective health complaints and self-rated health: are expectancies more important than socioeconomic status and workload?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, Eline; Odeen, Magnus; Eriksen, Hege R; Indahl, Aage; Ihlebæk, Camilla; Hetland, Jørn; Harris, Anette

    2014-06-01

    The associations between socioeconomic status (SES), physical and psychosocial workload and health are well documented. According to The Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS), learned response outcome expectancies (coping, helplessness, and hopelessness) are also important contributors to health. This is in part as independent factors for health, but coping may also function as a buffer against the impact different demands have on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effect of SES (as measured by level of education), physical workload, and response outcome expectancies on subjective health complaints (SHC) and self-rated health, and if response outcome expectancies mediate the effects of education and physical workload on SHC and self-rated health. A survey was carried out among 1,746 Norwegian municipal employees (mean age 44.2, 81 % females). Structural Equation Models with SHC and self-rated health as outcomes were conducted. Education, physical workload, and response outcome expectancies, were the independent 28 variables in the model. Helplessness/hopelessness had a stronger direct effect on self-rated health and SHC than education and physical workload, for both men and women. Helplessness/hopelessness fully mediated the effect of physical workload on SHC for men (0.121), and mediated 30 % of a total effect of 0.247 for women. For women, education had a small but significant indirect effect through helplessness/hopelessness on self-rated health (0.040) and SHC (-0.040), but no direct effects were found. For men, there was no effect of education on SHC, and only a direct effect on self-rated health (0.134). The results indicated that helplessness/hopelessness is more important for SHC and health than well-established measures on SES such as years of education and perceived physical workload in this sample. Helplessness/hopelessness seems to function as a mechanism between physical workload and health.

  19. Large-scale calculations of the beta-decay rates and r-process nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borzov, I.N.; Goriely, S. [Inst. d`Astronomie et d`Astrophysique, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bruxelles (Belgium); Pearson, J.M. [Inst. d`Astronomie et d`Astrophysique, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bruxelles (Belgium)]|[Lab. de Physique Nucleaire, Univ. de Montreal, Montreal (Canada)

    1998-06-01

    An approximation to a self-consistent model of the ground state and {beta}-decay properties of neutron-rich nuclei is outlined. The structure of the {beta}-strength functions in stable and short-lived nuclei is discussed. The results of large-scale calculations of the {beta}-decay rates for spherical and slightly deformed nuclides of relevance to the r-process are analysed and compared with the results of existing global calculations and recent experimental data. (orig.)

  20. Actometry and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale in neuroleptic-induced akathisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janno, Sven; Holi, Matti M; Tuisku, Katinka; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS) and standardized lower limb actometry in quantifying neuroleptic-induced akathisia (NIA) in 99 schizophrenia patients. Both instruments discriminated well between NIA and non-NIA patients and they correlated weakly but significantly. BARS was superior to actometry in screening DSM-IV diagnosed NIA patients. The results of this methodological study provide BARS with objective validation through movement measuring, that it has been suggested to need.

  1. Translation and adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese of the Lymphedema Rating Scale in Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queija, Débora Dos Santos; Arakawa-Sugueno, Lica; Chamma, Bruna Mello; Kulcsar, Marco Aurélio Vamondes; Dedivitis, Rogério Aparecido

    2017-12-18

    Translate to brazilian portuguese, culturally adapt and test the rating and classification scales of cervicofacial lymphedema of the MD Anderson Cancer Center Head and Neck Lymphedema Protocol (MDACC HNL) in patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancer. The process followed international guidelines and translation stages by two head and neck surgeons, and back translation independently by two native Americans. The test of final version was based on the evaluation of 18 patients by one speech pathologist and one physical therapist who applied the scales in Portuguese. The translation of the three scales was carried out independently and the translators reached a consensus for the final version. Minor modifications were made by translating two terms into the Assessment of the Face. Versions of back-translation were similar to each other. The instrument was successfully applied to patients independently. The translation and cultural adaptation of the assessment and rating scale of the cervicofacial lymphedema of the MD Anderson Cancer Center Head and Neck Lymphedema Protocol to the Brazilian Portuguese were successful.

  2. Translation and adaptation of the Radiotherapy Edema Rating Scale to Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queija, Débora Dos Santos; Arakawa-Sugueno, Lica; Chamma, Bruna Mello; Kulcsar, Marco Aurélio Vamondes; Dedivitis, Rogério Aparecido

    2017-05-09

    Internal lymphedema is one of the sequelae of head and neck cancer treatment that can lead to varying degrees of swallowing, speech, and respiration alterations. The Radiotherapy Edema Rating Scale, developed by Patterson et al., is a tool used to evaluate pharyngeal and laryngeal edema. To translate into Brazilian Portuguese, to culturally adapt and test this scale in patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancer. The process followed the international guidelines and translation steps by two head and neck surgeons and back-translation performed independently by two North-American natives. The final version of the test was evaluated based on the assessment of 18 patients by two head and neck surgeons and two speech therapists using the scales in Brazilian Portuguese. The translation and cultural adaptation were satisfactorily performed by the members of the committee in charge. The translation and adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese of the Radiotherapy Edema Rating Scale was successfully performed and showed to be easy to apply. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. The reliability of a severity rating scale to measure stuttering in an unfamiliar language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Laura; Wilson, Linda; Copley, Anna; Hewat, Sally; Lim, Valerie

    2014-06-01

    With increasing multiculturalism, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are likely to work with stuttering clients from linguistic backgrounds that differ from their own. No research to date has estimated SLPs' reliability when measuring severity of stuttering in an unfamiliar language. Therefore, this study was undertaken to estimate the reliability of SLPs' use of a 9-point severity rating (SR) scale, to measure severity of stuttering in a language that was different from their own. Twenty-six Australian SLPs rated 20 speech samples (10 Australian English [AE] and 10 Mandarin) of adults who stutter using a 9-point SR scale on two separate occasions. Judges showed poor agreement when using the scale to measure stuttering in Mandarin samples. Results also indicated that 50% of individual judges were unable to reliably measure the severity of stuttering in AE. The results highlight the need for (a) SLPs to develop intra- and inter-judge agreement when using the 9-point SR scale to measure severity of stuttering in their native language (in this case AE) and in unfamiliar languages; and (b) research into the development and evaluation of practice and/or training packages to assist SLPs to do so.

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation to Brazil of Medication Adherence Rating Scale for psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icaro Carvalho Moreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of this research was to make a cross-cultural adaptation of the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS for psychiatric patients to the Brazilian context. Methods The procedure consisted of four phases: translation of the original scale, back-translation, review by an Expert Committee and Pre-test study with a patients’ sample. Results The Expert Committee corrected the items’ translation when necessary and modified the scale administration format and its instructions from self-report to face-to-face interview form in order to ensure easy understanding by the target population. During Pre-test, the instructions and most of the items were properly understood by patients, with the exception of three of them which had to be changed in order to ensure better understanding. The Pre-test sample was composed by 30 psychiatric patients, with severe and persistent disorders mainly single (46.7%, female (60.0%, with a mean age of 43.8 years old and an average of five years of education. Conclusion The Brazilian version of MARS scale is now adapted to the Brazilian Portuguese language and culture and is easily understood by the psychiatric target population. It is necessary to do further research to evaluate the scale psychometric qualities of validity and reliability in order to use it in Brazil.

  5. Measuring IBS patient reported outcomes with an abdominal pain numeric rating scale: results from the proof cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPIEGEL, B.; BOLUS, R.; HARRIS, L. A.; LUCAK, S.; NALIBOFF, B.; ESRAILIAN, E.; CHEY, W. D.; LEMBO, A.; KARSAN, H.; TILLISCH, K.; TALLEY, J.; MAYER, E.; CHANG, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Controversy exists about how to effectively measure patient reported outcomes in IBS clinical trials. Pain numeric rating scales (NRS) are widely used in the non-IBS pain literature. The FDA has proposed using the NRS in IBS. Aim To test the psychometrics of an abdominal pain NRS in IBS. Methods We analyzed data from a longitudinal cohort of Rome III IBS subjects. At entry, subjects completed a 10-point NRS, bowel symptoms, IBS severity measurements (IBSSS, FBDSI), health related quality of life indices (IBS-QOL, EQ5D), and the worker productivity activity index (WPAI). We repeated assessments at 3 months along with a response scale to calculate the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Results There were 277 subjects (82% women; age=42±15) at baseline and 90 at 3 months. The NRS correlated cross-sectionally with IBSSS (r=0.60; p<0.0011), FBDSI (r=0.49; p<0.0001), IBS-QOL (r=0.43; p<0.0001), EQ5D (r=0.48; p<0.0001), presenteeism (r=0.39; p<0.0001), absenteeism (r=0.17; p=0.04), and distension (r=0.46; p<0.0001), but not stool frequency or form. The MCID was 2.2 points, correlating with a 29.5% reduction over time. Conclusions An abdominal pain NRS exhibits excellent validity and can be readily interpreted with an MCID in patients with IBS. These data support the use of the NRS in IBS clinical trials. PMID:19751360

  6. Self rated health and working conditions of small-scale enterprisers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Vingård, Eva; Josephson, Malin

    2007-12-01

    This study was an investigation of prevalence and associations between self-rated health and working conditions for small-scale enterprisers in a county in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was answered by 340 male and 153 female small-scale enterprisers in different sectors, with a response rate of 66%. For comparative purposes, data from a population study of 1,699 employees in private companies was included in the analyses. Differences were tested by Chi(2)-test and associations were presented as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The frequency of health problems in male enterprisers was higher than in employees in the private sector, while the frequency of health problems in female enterprisers was equal to that of the control employees. The main findings highlighted that male enterprisers reported higher rate of health problems and female enterprisers equal rate compared with employees in the private sector. Enterprisers stated musculoskeletal pain (women 59%, men 56%) and mental health problems (women 47%, men 45%) as the most frequent health problems. Poor job satisfaction, reported by 17% of the females and 20% of the male enterprisers, revealed an OR of 10.42 (95% CI 5.78-18.77) for poor general health. For the enterprisers, the most frequent complaints, musculoskeletal pain and mental health problems, were associated with poor job satisfaction and poor physical work environment. An association between poor general health and working as an enterpriser remained after adjusting for working conditions, sex and age.

  7. Vaccination against hepatitis A and B in persons subject to homelessness in inner Sydney: vaccine acceptance, completion rates and immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Roslyn G; Ferson, Mark J; Orr, Karen J; McCarthy, Michele A; Botham, Susan J; Stern, Jerome M; Lucey, Adrienne

    2010-04-01

    To determine acceptance, completion rates and immunogenicity of the standard vaccination schedule for hepatitis A (HAV) and B (HBV) in persons subject to homelessness. A convenience sample of clients (n=201) attending a medical clinic for homeless and disadvantaged persons in Sydney was enrolled. Serological screening for HAV and HBV was undertaken. An appropriate vaccination program was instituted. Post-vaccination serology determined serological response. Although many clients had serological evidence of past infection, at least 138 (69%) clients had the potential to benefit from vaccination. For hepatitis A and B vaccinations, completion rates were 73% (73 of 100 clients) and 75% (69 of 92 clients), respectively; after vaccination, protective antibody was found in 98.2% (56 of 57) and 72% (36 of 50) of clients, respectively. A successful vaccination program can be mounted with a vulnerable population. We consider a clinic with a well-established history of acceptance and utilisation by the target group; a low staff turnover and regular clientele; inclusion of vaccination as part of routine client care; and counselling (part of pre- and post-serological testing) essential components in achieving good vaccination completion rates. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. A constitutive model for particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites subjected to high strain rates and high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wei-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-static and dynamic tension tests were conducted to study the mechanical properties of particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites at strain rates ranging from 0.0001/s to 1000/s and at temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 650 °C Based on the experimental results, a constitutive model, which considers the effects of strain rate and temperature on hot deformation behavior, was proposed for particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites subjected to high strain rates and high temperatures by using Zener-Hollomon equations including Arrhenius terms. All the material constants used in the model were identified by fitting Zener-Hollomon equations against the experimental results. By comparison of theoretical predictions presented by the model with experimental results, a good agreement was achieved, which indicates that this constitutive model can give an accurate and precise estimate for high temperature flow stress for the studied titanium matrix composites and can be used for numerical simulations of hot deformation behavior of the composites.

  9. Predicting Self-Rated Mental and Physical Health: The Contributions of Subjective Socioeconomic Status and Personal Relative Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell J. Callan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people’s perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints. Across 6 studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES, with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4 to 6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability or response biases between the measures.

  10. Concise Health Risk Tracking scale: a brief self-report and clinician rating of suicidal risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Madhukar H; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Morris, David W; Fava, Maurizio; Gollan, Jackie K; Warden, Diane; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Gaynes, Bradley N; Husain, Mustafa M; Luther, James F; Zisook, Sidney; Rush, A John

    2011-06-01

    Monitoring suicidality and risk following initiation of antidepressant treatment is an essential component of clinical care, but few brief, reliable ratings of suicidal ideation and behavior in adults are available. This report evaluates the psychometric properties of a brief self- and clinician-rated measure of factors related to the risk of suicide attempt or completion. Adult outpatients with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 240) were enrolled from July 2007 through February 2008 and treated in an 8-week, open-label trial with the clinician's choice of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor at 6 primary care and 9 psychiatric clinical care settings in the National Institute of Mental Health-funded Depression Trials Network. Diagnosis of MDD was determined by the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire and an MDD checklist based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Suicidal ideation and behavior are 1 of 9 symptoms of MDD (depressed mood, loss of interest, appetite or weight change, sleep disturbance, reduced concentration or indecisiveness, fatigue or decreased energy, psychomotor agitation or retardation, feelings of worthlessness, or excessive guilt). The newly developed Concise Health Risk Tracking (CHRT) scale was administered both as the CHRT Self-Report (CHRT-SR) and Clinician Rating (CHRT-C) scales. Psychometric evaluations were conducted on both scales. The internal consistency (Cronbach α) was .77 for the 7-item CHRT-C and .78 for the 7-item CHRT-SR with a consistent factor structure, and 3 independent factors (current suicidal thoughts and plans, perceived lack of social support, and hopelessness) for both versions. The 7-item CHRT-C and the 7-item CHRT-SR have excellent psychometric properties and can be used to monitor suicidal risk in clinical practice and research settings. Whether either scale will predict suicide attempts or completions in actual practice would require a very large prospective study sample. Clinicaltrials

  11. A watershed scale spatially-distributed model for streambank erosion rate driven by channel curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Mitchell; Hu, Zhiyong

    2017-10-01

    Streambank erosion is a major source of fluvial sediment, but few large-scale, spatially distributed models exist to quantify streambank erosion rates. We introduce a spatially distributed model for streambank erosion applicable to sinuous, single-thread channels. We argue that such a model can adequately characterize streambank erosion rates, measured at the outsides of bends over a 2-year time period, throughout a large region. The model is based on the widely-used excess-velocity equation and comprised three components: a physics-based hydrodynamic model, a large-scale 1-dimensional model of average monthly discharge, and an empirical bank erodibility parameterization. The hydrodynamic submodel requires inputs of channel centerline, slope, width, depth, friction factor, and a scour factor A; the large-scale watershed submodel utilizes watershed-averaged monthly outputs of the Noah-2.8 land surface model; bank erodibility is based on tree cover and bank height as proxies for root density. The model was calibrated with erosion rates measured in sand-bed streams throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal plain. The calibrated model outperforms a purely empirical model, as well as a model based only on excess velocity, illustrating the utility of combining a physics-based hydrodynamic model with an empirical bank erodibility relationship. The model could be improved by incorporating spatial variability in channel roughness and the hydrodynamic scour factor, which are here assumed constant. A reach-scale application of the model is illustrated on ∼1 km of a medium-sized, mixed forest-pasture stream, where the model identifies streambank erosion hotspots on forested and non-forested bends.

  12. Beyond the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale: deep brain stimulation in childhood secondary dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Hortensia; Tustin, Kylee; Selway, Richard; Lin, Jean-Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation is now widely accepted as an effective treatment for children with primary generalized dystonia. More variable results are reported in secondary dystonias and its efficacy in this heterogeneous group has not been fully elucidated. Deep brain stimulation outcomes are typically reported using impairment-focused measures, such as the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale, which provide little information about function and participation outcomes or changes in non-motor areas. The aim is to demonstrate that in some cases of secondary dystonia, the sole use of impairment level measures, such as the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale, may be insufficient to fully evaluate outcome following deep brain stimulation. Six paediatric cases who underwent deep brain stimulation surgery with a minimum of one year follow up were selected on the basis of apparent non-response to deep brain stimulation, defined as a clinically insignificant change in the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Movement Scale (stimulation, parallel outcome measures demonstrated significant benefit in a range of child and family-centred goal areas including: pain and comfort, school attendance, seating tolerance, access to assistive technology and in some cases carer burden. Sole use of impairment-focused measures, are limited in scope to evaluate outcome following deep brain stimulation, particularly in secondary dystonias. Systematic study of effects across multiple dimensions of disability is needed to determine what deep brain stimulation offers patients in terms of function, participation, care, comfort and quality of life. Deep brain stimulation may offer meaningful change across multiple domains of functioning, disability and health even in the absence of significant change in dystonia rating scales. Copyright © 2012 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 with the parent-rated Kinder Infant Development Scale (KIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sayaka; Hashimoto, Keiji; Ikeda, Natsuha; Takekoh, Makoto; Fujiwara, Takeo; Morisaki, Naho; Mezawa, Hidetoshi; Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to extend our understanding of the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development (KSPD) by comparison with a parent-rated scale, the Kinder Infant Development Scale (KIDS). The participants of this study were 229 children aged 0-4, who were referred to the Developmental Evaluation Center of the National Center for Child Health and Development, due to a suspected developmental disorder/delay. The participants were divided into subgroups, depending on age and overall DQ. For each group separately, correlation analyses were conducted between the Developmental Quotient (DQ) of each KSPD domain and DQ of each KIDS subscale. For high DQ group, in all ages, the KSPD Postural-Motor (P-M) domain DQ demonstrated a high correlation with the KIDS Physical-Motor DQ, and at young ages, it was also found to be moderately or strongly associated with the KIDS Manipulation DQ. For high DQ group, the KSPD Cognitive-Adaptive (C-A) domain DQ was most consistently related to the KIDS Manipulation DQ, and was also moderately correlated with the KIDS Physical-Motor DQ, Receptive Language DQ, Social Relationship with Adults DQ, Discipline DQ, and Feeding DQ, depending on age. For high DQ group, the KSPD Language-Social (L-S) DQ most consistently showed a moderate or high correlation with the KIDS Receptive Language DQ and the Manipulation DQ, and also related to Physical-Motor DQ, Expressive Language DQ, Language Conception DQ, Social Relationship with Adults DQ, and Social Relationship with Children DQ for some age groups. The low DQ group demonstrated stronger relationships on many of the pairs of the DQ of a KSPD subdomain and the DQ of a KIDS subscale, regardless of the type of subdomains and subscales. For high DQ group, the KSPD P-M domain was consistently related to parent-reported physical/motor development, the C-A domain primarily reflected a child's fine motor skills and his/her ability to understand and follow verbal instructions provided by adults

  14. Large-scale subject-specific cerebral arterial tree modeling using automated parametric mesh generation for blood flow simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Mahsa; Tangen, Kevin; Alaraj, Ali; Du, Xinjian; Charbel, Fady T; Linninger, Andreas A

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present a novel technique for automatic parametric mesh generation of subject-specific cerebral arterial trees. This technique generates high-quality and anatomically accurate computational meshes for fast blood flow simulations extending the scope of 3D vascular modeling to a large portion of cerebral arterial trees. For this purpose, a parametric meshing procedure was developed to automatically decompose the vascular skeleton, extract geometric features and generate hexahedral meshes using a body-fitted coordinate system that optimally follows the vascular network topology. To validate the anatomical accuracy of the reconstructed vasculature, we performed statistical analysis to quantify the alignment between parametric meshes and raw vascular images using receiver operating characteristic curve. Geometric accuracy evaluation showed an agreement with area under the curves value of 0.87 between the constructed mesh and raw MRA data sets. Parametric meshing yielded on-average, 36.6% and 21.7% orthogonal and equiangular skew quality improvement over the unstructured tetrahedral meshes. The parametric meshing and processing pipeline constitutes an automated technique to reconstruct and simulate blood flow throughout a large portion of the cerebral arterial tree down to the level of pial vessels. This study is the first step towards fast large-scale subject-specific hemodynamic analysis for clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavazanjian, Edward; Gutierrez, Angel

    2017-10-01

    A large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading was conducted to help validate a numerical model for performance based design of geomembrane liner systems. The test was conducted using the 240g-ton centrifuge at the University of California at Davis under the U.S. National Science Foundation Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Research (NEESR) program. A 0.05mm thin film membrane was used to model the liner. The waste was modeled using a peat-sand mixture. The side slope membrane was underlain by lubricated low density polyethylene to maximize the difference between the interface shear strength on the top and bottom of the geomembrane and the induced tension in it. Instrumentation included thin film strain gages to monitor geomembrane strains and accelerometers to monitor seismic excitation. The model was subjected to an input design motion intended to simulate strong ground motion from the 1994 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. Results indicate that downdrag waste settlement and seismic loading together, and possibly each phenomenon individually, can induce potentially damaging tensile strains in geomembrane liners. The data collected from this test is publically available and can be used to validate numerical models for the performance of geomembrane liner systems. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Shifts in mass-scaling of respiration, feeding, and growth rates across life-form transitions in marine pelagic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Hirst, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic rate of organisms may be viewed as a basic property from which other vital rates and many ecological patterns emerge and that follows a universal allometric mass scaling law, or it may be considered a property of the organism that emerges as a result of the adaptation...... to the environment, with consequently fewer universal mass scaling properties. Here, we examine the mass scaling of respiration and maximum feeding (clearance and ingestion rates) and growth rates of heterotrophic pelagic organisms over an ~1015 range in body mass. We show that clearance and respiration rates have...

  17. Click trains and the rate of information processing: does "speeding up" subjective time make other psychological processes run faster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Luke A; Allely, Clare S; Wearden, John H

    2011-02-01

    A series of experiments demonstrated that a 5-s train of clicks that have been shown in previous studies to increase the subjective duration of tones they precede (in a manner consistent with "speeding up" timing processes) could also have an effect on information-processing rate. Experiments used studies of simple and choice reaction time (Experiment 1), or mental arithmetic (Experiment 2). In general, preceding trials by clicks made response times significantly shorter than those for trials without clicks, but white noise had no effects on response times. Experiments 3 and 4 investigated the effects of clicks on performance on memory tasks, using variants of two classic experiments of cognitive psychology: Sperling's (1960) iconic memory task and Loftus, Johnson, and Shimamura's (1985) iconic masking task. In both experiments participants were able to recall or recognize significantly more information from stimuli preceded by clicks than those preceded by silence.

  18. Free energy of cluster formation and a new scaling relation for the nucleation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kyoko K; Diemand, Jürg; Angélil, Raymond; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2014-05-21

    Recent very large molecular dynamics simulations of homogeneous nucleation with (1 - 8) × 10(9) Lennard-Jones atoms [J. Diemand, R. Angélil, K. K. Tanaka, and H. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 074309 (2013)] allow us to accurately determine the formation free energy of clusters over a wide range of cluster sizes. This is now possible because such large simulations allow for very precise measurements of the cluster size distribution in the steady state nucleation regime. The peaks of the free energy curves give critical cluster sizes, which agree well with independent estimates based on the nucleation theorem. Using these results, we derive an analytical formula and a new scaling relation for nucleation rates: ln J'/η is scaled by ln S/η, where the supersaturation ratio is S, η is the dimensionless surface energy, and J(') is a dimensionless nucleation rate. This relation can be derived using the free energy of cluster formation at equilibrium which corresponds to the surface energy required to form the vapor-liquid interface. At low temperatures (below the triple point), we find that the surface energy divided by that of the classical nucleation theory does not depend on temperature, which leads to the scaling relation and implies a constant, positive Tolman length equal to half of the mean inter-particle separation in the liquid phase.

  19. Correspondence of verbal descriptor and numeric rating scales for pain intensity: an item response theory calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Saliba, Debra

    2010-07-01

    Assessing pain intensity in older adults is critical and challenging. There is debate about the most effective way to ask older adults to describe their pain severity, and clinicians vary in their preferred approaches, making comparison of pain intensity scores across settings difficult. A total of 3,676 residents from 71 community nursing homes across eight states were asked about pain presence. The 1,960 residents who reported pain within the past 5 days (53% of total, 70% female; age: M = 77.9, SD = 12.4) were included in analyses. Those who reported pain were also asked to provide a rating of pain intensity using either a verbal descriptor scale (VDS; mild, moderate, severe, and very severe and horrible), a numeric rating scale (NRS; 0 = no pain to 10 = worst pain imaginable), or both. We used item response theory (IRT) methods to identify the correspondence between the VDS and the NRS response options by estimating item parameters for these and five additional pain items. The sample reported moderate amounts of pain on average. Examination of the IRT location parameters for the pain intensity items indicated the following approximate correspondence: VDS mild approximately NRS 1-4, VDS moderate approximately NRS 5-7, VDS severe approximately NRS 8-9, and VDS very severe, horrible approximately NRS 10. This IRT calibration provides a crosswalk between the two response scales so that either can be used in practice depending on the preference of the clinician and respondent.

  20. Analysis of Rating Scales for the Measurement of Attitudes and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ong Kim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available It is still common today to see questionnaires with Likert Scale items concerning very different variables being used to capture data on aspects as varied as possible that are to be investigated by the research work. This is perfectly alright if each of the questions is to be treated as standing on its own and is not intended to add up to a measure of a single variable. This, however, has the problem of inadequate sampling of items to come to any meaningful measure of persons on that set of multiple variables, with as small a standard error of measurement (SEM as possible. Each variable to be measured is best put on a single rating scale, with items being replicated a sufficient number of times to reduce the SEM. There can be more than one rating scale in one questionnaire, but they should obviously be placed in separate sections, and their analyses done separately. This paper discusses a specific example of the measurement of attitude towards teaching and perceptions of subjects’ own teaching knowledge and skills, and how to measure their changes over time, through the anchoring of item calibrations, using a Rasch model.

  1. Validation of a Spanish Version of the Lille Apathy Rating Scale for Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio García-Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To date, no rating scales for detecting apathy in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients have been validated in Spanish. For this reason, the aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of Lille apathy rating scale (LARS in a cohort of PD patients from Spain. Participants and Methods. 130 PD patients and 70 healthy controls were recruited to participate in the study. Apathy was measured using the Spanish version of LARS and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI. Reliability (internal consistency, test-retest, and interrater reliability and validity (construct, content, and criterion validity were measured. Results. Interrater reliability was 0.93. Cronbach’s α for LARS was 0.81. The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.97. The correlation between LARS and NPI scores was 0.61. The optimal cutoff point under the ROC curve was -14, whereas the value derived from healthy controls was -11. The prevalence of apathy in our population tested by LARS was 42%. Conclusions. The Spanish version of LARS is a reliable and useful tool for diagnosing apathy in PD patients. Total LARS score is influenced by the presence of depression and cognitive impairment. However, both disorders are independent identities with respect to apathy. The satisfactory reliability and validity of the scale make it an appropriate instrument for screening and diagnosing apathy in clinical practice or for research purposes.

  2. HEART RATE, MOOD STATES, AND RATING OF PERCEIVED EXERTION AMONG ELDERLY SUBJECTS DURING 3.5 HOURS OF RECREATIONAL ALPINE SKIING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Krautgasser

    2012-12-01

    immediate positive psychological effects on the elderly subjects. Furthermore, recreational alpine skiing has a positive effect on MS ratings reflecting wellbeing, while generating age-appropriate moderate RPE values in elderly alpine skiers.

  3. Water ingestion affects orthostatic challenge-induced blood pressure and heart rate responses in young healthy subjects: gender implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, L A; Aaron, A O; Micheal, O S; Oyeyipo, I P

    2011-11-23

    Evidence exists that women have lower orthostatic tolerance than men during quiescent standing. Water ingestion has been demonstrated to improve orthostatic tolerance in patients with severe autonomic dysfunction. We therefore sought to test the hypothesis that water ingestion would improve orthostatic tolerance in healthy young women more than in aged-matched men. Thirty seven (22 men and 15 women) healthy subjects aged 22.5± 1.7 and 21.5±1.4 (means±SD) respectively, ingested 50ml (control) and 500ml of water 40min before orthostatic challenge on two separate days of appointment in a randomized controlled, cross-over design. Seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate were determined. Orthostatic tolerance was assessed as the time to presyncope during standing. Ingesting 500ml of water significantly improves orthostatic tolerance by 22% (32.0 ± 5.2 vs 26.2 ± 2.4min; pwater, seated systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure rose significantly in men while only systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure rose significantly in women. However ingesting 500ml of water did not have significant effect on seated heart rate in both men and women. Ingestion of 500ml of water significantly attenuated both the orthostatic challenge-induced increased heart rate and decreased pulse pressure responses especially in women. Diastolic blood pressure tended to be positively correlated with orthostatic tolerance strongly in men than in women. Pulse pressure correlated positively while heart rate correlated negatively to orthostatic tolerance in women but not in men independent of other correlates. Water ingestion is associated with orthostatic tolerance strongly in women but weakly in men independent of other correlates. In conclusion, the findings in the present study demonstrated that water ingestion caused improvement strongly in young women than in young men. This improvement is associated with increased pulse pressure

  4. Nitrogen rate strategies for reducing yield-scaled nitrous oxide emissions in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Nafziger, Emerson D.; Pittelkow, Cameron M.

    2017-12-01

    Mitigating nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture without negatively impacting crop productivity is a pressing environmental and economic challenge. Reductions in N fertilizer rate are often highlighted as a solution, yet the degree to which crop yields and economic returns may be impacted at the field-level remains unclear, in part due to limited data availability. Farmers are risk averse and potential yield losses may limit the success of voluntary N loss mitigation protocols, thus understanding field-level yield tradeoffs is critical to inform policy development. Using a case study of soil N2O mitigation in the US Midwest, we conducted an ex-post assessment of two economic and two environmental N rate reduction strategies to identify promising practices for maintaining maize yields and economic returns while reducing N2O emissions per unit yield (i.e. yield-scaled emissions) compared to an assumed baseline N input level. Maize yield response data from 201 on-farm N rate experiments were combined with an empirical equation predicting N2O emissions as a function of N rate. Results indicate that the economic strategy aimed at maximizing returns to N (MRTN) led to moderate but consistent reductions in yield-scaled N2O emissions with small negative impacts on yield and slight increases in median returns. The economic optimum N rate strategy reduced yield-scaled N2O emissions in 75% of cases but increased them otherwise, challenging the assumption that this strategy will automatically reduce environmental impacts per unit production. Both environmental strategies, one designed to increase N recovery efficiency and one to balance N inputs with grain N removal, further reduced yield-scaled N2O emissions but were also associated with negative yield penalties and decreased returns. These results highlight the inherent tension between achieving agronomic and economic goals while reducing environmental impacts which is often overlooked in policy discussions. To enable the

  5. German validation of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) II: reliability, validity, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, H; Kis, B; Hirsch, O; Matthies, S; Hebebrand, J; Uekermann, J; Abdel-Hamid, M; Kraemer, M; Wiltfang, J; Graf, E; Colla, M; Sobanski, E; Alm, B; Rösler, M; Jacob, C; Jans, T; Huss, M; Schimmelmann, B G; Philipsen, A

    2012-07-01

    The German version of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) has proven to show very high model fit in confirmative factor analyses with the established factors inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and problems with self-concept in both large healthy control and ADHD patient samples. This study now presents data on the psychometric properties of the German CAARS-self-report (CAARS-S) and observer-report (CAARS-O) questionnaires. CAARS-S/O and questions on sociodemographic variables were filled out by 466 patients with ADHD, 847 healthy control subjects that already participated in two prior studies, and a total of 896 observer data sets were available. Cronbach's-alpha was calculated to obtain internal reliability coefficients. Pearson correlations were performed to assess test-retest reliability, and concurrent, criterion, and discriminant validity. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC-analyses) were used to establish sensitivity and specificity for all subscales. Coefficient alphas ranged from .74 to .95, and test-retest reliability from .85 to .92 for the CAARS-S, and from .65 to .85 for the CAARS-O. All CAARS subscales, except problems with self-concept correlated significantly with the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), but not with the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). Criterion validity was established with ADHD subtype and diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were high for all four subscales. The reported results confirm our previous study and show that the German CAARS-S/O do indeed represent a reliable and cross-culturally valid measure of current ADHD symptoms in adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A test of the Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems using the Clinical Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, V; Ozechowski, T J

    2000-10-01

    Most studies of the Olson Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems have utilized a version of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES). Because FACES does not appear to operationalize the curvilinear dimension of the Circumplex Model, researchers have been pessimistic about the model's validity. However, the Clinical Rating Scale (CRS) has received some support as a curvilinear measure of the Circumplex Model. Therefore, we used the CRS rather than FACES to test the validity of the Circumplex Model hypotheses. Using a structural equation-modeling analytical approach, we found support for the hypotheses pertaining to the effects of cohesion and communication on family functioning. However, we found no support for the hypotheses pertaining to the concept of adaptability. We discuss these results in the context of previous studies of the Circumplex Model using FACES. Based on the collective findings, we propose a preliminary reformulation of the Circumplex Model.

  7. Psychometric assessment and clinical application of the Correa-Barrick Depression Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Christina B; Taylor, Dianne E; Correa, Elsa I

    2002-11-01

    This article reports on the psychometric results of a new sef-report depression rating scale from three separate methodological research studies (pilot, main, and replication). Based on classical test theory, psychometric findings supported preliminary validity and reliability in the original study (N = 503), which consisted of a pilot study of 116 participants and a main study of 337 faculty and staff at a mid-Atlantic metropolitan university and 50 outpatients being treated for depression in a private psychiatric practice. The validity and reliability of the new scale was further supported in the replication study (N = 121), which consisted of 96 outpatients and 25 inpatients under treatment for depression. In all three studies, results revealed that severe depression is associated with altered perception, particularly impairment in color sensitivity. Implications for clinical application are discussed.

  8. [A rating scale and therapeutic strategy in dysphagia in patients with brain stem damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goriachev, A S; Savin, I A; Putsillo, M V; Bragina, N N; Sokolova, E Iu; Shchepetkov, A N; Fokin, M S; Kroptova, M V

    2006-01-01

    Dysphagia appears in 15-17% of cases after removal of tumors of the posterior cranial fossa (PCF), which is one of the most life-threatening postoperative complications due to a risk of acute airway patency impairment, possible aspiration, bronchopulmonary infectious complications. This makes prognosis workse and complicates a patient's rehabilitation. Based on the results of fibrolaryngotracheoscopic study and treatment of 1653 patients operated on for PCF tumors, the authors have developed a scale for rating the severity of bulbar disorders. The proposed scale promotes decision making on the expediency of performing tracheostomy and on the necessity of evaluating the efficiency of performed therapy (trends in bulbar disorders) and predicting the course of a postoperative period.

  9. The correlations of glycated hemoglobin and carbohydrate metabolism parameters with heart rate variability in apparently healthy sedentary young male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkas, Andriy; Abrahamovych, Orest; Golota, Sergii; Nersesyan, Armen; Pichler, Christoph; Serhiyenko, Victoria; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Zarkovic, Neven; Eckl, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular and many other age-related diseases. Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the function of regulatory systems of internal organs and may sensitively indicate early metabolic disturbances. We hypothesize that quantitative and qualitative changes of HRV in young subjects may reflect early metabolic derangements responsible for further development of clinically significant disease. The aim of our study was to determine whether the parameters of carbohydrate metabolism (fasting blood glucose, HBA1c and surrogate insulin sensitivity/resistance indices) correlate with anthropometric data and HRV. The study group consisted of 30 healthy sedentary male subjects aged 20-40, nonsmokers, mainly office and research employees, medical staff and students. Athletes, actively training more than one hour per week, severely obese and men of physical work were excluded from the study. HRV parameters were derived from short term ECG records (five minutes intervals) in supine position and during orthostatic test. Anthropometric data included height, weight, body mass index (BMI), age and body composition (estimation by bioelectric impedance method). The fasting blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) index and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were evaluated. Linear correlation coefficient (r) was calculated using Statistica 10.0 software. HOMA-IR index correlated positively with body weight, visceral fat and BMI (p=0.047, 0.027 and 0.017 respectively). In supine position pNN50 positively correlated with glucose/insulin ratio (p=0.011) and heart rate with HOMA-IR (p=0.006). In orthostatic test negative correlations of HBA1c with standard deviation, total and low frequency power were determined (p=0.034, 0.400 and 0.403 respectively), which indicates a gradual worsening of functional capacity of cardiovascular system with low-grade increase (under the conventional threshold) of HBA1c

  10. Linear and nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability in healthy subjects and after acute myocardial infarction in patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Kunz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the use of linear and nonlinear methods for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV in healthy subjects and in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Heart rate (HR was recorded for 15 min in the supine position in 10 patients with AMI taking β-blockers (aged 57 ± 9 years and in 11 healthy subjects (aged 53 ± 4 years. HRV was analyzed in the time domain (RMSSD and RMSM, the frequency domain using low- and high-frequency bands in normalized units (nu; LFnu and HFnu and the LF/HF ratio and approximate entropy (ApEn were determined. There was a correlation (P < 0.05 of RMSSD, RMSM, LFnu, HFnu, and the LF/HF ratio index with the ApEn of the AMI group on the 2nd (r = 0.87, 0.65, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.64 and 7th day (r = 0.88, 0.70, 0.69, 0.69, and 0.87 and of the healthy group (r = 0.63, 0.71, 0.63, 0.63, and 0.74, respectively. The median HRV indexes of the AMI group on the 2nd and 7th day differed from the healthy group (P < 0.05: RMSSD = 10.37, 19.95, 24.81; RMSM = 23.47, 31.96, 43.79; LFnu = 0.79, 0.79, 0.62; HFnu = 0.20, 0.20, 0.37; LF/HF ratio = 3.87, 3.94, 1.65; ApEn = 1.01, 1.24, 1.31, respectively. There was agreement between the methods, suggesting that these have the same power to evaluate autonomic modulation of HR in both AMI patients and healthy subjects. AMI contributed to a reduction in cardiac signal irregularity, higher sympathetic modulation and lower vagal modulation.

  11. Evaluation of Mackey Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale in Iran: What Are the Psychometric Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudi, Zahra; Tavousi, Mahmoud

    2016-06-01

    With the integration of the evaluation of patient satisfaction in the overall assessment of healthcare services, authorities can be assured about the alignment of these services with patient needs and the suitability of care provided at the local level. This study was conducted in 2013 in Zahedan, Iran, in order to assess the psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the mackey childbirth satisfaction rating scale (MCSRS). For this study, a methodological design was used. After translating the MCSRS and confirming its initial validity, the questionnaires were distributed among women with uncomplicated pregnancies and no prior history of cesarean section. The participants had given birth to healthy, full-term, singletons (with cephalic presentation) via normal vaginal delivery at hospitals within the past six months. Cronbach's alpha and test-retest (via the intraclass correlation coefficient) were applied to analyze the internal consistency and reliability of the scale. Moreover, the validity of the scale was tested via exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and convergent validity. The MCSRS consists of six subscales. Through the process of validation, two partner-related items ("partner" subscale) of the scale were excluded due to cultural barriers and hospital policies. Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0.78. It ranged between 0.70 and 0.86 for five subscales, and was 0.31 for the "baby" subscale. Factor analysis confirmed the subscales of "nurse," "physician," and "baby," which were identified in the original scale. However, in the translated version, the "self" subscale was divided into two separate dimensions. The six subscales explained 70.37% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fitness for the new model. Convergent validity showed a significant correlation between the MCSRS and the SERVQUAL scale (r = 0.72, P < 0.001). Moreover, the Farsi version of the MCSRS showed excellent repeatability (r = 0

  12. Comparison of the construct validity and sensitivity to change of the visual analog scale and a modified rating scale as measures of patient global assessment in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lati, Chili; Guthrie, Lori C; Ward, Michael M

    2010-04-01

    Patient global assessment (PGA) is commonly measured using a visual analog scale (VAS). The VAS asks patients to integrate many dimensions of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity, yet its scope is poorly defined and its endpoints are vague. We investigated whether a modified Rating Scale that used marker states and more defined endpoints would provide a more valid measure of PGA. In our prospective longitudinal study, 164 patients with active RA rated their global arthritis activity using the VAS and Rating Scale before and after treatment. To compare construct validity, we correlated each score with 2 reference measures of RA activity, the 28-joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and the physician global assessment, and examined how each measure was associated with different aspects of RA activity, including pain, functioning, and depressive symptoms, in multivariate regression analyses. We also examined sensitivity to change. Both measures were correlated with the DAS28 (r = 0.39 for VAS; r = 0.35 for Rating Scale) and physician global assessment (r = 0.41 for VAS; r = 0.26 for Rating Scale) at the baseline visit. Pain and depressive symptoms had the strongest association with the VAS, while functional limitations and depressive symptoms had the strongest association with the Rating Scale. Residual analysis showed no differences in heterogeneity of patients' ratings. VAS was more sensitive to change than the Rating Scale (standardized response means of 0.55 and 0.45). As measures of PGA, the VAS and Rating Scale had comparable construct validity, but differed in which aspects of arthritis activity influenced scores. VAS was more sensitive to change.

  13. Investigating with IRT and MDS Approaches Translation and Adaptation of Rating Scales for Spanish-Speaking Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate how features of a rating scale developed for English-speaking populations interact with Spanish-speaking respondents' response styles and functional categories of judgment. A sample of 400 Spanish-speaking students took a translated scale and a scaling task developed to measure response sets and functional…

  14. Discriminant validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, B S; Scheele, L; Ward, N; Roy-Byrne, P

    2000-01-01

    The authors examined the factor structure and discriminant validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) in adults seeking evaluation for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Three factors (Dysthymia, Oppositional/Defiant Behavior, and School Problems) accounted for 59.4% of the variance. In a stepwise discriminant function analysis, age and childhood school problems emerged as significant variables. The classification procedure correctly classified 64.5% of patients. Among those who did not have ADHD, only 57.5% were correctly classified compared with 72.1% among those with ADHD. The WURS is sensitive in detecting ADHD, but it misclassifies approximately half of those who do not have ADHD.

  15. On the methodology of body image assessment: the use of figural rating scales to evaluate body dissatisfaction and the ideal body standards of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cororve Fingeret, Michelle; Gleaves, David H; Pearson, Crystal A

    2004-05-01

    We examined the use of figural rating scales to measure body dissatisfaction and the ideal body standards of women. We also attended to the potential influence of demand characteristics in body assessment research using these measures, a methodological concern largely ignored in this field. We used both within- and between-subjects designs to assess whether women hold different body standards for themselves compared to their same sex peers and whether their own ideal body size (IBS) is different from what they think men prefer. Regardless of the method of data collection (within or between design), we failed to find any differences on separate items of body image ideals. The findings do provide evidence of robust and large effects for the current-ideal discrepancy as measured by figural rating scales, but argue against including multiple questions about ideal body preferences on these types of scales. Concerns about the influence of demand characteristics were not supported by the data.

  16. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Tol, Wietse A; Luitel, Nagendra P; Maharjan, Sujen M; Upadhaya, Nawaraj

    2011-01-01

    ...) structure of response sets, and (vi) comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS...

  17. Success Rate and Technical Quality of Home Polysomnography with Self-Applicable Electrode Set in Subjects with Possible Sleep Bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Tomi; Myllymaa, Katja; Westeren-Punnonen, Susanna; Ahlberg, Jari; Hukkanen, Taina; Toyras, Juha; Lappalainen, Reijo; Mervaala, Esa; Sipila, Kirsi; Myllymaa, Sami

    2017-08-18

    Using sleep laboratory polysomnography (PSG) is restricted for the diagnosis of only the most severe sleep disorders due to its low availability and high cost. Home PSG is more affordable, but applying conventional electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes increases its overall complexity and lowers the availability. Simple, self-administered single-channel EEG monitors on the other hand suffer from poor reliability. In this study, we aimed to quantify the reliability of self-administrated home PSG recordings conducted with a newly designed ambulatory electrode set (AES) that enables multi-channel EEG, electrooculography, electromyography and electrocardiography recordings. We assessed the sleep study success rate and technical quality of the recordings performed in subjects with possible sleep bruxism (SB). Thirty-two females and five males aged 39.6±11.6 years (mean±SD) with self-reported SB were recruited in the study. Self-administrated home PSG recordings with two AES designs were conducted (n=19 and 21). The technical quality of the recordings was graded based on the proportion of interpretable data. Technical failure rate for AES (both designs) was 5% and SB was scorable for 96.9% of all recorded data. Only one recording failed due to mistakes in self-applying the AES. We found that the proportion of good quality self-administrated EEG recordings is significantly higher when multiple channels are used compared to using a single channel. Sleep study success rates and proportion of recordings with high quality interpretable data from EEG channels of AES were comparable to that of conventional home PSG. Self-applicable AES has potential to become a reliable tool for widely available home PSG.

  18. The effects of the duration of mobile phone use on heart rate variability parameters in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Berkay; Tanındı, Aslı; Ekici, Gamze; Diker, Erdem

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to estimate the influence of the duration of mobile phone use on heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy individuals. One hundred forty-eight individuals without any established systemic disease and who had undergone 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring were included in the case-control study. All the individuals had been using mobile phones for more than 10 years. Three-channel 24-h Holter monitoring was performed to derive the mean heart rate, standard deviation of normal NN intervals (SDNN), standard deviation of 5-min (m) mean NN intervals (SDANN), the proportion of NN50 divided by the total number of NNs (pNN50), the root mean square differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD), high (HF)-, low (LF)-, very low (VLF)-frequency power, total power components, and the LF/HF ratio. Individuals were divided into four groups according to their duration of mobile phone use [no mobile phone use (Control group), 60 min/day (Group 3)]. All the groups had similar features with regard to demographic and clinical characteristics. No significant arrhythmias were observed in any of the groups. The LF/HF ratio was higher, whereas the SDNN, SDANN, RMSSD, and pNN50 values were lower in the study groups than in the control group (pheart rate, VLF, and total power values (p>0.05). In this study, it was shown that the duration of mobile phone use may affect the autonomic balance in healthy subjects. The electromagnetic field created by mobile phone use may induce HRV changes in the long term.

  19. On acquiring data for large-scale crack bridging at high strain rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Massabò, R.; Cox, B.N.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations are used to design test geometries and loading histories that are suitable for probing the large-scale bridging effects of through-thickness reinforcement that is shearing at high strain rates. The bridging effects are represented by a cohesive law and tests are sought...... regimes of hammering and multiple cracking, which should be avoided when maximum information is sought. Information content is addressed by focusing on regimes within the full computed solution space where crack growth is approximately steady state and the information content of experiments can be most...... easily assessed. Numerical results show that the hypothetical rate dependence in the cohesive law causes strong and measurable changes in the regime of steady-state behavior, if the tests are properly selected to vary the crack sliding speed. The estimates of information content are conservative, because...

  20. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia: a validation study with patients exhibiting early-onset dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Hooren, S. van; Mulders, A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate some validity measures of Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) in patients with early-onset dementia (EOD). DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: Nursing home. PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 63 inpatients with

  1. Comparative validation of proxy-based montgomery-asberg depression rating scale and cornell scale for depression in dementia in nursing home residents with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Smalbrugge, M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: : To 1) compare the accuracy of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) in nursing home residents with dementia when professional caregivers are the only available source of information and 2) explore different methods

  2. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p < 0.001), expressed in normalized and absolute unit, and possibly decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency power (p < 0.01); results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p < 0.001) and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing

  3. Self-rated health of population in southern China: association with socio-demographic characteristics measured with multiple-item self-rated health measurement scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liyi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health (SRH status has been increasingly acknowledged as a valid and appropriate indicator of public health and chronic morbidity. However, limited research was conducted in China due to the different culture and socioeconomic situations. The aim of this study is to assess the SRH status of the population in Southern China using multiple-item SRH measurement scale (SRHMS. Socio-demographic characteristics including sex, age, marital status, education, and income are considered variable in this survey. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a total of 8400 community residents of 14 years old and over in Southern China. SRH status was measured using SRHMS with a stratified sampling approach, and compared between different subgroups with t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results Totally 8400 subjects were recruited in this study and 80.96% (6801 responded to the survey. The mean score for SRHMS dimensions ranged from 66.16 ± 20.65 (mean ± sd for positive emotion (M2 to 92.14 ± 14.06 for daily physical activities (B2. Results showed that SRHMS scores for women, elderly men, low education level, low income, divorced, separated or widowed and suburban residents in Southern China were significantly lower than other subgroups (P Conclusions In this study, using SRHMS we assessed the association of SRH with socio-demographic characteristics including sex, age, marital status, education, and income in Southern China. The performance of the questionnaire in the large scale survey is satisfactory and provides a large picture of SRH status in Southern China. Our results indicate that women, elderly men, low education level, low income, divorced, separated or widowed and suburban residents in Southern China suffer from relatively poor SRH status.

  4. The performance quality rating scale (PQRS): reliability, convergent validity, and internal responsiveness for two scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Rose; Rios, Jorge; Polatajko, Helene; Wolf, Timothy; McEwen, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The performance quality rating scale (PQRS) is an observational measure of performance quality of client-selected, personally meaningful activities. It has been used inconsistently with different scoring systems, and there have been no formal publications on its psychometric properties. The purpose of this study was to test and compare the psychometric properties of two PQRS scoring systems in two populations. A secondary analysis of video recorded participant-selected activities from previous studies involving either adults living with stroke or children diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) was conducted. Three pairs of raters scored the video recorded performances with PQRS operational definitions (PQRS-OD) and a generic rating system (PQRS-G). For inter-rater reliability, PQRS-OD ICCs were substantial, ranging from 0.83 to 0.93; while the PQRS-G ICCs were moderate, ranging from 0.71 to 0.77. Test-retest reliability was substantial, >0.80 (ICC), for both rating systems across all rater pairs. Internal responsiveness was high for both rating systems. Convergent validity with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was inconsistent, with scores ranging from low to moderate. Both scoring systems have demonstrated they are reliable and have good internal responsiveness. The PQRS-OD demonstrated greater consistency across raters and is more sensitive to clinically important change than the PQRS-G and should be used when greater accuracy is required. Further exploration of validity with actual rather than perceived performance measures is required.

  5. Reproducibility of heart rate variability parameters measured in healthy subjects at rest and after a postural change maneuver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Dantas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV provides important information about cardiac autonomic modulation. Since it is a noninvasive and inexpensive method, HRV has been used to evaluate several parameters of cardiovascular health. However, the internal reproducibility of this method has been challenged in some studies. Our aim was to determine the intra-individual reproducibility of HRV parameters in short-term recordings obtained in supine and orthostatic positions. Electrocardiographic (ECG recordings were obtained from 30 healthy subjects (20-49 years, 14 men using a digital apparatus (sampling ratio = 250 Hz. ECG was recorded for 10 min in the supine position and for 10 min in the orthostatic position. The procedure was repeated 2-3 h later. Time and frequency domain analyses were performed. Frequency domain included low (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz and high frequency (HF, 0.15-0.4 Hz bands. Power spectral analysis was performed by the autoregressive method and model order was set at 16. Intra-subject agreement was assessed by linear regression analysis, test of difference in variances and limits of agreement. Most HRV measures (pNN50, RMSSD, LF, HF, and LF/HF ratio were reproducible independent of body position. Better correlation indexes (r > 0.6 were obtained in the orthostatic position. Bland-Altman plots revealed that most values were inside the agreement limits, indicating concordance between measures. Only SDNN and NNv in the supine position were not reproducible. Our results showed reproducibility of HRV parameters when recorded in the same individual with a short time between two exams. The increased sympathetic activity occurring in the orthostatic position probably facilitates reproducibility of the HRV indexes.

  6. Correlation between rating scales and sleep laboratory measurements in restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Larrosa, Oscar; de la Llave, Yolanda; Granizo, Juan José; Allen, Richard

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to test the external validity of the International Restless Legs Scale (IRLS) by assessment of the correlation between IRLS scores and objective measures of severity such as polysomnography (PSG) and Suggested Immobilization Test (SIT). Correlation analysis between rating scales for RLS (IRLS and Johns Hopkins RLS Scale--JHRLSS) and sleep laboratory measurements in untreated RLS patients. The study included 30 untreated patients diagnosed with RLS according to the criteria of the International RLS Study Group. Diagnostic procedures included physical exam, laboratory analysis, PSG and a nocturnal SIT. Statistical analysis was performed by means of Spearman's correlations and Kruskal-Wallis test. IRLS correlated significantly with Periodic Leg Movement of Sleep-index (PLMS), and PLMS-arousal index during PSG as well as with Periodic Leg Movement of Wakefulness (PLMW) during SIT (SIT-PLMW) (all r=0.4; p<0.01). There was no correlation between IRLS and the number of PLMW in PSG (PSG-PLMW) or any other sleep variable during PSG. Nor was any correlation found between IRLS scores and ferritin, age, duration of illness or any other clinical variables. This study represents the first demonstration of a correlation between IRLS and objective parameters of motor dysfunction such as PLMS-index or SIT. This finding is particularly relevant for the design of future clinical trials. Furthermore, the association between PLMS and SIT-PLMW supports the view that both PLMS and PLMW might share a common mechanism.

  7. Factor analysis of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broen, M P G; Moonen, A J H; Kuijf, M L; Dujardin, K; Marsh, L; Richard, I H; Starkstein, S E; Martinez-Martin, P; Leentjens, A F G

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have validated the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and reported adequate reliability and construct validity. However, the factorial validity of the HAMD has not yet been investigated. The aim of our analysis was to explore the factor structure of the HAMD in a large sample of PD patients. A principal component analysis of the 17-item HAMD was performed on data of 341 PD patients, available from a previous cross sectional study on anxiety. An eigenvalue ≥1 was used to determine the number of factors. Factor loadings ≥0.4 in combination with oblique rotations were used to identify which variables made up the factors. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure (KMO), Cronbach's alpha, Bartlett's test, communality, percentage of non-redundant residuals and the component correlation matrix were computed to assess factor validity. KMO verified the sample's adequacy for factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha indicated a good internal consistency of the total scale. Six factors had eigenvalues ≥1 and together explained 59.19% of the variance. The number of items per factor varied from 1 to 6. Inter-item correlations within each component were low. There was a high percentage of non-redundant residuals and low communality. This analysis demonstrates that the factorial validity of the HAMD in PD is unsatisfactory. This implies that the scale is not appropriate for studying specific symptom domains of depression based on factorial structure in a PD population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship of the Wender Utah Rating Scale to objective measures of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, R Scott; Horner, Michael David

    2005-01-01

    The Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) is a 25-item self-report questionnaire for the retrospective assessment of childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms; high scores indicate greater symptoms. The current study used 35 male Veterans Affairs outpatients to determine if WURS scores were associated with objective measures of current attentional functioning, including the Trail Making Test, Gordon Diagnostic System, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised digit span and digit symbol subtests, and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised mental control subtest. Participants included both adults diagnosed with ADHD (n = 14) and non-ADHD adults (n = 21). After Bonferroni correction, Pearson product moment correlation coefficients revealed that greater symptoms on the WURS were associated with poorer digit symbol performance (r = -0.69, P < .05). To determine which indices best predicted WURS scores, scores on attention tests and demographic variables were entered into a stepwise multiple regression analysis. Digit symbol performance was the only significant predictor of WURS scores (R(2) = 0.59, P < .01). Thus, poor performance on a sensitive, but nonspecific, measure of attention with executive function, response speed, and visuomotor coordination components was related to greater self-report of childhood ADHD symptoms.

  9. Validation of Arabic and English versions of the ARSMA-II Acculturation Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadalla, Ahlam; Lee, Jerry

    2015-02-01

    To translate and adapt the Acculturation Rating Scale of Mexican-Americans II (ARSMA-II) for Arab Americans. A multistage translation process followed by a pilot and a large study. The translated and adapted versions, Acculturation Rating Scale for Arabic Americans-II Arabic and English (ARSAA-IIA, ARSAA-IIE), were validated in a sample of 297 Arab Americans. Factor analyses with principal axis factoring extractions and direct oblimin rotations were used to identify the underlying structure of ARSAA-II. Factor analysis confirmed the underlying structure of ARSAA-II and produced two interpretable factors labeled as 'Attraction to American Culture' (AAmC) and 'Attraction to Arabic Culture' (AArC). The Cronbach's alphas of AAmC and AArC were .89 and .85 respectively. Findings support ARSAA-II A & E to assess acculturation among Arab Americans. The emergent factors of ARSAA-II support the theoretical structure of the original ARSMA-II tool and show high internal consistency.

  10. Validation of the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) with Supervisors' Self-Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Elisa M; Ehrhart, Mark G; Beidas, Rinad S; Farahnak, Lauren R; Finn, Natalie K; Aarons, Gregory A

    2018-01-01

    Although often discussed, there is a lack of empirical research on the role of leadership in the management and delivery of health services. The implementation leadership scale (ILS) assesses the degree to which leaders are knowledgeable, proactive, perseverant, and supportive during evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the ILS for leaders' self-ratings using a sample of mental health clinic supervisors (N = 119). Supervisors (i.e., leaders) completed surveys including self-ratings of their implementation leadership. Confirmatory factor analysis, reliability, and validity of the ILS were evaluated. The ILS factor structure was supported in the sample of supervisors. Results demonstrated internal consistency reliability and validity. Cronbach alpha's ranged from 0.92 to 0.96 for the ILS subscales and 0.95 for the ILS overall scale. The factor structure replication and reliability of the ILS in a sample of supervisors demonstrates its applicability with employees across organizational levels.

  11. Observable Social Cognition--A Rating Scale: an interview-based assessment for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Kristin M; Combs, Dennis R; Gibson, Clare M; Keefe, Richard S E; Roberts, David L; Penn, David L

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia consistently show impairments in social cognition (SC). SC has become a potential treatment target due to its association with functional outcomes. An alternative method of assessment is to administer an observer-based scale incorporating an informant's "first hand" impressions in ratings. The present study used the Observable Social Cognition: A Rating Scale (OSCARS) in 62 outpatients and 50 non-psychiatric controls (NPCs) to assess performance in domains of SC (e.g. emotion perception, theory of mind). The OSCARS demonstrated sufficient internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed through an exploratory factor analysis. Patient OSCARS indices were not significantly correlated with measures of SC with the exception of aggressive attributional style. Individuals with less impairment in SC reacted more aggressively to ambiguous situations. NPC OSCARS were significantly correlated with measures of theory of mind and attributional style. In a combined sample of patients and controls, six of eight items were significantly correlated with the SC task assessing the same domain, providing modest evidence of convergent validity. In patients, the OSCARS was significantly correlated with measures of functional outcome and neurocognition. Last, the OSCARS was found to be significantly associated with functional outcome after the influence of objective measures of SC was statistically removed. The present study provides preliminary evidence that the OSCARS may be useful for clinicians in collecting data about patients' potential real-world SC deficits, in turn increasing the degree to which these impairments may be targeted in treatment.

  12. Pilot-scale investigation of drinking water ultrafiltration membrane fouling rates using advanced data analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Peldszus, Sigrid; Peiris, Ramila H; Ruhl, Aki S; Mehrez, Renata; Jekel, Martin; Legge, Raymond L; Huck, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale investigation of the performance of biofiltration as a pre-treatment to ultrafiltration for drinking water treatment was conducted between 2008 and 2010. The objective of this study was to further understand the fouling behaviour of ultrafiltration at pilot scale and assess the utility of different foulant monitoring tools. Various fractions of natural organic matter (NOM) and colloidal/particulate matter of raw water, biofilter effluents, and membrane permeate were characterized by employing two advanced NOM characterization techniques: liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEM) combined with principal component analysis (PCA). A framework of fouling rate quantification and classification was also developed and utilized in this study. In cases such as the present one where raw water quality and therefore fouling potential vary substantially, such classification can be considered essential for proper data interpretation. The individual and combined contributions of various NOM fractions and colloidal/particulate matter to hydraulically reversible and irreversible fouling were investigated using various multivariate statistical analysis techniques. Protein-like substances and biopolymers were identified as major contributors to both reversible and irreversible fouling, whereas colloidal/particulate matter can alleviate the extent of irreversible fouling. Humic-like substances contributed little to either reversible or irreversible fouling at low level fouling rates. The complementary nature of FEEM-PCA and LC-OCD for assessing the fouling potential of complex water matrices was also illustrated by this pilot-scale study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Subjective Well-Being in Older Chinese and Korean Immigrants in the United States: Effects of Self-Rated Health and Employment Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung; Jun, Hyeyoun; Lee, Jisun; Linton, Kristen; Kim, Meehye; Browne, Colette

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of association between self-rated health and employment status on subjective well-being among older Chinese and Korean immigrants in the United States. Data were collected from 171 Chinese and 205 Korean older adult immigrants living in Los Angeles County. The primary variables included demographic data, subjective index of well-being, self-rated health, and employment status. Data support the association between self-rated health and subjective well-being for both groups. Employment, education, and age were associated with the level of subjective well-being only for older Korean immigrants. Similarities and differences were noted in these two Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest the need to develop health promotion services for both populations and employment opportunities targeted more so for Korean older immigrants to further support their subjective well-being. Results may have implications for other for older immigrants.

  14. Comparing Cultural Differences in Two Quality Measures in Chinese Kindergartens: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and the Kindergarten Quality Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent to…

  15. Validation of a Spanish version of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halabí, Susana; Sáiz, Pilar A; Burón, Patricia; Garrido, Marlén; Benabarre, Antoni; Jiménez, Esther; Cervilla, Jorge; Navarrete, María Isabel; Díaz-Mesa, Eva M; García-Álvarez, Leticia; Muñiz, José; Posner, Kelly; Oquendo, María A; García-Portilla, María Paz; Bobes, Julio

    2016-01-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the C-SSRS (Sp-CSSRS). Data are from a naturalistic, cross-sectional, multicentre, validation study, including 467 psychiatric outpatients, 242 of whom had a history of suicide attempt. The study measures were: C-SSRS; the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS); the Beck Suicide Intent Scale; the Medical Damage Scale. Construct validity: Pearson coefficient between the C-SSRS severity (C-Sev) and intensity (C-Int) of ideation subscale scores was 0.44 (P<.000) for the total sample. Likewise, Pearson coefficient between C-Sev score and HDRS item 3 was 0.56 (P<.000). For the sub-sample of patients with suicide attempt, significant Pearson correlations were found between the C-Sev and the Beck Suicide Intent Scale scores (r=0.22; P=.001). Discriminant validity: Significant differences were found in C-Sev and C-Int scores between patients with and without suicide attempt (P<.000). The C-Sev score discriminated between patients based on HDRS item 3 (P<.009). Sensitivity to change: Linear regression showed that a one-unit decrease in HDRS item 3 corresponded to a decrease of 5.08 units in the C-Sev score (P=.141). A one-unit change in HDRS item 3 corresponded to a change of 13.51 on the C-Int assessments (P=.007). Cronbach's alpha was 0.53 for C-Int. The principal component analysis identified 2 components that explain 55.66% of the total variance (C-Int). The data support that the Sp-C-SSRS is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing suicidal ideation and behaviour in daily clinical practice and research settings. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychometric evaluation of the altered states of consciousness rating scale (OAV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Studerus

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The OAV questionnaire has been developed to integrate research on altered states of consciousness (ASC. It measures three primary and one secondary dimensions of ASC that are hypothesized to be invariant across ASC induction methods. The OAV rating scale has been in use for more than 20 years and applied internationally in a broad range of research fields, yet its factorial structure has never been tested by structural equation modeling techniques and its psychometric properties have never been examined in large samples of experimentally induced ASC.The present study conducted a psychometric evaluation of the OAV in a sample of psilocybin (n = 327, ketamine (n = 162, and MDMA (n = 102 induced ASC that was obtained by pooling data from 43 experimental studies. The factorial structure was examined by confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, hierarchical item clustering (ICLUST, and multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC modeling. The originally proposed model did not fit the data well even if zero-constraints on non-target factor loadings and residual correlations were relaxed. Furthermore, ICLUST suggested that the "oceanic boundlessness" and "visionary restructuralization" factors could be combined on a high level of the construct hierarchy. However, because these factors were multidimensional, we extracted and examined 11 new lower order factors. MIMIC modeling indicated that these factors were highly measurement invariant across drugs, settings, questionnaire versions, and sexes. The new factors were also demonstrated to have improved homogeneities, satisfactory reliabilities, discriminant and convergent validities, and to differentiate well among the three drug groups.The original scales of the OAV were shown to be multidimensional constructs. Eleven new lower order scales were constructed and demonstrated to have desirable psychometric properties. The new lower order scales are most likely better suited to

  17. Sensory Processing Sensitivity: Factors of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale and Their relationships to Personality and Subjective Health Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listou Grimen, Hanne; Diseth, Åge

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure of a Norwegian version of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS) and to investigate how sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) is related to personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, and openness and to subjective health complaints (SHC) in a sample of 167 undergraduate psychology students. The results showed that the variance in a shortened version of the HSPS was best described by three separate factors: ease of excitation (EOE), aesthetic sensitivity (AES), and low sensory threshold (LST). Furthermore, the result showed than an overall SPS factor (EOE, LST, and AES combined) was predicted positively by neuroticism and openness and negatively by extraversion. With respect to SHC, the results showed that EOE and LST were positively associated with psychological health complaints. However, the personality trait of neuroticism contributed more than the SPS factors as predictor of SHC. In conclusion, the present study supported a shortened version of the HSPS and its relation to personality factors and SHC. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. [Development of a Japanese version of the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), and examination of its validity and reliability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimai, Satoshi; Otake, Keiko; Utsuki, Narisuke; Ikemi, Akira; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a Japanese version of the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) and to examine its validity and reliability. The four items of the English SHS were translated into Japanese. These Japanese items were back-translated into English, and verified by one of the developers of the original SHS. The participants were 364 Japanese undergraduate students (158 males and 206 females). They were asked to answer the questionnaire including the Japanese SHS, five items concerning positive health and self-esteem, and the Japanese General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The stability of the Japanese SHS was examined over a five-week time period. It was shown that the Japanese SHS was highly internal consistent with alphas of .80 for males and .84 for females. As for the test-rest reliability, a high correlation (r = .86) was found after five-week. One factor structure and factor loadings emerged clearly from factor analysis. The scores of the Japanese SHS correlated positively with positive health and self-esteem. Furthermore, they were significantly greater in the healthy group than in the unhealthy one, from the GHQ scores, especially for depression. These findings suggest that the Japanese version of SHS has internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity.

  19. Allometry and Scaling of the Intraocular Pressure and Aqueous Humour Flow Rate in Vertebrate Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouache, Moussa A.; Eames, Ian; Samsudin, Amir

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates, intraocular pressure (IOP) is required to maintain the eye into a shape allowing it to function as an optical instrument. It is sustained by the balance between the production of aqueous humour by the ciliary body and the resistance to its outflow from the eye. Dysregulation of the IOP is often pathological to vision. High IOP may lead to glaucoma, which is in man the second most prevalent cause of blindness. Here, we examine the importance of the IOP and rate of formation of aqueous humour in the development of vertebrate eyes by performing allometric and scaling analyses of the forces acting on the eye during head movement and the energy demands of the cornea, and testing the predictions of the models against a list of measurements in vertebrates collated through a systematic review. We show that the IOP has a weak dependence on body mass, and that in order to maintain the focal length of the eye, it needs to be an order of magnitude greater than the pressure drop across the eye resulting from gravity or head movement. This constitutes an evolutionary constraint that is common to all vertebrates. In animals with cornea-based optics, this constraint also represents a condition to maintain visual acuity. Estimated IOPs were found to increase with the evolution of terrestrial animals. The rate of formation of aqueous humour was found to be adjusted to the metabolic requirements of the cornea, scaling as Vac0.67, where Vac is the volume of the anterior chamber. The present work highlights an interdependence between IOP and aqueous flow rate crucial to ocular function that must be considered to understand the evolution of the dioptric apparatus. It should also be taken into consideration in the prevention and treatment of glaucoma. PMID:26990431

  20. Responsiveness of the activities of daily living scale of the knee outcome survey and numeric pain rating scale in patients with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Sara R; Gil, Alexandra B; Moore, Charity G; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2009-02-01

    To assess internal and external responsiveness of the Activity of Daily Living Scale of the Knee Outcome Survey and Numeric Pain Rating Scale on patients with patellofemoral pain. One group pre-post design. A total of 60 individuals with patellofemoral pain (33 women; mean age 29.9 (standard deviation 9.6) years). The Activity of Daily Living Scale and the Numeric Pain Rating Scale were assessed before and after 8 weeks of physical therapy program. Patients completed a global rating of change scale at the end of therapy. The standardized effect size, Guyatt responsiveness index, and the minimum clinical important difference were calculated. Standardized effect size of the Activity of Daily Living Scale was 0.63, Guyatt responsiveness index was 1.4, area under the curve was 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.72, 0.94), and the minimum clinical important difference corresponded to an increase of 7.1 percentile points. Standardized effect size of the Numeric Pain Rating Scale was 0.72, Guyatt responsiveness index was 2.2, area under the curve was 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.70, 0.92), and the minimum clinical important difference corresponded to a decrease of 1.16 points. Information from this study may be helpful to therapists when evaluating the effectiveness of rehabilitation intervention on physical function and pain, and to power future clinical trials on patients with patellofemoral pain.

  1. Metabolic rate and cardiorespiratory response during hybrid cycling versus handcycling at equal subjective exercise intensity levels in people with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, Arjan J. T.; de Groot, Sonja; Onderwater, Mark Q.; de Jong, Jelle; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the metabolic rate and cardiorespiratory response during hybrid cycling versus handcycling at equal subjective exercise intensity levels in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Amsterdam Rehabilitation Research Centre vertical bar Reade,

  2. Language and behavior domains enhance the value of the clinical dementia rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopman, David S; Weintraub, Sandra; Pankratz, Vernon S

    2011-05-01

    The six domain standard Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDRstd) has been successful for staging patients with the clinical syndrome of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). The CDRstd does not specifically address language dysfunction or alteration in personality and social behaviors which are prominent in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To determine the value of adding domains of Language (LANG), and Behavior, Comportment, and Personality (BEHAV) to the CDRstd for the evaluation of patients with bvFTD and PPA. Two new domains, LANG and BEHAV, were constructed to parallel the six domains sampled in the CDRstd. Clinical and neuropsychological test data were obtained from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center. The dataset contained information on 2550 probable AD, 88 vascular dementia, 281 dementia with Lewy body, 234 bvFTD, and 137 PPA patients. There were 76.5% of bvFTD and 99.3% of PPA patients with abnormal ratings (>0) on the LANG domain; 90.2% of bvFTD and 63.5% of PPA had abnormal ratings on the BEHAV domain. In patients with a CDRstd sum of boxes score of domain and 78.6% of PPA patients had LANG domain scores>1. Among probable AD patients, 3.7% had LANG ratings that were ≥1 and 3.8% had BEHAV ratings that were ≥1. Logistic regression analyses showed that adding either the LANG or BEHAV domains to the CDRstd sum of boxes score significantly improved the discrimination between probable AD, bvFTD, and PPA. The new LANG and BEHAV domains add value to the CDRstd for the characterization of the nonamnestic symptoms that are prominent in patients with bvFTD and PPA but that also occur in those with probable AD. Copyright © 2011 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Usefulness of medial temporal lobe atrophy visual rating scale in detecting Alzheimer′s disease: Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyeok Heo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Korean version of Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE and the Korean version of Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination (K-ACE have been validated as quick neuropsychological tests for screening dementia in various clinical settings. Medial temporal atrophy (MTA is an early pathological characteristic of Alzheimer′s disease (AD. We aimed to assess the diagnostic validity of the fusion of the neuropsychological test and visual rating scale (VRS of MTA in AD. Materials and Methods: A total of fifty subjects (25 AD, 25 controls were included. The neuropsychological tests used were the K-MMSE and the K-ACE. T1 axial imaging visual rating scale (VRS was applied for assessing the grade of MTA. We calculated the fusion score with the difference of neuropsychological test and VRS of MTA. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve was used to determine optimal cut-off score, sensitivity and specificity of the fusion scores in screening AD. Results: No significant differences in age, gender and education were found between AD and control group. The values of K-MMSE, K-ACE, CDR, VRS and cognitive function test minus VRS were significantly lower in the AD group than control group. The AUC (Area under the curve, sensitivity and specificity for K-MMSE minus VRS were 0.857, 84% and 80% and for K-ACE minus VRS were 0.884, 80% and 88%, respectively. Those for K-MMSE only were 0.842, 76% and 72% and for K-ACE only were 0.868, 80% and 88%, respectively. Conclusions: The fusion of the neuropsychological test and VRS suggested clinical usefulness in their easy and superiority over neuropsychological test only. However, this study failed to find any difference. This may be because of small numbers in the study or because there is no true difference.

  4. Wear rates of highly cross-linked polyethylene humeral liners subjected to alternating cycles of glenohumeral flexion and abduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Sebastian; Moravek, James E; Budge, Matthew D; Newton, Michael D; Kurdziel, Michael D; Baker, Kevin C; Wiater, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    Although short-term outcomes of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty have been promising, long-term success may be limited due to device-specific complications, including scapular notching. Scapular notching has been explained primarily as mechanical erosion; however, the generation of wear debris may lead to further biologic changes contributing to the severity of scapular notching. A 12-station hip simulator was converted to a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty wear simulator subjecting conventional and highly cross-linked ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene humeral liners to 5 million cycles of alternating abduction-adduction and flexion-extension loading profiles. Highly cross-linked polyethylene liners (36.5 ± 10.0 mm(3)/million cycle) exhibited significantly lower volumetric wear rates compared with conventional polyethylene liners (83.6 ± 20.6 mm(3)/million cycle; P linked polyethylene (P linked wear particles had an equivalent circle diameter significantly smaller than wear particles from conventional polyethylene (P linked polyethylene liners significantly reduced polyethylene wear and subsequent particle generation. More favorable wear properties with the use of highly cross-linked polyethylene may lead to increased device longevity and fewer complications but must be weighed against the effect of reduced mechanical properties. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Combining electroencephalographic activity and instantaneous heart rate for assessing brain-heart dynamics during visual emotional elicitation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, G; Greco, A; Gentili, C; Lanata, A; Sebastiani, L; Menicucci, D; Gemignani, A; Scilingo, E P

    2016-05-13

    Emotion perception, occurring in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, involves autonomic responses affecting cardiovascular dynamics. However, how such brain-heart dynamics is further modulated by emotional valence (pleasantness/unpleasantness), also considering different arousing levels (the intensity of the emotional stimuli), is still unknown. To this extent, we combined electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics and instantaneous heart rate estimates to study emotional processing in healthy subjects. Twenty-two healthy volunteers were elicited through affective pictures gathered from the International Affective Picture System. The experimental protocol foresaw 110 pictures, each of which lasted 10 s, associated to 25 different combinations of arousal and valence levels, including neutral elicitations. EEG data were processed using short-time Fourier transforms to obtain time-varying maps of cortical activation, whereas the associated instantaneous cardiovascular dynamics was estimated in the time and frequency domains through inhomogeneous point-process models. Brain-heart linear and nonlinear coupling was estimated through the maximal information coefficient (MIC). Considering EEG oscillations in theθband (4-8 Hz), MIC highlighted significant arousal-dependent changes between positive and negative stimuli, especially occurring at intermediate arousing levels through the prefrontal cortex interplay. Moreover, high arousing elicitations seem to mitigate changes in brain-heart dynamics in response to pleasant/unpleasant visual elicitation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Interactions between long and synoptic-scale waves. I - Instability of a nonzonal flow. II - Growth rate of long waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisuzaki, Wesley

    1989-01-01

    The interactions between synoptic-scale and long waves were investigated analytically. First, the influence of the long wave on the synoptic-scale wave is examined. The structure of a synoptic-scale wave growing on a wavy basic scale was analyzed under an assumption that the synoptic-scale waves have the structure of the most unstable normal modes. The derived analytical solution, which is simple and is amenable to physical interpretation, can be understood in terms of eddies and their local growth rate. The analytical solution is then used to examine growth of a long wave in the presence of parameterized synoptic-scale waves. Two possibly unstable solutions were found; one is a modification of the linear long wave, and the other a strongly nonlinear solution. In both cases, the synoptic-scale wave increases the growth rate of the long wave.

  7. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Nuria eRuffini; Giandomenico eD'alessandro; Nicolò eMariani; Alberto ePollastrelli; Lucia eCardinali; Francesco eCerritelli

    2015-01-01

    Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-ar...

  8. Predicting SF-6D utility scores from the Neck Disability Index and Numeric Rating Scales for Neck and Arm Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Leah Y.; Anderson, Paul A.; McDonough, Christine M.; Djurasovic, Mladen; Glassman, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional cohort Objective This study aims to provide an algorithm estimate SF-6D utilities using data from the NDI, neck pain and arm pain scores. Summary of Background Data Although cost-utility analysis is increasingly used to provide information about the relative value of alternative interventions, health state values or utilities are rarely available from clinical trial data. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) and numeric rating scales for neck and arm pain, are widely used disease-specific measures of symptoms, function and disability in patients with cervical degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study is to provide an algorithm to allow estimation of SF-6D utilities using data from the NDI, and numeric rating scales for neck and arm pain. Methods SF-36, NDI, neck and arm pain rating scale scores were prospectively collected pre-operatively, at 12 and 24 months post-operatively in 2080 patients undergoing cervical fusion for degenerative disorders. SF-6D utilities were computed and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated for paired observations from multiple time points between NDI, neck and arm pain scores and SF-6D utility scores. SF-6D scores were estimated from the NDI, neck and arm pain scores using a linear regression model. Using a separate, independent dataset of 396 patients in which and NDI scores were available SF-6D was estimated for each subject and compared to their actual SF-6D. Results The mean age for those in the development sample, was 50.4 ± 11.0 years and 33% were male. In the validation sample the mean age was 53.1 ± 9.9 years and 35% were male. Correlations between the SF-6D and the NDI, neck and arm pain scores were statistically significant (p<0.0001) with correlation coefficients of 0.82, 0.62, and 0.50 respectively. The regression equation using NDI alone to predict SF-6D had an R2 of 0.66 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.056. In the validation analysis, there was no statistically

  9. Relationship between Dehalococcoides DNA in ground water and rates of reductive dechlorination at field scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoxia; Wilson, John T; Kampbell, Donald H

    2006-09-01

    Certain strains of Dehalococcoides bacteria can dechlorinate chlorinated ethylenes to harmless products. This study was conducted to determine if there is a valid association between the density of Dehalococcoides DNA in ground water and the observed rates of reductive dechlorination at field scale. Dehalococcoides DNA in water from monitoring wells was determined using the quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) with DNA primer set specific for Dehalococcoides organisms. Dechlorination rate constants were extracted from field data using the BIOCHLOR software. Of the six conventional plumes surveyed, "generally useful" rates of dechlorination (greater than or equal to 0.3 per year) of cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) along the flow path were observed at three sites where Dehalococcoides DNA was detected, and little attenuation of cis-DCE and VC occurred at two sites where Dehalococcoides DNA was not detected. At the two sites where there was no net direction of ground water flow, the relationship between the density of Dehalococcoides DNA in ground water and the trend in concentrations of chlorinated ethylenes over time in monitoring wells was not so consistent as that observed for the conventional plumes. A comparison of our study to a field study performed by Lendvay and his coworker indicated that monitoring wells did not efficiently sample the Dehalococcoides organisms in the aquifer.

  10. Large-scale international validation of the ADO index in subjects with COPD: an individual subject data analysis of 10 cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhan, Milo A; Hansel, Nadia N; Sobradillo, Patricia; Enright, Paul; Lange, Peter; Hickson, DeMarc; Menezes, Ana M; ter Riet, Gerben; Held, Ulrike; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Mosenifar, Zab; Antó, Josep M; Moons, Karel G M; Kessels, Alphons; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Background Little evidence on the validity of simple and widely applicable tools to predict mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exists. Objective To conduct a large international study to validate the ADO index that uses age, dyspnoea and FEV1 to predict 3-year mortality and to update it in order to make prediction of mortality in COPD patients as generalisable as possible. Design Individual subject data analysis of 10 European and American cohorts (n=13 914). Setting Population-based, primary, secondary and tertiary care. Patients COPD GOLD stages I–IV. Measurements We validated the original ADO index. We then obtained an updated ADO index in half of our cohorts to improve its predictive accuracy, which in turn was validated comprehensively in the remaining cohorts using discrimination, calibration and decision curve analysis and a number of sensitivity analyses. Results 1350 (9.7%) of all subjects with COPD (60% male, mean age 61 years, mean FEV1 66% predicted) had died at 3 years. The original ADO index showed high discrimination but poor calibration (p<0.001 for difference between predicted and observed risk). The updated ADO index (scores from 0 to 14) preserved excellent discrimination (area under curve 0.81, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.82) but showed much improved calibration with predicted 3-year risks from 0.7% (95% CI 0.6% to 0.9%, score of 0) to 64.5% (61.2% to 67.7%, score of 14). The ADO index showed higher net benefit in subjects at low-to-moderate risk of 3-year mortality than FEV1 alone. Interpretation The updated 15-point ADO index accurately predicts 3-year mortality across the COPD severity spectrum and can be used to inform patients about their prognosis, clinical trial study design or benefit harm assessment of medical interventions. PMID:23242246

  11. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE)--A Systematic Review of Rating Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students' communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed in order to yield psychometrically

  12. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) - A Systematic Review of Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students’ communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Results Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Discussion Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed

  13. Monitoring improvement using a patient-rated depression scale during treatment with anti-depressants in general practice. A validation study on the Goldberg Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, J; Holm, L; Bech, P

    2001-12-01

    To perform a pilot study on the value of the Goldberg Depression Scale as an instrument for monitoring improvement in depressed patients treated with anti-depressants in general practice. A comparative study using simultaneous ratings on the observer-based 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale and the patient-rated Goldberg Depression Scale. General practice. Twenty-one patients meeting the ICD-10 criteria of a moderate depressive episode were assessed at the time of inclusion and through three follow-up visits. Scores on the Goldberg Depression Scale compared to the Hamilton Depression Scale. An acceptable internal and external validity of the Goldberg Depression Scale was demonstrated. The Loevinger coefficient varied from 0.25 at the time of diagnosis to 0.57, 0.65 and 0.69 by visits two, three and four. Factor analysis identified only one general factor explaining 50% or more of the variants, except at visit 1. When the Goldberg Depression Scale was correlated to the Hamilton Depression Scales, a coefficient of 0.74 was obtained (p Goldberg Depression Scale is suitable for monitoring improvement in depressed patients treated in general practice. Further studies are recommended.

  14. [Psychometric attributes of the Parkinson's Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale. An independent validation study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martín, P; Prieto-Jurczynska, C; Frades-Payo, B

    To perform an independent evaluation of the psychometric attributes of the Parkinson's Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS). The study involved patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) free of any impediments preventing them from participating in the required evaluation. Sociodemographic and historical data were collected for use in this observational, cross-sectional study and the following evaluations were employed: Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Motor Scale (SCOPA-Motor), Hoehn and Yahr staging (HY), Clinical Impression of Severity Index for Parkinson's Disease (CISI-PD), Minimental State Examination (MMSE), SCOPA-Cognitive (SCOPA-Cog), Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire and PD-CRS. Acceptability, internal consistence, construct validity and precision of the PD-CRS were analysed. The sample consisted of 50 patients, with a mean age of 63.6 +/- 9.3 years. In all, 66% were males, with a history of 9 +/- 5.7 years with PD, in HY stages 1 to 4. Twelve patients (24%) presented data suggestive of dementia. The PD-CRS score was: sub-cortical sub-scale: 60.9 +/- 16.5; cortical sub-scale: 27.9 +/- 4.4; and total PD-CRS: 88.7 +/- 19.8. The mean-median difference was < 10% of the maximum scores and the total score showed no ceiling or floor effect. Cronbach's alpha was 0.85; the item-total correlations ranged from 0.57 (naming) to 0.73 (working memory), and the homogeneity index of the items was 0.36. Correlation with the MMSE and the SCOPA-Cog was high (rS = 0.53 and 0.77). The PD-CRS score was significantly lower in patients with a low level of schooling and more severe PD according to levels on the CISI-PD and distinguished between patients with and without dementia (70.3 +/- 26.2 versus 94.5 +/- 13; p < 0.001. The standard error of the measurement was 1.98. The levels of acceptability, internal consistence, construct validity and precision displayed by the PD-CRS were satisfactory.

  15. Evaluation of three-dimensional navigator-gated whole heart MR coronary angiography: The importance of systolic imaging in subjects with high heart rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yenwen [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoinkawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Tadamura, Eiji [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoinkawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)]. E-mail: et@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Yamamuro, Masaki [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoinkawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kanao, Shotaro [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoinkawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nakayama, Kazuki [Department of Radiology, Sakazaki Clinic, 11 Nishinokyoshimoai-cho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8436 (Japan); Togashi, Kaori [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoinkawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2007-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of heart rate (HR) on magnetic resonance coronary angiography (MRCA) image quality in diastolic and systolic phases. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven healthy volunteers (9 men; 33 {+-} 9 years, HR 53-110 bpm), were evaluated with the electrocardiography and three-dimensional navigator-gating MRCA in a 1.5-T MR scanner (Avanto, Siemens) in diastolic and systolic phases (steady-state free precession; TR/TE/flip angle = 3.2 ms/1.6 ms/90{sup o}). The timing of scanning was individually adapted to the cardiac rest periods obtained in the prescanning, by visually identifying when the movement of right coronary artery was minimized during diastole and systole. Images of two phases were side-by-side compared on a four-point scale (from 1 = poor to 4 = excellent visibility; score of 3 or 4 as diagnostic). Results: Of 13 subjects with HR {<=}65 bpm (low HR group, mean 59.8 {+-} 4.9 bpm, range 53-65), the image quality scores were significantly better than that with higher heart rates (73.9 {+-} 9.0 bpm, range 68-110) in diastolic MRCA. The image quality was significantly improved during systole in high HR group. Overall, 91.3% of low HR group had MRCA image of diagnostic quality acquired at diastole, while 88.3% of high HR group had diagnostic images at systole by segmental analysis (p = NS). Conclusions: MRCA at systole offered superior quality in patients with high heart rates.

  16. Optimal fertilizer nitrogen rates and yield-scaled global warming potential in drill seeded rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adviento-Borbe, Maria Arlene; Pittelkow, Cameron M; Anders, Merle; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; McClung, Anna M; Six, Johan; Linquist, Bruce A

    2013-11-01

    Drill seeded rice ( L.) is the dominant rice cultivation practice in the United States. Although drill seeded systems can lead to significant CH and NO emissions due to anaerobic and aerobic soil conditions, the relationship between high-yielding management practices, particularly fertilizer N management, and total global warming potential (GWP) remains unclear. We conducted three field experiments in California and Arkansas to test the hypothesis that by optimizing grain yield through N management, the lowest yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP = GWP Mg grain) is achieved. Each growing season, urea was applied at rates ranging from 0 to 224 kg N ha before the permanent flood. Emissions of CH and NO were measured daily to weekly during growing seasons and fallow periods. Annual CH emissions ranged from 9.3 to 193 kg CH-C ha yr across sites, and annual NO emissions averaged 1.3 kg NO-N ha yr. Relative to NO emissions, CH dominated growing season (82%) and annual (68%) GWP. The impacts of fertilizer N rates on GHG fluxes were confined to the growing season, with increasing N rate having little effect on CH emissions but contributing to greater NO emissions during nonflooded periods. The fallow period contributed between 7 and 39% of annual GWP across sites years. This finding illustrates the need to include fallow period measurements in annual emissions estimates. Growing season GWP ranged from 130 to 686 kg CO eq Mg season across sites and years. Fertilizer N rate had no significant effect on GWP; therefore, achieving the highest productivity is not at the cost of higher GWP. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale to Diagnose Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James A.; Barton, Marianne L.; Fein, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the childhood autism rating scale (CARS) as a tool for ASD diagnoses for 2-year-old (n = 376) and 4-year-old (n = 230) children referred for possible autism. The cut-off score to distinguish autistic disorder from PDD-NOS was 32 in the 2-year-old sample (consistent with Lord in J Child Psychol Psychiatry Allied Discipl, 36, 1365–1382, 1995), and 30 in the 4-year-old sample, with good sensitivity and specificity at both ages. The cut-off score to distinguish ASD from non-ASD at both ages was 25.5, with good sensitivity and specificity. Results confirm the utility of the CARS in distinguishing autistic disorder from PDD-NOS, and distinguishing ASD from other developmental disorders and typical development and suggest that an ASD cutoff around 25, which is in common clinical use, is valid. PMID:20054630

  18. A Simple Single Item Rating Scale to Measure Medication Adherence: Further Evidence for Convergent Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-report measures of medication adherence are inexpensive and minimally intrusive. However, the validity of self-reported adherence is compromised by recall errors for missed doses and socially desirable responding. Method Examined the convergent validity of two self-report adherence measures administered by computerized interview: (a) recall of missed doses and (b) a single item visual analogue rating scale (VAS). Adherence was also monitored using unannounced phone-based pill counts which served as an objective benchmark. Results The VAS obtained adherence estimates that paralleled unannounced pill counts. In contrast, self-reported recall of missed medications consistently over-estimated adherence. Correlations with participant characteristics also suggested that the computer administered VAS was less influenced by response biases than self-reported recall of missed medication doses. Conclusions A single item VAS offers an inexpensive and valid method of assessing medication adherence that may be useful in clinical as well as research settings. PMID:19952289

  19. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, I J; Ditchburn, R G; Whitehead, N E

    2000-01-01

    sup 7 Be produced in water targets by nuclear interactions of cosmic rays has been measured to determine cosmogenic nuclide production rates as a function of altitude (sea level to 2 km) and geomagnetic latitude (20-79 deg. S). Relative intensities of low energy cosmic ray neutrons have at the same time been measured using neutron monitors based on IGY/NM-64 designed to efficiently thermalise ca. 2-30 MeV neutrons. The research is on-going and we present here preliminary data from the past two years. Water target and neutron flux results are in general agreement, and are consistent with the altitude-dependent scaling factors of Lal [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104 (1991) 4241]. Significant differences between the sea level, latitude-dependent neutron flux data and Lal's predictions are possibly related to the response function of the detector.

  20. Psychometric evaluation and experimental validation of the statistics anxiety rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai; Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Heene, Moritz; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Schulter, Günter; Freudenthaler, H Harald

    2012-01-01

    The Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS) was adapted into German to examine its psychometric properties (n = 400). Two validation studies (n = 66, n = 96) were conducted to examine its criterion-related validity. The psychometric properties of the questionnaire were very similar to those previously reported for the original English version in various countries and other language versions. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated 2 second-order factors: One was more closely related to anxiety and the other was more closely related to negative attitudes toward statistics. Predictive validity of the STARS was shown both in an experimental exam-like situation in the laboratory and during a real examination situation. Taken together, the findings indicate that statistics anxiety as assessed by the STARS is a useful construct that is more than just an expression of a more general disposition to anxiety.

  1. Brazilian version of the Mattis dementia rating scale: diagnosis of mild dementia in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto Cláudia S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To verify the diagnostic accuracy of the Brazilian version of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (DRS in the diagnosis of patients with mild dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD; to verify the interference of the variables age and schooling on the performance of the DRS. METHOD: The DRS was administered to 41 patients with mild AD and to 60 controls. In order to analyze the effects of age and schooling on the performance of the tests, patients and controls were separated into three age groups and three levels of schooling. RESULTS: The cutoff score of 122 showed a sensitivity of 91.7 % and specificity of 87.8 %. Age and schooling interfered in the DRS total score and in the scores of its subscales. CONCLUSION: The DRS showed good diagnostic accuracy in the discrimination of patients with mild AD from the control individuals. In the sample examined, the effects of schooling were more marked than age.

  2. Therapist interventions using the Psychodynamic Interventions Rating Scale (PIRS) in dynamic therapy, psychoanalysis and CBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banon, Elisabeth; Perry, John Christopher; Semeniuk, Trent; Bond, Michael; de Roten, Yves; Hersoug, Anne Grete; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    One requirement for psychotherapy research is an accurate assessment of therapeutic interventions across studies. This study compared frequency and depth of therapist interventions from a dynamic perspective across four studies, conducted in four countries, including three treatment arms of psychodynamic psychotherapy, and one each of psychoanalysis and CBT. All studies used the Psychodynamic Intervention Rating Scales (PIRS) to identify 10 interventions from transcribed whole sessions early and later in treatment. The PIRS adequately categorized all interventions, except in CBT (only 91-93% categorized). As hypothesized, interpretations were present in all dynamic therapies and relatively absent in CBT. Proportions of interpretations increased over time. Defense interpretations were more common than transference interpretations, which were most prevalent in psychoanalysis. Depth of interpretations also increased over time. These data can serve as norms for measuring where on the supportive-interpretive continuum a dynamic treatment lies, as well as identify potentially mutative interventions for further process and outcome study.

  3. Predictive Validity of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale for Short-Term Suicidal Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Erlangsen, Annette; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), we examined the predictive and incremental predictive validity of past-month suicidal behavior and ideation for short-term suicidal behavior among adolescents at a high risk of suicide. Methods: The study was conducted in 2014...... behavior predicted subsequent suicidal behavior (actual attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, including preparatory acts, aborted, interrupted and actual attempts; mean follow-up of 80.8 days, SD = 52.4). Furthermore, we examined whether suicidal ideation severity and intensity incrementally...... predicted suicidal behavior at follow-up over and above suicidal behavior at baseline. Results: Actual suicide attempts at baseline strongly predicted suicide attempts at follow-up. Baseline suicidal ideation severity and intensity did not significantly predict future actual attempts over and above baseline...

  4. The Revised Body Awareness Rating Questionnaire: Development Into a Unidimensional Scale Using Rasch Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragesund, Tove; Strand, Liv Inger; Grotle, Margreth

    2018-02-01

    The Body Awareness Rating Questionnaire (BARQ) is a self-report questionnaire aimed at cap