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Sample records for subjective pilot ratings

  1. Effects of music therapy on subjective sensations and heart rate variability in treated cancer survivors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chih-Yuan; Han, Wei-Ru; Li, Pei-Chun; Young, Shuenn-Tsong

    2010-10-01

    Data on the effects of music therapy on subjective sensations and the physiological parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) in treated cancer survivors are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not music therapy affects the sensations of fatigue, comfort, and relaxation in cancer survivors, and affects the activities of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems as indicated by HRV parameters. Twenty-three patients aged 30-67 years and with cancer that had been treated at least 6 months previously received music therapy for about 2h, which included singing, listening to music, learning the recorder, and performing music. Subjective sensations and electrocardiogram were recorded before and after the music therapy. The low-frequency and high-frequency components of HRV were assessed by the frequency analysis of sequential R wave to R wave intervals of electrocardiogram obtained from 5-min recordings. Subjective sensations were quantitatively assessed using a visual analog mood scale. Two hours of music therapy significantly increased relaxation sensations and significantly decreased fatigue sensation in treated cancer survivors. Moreover, the HRV parameters showed that parasympathetic nervous system activity increased and sympathetic nervous system activity decreased. This study provides preliminary evidence that music therapy may be clinically useful for promoting relaxation sensation and increasing parasympathetic nervous system activity in treated cancer survivors. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. 14 CFR 141.11 - Pilot school ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...). (i) Recreational pilot course. (ii) Private pilot course. (iii) Commercial pilot course. (iv... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot school ratings. 141.11 Section 141.11... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS General § 141.11 Pilot school ratings. (a) The ratings listed...

  3. Rate of information processing and reaction time of aircraft pilots and non-pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Barkhuizen

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Reaction time and rate of information processing are cited as critical components in the make-up of pilots. A need was identified to establish the validity of various chronometric measures in the selection of pilots. Fifty-eight military and commercial pilots and twenty non-pilots were subjected to Schepers’ Computerised Information Processing Test Battery, which measures reaction time, form discrimination time, colour discrimination time, rate of information processing (perceptual and rate of information processing (conceptual. Five hypotheses and one postulate were formulated and tested. The results indicate that pilots could be differentiated from non-pilots with 92,3% accuracy. However, the results need to be cross-validated before they are used for selection. Opsomming Reaksietyd en tempo van inligtingverwerking word as kritieke komponente in die samestelling van vlieëniers beskou. ‘n Behoefte is geïdentifiseer om die geldigheid van verskeie chronometriese metinge in vlieënierskeuring te bepaal. Agt en vyftig militêre en kommersiële vlieëniers en twintig nie-vlieëniers is onderwerp aan Schepers se Gerekenariseerde Inligtingverwerkingstoets-battery wat reaksietyd, vormdiskriminasietyd, kleurdiskriminasietyd, tempo van inligtingverwerking (perseptueel en tempo van inligtingverwerking (konseptueel meet. Vyf hipoteses en een postulaat is gestel en getoets. Die resultate dui daarop dat vlieëniers met 92,3% akkuraatheid van nievlieëniers onderskei kan word. Die resultate behoort egter eers gekruisvalideer te word voordat dit finaal vir keuring gebruik kan word.

  4. The sleep, subjective fatigue, and sustained attention of commercial airline pilots during an international pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Renée M; Roach, Gregory D; Dawson, Drew; Lamond, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    International commercial airline pilots may experience heightened fatigue due to irregular sleep schedules, long duty days, night flying, and multiple time zone changes. Importantly, current commercial airline flight and duty time regulations are based on work/rest factors and not sleep/wake factors. Consequently, the primary aim of the current study was to investigate pilots' amount of sleep, subjective fatigue, and sustained attention before and after international flights. A secondary aim was to determine whether prior sleep and/or duty history predicted pilots' subjective fatigue and sustained attention during the international flights. Nineteen pilots (ten captains, nine first officers; mean age: 47.42+/-7.52 years) participated. Pilots wore wrist activity monitors and completed sleep and duty diaries during a return pattern from Australia to Europe via Asia. The pattern included four flights: Australia-Asia, Asia-Europe, Europe-Asia, and Asia-Australia. Before and after each flight, pilots completed a 5 min PalmPilot-based psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and self-rated their level of fatigue using the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Checklist. Separate repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine the impact of stage of flight and flight sector on the pilots' sleep in the prior 24 h, self-rated fatigue, and PVT mean response speed. Linear mixed model regression analyses were conducted to examine the impact of sleep in the prior 24 h, prior wake, duty length, and flight sector on pilots' self-rated fatigue and sustained attention before and after the international flights. A significant main effect of stage of flight was found for sleep in the prior 24 h, self-rated fatigue, and mean response speed (all p pilots should be taken into account in the development of flight and duty time regulations.

  5. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  6. Pilot workload evaluated with subjective and physiological measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Gaillard, A.W.K.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to validate different measures for mental workload. Ten aspirant fighter jet pilots flew several scenarios in a flight simulator. The scenarios were divided into segments with different levels of task load. During the flight, heart rate, respiration and blood pressure

  7. Factors affecting high resting pulse rate in military pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pilot terpajan pada keadaan yang memerlukan kewaspadaan yang meningkatkan kegiatan sistem saraf simpatis. Hal ini dapat berdampak pada sistem kardiovaskular manusia, yang antara lain tercermin pada peningkatan frekuensi denyut jantung. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh beberapa faktor yang meningkatkan frekuensi denyut jantung pada pilot. Metode:Penelitian nested case-control yang dilakukan pada pilot militer yang melakukan pemeriksaan fisik tahunan di Lembaga Kesehatan Penerbangan dan Ruang Angkasa (LAKESPRA Saryanto dari tahun 2003 sampai 2008. Data yang diperoleh dari rekam medik berupa umur, pangkat, jumlah jam terbang, rata-rata jam terbang per tahun, dan jenis pesawat. Hasil: Dari 539 pilot, terdapat 155 pilot dengan frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi. Dibandingkan dengan pilot berumur 23-29 tahun, pilot berumur 30-39 tahun mempunyai risiko 66% lebih banyak untuk frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi [rasio odds suaian (ORa = 1,66; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 1,17-2,35, P = 0,004], sedangkan yang berumur 40-49 tahun berisiko 2,4 kali (ORa = 2,40; P = 0,000]. Dibandingkan pilot pesawat transport, pilot pesawat tempur berisiko 59% lebih banyak dengan frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi (ORa = 1,59; P = 0,002. Kesimpulan:Umur pilot yang semakin tua dan jenis pesawat tempur meningkatkan risiko frekuensi nadi istirahat pada pilot. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:51-4Kata kunci:umur, jenis pesawat terbang, frekuensi nadi istirahat, pilotAbstractBackground:Pilots are almost constantly exposed to emergency situations which increase sympathetic activity. This will affect the cardiovascular system, which among others will be reflected by increased resting pulse rate. The aim of this study was to investigate factors that increase resting pulse rate in pilots. Methods:A nested case-control study was conducted on Indonesian Air Force military pilots doing annual medical check-ups at the Saryanto Institute for Medical and Health

  8. Self-rated changes in cognition and piloting skills: a comparison of younger and older airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebok, George W; Li, Guohua; Baker, Susan P; Grabowski, Jurek G; Willoughby, Sharon

    2002-05-01

    The relationship of chronological age to self-rated changes in cognition has been studied extensively. However, the relationship of these changes to age-related changes in piloting skills is not well understood. This study aims to determine whether airline pilots report age-related changes in cognitive abilities, and whether these changes are related to self-rated changes in piloting skills. A total of 1310 airline pilots (28-59 yr, mean age = 45.5 yr; mean total flight time = 11,992 h) currently employed by a major U.S. commercial air carrier participated in the study. A 13-item Aviation Experience Survey (AES) was completed by each pilot, using 5-point Likert ratings and yes/no responses comparing current cognitive abilities (e.g., concentration, reaction speed) and piloting skills (e.g., piloting in adverse weather, decision making while flying) with those of 10 yr ago. Cognitive abilities and piloting skills were more likely to be rated as "better' or "much better" than 10 yr ago by pilots age 39 or under than by pilots in their 40s and 50s, who were more likely to rate their abilities and skills as "the same." Fewer than 20% of pilots in any age group rated their cognitive abilities or piloting skills as "worse" or "much worse" than 10 yr ago. Pilots who reported more anxiety or stress while flying reported more negative changes in abilities, skills, and health status regardless of age. Self-ratings of cognition and piloting skills vary by age, but older pilots are not more likely to report negative changes in their abilities and skills than younger pilots. Further research is needed to verify whether these self-appraisals reflect true changes in skills over time.

  9. Intracardiac electrocardiographic assessment of precordial TASER shocks in human subjects: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopyra, Jason P; Winslow, James E; Fitzgerald, David M; Bozeman, William P

    2017-11-01

    Case reports of cardiac arrest in temporal proximity to Conducted Electrical Weapon(CEW) exposure raise legitimate concerns about this as a rare possibility. In this pilot study, we respectfully navigate the oversight and regulatory hurdles and demonstrate the intra-shock electrocardiographic effects of an intentional transcardiac CEW discharge using subcutaneous probes placed directly across the precordium of patients with a previously implanted intracardiac EKG sensing lead. Adults scheduled to undergo diagnostic EP studies or replacement of an implanted cardiac device were enrolled. Sterile subcutaneous electrodes were placed at the right sternoclavicular junction and the left lower costal margin at the midclavicular line. A standard police issue TASER Model X26 CEW was attached to the subcutaneous electrodes and a 5 s discharge was delivered. Continuous surface and intracardiac EKG monitoring was performed. A total of 157 subjects were reviewed for possible inclusion and 21 were interviewed. Among these, 4 subjects agreed and completed the study protocol. All subjects tolerated the 5 s CEW discharge without clinical complications. There were no significant changes in mean heart rate or blood pressure. Interrogation of the devices after CEW discharge revealed no ventricular pacing, dysrhythmias, damage or interference with the implanted devices. In this pilot study, we have successfully navigated the regulatory hurdles and demonstrated the feasibility of performing intracardiac EKG recording during intentional precordial CEW discharges in humans. While no CEW-associated dysrhythmias were noted, the size of this preliminary dataset precludes making conclusions about the risk of such events. Larger studies are warranted and should consider exploring variations of the CEW electrode position in relation to the cardiac silhouette. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Fatigue and Use of Go/Nogo Pills in F-16 Pilots Subjected to Extraordinarily Long Combat Sorties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schultz, Darlene

    2004-01-01

    We lack knowledge of real world pilot fatigue and use of GO/NOGO pills. To analyze this, a forward-deployed flight surgeon studied fighter pilots subjected to combat sorties often longer than 8 hours in duration. Methods...

  11. In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Lotus Root and Cucumber: A Pilot Comparative Study in Aged Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L; Gao, W; Wei, J; Pu, L; Yang, J; Guo, C

    2015-08-01

    To compare the effects of lotus root and cucumber on antioxidant function in aged subjects. Pilot comparative study. Research setting with vegetable intervention. Healthy aged subjects over the age of sixty. 30-day supplementation of lotus root or cucumber powder. Plasma value of ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, activity of antioxidant enzymes, contents of some antioxidants, oxidation products, hemolysis, blood mononuclear cell DNA damage and urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine were measured before and after the intervention. Plasma glutathione peroxidase activity, contents of vitamin C, total phenolics were significantly increased, while plasma uric acid content significantly decreased in both groups at the end of the intervention. Meanwhile, hemolysis was significantly reduced in both groups and DNA injury rate of blood mononuclear cells in lotus root group and the ratio of comet tail length to total length in cucumber group were also declined significantly post-intervention. However, plasma value of ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, contents of reduced glutathione, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, oxidized low density lipoprotein, carbonyls and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase were not changed significantly in both group after the intervention. These results suggest that lotus root and cucumber are not remarkably different in improving antioxidant function in aged subjects, though they are significantly different in antioxidant capacity in vitro. The benefits observed in this study may come from the additive or synergistic combinations of antioxidants contained in vegetables.

  12. Oxytocin for male subjects with autism spectrum disorder and comorbid intellectual disabilities: A randomized pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio eMunesue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately half of autism spectrum disorder (ASD individual suffer from comorbid intellectual disabilities (ID. Oxytocin (OXT receptors are highly expressed in temporal lobe structures and are likely to play a modulatory role in excitatory/inhibitory balance, at least based on animal model findings. Thus, it is feasible that in the highly representative group of Kanner type ASD subjects OXT could have a beneficial effect on social communication and social interaction. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility and adverse events, such as epilepsy, of the long-term administration of intranasal OXT for adolescent and adult ASD subjects with ID because such patients frequently have seizures. We also addressed the question on how to scale the OXT effects to the core symptoms of social deficits because of the relative difficulty in obtaining objective measurements. Twenty-nine males (aged 15-40 years old participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study (each for 8 weeks with OXT (16 international units per day. Except for seizures experienced by one participant, other serious adverse events did not occur. The primary and secondary outcomes measured using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and several standard scales, respectively, revealed no difference between the OXT and placebo groups. Instead, in an exploratory analysis, the social interactions observed in the play sessions or in daily-life were significantly more frequent in the initial half period in the OXT-first arm of the crossover trial. There were also significant correlations between the plasma OXT concentration and subscale scores for irritability on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. In conclusion, this pilot study demonstrates that long-term administration of intranasal OXT is tolerable in a representative cohort of ASD individuals with ID and suggests that future multicenter trials of OXT are warranted and should include measurements

  13. The efficacy of upper extremity inhibitive casting: a single-subject pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tona, J L; Schneck, C M

    1993-10-01

    This pilot study was designed to examine the effects of short-term (48-hr) upper extremity inhibitive casting, with an encased thermoplastic splint, on problems related to upper motor neuron damage. The subject was an 8 1/2-year-old girl with left upper extremity spasticity. Three different measures were used: (a) rating of videotaped active movements of the child; (b) the Modified Ashworth Scale, a clinical measure of spasticity; and (c) The Biodex System, a measure of torque during passive elbow flexion and extension. After cast removal, subjective improvements were noted in the quality of active movement (through videotapes) and increased awareness and use of the casted hand by the child (through parents' reports). A trend toward decreased spasticity was demonstrated by the Modified Ashworth Scale and a statistically significant decrease in resistance to passive movement was shown by the Biodex recordings. However, this reduction in symptoms was temporary, lasting less than 3 days. The results of this study suggest that short-term inhibitory casting may prove efficacious in the treatment of the child with cerebral palsy, although further research is needed.

  14. Piloting a deceased subject integrated data repository and protecting privacy of relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Vojtech; Kayaalp, Mehmet; Dodd, Zeyno A; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    Use of deceased subject Electronic Health Records can be an important piloting platform for informatics or biomedical research. Existing legal framework allows such research under less strict de-identification criteria; however, privacy of non-decedent must be protected. We report on creation of the decease subject Integrated Data Repository (dsIDR) at National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center and a pilot methodology to remove secondary protected health information or identifiable information (secondary PxI; information about persons other than the primary patient). We characterize available structured coded data in dsIDR and report the estimated frequencies of secondary PxI, ranging from 12.9% (sensitive token presence) to 1.1% (using stricter criteria). Federating decedent EHR data from multiple institutions can address sample size limitations and our pilot study provides lessons learned and methodology that can be adopted by other institutions.

  15. A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings for large commercial transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings is described. Features of this procedure, which is based on the optimal-control model for pilot/vehicle systems, include (1) capability to treat "unconventional" aircraft dynamics, (2) a relatively free-form pilot model, (3) a simple scalar metric for attentional workload, and (4) a straightforward manner of proceeding from descriptions of the flight task environment and requirements to a prediction of pilot opinion rating. The method was able to provide a good match to a set of pilot opinion ratings obtained in a manned simulation study of large commercial aircraft in landing approach.

  16. Neutrophil Ingestion Rate Of Nitroblue Tetrazolium In Subjects With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the WBC count, absolute neutrophil count, CD4 +T cell count and neutrophil ingestion rate of nitroblue tetrazolium in subjects with Malaria and HIV Co-morbidity. Method and materials: 134 participants were recruited and group as follow: Symptomatic HIV infected participants ...

  17. Prediction of subjective ratings of emotional pictures by EEG features

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dennis J.; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Sarnacki, William A.; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Emotion dysregulation is an important aspect of many psychiatric disorders. Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology could be a powerful new approach to facilitating therapeutic self-regulation of emotions. One possible BCI method would be to provide stimulus-specific feedback based on subject-specific electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to emotion-eliciting stimuli. Approach. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we studied the relationships between emotional valence/arousal and three EEG features: amplitude of alpha activity over frontal cortex; amplitude of theta activity over frontal midline cortex; and the late positive potential over central and posterior mid-line areas. For each feature, we evaluated its ability to predict emotional valence/arousal on both an individual and a group basis. Twenty healthy participants (9 men, 11 women; ages 22-68) rated each of 192 pictures from the IAPS collection in terms of valence and arousal twice (96 pictures on each of 4 d over 2 weeks). EEG was collected simultaneously and used to develop models based on canonical correlation to predict subject-specific single-trial ratings. Separate models were evaluated for the three EEG features: frontal alpha activity; frontal midline theta; and the late positive potential. In each case, these features were used to simultaneously predict both the normed ratings and the subject-specific ratings. Main results. Models using each of the three EEG features with data from individual subjects were generally successful at predicting subjective ratings on training data, but generalization to test data was less successful. Sparse models performed better than models without regularization. Significance. The results suggest that the frontal midline theta is a better candidate than frontal alpha activity or the late positive potential for use in a BCI-based paradigm designed to modify emotional reactions.

  18. A pilot study of subjective well-being in colorectal cancer patients and their caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Janet Graham,1 Pavlina Spiliopoulou,1 Rob Arbuckle,2 Julie Ann Bridge,3 James Cassidy1 1Department of Medical Oncology, Beatson, West of Scotland Cancer Center, Glasgow, UK, 2Adelphi Values, Adelphi Mill Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK; 3Eli Lilly Pty Ltd., West Ryde, NSW, Australia Background: Traditional endpoints in oncology are based on measuring the tumor size and combining this with a time factor. Current studies with immunotherapy show that even when median survival is unaltered, a significant proportion of patients can achieve prolonged survival. Objective tumor response does not always mean “overall” improvement, especially if toxicity is harsh. Novel agents are significantly expensive, and it is therefore crucial to measure the impact on “quality” of life, in addition to “quantity”.Materials and methods: We studied the preferences and experiences of cancer patients and their caregivers, measuring subjective well-being (SWB ratings, EQ5D descriptions and time trade-off preferences.Results: We studied 99 patients and 88 caregivers. Life satisfaction ratings were similar between the two groups, but daily mood was significantly lower in caregivers (P<0.1. Anxiety/depression affected SWB, while pain and mobility did not. Positive thoughts about health were associated with better daily moods in both groups, and stage IV cancer was associated with lower life satisfaction. Cancer in remission was associated with better daily moods, but, interestingly, not with patient life satisfaction. Patients with better daily mood and positive thoughts about family were less willing to “trade-off” life years.Conclusion: Caregivers are as anxious or depressed as patients, and report similar levels of life satisfaction but lower daily mood. A focus on SWB could provide a valid assessment of treatment benefit. Given the interesting results of this pilot study, we suggest a larger study should be conducted, measuring SWB over time. Keywords

  19. Does Ramadan fasting affect expiratory flow rates in healthy subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Mirza M F; Siddiqui, Qamar A; Khan, Mohammed N; Sabir, Salman

    2006-11-01

    To assess whether Ramadan fasting affects the expiratory flow rates in healthy subjects, and to know if these effects correlate to a change in other variables. This unmatched case-control longitudinal study includes 46 non-smoking healthy subjects who undertook lung function testing at the Aga Khan University, Pakistan. Expiratory flow rates and body mass were measured in 3 Islamic months, corresponding to November 2001 to January 2002. There was a significant reduction in body mass in Ramadan compared to pre and post Ramadan. No significant changes in expiratory flows were seen during Ramadan as compared to the pre Ramadan period. However, forced expiratory flow rates at 75% of vital capacity (FEF(75)) and between 75% and 85% of vital capacity (FEF(75-85)) showed a significant increase in the post Ramadan period compared to Ramadan. Changes in FEF(75) were negatively correlated to changes in body mass between Ramadan and post Ramadan. This study shows that Ramadan fasting will not affect expiratory flow rates in healthy subjects. Post Ramadan values did show an increase in FEF(75) and FEF(75-85), possibly due to changes in body water and fat content. The reductions in body mass were most probably due to lack of nutrition and not dehydration as the fasts were performed in winter. Collection of reference values or early phase clinical trials measuring expiratory flow rates should not be affected by Ramadan fasting.

  20. Influences of early shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm, mood and sleep: Within-subject variation in male airline pilots

    OpenAIRE

    Bostock, Sophie; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Summary We aimed to investigate how early and late work shifts influenced the diurnal cortisol rhythm using a within-subjects study design. Participants were 30 healthy male non-smoking pilots, mean age 39.4, employed by a short-haul airline. The standard rotating shift pattern consisted of 5 early shifts (starting before 0600?h), followed by 3 rest days, 5 late shifts (starting after 1200?h) and 4 rest days. Pilots sampled saliva and completed subjective mood ratings in a logbook 6 times ove...

  1. The Effects of a Normal Rate versus a Slow Intervalled Rate of Oral Nutrient Intake and Intravenous Low Rate Macronutrient Application on Psychophysical Function - Two Pilot Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer-Lippmann, Melanie Y; Bachlechner, Stephan; Wielopolski, Jan; Fischer, Marie; Buettner, Andrea; Doerfler, Arndt; Schöfl, Christof; Münch, Gerald; Kornhuber, Johannes; Thürauf, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    Stomach distension and energy per time are factors influencing satiety. Moreover, different rates of nutrient intake induce different stomach distension. The goal of our studies was to elucidate the influence of different oral rates of nutrient intake (normal rate versus slow intervalled rate; study I) and intravenous low rate macronutrient application (protein, carbohydrate, fat) or placebo (study II) on psychophysical function. The pilot studies investigated the effects of 1) study I: a mixed nutrient solution (1/3 protein, 1/3 fat, 1/3 carbohydrates) 2) study II: intravenous macronutrient infusions (protein, carbohydrate, fat) or placebo on psychophysical function (mood, hunger, food craving, alertness, smell intensity ratings and hedonic ratings) in human subjects. In study I 10 male subjects (age range: 21-30 years) completed the study protocol participating in both test conditions and in study II 20 male subjects (age range: 19-41 years) completed the study protocol participating in all test conditions. Additionally, metabolic function was analyzed and cognitive and olfactory tests were conducted twice starting 100 min before the beginning of the intervention and 240 min after. Psychophysical (mood, hunger, fat-, protein-, carbohydrate-, sweets- and vegetable-craving), alertness and metabolic function tests were performed seven times on each examination day. Greater effects on hunger and food cravings were observed for normal rate of intake compared to slow intervalled rate of intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application. Our findings potentially confirm that volume of the food ingested and a higher rate of energy per time contribute to satiety during normal rate of food intake, while slow intervalled rate of food intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application showed no effects on satiation. Our results motivate the view that a certain amount of volume of the food ingested and a certain energy per time ratio are necessary to reduce

  2. The Effects of a Normal Rate versus a Slow Intervalled Rate of Oral Nutrient Intake and Intravenous Low Rate Macronutrient Application on Psychophysical Function – Two Pilot Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Y. Denzer-Lippmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stomach distension and energy per time are factors influencing satiety. Moreover, different rates of nutrient intake induce different stomach distension. The goal of our studies was to elucidate the influence of different oral rates of nutrient intake (normal rate versus slow intervalled rate; study I and intravenous low rate macronutrient application (protein, carbohydrate, fat or placebo (study II on psychophysical function. The pilot studies investigated the effects of 1 study I: a mixed nutrient solution (1/3 protein, 1/3 fat, 1/3 carbohydrates 2 study II: intravenous macronutrient infusions (protein, carbohydrate, fat or placebo on psychophysical function (mood, hunger, food craving, alertness, smell intensity ratings and hedonic ratings in human subjects. In study I 10 male subjects (age range: 21–30 years completed the study protocol participating in both test conditions and in study II 20 male subjects (age range: 19–41 years completed the study protocol participating in all test conditions. Additionally, metabolic function was analyzed and cognitive and olfactory tests were conducted twice starting 100 min before the beginning of the intervention and 240 min after. Psychophysical (mood, hunger, fat-, protein-, carbohydrate-, sweets- and vegetable-craving, alertness and metabolic function tests were performed seven times on each examination day. Greater effects on hunger and food cravings were observed for normal rate of intake compared to slow intervalled rate of intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application. Our findings potentially confirm that volume of the food ingested and a higher rate of energy per time contribute to satiety during normal rate of food intake, while slow intervalled rate of food intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application showed no effects on satiation. Our results motivate the view that a certain amount of volume of the food ingested and a certain energy per time ratio are necessary

  3. 14 CFR 61.317 - Is my sport pilot certificate issued with aircraft category and class ratings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Is my sport pilot certificate issued with... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.317 Is my sport pilot certificate issued with aircraft category and class ratings? Your sport pilot certificate does not list aircraft category and class ratings. When you...

  4. Rate of injury and subjective benefits of gravitational wellness weightlifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke DT

    2014-09-01

    wellness gym found that by lifting large weights over short arcs 30 minutes per week, participants significantly increased their strength, reduced their musculoskeletal pain, improve their subjective well-being, and reported a low rate of injury. Keywords: gravitational wellness system, rate of injuries, weight training, descriptive study

  5. A comparative study of pulse rate variability and heart rate variability in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jih-Sen; Lu, Wan-An; Wu, Kung-Tai; Liu, Margaret; Chen, Gau-Yang; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2012-04-01

    Both heart rate variability (HRV) and pulse rate variability (PRV) are noninvasive means for the assessment of autonomic nervous control of the heart. However, it is not settled whether or not the PRV obtained from either hand can be the surrogate of HRV. The HRV measures obtained from electrocardiographic signals and the PRV measures obtained from the pulse waves recorded from the index fingers of both hands were compared in normal subjects by using linear regression analysis and Bland and Altman method. Highly significant correlations (P heart rate and ultra-low frequency power (ULFP). The PRV of either hand is close to, but not the same as the HRV in healthy subjects. The HRV, right PRV and left PRV are not surrogates of one another in normal subjects except heart rate and ULFP. Since HRV is generally accepted as the standard method for the assessment of the autonomic nervous modulation of a subject, the PRV of either hand may not be suitable for the assessment of the cardiac autonomic nervous modulation of the subject.

  6. Sternal Pulse Rate Variability Compared with Heart Rate Variability on Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chreiteh, Shadi; Belhage, Bo; Hoppe, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) is a commonly used method to quantify the sympathetic and the parasympathetic modulation of the heart rate. HRV is mainly conducted on electrocardiograms (ECG). However, the use of photoplethysmography (PPG) as a marker of the autonomic tone is emerging....... In this study we investigated the feasibility of deriving pulse rate variability (PRV) using PPG signals recorded by a reflectance PPG sensor attached to the chest bone (sternum) and comparing it to HRV. The recordings were conducted on 9 healthy subjects being in a relaxed supine position and under forced...... the parameters (r > 0:95 with p using sternal PPG can be an alternative to HRV analysis on healthy subjects at rest....

  7. 14 CFR 61.413 - What are the privileges of my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.413 Section 61.413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.413 What are the privileges of my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? If you hold a fight flight...

  8. 14 CFR 61.415 - What are the limits of a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.415 Section 61.415 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.415 What are the limits of a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? If you hold a flight instructor certificate with a sport...

  9. 14 CFR 61.423 - What are the recordkeeping requirements for a flight instructor with a sport pilot rating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a flight instructor with a sport pilot rating? 61.423 Section 61.423 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.423 What are the recordkeeping requirements for a flight instructor with a sport pilot rating? (a) As a flight instructor with a...

  10. 14 CFR 61.427 - What must I do if my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating expires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate with a sport pilot rating expires? 61.427 Section 61.427 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.427 What must I do if my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating expires? You may exchange your expired flight instructor...

  11. Pilot study of light therapy and neurocognitive performance of attention and memory in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Giuseppe; Marconi, Daniela; Limpido, Lucilla; Tarolla, Emanuele; Caroti, Eleonora

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether light therapy improves healthy subjects' neurocognitive performance of attention, memory, and language. Ten subjects were treated with white bright light for 5 days and a control group of 10 with no treatment were assessed with a battery of neurocognitive tests which included the Stroop Colour Word Interference Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, the Story Recall Test, and the Word Pairs Recall Test. Analysis showed improvements in cognitive scores in both groups, although on all the cognitive tests the mean difference scores between baseline and endpoint were significantly larger in the light-treated group. These preliminary results suggest that short-term bright light may exert beneficial effects on cognitive functions.

  12. Sternal pulse rate variability compared with heart rate variability on healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chreiteh, Shadi S; Belhage, Bo; Hoppe, Karsten; Branebjerg, Jens; Thomsen, Erik V

    2014-01-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) is a commonly used method to quantify the sympathetic and the parasympathetic modulation of the heart rate. HRV is mainly conducted on electrocardiograms (ECG). However, the use of photo-plethysmography (PPG) as a marker of the autonomic tone is emerging. In this study we investigated the feasibility of deriving pulse rate variability (PRV) using PPG signals recorded by a reflectance PPG sensor attached to the chest bone (sternum) and comparing it to HRV. The recordings were conducted on 9 healthy subjects being in a relaxed supine position and under forced respiration, where the subjects were asked to breathe following a visual scale with a rate of 27 breaths/min. HRV parameters such as the mean intervals (meanNN), the standard deviation of intervals (SDNN), the root mean square of difference of successive intervals (RMSSD), and the proportion of intervals differing more than 50 ms (pNN50) were calculated from the R peak-to-R peak (R-R) and pulse-to-pulse (P-P) intervals. In the frequency domain the low and high frequency ratio of the power spectral density (LF/HF) was also computed. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed significant correlation for all the parameters (r > 0.95 with p healthy subjects at.

  13. The use of subjective rating of exertion in Ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, P

    2002-01-01

    In Ergonomics, the use of psychophysical methods for subjectively evaluating work tasks and determining acceptable loads has become more common. Daily activities at the work site are studied not only with physiological methods but also with perceptual estimation and production methods. The psychophysical methods are of special interest in field studies of short-term work tasks for which valid physiological measurements are difficult to obtain. The perceived exertion, difficulty and fatigue that a person experiences in a certain work situation is an important sign of a real or objective load. Measurement of the physical load with physiological parameters is not sufficient since it does not take into consideration the particular difficulty of the performance or the capacity of the individual. It is often difficult from technical and biomechanical analyses to understand the seriousness of a difficulty that a person experiences. Physiological determinations give important information, but they may be insufficient due to the technical problems in obtaining relevant but simple measurements for short-term activities or activities involving special movement patterns. Perceptual estimations using Borg's scales give important information because the severity of a task's difficulty depends on the individual doing the work. Observation is the most simple and used means to assess job demands. Other evaluations integrating observation are the followings: indirect estimation of energy expenditure based on prediction equations or direct measurement of oxygen consumption; measurements of forces, angles and biomechanical parameters; measurements of physiological and neurophysiological parameters during tasks. It is recommended that determinations of performances of occupational activities assess rating of perceived exertion and integrate these measurements of intensity levels with those of activity's type, duration and frequency. A better estimate of the degree of physical activity

  14. Survivability rate among pilots in case of ejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GHEORGHIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents a statistical analysis of a recent research made by the author [1], showing the factors causing the accidents that happened in Romanian Air Force from 1952 to 2014. Also the decision of ejection is analyzed. The study contains 225 events: 110 catastrophes and 115 accidents. 280 fighter pilots and 235 aircraft were involved in this analysis. The below information is a personal one and does not reflect an official position of the Ministry of National Defence.

  15. Impact of layover length on sleep, subjective fatigue levels, and sustained attention of long-haul airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Petrilli, Renée M A; Dawson, Drew; Lamond, Nicole

    2012-06-01

    Long-haul airline pilots often experience elevated levels of fatigue due to extended work hours and circadian misalignment of sleep and wake periods. During long-haul trips, pilots are typically given 1-3 d off between flights (i.e., layover) to recover from, and prepare for, duty. Anecdotally, some pilots prefer long layovers because it maximizes the time available for recovery and preparation, but others prefer short layovers because it minimizes both the length of the trip, and the degree to which the body clock changes from "home time" to the layover time zone. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of layover length on the sleep, subjective fatigue levels, and capacity to sustain attention of long-haul pilots. Participants were 19 male pilots (10 Captains, 9 First Officers) working for an international airline. Data were collected during an 11- or 12-d international trip. The trips involved (i) 4 d at home prior to the trip; (ii) an eastward flight of 13.5 h across seven time zones; (iii) a layover of either 39 h (i.e., short, n = 9) or 62 h (i.e., long, n = 10); (iv) a return westward flight of 14.3 h across seven time zones; and (v) 4 d off at home after the trip. Sleep was recorded using a self-report sleep diary and wrist activity monitor; subjective fatigue level was measured using the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Checklist; and sustained attention was assessed using the psychomotor vigilance task for a personal digital assistant (PalmPVT). Mixed-model regression analyses were used to determine the effects of layover length (short, long) on the amount of sleep that pilots obtained during the trip, and on the pilots' subjective fatigue levels and capacity to sustain attention. There was no main effect of layover length on ground-based sleep or in-flight sleep, but pilots who had a short layover at the midpoint of their trip had higher subjective fatigue levels and poorer sustained attention than pilots who had a long layover. The results of this study

  16. F-22 Pilot Heart Rate Response to +Gz and Relationship to Pilot Fitness Using U.S. Air Force Fitness Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-19

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2015-0024 F-22 Pilot Heart Rate Response to +Gz and Relationship to Pilot Fitness Using U.S. Air Force Fitness Test Scores...To) July 2013 – June 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE F-22 Pilot Heart Rate Response to +Gz and Relationship to Pilot Fitness Using U.S. Air Force...ABSTRACT Previous works show heart rate (HR) increases in response to +Gz exposure due to baroreceptor reflex, the physical work of the anti-G

  17. Confidentiality and Professional Affiliation Effects on Subject Ratings of Interviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, David W.; And Others

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of different statements regarding confidentiality (absolute; limited; nondirective) on subject impressions of interviewers. In addition, the professional affiliation of the interviewer was manipulated (psychologist, minister/pastoral counselor, social worker) to assess potential influence of…

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF A NEW BALANCE TRAINING PROGRAM ON ROCKER BOARD IN SITTING IN STROKE SUBJECTS A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandesh Rayamajhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke has been considered to be the most common cause of neurological disability with very high prevalence rate. The recovery of independence following stroke is a complex process requiring the reacquisition of many skills. Since controlling the body’s position in space is essential part of functional skills, restoration of balance is a critical part of the recovery of ability after stroke. Most of the work done regarding balance training in stroke subjects has focused on task-oriented activities and training under varied sensory input and found them to be effective. Studies have also compared the effect of stable and unstable surfaces on balance in stroke subjects and found that balance training on unstable surfaces is more effective in improving static and dynamic balance. There has not been any study till date investigating the effectiveness of balance training program on rocker board which is specific for stroke subjects who have difficulty in standing. Since balance training on rocker board in sitting has proved to be effective in improving balance in subjects with spinal cord injury who have difficulty in standing, there is a need to find out if similar balance training program on rocker board in sitting is also effective for improving balance of stroke subjects. Method: A Pilot study was performed on 10 stroke subjects selected through purposive sampling. Subjects were divided into two groups by randomization as control (CG and experimental group (EG. EG received balance training on a rocker board along with conventional physiotherapy program. The CG received only conventional physiotherapy program. Results: Post-intervention Berg balance scale score of EG and the CG was statistically significant (p < 0.05 in both the groups as compared to pre-treatment depicted through Wilcoxon signed rank analysis within the groups. Greater improvement was observed in the EG compared to the CG post-treatment, analysed through Mann

  19. Feasibility and impacts of supervised exercise training in subjects with obesity awaiting bariatric surgery: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillot, A; Mampuya, W M; Comeau, E; Méziat-Burdin, A; Langlois, M F

    2013-07-01

    To optimize bariatric surgery results, experts recommend regular practice of physical activity. However, no precise recommendations are available for the pre-surgical period. We aimed to evaluate, in this pilot study, the feasibility of a supervised Pre-Surgical Exercise Training (PreSET) and its short-term clinical impacts in subjects awaiting bariatric surgery. In addition to the usual interdisciplinary lifestyle management, eight women and four men [40.8 (37.6-47.5) years old, BMI = 51.4 (43.8-53.1) kg/m(2)] underwent the PreSET, which combined both endurance and strength training. They were instructed to perform three physical activity sessions per week during 12 weeks, with at least two sessions per week on site and the possibility to complete missed sessions at home. Before and after the PreSET, anthropometric measures, body composition, physical fitness, quality of life, and physical exercise beliefs were assessed. The subjects participated in 57.3 % of the total supervised exercise sessions proposed and presented high satisfaction rates. Our program resulted in a significant improvement in weight (p = 0.007), physical fitness (p ≤ 0.05), and quality of life score (p = 0.012) as well as for the emotions, social interactions, and sexual life subscales (p bariatric surgery and, combined with an interdisciplinary management, results in several short-term benefits.

  20. Assessment of pilot workload - Converging measures from performance based, subjective and psychophysiological techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Arthur F.; Sirevaag, Erik J.; Braune, Rolf

    1986-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the P300 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) and the processing demands of a complex real-world task. Seven male volunteers enrolled in an Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) aviation course flew a series of missions in a single engine fixed-based simulator. In dual task conditions subjects were also required to discriminate between two tones differing in frequency. ERPs time-locked to the tones, subjective effort ratings and overt performance measures were collected during two 45 min flights differing in difficulty (manipulated by varying both atmospheric conditions and instrument reliability). The more difficult flight was associated with poorer performance, increased subjective effort ratings, and smaller secondary task P300s. Within each flight, P300 amplitude was negatively correlated with deviations from command headings indicating that P300 amplitude was a sensitive workload metric both between and within the flight missions.

  1. Alterations of sensory perceptions in healthy elderly subjects during fasting and refeeding. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Catherine; Moreau, Karine; Brandolini, Marion; Livingstone, Barbara; Beaufrère, Bernard; Boirie, Yves

    2002-01-01

    Sensory perception losses may contribute to age-related malnutrition by affecting food selection and consumption. To determine the effects of a 36-hour fast followed by a 6-hour refeeding period on sensory perceptions in 7 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 years of age) and 6 healthy young subjects (18-35 years of age). Self-perceived hunger and olfactory ratings were recorded on visual analogue scales in response to three different classes of odorant stimuli (salt, sweet and sour). Odorant stimuli were administered three times during the study, twice during the fasting period (12 and 24 h fasted) and once at the end of the re-nutrition period. A significant difference was found between the two groups for the self-perceived hunger ratings in response to the sour stimuli. A significant difference was observed between the two groups for olfactory ratings as regards the salt and sour odorant stimuli. Among the metabolic changes associated with fasting and refeeding, blood glucose was significantly related (r(2) = 0.97, p = 0.001) to the perception of hunger in the control group subjects, but no such relationship was found for the elderly subjects (r(2) = 0.16, p = NS). (1) Self-perceived hunger and olfactory ratings are specifically affected in healthy elderly. (2) Nutritional status can modulate sensory perceptions in elderly and young during the transition from fasting to refeeding. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Pilot Subjective Assessments During an Investigation of Separation Function Allocation Using a Human-In-The-Loop Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kelly A.; Wing, David J.; Lewis, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Two human-in-the-loop simulation experiments were conducted to investigate allocation of separation assurance functions between ground and air and between humans and automation. The experiments modeled a mixed-operations concept in which aircraft receiving ground-based separation services shared the airspace with aircraft providing their own separation service (i.e., self-separation). The two experiments, one pilot-focused and the other controller-focused, addressed selected key issues of mixed operations and modeling an emergence of NextGen technologies and procedures. This paper focuses on the results of the subjective assessments of pilots collected during the pilot-focused human-in-the-loop simulation, specifically workload and situation awareness. Generally the results revealed that across all conditions, pilots' perceived workload was low to medium, with the highest reported levels of workload occurring when the pilots experienced a loss of separation during the scenario. Furthermore, the results from the workload data and situation awareness data were complimentary such that when pilots reported lower levels of workload they also experienced higher levels of situation awareness.

  3. Pilot testing of methods for evaluation of acupuncture for emesis during radiotherapy: a randomised single subject experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enblom, Anna; Tomasson, Annica; Hammar, Mats; Steineck, Gunnar; Börjeson, Sussanne

    2011-06-01

    Many acupuncture studies are of weak methodological quality, possibly due to lack of pilot testing. This pilot study tested design features, including test of feasibility, compliance to treatment and data collection, level of blinding success and the patients' potential perceived effects of the treatment, in preparation for an efficacy study. A modified single subject experimental design was conducted. 10 cancer patients were randomised to verum penetrating acupuncture or non-penetrating sham needles for 30 min 2-3 times/week during radiotherapy over abdomen/pelvis. They answered test-retested emesis questions (r=0.527-1.0) covering nausea, vomiting, use of antiemetics, wellbeing and activities of daily living. Overall, the patients completed 98% of the 345 emesis-questionnaire days and 101 of the 115 offered treatments. All patients believed they received verum acupuncture. 10 patients experienced antiemetic effects, seven relaxation, five pain-reduction and five experienced sleep improvement. Two types of nausea questions showed absolute concordance (r=1.0) (n of observations=456). Nausea was experienced by one of five verum acupuncture treated patients (duration median 0% of the radiotherapy-days) and four of five sham acupuncture treated patients (duration median 24% of the radiotherapy-days). Patients experiencing nausea rated decreased wellbeing and performance of daily activities compared to patients free from nausea. All patients were blinded, complied with verum/sham treatments and data-collection, and believed they had effects of the received treatment. The methods for verum/sham treatment and data collection may thus be used in an adequately powered randomised controlled study of the effect of acupuncture for radiotherapy-induced emesis.

  4. The impact of food viscosity on eating rate, subjective appetite, glycemic response and gastric emptying rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV and a high viscosity (HV semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020, with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively while fullness was higher (P<0.001. In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001, higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001 and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001. However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods.

  5. Assessment of the paraspinal muscles of subjects presenting an idiopathic scoliosis: an EMG pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larivière Christian

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that the back muscles of scoliotic subjects present abnormalities in their fiber type composition. Some researchers have hypothesized that abnormal fiber composition can lead to paraspinal muscle dysfunction such as poor neuromuscular efficiency and muscle fatigue. EMG parameters were used to evaluate these impairments. The purpose of the present study was to examine the clinical potential of different EMG parameters such as amplitude (RMS and median frequency (MF of the power spectrum in order to assess the back muscles of patients presenting idiopathic scoliosis in terms of their neuromuscular efficiency and their muscular fatigue. Methods L5/S1 moments during isometric efforts in extension were measured in six subjects with idiopathic scoliosis and ten healthy controls. The subjects performed three 7 s ramp contractions ranging from 0 to 100% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC and one 30 s sustained contraction at 75% MVC. Surface EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from the paraspinal muscles at L5, L3, L1 and T10. The slope of the EMG RMS/force (neuromuscular efficiency and MF/force (muscle composition relationships were computed during the ramp contractions while the slope of the EMG RMS/time and MF/time relationships (muscle fatigue were computed during the sustained contraction. Comparisons were performed between the two groups and between the left and right sides for the EMG parameters. Results No significant group or side differences between the slopes of the different measures used were found at the level of the apex (around T10 of the major curve of the spine. However, a significant side difference was seen at a lower level (L3, p = 0.01 for the MF/time parameter. Conclusion The EMG parameters used in this study could not discriminate between the back muscles of scoliotic subjects and those of control subject regarding fiber type composition, neuromuscular efficiency and muscle fatigue at the level

  6. Multiple flow rates measurement of exhaled nitric oxide in patients with sarcoidosis: a pilot feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J; Hoffman, L A; Sethi, J M; Zullo, T G; Gibson, K F

    2009-07-01

    Fraction of end tidal exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has been introduced as a non-invasive marker of airway inflammation in patients with asthma and may have value in monitoring disease activity in patients with sarcoidosis. This pilot study explored: 1) feasibility of the multiple flow rates maneuver to estimate alveolar (C(AlV)NO) and airway wall (J(AW)NO) NO in patients with sarcoidosis; and 2) utility of exhaled NO (FeNO, C(Alv)NO and J(AW)NO) measurements to detect and monitor treatment response in patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis. Patients with sarcoidosis (n = 42) and healthy non-smokers (n = 20) underwent FeNO measurement at 7 flow-rates (50 to 400 ml/s). Using the Tsoukias and George (1998) model, C(Alv)NO and J(AW)NO were estimated. Both patients and healthy non-smokers were able to perform the multiple flow rates maneuver without discomfort, with first measurement success rate of 57% and 65%, respectively. No significant difference was found between patients with sarcoidosis and healthy non-smokers in exhaled NO. None were correlated with pulmonary function tests, except a significant negative correlation between C(Alv)NO and FVC% (p = 0.001) and DLCO% (p = 0.012). In 8 patients with active sarcoidosis, FeNO, C(Alv)NO or J(AW)NO were not different from those of patients with inactive sarcoidosis. Treatment of active sarcoidosis using oral prednisone and methotrexate did not show any consistent pattern of changes in C(Alv)NO or J(AW)NO. Due to a large inter-subject variability and difficulty controlling use of the inhaled corticosteroids, exhaled NO measurement did not appear to be a clinically useful method of monitoring disease progression in sarcoidosis.

  7. Effectiveness of a perceptual - proprioceptive training with virtual visual feedback in healthy subjects: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vando

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether proprioceptive-motor training using the Wii Balance Board (WBB might improve postural sway in healthy subjects.Methods: twenty-five healthy subjects were trained for six weeks (two sessions per week with 5 “video games”: Wii Fit Plus (WFP program. Before and after training: Basic Balance, Single-leg Balance, Agility, Stability and Motion (lower limb: right-left and both leg were measured using the Wii Balance Board.Results: the Wilcoxon Test showed improvements at the end of the training program compared to the baseline conditions. Basic Balance increased during the WFP (33.33% and was associated with a 19.92% decrease in center of pressure (COP lenght. The Single-leg Balance results incremented after the WFP (left 29.09% vs. right 47.92% and accompanied by a decrement in COP (left 28.71% vs. right 30.45%. The values for the Agility test increased both in WFP and COP (28.57% and 58.57%, respectively. The Stability test scores increased in the WFP (66.67% along with a consequent decrease in COP (10.53%. Finally, the Motion test values increased in the WFP (73.17%, whilst COP for this test decreased (12.02%. These results indicate that 6 weeks of virtual training produced a good adaptability. Younger participants (<20 years demonstrated to be more responsive to dynamic stimulation with respect to those >20 years.Conclusions: significant improvements in all participants were observed, indicating that virtual training can influence posture and balance in healthy people. Because of its characteristics of low cost and easy availability, a portable system for balance training for everyone offers the possibility to more readily measure motor skill and to gauge improvement.

  8. EEG source localization and global dimensional complexity in high- and low- hypnotizable subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isotani, T; Lehmann, D; Pascual-Marqui, R D; Kochi, K; Wackermann, J; Saito, N; Yagyu, T; Kinoshita, T; Sasada, K

    2001-01-01

    Individuals differ in hypnotizability. Information on hypnotizability-related EEG characteristics is controversial and incomplete, particularly on intracerebral source localization and EEG dimensionality. 19-channel, eyes-closed resting EEGs from right-handed, healthy, 8 high- and 4 low-hynotizable subjects (age: 26.7 +/- 7.3 years) were analyzed. Hypnotizability was rated after the subjects' ability to attain a deep hypnotic stage (amnesia). FFT Dipole Approximation analysis in seven EEG frequency bands showed significant differences (p Power spectral analysis of Global Field Power time series (curves) showed no overall power differences in any band. Full-band Global Dimensional Complexity was higher in high-hypnotizable subjects (p < 0.02). Thus, before hypnosis, high and low hypnotizables were in different brain electric states, with more posterior brain activity gravity centers (excitatory right, routine or relaxation left) and higher dimensional complexity (higher arousal) in high than low hypnotizables. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Simulated flight path control of fighter pilots and novice subjects at +3 Gz in a human centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecki, Marc; Bock, Otmar; Guardiera, Simon

    2010-05-01

    We have previously shown that subjects produce exaggerated manual forces in +3 Gz. When subjects execute discrete flight path changes in a flight simulator, their performance is less stable in +3 Gz than in +1 Gz. Here we explore whether Gz-related deficits are found with continuous flight path changes. Novice subjects and fighter pilots sat in a high-fidelity flight simulator equipped with the reproduction of the Eurofighter 2000 cockpit, including the realistic flight stick, and pursued continuous altitude changes of a target airplane in +1 Gz and +3 Gz. Subjects also produced verbal responses in a Stroop task. Pursuit and Stroop tasks were administered alone and concurrently. Flight instability increased in +3 Gz compared to +1 Gz in novices (+46%), but not in pilots (+3%), and even there only during the first minute. Flight performance improved after the first minute in both subject groups. Stroop reaction time was higher in novices (+5.27%) than in pilots (+3.77%) at +3 Gz. Dual-task costs did not differ between groups or Gz levels. Deficits of force production in high Gz are largely compensated for when subjects apply forces to produce a continuously changing flight path. This compensation seems not to require additional cognitive resources and may be achieved by using visual feedback. Force production deficits in high Gz seem to have no appreciable effects on flight performance and cognitive load of experienced pilots using a force-plus-displacement stick in +3 Gz. It remains to be shown whether this conclusion extends to purely isometric sticks and to higher Gz levels.

  10. Objective and subjective memory ratings in cannabis-dependent adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Lydiard, Jessica B; Goddard, Scott D; Gray, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance worldwide, with an estimated 160 million users. Among adolescents, rates of cannabis use are increasing, while the perception of detrimental effects of cannabis use is declining. Difficulty with memory is one of the most frequently noted cognitive deficits associated with cannabis use, but little data exist exploring how well users can identify their own memory deficits, if present. The current secondary analysis sought to characterize objective verbal and visual memory performance via a neurocognitive battery in cannabis-dependent adolescents enrolled in a pharmacotherapeutic cannabis cessation clinical trial (N = 112) and compare this to a single self-reported item assessing difficulties with memory loss. Exploratory analyses also assessed dose-dependent effects of cannabis on memory performance. A small portion of the study sample (10%) endorsed a "serious problem" with memory loss. Those participants reporting "no problem" or "serious problem" scored similarly on visual and verbal memory tasks on the neurocognitive battery. Exploratory analyses suggested a potential relationship between days of cannabis use, amount of cannabis used, and gender with memory performance. This preliminary and exploratory analysis suggests that a sub-set of cannabis users may not accurately perceive difficulties with memory. Further work should test this hypothesis with the use of a control group, comprehensive self-reports of memory problems, and adult populations that may have more years of cannabis use and more severe cognitive deficits. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  11. Evaluation of vardenafil for the treatment of subjective tinnitus: a controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöver Timo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vardenafil (Levitra® represents a potent and highly selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5 inhibitor, which is established for treatment of various diseases. There are several unpublished reports from patients stating that vardenafil has a considerable therapeutic effect on their concomitant tinnitus. This pilot study was conducted to specifically assess the effect of vardenafil in patients with chronic tinnitus. Methods This trial was based on a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design. Fourty-two consecutive subjects with mon- or binaural chronic tinnitus received 10 mg vardenafil (N = 21 or matching placebo tablets (N = 21 administered orally twice a day over a period of 12 weeks. Clinical examination and data acquisition took place at each visit: at baseline, after 4 weeks, after 12 weeks (end of treatment with study medication, and at non-medicated follow-up after 16 weeks. Assessment of clinical effectiveness was based on a standardized tinnitus questionnaire (TQ, the Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36, audiometric measurements (mode, pitch and loudness of tinnitus; auditory thresholds and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients' blood (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, homocysteine and total antioxidative status. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by comparison of subjective and objective parameters with baseline data between both treatment groups (ANCOVA. Results Vardenafil had no superior efficacy over placebo in the treatment of chronic tinnitus during this study. The primary efficacy criterion 'TQ total score' failed to demonstrate significant improvement compared to placebo. Subjective reports of TQ subscales and general quality of life areas (SF-36, objective audiometric examinations as well as investigated biomarkers for oxidative stress did not reveal any significant treatment effects. The safety profile was favorable and consistent with that in other vardenafil

  12. In-Flight Validation of a Pilot Rating Scale for Evaluating Failure Transients in Electronic Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Kevin F.; Tucker, George E.; Moralez, Ernesto, III

    2006-01-01

    Engineering development and qualification of a Research Flight Control System (RFCS) for the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A has motivated the development of a pilot rating scale for evaluating failure transients in fly-by-wire flight control systems. The RASCAL RFCS includes a highly-reliable, dual-channel Servo Control Unit (SCU) to command and monitor the performance of the fly-by-wire actuators and protect against the effects of erroneous commands from the flexible, but single-thread Flight Control Computer. During the design phase of the RFCS, two piloted simulations were conducted on the Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) to help define the required performance characteristics of the safety monitoring algorithms in the SCU. Simulated failures, including hard-over and slow-over commands, were injected into the command path, and the aircraft response and safety monitor performance were evaluated. A subjective Failure/Recovery Rating (F/RR) scale was developed as a means of quantifying the effects of the injected failures on the aircraft state and the degree of pilot effort required to safely recover the aircraft. A brief evaluation of the rating scale was also conducted on the Army/NASA CH-47B variable stability helicopter to confirm that the rating scale was likely to be equally applicable to in-flight evaluations. Following the initial research flight qualification of the RFCS in 2002, a flight test effort was begun to validate the performance of the safety monitors and to validate their design for the safe conduct of research flight testing. Simulated failures were injected into the SCU, and the F/RR scale was applied to assess the results. The results validate the performance of the monitors, and indicate that the Failure/Recovery Rating scale is a very useful tool for evaluating failure transients in fly-by-wire flight control systems.

  13. Music Improves Subjective Feelings Leading to Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Modulation: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Satoshi; Nishimura, Yukako; Mizuno, Kei; Sakimoto, Nae; Hori, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yasuhisa; Yamato, Masanori; Mitsuhashi, Rika; Akiba, Keigo; Koizumi, Jun-ichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kataoka, Yosky

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that listening to music improves subjective feelings and reduces fatigue sensations, and different kinds of music lead to different activations of these feelings. Recently, cardiac autonomic nervous modulation has been proposed as a useful objective indicator of fatigue. However, scientific considerations of the relation between feelings of fatigue and cardiac autonomic nervous modulation while listening to music are still lacking. In this study, we examined which subjective feelings of fatigue are related to participants' cardiac autonomic nervous function while they listen to music. We used an album of comfortable and relaxing environmental music, with blended sounds from a piano and violin as well as natural sound sources. We performed a crossover trial of environmental music and silent sessions for 20 healthy subjects, 12 females, and 8 males, after their daily work shift. We measured changes in eight types of subjective feelings, including healing, fatigue, sleepiness, relaxation, and refreshment, using the KOKORO scale, a subjective mood measurement system for self-reported feelings. Further, we obtained measures of cardiac autonomic nervous function on the basis of heart rate variability before and after the sessions. During the music session, subjective feelings significantly shifted toward healing and a secure/relaxed feeling and these changes were greater than those in the silent session. Heart rates (ΔHR) in the music session significantly decreased compared with those in the silent session. Other cardiac autonomic parameters such as high-frequency (HF) component and the ratio of low-frequency (LF) and HF components (LF/HF) were similar in the two sessions. In the linear regression analysis of the feelings with ΔHR and changes in LF/HF (ΔLF/HF), increases and decreases in ΔHR were correlated to the feeling axes of Fatigue-Healing and Anxiety/Tension–Security/Relaxation, whereas those in ΔLF/HF were related to the feeling axes

  14. Music Improves Subjective Feelings Leading to Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Modulation: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Satoshi; Nishimura, Yukako; Mizuno, Kei; Sakimoto, Nae; Hori, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yasuhisa; Yamato, Masanori; Mitsuhashi, Rika; Akiba, Keigo; Koizumi, Jun-Ichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kataoka, Yosky

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that listening to music improves subjective feelings and reduces fatigue sensations, and different kinds of music lead to different activations of these feelings. Recently, cardiac autonomic nervous modulation has been proposed as a useful objective indicator of fatigue. However, scientific considerations of the relation between feelings of fatigue and cardiac autonomic nervous modulation while listening to music are still lacking. In this study, we examined which subjective feelings of fatigue are related to participants' cardiac autonomic nervous function while they listen to music. We used an album of comfortable and relaxing environmental music, with blended sounds from a piano and violin as well as natural sound sources. We performed a crossover trial of environmental music and silent sessions for 20 healthy subjects, 12 females, and 8 males, after their daily work shift. We measured changes in eight types of subjective feelings, including healing, fatigue, sleepiness, relaxation, and refreshment, using the KOKORO scale, a subjective mood measurement system for self-reported feelings. Further, we obtained measures of cardiac autonomic nervous function on the basis of heart rate variability before and after the sessions. During the music session, subjective feelings significantly shifted toward healing and a secure/relaxed feeling and these changes were greater than those in the silent session. Heart rates (ΔHR) in the music session significantly decreased compared with those in the silent session. Other cardiac autonomic parameters such as high-frequency (HF) component and the ratio of low-frequency (LF) and HF components (LF/HF) were similar in the two sessions. In the linear regression analysis of the feelings with ΔHR and changes in LF/HF (ΔLF/HF), increases and decreases in ΔHR were correlated to the feeling axes of Fatigue-Healing and Anxiety/Tension-Security/Relaxation, whereas those in ΔLF/HF were related to the feeling axes

  15. Pilot Validation Study: Canadian Global Rating Scale for Colonoscopy Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Carpentier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The United Kingdom Global Rating Scale (GRS-UK measures unit-level quality metrics processes in digestive endoscopy. We evaluated the psychometric properties of its Canadian version (GRS-C, endorsed by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG. Methods. Prospective data collection at three Canadian endoscopy units assessed GRS-C validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change according to responses provided by physicians, endoscopy nurses, and administrative personnel. These responses were compared to national CAG endoscopic quality guidelines and GRS-UK statements. Results. Most respondents identified the overarching theme each GRS-C item targeted, confirming face validity. Content validity was suggested as 18 out of 23 key CAG endoscopic quality indicators (78%, 95% CI: 56–93% were addressed in the GRS-C; statements not included pertained to educational programs and competency monitoring. Concordance ranged 75–100% comparing GRS-C and GRS-UK ratings. Test-retest reliability Kappa scores ranged 0.60–0.83, while responsiveness to change scores at 6 months after intervention implementations were greater (P<0.001 in two out of three units. Conclusion. The GRS-C exhibits satisfactory metrics, supporting its use in a national quality initiative aimed at improving processes in endoscopy units. Data collection from more units and linking to actual patient outcomes are required to ensure that GRS-C implementation facilitates improved patient care.

  16. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 141 - Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate J Appendix J to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... PILOT SCHOOLS Pt. 141, App. J Appendix J to Part 141—Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an...

  17. Prediction of the handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillation rating levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Irina AFLOARE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The basis for the aviation development is the ambition of increasing the efficiency and safety of flight. Improvements include flight performance and extended flight envelope, new flight regimes and tasks. However, all of these factors lead to the increase of pilot workload which can reduce the accuracy and safety of flight. Fixed and rotary wing pilots are being confronted with potential instabilities or with annoying limit cycle oscillations, known as Aircraft/Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings (A/RPC that arise from the effort of controlling the vehicle with high response actuators. This paper deals with the unified theory of predicting handling qualities level (HQSF and pilot-induced oscillation rating levels (PIOR based on the structural model of human operator, developed by Hess. HQSF and PIOR are capable of capturing the prominent features of human pilot dynamics characteristics for a large class of aerial vehicles and tasks. The key element in this method is to unify the topics of vehicle handling qualities and RPC/PIO, applied to the analysis of a medium weight helicopter model.

  18. Evaluation of the home-energy-rating concept and the Massachusetts Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankel, M.L.; Duberg, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    This is a report on the results of an evaluation of a home-energy-rating concept based on a Massachusetts pilot project. The focus of the evaluation was on: (1) the compatibility of the Massachusetts rating with the RCS program, (2) who would use the rating and how, (3) qualitative estimates of benefits and costs, and (4) recommendations for further use and testing of the rating. In addition the evaluation of the rating concept also attempted to determine what if any effect the home energy rating has on the demand for energy audits, on the propensity of customers who received ratings to undertake recommended energy-efficiency home improvements, and on changes in mortgage-lending procedures for energy-efficient homes. The evaluation consisted of telephone and in-person discussions with the project developers, the various professional user groups, the recipients of the energy ratings, and control groups of audit customers that did not receive the energy rating. The evaluation was designed to determine the results of the pilot project, assess the project's effectiveness, and analyze the potential for transferring the rating procedure to other geographic locations.

  19. 14 CFR 61.429 - May I exercise the privileges of a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating if I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating if I hold a flight instructor certificate with another... Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.429 May I exercise the privileges of a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating if I hold a flight instructor certificate with another rating? If you...

  20. Exploratory spatial analysis of pilot fatality rates in general aviation crashes using geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Jurek G; Curriero, Frank C; Baker, Susan P; Li, Guohua

    2002-03-01

    Geographic information systems and exploratory spatial analysis were used to describe the geographic characteristics of pilot fatality rates in 1983-1998 general aviation crashes within the continental United States. The authors plotted crash sites on a digital map; rates were computed at regular grid intersections and then interpolated by using geographic information systems. A test for significance was performed by using Monte Carlo simulations. Further analysis compared low-, medium-, and high-rate areas in relation to pilot characteristics, aircraft type, and crash circumstance. Of the 14,051 general aviation crashes studied, 31% were fatal. Seventy-four geographic areas were categorized as having low fatality rates and 53 as having high fatality rates. High-fatality-rate areas tended to be mountainous, such as the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian region, whereas low-rate areas were relatively flat, such as the Great Plains. Further analysis comparing low-, medium-, and high-fatality-rate areas revealed that crashes in high-fatality-rate areas were more likely than crashes in other areas to have occurred under instrument meteorologic conditions and to involve aircraft fire. This study demonstrates that geographic information systems are a valuable tool for injury prevention and aviation safety research.

  1. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  2. Influences of early shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm, mood and sleep: within-subject variation in male airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, Sophie; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to investigate how early and late work shifts influenced the diurnal cortisol rhythm using a within-subjects study design. Participants were 30 healthy male non-smoking pilots, mean age 39.4, employed by a short-haul airline. The standard rotating shift pattern consisted of 5 early shifts (starting before 0600 h), followed by 3 rest days, 5 late shifts (starting after 1200 h) and 4 rest days. Pilots sampled saliva and completed subjective mood ratings in a logbook 6 times over the day on two consecutive early shift days, two late days and two rest days. Sampling was scheduled at waking, waking+30 m, waking+2.5 h, waking+8 h, waking+12 h and bedtime. Waking time, sleep duration, sleep quality and working hours were also recorded. Cortisol responses were analysed with repeated measures analysis of variance with shift condition (early, late, rest) and sample time (1-6) as within-subject factors. Early shifts were associated with a higher cortisol increase in response to awakening (CAR(i)), a greater total cortisol output over the day (AUC(G)) and a slower rate of decline over the day than late shifts or rest days. Early shifts were also associated with shorter sleep duration but co-varying for sleep duration did not alter the effects of shift on the cortisol rhythm. Both types of work shift were associated with more stress, tiredness and lower happiness than rest days, but statistical adjustment for mood ratings did not alter the findings. Early shift days were associated with significantly higher levels of circulating cortisol during waking hours than late shifts or rest days. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of deep breathing exercise on spontaneous respiratory rate and heart rate variability: a randomised controlled trial in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharion, Elizabeth; Samuel, Prasanna; Rajalakshmi, R; Gnanasenthil, G; Subramanian, Rajam Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Studies show that yogic type of breathing exercises reduces the spontaneous respiratory rate. However, there are no conclusive studies on the effects of breathing exercise on heart rate variability. We investigated the effects of non-yogic breathing exercise on respiratory rate and heart rate variability. Healthy subjects (21-33 years, both genders) were randomized into the intervention group (n=18), which performed daily deep breathing exercise at 6 breaths/min (0.1 Hz) for one month, and a control group (n=18) which did not perform any breathing exercise. Baseline respiratory rate and short-term heart rate variability indices were assessed in both groups. Reassessment was done after one month and the change in the parameters from baseline was computed for each group. Comparison of the absolute changes [median (inter-quartile ranges)] of the parameters between the intervention and control group showed a significant difference in the spontaneous respiratory rate [intervention group -2.50 (-4.00, -1.00), control group 0.00 (-1.00, 1.00), cycles/min, Prate and cardiac autonomic modulation of the intervention group were significant, when compared to the changes in the control group. Thus practice of deep slow breathing exercise improves heart rate variability in healthy subjects, without altering their cardiac autonomic balance. These findings have implications in the use of deep breathing exercises to improve cardiac autonomic control in subjects known to have reduced heart rate variability.

  4. 14 CFR 61.405 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.405 Section 61.405 Aeronautics and Space..., FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.405 What tests do I have to take to obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? To obtain a...

  5. Pilot States Program report: Home energy ratings systems and energy-efficient mortgages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.

    2000-04-04

    This report covers the accomplishments of the home energy ratings systems/energy-efficient mortgages (HERS/EEMs) pilot states from 1993 through 1998, including such indicators as funding, ratings and EEMs achieved, active raters, and training and marketing activities. A brief description of each HERS program's evolution is included, as well as their directors' views of the programs' future prospects. Finally, an analysis is provided of successful HERS program characteristics and factors that appear to contribute to HERS program success.

  6. Within-Subject Reliability and between-Subject Variability of Oxidative Stress Markers in Saliva of Healthy Subjects: A Longitudinal Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Z. Alajbeg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated diurnal variations and day-to-day fluctuations of salivary oxidative stress (OS markers in healthy adult individuals. Whole unstimulated saliva was collected at 2 time intervals over 3 consecutive days. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, and uric acid (UA were analyzed using spectrophotometric methods, while 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and malondialdehyde (MDA were determined using immunoassays. No significant differences for salivary OS markers between men and women were observed. For all examined OS markers, no significant day-to-day variations were demonstrated. Significant diurnal variations were found in salivary GPX, TAC and MDA levels. For SOD, TAC, GPX, and UA, good-to-moderate intraindividual coefficients of variations (CVs were observed in more than 75% of the subjects. For MDA and 8-OHdG, intraindividual CVs > 35% were observed in 60% and 40% of the subjects, respectively. Between-subject variance was wide for all examined OS markers (CV% 30.08%–85.70%. Due to high intraindividual variability in the salivary concentrations of MDA and 8-OHdG, those markers cannot be reliably verified based on single measurements and multiple measurements over several days would provide more reliable information. Salivary SOD, TAC, GPX, and UA proved stable across three days of measurement. Trial Registration. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03029494. Registered on 2017-01-19.

  7. Reduced nicotine content cigarette advertising: How false beliefs and subjective ratings affect smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Saddleson, Megan L; Gup, Emily; Halstead, Angela; Mays, Darren; Strasser, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco advertising can create false beliefs about health harms that are reinforced by product design features. Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes may reduce harm, but research has not addressed advertising influences. This study examined RNC cigarette advertising effects on false harm beliefs, and how these beliefs - along with initial subjective ratings of RNC cigarettes - affect subsequent smoking behaviors. We further explored whether subjective ratings moderate associations between false beliefs and behavior. Seventy-seven daily, non-treatment-seeking smokers (66.2% male) participated in the first 15days of a randomized, controlled, open-label RNC cigarette trial. Participants viewed an RNC cigarette advertisement at baseline before completing a 5-day period of preferred brand cigarette use, followed by a 10-day period of RNC cigarette use (0.6mg nicotine yield). Participants provided pre- and post-advertisement beliefs, and subjective ratings and smoking behaviors for cigarettes smoked during laboratory visits. Viewing the advertisement increased beliefs that RNC cigarettes contain less nicotine and are healthier than regular cigarettes (p'sbelief that they are less likely to cause cancer (p=0.046). Neither false beliefs nor subjective ratings directly affected smoking behaviors. Significant interactions of strength and taste ratings with beliefs (p'sbeliefs were associated with greater RNC cigarette consumption. Smokers may misconstrue RNC cigarettes as less harmful than regular cigarettes. These beliefs, in conjunction with favorable subjective ratings, may increase product use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of the subjective sense of high or low metabolism and objectively measured resting metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallhuss, Andreas; Isik, Markus; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2010-09-01

    To measure caloric intake, physical activity level and resting metabolic rate in participants having the subjective opinion of either having a high or low metabolic rate. Recruitment by local advertising of healthy subjects feeling that they have high or low metabolism, i.e. either a tendency to easily stay lean ('high') or to very easily gain weight ('low') also when taking food intake in comparison with physical activity into account. Walking distance was estimated by pedometry, assessment of caloric intake was determined by food registration. Measurement of resting metabolic rate was performed in the fasting state. We recruited 44 participants with a sense of 'high' metabolism and 12 subjects in the contrasting group. Subjects with 'high' metabolism were leaner ('high': 20.4 +/- 2.1 kg/m(2), 'low': 27.8 +/- 7.5 kg/m(2), p difference in the measured resting metabolic rate between the two groups ('high': 7230 +/- 1233 kJ/24 h, 'low': 7430 +/- 1422 kJ/24 h, p = 0.6), nor was there any difference in physical activity measured by pedometry. Resting metabolic rate was negatively correlated with age and positively correlated with BMI in multivariate analyses of the total cohort. The sense of having a low or high metabolic rate is not related to actual resting metabolic rate.

  9. Exercise heart rate monitors for anxiety treatment in a rural primary care setting: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Melissa Marotta; Rosen, Lee; Seagrave, Martha P; Grabowski, Don; Matthew, John D; Craig, William A P

    2013-10-01

    Rural patients with anxiety often lack access to traditional biofeedback modalities. Exercise heart rate monitors (HRMs) are tools used in the fitness industry to provide athletes with feedback on heart rate and regulatory breathing strategies. HRMs are inexpensive, discrete, and publicly accessible. This randomized controlled pilot study explored whether use of HRMs for biofeedback during guided mindfulness, diaphragmatic breathing, and progressive muscle relaxation techniques could facilitate anxiety reduction as compared to these techniques alone. Fifty-three rural anxiety patients were randomized to HRM or control groups for four weekly 20-minute, scripted sessions with a non-behaviorist wherein they practiced these techniques; the HRM group received feedback on their heart rate response. The HRM group had significantly greater improvement in state anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and self-efficacy (General Self Efficacy Scale), and a greater percentage of the group indicated that they "felt in control of their anxiety." This pilot study demonstrates that this novel, inexpensive, and accessible tool may be a useful clinical intervention for anxiety and can be easily incorporated by both behaviorists and non-behaviorist primary care clinicians into individual or group biofeedback treatment for patients with anxiety. This tool has additional potential for patients to use for anxiety self-management. Further study with a larger sample and blinded design is warranted.

  10. Pilot-scale investigation of drinking water ultrafiltration membrane fouling rates using advanced data analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Peldszus, Sigrid; Peiris, Ramila H; Ruhl, Aki S; Mehrez, Renata; Jekel, Martin; Legge, Raymond L; Huck, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale investigation of the performance of biofiltration as a pre-treatment to ultrafiltration for drinking water treatment was conducted between 2008 and 2010. The objective of this study was to further understand the fouling behaviour of ultrafiltration at pilot scale and assess the utility of different foulant monitoring tools. Various fractions of natural organic matter (NOM) and colloidal/particulate matter of raw water, biofilter effluents, and membrane permeate were characterized by employing two advanced NOM characterization techniques: liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEM) combined with principal component analysis (PCA). A framework of fouling rate quantification and classification was also developed and utilized in this study. In cases such as the present one where raw water quality and therefore fouling potential vary substantially, such classification can be considered essential for proper data interpretation. The individual and combined contributions of various NOM fractions and colloidal/particulate matter to hydraulically reversible and irreversible fouling were investigated using various multivariate statistical analysis techniques. Protein-like substances and biopolymers were identified as major contributors to both reversible and irreversible fouling, whereas colloidal/particulate matter can alleviate the extent of irreversible fouling. Humic-like substances contributed little to either reversible or irreversible fouling at low level fouling rates. The complementary nature of FEEM-PCA and LC-OCD for assessing the fouling potential of complex water matrices was also illustrated by this pilot-scale study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Further tests of a model-based scheme for predicting pilot opinion ratings for large commercial transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, W. W.; Levison, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology was demonstrated for assessing longitudinal-axis handling qualities of transport aircraft on the basis of closed-loop criteria. Six longitudinal-axis approach configurations were studied covering a range of handling quality problems that included the presence of flexible aircraft modes. Using closed-loop performance requirements derived from task analyses and pilot interviews, predictions of performance/workload tradeoffs were obtained using an analytical pilot/vehicle model. A subsequent manned simulation study yielded objective performance measures and Cooper-Harper pilot ratings that were largely consistent with each other and with analytic predictions.

  12. Public speaking in social phobia: a pilot study of self-ratings and observers' ratings of social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Michelle Nigri; Falcone, Eliane Mary; Placido, Monique; Krieger, Stephanie; Pinheiro, Layse; Crippa, Jose Alexandre; Bruno, Leandro Marchetti; Pastore, Daniele; Hallak, Jaime; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) differ from controls in the quality of skill-related behaviors displayed during a speech and in overall behavioral adequacy as perceived by observers and by the patients themselves. A total of 18 SAD patients and 18 controls were screened by a diagnostic interview and took part in a 3-minute speech of their own choosing. For each videotaped speech, observers rated the adequacy of the skill-related behaviors and overall performance adequacy. After the experiment, participants were asked to rate their own overall performance adequacy. The results showed that SAD patients exhibited significantly worse voice intonation and fluency of the speech, however no differences were found in global self-ratings. Moreover, the performance evaluations of the SAD group were consistent with the observers, while the controls evaluated their performance lower than the observers. The results are inconsistent with the cognitive model, because patients with SAD did not underestimate their performance. Compared with spontaneous interactions, the clear rules established for such social situations as speeches may result in less cognitive distortion for SAD patients. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Modeling fault diagnosis as the activation and use of a frame system. [for pilot problem-solving rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip J.; Giffin, Walter C.; Rockwell, Thomas H.; Thomas, Mark

    1986-01-01

    Twenty pilots with instrument flight ratings were asked to perform a fault-diagnosis task for which they had relevant domain knowledge. The pilots were asked to think out loud as they requested and interpreted information. Performances were then modeled as the activation and use of a frame system. Cognitive biases, memory distortions and losses, and failures to correctly diagnose the problem were studied in the context of this frame system model.

  14. Beanblock® (standardized dry extract of Phaseolus vulgaris) in mildly overweight subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzi, R; Belcaro, G; Hu, S; Dugall, M; Hosoi, M; Ippolito, E; Corsi, M; Gizzi, G

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of Beanblock®, a standardized extract of Phaseolus vulgaris L., on weight control in healthy overweight subjects on a weight management plan that combined lifestyle and dietary advice. Sixty overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2) healthy subjects were enroled. All subjects were instructed to follow a weight management plan, accompanied by dietary advice. Thirty subjects used Beanblock® for at least 12 weeks (50 mg tablets, two times daily). The remaining 30 subjects did not receive any supplementation (management-only). The main endpoints were changes in body weight and waist circumference, with plasmatic oxidative stress, satiey and appetite being also evaluated. At week 12, the supplementation with Beanblock® was associated with a reduction in body weight (from 82.8 ± 9.1 kg to 78.8 ± 8.9 kg; p < 0.0001) and a decrease of waist circumference from 94.4 ± 10.3 cm to 88.2 ± 10.0 cm (p < 0.0001). Conversely, only marginal changes were observed in the control group. Oxidative stress was also significantly decreased with Beanblock® (from 380.4 ± 14.8 to 340.7 ± 14.8 Carr Units; p < 0.0001). Satiety and appetite improved in the supplement group. No side effects were observed and compliance was optimal. Beanblock®, in association with a health management plan, was useful for weight control in mildly overweight healthy subjects.

  15. Effectiveness of square stepping exercise among subjects with Parkinson's disease: A pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharasudhan Ravichandran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson's disease is a movement disorder that seriously affects body balance and gait; therefore, increases the risk of fall and related complications. Freezing of gait and postural instability are disabling symptoms, which compromises motor independence among Parkinson's disease patients. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study analyses the effects of square-stepping exercise (SSE among Parkinson's disease patients in terms of improving balance and reducing fall risk. Materials and Methods: This is a pilot randomized controlled study, in which thirty male and female Parkinson's disease patients between 60 and 70 years of age were selected by simple random sampling method and randomly divided into SSE group (N-15 and conventional physiotherapy (CPT group (N-15. Interventions were provided for 4 weeks. Baseline and posttest outcomes were measured using the Berg balance scale (BBS and timed up and go test (TUG. Results: Statistical measures of mean, standard deviation, and t-test were performed using SPSS 21. SSE exhibited statistical significant improvement in BBS (P < 0.05 and TUG (P < 0.0001 compared to CPT group. Conclusion: SSE is more effective in improving balance and gait in Parkinson's disease. Although further studies with larger samples are required, the result of this study implies that SSE could be used as a mean of rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease.

  16. Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia with Diode Laser: a Pilot Study on Indian Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharadi, Usama A Rashid; Onkar, Sanjeev; Birangane, Rajendra; Chaudhari, Swapnali; Kulkarni, Abhay; Chaudhari, Rohan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the safety, convenience and effectiveness of 940nm diode laser for treatment of homogenous leukoplakia. Ten patients having homogenous leukoplakia which were diagnosed clinically were selected from an Indian dental educational institution for the study. Toludine blue staining was applied locally over the lesion. The area where there was increased uptake of stain was excised using a 940 nm EZLASE TM diode laser (BIOLASE-USA). Although various treatment modalities have been tried and the search continues for novel treatment modalities for complete removal of homogenous leukoplakia, from results of our preliminary pilot study it is clear that the use of 940 nm diode laser as a treatment modality for homogenous leukoplakia is a good substitute. Healing was perfect without any complication within a duration of 1 month. Pain intensity was also mild and absolutely zero on the VAS scale after 1 month follow up. 940 nm diode lasers are safe and can be effectively used as a treatment modality of homogenous leukoplakia, without any complication and without compromising health and oral function of patients. Considering recurrence factor, long term follow up for patients is a must.

  17. Bilateral transfer phenomenon: A functional magnetic resonance imaging pilot study of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggetti, Carla; Ausenda, Carlo D; Squarza, Silvia; Cadioli, Marcello; Grimoldi, Ludovico; Cerri, Cesare; Cariati, Maurizio

    2016-08-01

    The bilateral transfer of a motor skill is a physiological phenomenon: the development of a motor skill with one hand can trigger the development of the same ability of the other hand. The purpose of this study was to verify whether bilateral transfer is associated with a specific brain activation pattern using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The motor task was implemented as the execution of the Nine Hole Peg Test. Fifteen healthy subjects (10 right-handers and five left-handers) underwent two identical fMRI runs performing the motor task with the non-dominant hand. Between the first and the second run, each subject was intensively trained for five minutes to perform the same motor task with the dominant hand. Comparing the two functional scans across the pool of subjects, a change of the motor activation pattern was observed. In particular, we observed, in the second run, a change in the activation pattern both in the cerebellum and in the cerebral cortex. We found activations in cortical areas involved in somatosensory integration, areas involved in procedural memory. Our study shows, in a small group of healthy subjects, the modification of the fMRI activation pathway of a motor task performed by the non-dominant hand after intensive exercise performing the same task with the dominant hand. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. The influence of negative mood on heart rate complexity measures and baroreflex sensitivity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbele, Ralf; Koschke, Mandy; Schulz, Steffen; Wagner, Gerd; Yeragani, Shravya; Ramachandraiah, Chaitra T; Voss, Andreas; Yeragani, Vikram K; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Decreased cardiac vagal function is linked with increased cardiac mortality and depression is associated with decreased heart rate variability. We have previously shown that the Mood Induction Procedure (MIP) in healthy subjects alters pain perception and thalamic activity during pain perception. To study the effect of negative emotion on heart rate variability and complexity measures as well as on baroreceptor sensitivity, as these parameters reflect cardiac autonomic function. We studied 20 healthy female controls before and after neutral MIP and 20 healthy female subjects before and after negative MIP. We investigated measures of valence of mood, heart rate variability and complexity and the baroreceptor sensitivity index. While there was a significant difference in the valence of mood between the neutral and the negative effect condition, there were no significant differences in any of the heart rate or baroreceptor sensitivity measures between the two groups. Our findings did not show any significant influence of acute negative MIP on heart rate variability and complexity measures and baroreceptor sensitivity, even though depressive disorder and stress are associated with decreased heart rate variability. These findings are discussed in the context of clinical depression and anxiety and the increased risk for cardiac mortality. In contrast to the presented results here, we have previously shown that MIP in healthy subjects alters pain perception and thalamic activity.

  19. Personality in Free-Ranging Hanuman Langur (Semnopithecus entellus) Males: Subjective Ratings and Recorded Behavior

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečná, M.; Lhota, S.; Weiss, A.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Adamová, T.; Pluháček, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 4 (2008), s. 379-389 ISSN 0735-7036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : trait rating * questionnaires * behavior al indices Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.081, year: 2008

  20. Nocturnal variations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in lower leg of normal human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate was measured in the lower leg of 22 normal human subjects over 12- to 20-h ambulatory conditions. The 133Xe washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit were used. The tracer depot was applied on the medial aspect...

  1. A Framework for Control System Design Subject to Average Data-Rate Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Eduardo; Derpich, Milan; Østergaard, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies discrete-time control systems subject to average data-rate limits. We focus on a situation where a noisy linear system has been designed assuming transparent feedback and, due to implementation constraints, a source-coding scheme (with unity signal transfer function) has to be ...

  2. Seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations and heart rates during sleep in obese subjects in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Maki; Kanikowska, Dominika; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sato, Motohiko; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2013-09-01

    During the past several decades, obesity has been increasing globally. In Japan, obesity is defined by a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or over; 28.6 % of men and 20.6 % of women are obese. Obese people have an increased incidence of developing cardiovascular, renal, and hormonal diseases and sleep disorders. Obese people also have shortened sleep durations. We investigated seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations, heart rates, and heart rate variability during sleep in obese subjects in Japan. Five obese (BMI, 32.0 ± 4.9 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23.2 ± 2.9 kg/m2) men participated in this study in the summer and winter. Electrocardiograms were measured continuously overnight in a climatic chamber at 26 °C with a relative humidity of 50 %. Saliva samples for melatonin were collected at 2300 hours, 0200 hours, and 0600 hours. We found that melatonin concentrations during sleep in obese subjects were significantly lower than those in non-obese subjects in the winter. Heart rate during sleep in winter was significantly higher than that in summer in both obese and non-obese subjects. Heart rate variability was not significantly different in the summer and winter in both obese and non-obese subjects. Our results show that decreased nocturnal melatonin concentrations during winter in obese men may be related to higher heart rates, and this may suggest that obese men are at an increased risk of a cardiovascular incident during sleep, especially in the winter.

  3. Subjective and physiological emotional response in euthymic bipolar patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Mathieu; Aguillon-Hernandez, Nadia; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Martineau, Joëlle; El-Hage, Wissam

    2014-12-15

    The euthymic phase of bipolar disorders may be associated with residual emotional and/or subsyndromal symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare subjective and physiologic emotional response to negative, neutral and positive emotion eliciting pictures between euthymic bipolar patients (n=26) and healthy controls (n=30). We evaluated emotional response using an emotional induction method with emotional pictures from the International Affective Picture System. We measured subjective emotional response with the Self-Assessment Manikin and physiological emotional response by measuring pupil size. No difference was found between euthymic bipolar patients and controls regarding subjective emotional response. However, upon viewing positive pictures, pupil dilation was significantly lower in euthymic bipolar patients compared to controls. This finding suggests that euthymic bipolar phase may be associated with reduced physiologic emotional response to positive valence, which is consistent with a more general negative emotional bias or can be understood as a residual emotional subsyndromal symptom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Subjective thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate: analysis and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    , it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...... the exergy concept to the built indoor environment, additional results are going to be explored. By using the data available so far of operative temperature (to), the human body exergy consumption rates increase as to increases above 24°C or decreases below 22°C at relative humidity (RH) lower than 50...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 541 - Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject to the Requirements of This Standard B Appendix B to Part 541... Appendix B to Part 541—Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject...

  6. Relationship between heart rate variability and endothelial function in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Alexandra; Horvath, Tamas; Sarkozi, Adrienn; Kollai, Mark

    2012-08-16

    In various diseased states reduced cardiac vagal activity is accompanied by impaired endothelial function. Evidence from animal studies indicates interaction between the two systems, but such data from human studies is limited. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that cardiac vagal activity and endothelial function are related in healthy individuals. 46 young males were studied. From 10 minute long ECG recordings mean RR-interval and time and frequency domain vagal heart rate variability indices (RMSSD; pNN50 and HF, respectively) were determined. Heart rate variability indices were used to define cardiac vagal activity. Endothelial function was assessed by measuring brachial artery flow mediated dilation. Hyperemic, diastolic shear rate was used to normalize flow mediated dilation. All three vagal heart rate variability indices correlated significantly and positively with flow mediated dilation across subjects, with r values within the range of 0.43-0.52, pheart rate variability indices remained significantly associated with normalized flow mediated dilation. RR-interval was related to most heart rate variability indices, but was not related to flow mediated dilation. Our data demonstrate that vagal heart rate variability indices are related to flow mediated dilation across healthy male subjects. The results cannot serve as evidence of a causal relationship, but are of interest and render for further investigation into underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Merging physical parameters and laboratory subjective ratings for the soundscape assessment of urban squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Giovanni; Maffei, Luigi; Di Gabriele, Maria; Gallo, Veronica

    2013-07-01

    An experimental study was carried out in 20 squares in the center of Rome, covering a wide range of different uses, sonic environments, geometry, and architectural styles. Soundwalks along the perimeter of each square were performed during daylight and weekdays taking binaural and video recordings, as well as spot measurements of illuminance. The cluster analysis performed on the physical parameters, not only acoustic, provided two clusters that are in satisfactory agreement with the "a priori" classification. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to five physical parameters, two main components were obtained which might be associated to two environmental features, namely, "chaotic/calm" and "open/enclosed." On the basis of these two features, six squares were selected for the laboratory audio-video tests where 32 subjects took part filling in a questionnaire. The PCA performed on the subjective ratings on the sonic environment showed two main components which might be associated to two emotional meanings, namely, "calmness" and "vibrancy." The linear regression modeling between five objective parameters and the mean value of subjective ratings on chaotic/calm and enclosed/open attributes showed a good correlation. Notwithstanding these interesting results being limited to the specific data set, it is worth pointing out that the complexity of the soundscape quality assessment can be more comprehensively examined merging the field measurements of physical parameters with the subjective ratings provided by field and/or laboratory tests.

  8. Impact of Wheelchair Rugby on Body Composition of Subjects With Tetraplegia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, José I; Costa e Silva, Anselmo de A; Borges, Mariane; Tanhoffer, Ricardo A; Godoy, Priscila S; Calegari, Décio R; Santos, Allan de O; Ramos, Celso D; Nadruz Junior, Wilson; Cliquet Junior, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the longitudinal effects of wheelchair rugby (WR) training on body composition of subjects with tetraplegia. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after WR training. Faculty of physical education settings. Individuals with tetraplegia (N=13; age, 26.6±6.0y). Four sessions per week of WR training composed by aerobic and anaerobic activities and technical and tactical aspects of WR. The average time of intervention was 8.1±2.5 months. Body composition assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. After training, fat mass was significantly reduced in the whole body (15,191±4603 vs 13,212±3318 g, P=.016), trunk (7058±2639 vs 5693±1498 g, P=.012), and legs (2847±817 vs 2534±742 g, P=.003). Conversely, increased bone mineral content (183±35 vs 195±32 g, P=.01) and fat-free mass (2991±549 vs 3332±602 g, P=.016) in the arms and reduced bone mineral content in the trunk (553±82 vs 521±86 g, P=.034) were observed after training. Furthermore, no significant correlation between the duration of training and changes in body composition was detected. Regular WR training increased lean mass and bone mineral content in the arms and decreased total body fat mass. Conversely, WR training was associated with decreased bone mineral content in the trunk. These results suggest that regular WR training improves body composition in subjects with tetraplegia. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Practice-based randomized controlled-comparison clinical trial of chiropractic adjustments and brief massage treatment at sites of subluxation in subjects with essential hypertension: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaugher, Gregory; Long, Cynthia R; Alcantara, Joel; Silveus, Alyssa D; Wood, Herbert; Lotun, Kapildeo; Menke, J Michael; Meeker, William C; Rowe, Stephen H

    2002-05-01

    To determine the feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial in the private practice setting examining short- and long-term effects of chiropractic adjustments for subjects with essential hypertension compared with a brief soft tissue massage, as well as a nontreatment control group. Randomized controlled-comparison trial with 3 parallel groups. Private practice outpatient chiropractic clinic. Twenty-three subjects, aged 24 to 50 years with systolic or diastolic essential hypertension. Two months of full-spine chiropractic care (ie, Gonstead) consisting primarily of specific-contact, short-lever-arm adjustments delivered at motion segments exhibiting signs of subluxation. The massage group had a brief effleurage procedure delivered at localized regions of the spine believed to be exhibiting signs of subluxation. The nontreatment control group rested alone for a period of approximately 5 minutes in an adjustment room. Cost per enrolled subject, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) measured with a random-0 sphygmomanometer and patient reported health status (SF-36). Pilot study outcome measures also included an assessment of cooperation of subjects to randomization procedures and drop-out rates, recruitment effectiveness, analysis of temporal stability of BPs at the beginning of care, and the effects of inclusion/exclusion criteria on the subject pool. Thirty subjects enrolled, yielding a cost of $161 per enrolled subject. One subject was later determined to be ineligible, and 6 others dropped out. In both the chiropractic and massage therapy groups, all subjects were classified as either overweight or obese; in the control group there were only 2 classified as such. SF-36 profiles for the groups were similar to that of a normal population. The mean change in diastolic BP was -4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -8.6, 0.5) in the chiropractic care group, 0.5 (95% CI: -3.5, 4.5) in the brief massage treatment group, and -4.9 (95% CI: -9.7, -0

  10. Effect of bupropion-SR on orgasmic dysfunction in nondepressed subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, J G; May, R S; Katholi, C R

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the aminoketone antidepressant bupropion has beneficial effects in orgasmic dysfunction. Single-blind, sequential treatment order of three weeks each: placebo, bupropion-SR 150 mg/day, bupropion-SR 300 mg/day. Nondepressed women (n = 20) and men (n = 10) having nonphysiologic orgasmic delay or inhibition. Reported difficulty or delay in achieving orgasm, satisfaction with orgasm and erectile function, and subjective impressions of drug effect. In the women, there were significant improvements relative to baseline (p orgasm on 150 mg/day (300 mg/day, p = .10). In the men, significant improvements over baseline (p orgasm/ejaculation; significant improvements relative to placebo (p orgasm/ejaculation on 150 mg/day. Seventy percent of subjects reported improvement in libido, arousal, or orgasmic function during bupropion administration. Bupropion-SR may be a useful agent for treating orgasmic delay and inhibition, and possibly disorders of sexual arousal. The results argue against bupropion's apparent prosexual effect in depressed patients being simply a result of its antidepressant activity.

  11. Modeling the time--varying subjective quality of HTTP video streams with rate adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Choi, Lark Kwon; de Veciana, Gustavo; Caramanis, Constantine; Heath, Robert W; Bovik, Alan C

    2014-05-01

    Newly developed hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)-based video streaming technologies enable flexible rate-adaptation under varying channel conditions. Accurately predicting the users' quality of experience (QoE) for rate-adaptive HTTP video streams is thus critical to achieve efficiency. An important aspect of understanding and modeling QoE is predicting the up-to-the-moment subjective quality of a video as it is played, which is difficult due to hysteresis effects and nonlinearities in human behavioral responses. This paper presents a Hammerstein-Wiener model for predicting the time-varying subjective quality (TVSQ) of rate-adaptive videos. To collect data for model parameterization and validation, a database of longer duration videos with time-varying distortions was built and the TVSQs of the videos were measured in a large-scale subjective study. The proposed method is able to reliably predict the TVSQ of rate adaptive videos. Since the Hammerstein-Wiener model has a very simple structure, the proposed method is suitable for online TVSQ prediction in HTTP-based streaming.

  12. Psilocybin links binocular rivalry switch rate to attention and subjective arousal levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Olivia L; Hasler, Felix; Pettigrew, John D; Wallis, Guy M; Liu, Guang B; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2007-12-01

    Binocular rivalry occurs when different images are simultaneously presented to each eye. During continual viewing of this stimulus, the observer will experience repeated switches between visual awareness of the two images. Previous studies have suggested that a slow rate of perceptual switching may be associated with clinical and drug-induced psychosis. The objective of the study was to explore the proposed relationship between binocular rivalry switch rate and subjective changes in psychological state associated with 5-HT2A receptor activation. This study used psilocybin, the hallucinogen found naturally in Psilocybe mushrooms that had previously been found to induce psychosis-like symptoms via the 5-HT2A receptor. The effects of psilocybin (215 microg/kg) were considered alone and after pretreatment with the selective 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (50 mg) in ten healthy human subjects. Psilocybin significantly reduced the rate of binocular rivalry switching and increased the proportion of transitional/mixed percept experience. Pretreatment with ketanserin blocked the majority of psilocybin's "positive" psychosis-like hallucinogenic symptoms. However, ketanserin had no influence on either the psilocybin-induced slowing of binocular rivalry or the drug's "negative-type symptoms" associated with reduced arousal and vigilance. Together, these findings link changes in binocular rivalry switching rate to subjective levels of arousal and attention. In addition, it suggests that psilocybin's effect on binocular rivalry is unlikely to be mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor.

  13. A multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme improves disability, kinesiophobia and walking ability in subjects with chronic low back pain: results of a randomised controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Marco; Ambrosini, Emilia; Rocca, Barbara; Magni, Silvia; Brivio, Flavia; Ferrante, Simona

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme on disability, kinesiophobia, catastrophizing, pain, quality of life and gait disturbances in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). This was a parallel-group, randomised, superiority-controlled pilot study in which 20 patients were randomly assigned to a programme consisting of motor training (spinal stabilising exercises plus usual-care) and cognitive-behavioural therapy (experimental group, 10 subjects) or usual-care alone (control group, 10 subjects). Before treatment, 8 weeks later (post-treatment), and 3 months after the end of treatment, the Oswestry Disability Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, a pain numerical rating scale, and the Short-Form Health Survey were assessed. Spatio-temporal gait parameters were also measured by means of an electronic walking mat. A linear mixed model for repeated measures was used for each outcome measure. The programme had significant group (p = 0.027), time (p kinesiophobia, catastrophizing, and the quality of life also revealed significant time, group, and time-by-group interaction effects in favour of the experimental group, and there was a significant effect of time on pain. Both groups showed a general improvement in gait parameters, with the experimental group increasing cadence significantly more. The multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme including cognitive-behavioural therapy was superior to the exercise programme in reducing disability, kinesiophobia, catastrophizing, and enhancing the quality of life and gait cadence of patients with CLBP.

  14. Objective and subjective visual performance of multifocal contact lenses: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Balamurali; Flores, Michael; Gaib, Sara

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the objective and subjective visual performance of three different soft multifocal contact lenses. 10 subjects (habitual soft contact lens wearers) between the ages of 40 and 45 years participated in the study. Three different multifocal silicone hydrogel contact lenses (Acuvue Oasys, Air Optix and Biofinity) were fit within the same visit. All the lenses were fit according to the manufacturers' recommendation using the respective fitting guide. Visual performance tests included low and high contrast distance and near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, range of clear vision and through-focus curve. Objective visual performance tests included measurement of open field accommodative response at different defocus levels and optical aberrations at different viewing distances. Accommodative response was not significantly different between the three types of multifocal contact lenses at each of the accommodative stimulus levels (p>0.05). Accommodative lag increased for higher stimulus levels for all 3 types of contact lenses. Ocular aberrations were not significantly different between these 3 contact lens designs at each of the different viewing distances (p>0.05). In addition, optical aberrations did not significantly differ between different viewing distances for any of these lenses (p>0.05). ANOVA revealed no significant difference in high and low contrast distance visual acuity as well as near visual acuity and contrast sensitivity function between the 3 multifocal contact lenses and spectacles (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in accommodative response, optical aberrations or visual performance between the 3 multifocal contact lenses in early presbyopes. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Caffeine Enhances Heart Rate Variability in Middle-Aged Healthy, But Not Heart Failure Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarius, Catherine F; Floras, John S

    2012-06-01

    In chronic heart failure (CHF) due to left ventricular dysfunction, diminished heart rate variability (HRV) is an independent predictor of poor prognosis. Caffeine has been shown to increase HRV in young healthy subjects. Such an increase may be of potential benefit to patients with CHF. We hypothesized that intravenous infusion of caffeine would increase HRV in CHF, and in age-matched healthy control subjects. On two separate days, 11 patients (1F) with CHF (age=51.3±4.6 years; left ventricular ejection fraction=18.6±2.7%; mean±standard error) and 10 healthy control subjects (age=48.0±4.0) according to a double-blind randomization design, received either saline or caffeine (4 mg/kg) infusion. We assessed HRV over 7 minutes of supine rest (fast Fourier Transform analysis) to determine total spectral power as well as its high-frequency (HF) (0.15-0.50 Hz) and low-frequency (LF) (0.05-0.15 Hz) components, and recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) directly from the peroneal nerve (microneurography). In healthy control subjects, compared with saline, caffeine reduced both heart rate and sympathetic nerve traffic (p≤0.003) and increased the ratio of HF/total power (p≤0.05). Baseline LF power and the ratio LF/HF were significantly lower in CHF compared with controls (p=0.02), but caffeine had no effect on any element of HRV. Caffeine increases cardiac vagal heart rate modulation and reduces MSNA in middle-aged healthy subjects, but not in those with CHF.

  16. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  17. Disentangling preference ratings of concert hall acoustics using subjective sensory profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokki, Tapio; Pätynen, Jukka; Kuusinen, Antti; Tervo, Sakari

    2012-11-01

    Subjective evaluation of acoustics was studied by recording nine concert halls with a simulated symphony orchestra on a seat 12 m from the orchestra. The recorded music was spatially reproduced for subjective listening tests and individual vocabulary profiling. In addition, the preferences of the assessors and objective parameters were gathered. The results show that concert halls were discriminated using perceptual characteristics, such as Envelopment/Loudness, Reverberance, Bassiness, Proximity, Definition, and Clarity. With these perceptual dimensions the preference ratings can be explained. Seventeen assessors were divided into two groups based on their preferences. The first group preferred concert halls with relatively intimate sound, in which it is quite easy to hear individual instruments and melody lines. In contrast, the second group preferred a louder and more reverberant sound with good envelopment and strong bass. Even though all halls were recorded exactly at the same distance, the preference is best explained with subjective Proximity and with Bassiness, Envelopment, and Loudness to some extent. Neither the preferences nor the subjective ratings could be fully explained by objective parameters (ISO3382-1:2009), although some correlations were found.

  18. Epicardial fat volume is associated with coronary microvascular response in healthy subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborit, Bénédicte; Kober, Frank; Jacquier, Alexis; Moro, Pierre Julien; Flavian, Antonin; Quilici, Jacques; Cuisset, Thomas; Simeoni, Umberto; Cozzone, Patrick; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Clément, Karine; Bernard, Monique; Dutour, Anne

    2012-06-01

    Epicardial fat (EF) is an active ectopic fat depot, which has been associated with coronary atherosclerosis, and which could early influence endothelial function. We thus investigated the relationship between EF and endothelium-dependent vasoreactivity of the coronary microcirculation, in highly selected healthy volunteers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was determined by measuring coronary sinus flow with velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T. We measured MBF at baseline and in response to sympathetic stimulation by cold pressor testing (CPT) in 30 healthy volunteers with normal left ventricular (LV) function (age 22 ± 4 years, BMI = 21.3 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)). EF volume was volumetrically assessed by manual delineation on short-axis views. CPT was applied by immersing one foot in ice water for 4 min. Mean EF volume was 56 ± 26 ml and mean LV mass 100 ± 28 g. CPT significantly increased heart rate (HR) by 32 ± 19%, systolic blood pressure by 14 ± 10%, and rate-pressure product by 45 ± 25%, P glycemic parameters. In multivariate analysis, adiponectin and EF volume remained both independently associated with ΔMBF. A high EF amount is associated with a lower coronary microvascular response, suggesting that EF could early influence endothelial function.

  19. Classification of heart rate signals of healthy and pathological subjects using threshold based symbolic entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Wajid; Rafique, M; Ahmad, I; Arif, M; Habib, Nazneen; Nadeem, M S A

    2014-09-01

    The dynamical fluctuations of biological signals provide a unique window to construe the underlying mechanism of the biological systems in health and disease. Recent research evidences suggest that a wide class of diseases appear to degrade the biological complexity and adaptive capacity of the system. Heart rate signals are one of the most important biological signals that have widely been investigated during the last two and half decades. Recent studies suggested that heart rate signals fluctuate in a complex manner. Various entropy based complexity analysis measures have been developed for quantifying the valuable information that may be helpful for clinical monitoring and for early intervention. This study is focused on determining HRV dynamics to distinguish healthy subjects from patients with certain cardiac problems using symbolic time series analysis technique. For that purpose, we have employed recently developed threshold based symbolic entropy to cardiac inter-beat interval time series of healthy, congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation subjects. Normalized Corrected Shannon Entropy (NCSE) was used to quantify the dynamics of heart rate signals by continuously varying threshold values. A rule based classifier was implemented for classification of different groups by selecting threshold values for the optimal separation. The findings indicated that there is reduction in the complexity of pathological subjects as compared to healthy ones at wide range of threshold values. The results also demonstrated that complexity decreased with disease severity.

  20. The Mayo Clinic quadratic equation improves the prediction of glomerular filtration rate in diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigalleau, Vincent; Lasseur, Catherine; Raffaitin, Christelle; Perlemoine, Caroline; Barthe, Nicole; Chauveau, Philippe; Combe, Christian; Gin, Henri

    2007-03-01

    Although recommended, both the Cockcroft and Gault formula (CG) and the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation are not ideally predictive of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in diabetic subjects; we tested whether the new Mayo Clinic Quadratic (MCQ) equation performed better. In 200 diabetic subjects with a wide range of renal function, GFR was measured by 51Cr-EDTA clearance, and compared with the results of the three predictive equations by regression analysis and Bland and Altman procedures. The correlations with body mass index, age and albumin excretion rates were tested. The precisions (absolute difference as percentage), diagnostic accuracies [receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the diagnosis of moderate and severe chronic kidney disease (CKD)], and the results of stratification according to the KDOQ classification were compared. The CG and MCQ overestimated mean GFR, whereas the MDRD underestimated it. Correlation coefficients and areas under the ROC curves were better for the MDRD and the MCQ as compared with the CG, which was biased by body weight (+30% overestimation in obese diabetic subjects). The absolute differences with true GFR were slightly lower for the MDRD than the MCQ, and both better than the CG. Both the MDRD and MCQ correctly stratified 65% of the subjects (CG: 55%, P<0.05). In contrast with the MDRD, the MCQ did not underestimate normal GFR, and its performance for stratification was uniformly good over a wide GFR range. In diabetic subjects, the MCQ has a similar diagnostic performance to the MDRD, but it does not underestimate normal GFR, which is an important advantage.

  1. Prognostic value of ambulatory heart rate revisited in 6928 subjects from 6 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine Willum; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence relating mortality and morbidity to heart rate remains inconsistent. We performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 6928 subjects (not on beta-blockers; mean age: 56.2 years; 46.5% women) enrolled in prospective population studies in Denmark, Belgium, Japan, Sweden......, Uruguay, and China. We computed standardized hazard ratios for heart rate, while stratifying for cohort, and adjusting for blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. Over 9.6 years (median), 850, 325, and 493 deaths accrued for total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality......, respectively. The incidence of fatal combined with nonfatal end points was 805, 363, 439, and 324 for cardiovascular, stroke, cardiac, and coronary events, respectively. Twenty-four-hour heart rate predicted total (hazard ratio: 1.15) and noncardiovascular (hazard ratio: 1.18) mortality but not cardiovascular...

  2. The Prognostic Value of Ambulatory Heart Rate Revisited in 6928 Subjects from 6 Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine Willum; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence relating mortality and morbidity to heart rate remains inconsistent. We performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 6928 subjects (not on β-blockers; mean age: 56.2 years; 46.5% women) enrolled in prospective population studies in Denmark, Belgium, Japan, Sweden, Uruguay......, and China. We computed standardized hazard ratios for heart rate, while stratifying for cohort, and adjusting for blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. Over 9.6 years (median), 850, 325, and 493 deaths accrued for total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality, respectively....... The incidence of fatal combined with nonfatal end points was 805, 363, 439, and 324 for cardiovascular, stroke, cardiac, and coronary events, respectively. Twenty-four-hour heart rate predicted total (hazard ratio: 1.15) and noncardiovascular (hazard ratio: 1.18) mortality but not cardiovascular mortality...

  3. Developing and Pilot Testing a Spanish Translation of CollaboRATE for Use in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forcino, R.C.; Bustamante, N.; Thompson, R.; Percac-Lima, S.; Elwyn, G.; Perez-Arechaederra, D.; Barr, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Given the need for access to patient-facing materials in multiple languages, this study aimed to develop and pilot test an accurate and understandable translation of CollaboRATE, a three-item patient-reported measure of shared decision-making, for Spanish-speaking patients in the

  4. A Computational Framework to Optimize Subject-Specific Hemodialysis Blood Flow Rate to Prevent Intimal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Javid; Wlodarczyk, Marta; Cassel, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    Development of excessive intimal hyperplasia (IH) in the cephalic vein of renal failure patients who receive chronic hemodialysis treatment results in vascular access failure and multiple treatment complications. Specifically, cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) is known to exacerbate hypertensive blood pressure, thrombosis, and subsequent cardiovascular incidents that would necessitate costly interventional procedures with low success rates. It has been hypothesized that excessive blood flow rate post access maturation which strongly violates the venous homeostasis is the main hemodynamic factor that orchestrates the onset and development of CAS. In this article, a computational framework based on a strong coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and shape optimization is proposed that aims to identify the effective blood flow rate on a patient-specific basis that avoids the onset of CAS while providing the adequate blood flow rate required to facilitate hemodialysis. This effective flow rate can be achieved through implementation of Miller's surgical banding method after the maturation of the arteriovenous fistula and is rooted in the relaxation of wall stresses back to a homeostatic target value. The results are indicative that this optimized hemodialysis blood flow rate is, in fact, a subject-specific value that can be assessed post vascular access maturation and prior to the initiation of chronic hemodialysis treatment as a mitigative action against CAS-related access failure. This computational technology can be employed for individualized dialysis treatment.

  5. Subjective Ratings of Beauty and Aesthetics: Correlations With Statistical Image Properties in Western Oil Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Thomas; Redies, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    For centuries, oil paintings have been a major segment of the visual arts. The JenAesthetics data set consists of a large number of high-quality images of oil paintings of Western provenance from different art periods. With this database, we studied the relationship between objective image measures and subjective evaluations of the images, especially evaluations on aesthetics (defined as artistic value) and beauty (defined as individual liking). The objective measures represented low-level statistical image properties that have been associated with aesthetic value in previous research. Subjective rating scores on aesthetics and beauty correlated not only with each other but also with different combinations of the objective measures. Furthermore, we found that paintings from different art periods vary with regard to the objective measures, that is, they exhibit specific patterns of statistical image properties. In addition, clusters of participants preferred different combinations of these properties. In conclusion, the results of the present study provide evidence that statistical image properties vary between art periods and subject matters and, in addition, they correlate with the subjective evaluation of paintings by the participants. PMID:28694958

  6. Differences in participation rates and lessons learned about recruitment of participants--the European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Ahonen, Sanna; Jentoft, Susie; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Heldal, Johan

    2015-03-01

    In the 1980s, participation rates in health interview and health examination surveys were around 80% while now they are around 50-60%. There is also evidence that non-participation is selective. Low participation rates and selective non-participation may cause bias to our survey results based on participants alone. We aim to increase knowledge on cultural differences in acceptance and feasibility of different recruitment methods. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project, conducted in 2009-2012, included pilot surveys in 12 countries among people aged 25-64 years. Information about recruitment methods and participation rates in these surveys was collected. Participation rates ranged from 16% to 57% for men and from 31% to 74% for women, where in most surveys women had higher participation rates than men. A variety of recruitment and promotion methods were used to obtain as high participation rates as possible. Combinations of phone calls, invitation letter and home visits were used to recruit invitees. Obtaining valid phone numbers for survey invitees was difficult in several countries. Incentives, websites and promotion in local media were used to promote the surveys. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot surveys showed that obtaining a participation rate above 50% for a representative population sample is possible but it requires hard work and a well-planned recruitment strategy. Recruitment methods used in one country may not be possible to use in another country due to cultural norms and national regulations. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  7. Subjects for achievement of blast furnace operation with low reducing agent rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujisawa, Y.; Nakano, K.; Matsukura, Y.; Sunahara, K.; Komatsu, S.; Yamamoto, T. [Sumitomo Metal Industry Ltd., Kashima (Japan). Corp R& amp; D Labs.

    2006-12-15

    The technology which reduces the reducing agent rate by the improvement in the reaction efficiency of blast furnace leads to reduction of hot metal manufacturing cost, but also solution of recent CO{sub 2} emission reduction. The subjects for achievement of the blast furnace operation with low reducing agent rate were described on reduction measures of the carbon consumption and problem of the measures referring to the example of reducing agent rate of the present state blast furnace concerning blast operation and reactive improvement. And, carried out concrete measures were introduced in order to aim at the low reducing agent rate operation. The following results were obtained. 1) Since it has reached the already high reaction efficiency in present state blast furnace, it is not easy to attempt further reduction of the reducing agent rate. 2) The blast furnace use of high reactivity coke or reduced iron is equal level or over it in comparison with the reduction effect by the assumed blast operation in this paper. 3) The promotion of coke reaction load with the gasification is worried, when it aims at the low reducing agent rate operation by the high reactivity coke use. 4) It is estimated that the threshold also exists for the reducibility of competing ore, when it aims at the low reducing agent rate operation using the high reactivity coke. 5) The use of the low SiO{sub 2} sinter is effective for the improvement on the permeability in the blast furnace, when it aims at the low fuel rate operation. However, the new technology of the permeability improvement is desired, since there is a limit for low SiO{sub 2} of the sintered ore, when future raw material supply and demand is considered.

  8. Substances used and prevalence rates of pharmacological cognitive enhancement among healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Andreas G; Bagusat, Christiana; Rust, Sebastian; Engel, Alice; Lieb, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    Pharmacological "cognitive enhancement" (CE) is defined as the use of any psychoactive drug with the purpose of enhancing cognition, e.g. regarding attention, concentration or memory by healthy subjects. Substances commonly used as CE drugs can be categorized into three groups of drugs: (1) over-the-counter (OTC) drugs such as coffee, caffeinated drinks/energy drinks, caffeine tablets or Ginkgo biloba; (2) drugs being approved for the treatment of certain disorders and being misused for CE: drugs to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) such as the stimulants methylphenidate (MPH, e.g. Ritalin(®)) or amphetamines (AMPH, e.g. Attentin(®) or Adderall(®)), to treat sleep disorders such as modafinil or to treat Alzheimer's disease such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; (3) illicit drugs such as illicit AMPH, e.g. "speed", ecstasy, methamphetamine (crystal meth) or others. Evidence from randomized placebo-controlled trials shows that the abovementioned substances have limited pro-cognitive effects as demonstrated, e.g. regarding increased attention, increased cognitive speed or shortening of reaction times, but on the same time poses considerable safety risks on the consumers. Prevalence rates for the use of CE drugs among healthy subjects show a broad range from less than 1 % up to more than 20 %. The range in prevalence rates estimates results from several factors which are chosen differently in the available survey studies: type of subjects (students, pupils, special professions, etc.), degree of anonymity in the survey (online, face-to-face, etc.), definition of CE and substances used/misused for CE, which are assessed (OTC drugs, prescription, illicit drugs) as well as time periods of use (e.g. ever, during the past year/month/week, etc.). A clear and comprehensive picture of the drugs used for CE by healthy subjects and their adverse events and safety risks as well as comprehensive and comparable international data on the prevalence rates of

  9. Effects of caffeine on alcohol reinforcement: beverage choice, self-administration, and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M; Meredith, Steven E; Evatt, Daniel P; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-03-01

    Combining alcohol and caffeine is associated with increased alcohol consumption, but no prospective experimental studies have examined whether added caffeine increases alcohol consumption. This study examined how caffeine alters alcohol self-administration and subjective reinforcing effects in healthy adults. Thirty-one participants completed six double-blind alcohol self-administration sessions: three sessions with alcohol only (e.g., beverage A) and three sessions with alcohol and caffeine (e.g., beverage B). Participants chose which beverage to consume on a subsequent session (e.g., beverage A or B). The effects of caffeine on overall beverage choice, number of self-administered drinks, subjective ratings (e.g., Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale), and psychomotor performance were examined. A majority of participants (65%) chose to drink the alcohol beverage containing caffeine on their final self-administration session. Caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks. Caffeine significantly increased stimulant effects, decreased sedative effects, and attenuated decreases in psychomotor performance attributable to alcohol. Relative to nonchoosers, caffeine choosers reported overall lower stimulant ratings and reported greater drinking behavior prior to the study. Although caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks, most participants chose the alcohol beverage containing caffeine. Given the differences in subjective ratings and pre-existing differences in self-reported alcohol consumption for caffeine choosers and nonchoosers, these data suggest that decreased stimulant effects of alcohol and heavier self-reported drinking may predict subsequent choice of combined caffeine and alcohol beverages. These predictors may identify individuals who would benefit from efforts to reduce risk behaviors associated with combining alcohol and caffeine.

  10. Suboccipital decompression enhances heart rate variability indices of cardiac control in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Paul D; Hensel, Kendi L; Pacchia, Christina F; Smith, Michael L

    2013-02-01

    Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) focused on the upper cervical spine is theorized to affect the function of the vagus nerve and thereby influence the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. This study was designed to determine the acute effect of upper cervical spine manipulation on cardiac autonomic control as measured by heart rate variability. Nineteen healthy, young adult subjects underwent three different experimental interventions administered in random order: cervical OMT, sham manipulation, and time control. Six minutes of electrocardiographic data were collected before and after each intervention, and heart rate variability was assessed by both time-domain and frequency-domain measures. No differences in resting heart rate or any measure of heart rate variability were observed between the baseline periods prior to each intervention. The OMT protocol resulted in an increase in the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals (0.12±0.082 seconds, p0.11 for all variables). These data support the hypothesis that upper cervical spine manipulation can acutely affect measures of heart rate variability in healthy individuals.

  11. Suboccipital Decompression Enhances Heart Rate Variability Indices of Cardiac Control in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Paul D.; Hensel, Kendi L.; Pacchia, Christina F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) focused on the upper cervical spine is theorized to affect the function of the vagus nerve and thereby influence the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. This study was designed to determine the acute effect of upper cervical spine manipulation on cardiac autonomic control as measured by heart rate variability. Design Nineteen healthy, young adult subjects underwent three different experimental interventions administered in random order: cervical OMT, sham manipulation, and time control. Six minutes of electrocardiographic data were collected before and after each intervention, and heart rate variability was assessed by both time-domain and frequency-domain measures. Results No differences in resting heart rate or any measure of heart rate variability were observed between the baseline periods prior to each intervention. The OMT protocol resulted in an increase in the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals (0.12±0.082 seconds, p0.11 for all variables). Conclusions These data support the hypothesis that upper cervical spine manipulation can acutely affect measures of heart rate variability in healthy individuals. PMID:22994907

  12. Developing and Pilot Testing a Spanish Translation of CollaboRATE for Use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcino, Rachel C; Bustamante, Nitzy; Thompson, Rachel; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Elwyn, Glyn; Pérez-Arechaederra, Diana; Barr, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Given the need for access to patient-facing materials in multiple languages, this study aimed to develop and pilot test an accurate and understandable translation of CollaboRATE, a three-item patient-reported measure of shared decision-making, for Spanish-speaking patients in the United States (US). We followed the Translate, Review, Adjudicate, Pre-test, Document (TRAPD) survey translation protocol. Cognitive interviews were conducted with Spanish-speaking adults within an urban Massachusetts internal medicine clinic. For the pilot test, all patients with weekday appointments between May 1 and May 29, 2015 were invited to complete CollaboRATE in either English or Spanish upon exit. We calculated the proportion of respondents giving the best score possible on CollaboRATE and compared scores across key patient subgroups. Four rounds of cognitive interviews with 26 people were completed between January and April 2015. Extensive, iterative refinements to survey items between interview rounds led to final items that were generally understood by participants with diverse educational backgrounds. Pilot data collection achieved an overall response rate of 73 percent, with 606 (49%) patients completing Spanish CollaboRATE questionnaires and 624 (51%) patients completing English CollaboRATE questionnaires. The proportion of respondents giving the best score possible on CollaboRATE was the same (86%) for both the English and Spanish versions of the instrument. Our translation method, guided by emerging best practices in survey and health measurement translation, encompassed multiple levels of review. By conducting four rounds of cognitive interviews with iterative item refinement between each round, we arrived at a Spanish language version of CollaboRATE that was understandable to a majority of cognitive interview participants and was completed by more than 600 pilot questionnaire respondents.

  13. Convection and evaporation rate of planar liquid films subjected to impulsive superheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, J. T.; Hermanson, J. C.; Allen, J. S.

    2010-11-01

    The interfacial stability, convective structure, and evaporation rate of upward-facing, thin liquid films were studied experimentally. Four different working fluids were used. Films initially 5 mm to 100 μm thick were subjected to impulsive superheating. The films resided on a temperature controlled, gold-plated copper surface in a closed, initially degassed test chamber. Superheating was achieved by suddenly dropping the pressure of the saturated pure vapor in the test chamber. The dynamic film thickness was measured at multiple points using ultrasound, and instability wavelength and convective structure information was obtained by schlieren imaging. Considering previous quasi-steady results, the observed convection patterns in many cases suggest an initial, limited penetration of the convection structures into the film. The initial convection patterns and measured evaporation rate in these films are independent of the thermal boundary condition of the substrate. After a sufficiently long time, the convection pattern changes and approaches the previously observed quasi-steady condition.

  14. Simultaneous biogas upgrading and centrate treatment in an outdoors pilot scale high rate algal pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas, Esther; Marín, David; Blanco, Saúl; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2017-05-01

    The bioconversion of biogas to biomethane coupled to centrate treatment was evaluated in an outdoors pilot scale high rate algal pond interconnected to an external CO2-H2S absorption column (AC) via settled broth recirculation. CO2-removal efficiencies ranged from 50 to 95% depending on the alkalinity of the cultivation broth and environmental conditions, while a complete H2S removal was achieved regardless of the operational conditions. A maximum CH4 concentration of 94% with a limited O2 and N2 stripping was recorded in the upgraded biogas at recycling liquid/biogas ratios in the AC of 1 and 2. Process operation at a constant biomass productivity of 15gm-2d-1 and the minimization of effluent generation supported high carbon and nutrient recoveries in the harvested biomass (C=66±8%, N=54±18%, P≈100% and S=16±3%). Finally, a low diversity in the structure of the microalgae population was promoted by the environmental and operational conditions imposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biotic patterns of heart rate variation in depressed and psychotic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelli, H; Messer, J; Kovacevic, L; Walthall, K

    2011-01-01

    This article presents novel quantitative methods to study R to R interval (RRI) series that identify their characteristic pattern of organization, Bios, and their variation in psychiatric illness. In this study twenty-four hour series of RRI were extracted from Holter recordings of healthy subjects (N = 74) and small groups of patients with affective depression or psychosis. These data were analyzed with recurrence and statistical methods. In all subjects, RRI series showed complexes (clusters of recurrences), such as those observed with mathematically-generated biotic series but not in chaotic or random series. RRI series from healthy persons showed diversification (increase in variance with the duration of the series analyzed), novelty (less recurrence isometry than copies randomized by shuffling), causal order (more consecutive isometry than shuffled copies), and asymmetric statistical distribution. These imprints of creative processes are characteristic of mathematical Bios, and are absent in chaos. Bios can be distinguished from random walk series by the nonrandom pattern of the series of differences between heartbeats, as well as by measures of consecutive isometry and of partial autocorrelation. These defining characteristics of Bios are significant signs of health. In comparison with healthy controls, psychiatric patient groups showed more isometry and more consecutive isometry than healthy subjects. Psychiatric patients also showed no diversification. This study highlights the process that produces heart rate variation as being non-stationary and creative (bios, not equilibrium or chaos) and causal (not stochastically generated by the coexistence of multiple factors). These results thus are significant regarding psychiatric health.

  16. A new rate-dependent unidirectional composite model - Application to panels subjected to underwater blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoding; de Vaucorbeil, Alban; Tran, Phuong; Espinosa, Horacio D.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we developed a finite element fluid-structure interaction model to understand the deformation and failure mechanisms of both monolithic and sandwich composite panels. A new failure criterion that includes strain-rate effects was formulated and implemented to simulate different damage modes in unidirectional glass fiber/matrix composites. The laminate model uses Hashin's fiber failure criterion and a modified Tsai-Wu matrix failure criterion. The composite moduli are degraded using five damage variables, which are updated in the post-failure regime by means of a linear softening law governed by an energy release criterion. A key feature in the formulation is the distinction between fiber rupture and pull-out by introducing a modified fracture toughness, which varies from a fiber tensile toughness to a matrix tensile toughness as a function of the ratio of longitudinal normal stress to effective shear stress. The delamination between laminas is modeled by a strain-rate sensitive cohesive law. In the case of sandwich panels, core compaction is modeled by a crushable foam plasticity model with volumetric hardening and strain-rate sensitivity. These constitutive descriptions were used to predict deformation histories, fiber/matrix damage patterns, and inter-lamina delamination, for both monolithic and sandwich composite panels subjected to underwater blast. The numerical predictions were compared with experimental observations. We demonstrate that the new rate dependent composite damage model captures the spatial distribution and magnitude of damage significantly more accurately than previously developed models.

  17. Estimation of Circadian Body Temperature Rhythm Based on Heart Rate in Healthy, Ambulatory Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Soo Young; Joo, Kwang Min; Kim, Han Byul; Jang, Seungjin; Kim, Beomoh; Hong, Seungbum; Kim, Sungwan; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-03-01

    Core body temperature is a reliable marker for circadian rhythm. As characteristics of the circadian body temperature rhythm change during diverse health problems, such as sleep disorder and depression, body temperature monitoring is often used in clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, the use of current thermometers in circadian rhythm monitoring is impractical in daily life. As heart rate is a physiological signal relevant to thermoregulation, we investigated the feasibility of heart rate monitoring in estimating circadian body temperature rhythm. Various heart rate parameters and core body temperature were simultaneously acquired in 21 healthy, ambulatory subjects during their routine life. The performance of regression analysis and the extended Kalman filter on daily body temperature and circadian indicator (mesor, amplitude, and acrophase) estimation were evaluated. For daily body temperature estimation, mean R-R interval (RRI), mean heart rate (MHR), or normalized MHR provided a mean root mean square error of approximately 0.40 °C in both techniques. The mesor estimation regression analysis showed better performance than the extended Kalman filter. However, the extended Kalman filter, combined with RRI or MHR, provided better accuracy in terms of amplitude and acrophase estimation. We suggest that this noninvasive and convenient method for estimating the circadian body temperature rhythm could reduce discomfort during body temperature monitoring in daily life. This, in turn, could facilitate more clinical studies based on circadian body temperature rhythm.

  18. Metabolic clearance rate and blood production rate of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in normal subjects, during pregnancy, and in hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, J. M.; Forest, M. G.; Morera, A. M.; Bertrand, J.

    1972-01-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and blood production rate (BP) of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the conversion of plasma testosterone to plasma dihydrotestosterone, and the renal clearance of androstenedione, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone have been studied in man. In eight normal men, the MCRT (516±108 [SD] liters/m2/day) was significantly greater than the MCRDHT (391±71 [SD] liters/m2/day). In seven females, the MCRT (304±53 [SD] liters/m2/day) was also greater than the MCRDHT (209±45 [SD] liters/m2/day) and both values were less than their respective values in men (P hyperthyroidism, the MCR for testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were similar to those observed in pregnant females, but the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (2.78±1.7%) (SD) was greater, and similar to that found in men. In men the production of dihydrotestosterone was 0.39±0.1 (SD) mg/day, 50% being derived from the transformation of plasma testosterone. In women the production of DHT was 0.05±0.028 (SD) mg/day, only 10% coming from testosterone. During pregnancy, the production of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are similar to that in normal women. In three patients with testicular feminization syndrome (an adult with hyperthyroidism and two children) these two MCRs were greatly reduced compared to the normal females, but the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone was in the limits of normal male range In the normal subjects the renal clearance of androstenedione was greater than that of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Less than 20% of the dihydrotestosterone and less than 10% of the androstenedione in the urine is derived from the plasma dihydrotestosterone and androstenedione. PMID:5020435

  19. Vitamin B12 supplementation improves heart rate variability in healthy elderly Indian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucharita, S; Thomas, T; Antony, B; Vaz, M

    2012-05-21

    While vitamin B(12) deficiency is global, data in elderly Indians are lacking. The problem in India is likely to be higher because of vegetarianism and malabsorption related to gastro-intestinal parasites. Autonomic dysfunction is known to occur much earlier in pernicious anemia. However, what is not known is whether these changes are reflected in healthy elderly individuals. This study assessed cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic activity using heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy elderly individuals of low and high vitamin B(12) status and evaluated the effect of vitamin B(12) supplementation in those with low vitamin B(12) status. 140 elderly subjects aged ≥60 years were screened; 47 healthy subjects were assessed. They underwent blood sampling, anthropometry, HRV and nerve conduction assessment. Subjects were classified based on vitamin B(12) level (148 pmol/L) into deplete vitamin B(12) and replete vitamin B(12) groups. Elderly subjects with low vitamin B(12) status underwent cyanocobalamin supplementation (100 μg) for 3 months. Low frequency (LF) HRV in absolute units was significantly lower in the low vitamin B(12) group. Following supplementation, LF HRV in absolute units and total power rose significantly as compared to pre-supplementation values for the entire supplemented group. In conclusion, elderly with lower vitamin B(12) status have reduced low frequency HRV suggestive of sympathetic involvement. Supplementation with vitamin B(12) for 3 months results in a significant increase in low frequency HRV to values comparable with unsupplemented, but vitamin B(12) replete elderly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Phenomenological features of dreams: Results from dream log studies using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Tracey L; Claudatos, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Self-ratings of dream experiences were obtained from 144 college women for 788 dreams, using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS). Consistent with past studies, dreams were characterized by a greater prevalence of vision, audition, and movement than smell, touch, or taste, by both positive and negative emotion, and by a range of cognitive processes. A Principal Components Analysis of SERS ratings revealed ten subscales: four sensory, three affective, one cognitive, and two structural (events/actions, locations). Correlations (Pearson r) among subscale means showed a stronger relationship among the process-oriented features (sensory, cognitive, affective) than between the process-oriented and content-centered (structural) features--a pattern predicted from past research (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008). Notably, cognition and positive emotion were associated with a greater number of other phenomenal features than was negative emotion; these findings are consistent with studies of the qualitative features of waking autobiographical memory (e.g., Fredrickson, 2001). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assertive Communication in Condom Negotiation: Insights From Late Adolescent Couples' Subjective Ratings of Self and Partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Amy; Leonard, Noelle R; Ritchie, Amanda S; Gwadz, Marya V

    2015-07-01

    Assertive communication has been associated with higher levels of condom use among youth using self-report survey methodology. The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective ratings of assertiveness among young, romantically involved couples in the context of a condom negotiation task. Using an innovative video-recall procedure, 32 couples (64 youth) engaged in a videotaped condom negotiation task and then rated self and partners' level of assertiveness. Both individual ratings of assertiveness and couple-level assertiveness were assessed using dyadic hierarchical linear modeling. Individuals' assertiveness was positively associated with condom use. Unexpectedly, the overall level of assertiveness in couples showed a curvilinear association with condom use. Very high and very low assertiveness was associated with lower condom use, whereas moderate levels of assertiveness were associated with higher condom use. Moderate levels of assertiveness during condom negotiation may facilitate condom use in young couples. Increasing condom use among romantic partners may require developing interventions that strengthen youths' ability to engage in assertive communication strategies that balance emotional intimacy with self-advocacy. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Time course of subjective pain ratings, and wound and leg tenderness after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Dahl, J B; Erichsen, C J

    1997-01-01

    .0002). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that wound pressure algometry correlates to postoperative pain at rest and during movement and may be an alternative way of assessing wound pain and tenderness. Increased tenderness to mechanical stimulation remote from the surgical wound could not be demonstrated.......BACKGROUND: Little information is available on time course of wound tenderness and relationship to subjective pain ratings following surgery. Furthermore, it is not clarified whether surgical procedures may induce hyperalgesia to mechanical stimulation outside the area of the surgical incision. We...... have therefore assessed postoperative pain and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) adjacent to and remote from the surgical incision in 16 patients undergoing hysterectomy. METHODS: Pressure pain threshold was assessed with pressure algometry preoperatively, 4 and 6 and 1, 4 and 8 d after surgery...

  3. Subjective sleep quality in relation to inhibition and heart rate variability in patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Anders; Pallesen, Ståle; Hammar, Asa; Hansen, Anita Lill; Thayer, Julian F; Sivertsen, Børge; Tarvainen, Mika P; Nordhus, Inger Hilde

    2013-08-15

    Patients with panic disorder (PD) are known to report impaired sleep quality and symptoms of insomnia. PD is an anxiety disorder characterised by deficient physiological regulation as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), and reduced HRV, PD and insomnia have all been related to impaired inhibitory ability. The present study aimed to investigate the interrelationships between subjectively reported sleep impairment, cognitive inhibition and vagally mediated HRV in a sample characterised by variability on measures of all these constructs. Thirty-six patients with PD with or without agoraphobia were included. Cognitive inhibition was assessed with the Color-Word Interference Test from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), HRV was measured using high frequency (HF) power (ms(2)), and subjectively reported sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Cognitive inhibition was related to both Sleep latency and Sleep disturbances, whereas HRV was only related to Sleep disturbances. These relationships were significant also after controlling for depression. Correlational design. Cognitive inhibition is related to key insomnia symptoms: sleep initiation and sleep maintenance. The data supports the psychobiological inhibition model of insomnia, and extends previous findings. Possible clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduction in Fall Rate in Dementia Managed Care Through Video Incident Review: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, Eleonore; Jacquemot, Julien; Netscher, George; Agrawal, Pulkit; Tabb Noyce, Lynn; Bayen, Alexandre

    2017-10-17

    Falls of individuals with dementia are frequent, dangerous, and costly. Early detection and access to the history of a fall is crucial for efficient care and secondary prevention in cognitively impaired individuals. However, most falls remain unwitnessed events. Furthermore, understanding why and how a fall occurred is a challenge. Video capture and secure transmission of real-world falls thus stands as a promising assistive tool. The objective of this study was to analyze how continuous video monitoring and review of falls of individuals with dementia can support better quality of care. A pilot observational study (July-September 2016) was carried out in a Californian memory care facility. Falls were video-captured (24×7), thanks to 43 wall-mounted cameras (deployed in all common areas and in 10 out of 40 private bedrooms of consenting residents and families). Video review was provided to facility staff, thanks to a customized mobile device app. The outcome measures were the count of residents' falls happening in the video-covered areas, the acceptability of video recording, the analysis of video review, and video replay possibilities for care practice. Over 3 months, 16 falls were video-captured. A drop in fall rate was observed in the last month of the study. Acceptability was good. Video review enabled screening for the severity of falls and fall-related injuries. Video replay enabled identifying cognitive-behavioral deficiencies and environmental circumstances contributing to the fall. This allowed for secondary prevention in high-risk multi-faller individuals and for updated facility care policies regarding a safer living environment for all residents. Video monitoring offers high potential to support conventional care in memory care facilities.

  5. Evaluating a Non-Randomized Trial: A Case Study of a Pilot to Increase Pre-Collegiate Math Course Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaManque, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a two-year pilot to increase pre-collegiate math course success rates at a large community college. The EnableMath pilot involved the use of computerized software that allowed students to practice math problems in a lab during class time. Additional components of the program included the administration of the…

  6. Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback Stress Relief Program for Depression*. A Replicated Single-Subject Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartogs, Bregje M A; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Van der Ploeg, Karen; Bos, Elske H

    2017-07-19

    Depressive disorders often have a chronic course and the efficacy of evidence-based treatments may be overestimated. To examine the effectiveness of the Heart Rate Variability Stress Reduction Program (SRP) as a supplement to standard treatment in patients with depressive disorders. The SRP was individually administered in eight weekly sessions. Seven participants completed the full protocol and were enrolled in a single-subject ABA multiple baseline experimental design. To perform interrupted time-series analyses, daily measures were completed in a diary (depression, resilience, happiness, heart coherence and a personalized outcome measure). Five out of seven patients improved in depressed mood and/or a personalized outcome measure. The effect of treatment was reversed in four patients during the withdrawal phase. One patient reliably improved on depression, whereas two patients recovered on autonomy and one on social optimism. No consistent relationship was found between the heart rate variability-related level of coherence and self-reported mood levels. The SRP is beneficial in some domains and for some patients. A prolonged treatment or continued home practice may be required for enduring effects. The intervention had more clinical impact on resilience-related outcome measures than on symptoms. The small sample size does not permit generalization of the results. We recommend future investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the SRP.

  7. Heart rate variability in normotensive subjects with family history of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishnan, Krishnan; Balasubramanian, Kabali; Rao, Badanidiyur Viswanatha

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension (HT) is a major silent disease affecting young people because of their hereditary and modern lifestyles. Target organ damages occur before overt hypertension is diagnosed. Many offspring of HT parents show early changes in their cardiovascular autonomic functions. Heart rate variability (HRV) provides a window to understand the cardiac autonomic balance. This study was designed to quantify and to compare the HRV among the normotensive young male offspring without history of parenteral hypertension & diabetic (control group, n = 25, age 20.8 +/- 2.4, BMI 24.4 +/- 3.1) with parenteral history of hypertension & non diabetic (study group n = 25, age 19.7 +/- 1.9, 24.05 +/- 3.5). Blood pressure, heart rate (HR), indices of short term HRV during supine rest and quiet standing, HR variation during timed controlled deep breathing was compared between the two groups. There were significant difference in low frequency (LF) power, HF power, total power. LF and HF expressed also in normalized units at rest and standing. In time domain standard deviation of normal to normal RR interval (SDNN) at supine rest and standing were significant. Respiratory sinus arrthymia (RSA), HF in normalized units, deep breathing difference (BDD) and the ratio of maximum RR to minimum RR were also significant in the control group than study group. In the present study there was an increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activity in the study group. These findings are an early marker of cardiovascular autonomic impairment in subjects with parenteral history of hypertension.

  8. Nitric oxide and regulation of heart rate in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Alfredo; Okamoto, Luis E; Raj, Satish R; Diedrich, André; Shibao, Cyndya A; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo

    2013-02-01

    The objective is to study the role of nitric oxide (NO) on cardiovascular regulation in healthy subjects and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) patients. Reduced neuronal NO function, which could contribute to a hyperadrenergic state, and increased NO-induced vasodilation, which could contribute to orthostatic intolerance, have been reported in POTS. In protocol 1, 13 healthy volunteers (33 ± 3 years) underwent autonomic blockade with trimethaphan and were administered equipressor doses of Nω-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, a NO synthase inhibitor) and phenylephrine to determine the direct chronotropic effects of NO (independent of baroreflex modulation). In protocol 2, we compared the effects of L-NMMA in 9 POTS patients (31 ± 3 years) and 14 healthy (32 ± 2 years) volunteers, during autonomic blockade. During autonomic blockade, L-NMMA and phenylephrine produced similar increases in systolic blood pressure (27 ± 2 versus 27 ± 3 mm Hg). Phenylephrine produced only minimal heart rate changes, whereas L-NMMA produced a modest, but significant, bradycardia (-0.8 ± 0.4 versus -4.8 ± 1.2 bpm; P=0.011). There were no differences between POTS and healthy volunteers in the systolic blood pressure increase (22 ± 2 and 28 ± 5 mm Hg) or heart rate decrease (-6 ± 2 and -4 ± 1 bpm for POTS and controls, respectively) produced by L-NMMA. In the absence of baroreflex buffering, inhibition of endogenous NO synthesis results in a significant bradycardia, reflecting direct tonic modulation of heart rate by NO in healthy individuals. We found no evidence of a primary alteration in NO function in POTS. If NO dysfunction plays a role in POTS, it is through its interaction with the autonomic nervous system.

  9. The quality of medical services in a subjective assessment of hospitalized patients using the SERVQUAL method – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Węgłowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background . The provision of medical services to patients according to their expectations and needs is necessary for the comfort and quality of life of patients, as well as for the standardization of hospital procedures. In recognizing these needs and expectations, an important step is the verification of provided services in order to improve their quality. The present study was designed to determine differences in service quality, as evaluated by hospitalized patients. Objectives . The analysis of the subjective feelings of hospitalized patients concerning service quality in the context of the application of the SER VQUAL method – a pilot study. Material and methods. The study was conducted in a Lower Silesian hospital in a group of 29 young patients (women: 16, men: 13, average age: 16 diagnosed with kidney disease. In the study a standard sheet of 22 SER VQUAL statements was used, and an analysis of the validity of 5 quality areas important for the patient was conducted. Results. According to the respondents, the most important of all 5 features directly affecting the quality of life during treatment is the ability and skill of the ward staff to provide medical services, so-called reliability – 24.48%. In turn, the least important of all the study characteristics was the aesthetics and ergonomics of rooms, the presence of appropriate equipment, the so-called material dimension – 15.31%. Furthermore, service quality gaps were visible in all five service quality dimensions. Conclusions . 1. The SER VQUAL method helps to identify discrepancies between the perceptions of patients’ expectations in all dimensions of the quality of provided medical services. 2. For the patients the least important is the material dimension, and the most affecting is the dimension associated with the reliability of the medical services. 3. Improvement of the level of satisfaction with the quality of medical services requires proper planning and effective

  10. Characteristics of heart rate variability in alcohol-dependent subjects and nondependent chronic alcohol users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpyak, Victor M; Romanowicz, Magdalena; Schmidt, John E; Lewis, Kriste A; Bostwick, John M

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is an objective and sensitive measure of integrated physiological functioning reflective of heart rhythm responsivity to internal and external demands. Reduced HRV is associated with vulnerability to stress and deterioration of medical and/or psychiatric conditions, while increased HRV is associated with a favorable treatment response and recovery from various medical and/or psychiatric conditions. Our previous review found that acute alcohol consumption caused decreased parasympathetic and increased sympathetic HRV effects in both nonalcoholic and chronic alcohol users. This review investigates the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on HRV in alcohol-dependent subjects and nondependent users. MEDLINE, Scopus, and PubMed were searched for human experimental and clinical trials that measured the effects of chronic alcohol use on HRV. Only publications that included a description of their study designs and clearly stated methodologies for data collections, and outcome measures were reviewed. We have reviewed a total of 24 articles. In nondependent users, low dose (approximating the recommended daily amount of 1 standard drink in women and 2 in men) use is associated with increased HRV parameters compared to those who drink less frequently or abstain altogether. A further increase in consumption is associated with decreased HRV compared to both abstainers and more moderate drinkers. HRV changes during withdrawal generally follow the same negative direction but are more complex and less understood. In dependent subjects, an improvement in HRV was seen following abstinence but remained reduced compared to nonalcoholic controls. This review demonstrates that HRV changes associated with chronic use follow a J-shaped curve. It supports recommendations that limit daily alcohol intake to no more than 2 drinks for men and 1 drink for women. Future studies should investigate HRV as a biomarker of alcoholism development and treatment response as

  11. Influence of arotinolol hydrochloride on heart rate spectrum in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasawa, Y; Imaizumi, T; Ando, S; Masaki, H; Harada, S; Momohara, M; Takeshita, A

    1994-05-01

    Influence of arotinolol hydrochloride and atenolol on the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems was evaluated in 8 hypertensive subjects by spectral analysis of heart rate (HR) and systemic blood pressure (BP). Before and after administration of either arotinolol (n = 7) or atenolol (n = 7) for 2 weeks, BP was continuously and non-invasively monitored by a finger-cuff manometry (Finapres). A time series of instantaneous HR was constructed from the BP signal. A time series of mean BP was also constructed. Spectral analysis was performed by the use of an autoregressive algorithm on these time series (approximately 180 sec). Each spectrum was subdivided into low-(0.05-0.15 Hz, LF) and high-frequency (0.15-0.4 Hz, HF) components, and each component was divided by the sum of the two for normalization. As a measure of the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF) was evaluated. Arotinolol increased fractional HF in the HR spectrum from 0.45 +/- 0.12 to 0.73 +/- 0.08 (p < 0.01) and decreased fractional LF from 0.55 +/- 0.12 to 0.27 +/- 0.08 (p < 0.01); consequently, it decreased LF/HF from 1.4 +/- 0.5 to 0.4 +/- 0.2 (p < 0.01). Atenolol had similar effects on these parameters. Neither of these beta-adrenergic blockades produced a discernible decrease in LF/HF in the BP spectrum. In conclusion, these beta-adrenergic blockades decreased LF/HF in the HR spectrum in hypertensive subjects, which suggests that they improved the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

  12. Dose titration of BAF312 attenuates the initial heart rate reducing effect in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legangneux, Eric; Gardin, Anne; Johns, Donald

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown transient decreases in heart rate (HR) following administration of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators including BAF312. This study was conducted to determine whether dose titration of BAF312 reduces or eliminates these effects. Fifty-six healthy subjects were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive BAF312 in one of two dose titration (DT) regimens (DT1 and DT2: 0.25-10 mg over 9-10 days), no titration (10 mg starting dose) or placebo. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed. Neither DT1 nor DT2 resulted in clinically significant bradycardia or atrioventricular conduction effects. Both titration regimens showed a favourable difference on each of days 1-12 vs. the non-titration regimen on day 1 for HR effects (P titration was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13, 1.23) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.09, 1.18) for DT2 (both P titration HRs showed considerable separation from placebo throughout the study. There was no statistically significant reduction in HR vs. placebo on day 1 in either titration regimen. On days 3-7 subjects in DT1 and DT2 experienced minor reductions in HR vs. placebo (approximately 5 beats min⁻¹; P ≤ 0.0001). From days 9-12, HRs in both titration regimens were comparable with placebo. Both titration regimens effectively attenuated the initial bradyarrhythmia observed on day 1 of treatment with BAF312 10 mg. © 2012 Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research (NIBIR). British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Myotubes from severely obese type 2 diabetic subjects accumulate less lipids and show higher lipolytic rate than myotubes from severely obese non-diabetic subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siril S Bakke

    Full Text Available About 80% of patients with type 2 diabetes are classified as overweight. However, only about 1/3 of severely obese subjects have type 2 diabetes. This indicates that several severely obese individuals may possess certain characteristics that protect them against type 2 diabetes. We therefore hypothesized that this apparent paradox could be related to fundamental differences in skeletal muscle lipid handling. Energy metabolism and metabolic flexibility were examined in human myotubes derived from severely obese subjects without (BMI 44±7 kg/m2 and with type 2 diabetes (BMI 43±6 kg/m2. Lower insulin sensitivity was observed in myotubes from severely obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Lipolysis rate was higher, and oleic acid accumulation, triacylglycerol content, and fatty acid adaptability were lower in myotubes from severely obese subjects with type 2 diabetes compared to severely obese non-diabetic subjects. There were no differences in lipid distribution and mRNA and protein expression of the lipases HSL and ATGL, the lipase cofactor CGI-58, or the lipid droplet proteins PLIN2 and PLIN3. Glucose and oleic acid oxidation were also similar in cells from the two groups. In conclusion, myotubes established from severely obese donors with established type 2 diabetes had lower ability for lipid accumulation and higher lipolysis rate than myotubes from severely obese donors without diabetes. This indicates that a difference in intramyocellular lipid turnover might be fundamental in evolving type 2 diabetes.

  14. Enhancing biomass energy yield from pilot-scale high rate algal ponds with recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of recycling on biomass energy yield in High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs). Two 8 m(3) pilot-scale HRAPs treating primary settled sewage were operated in parallel and monitored over a 2-year period. Volatile suspended solids were measured from both HRAPs and their gravity settlers to determine biomass productivity and harvest efficiency. The energy content of the biomass was also measured. Multiplying biomass productivity and harvest efficiency gives the 'harvestable biomass productivity' and multiplying this by the energy content defines the actual 'biomass energy yield'. In Year 1, algal recycling was implemented in one of the ponds (HRAPr) and improved harvestable biomass productivity by 58% compared with the control (HRAPc) without recycling (HRAPr: 9.2 g/m(2)/d; HRAPc: 5.8 g/m(2)/d). The energy content of the biomass grown in HRAPr, which was dominated by Pediastrun boryanum, was 25% higher than the control HRAPc which contained a mixed culture of 4-5 different algae (HRAPr: 21.5 kJ/g; HRAPc: 18.6 kJ/g). In Year 2, HRAPc was then seeded with the biomass harvested from the P. boryanum dominated HRAPr. This had the effect of shifting algal dominance from 89% Dictyosphaerium sp. (which is poorly-settleable) to over 90% P. boryanum in 5 months. Operation of this pond was then switched to recycling its own harvested biomass, which maintained P. boryanum dominance for the rest of Year 2. This result confirms, for the first time in the literature, that species control is possible for similarly sized co-occurring algal colonies in outdoor HRAP by algal recycling. With regard to the overall improvement in biomass energy yield, which is a critical parameter in the context of algal cultivation for biofuels, the combined improvements that recycling triggered in biomass productivity, harvest efficiency and energy content enhanced the harvested biomass energy yield by 66% (HRAPr: 195 kJ/m(2)/day; HRAPc: 118 kJ/m(2)/day). Copyright © 2013

  15. Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of a Polymer Matrix Composite with Different Microstructures Subjected to Off-Axis Loading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Xiaojun; Chen, Xuefeng; Zhai, Zhi; Yang, Zhibo; Li, Xiang; He, Zhengjia

    2014-01-01

    ... are often subjected to complex loadings under extreme circumstances [3, 4] in which the properties of the PMCs exhibit highly nonlinear and rate dependence, so it is necessary for structural design and an...

  16. Differences in myocardial strain between pectus excavatum patients and healthy subjects assessed by cardiac MRI: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollert, André; Emrich, Tilman; Eichstädt, Jakob; Kampmann, Christoph; Abu-Tair, Tariq; Turial, Salmai; Düber, Christoph; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Staatz, Gundula

    2017-09-11

    To evaluate differences in myocardial strain between pectus excavatum (PE) patients and healthy subjects (HS) assessed by cardiac MRI using the feature-tracking algorithm. Cardiac MRI was performed in 14 PE patients and 14 HS (9:5 male to female in each group; age 11-30 years) using a 3T scanner. Post-examination analysis included manual biventricular contouring with volumetry and ejection fraction measurement by two independent radiologists. Dedicated software was used for automated strain assessment. In five of the PE patients, the right ventricular ejection fraction was slightly impaired (40-44 %). PE patients had a significantly higher left ventricular longitudinal strain (P=0.004), mid (P=0.035) and apical (P=0.001) circumferential strain as well as apical circumferential strain rate (P=0.001), mid right ventricular circumferential strain (P=0.008) and strain rate (P=0.035), and apical right ventricular circumferential strain (P=0.012) and strain rate (P=0.044) than HS. The right ventricular longitudinal strain and strain rate did not differ significantly between PE patients and HS. Myocardial strain differs significantly between PE patients and HS. Higher myocardial strain in the mid and apical ventricles of PE patients indicates a compensation mechanism to enhance ventricular output against basal sternal compression. • The right ventricle is frequently affected by the pectus excavatum deformity. • Cardiac MRI revealed differences in myocardial strain in pectus excavatum patients. • Pectus excavatum patients exhibited higher strain in the mid/apical ventricles. • A compensation mechanism to enhance ventricular output against sternal compression is possible.

  17. Heart Rate and Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Type 2 Diabetes Patients - A Pilot Study on the Influence of Cardiovascular Medication on Regulatory Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschate, Jessica; Drescher, Uwe; Baum, Klaus; Brinkmann, Christian; Schiffer, Thorsten; Latsch, Joachim; Brixius, Klara; Hoffmann, Uwe

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether there are differences in heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics in type 2 diabetes patients, considering their cardiovascular medication. It was hypothesized that cardiovascular medication would affect heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics and that this could be detected using a standardized exercise test. 18 subjects were tested for maximal oxygen uptake. Kinetics were measured in a single test session with standardized, randomized moderate-intensity work rate changes. Time series analysis was used to estimate kinetics. Greater maxima in cross-correlation functions indicate faster kinetics. 6 patients did not take any cardiovascular medication, 6 subjects took peripherally acting medication and 6 patients were treated with centrally acting medication. Maximum oxygen uptake was not significantly different between groups. Significant main effects were identified regarding differences in muscular oxygen uptake kinetics and heart rate kinetics. Muscular oxygen uptake kinetics were significantly faster than heart rate kinetics in the group with no cardiovascular medication (maximum in cross-correlation function of muscular oxygen uptake vs. heart rate; 0.32±0.08 vs. 0.25±0.06; p=0.001) and in the group taking peripherally acting medication (0.34±0.05 vs. 0.28±0.05; p=0.009) but not in the patients taking centrally acting medication (0.28±0.05 vs. 0.30±0.07; n.s.). It can be concluded that regulatory processes for the achievement of a similar maximal oxygen uptake are different between the groups. The used standardized test provided plausible results for heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics in a single measurement session in this patient group. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Effects of short and prolonged transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation on heart rate variability in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Couck, M; Cserjesi, R; Caers, R; Zijlstra, W P; Widjaja, D; Wolf, N; Luminet, O; Ellrich, J; Gidron, Y

    2017-03-01

    The vagus nerve is strategically located in the body, and has multiple homeostatic and health-promoting effects. Low vagal activity predicts onset and progression of diseases. These are the reasons to activate this nerve. This study examined the effects of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (t-VNS) on a main index of vagal activity, namely heart rate variability (HRV). In Study 1, we compared short (10min) left versus right ear t-VNS versus sham (no stimulation) in a within-subjects experimental design. Results revealed significant increases in only one HRV parameter (standard deviation of the RR intervals (SDNN)) following right-ear t-VNS. Study 2 examined the prolonged effects of t-VNS (1h) in the right ear. Compared to baseline, right-t-VNS significantly increased the LF and LF/HF components of HRV, and SDNN in women, but not in men. These results show limited effects of t-VNS on HRV, and are discussed in light of neuroanatomical and statistical considerations and future directions are proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Glucose challenge increases circulating progenitor cells in Asian Indian male subjects with normal glucose tolerance which is compromised in subjects with pre-diabetes: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bairagi Soumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematopoietic stem cells undergo mobilization from bone marrow to blood in response to physiological stimuli such as ischemia and tissue injury. The aim of study was to determine the kinetics of circulating CD34+ and CD133+CD34+ progenitor cells in response to 75 g glucose load in subjects with normal and impaired glucose metabolism. Methods Asian Indian male subjects (n = 50 with no prior history of glucose imbalance were subjected to 2 hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. 24 subjects had normal glucose tolerance (NGT, 17 subjects had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and 9 had impaired fasting glucose (IFG. The IGT and IFG subjects were grouped together as pre-diabetes group (n = 26. Progenitor cell counts in peripheral circulation at fasting and 2 hour post glucose challenge were measured using direct two-color flow cytometry. Results The pre-diabetes group was more insulin resistant (p + cells (p = 0.003 and CD133+CD34+ (p = 0.019 cells was seen 2 hours post glucose challenge in the NGT group. This increase for both the cell types was attenuated in subjects with IGT. CD34+ cell counts in response to glucose challenge inversely correlated with neutrophil counts (ρ = -0.330, p = 0.019, while post load counts of CD133+CD34+ cells inversely correlated with serum creatinine (ρ = -0.312, p = 0.023. Conclusion There is a 2.5-fold increase in the circulating levels of haematopoietic stem cells in response to glucose challenge in healthy Asian Indian male subjects which is attenuated in subjects with pre-diabetes.

  20. Body mass index, Stunkard Figure Rating Scale, and sexuality in young Italian women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotti, Elena; Battaglia, Bruno; Paradisi, Roberto; Persico, Nicola; Zampieri, Marina; Venturoli, Stefano; Battaglia, Cesare

    2013-04-01

    Increased body mass index is associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic diseases, depression, and sexual dysfunction. In obese patients, the perception of an altered body image may influence health and psychologically related behaviors. Furthermore, there is a significant positive relationship between sexual function, sexual satisfaction, and all body image variables. To evaluate the relationship between body weight, perceived body image, and sexual behavior. Ninety women underwent ultrasonographic clitoral volume measurement and color Doppler evaluation of the clitoral and ophthalmic arteries. The subjects filled the McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire (MFSQ), the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS), and the Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) questionnaire. Clitoral volume, clitoral and ophthalmic artery pulsatility index (PI), MFSQ, FRS, and BDI. The women were distributed into three groups: lean (N = 47); overweight (N = 22); and obese (N = 21). The ophthalmic artery showed lower PI in lean (1.72 ± 0.39) than in overweight (1.99 ± 0.30) and obese women (2.08 ± 0.19). The obese subjects presented the worst clitoral vascularization. The MFSQ for sexuality was higher in lean (45.8 ± 11.8) than in overweight (36.4 ± 15.0) and obese (36.1 ± 10.8) women. The frequency of intercourse per week was higher in lean (2.2 ± 1.4) than in overweight (1.3 ± 0.7) and obese (1.2 ± 0.4) women. The percentage of anorgasmic women was higher in obese (23%) than in lean subjects (6%). The FRS evidenced that the lean subjects represented themselves with a mean value (3.5 ± 1.0) lower than overweight (4.8 ± 0.7) and obese women (5.9 ± 0.6). The silhouette that represented their own ideal was significantly higher in obese (4.0 ± 0.4) than in overweight (3.3 ± 0.5) and lean (2.9 ± 0.7) subjects. The mean BDI was significantly higher in obese (15.8 ± 5.4) than in lean (8.4 ± 6.8) women

  1. Load rating and retrofit testing of bridge timber piles subjected to eccentric loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report first evaluated the load rating procedure currently in use by the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) for rating timber : piles supporting multiple-span, simply supported bridges. For simplicity, these piles are often rated under...

  2. Prediction of pilot induced oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin PANĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in the design of flight-control systems for aircraft under pilotedcontrol is the determination of handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillations (PIO tendencieswhen significant nonlinearities exist in the vehicle description. The paper presents a method to detectpossible pilot-induced oscillations of Category II (with rate and position limiting, a phenomenonusually due to a misadaptation between the pilot and the aircraft response during some tasks in whichtight closed loop control of the aircraft is required from the pilot. For the analysis of Pilot in the LoopOscillations an approach, based on robust stability analysis of a system subject to uncertainparameters, is proposed. In this analysis the nonlinear elements are substituted by linear uncertainparameters. This approach assumes that PIO are characterized by a limit cycle behavior.

  3. Question order sensitivity of subjective well-being measures: focus on life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy in survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.

  4. Impact of retrograde shear rate on brachial and superficial femoral artery flow-mediated dilation in older subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Green, D.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    An inverse, dose-dependent relationship between retrograde shear rate and brachial artery endothelial function exists in young subjects. This relationship has not been investigated in older adults, who have been related to lower endothelial function, higher resting retrograde shear rate and higher

  5. Recurrence rate and subjective symptoms after standardized (Hamburg protocol) phototherapeutic keratectomy on recurrent corneal erosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlan, J; Steinberg, J; Traber, L; Katz, T; Linke, S J

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the objective and subjective outcome after phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) on recurrent corneal erosions (Hamburg protocol). For the standardized PTK according to Hamburg protocol a manual abrasio corneae performed with 20 % alcohol is followed by an excimer ablation depth of ≥15 μm (group1 15 μm; group 2 > 15 μm ablation depth) and 7 mm optical zone. All patients (N = 48) were invited for follow-up examinations and the evaluation of changes concerning subjective symptoms. A significantly reduced subjective impairment of night vision, significantly less pain and less foreign body sensations (for all p Hamburg Schema) is a safe and effective procedure to reduce subjective symptoms and improve discomfort in recurrent corneal erosion.

  6. The effect of phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 fatty acids on memory abilities in subjects with subjective memory complaints: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Richter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Yael Richter1, Yael Herzog1, Tzafra Cohen1, Yael Steinhart21Enzymotec LTD, Migdal-HaEmeq, Israel; 2Department of Marketing, Haifa Graduate School of Management, University of Haifa, IsraelObjective: To evaluate for the first time the efficacy of safe-sourced phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PS-omega-3 in improving memory abilities.Methods: PS-omega-3 was administered daily for 6 weeks to eight elderly volunteers with subjective memory complaints. The Cognitive Drug Research test battery was used to assess the effect on their cognitive abilities.Results: PS-omega-3 supplementation resulted in 42% increase in the ability to recall words in the delayed condition.Conclusion: PS-omega-3 may have a favorable effect on memory in subjects with subjective memory complaints. PS-omega-3 may serve as a safe alternative to phosphatidylserine extracted from bovine cortex.Keywords: cognitive, memory, omega-3, phosphatidylserine

  7. The Impact of Employment and Self-Rated Economic Condition on the Subjective Well-Being of Older Korean Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung; Lee, Yura; Sangalang, Cindy; Harris, Lesley M

    2015-09-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated a relationship between socioeconomic factors and health among older adults, yet fewer studies have explored this relationship with older immigrants. This study aims to examine the influence of employment and self-rated economic condition on the subjective well-being of older Korean immigrants in the United States. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study of 205 older Korean immigrants, aged 65 to 90, in Los Angeles County. Hierarchical regression was employed to explore the independent and interactive effects of employment status and self-rated economic condition. The study found that employment and self-rated economic status were positively associated with subjective well-being. Also, the interaction between employment and self-rated economic status was significantly associated with higher levels of subjective well-being, such that the influence of self-rated economic condition was stronger for unemployed older Korean immigrants compared with those who were employed. This population-based study provides empirical evidence that employment and self-rated economic condition are directly associated with subjective well-being for older Korean immigrants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. From beat rate variability in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived pacemaker cells to heart rate variability in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Meital; Schick, Revital; Barad, Lili; Novak, Atara; Ben-Ari, Erez; Lorber, Avraham; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Rosen, Michael R; Weissman, Amir; Binah, Ofer

    2014-10-01

    We previously reported that induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes manifest beat rate variability (BRV) resembling heart rate variability (HRV) in the human sinoatrial node. We now hypothesized the BRV-HRV continuum originates in pacemaker cells. To investigate whether cellular BRV is a source of HRV dynamics, we hypothesized 3 levels of interaction among different cardiomyocyte entities: (1) single pacemaker cells, (2) networks of electrically coupled pacemaker cells, and (3) the in situ sinoatrial node. We measured BRV/HRV properties in single pacemaker cells, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived contracting embryoid bodies (EBs), and electrocardiograms from the same individual. Pronounced BRV/HRV was present at all 3 levels. The coefficient of variance of interbeat intervals and Poincaré plot indices SD1 and SD2 for single cells were 20 times greater than those for EBs (P heart (the latter two were similar; P > .05). We also compared BRV magnitude among single cells, small EBs (~5-10 cells), and larger EBs (>10 cells): BRV indices progressively increased with the decrease in the cell number (P heart rhythm. The decreased BRV magnitude in transitioning from the single cell to the EB suggests that the HRV of in situ hearts originates from the summation and integration of multiple cell-based oscillators. Hence, complex interactions among multiple pacemaker cells and intracellular Ca(2+) handling determine HRV in humans and cardiomyocyte networks. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Single-subject research design: recommendations for levels of evidence and quality rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiser Logan, Lynne; Hickman, Robbin R; Harris, Susan R; Heriza, Carolyn B

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this article is to present a set of evidence levels, accompanied by 14 quality or rigor questions, to foster a critical review of published single-subject research articles. In developing these guidelines, we reviewed levels of evidence and quality/rigor criteria that are in wide use for group research designs, e.g. randomized controlled trials, such as those developed by the Treatment Outcomes Committee of the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine. We also reviewed methodological articles on how to conduct and critically evaluate single-subject research designs (SSRDs). We then subjected the quality questions to interrater agreement testing and refined them until acceptable agreement was reached. We recommend that these guidelines be implemented by clinical researchers who plan to conduct single-subject research or who incorporate SSRD studies into systematic reviews, and by clinicians who aim to practise evidence-based medicine and who wish to critically review pediatric single-subject research.

  10. The effect of phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 fatty acids on memory abilities in subjects with subjective memory complaints: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Yael; Herzog, Yael; Cohen, Tzafra; Steinhart, Yael

    2010-01-01

    Yael Richter1, Yael Herzog1, Tzafra Cohen1, Yael Steinhart21Enzymotec LTD, Migdal-HaEmeq, Israel; 2Department of Marketing, Haifa Graduate School of Management, University of Haifa, IsraelObjective: To evaluate for the first time the efficacy of safe-sourced phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PS-omega-3) in improving memory abilities.Methods: PS-omega-3 was administered daily for 6 weeks to eight elderly volunteers with subjective memory complaints. T...

  11. [Therapeutic benefit of a registered psychoeducation program on treatment adherence, objective and subjective quality of life: French pilot study for schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvanaud, F; Kebir, O; Vlasie, M; Doste, V; Amado, I; Krebs, M-O

    2017-05-01

    In schizophrenic disorders, supportive psychosocial therapies have been used as adjuncts to pharmacotherapy to help alleviate residual symptoms and to improve social functioning and quality of life. Among these therapies, psychoeducational therapies showed a significant efficacy on improving drug adherence and on reducing relapses. However, according to the French Health Agency, fewer than 10% of psychiatric structures in France offer registered psychoeducation programs. Caregiver apprehension of patients' depressive reactions to the awareness of the disease could underlie the underuse of psychoeducation therapies. Indeed, the psychoeducation programs' impact on objective and subjective quality of life is discussed among the literature. In this context, we conducted a retrospective, monocentric, open-labelled and non-controlled pilot study to measure the impact of a registered psychoeducation program on objective and subjective quality of life of patients suffering from schizophrenia. Secondary objectives included measures of the effects on drug observance and awareness of the disease. We included stabilized patients over the age of eighteen suffering from schizophrenia. Referent psychiatrics were asked to inform the patient of the diagnosis and to prescribe psychoeducation therapy. From 2011 to 2014, we offered three ambulatory programs, each program including fifteen two-hour group sessions. The groups were opened for three to six patients and managed by two caregivers. Themes discussed during the sessions included: schizophrenic disease, treatments, relationships to family, diet, social issues, toxics, relaxation. Objective and subjective quality of life were evaluated one month before and one month after the program using respectively the global assessment functioning (GAF) and the subjective quality of life (SQoL) scales. The Medical Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) and the French IQ8 scale evaluated respectively drug adherence and awareness of the disease. All

  12. Subjective rating and objective evaluation of the acoustic and indoor climate conditions in video conferencing rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauervig-Jørgensen, Charlotte; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Toftum, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    Today, face-to-face meetings are frequently replaced by video conferences in order to reduce costs and carbon footprint related to travels and to increase the company efficiency. Yet, complaints about the difficulty of understanding the speech of the participants in both rooms of the video...... conference occur. The aim of this study is to find out the main causes of difficulties in speech communication. Correlation studies between subjective perceptions were conducted through questionnaires and objective acoustic and indoor climate parameters related to video conferencing. Based on four single......-room and three combined-room measurements, it was found that the traditional measure of speech, such as the speech transmission index, was not correlated with the subjective classifications. Thus, a correlation analysis was conducted as an attempt to find the hidden factors behind the subjective perceptions...

  13. Approximate entropy and point correlation dimension of heart rate variability in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storella, R J; Wood, H W; Mills, K M

    1999-01-01

    The contribution of nonlinear dynamics to heart rate variability in healthy humans was examined using surrogate data analysis. Several measures of heart rate variability were used and compared. Heart rates were recorded for three hours and original data sets of 8192 R-R intervals created. For each...... original data set (n = 34), three surrogate data sets were made by shuffling the order of the R-R intervals while retaining their linear correlations. The difference in heart rate variability between the original and surrogate data sets reflects the amount of nonlinear structure in the original data set....... Heart rate variability was analyzed by two different nonlinear methods, point correlation dimension and approximate entropy. Nonlinearity, though under 10 percent, could be detected with both types of heart rate variability measures. More importantly, not only were the correlations between...

  14. Optimal protruding node length of bicycle seats determined using cycling postures and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Liu, Yi-Nan

    2014-07-01

    This study examined body posture, subjective discomfort, and stability, requiring the participants to ride a stationary bicycle for 20 min (cadence: 60 rpm; workrate: 120 W), using various combinations of two handle heights and five seat-protruding node lengths (PNLs). The results indicated that bicycle handle height significantly influenced body posture, and that seat PNL caused differences in the riders' subjective discomfort and stability scores. The various PNLs affected only the trunk angle (approximately 6°), but had significantly positive (r = 0.994, p bicycle seat designs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of fatigue among commercial pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Craig A; Earl, Laurie

    2006-06-01

    Short-haul pilots have largely been neglected in studies of fatigue, sleep loss and circadian disruption created by flight operations, but anecdotal evidence from pilots suggests that with the increasing amount of low-cost air travel, commercial pilots working short-haul operations may be becoming seriously fatigued. This study attempted to ascertain how much subjective fatigue short-haul pilots reported, and makes comparisons between low-cost and scheduled airline pilots. Pilots completed anonymous questionnaires (encompassing aviation factors, flight experience and a fatigue scale) posted on the Professional Pilots' Rumours Network website. Data were collected from 162 short-haul pilots and statistical adjustment for operational factors was made. Seventy-five percent reported severe fatigue and 81% reported the fatigue to be worse than 2 years ago. Eighty percent considered their thought processes were reduced while flying. Severe fatigue was reported more frequently by low-cost airline pilots than scheduled airline pilots (P = 0.05) and fatigue ratings were higher in this group (P = 0.03). Pilots who reported regularly flying into their 'discretion' hours had lower physical and psychological health, and overall fatigue scores, and poorer self-rated general health. Flying into discretion time occurred no more frequently in low-cost airline pilots than scheduled airline pilots. Identifiable fatigue problems are reported by short-haul pilots, but this cannot be attributed solely to the work schedules of low-cost airlines as regular use of discretion time appears to be associated with fatigue regardless of airline.

  16. The spatial preference map of Dutch entrepreneurs : Subjective rating of locations, 1983, 1993 and 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, Wilhelm J.; Pellenbarg, Pieter H.

    2006-01-01

    Location decisions are often based on inaccurate information about potential locations. Decision-makers seem to be guided by their subjective interpretation of reality, not so much by reality itself. Twenty years ago this fundamental idea was the starting point for a research programme of the

  17. Effects of air pollutants on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David

    2004-01-01

    Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours...

  18. 29 CFR 4.118 - Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.118 Contracts for carriage..., railway line or oil or gas pipeline where published tariff rates are in effect”. In order for this... is actually governed by published tariff rates in effect pursuant to State or Federal law for such...

  19. Effects of alprazolam and clonidine on carbon dioxide-induced increases in anxiety rating in healthy human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, S.W.; Krystal, J.H.; Heninger, G.R.; Charney, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    In order to investigate possible neurobiologic mechanisms underlying carbon dioxide-induced anxiety, the effects of oral alprazolam 0.75 mg and intravenous clonidine 2 mcg/kg on CO/sub 2/-induced increases in ratings of subjective anxiety, pulse rate, and ventilation were measured in healthy human subjects. Pretreatment with alprazolam but not with clonidine significantly reduced the CO/sub 2/-induced increases in ratings of anxiety. Neither drug altered CO/sub 2/-induced increases in pulse rate or ventilatory responses. Clonidine did produce potent sedative and hypotensive effects. The behavioral data suggest that the mechanisms through which CO/sub 2/ induces anxiety-like effects involve neural systems regulated by benzodiazepine receptors and, secondly, that they appear not to require normal functioning of noradrenergic systems. Carbon dioxide may provide a useful model system for identification of new drugs with anxiolytic properties.

  20. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady...... between the human-body exergy consumption rate and subjective assessment of thermal environment represented by thermal sensation as well as to extend the investigation towards thermal acceptability votes. Comparison of steady-state and unsteady-state model showed that results from both models were...... of the present study confirmed previously indicated trends that lowest human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation close to neutrality. Moreover, higher acceptability was in general associated with lower human body exergy consumption rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. Miotic and subject-rated effects of therapeutic doses of tapentadol, tramadol, and hydromorphone in occasional opioid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, William W; Glaser, Paul E A; Rush, Craig R

    2013-07-01

    Tapentadol is a novel analgesic that activates mu-opioid receptors and blocks norepinephrine reuptake. There is very little information available regarding the non-analgesic pharmacodynamic effects of tapentadol. This outpatient study evaluated the physiological, subject-rated, and performance effects of therapeutic doses of tapentadol compared to two control drugs in humans. This double-blind, within-subject study examined the effects of oral placebo, tapentadol (25, 50, and 75 mg), tramadol (50, 100, and 150 mg), and hydromorphone (2, 4, and 6 mg). Nine occasional opioid users completed the study. Pharmacodynamic drug effects were measured before and for 6 h after drug administration. All three doses of the tested drugs produced comparable, time-dependent decreases in pupil diameter, but the effects were generally not dose dependent. The high dose of tapentadol, as well as all three doses of tramadol and hydromorphone, increased positive subject-rated effects (e.g., "Good Effects" and "Like the Drug") as a function of time. Only tramadol increased negative subject-rated effects (e.g., "Bad Effects" and "Nauseous"); however, these were of low magnitude. The highest tested dose of tapentadol produced a profile of positive effects comparable to that of hydromorphone, whereas tramadol produced positive and negative subject-rated effects. The mixed findings for tramadol are consistent with previous findings indicating that it has a distinct profile of effects relative to prototypic opioids. Future research should examine the effects of higher tapentadol doses, as well as the factors contributing to the different subject-rated profile of effects observed for tramadol relative to tapentadol and hydromorphone.

  2. SUBJECTIVE CURE RATES AFTER TVT PROCEDURE FOR TREATMENT OF FEMALE URINARY INCONTINENCE – A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor But

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to assess the subjective cure rate after the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT procedure in patients with stress (SUI and mixed (MUI urinary incontinence.Methods. This is a questionnaire based study done in 43 patients with SUI and 52 patients with MUI. In the assessement of the subjective cure rate the visual analogue scale and the symptom assessment index (SAI were used. Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics.Results. The subjective cure rate assessed 19.6 months after TVT amounted to 89.3%. Urinary incontinence after TVT procedure was noted in 26 patients (27.4% and the majority of these women (73.1% were diagnosed with MUI. In patients with SUI and postoperative stable bladder a higher success rate was observed (96.7%. In 18.6% patients with SUI, de novo overactive bladder symptoms occurred. These patients estimated a significantly (p = 0.027 lower cure rate (81.9% after TVT procedure. In patients with MUI, the cure rate after TVT amounted to 85.6%. The subjective cure rate was lower (79.4% in case of persistent overactive bladder symptoms. However, it was significantly higher (97.5% in case of a postoperatively stable bladder (p = 0.016. In the group of MUI patients, the symptoms of overactive bladder disease resolved spontaneously in 17 patients (32.7% postoperatively. The patients were satisfied with TVT and 92.6% would recommend this procedure to others.Conclusions. The TVT procedure is a very effective method of treatment for stress as well as mixed urinary incontinence. The success rate of the procedure is high, however, it is influenced by bladder activity.

  3. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Conclusion: Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group.

  4. Self-reported and behavioral sound avoidance in tinnitus and hyperacusis subjects, and association with anxiety ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaesing, Lena; Kroener-Herwig, Birgit

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the role of sound avoidance and anxiety in tinnitus subjects with hyperacusis, defined as hypersensitivity to low to moderate intensity sounds. A group of tinnitus subjects with hyperacusis was compared to tinnitus subjects without hyperacusis, and healthy controls. For assessing noise avoidance, a questionnaire was developed (noise avoidance questionnaire, NAQ) and the duration of self-exposure to a pure tone was assessed as a behavioral index. Different self-rating instruments concerning tinnitus (STI, TF-12), hyperacusis (GÜF), and anxiety (BAI, STAI-T) were used, as well as a psychoacoustic indicator of hyperacusis (ULL). Fifty-six tinnitus subjects with/without hyperacusis and 30 controls without tinnitus and hyperacusis participated in the experiment. The findings indicate that subjects with hyperacusis reported significantly more noise-related avoidance in daily life and show significantly shorter exposure to a pure tone than non-hyperacusic subjects, while discomfort was at the same level for each individual. Self-reported avoidance behavior correlated significantly with distress attributed to hyperacusis (r =0.81), and with anxiety ratings. These results suggest that hyperacusis is associated with noise-related avoidance behavior and anxiety. Systematic exposure to sound could play a significant role in the treatment of hyperacusis.

  5. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Measuring Cognitive Load during Simulation-Based Psychomotor Skills Training: Sensitivity of Secondary-Task Performance and Subjective Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A.; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance…

  7. Is Walking Capacity in Subjects with Multiple Sclerosis Primarily Related to Muscle Oxidative Capacity or Maximal Muscle Strength? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Walking capacity is reduced in subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS. To develop effective exercise interventions to enhance walking capacity, it is important to determine the impact of factors, modifiable by exercise intervention (maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity, on walking capacity. The purpose of this pilot study is to discriminate between the impact of maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity on walking capacity in subjects with MS. Methods. From 24 patients with MS, muscle oxidative capacity was determined by calculation of exercise-onset oxygen uptake kinetics (mean response time during submaximal exercise bouts. Maximal muscle strength (isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque was assessed on dynamometer. All subjects completed a 6-minute walking test. Relationships between walking capacity (as a percentage of normal value and muscle strength (of knee flexors and extensors versus muscle oxidative capacity were assessed in multivariate regression analyses. Results. The expanded disability status score (EDSS showed a significant univariate correlation (r=-0.70, P<0.004 with walking capacity. In multivariate regression analyses, EDSS and mean response time, but not muscle strength, were independently related to walking capacity (P<0.05. Conclusions. Walking distance is, next to disability level and not taking neurologic symptoms/deficits into account, primarily related to muscle oxidative capacity in subjects with MS. Additional study is needed to further examine/verify these findings.

  8. On a class of adjustable rate mortgage loans subject to a strict balance principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    We describe the background and the basic funding mechanisms for the type of adjustable rate mortgageloans that were introduced in the Danish market in 1996. Each loan is funded separately by tap issuingpass-through mortgage bonds (`strict balance principle'). The novelty is a funding mechanism...... algorithms.The algorithms described here show that the essentials can be reduced to a `back of an envelope' complexity.Keywords: Adjustable rate mortgages, balance principle, patent, yield curve riding...

  9. Frame rate vs resolution: A subjective evaluation of spatiotemporal perceived quality under varying computational budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Debattista, K.; Bugeja, K.; Spina, S.; Bashford-Rogers, T.; V. Hulusic

    2017-01-01

    Maximising performance for rendered content requires making compromises on quality parameters depending on the computational resources available. Yet, it is currently unclear which parameters best maximise perceived quality. This work investigates perceived quality across computational budgets for the primary spatio-temporal parameters of resolution and frame rate. Three experiments are conducted. Experiment 1 (n = 26) shows that participants prefer fixed frame rates of 60 frames per second (...

  10. Frame rate vs resolution : a subjective evaluation of spatiotemporal perceived quality under varying computational budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Debattista, Kurt; Bugeja, Keith; Spina, Sandro; Bashford-Rogers, Thomas; Hulusić, Vedad

    2017-01-01

    Maximizing performance for rendered content requires making compromises on quality parameters depending on the computational resources available . Yet, it is currently unclear which parameters best maximize perceived quality. This work investigates perceived quality across computational budgets for the primary spatiotemporal parameters of resolution and frame rate. Three experiments are conducted. Experiment 1 (n = 26) shows that participants prefer fixed frame rates of 60 frames per second (...

  11. A pilot study to evaluate simulated driving performance and cognitive function in healthy subjects and patients with restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen D

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dan Chen,1 Paula Shaw,2 Daniel M Canafax,1,3 James Catesby Ware4 1XenoPort, Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA; 2Charles River Northwest, Tacoma, WA, USA; 3Theravance Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA; 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA Objective: Symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS usually occur during the evening and night time, resulting in disrupted sleep and subsequent daytime fatigue. This study compared simulated driving performance, alertness, and cognitive function between healthy subjects and patients with a diagnosis of RLS. Methods: Fifteen healthy subjects and 15 untreated RLS subjects were enrolled and completed two driving tests. The first test occurred at 4 PM followed by the second test at 8 AM the next morning. Outcome measures included lane position variability (LPV, speed variability, frequency of simulated crashes (off-road events or collision, and brake reaction time. Other assessments included visual analog scale (VAS of alertness and the Brief Assessment of Cognition (BAC. Results: Overall, RLS patients and healthy subjects performed similarly on driving assessments. Two subjects within each group experienced off-road events. RLS patients had less alertness on the VAS than healthy subjects before and after driving assessments. Both groups scored similarly on the cognitive function assessments. Conclusion: Despite reported diminished alertness, RLS patients did not demonstrate impairment in driving or cognitive performance. Keywords: restless legs syndrome, simulated driving performance, cognitive function

  12. The effect of nasal oxytocin on pregnancy rates following intrauterine insemination: double-blind, randomized, clinical pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsenkühn, Robert; Pavlik, Roman; Hecht, Stephanie; von Schönfeldt, Viktoria; Rogenhofer, Nina; Thaler, Christian J

    2010-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the application of intranasal oxytocin (8 IU) following intrauterine insemination (IUI) would increase pregnancy rates, without causing major side effects. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study: eighty-six couples with idiopathic infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome and/or male sub-fertility treated with 132 homologous IUI cycles with nasal application of placebo or 8 IU oxytocin following IUI. In 132 IUI cycles of 86 women, 17 pregnancies were achieved, accounting for a pregnancy rate of 12.9% (17/132) per IUI cycle. The pregnancy rates were 13.4% (9/67) per IUI cycle in the placebo group, and 12.3% (8/65) per IUI cycle in the oxytocin group, the difference not being statistically significant. No relevant side effects were observed in both groups. Intranasal application of 8 IU oxytocin has no major side effects but at the same time did not affect pregnancy rates after IUI in our population. This study does not exclude that a larger patient group, a different time interval between oxytocin application and IUI, higher or multiple oxytocin applications or a different mode of application would have achieved different effects on pregnancy rates.

  13. Characterization of a New Fully Recycled Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Subjected to High Strain Rate Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, H.; Tamboura, S.; Fitoussi, J.; BenDaly, H.; Tcharkhtchi, A.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is the complete physicochemical characterization and strain rate effect multi-scale analysis of a new fully recycled carbon fiber reinforced composites for automotive crash application. Two composites made of 20% wt short recycled carbon fibers (CF) are obtained by injection molding. The morphology and the degree of dispersion of CF in the matrixes were examined using a new ultrasonic method and SEM. High strain tensile behavior up to 100 s-1 is investigated. In order to avoid perturbation due to inertial effect and wave propagation, the specimen geometry was optimized. The elastic properties appear to be insensitive to the strain rate. However, a high strain rate effect on the local visco-plasticity of the matrix and fiber/matrix interface visco-damageable behavior is emphasized. The predominant damage mechanisms evolve from generalized matrix local ductility at low strain rate regime to fiber/matrix interface debonding and fibers pull-out at high strain rate regime.

  14. Increase in perceived stress is correlated to lower heart rate variability in healthy young subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Câmara Batista da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Decreased heart rate variability (HRV is associated to increased mortality rates in certain heart diseases. Current study assessed the co-relation between perceived stress and HRV parameters. The correlation between psychological stress, measured by the perceived stress scale (PSS-14, and HRV parameters obtained during 5 min. at rest was evaluated. Data from 35 healthy young volunteers demonstrated a significant correlation between PSS-14 scores and Low Frequency-LF (ms2 by frequency domain HRV analysis. Other variables such as High Frequency and Standard Deviation of R-R intervals had also negative coefficients but did not have any significant correlation with PSS-14. No correlation between PSS-14 and sympathovagal balance parameters was found. Data interpretation demonstrated that increase in perceived stress was correlated to decrease in heart rate variability, which may point out an important mechanism in cardiovascular pathophysiology that should be further investigated.

  15. Microscale consolidation analysis of relaxation behavior of single living chondrocytes subjected to varying strain-rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Dung; Oloyede, Adekunle; Singh, Sanjleena; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-09-01

    Besides the elastic stiffness, the relaxation behavior of single living cells is also of interest of various researchers when studying cell mechanics. It is hypothesized that the relaxation response of the cells is governed by both intrinsic viscoelasticity of the solid phase and fluid-solid interactions mechanisms. There are a number of mechanical models have been developed to investigate the relaxation behavior of single cells. However, there is lack of model enable to accurately capture both of the mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, the porohyperelastic (PHE) model, which is an extension of the consolidation theory, combined with inverse Finite Element Analysis (FEA) technique was used at the first time to investigate the relaxation response of living chondrocytes. This model was also utilized to study the dependence of relaxation behavior of the cells on strain-rates. The stress-relaxation experiments under the various strain-rates were conducted with the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results have demonstrated that the PHE model could effectively capture the stress-relaxation behavior of the living chondrocytes, especially at intermediate to high strain-rates. Although this model gave some errors at lower strain-rates, its performance was acceptable. Therefore, the PHE model is properly a promising model for single cell mechanics studies. Moreover, it has been found that the hydraulic permeability of living chondrocytes reduced with decreasing of strain-rates. It might be due to the intracellular fluid volume fraction and the fluid pore pressure gradients of chondrocytes were higher when higher strain-rates applied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Subjective Ratings of Annoyance Produced by Rotary-Wing Aircraft Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    nov "is ossoLaTa Unclassified SECURITY CLASSFICATION 5.Frs PARE FW- D Eneredt- 𔃻 5 7 W Unclassified 69CURITY CLASIFICATION OF THIS PAG9(Vhw Da...paths followed during the various maneuvers relative to the location of the observers rendering the ratings. The observers were 25 adults hired on a

  17. Subjective ratings of prospective memory deficits in chronic heavy alcohol users

    OpenAIRE

    Heffernan, Tom; Moss, Mark; Ling, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse has a detrimental effect on retrospective memory. Less is known about its putative effects on everyday memory. This study looked at self-ratings of prospective memory (PM) (memory for future events). After controlling for other drug and strategy use, chronic heavy alcohol users showed global impairments in PM, when compared to matched controls. The underlying mechanisms are discussed.

  18. The effect of Asian dust events on the daily symptoms in Yonago, Japan: a pilot study on healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Shinji; Onishi, Kazunari; Mu, Haosheng; Kurozawa, Youichi

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of Asian dust events is a frequent problem, with associated health issues throughout Northeast Asia. However, the effects of Asian dust on human health are not well known in Japan. The authors evaluated the association between daily symptoms and dust events in Yonago, Japan. The subjects were 54 healthy individuals who were distributed survey sheets on nasopharyngeal, ocular, respiratory, and skin symptoms, which were quantified in February 2009. The authors investigated the symptoms of the subjects on Asian dust days and control days, and compared the symptom scores with measures of suspended particulate matter (SPM), which is the indicator of Asian dust. The scores for symptoms were significantly higher on Asian dust days than on control days (p=.020). The skin symptom scores were positively correlated with the SPM level (pAsian dust influence the symptoms of healthy subjects, although the symptoms are not severe. Copyright © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  19. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Based upon Heart Rate at Aerobic Threshold in Obese Elderly Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Pietro Emerenziani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In obese diabetic subjects, a correct life style, including diet and physical activity, is part of a correct intervention protocol. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training intervention, based on heart rate at aerobic gas exchange threshold (AerTge, on clinical and physiological parameters in obese elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes (OT2DM. Thirty OT2DM subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG or control group (CG. The IG performed a supervised aerobic exercise training based on heart rate at AerTge whereas CG maintained their usual lifestyle. Anthropometric measures, blood analysis, peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak, metabolic equivalent (METpeak, work rate (WRpeak, and WRAerTge were assessed at baseline and after intervention. After training, patients enrolled in the IG had significantly higher (P<0.001 V˙O2peak, METpeak, WRpeak, and WRAerTge and significantly lower (P<0.005 weight, BMI, %FM, and waist circumference than before intervention. Both IG and CG subjects had lower glycated haemoglobin levels after intervention period. No significant differences were found for all the other parameters between pre- and posttraining and between groups. Aerobic exercise prescription based upon HR at AerTge could be a valuable physical intervention tool to improve the fitness level and metabolic equilibrium in OT2DM patients.

  20. A pilot study of a new method of cognitive stimulation using abacus arithmetic in healthy and cognitively impaired elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, J A; Pérez-Martínez, D A; Matías-Guiu, J

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the applicability of a cognitive stimulation method based on abacus arithmetic in elderly people with and without cognitive impairment. This observational and prospective pilot study was performed in 2 hospitals. The study assessed the applicability of a programme of arithmetic training developed for use in the elderly population. The primary endpoint was an evaluation of the stimulation programme, in terms of usability, satisfaction, and participation, in healthy elderly controls and elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease. Secondary endpoints were family satisfaction, caregiver burden, and the behaviour and cognition of patients. Usability, satisfaction, and degree of participation were high. The Mini-Mental State Examination showed significant changes (23.1±4.8 before the intervention vs 24.9±4.2 afterwards, P=.002); there were no changes on the Trail Making Test parts A and B, Yesavage Geriatric Depression scale, and Zarit caregiver burden scale. The study suggests that cognitive stimulation with abacus arithmetic may be used in elderly people with and without cognitive impairment. Further studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy of this kind of programmes. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2005-12-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. Thirty are cluster member galaxies, and nine are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates between 8 and 525 Msolar yr-1. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J-band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, consistent with several previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O'Connell Cardiel et al.; Crawford et al.). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars and, therefore, recent star formation. Using the Starburst99 model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2-219 Msolar yr-1 for the cooling flow sample. For two-thirds of this sample, it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV-inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well-populated XMM UV cluster archive, and a more extensive follow-up study is currently underway.

  2. The relationship of music preferences and the selected risk-taking and autodestructive behaviour among teenage girls subject to inpatient stay due to mental condition – pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Krajewska; Antoni Florkowski; Agnieszka Gmitrowicz

    2017-01-01

    During adolescence, related to the crisis of identity, attempts to separate from the family and rebellion against the reality result in the youth to be particularly susceptible to the impact of peers. Identification with the group is most often based on common interests, one of which being music. The aim of the pilot study was to assess the relationship of autodestructive and  antisocial behaviour and  music preferences of  girls subject to  inpatient stay due to  mental problems. Ma...

  3. Error rates of a full-duplex system over EGK fading channels subject to laplacian interference

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2017-07-31

    This paper develops a mathematical paradigm to study downlink error rates and throughput for half-duplex (HD) terminals served by a full-duplex (FD) base station (BS). Particularly, we study the dominant intra-cell interferer problem that appears between HD users scheduled on the same FD-channel. The distribution of the dominant interference is first characterized via its distribution function, which is derived in closed-form. Assuming Nakagami-m fading, the probability of error for different modulation schemes is studied and a unified closed-form expression for the average symbol error rate is derived. To this end, we show the effective downlink throughput gain, harvested by employing FD communication at a BS that serves HD users, as a function of the signal-to-interference-ratio when compared to an idealized HD interference and noise free BS operation.

  4. Differences between subjective experiences and observed behaviors in near-fatal suicide attempters with untreated schizophrenia: a qualitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Taiju; Fujii, Chiyo; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tsujino, Naohisa; Takeshi, Kiyoaki; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    In cases of untreated schizophrenia, the patients' entourage often does not recognize the psychotic symptoms of the patient and the possibility that the patient may attempt suicide. The aim of this study was to investigate the discrepancies between the subjective experiences and observed behaviors in near-fatal suicide attempters with untreated schizophrenia. A semi-structured interview was carried out with seven near-fatal suicide attempters with untreated schizophrenia to examine the subjective experiences at the time of the suicide attempt. The families of the patients were also interviewed to determine their recognition of the patients' psychotic symptoms and the suicidal ideation. The interview data were analyzed qualitatively. Six subjects were undergoing exacerbation of the psychotic symptoms at the time of exhibiting the suicide-related ideation. One subject had been in a prolonged depressive state before attempting suicide. Although all the patients experienced severe distress due to psychotic symptoms and depressive mood, they all exhibited only low level or no help-seeking behavior, and six of seven families had not recognized the change in the patient's mental condition. Appropriate information about schizophrenia should be provided to the general public so that any help-seeking by the patients with this disease is not overlooked. In addition, accessible early intervention services for psychosis should be established.

  5. Increasing Elementary School Students' Subjective Well-Being through a Classwide Positive Psychology Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Hearon, Brittany V.; Bander, Bryan; McCullough, Mollie; Garofano, Jeffrey; Roth, Rachel A.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in school-based programs to promote students' subjective well-being (SWB). Students with greater SWB tend to have stronger relationships with their teachers and classmates, as well as behave in more positive ways. Drawing from theory and research pertinent to promoting children's SWB, we developed an 11-session classwide…

  6. Dynamic Evaluation of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Subjected to High-Strain-Rate Compressive Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions 10 5. References 11 Distribution List 13 iv List of Figures Figure 1. ASTM D 638-03 dog bone...1. ASTM D 638-03 dog bone. When designing the specimen for tensile testing, it is important that the tensile specimen be built such that the...2006, 45 (1), 18–24. 8. Lee, W. S.; Lin, C. F. Plastic Deformation and Fracture Behaviour of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Loaded With High Strain Rate Under

  7. Clearance and synthesis rates of beta 2-microglobulin in patients undergoing hemodialysis and in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floege, J.; Bartsch, A.; Schulze, M.; Shaldon, S.; Koch, K.M.; Smeby, L.C. (Department of Nephrology, University Hospital of Hannover (Germany))

    1991-08-01

    Retention of {beta} 2-microglobulin in patients undergoing hemodialysis is associated with a {beta} 2-microglobulin-derived amyloidosis. Removal of {beta} 2-microglobulin by renal replacement therapy has been proposed for the prevention of this amyloidosis. Currently, however, data on the {beta} 2-microglobulin synthesis rate in patients undergoing hemodialysis are scarce, and consequently it remains speculative how much removal would be necessary to counterbalance synthesis. The plasma kinetics of iodine 131-labeled {beta} 2-microglobulin were therefore examined in 11 patients with anuria who were undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Five healthy persons served as controls. Kinetic modeling of the plasma curves showed that the data fitted a two-pool model (r2 greater than 0.96) consisting of a rapid 2 to 4 hour distribution phase followed by a less steep curve, described by the plasma (metabolic) clearance (Clp). Synthetic rates were calculated from Clp and the {beta} 2-microglobulin steady state plasma concentration (plus {beta} 2-microglobulin removal during hemodialysis in the case of high flux hemodialysis). The results showed a significantly higher Clp in normal controls as compared with patients undergoing hemodialysis (65.5 {plus minus} 12.8 ml/min (mean {plus minus} SD) versus 3.4 {plus minus} 0.7 ml/min). In contrast, the {beta} 2-microglobulin synthesis rate in the patient group (3.10 {plus minus} 0.79 mg/kg/day) was not significantly different from that of normal controls (2.40 {plus minus} 0.67 mg/kg/day), which was due to markedly elevated {beta} 2-microglobulin plasma concentrations in the patients (37.6 {plus minus} 14.1 mg/L vs 1.92 {plus minus} 0.27 mg/L). These findings suggest that the presence of end-stage renal disease does not have a significant impact on the beta 2-microglobulin generation rate.

  8. Effects of alcohol on subjective ratings of prospective and everyday memory deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Jonathan; Heffernan, Tom; Buchanan, Tom; Rodgers, Jacqui; Scholey, Andrew; Parrott, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that heavy alcohol use has a detrimental effect on retrospective memory. Less is known about the effect of alcohol on everyday memory. Methods: This study examined self-ratings of two aspects of memory performance: prospective memory (for example, forgetting to pass on a message) and everyday memory (measured by cognitive failures, such as telling someone a joke that you have told them before). To ensure anonymity and expand on the numbers of participants used i...

  9. High diving metabolic rate indicated by high-speed transit to depth in negatively buoyant long-finned pilot whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kagari; Sato, Katsufumi; Isojunno, Saana; Narazaki, Tomoko; Miller, Patrick J O

    2017-10-15

    To maximize foraging duration at depth, diving mammals are expected to use the lowest cost optimal speed during descent and ascent transit and to minimize the cost of transport by achieving neutral buoyancy. Here, we outfitted 18 deep-diving long-finned pilot whales with multi-sensor data loggers and found indications that their diving strategy is associated with higher costs than those of other deep-diving toothed whales. Theoretical models predict that optimal speed is proportional to (basal metabolic rate/drag)1/3 and therefore to body mass0.05 The transit speed of tagged animals (2.7±0.3 m s-1) was substantially higher than the optimal speed predicted from body mass (1.4-1.7 m s-1). According to the theoretical models, this choice of high transit speed, given a similar drag coefficient (median, 0.0035) to that in other cetaceans, indicated greater basal metabolic costs during diving than for other cetaceans. This could explain the comparatively short duration (8.9±1.5 min) of their deep dives (maximum depth, 444±85 m). Hydrodynamic gliding models indicated negative buoyancy of tissue body density (1038.8±1.6 kg m-3, ±95% credible interval, CI) and similar diving gas volume (34.6±0.6 ml kg-1, ±95% CI) to those in other deep-diving toothed whales. High diving metabolic rate and costly negative buoyancy imply a 'spend more, gain more' strategy of long-finned pilot whales, differing from that in other deep-diving toothed whales, which limits the costs of locomotion during foraging. We also found that net buoyancy affected the optimal speed: high transit speeds gradually decreased during ascent as the whales approached neutral buoyancy owing to gas expansion. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Recommendations for aerobic endurance training based on subjective ratings of perceived exertion in healthy seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Zahner, Lukas; Cordes, Mareike; Hanssen, Henner; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Aarno; Faude, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated physiological responses during 2-km walking at a certain intensity of a previously performed maximal exercise test where moderate perceived exertion was reported. Twenty seniors were examined by an incremental walking treadmill test to obtain maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). A submaximal 2-km walking test was applied 1 wk later. The corresponding moderate perceived exertion (4 on the CR-10 scale) during the VO2max test was applied to the 2-km treadmill test. Moderate exertion (mean rating of perceived exertion [RPE]: 4 ± 1) led to 76% ± 8% of VO2max and 79% ± 6% of maximal heart rate. RPE values drifted with a significant time effect (p = .001, η(p) = .58) during the 2-km test from 3 ± 0.7 to 4.6 ± 0.8. Total energy expenditure (EE) was 3.3 ± 0.5 kcal/kg. No gender differences in ventilatory, heart-rate, or EE data occurred. Brisk walking at moderate RPE of 3-5 would lead to a beneficial physiological response during endurance training and a weekly EE of nearly 1,200 kcal when exercising 5 times/wk for 30 min.

  11. Medical students' subjective ratings of stress levels and awareness of student support services about mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa Li-Wey; Norgren Jaconelli, Sanna; Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S; Hunt, Glenn

    2013-06-01

    To descriptively assess medical students' concerns for their mental and emotional state, perceived need to conceal mental problems, perceived level of support at university, knowledge and use of student support services, and experience of stresses of daily life. From March to September 2011, medical students at an Australian university were invited to complete an anonymous online survey. 475 responses were received. Students rated study and examinations (48.9%), financial concerns (38.1%), isolation (19.4%) and relationship concerns (19.2%) as very or extremely stressful issues. Knowledge of available support services was high, with 90.8% indicating they were aware of the university's medical centre. Treatment rates were modest (31.7%). Students' concerns about their mental state were generally low, but one in five strongly felt they needed to conceal their emotional problems. Despite widespread awareness of appropriate support services, a large proportion of students felt they needed to conceal mental and emotional problems. Overall treatment rates for students who were greatly concerned about their mental and emotional state appeared modest, and, although comparable with those of similarly aged community populations, may reflect undertreatment. It would be appropriate for universities to address stressors identified by students. Strategies for encouraging distressed students to obtain appropriate assessment and treatment should also be explored. Those students who do seek healthcare are most likely to see a primary care physician, suggesting an important screening role for these health professionals.

  12. Effects of environmental noise on cognitive (dys)functions in schizophrenia: A pilot within-subjects experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bernice; Peters, Emmanuelle; Ettinger, Ulrich; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive impairment, particularly in attention, memory and executive function domains, is commonly present and associated with poor functional outcomes in schizophrenia. In healthy adults, environmental noise adversely affects many cognitive domains, including those known to be compromised in schizophrenia. This pilot study examined whether environmental noise causes further cognitive deterioration in a small sample of people with schizophrenia. Eighteen outpatients with schizophrenia on stable doses of antipsychotics and 18 age and sex-matched healthy participants were assessed on a comprehensive cognitive battery including measures of psychomotor speed, attention, executive functioning, working memory, and verbal learning and memory under three different conditions [quiet: ~30dB(A); urban noise: building site noise, 68-78dB(A); and social noise: background babble and footsteps from a crowded hall without any discernible words, 68-78dB(A)], 7-14days apart, with counter-balanced presentation of noise conditions across participants of both groups. The results showed widespread cognitive impairment in patients under all conditions, and noise-induced impairments of equal magnitude on specific cognitive functions in both groups. Both patient and healthy participant groups showed significant disruption of delayed verbal recall and recognition by urban and social noise, and of working memory by social noise, relative to the quiet condition. Performance under urban and social noise did not differ significantly from each other for any cognitive measure in either group. We conclude that noise has adverse effects on the verbal and working memory domains in schizophrenia patients and healthy participants. This may be particularly problematic for patients as it worsens their pre-existing cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Entropy-rate clustering: cluster analysis via maximizing a submodular function subject to a matroid constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Yu; Tuzel, Oncel; Ramalingam, Srikumar; Chellappa, Rama

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new objective function for clustering. This objective function consists of two components: the entropy rate of a random walk on a graph and a balancing term. The entropy rate favors formation of compact and homogeneous clusters, while the balancing function encourages clusters with similar sizes and penalizes larger clusters that aggressively group samples. We present a novel graph construction for the graph associated with the data and show that this construction induces a matroid--a combinatorial structure that generalizes the concept of linear independence in vector spaces. The clustering result is given by the graph topology that maximizes the objective function under the matroid constraint. By exploiting the submodular and monotonic properties of the objective function, we develop an efficient greedy algorithm. Furthermore, we prove an approximation bound of (1/2) for the optimality of the greedy solution. We validate the proposed algorithm on various benchmarks and show its competitive performances with respect to popular clustering algorithms. We further apply it for the task of superpixel segmentation. Experiments on the Berkeley segmentation data set reveal its superior performances over the state-of-the-art superpixel segmentation algorithms in all the standard evaluation metrics.

  14. Subjective and objective parameters in the evaluation of radiofrequency ablation of the inferior turbinate do not correlate: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, Peter Valentin; Gerstenberger, Claus; Rant, Bettina; Nemetz, Ulrike; Brezjak-Kahlert, Christiana; Wolf, Axel; Freudenschuss, Kurt; Wolf, Gerald

    2016-08-01

    Inferior turbinate hypertrophy is a common cause of nasal obstruction. We conducted a prospective study to correlate subjective and objective parameters in assessing the effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Our initial study population was made up of 10 patients who presented with nasal obstruction; 1 patient was lost to follow-up, leaving us with 7 women and 2 men, aged 26 to 65 years (mean: 37.9 ± 12.8), and 16 turbinates (7 bilateral, 1 right, and 1 left). Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, Nasal Obstruction and Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) questionnaire scores, rhinomanometry results, and CT- and MRI-based volumetry were obtained before RFA and 6 months afterward. For the subjective parameters, the mean pre- and postoperative VAS scores for the 16 turbinates were 6.6 ± 1.6 and 2.8 ± 2.0 (p < 0.001), respectively, and the mean pre- and postoperative NOSE scores in the 9 patients were 15.3 ± 3.1 and 5.8 ± 5.4 (p = 0.003). For the objective parameters, the mean pre- and postoperative rhinomanometry values at 150 Pa were 241.0 ± 141.3 and 265.4 ± 157.3 ml/sec (p = 0.403), and the mean pre- and postoperative volumetry values were 5.3 ± 2.5 and 5.0 ± 2.1 cm(3) (p = 0.551). Note that only the differences in the subjective parameters reached statistical significance. RFA of the inferior turbinates as a treatment for nasal obstruction is safe and easy. However, our study found a discrepancy between the subjective and objective outcomes parameters, as the former showed highly significant improvement and the latter showed only a slight improvement that did not reach statistical significance.

  15. A high-fiber, low-fat diet improves periodontal disease markers in high-risk subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keiko; Ishikado, Atsushi; Morino, Katsutaro; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Ugi, Satoshi; Kajiwara, Sadae; Kurihara, Mika; Iwakawa, Hiromi; Nakao, Keiko; Uesaki, Syoko; Shigeta, Yasutami; Imanaka, Hiromichi; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Sekine, Osamu; Makino, Taketoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; King, George L; Kashiwagi, Atsunori

    2014-06-01

    Periodontal disease is related to aging, smoking habits, diabetes mellitus, and systemic inflammation. However, there remains limited evidence about causality from intervention studies. An effective diet for prevention of periodontal disease has not been well established. The current study was an intervention study examining the effects of a high-fiber, low-fat diet on periodontal disease markers in high-risk subjects. Forty-seven volunteers were interviewed for recruitment into the study. Twenty-one volunteers with a body mass index of at least 25.0 kg/m(2) or with impaired glucose tolerance were enrolled in the study. After a 2- to 3-week run-in period, subjects were provided with a test meal consisting of high fiber and low fat (30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight) 3 times a day for 8 weeks and followed by a regular diet for 24 weeks. Four hundred twenty-five teeth from 17 subjects were analyzed. Periodontal disease markers assessed as probing depth (2.28 vs 2.21 vs 2.13 mm; P fiber, low-fat diet for 8 weeks effectively improved periodontal disease markers as well as metabolic profiles, at least in part, by effects other than the reduction of total energy intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relation between food intake and visual analogue scale ratings of appetite and other sensations in healthy older and young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, B A; Sturm, K; MacIntosh, C G; Feinle, C; Horowitz, M; Chapman, I M

    2004-02-01

    Visual analogue scales are widely used in appetite research, yet the validity of these scales to evaluate appetite and mood has not been assessed in older subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the relations between food intake and visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of appetite and nonappetite sensations in healthy older and young subjects. Retrospective combined analysis of four single-blind, randomised, controlled appetite studies. All studies were conducted in the University of Adelaide, Department of Medicine, Adelaide, Australia. A total of 45 healthy young men (n=24) and women (n=21) aged 18-35 y and 45 healthy older men (n=24) and women (n=21) aged 65-85 y were recruited by advertisement. Oral, intraduodenal or intravenous administration of treatments which suppressed food intake were compared to control. Up to 90 min after treatment, a test meal was offered and subjects ate freely for between 30 and 60 min. Perceptions were assessed by 100-mm visual analogue scales administered at regular intervals. Food intake at the test meal was positively related to perceptions of hunger, drowsiness, and calmness at both baseline and premeal (r>0.16, P 0.2, P<0.05) in both older and young subjects. Food intake was related to VAS ratings at least as strongly, if not more so, in older as in young subjects. These observations (i) confirm that food intake is related to perceptions of hunger and fullness as assessed by VAS in healthy older and young subjects, and (ii) suggest that sensations, not obviously associated with appetite, including 'drowsiness' and 'calmness', are also associated with food intake.

  17. C-reactive protein, heart rate variability and prognosis in community subjects with no apparent heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, A; Nielsen, OW; Rasmussen, Verner

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Increased C-reactive protein (CRP) and reduced heart rate variability (HRV) both indicate poor prognosis. An inverse association between HRV and CRP has been reported, suggesting an interaction between inflammatory and autonomic systems. However, the prognostic impact...... of this interaction has not been studied. We thus investigated the prognostic impact of CRP, HRV and their combinations. DESIGN: Population-based study. SUBJECTS: A total of 638 middle-aged and elderly subjects with no apparent heart disease from community. METHODS: All were studied by clinical and laboratory...... of four HRV measures were significantly associated with increased rate of death or myocardial infarction. In a Cox model with CRP >or=2.5 microg mL(-1), standard deviation for the mean value of the time between normal complexes...

  18. Cortical atrophy rates in Alzheimer's patients and subjects with mild cognitive impairment from the AddNeuroMed data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Westman, Eric; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida

    Background: The AddNeuroMed project is a multi-centre European project which aims to identify biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we measured the rate of cortical atrophy in AD patients, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls (HC) using MRI. Methods......: High resolution sagittal 3D T1w MP-RAGE scans were acquired from patients diagnosed with AD (n = 58,MMSE:21.6 ± 4.4), MCI subjects (n = 85,MMSE:27.2 ± 1.6), and HC (n = 75,MMSE:29.0 ± 1.3) at baseline, and at three and 12 months follow-up. Only subjects with three completed scans which all passed...... rates can be found in AD patients compared to HC and MCI. Even three months after baseline accelerated atrophy can be observed in AD compared to HC, however, the results indicate that three months is too short a period to distinguish the atrophy rates in AD and MCI. The results suggest that atrophy...

  19. Acute Consumption of Resistant Starch Reduces Food Intake but Has No Effect on Appetite Ratings in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ble-Castillo, Jorge L; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A; García-Vázquez, Carlos; Servin-Cruz, Magda Z; Rodríguez-Hernández, Arturo; Araiza-Saldaña, Claudia I; Nolasco-Coleman, Ana M; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C

    2017-07-04

    Previous studies have shown the benefits of native banana starch (NBS) supplementation in improving glucose metabolism and reducing body weight (BW) in humans. However, the effect of this starch on appetite regulation is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of NBS rich resistant starch on subjective measurements of appetite, energy intake, and appetite hormones in healthy subjects. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were also assessed. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 28 healthy young subjects consumed a beverage containing either 40 g of NBS or 40 g of digestible corn starch (DCS) on two separate occasions. Effects on appetite were estimated using visual analogue scales (VAS) and satiety hormone responses. At the end of the intervention, participants were provided with a pre-weighed ad libitum homogeneous test meal. After a washout period of 1 week, subjects received the alternative treatment. NBS supplementation induced a reduction in food intake, glucose area under the curve (AUC)-180 min, and insulin AUC-180 min. However, there was no associated effect on the subjective appetite ratings or gut hormones. NBS supplementation may help to reduce meal size and control BW.

  20. Glucosamine-containing supplement improves locomotor functions in subjects with knee pain – a pilot study of gait analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanzaki N

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Noriyuki Kanzaki,1 Yuta Otsuka,1 Takayuki Izumo,1 Hiroshi Shibata,1 Hideyuki Nagao,2 Keita Ogawara,3 Hiroshi Yamada,3 Seiji Miyazaki,3 Yutaka Nakamura3 1Institute for Health Care Science, Suntory Wellness Ltd, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto, Japan; 2Research Institute of Sports Medical Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, Japan; 3School of Physical Education, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, Japan Background: Previously, we demonstrated that glucosamine-containing supplementation was effective for improving locomotor functions, especially walking speed. However, the biomechanical mechanism of efficacy has not been elucidated. This study aimed to address this challenge in subjects with knee pain, using a motion capture system. Methods: An open label study was conducted in 30 Japanese subjects with knee pain. The subjects were administered a daily supplement containing 1,200 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride, 60 mg of chondroitin sulfate, 45 mg of type II collagen peptides, 90 mg of quercetin glycosides, 10 mg of imidazole peptides, 1 mg of proteoglycan, and 5 µg of vitamin D (GCQID. The intervention continued for 16 weeks. Efficacy for locomotor functions involving the knee joint was evaluated mainly using the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM and the 5-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-5. To examine the biomechanical mechanism of efficacy for locomotor functions, motions of subjects in a normal walking state were captured. Gait analysis was conducted and efficacy for gait parameters such as normal walking speed, stride length, cadence, and angle of soles was evaluated. Results: GCQID significantly improved total scores on the JKOM and GLFS-5. In gait analysis, normal walking speed, stride length, and angle of soles at the end of the stance phase were all significantly increased, but cadence did not change significantly during the intervention period. There were significant intercorrelations of changes in

  1. Prospective Assessment of Nocturnal Awakenings in a Case Series of Treatment-Seeking Chronic Insomnia Patients: A Pilot Study of Subjective and Objective Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Barry; Romero, Edward; Ulibarri, Victor A.; Kikta, Shara

    2012-01-01

    assessment of nocturnal awakenings in a case series of treatment-seeking chronic insomnia patients: a pilot study of subjective and objective causes. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1685-1692. PMID:23204611

  2. Exploring glycosuria as a mechanism for weight and fat mass reduction. A pilot study with remogliflozin etabonate and sergliflozin etabonate in healthy obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Napolitano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 increase glucose excretion in the urine and improve blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glycosuria provides an energy and osmotic drain that could alter body composition. We therefore conducted a pilot study comparing the effects on body composition of two SGLT2 inhibitors, remogliflozin etabonate (RE 250 mg TID (n = 9 and sergliflozin etabonate (SE (1000 mg TID (n = 9, with placebo (n = 12 in obese non-diabetic subjects. Both drugs were well tolerated during 8 weeks of dosing, and the most common adverse event was headache. No urinary tract infections were observed, but there was one case of vaginal candidiasis in the RE group. As expected, RE and SE increased urine glucose excretion, with no change in the placebo group. All the subjects lost weight over 8 weeks, irrespective of treatment assignment. There was a reduction in TBW measured by D2O dilution in the RE group that was significantly greater than placebo (1.4 kg, p = 0.029. This was corroborated by calculation of fat-free mass using a quantitative magnetic resonance technique. All but one subject had a measurable decrease in fat mass. There was significant between-subject variability of weight and fat loss, and no statistically significant differences were observed between groups. Despite a lack of a difference in weight and fat mass loss, the leptin/adiponectin ratio, a measure of insulin resistance, was significantly decreased in the RE group when compared to placebo and SE, suggesting that this SGTL-2 inhibitor may improve metabolic health independent of a change in fat mass.

  3. Nickel free-diet enhances the Helicobacter pylori eradication rate: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanale, M; Nucera, E; Ojetti, V; Cesario, V; Di Rienzo, T A; D'Angelo, G; Pecere, S; Barbaro, F; Gigante, G; De Pasquale, T; Rizzi, A; Cammarota, G; Schiavino, D; Franceschi, F; Gasbarrini, A

    2014-08-01

    The Helicobacter pylori eradication rate with standard triple therapy is very low. H. pylori is known to require the nickel-containing metalloenzymes urease and NiFe-hydrogenase to survive at the low pH environment in the stomach. To compare the H. pylori eradication rate of a nickel free-diet associated with standard triple therapy and standard triple therapy alone as the first-line regimen. Fifty-two sex- and age-matched patients at the first diagnosis of H. pylori infection were randomized 1:1 into two different therapeutic schemes: (1) standard LCA (26 patients): lansoprazole 15 mg bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid and amoxicillin 1,000 mg bid for 7 days with a common diet; (2) standard LCA plus a nickel free-diet (NFD-LCA) (26 patients). Patients followed 30 days of a nickel-free diet plus a week of lansoprazole 15 mg bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid and amoxicillin 1,000 mg bid starting from day 15 of the diet. All patients completed the study. A significantly higher eradication rate was observed in the NFD-LCA group (22/26) versus LCA group (12/26) (p diet to standard triple therapy significantly increases the H. pylori eradication rate. The reduction of H. pylori urease activity due to the nickel-free diet could expose the bacterium to gastric acid and increase H. pylori's susceptibility to amoxicillin. Further studies are necessary to confirm this preliminary result.

  4. Pilot study of parathyroid glands in adult and pediatric subjects exposed to ionizing radiation after the ChNPP accident, methodology of parathyroid diagnostic ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminskyi, O V; Kopylova, O V; Afanasyev, D Ye; Mazurenko, O V; Berezovskyi, S Ya

    2017-12-01

    Estimation of the parathyroid hyperplasia prevalence after the ChNPP accident in adults exposed to ion izing radiation and their descendants using the diagnostic ultrasound and its methodology elaboration. The pilot prospective study of the prevalence of parathyroid hyperplasia among the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident adult survivors (n=686) and their descendants (54 children) was performed using diagnostic ultrasound examination of thyroid and parathyroids. Among the study subjects there were 339 ChNPP accident clean up workers (ACUW), 32 persons were evacuated from the 30 km exclusion zone and 224 ones were included to the control group. Diagnostic ultrasound of thyroid and parathyroids was performed according to the standard method. Additionally, in children with parathyroid hyperplasia an additional assay of 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels in serum was performed. In calculating the statistical significance, its level p Parathyroids are a few small but critically important endocrine glands that synthesize parathyroid hormone, regulating mainly phosphoric calcium metabolism. Insufficient (hypoparathyroidism) or excessive (hyperparathy roidism) function of parathyroids is harmful to the patients affecting the state of nervous and cardiovascular sys tem. Parathyroidss can accumulate isotopes of cesium, strontium and radioactive iodine. The available data testify to an increased incidence of clinically significant hyperplasia of parthyroids (more than 9 mm in adults and more than 5 mm in children) among persons exposed toionizng radiation as a result of the accident at the ChNPP (28.64%) and their descendants (23.8-70.6%). First of all are concerned those adults who live in contaminated areas in comparison with the control group (24.15% in not irradiated). Evacuees from the 30 km exclusion zone being the category of people who were exposed to the absorbed iodine isotopes in the first days of the Chernobyl accident are the another risk group. These data

  5. Heart rate, anxiety and performance of residents during a simulated critical clinical encounter: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Samuel; Horeczko, Timothy; Cotton, Dale; Bair, Aaron

    2014-07-27

    High-fidelity patient simulation has been praised for its ability to recreate lifelike training conditions. The degree to which high fidelity simulation elicits acute emotional and physiologic stress among participants - and the influence of acute stress on clinical performance in the simulation setting - remain areas of active exploration. We examined the relationship between residents' self-reported anxiety and a proxy of physiologic stress (heart rate) as well as their clinical performance in a simulation exam using a validated assessment of non-technical skills, the Ottawa Crisis Resource Management Global Rating Scale (Ottawa GRS). This was a prospective observational cohort study of emergency medicine residents at a single academic center. Participants managed a simulated clinical encounter. Anxiety was assessed using a pre- and post-simulation survey, and continuous cardiac monitoring was performed on each participant during the scenario. Performance in the simulation scenario was graded by faculty raters using a critical actions checklist and the Ottawa GRS instrument. Data collection occurred during the 2011 academic year. Of 40 eligible residents, 34 were included in the analysis. The median baseline heart rate for participants was 70 beats per minute (IQR: 62 - 78). During the simulation, the median maximum heart rate was 140 beats per minute (IQR: 137 - 151). The median minimum heart rate during simulation was 81 beats per minute (IQR: 72 - 92), and mean heart rate was 117 beats per minute (95% CI: 111 - 123). Pre- and post-simulation anxiety scores were equal (mean 3.3, IQR: 3 to 4). The minimum and maximum Overall Ottawa GRS scores were 2.33 and 6.67, respectively. The median Overall score was 5.63 (IQR: 5.0 to 6.0). Of the candidate predictors of Overall performance in a multivariate logistic regression model, only PGY status showed statistical significance (P = 0.02). Simulation is associated with physiologic stress, and heart rate elevation alone

  6. Prolonged release melatonin for improving sleep in totally blind subjects: a pilot placebo-controlled multicenter trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Roth,1 Tali Nir,2 Nava Zisapel2,3 1Henry Ford Sleep Disorders Center, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Neurim Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Tel Aviv, Israel; 3Department of Neurobiology Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Introduction: Melatonin, secreted by the pineal gland during the night phase, is a regulator of the biological clock and sleep tendency. Totally blind subjects frequently report severe, periodic sleep problems, with 50%–75% of cases displaying non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder (N24HSWD due to inability to synchronize with the environmental day–night cycle. Melatonin immediate-release preparations are reportedly effective in N24HSWD. Here, we studied the efficacy and safety of prolonged-release melatonin (PRM, a registered drug for insomnia, for sleep disorders in totally blind subjects living in normal social environments. The primary endpoint was demonstration of clinically meaningful effects on sleep duration (upper confidence interval [CI] limit >20 minutes whether significant or not to allow early decision-making on further drug development in this indication. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov registry – NCT00972075. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled proof-of-principle study, 13 totally blind subjects had 2 weeks' placebo run-in, 6 weeks' randomized (1:1 PRM (Circadin® or placebo nightly, and 2 weeks' placebo run-out. Outcome measures included daily voice recorded sleep diary, Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC, WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5, and safety. Results: Mean nightly sleep duration improved by 43 minutes in the PRM and 16 minutes in the placebo group (mean difference: 27 minutes, 95% CI: -14.4 to 69 minutes; P=0.18; effect size: 0.82 meeting the primary endpoint. Mean sleep latency decreased by 29 minutes with PRM over placebo (P=0.13; effect size: 0.92 and nap duration decreased in the PRM but not placebo group. The variability in sleep onset/offset and

  7. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Hansen, Ole Hyldegaard; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack

    2011-01-01

    Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO...

  8. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady...... of the present study confirmed previously indicated trends that lowest human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation close to neutrality. Moreover, higher acceptability was in general associated with lower human body exergy consumption rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......-state thermal environments. Therefore, the first objective of the current paper was to compare a recently introduced unsteady-state model with previously used steady-state model using data obtained under both constant and transient temperature conditions. The second objective was to explore a relationship...

  9. Predicting self-rated mental and physical health: the contributions of subjective socioeconomic status and personal relative deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Mitchell J; Kim, Hyunji; Matthews, William J

    2015-01-01

    Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD) relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people's perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others) and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints). Across six studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES), with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4-6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability) or response biases between the measures.

  10. Effect of a high bicarbonate mineral water on fasting and postprandial lipemia in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zair, Yassine; Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Housez, Beatrice; Pichelin, Mathieu; Cazaubiel, Murielle; Raoux, François; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2013-07-18

    During postprandial state, TG concentration is increasing and HDL cholesterol decreasing, leading to a transitory pro-atherosclerotic profile. Previous studies have reported that bicarbonate water improve postprandial lipemia. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of a strongly bicarbonated mineral water on lipoprotein levels during fasting and postprandial state. A controlled, randomised, double-blind cross-over design was conducted in 12 moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects after a daily ingestion of 1.25 L of mineral (SY) or low mineral water during eight weeks separated by a one week wash-out period. Blood samples were collected in first visit to the hospital (V1) before water consumption (referent or SY) and in a second visit (V2) after eight week water consumption period. The effect of the consumed water was studied in fasting and in postprandial state during ingestion of a meal and 0.5 L of water. Comparison of data between V1 and V2 after SY consumption showed a significant decrease in triglyceridemia (23%), VLDL TG (31%) and tendency to a decrease of VLDL cholesterol (p = 0.066) at fasting state. Whatever the consumed water during postprandial state, the measurement of total areas under curves did not show a significant difference. No difference was observed between SY and referent water consumption for measured parameters at fasting and postprandial state. When subjects consumed SY we showed a decrease of their basal TG and VLDLTG. The unexpected absence of effect of high mineralized water on postprandial lipemia, probably related to experimental conditions, is discussed in the discussion section.

  11. Features of manifestation and progression for critical lower limb ischemia in subjects with abdominal aortic calcification: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zelinskiy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study was designed to assess the specific features of manifestation and progression for critical low limb ischemia in patients with abdominal aortic calcification. Methods. The total of 151 patients with low limb critical ischemia due to peripheral arterial disease were enrolled to the study cohort: 79 patients (study group with abdominal aortic calcification and 72 patients (control group without any signs of abdominal aortic wall calcification. Abdominal aortic calcification was detected by CT-imaging. The patients with diabetes mellitus and with chronic renal insufficiency were excluded from the study cohort. Results. Critical lower limb ischemia in subjects with abdominal aortic calcification manifested itself in the following features: predominant localization of lesions in the aorto-iliac position (68.4% vs. 33.3% in patients without abdominal aortic calcification; р<0.05, rapid progression of lower limb ischemia (its prevalence in the study group was 77.7% vs. 37.3% in the control group; р<0.01, expressed hypercoagulation combined with a decrease in the level of natural anticoagulants concentration (mean activity of antithrombin III in individuals with abdominal aortic calcification was 56.5±10.4% vs. 98.7±16.4% in patients without abdominal aortic calcification; р<0.001. Conclusion. The study findings have shown that critical lower limb ischemia in subjects with abdominal aortic calcification has specific futures of manifestation and clinical course that need to be considered when choosing the best treatment strategy.Received 24 April 2017. Revised 7 June 2017. Accepted 19 June 2017.Funding: The study did not have sponsorship.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  12. Meditation and Music Improve Memory and Cognitive Function in Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Khalsa, Dharma Singh; Kandati, Sahiti

    2017-01-01

    While effective therapies for preventing or slowing cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive, evidence suggests mind-body interventions may hold promise. In this study, we assessed the effects of Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) and music listening (ML) on cognitive outcomes in adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a strong predictor of Alzheimer's disease. Sixty participants with SCD were randomized to a KK or ML program and asked to practice 12 minutes/day for 3 months, then at their discretion for the ensuing 3 months. At baseline, 3 months, and 6 months we measured memory and cognitive functioning [Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ), Trail-making Test (TMT-A/B), and Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)]. The 6-month study was completed by 53 participants (88%). Participants performed an average of 93% (91% KK, 94% ML) of sessions in the first 3 months, and 71% (68% KK, 74% ML) during the 3-month, practice-optional, follow-up period. Both groups showed marked and significant improvements at 3 months in memory and cognitive performance (MFQ, DSST, TMT-A/B; p's≤0.04). At 6 months, overall gains were maintained or improved (p's≤0.006), with effect sizes ranging from medium (DSST, ML group) to large (DSST, KK group; TMT-A/B, MFQ). Changes were unrelated to treatment expectancies and did not differ by age, gender, baseline cognition scores, or other factors. Findings of this preliminary randomized controlled trial suggest practice of meditation or ML can significantly enhance both subjective memory function and objective cognitive performance in adults with SCD, and may offer promise for improving outcomes in this population.

  13. Relationship Between Pretraining Subjective Wellness Measures, Player Load, and Rating-of-Perceived-Exertion Training Load in American College Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govus, Andrew D; Coutts, Aaron; Duffield, Rob; Murray, Andrew; Fullagar, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between pretraining subjective wellness and external and internal training load in American college football is unclear. To examine the relationship of pretraining subjective wellness (sleep quality, muscle soreness, energy, wellness Z score) with player load and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE-TL) in American college football players. Subjective wellness (measured using 5-point, Likert-scale questionnaires), external load (derived from GPS and accelerometry), and s-RPE-TL were collected during 3 typical training sessions per week for the second half of an American college football season (8 wk). The relationship of pretraining subjective wellness with player load and s-RPE training load was analyzed using linear mixed models with a random intercept for athlete and a random slope for training session. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) denote the effect magnitude. A 1-unit increase in wellness Z score and energy was associated with trivial 2.3% (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.5, 4.2; SMD 0.12) and 2.6% (90% CI 0.1, 5.2; SMD 0.13) increases in player load, respectively. A 1-unit increase in muscle soreness (players felt less sore) corresponded to a trivial 4.4% (90% CI -8.4, -0.3; SMD -0.05) decrease in s-RPE training load. Measuring pretraining subjective wellness may provide information about players' capacity to perform in a training session and could be a key determinant of their response to the imposed training demands American college football. Hence, monitoring subjective wellness may aid in the individualization of training prescription in American college football players.

  14. The Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS): Ratings of Dominance, Familiarity, Subjective Age of Acquisition and Sensory Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, José A; Rincón-Pérez, Irene; Romero-Ferreiro, M Verónica; Martínez-García, Natalia; Villalba-García, Cristina; Montoro, Pedro R; Pozo, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    The current study presents ratings by 540 Spanish native speakers for dominance, familiarity, subjective age of acquisition (AoA), and sensory experience (SER) for the 875 Spanish words included in the Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS). The norms can be downloaded as supplementary materials for this manuscript from https://figshare.com/s/8e7b445b729527262c88 These ratings may be of potential relevance to researches who are interested in characterizing the interplay between language and emotion. Additionally, with the aim of investigating how the affective features interact with the lexicosemantic properties of words, we performed correlational analyses between norms for familiarity, subjective AoA and SER, and scores for those affective variables which are currently included in the MADs. A distinct pattern of significant correlations with affective features was found for different lexicosemantic variables. These results show that familiarity, subjective AoA and SERs may have independent effects on the processing of emotional words. They also suggest that these psycholinguistic variables should be fully considered when formulating theoretical approaches to the processing of affective language.

  15. Physical activity, heart rate variability-based stress and recovery, and subjective stress during a 9-month study period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föhr, T; Tolvanen, A; Myllymäki, T; Järvelä-Reijonen, E; Peuhkuri, K; Rantala, S; Kolehmainen, M; Korpela, R; Lappalainen, R; Ermes, M; Puttonen, S; Rusko, H; Kujala, U M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) and objective heart rate variability (HRV)-based stress and recovery with subjective stress in a longitudinal setting. Working-age participants (n = 221; 185 women, 36 men) were overweight (body mass index, 25.3-40.1 kg/m(2) ) and psychologically distressed (≥3/12 points on the General Health Questionnaire). Objective stress and recovery were based on HRV recordings over 1-3 work days. Subjective stress was assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale and PA level with a questionnaire. Data were collected at three time points: baseline, 10 weeks post intervention, and at the 36-week follow-up. We adopted a latent growth model to investigate the initial level and change in PA, objective stress and recovery, and subjective stress at the three measurement time points. The results showed that initial levels of PA (P stress (P = 0.001) and recovery (P stress. The results persisted after adjustment for intervention group. The present results suggest that high PA and objectively assessed low stress and good recovery have positive effects on changes in subjective stress in the long-term. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Exploring the relationship between analgesic event rate and pain intensity in kidney stone surgery: A Repeated Time to Event Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Christrup, Lona Louring

    III-60 Rasmus Juul Exploring the relationship between analgesic event rate and pain intensity in kidney stone surgery: A Repeated Time to Event Pilot Study RV Juul(1), KV Pedersen(2, 4), LL Christrup(1), AE Olesen(1, 3), AM Drewes(3), PJS Osther(4), TM Lund(1) 1) Department of Drug Design...... a relationship with pain intensity has not yet been established. The aim of this pilot study was to discuss how best to investigate the relationship between RTTE hazard of analgesic events and pain intensity in postoperative pain. Methods: Data was available from 44 patients undergoing kidney stone surgery...

  17. Heart rate variability during treatment of breakthrough pain in patients with advanced cancer: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masel EK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eva Katharina Masel, Patrick Huber, Tobias Engler, Herbert Hans WatzkeClinical Division of Palliative Care, Department of Internal Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Background: Decisions on the intensity of analgesic therapy and judgments regarding its efficacy are difficult at the end of life, when many patients are not fully conscious and pain is a very common symptom. In healthy individuals and in postoperative settings, nociception and subsequent pain relief have been shown to induce changes in the autonomic nervous system (ANS, which can be detected by measuring heart rate variability (HRV. Objectives: The changes in the ANS were studied by measuring HRV during opioid therapy for cancer breakthrough pain (CBTP in palliative-care patients with cancer and compared these changes with patient-reported pain levels on a numeric rating scale (NRS. Patients and methods: The study included ten patients with advanced cancer and baseline opioid therapy. In each patient, a 24-hour peak-to-peak HRV measurement with a sampling rate of 4,000 Hz was performed. High frequency (HF, low frequency (LF, total power, pNN50 (indicating parasympathetic activity, and log LF/HF were obtained in two intervals prior to therapy and in four intervals thereafter. Intensity of CBTP was recorded using a patient-reported NRS prior to therapy and 30 minutes afterward. Results: CBTP occurred in seven patients (three males and four females; mean age: 62 ± 5.2 years and was treated with opioids. A highly significant positive correlation was found between opioid-induced reduction in patient-reported pain intensity based on NRS and changes in log LF/HF (r > 0.700; p < 0.05. Log LF/HF decreased in patients who had a reduction in pain of >2 points on the NRS but remained unchanged in the other patients. Conclusion: Our data suggest that log LF/HF may be a useful surrogate marker for alleviation of CBTP in patients with advanced cancer and might

  18. Verification of energy dissipation rate scalability in pilot and production scale bioreactors using computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris; Natarajan, Venkatesh; Antoniou, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Suspension mammalian cell cultures in aerated stirred tank bioreactors are widely used in the production of monoclonal antibodies. Given that production scale cell culture operations are typically performed in very large bioreactors (≥ 10,000 L), bioreactor scale-down and scale-up become crucial in the development of robust cell-culture processes. For successful scale-up and scale-down of cell culture operations, it is important to understand the scale-dependence of the distribution of the energy dissipation rates in a bioreactor. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations can provide an additional layer of depth to bioreactor scalability analysis. In this communication, we use CFD analyses of five bioreactor configurations to evaluate energy dissipation rates and Kolmogorov length scale distributions at various scales. The results show that hydrodynamic scalability is achievable as long as major design features (# of baffles, impellers) remain consistent across the scales. Finally, in all configurations, the mean Kolmogorov length scale is substantially higher than the average cell size, indicating that catastrophic cell damage due to mechanical agitation is highly unlikely at all scales. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Exploring the impact of feedback on prescribing error rates: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Michael; Watmough, Simon David; O'Brien, Sarah Victoria; Hardy, Kevin; Furlong, Niall

    2017-10-01

    Background Prescribing errors are prevalent in hospital settings with feedback identified as one potential error reduction strategy. Hospital pharmacists work alongside prescribers at ward level and are credible facilitators of prescribing error feedback. A formalised programme of pharmacist-led prescribing error feedback was designed and implemented Objective To determine the impact of the feedback intervention on prescribing error rates. Method Prospective prescribing audits were undertaken at baseline for control (n = 11) and intervention group (n = 10) prescribers. The intervention group received pharmacist-led, individualised constructive feedback on their prescribing, whilst the control group continued with existing practice. Prescribing was re-audited following 3-months of the intervention. Data were analysed using chi-squared and independent t-tests. Results Error frequency (123/641 intervention and 121/649 control) was comparable between groups at baseline (p = 0.819) with significant differences (90/1677 intervention and 236/984 control) post intervention (p = <0.005). Prescribing error rates were lower in the intervention group (mean change of -11.5%) and higher in the control group (mean change of +5.9%) following the intervention, with a mean significant difference of 17.4% (SD 4.7, 95% CI, -27.3 to -7.6), t = -3.694, p < 0.05, between groups. Conclusion Pharmacist-led prescribing error feedback positively influences prescribing. This intervention shows promise for wider application in hospital settings to optimise patient safety.

  20. Crash and traffic violation rates before and after licensure for novice California drivers subject to different driver licensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Eric A; Masten, Scott V; Browning, Kelly K

    2014-09-01

    How do crash and traffic violation rates for novice 16-17-year-old drivers change over the months before and after licensure under a graduated driver licensing (GDL) program relative to those for older novices who are not subject to GDL? Plots and Poisson regression comparing overall rates and subtypes of crashes and traffic violations among California novice drivers ages 16 to 35 years over time before and after unsupervised licensure. Majorities of 16-year-olds (57%) and 17-year-olds (73%) actually hold their learner permits longer than the required 6 months; majorities (67%-81%) of age 18 or older novices hold their learner permits less than 6 months. Crash rates of novice 16- and 17-year-olds-as well as most other age groups-are highest almost immediately after they are licensed to drive unsupervised, after which their rates decline quickly during their first year of licensure and at a slower rate for the second and third years. Novice 16- and 17-year-olds' traffic violation rates reach their zenith long after their total crash rates peak and decline, whereas violation rates for older novices peak during their first year of licensure. Over 70% of 16- and 17-year-old novices are crash-free for the first 3 years of licensure. While novice 16- and 17-year-olds' highest crash rates occur almost immediately after they are licensed, their peak traffic violation rates are delayed until around the time they turn age 18. Both pre-licensure crash rates and post-licensure crash peaks were more pronounced for some older age groups of novices than was the case for 16-17-year-olds. Extending learner permit holding periods for 16-17-year-old novices appears consistent with their actual behavior; requiring older novices-particularly those ages 18 to 20-to hold permits for minimum periods may reduce their initial crash rates. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood oxygenation, perfusion index, skin conductance, and their variability induced during and after grounding human subjects for 40 minutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Gaetan

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that grounding produces quantifiable physiologic changes. This study was set up to reproduce and expand earlier electrophysiologic and physiologic parameters measured immediately after grounding with improved methodology and state-of-the-art equipment. A multiparameter double-blind experiment was conducted with 14 men and 14 women (age range: 18-80) in relatively good health. Subjects were screened for health problems using a commonly used health questionnaire. They were seated in a comfortable recliner and measured during 2-hour grounding sessions, leaving time for signals to stabilize before, during, and after grounding (40 minutes for each period). Sham 2-hour grounding sessions were also recorded with the same subjects as controls. This report presents results for 5 of the 18 parameters measured. The parameters reported here are: skin conductance (SC), blood oxygenation (BO), respiratory rate (RR), pulse rate (PR), and perfusion index (PI). This study was performed in a rented facility in Encinitas, California. The facility was chosen in a quiet area for its very low electromagnetic noise. For each session, statistical analyses were performed on four 10-minute segments: before and after grounding (sham grounding for control session) and before and after ungrounding (sham ungrounding). There was an immediate decrease in SC at grounding and an immediate increase at ungrounding on all subjects. RR increased during grounding, and the effect lasted after ungrounding. RR variance increased immediately after grounding then decreased. BO variance decreased during grounding, followed by a dramatic increase after ungrounding. PR and PI variances increased toward the end of the grounding period, and this change persisted after ungrounding. These results warrant further research to determine how grounding affects the body. Grounding could become important for relaxation, health maintenance and disease prevention.

  2. Characterization of size-specific particulate matter emission rates for a simulated medical laser procedure--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ramon; Lacey, Steven E; Lippert, Julia F; Liu, Li C; Esmen, Nurtan A; Conroy, Lorraine M

    2015-05-01

    Prior investigation on medical laser interaction with tissue has suggested device operational parameter settings influence laser generated air contaminant emission, but this has not been systematically explored. A laboratory-based simulated medical laser procedure was designed and pilot tested to determine the effect of laser operational parameters on the size-specific mass emission rate of laser generated particulate matter. Porcine tissue was lased in an emission chamber using two medical laser systems (CO2, λ = 10,600 nm; Ho:YAG, λ = 2100 nm) in a fractional factorial study design by varying three operational parameters (beam diameter, pulse repetition frequency, and power) between two levels (high and low) and the resultant plume was measured using two real-time size-selective particle counters. Particle count concentrations were converted to mass emission rates before an analysis of variance was used to determine the influence of operational parameter settings on size-specific mass emission rate. Particle shape and diameter were described for a limited number of samples by collecting particles on polycarbonate filters, and photographed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to examine method of particle formation. An increase in power and decrease in beam diameter led to an increase in mass emission for the Ho:YAG laser at all size ranges. For the CO2 laser, emission rates were dependent on particle size and were not statistically significant for particle ranges between 5 and 10 µm. When any parameter level was increased, emission rate of the smallest particle size range also increased. Beam diameter was the most influential variable for both lasers, and the operational parameters tested explained the most variability at the smallest particle size range. Particle shape was variable and some particles observed by SEM were likely created from mechanical methods. This study provides a foundation for future investigations to better estimate size

  3. Exposure assessment and heart rate variability monitoring in workers handling titanium dioxide particles: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Sahoko; Li, Weihua; Omura, Seiichi; Fujitani, Yuji; Liu, Ying; Wang, Qiangyi; Hiraku, Yusuke; Hisanaga, Naomi; Wakai, Kenji; Ding, Xuncheng; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Ichihara, Gaku

    2016-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are used for surface coating and in a variety of products such as inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. The present study investigated possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects of TiO2 particles in workers exposed to this particle at high concentration in a factory in China. The diameter of particles collected on filters was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Real-time size-dependent particle number concentration was monitored in the nostrils of four workers using condensation particle counter and optical particle counter. Electrocardiogram was recorded using Holter monitors for the same four workers to record heart rate variability. Sixteen workers underwent assessment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Mass-based individual exposure levels were also measured with personal cascade impactors. The primary particle diameter ranged from 46 to 562 nm. Analysis of covariance of the pooled data of the four workers showed that number of particles with a diameter affect HRV in workers handling TiO2 particles. The results highlight the need to investigate the possible impact of exposure to nano-scaled particles on the autonomic nervous system.

  4. Resting Metabolic Rate Does Not Change in Response to Different Types of Training in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Karstoft

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectivesAmbiguous results have been reported regarding the effects of training on resting metabolic rate (RMR, and the importance of training type and intensity is unclear. Moreover, studies in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D are sparse. In this study, we evaluated the effects of interval and continuous training on RMR in subjects with T2D. Furthermore, we explored the determinants for training-induced alterations in RMR.MethodsData from two studies, both including T2D subjects, were encompassed in this manuscript. Study 1 was a randomized, crossover study where subjects (n = 14 completed three, 2-week interventions [control, continuous walking training (CWT, interval-walking training (IWT] separated by washout periods. Training included 10 supervised treadmill sessions, 60 min/session. CWT was performed at moderate walking speed [aiming for 73% of walking peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak], while IWT was performed as alternating 3-min repetitions at slow (54% VO2peak and fast (89% VO2peak walking speed. Study 2 was a single-arm training intervention study where subjects (n = 23 were prescribed 12 weeks of free-living IWT (at least 3 sessions/week, 30 min/session. Before and after interventions, RMR, physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control parameters were assessed.ResultsNo overall intervention-induced changes in RMR were seen across the studies, but considerable inter-individual differences in RMR changes were seen in Study 2. At baseline, total body mass (TBM, fat-free mass (FFM, and fat mass were all associated with RMR. Changes in RMR were associated with changes in TBM and fat mass, and subjects who decreased body mass and fat mass also decreased their RMR. No associations were seen between changes in physical fitness, glycemic control, or FFM and changes in RMR.ConclusionNeither short-term continuous or interval-type training, nor longer term interval training affects RMR in subjects with T2D

  5. Resting Metabolic Rate Does Not Change in Response to Different Types of Training in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Brinkløv, Cecilie Fau; Thorsen, Ida Kær; Nielsen, Jens Steen; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Ambiguous results have been reported regarding the effects of training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), and the importance of training type and intensity is unclear. Moreover, studies in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are sparse. In this study, we evaluated the effects of interval and continuous training on RMR in subjects with T2D. Furthermore, we explored the determinants for training-induced alterations in RMR. Data from two studies, both including T2D subjects, were encompassed in this manuscript. Study 1 was a randomized, crossover study where subjects (n = 14) completed three, 2-week interventions [control, continuous walking training (CWT), interval-walking training (IWT)] separated by washout periods. Training included 10 supervised treadmill sessions, 60 min/session. CWT was performed at moderate walking speed [aiming for 73% of walking peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak)], while IWT was performed as alternating 3-min repetitions at slow (54% VO2peak) and fast (89% VO2peak) walking speed. Study 2 was a single-arm training intervention study where subjects (n = 23) were prescribed 12 weeks of free-living IWT (at least 3 sessions/week, 30 min/session). Before and after interventions, RMR, physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control parameters were assessed. No overall intervention-induced changes in RMR were seen across the studies, but considerable inter-individual differences in RMR changes were seen in Study 2. At baseline, total body mass (TBM), fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass were all associated with RMR. Changes in RMR were associated with changes in TBM and fat mass, and subjects who decreased body mass and fat mass also decreased their RMR. No associations were seen between changes in physical fitness, glycemic control, or FFM and changes in RMR. Neither short-term continuous or interval-type training, nor longer term interval training affects RMR in subjects with T2D when no overall changes in body composition are seen

  6. Rate of hexabromocyclododecane decomposition and production of brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during combustion in a pilot-scale incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yuichi; Tokumura, Masahiro; Wang, Qi; Amagai, Takashi; Horii, Yuichi

    2017-11-01

    Here, we examined the incineration of extruded polystyrene containing hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a pilot-scale incinerator under various combustion temperatures (800-950°C) and flue gas residence times (2-8sec). Rates of HBCD decomposition ranged from 99.996% (800°C, 2sec) to 99.9999% (950°C, 8sec); the decomposition of HBCD, except during the initial stage of combustion (flue gas residence timecombustion were 14.2kJ/mol and 1.69sec-1, respectively. During combustion, 11 brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (BrPAHs) were detected as unintentional by-products. Of the 11 BrPAHs detected, 2-bromoanthracene and 1-bromopyrene were detected at the highest concentrations. The mutagenic and carcinogenic BrPAHs 1,5-dibromoanthracene and 1-bromopyrene were most frequently detected in the flue gases analyzed. The total concentration of BrPAHs exponentially increased (range, 87.8-2,040,000ng/m3) with increasing flue gas residence time. Results from a qualitative analysis using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry suggest that bromofluorene and bromopyrene (or fluoranthene) congeners were also produced during the combustion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo A. Bisschoff, Ben Coetzee, Michael R. Esco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV, and heart rate recovery (HRR are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match, during (in-match, after (post-match and during rest periods (in-match rest of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014 was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626 and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085 and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258 for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  8. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschoff, Christo A; Coetzee, Ben; Esco, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV), and heart rate recovery (HRR) are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states) for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match), during (in-match), after (post-match) and during rest periods (in-match rest) of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014) was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626) and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085) and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258) for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  9. Exposure assessment and heart rate variability monitoring in workers handling titanium dioxide particles: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichihara, Sahoko [Mie University, Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies (Japan); Li, Weihua [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Omura, Seiichi [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Fujitani, Yuji [National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Liu, Ying; Wang, Qiangyi [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Hiraku, Yusuke [Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine (Japan); Hisanaga, Naomi [Aichi Gakusen University, Faculty of Human Science and Design (Japan); Wakai, Kenji [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine (Japan); Ding, Xuncheng [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Kobayashi, Takahiro, E-mail: takakoba@airies.or.jp [Association for International Research Initiatives for Environmental Studies (Japan); Ichihara, Gaku, E-mail: gak@rs.tus.ac.jp [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) particles are used for surface coating and in a variety of products such as inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. The present study investigated possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects of TiO{sub 2} particles in workers exposed to this particle at high concentration in a factory in China. The diameter of particles collected on filters was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Real-time size-dependent particle number concentration was monitored in the nostrils of four workers using condensation particle counter and optical particle counter. Electrocardiogram was recorded using Holter monitors for the same four workers to record heart rate variability. Sixteen workers underwent assessment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Mass-based individual exposure levels were also measured with personal cascade impactors. The primary particle diameter ranged from 46 to 562 nm. Analysis of covariance of the pooled data of the four workers showed that number of particles with a diameter <300 nm was associated positively with total number of N–N and negatively with total number of increase or decrease in successive RR intervals greater than 50 ms (RR50+/−) or percentage of RR 50+/− that were parameters of parasympathetic function. The total mass concentration was 9.58–30.8 mg/m{sup 3} during work, but significantly less before work (0.36 mg/m{sup 3}). The clear abnormality in respiratory function was not observed in sixteen workers who had worked for 10 months to 13 years in the factory. The study showed that exposure to particles with a diameter <300 nm might affect HRV in workers handling TiO{sub 2} particles. The results highlight the need to investigate the possible impact of exposure to nano-scaled particles on the autonomic nervous system.

  10. Relationship between heart rate variability, blood pressure and arterial wall properties during air and oxygen breathing in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Beata; Szyndler, Anna; Czechowicz, Krzysztof; Kucharska, Wiesława; Graff, Grzegorz; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Laurent, Stephane; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies reported that normobaric hyperoxia influences heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are still not fully understood. Several factors are considered including degeneration of endothelium-derived nitric oxide by reactive oxygen species, the impact of oxygen-free radicals on tissues and alterations of autonomic nervous system function. Recently, new devices for the detailed non-invasive assessment of large and small arteries have been developed. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess heart rate variability (HRV) as a potential indicator of autonomic balance and its relation to blood pressure and vascular properties during medical air (MAB) and 100% oxygen breathing (OXB) in healthy volunteers. In 12 healthy subjects we assessed heart rate and blood pressure variability, baroreflex sensitivity, respiratory frequency, common carotid artery diameter and its wall distensibility, as well as changes in the digital artery pulse waveform, stroke index and systemic vascular resistance during MAB and OXB. Mean and systolic blood pressure have increased significantly while digital pulse amplitude and carotid artery diameter were significantly lower during hyperoxia. Heart rate variability measures did not differ during MAB and OXB. However, the correlations between spectral HRV components and those hemodynamic parameters which have changed due to hyperoxia varied substantially during MAB (correlated significantly) and OXB (no significant correlations were noted). Our findings suggest that autonomic nervous system might not be the main mediator of the cardiovascular changes during 100% oxygen breathing in healthy subjects. It seems that the direct vascular responses are initial consequences of hyperoxia and other cardiovascular parameter alterations are secondary to them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Salivary cortisol, heart rate, electrodermal activity and subjective stress responses to the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Tatyana; Schmahl, Christian; Wüst, Stefan; Bohus, Martin

    2012-06-30

    The availability of effective laboratory paradigms for inducing psychological stress is an important requirement for experimental stress research. Reliable protocols are scarce, usually laborious and manpower-intensive. In order to develop an economical, easily applicable standardized stress protocol, we have recently tailored the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST). This test has been shown to induce relatively high stress responses without focusing on social-evaluative components. In this study we evaluated changes in electrodermal activity and salivary cortisol in response to the MMST. The MMST simultaneously combines cognitive (mental arithmetic), emotional (affective pictures), acoustic (white noise) and motivational stressors (loss of money). This study comprised two independent experiments. For experiment 1, 80 female subjects were recruited; 30 subjects (15 females) participated in experiment 2. Significant changes in electrodermal activity and salivary cortisol levels in response to MMST exposure were found. Subjective stress and heart rate responses were significantly increased in both experiments. These results indicate that the MMST is an economical stress paradigm which is also applicable in larger cohorts or multicenter studies for investigating stress reactions. As social-evaluative threat is not the main stress component of the MMST, this procedure represents a useful and complementary alternative to other established stress protocols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring the subjective: revisiting the psychometric properties of three rating scales that assess the acute effects of hallucinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouso, José Carlos; Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo José; Gandy, Sam; Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel Ángel

    2016-09-01

    In the present study we explored the psychometric properties of three widely used questionnaires to assess the subjective effects of hallucinogens: the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS), the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI). These three questionnaires were administered to a sample of 158 subjects (100 men) after taking ayahuasca, a hallucinogen whose main active component is N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). A confirmatory factorial study was conducted to check the adjustment of previous data obtained via theoretical proposals. When this was not possible, we used an exploratory factor analysis without restrictions, based on tetrachoric and polychoric matrices and correlations. Our results sparsely match the theoretical proposals of the authors, perhaps because previous studies have not always employed psychometric methods appropriate to the data obtained. However, these data should be considered preliminary, pending larger samples to confirm or reject the proposed structures obtained. It is crucial that instruments of sufficiently precise measurement are utilized to make sense of the information obtained in the study of the subjective effects of psychedelic drugs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Heart Rate Dynamics and their Relation with the Cyclic Alternating Pattern of Sleep in Normal Subjects and NFLE Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jose S.; Dorantes, Guadalupe; Alba, Alfonso; Méndez, Martin O.; Camacho, Sergio; Luna-Rivera, Martin; Parrino, Liborio; Riccardi, Silvia; Terzano, Mario G.; Milioli, Giulia

    The aim of this work is to study the behavior of the autonomic system through variations in the heart rate (HR) during the Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP) which is formed by A-phases. The analysis was carried out in 10 healthy subjects and 10 patients with Nocturnal Front Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE) that underwent one whole night of polysomnographic recordings. In order to assess the relation of A-phases with the cardiovascular system, two time domain features were computed: the amplitude reduction and time delay of the minimum of the R-R intervals with respect to A-phases onset. In addition, the same process was performed over randomly chosen R-R interval segments during the NREM sleep for baseline comparisons. A non-parametric bootstrap procedure was used to test differences of the kurtosis values of two populations. The results suggest that the onset of the A-phases is correlated with a significant increase of the HR that peaks at around 4s after the A-phase onset, independently of the A-phase subtype and sleep time for both healthy subjects and NFLE patients. Furthermore, the behavior of the reduction in the R-R intervals during the A-phases was significantly different for NFLE patients with respect to control subjects.

  14. Measuring cognitive load during simulation-based psychomotor skills training: sensitivity of secondary-task performance and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-12-01

    As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance (signal detection rate, SDR and recognition reaction time, RRT) as measures of CL. In phase 1 of the study, novice learners and expert surgeons attempted a visual-monitoring task under two conditions: single-task (monitoring a virtual patient's heart-rate) and dual-task (tying surgical knots on a bench-top simulator while monitoring the virtual patient's heart-rate). Novices demonstrated higher mental effort and inferior secondary-task performance on the dual-task compared to experts (RRT 1.76 vs. 0.73, p = 0.012; SDR 0.27 vs. 0.97, p instructional design research are discussed.

  15. A pilot study of traditional indoor biomass cooking and heating in rural Bhutan: gas and particle concentrations and emission rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, T; He, C; Knibbs, L D; Mazaheri, M; Morawska, L

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies have reported the health effects of biomass fuels in developing countries, relatively few have quantitatively characterized emissions from biomass stoves during cooking and heating. The aim of this pilot study was to characterize the emission characteristics of different biomass stoves in four rural houses in Bhutan during heating (metal chimney stove), rice cooking (traditional mud stove), fodder preparation (stone tripod stove), and liquor distillation (traditional mud stove). Three stage measurements (before, during, and after the activity had ceased) were conducted for PM2.5 , particle number (PN), CO, and CO2 . When stoves were operated, the pollutant concentrations were significantly elevated above background levels, by an average of 40 and 18 times for PM2.5 and CO, respectively. Emission rates (mg/min) ranged from 1.07 × 102 (PM2.5 ) and 3.50 × 102 (CO) for the stone tripod stove during fodder preparation to 6.20 × 102 (PM2.5 ) and 2.22 × 103 (CO) for the traditional mud stove during liquor distillation. Usable PN data were only available for one house, during heating using a metal chimney stove, which presented an emission rate of 3.24 × 1013 particles/min. Interventions to control household air pollution in Bhutan, in order to reduce the health risks associated with cooking and heating, are recommended. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Subjective health complaints and self-rated health: are expectancies more important than socioeconomic status and workload?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, Eline; Odeen, Magnus; Eriksen, Hege R; Indahl, Aage; Ihlebæk, Camilla; Hetland, Jørn; Harris, Anette

    2014-06-01

    The associations between socioeconomic status (SES), physical and psychosocial workload and health are well documented. According to The Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS), learned response outcome expectancies (coping, helplessness, and hopelessness) are also important contributors to health. This is in part as independent factors for health, but coping may also function as a buffer against the impact different demands have on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effect of SES (as measured by level of education), physical workload, and response outcome expectancies on subjective health complaints (SHC) and self-rated health, and if response outcome expectancies mediate the effects of education and physical workload on SHC and self-rated health. A survey was carried out among 1,746 Norwegian municipal employees (mean age 44.2, 81 % females). Structural Equation Models with SHC and self-rated health as outcomes were conducted. Education, physical workload, and response outcome expectancies, were the independent 28 variables in the model. Helplessness/hopelessness had a stronger direct effect on self-rated health and SHC than education and physical workload, for both men and women. Helplessness/hopelessness fully mediated the effect of physical workload on SHC for men (0.121), and mediated 30 % of a total effect of 0.247 for women. For women, education had a small but significant indirect effect through helplessness/hopelessness on self-rated health (0.040) and SHC (-0.040), but no direct effects were found. For men, there was no effect of education on SHC, and only a direct effect on self-rated health (0.134). The results indicated that helplessness/hopelessness is more important for SHC and health than well-established measures on SES such as years of education and perceived physical workload in this sample. Helplessness/hopelessness seems to function as a mechanism between physical workload and health.

  17. A pilot study to examine the feasibility of insulin glargine in subjects with impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or new-onset type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbury, T C; Schwartz, S; Rosenberg, M A; Jariwala, N; Becker, R H A; Johnston, P S

    2008-05-01

    People with early type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] and/or impaired fasting glucose [IFG]) are at risk of hyperglycaemia-related complications, including cardiovascular disease. Insulin, traditionally reserved as late treatment in type 2 diabetes, may also be a useful therapy in this population. We examined the short-term efficacy and tolerability of insulin glargine (glargine) in individuals with early or pre-type 2 diabetes. In this multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel group, 12-day study, subjects with IGT/IFG (n=9), newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (n=9) or normal glucose tolerance (n=3) (confined to a clinical research unit taking a prescribed diet) were randomized to once-daily glargine (n=16) or placebo (saline; n=5) at bedtime. Dose was titrated to achieve target fasting blood glucose (FBG) 80-95 mg/dL. Over the treatment period, mean FBG decreased in glargine-treated subjects (from 100.0+/-18.8 to 85.6+/-18.4 mg/dL), but was unchanged in placebo-treated subjects (from 112.5+/-10.6 to 111.3+/-17.5 mg/dL). Mean eight-point blood glucose value decreased by 9.7 mg/dL in the glargine group, but increased by 8.1 mg/dL in the placebo group. Mean post-exercise blood glucose was similar before and after glargine treatment, but increased after placebo treatment. Five subjects receiving glargine experienced 16 mild symptomatic hypoglycaemia episodes; however, no hypoglycaemia occurred during exercise. Mean body weight decreased in both the glargine (-0.44 kg) and placebo (-0.25 kg) groups, in line with dietary restrictions. The results of this pilot study suggest that glargine can be used by people with IFG, IGT or new-onset type 2 diabetes for management of hyperglycaemia with low risk of hypoglycaemia. However titration of insulin in people on dietary restrictions should be more cautious as they may be more prone to hypoglycaemia. Further studies are warranted to determine the clinical benefits of this

  18. The intravenous adenosine test: a new test for the identification of bradycardia pacing indications? A pilot study in subjects with bradycardia pacing indications, vasovagal syncope and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, S W; Chadwick, T; Gray, J C; Bexton, R S; Tynan, M; Bourke, J P; Nath, S

    2009-07-01

    Intravenous adenosine has recently been used in the diagnosis of unexplained syncope, but there is no consensus as to the meaning of a 'positive' test. The objective is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of intravenous adenosine testing in the diagnosis of bradycardia-pacing indications [sinus node dysfunction(SND), atrio-ventricular block (AVB) and cardio-inhibitory carotid sinus syndrome (CSS)]. Pilot cohort study. Patients-(i) Bradycardia-pacing group: Consecutive patients referred for pacing for SND, AVB and CSS; (ii) Consecutive head-up tilt (HUT)-positive VVS patients. Controls-(i) Simple controls (S-Con: normal examination/ECG) and (ii) Electrophysiology controls (EP-Con: consecutive subjects referred for accessory pathway ablation). Pacing referrals and EP-Con had electrophysiology studies to confirm referral diagnosis and exclude others. All subjects had bolus injection of 20 mg intravenous adenosine during continuous ECG and blood pressure monitoring (positive test: >or=6 s asystole, >or=10 s high-degree AVB post-injection). Sensitivity, specificity, safety and tolerability of the test were measured. Of 264 potential participants (4 SND, 8 AVB, 7 CSS, 10 VVS, 10 EP-Con and 11 S-Con) 50 were studied. All (100%) of the bradycardia-pacing group were adenosine test-positive, as were 6 (60%) VVS. None (0%) and 3 (27%) of the EP- and S-Con groups were positive. Adenosine testing was 100% sensitive and 86% specific for bradycardia-pacing indications, and 100% specific using the diagnostically 'clean' EP-Con results. There were no significant adverse or side effects. Adenosine testing reliably identified patients with definitive bradycardia-pacing indications in whom alternative diagnoses were excluded. Further work is needed to evaluate the role of this test in the diagnosis of unexplained syncope.

  19. Photoplethysmography sampling frequency: pilot assessment of how low can we go to analyze pulse rate variability with reliability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, A; Shin, H

    2017-03-01

    Pulse rate variability (PRV) analysis appears as the first alternative to heart rate variability analysis for wearable devices; however, there is a constraint on computational load and energy consumption for the limited system resources available to the devices. Considering that adjustment of the sampling frequency is one of the strategies for reducing computational load and power consumption, this study aimed to investigate the influence of sampling frequency (f s) on PRV analysis and to find the minimum sampling frequency while maintaining reliability. We generated 5000, 2500, 1000, 500, 250, 100, 50, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5 Hz down-sampled photoplethysmograms from 10 kHz-sampled PPGs and derived time- and frequency-domain variables of the PRV. These included AVNN, SDNN, SDSD, RMSSD, NN50, pNN50, total power, VLF, LF, HF, LF/HF, nLF and nHF for each down-sampled signal. Derived variables were compared with heart rate variability of the 10 kHz-sampled electrocardiograms, and then statistically investigated using one-way ANOVA test and Bland-Altman analysis. As a result, significant differences (P  SDSD, RMSSD, NN50, pNN50, TP, HF, LF/HF, nLF and nHF, but not for AVNN, VLF and LF. Based on the post hoc tests, it was found that the NN50 and pNN50, SDSD and RMSSD, LF/HF and nHF, SDNN, TP and nLF analysis had significant differences at f s  ⩽  20 Hz, f s  ⩽  15 Hz, f s  ⩽10 Hz; f s  =  5 Hz, respectively. In other words, a significant difference was not seen for any variable if the f s was greater than 25 Hz. Consequently, our pilot study suggests that analysis of variability in the time and frequency domain from pulse rate obtained through PPG may be potentially as reliable as that derived from the analysis of the electrocardiogram, provided that f s  ⩾25 Hz sampling frequency is used.

  20. Decrease in heart rate variability response to task is related to anxiety and depressiveness in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinba, Toshikazu; Kariya, Nobutoshi; Matsui, Yasue; Ozawa, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that heart rate variability (HRV) measurement is useful in investigating the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders. The present study further examined its usefulness in evaluating the mental health of normal subjects with respect to anxiety and depressiveness. Heart rate (HR) and HRV were measured tonometrically at the wrist in 43 normal subjects not only in the resting condition but also during a task (random number generation) to assess the responsiveness. For HRV measurement, high-frequency (HF; 0.15-0.4 Hz) and low-frequency (LF; 0.04-0.15 Hz) components of HRV were obtained using MemCalc, a time series analysis technique that combines a non-linear least square method with maximum entropy method. For psychological evaluation of anxiety and depressiveness, two self-report questionnaires were used: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). No significant relation was observed between HR and HRV indices, and the psychological scores both in the resting and task conditions. By task application, HF decreased, and LF/HF and HR increased, and significant correlation with psychological scores was found in the responsiveness to task measured by the ratio of HRV and HR indices during the task to that at rest (task/rest ratio). A positive relationship was found between task/rest ratio for HF, and STAI and SDS scores. Task/rest ratio of HR was negatively correlated with STAI-state score. Decreased HRV response to task application is related to anxiety and depressiveness. Decreased autonomic responsiveness could serve as a sign of psychological dysfunction.

  1. Vaccination against hepatitis A and B in persons subject to homelessness in inner Sydney: vaccine acceptance, completion rates and immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Roslyn G; Ferson, Mark J; Orr, Karen J; McCarthy, Michele A; Botham, Susan J; Stern, Jerome M; Lucey, Adrienne

    2010-04-01

    To determine acceptance, completion rates and immunogenicity of the standard vaccination schedule for hepatitis A (HAV) and B (HBV) in persons subject to homelessness. A convenience sample of clients (n=201) attending a medical clinic for homeless and disadvantaged persons in Sydney was enrolled. Serological screening for HAV and HBV was undertaken. An appropriate vaccination program was instituted. Post-vaccination serology determined serological response. Although many clients had serological evidence of past infection, at least 138 (69%) clients had the potential to benefit from vaccination. For hepatitis A and B vaccinations, completion rates were 73% (73 of 100 clients) and 75% (69 of 92 clients), respectively; after vaccination, protective antibody was found in 98.2% (56 of 57) and 72% (36 of 50) of clients, respectively. A successful vaccination program can be mounted with a vulnerable population. We consider a clinic with a well-established history of acceptance and utilisation by the target group; a low staff turnover and regular clientele; inclusion of vaccination as part of routine client care; and counselling (part of pre- and post-serological testing) essential components in achieving good vaccination completion rates. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. A constitutive model for particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites subjected to high strain rates and high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wei-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-static and dynamic tension tests were conducted to study the mechanical properties of particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites at strain rates ranging from 0.0001/s to 1000/s and at temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 650 °C Based on the experimental results, a constitutive model, which considers the effects of strain rate and temperature on hot deformation behavior, was proposed for particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites subjected to high strain rates and high temperatures by using Zener-Hollomon equations including Arrhenius terms. All the material constants used in the model were identified by fitting Zener-Hollomon equations against the experimental results. By comparison of theoretical predictions presented by the model with experimental results, a good agreement was achieved, which indicates that this constitutive model can give an accurate and precise estimate for high temperature flow stress for the studied titanium matrix composites and can be used for numerical simulations of hot deformation behavior of the composites.

  3. Predicting Self-Rated Mental and Physical Health: The Contributions of Subjective Socioeconomic Status and Personal Relative Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell J. Callan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people’s perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints. Across 6 studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES, with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4 to 6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability or response biases between the measures.

  4. Heart rate variability biofeedback therapy and graded exercise training in management of chronic fatigue syndrome: An exploratory pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windthorst, Petra; Mazurak, Nazar; Kuske, Marvin; Hipp, Arno; Giel, Katrin E; Enck, Paul; Nieß, Andreas; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterised by persistent fatigue, exhaustion, and several physical complaints. Research has shown cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and graded exercise training (GET) to be the most effective treatments. In a first step we aimed to assess the efficacy of heart rate variability biofeedback therapy (HRV-BF) as a treatment method comprising cognitive and behavioural strategies and GET in the pilot trial. In a second step we aimed to compare both interventions with regard to specific parameters. The study was conducted in an outpatient treatment setting. A total of 28 women with CFS (50.3±9.3years) were randomly assigned to receive either eight sessions of HRV-BF or GET. The primary outcome was fatigue severity. Secondary outcomes were mental and physical quality of life and depression. Data were collected before and after the intervention as well as at a 5-month follow-up. General fatigue improved significantly after both HRV-BF and GET. Specific cognitive components of fatigue, mental quality of life, and depression improved significantly after HRV-BF only. Physical quality of life improved significantly after GET. There were significant differences between groups regarding mental quality of life and depression favouring HRV-BF. Both interventions reduce fatigue. HRV-BF seems to have additional effects on components of mental health, including depression, whereas GET seems to emphasise components of physical health. These data offer implications for further research on combining HRV-BF and GET in patients with CFS. The described trial has been registered at the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform following the number DRKS00005445. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Click trains and the rate of information processing: does "speeding up" subjective time make other psychological processes run faster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Luke A; Allely, Clare S; Wearden, John H

    2011-02-01

    A series of experiments demonstrated that a 5-s train of clicks that have been shown in previous studies to increase the subjective duration of tones they precede (in a manner consistent with "speeding up" timing processes) could also have an effect on information-processing rate. Experiments used studies of simple and choice reaction time (Experiment 1), or mental arithmetic (Experiment 2). In general, preceding trials by clicks made response times significantly shorter than those for trials without clicks, but white noise had no effects on response times. Experiments 3 and 4 investigated the effects of clicks on performance on memory tasks, using variants of two classic experiments of cognitive psychology: Sperling's (1960) iconic memory task and Loftus, Johnson, and Shimamura's (1985) iconic masking task. In both experiments participants were able to recall or recognize significantly more information from stimuli preceded by clicks than those preceded by silence.

  6. HEART RATE, MOOD STATES, AND RATING OF PERCEIVED EXERTION AMONG ELDERLY SUBJECTS DURING 3.5 HOURS OF RECREATIONAL ALPINE SKIING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Krautgasser

    2012-12-01

    immediate positive psychological effects on the elderly subjects. Furthermore, recreational alpine skiing has a positive effect on MS ratings reflecting wellbeing, while generating age-appropriate moderate RPE values in elderly alpine skiers.

  7. Water ingestion affects orthostatic challenge-induced blood pressure and heart rate responses in young healthy subjects: gender implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, L A; Aaron, A O; Micheal, O S; Oyeyipo, I P

    2011-11-23

    Evidence exists that women have lower orthostatic tolerance than men during quiescent standing. Water ingestion has been demonstrated to improve orthostatic tolerance in patients with severe autonomic dysfunction. We therefore sought to test the hypothesis that water ingestion would improve orthostatic tolerance in healthy young women more than in aged-matched men. Thirty seven (22 men and 15 women) healthy subjects aged 22.5± 1.7 and 21.5±1.4 (means±SD) respectively, ingested 50ml (control) and 500ml of water 40min before orthostatic challenge on two separate days of appointment in a randomized controlled, cross-over design. Seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate were determined. Orthostatic tolerance was assessed as the time to presyncope during standing. Ingesting 500ml of water significantly improves orthostatic tolerance by 22% (32.0 ± 5.2 vs 26.2 ± 2.4min; pwater, seated systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure rose significantly in men while only systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure rose significantly in women. However ingesting 500ml of water did not have significant effect on seated heart rate in both men and women. Ingestion of 500ml of water significantly attenuated both the orthostatic challenge-induced increased heart rate and decreased pulse pressure responses especially in women. Diastolic blood pressure tended to be positively correlated with orthostatic tolerance strongly in men than in women. Pulse pressure correlated positively while heart rate correlated negatively to orthostatic tolerance in women but not in men independent of other correlates. Water ingestion is associated with orthostatic tolerance strongly in women but weakly in men independent of other correlates. In conclusion, the findings in the present study demonstrated that water ingestion caused improvement strongly in young women than in young men. This improvement is associated with increased pulse pressure

  8. The correlations of glycated hemoglobin and carbohydrate metabolism parameters with heart rate variability in apparently healthy sedentary young male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkas, Andriy; Abrahamovych, Orest; Golota, Sergii; Nersesyan, Armen; Pichler, Christoph; Serhiyenko, Victoria; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Zarkovic, Neven; Eckl, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular and many other age-related diseases. Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the function of regulatory systems of internal organs and may sensitively indicate early metabolic disturbances. We hypothesize that quantitative and qualitative changes of HRV in young subjects may reflect early metabolic derangements responsible for further development of clinically significant disease. The aim of our study was to determine whether the parameters of carbohydrate metabolism (fasting blood glucose, HBA1c and surrogate insulin sensitivity/resistance indices) correlate with anthropometric data and HRV. The study group consisted of 30 healthy sedentary male subjects aged 20-40, nonsmokers, mainly office and research employees, medical staff and students. Athletes, actively training more than one hour per week, severely obese and men of physical work were excluded from the study. HRV parameters were derived from short term ECG records (five minutes intervals) in supine position and during orthostatic test. Anthropometric data included height, weight, body mass index (BMI), age and body composition (estimation by bioelectric impedance method). The fasting blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) index and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were evaluated. Linear correlation coefficient (r) was calculated using Statistica 10.0 software. HOMA-IR index correlated positively with body weight, visceral fat and BMI (p=0.047, 0.027 and 0.017 respectively). In supine position pNN50 positively correlated with glucose/insulin ratio (p=0.011) and heart rate with HOMA-IR (p=0.006). In orthostatic test negative correlations of HBA1c with standard deviation, total and low frequency power were determined (p=0.034, 0.400 and 0.403 respectively), which indicates a gradual worsening of functional capacity of cardiovascular system with low-grade increase (under the conventional threshold) of HBA1c

  9. Linear and nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability in healthy subjects and after acute myocardial infarction in patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Kunz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the use of linear and nonlinear methods for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV in healthy subjects and in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Heart rate (HR was recorded for 15 min in the supine position in 10 patients with AMI taking β-blockers (aged 57 ± 9 years and in 11 healthy subjects (aged 53 ± 4 years. HRV was analyzed in the time domain (RMSSD and RMSM, the frequency domain using low- and high-frequency bands in normalized units (nu; LFnu and HFnu and the LF/HF ratio and approximate entropy (ApEn were determined. There was a correlation (P < 0.05 of RMSSD, RMSM, LFnu, HFnu, and the LF/HF ratio index with the ApEn of the AMI group on the 2nd (r = 0.87, 0.65, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.64 and 7th day (r = 0.88, 0.70, 0.69, 0.69, and 0.87 and of the healthy group (r = 0.63, 0.71, 0.63, 0.63, and 0.74, respectively. The median HRV indexes of the AMI group on the 2nd and 7th day differed from the healthy group (P < 0.05: RMSSD = 10.37, 19.95, 24.81; RMSM = 23.47, 31.96, 43.79; LFnu = 0.79, 0.79, 0.62; HFnu = 0.20, 0.20, 0.37; LF/HF ratio = 3.87, 3.94, 1.65; ApEn = 1.01, 1.24, 1.31, respectively. There was agreement between the methods, suggesting that these have the same power to evaluate autonomic modulation of HR in both AMI patients and healthy subjects. AMI contributed to a reduction in cardiac signal irregularity, higher sympathetic modulation and lower vagal modulation.

  10. 14 CFR 61.51 - Pilot logbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., recreational, private, commercial, or airline transport pilot may log pilot in command flight time for flights... duties of pilot in command holds a commercial or airline transport pilot certificate and aircraft rating... commercial pilot certificate and flight instructor certificate, and aircraft rating that is appropriate to...

  11. The Association between Noise, Cortisol and Heart Rate in a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community—A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Green

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We performed a cross-sectional pilot study on salivary cortisol, heart rate, and personal noise exposures in a small-scale gold mining village in northeastern Ghana in 2013. Cortisol level changes between morning and evening among participants showed a relatively low decline in cortisol through the day (−1.44 ± 4.27 nmol/L, n = 18, a pattern consistent with chronic stress. A multiple linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and time between samples indicated a significant increase of 0.25 nmol/L cortisol from afternoon to evening per 1 dBA increase in equivalent continuous noise exposure (Leq over that period (95% CI: 0.08–0.42, Adj R2 = 0.502, n = 17. A mixed effect linear regression model adjusting for age and sex indicated a significant increase of 0.29 heart beats per minute (BPM for every 1 dB increase in Leq. Using standard deviations (SDs as measures of variation, and adjusting for age and sex over the sampling period, we found that a 1 dBA increase in noise variation over time (Leq SD was associated with a 0.5 BPM increase in heart rate SD (95% CI: 0.04–−0.9, Adj. R2 = 0.229, n = 16. Noise levels were consistently high, with 24-hour average Leq exposures ranging from 56.9 to 92.0 dBA, with a mean daily Leq of 82.2 ± 7.3 dBA (mean monitoring duration 22.1 ± 1.9 hours, n = 22. Ninety-five percent of participants had 24-hour average Leq noise levels over the 70 dBA World health Organization (WHO guideline level for prevention of hearing loss. These findings suggest that small-scale mining communities may face multiple, potentially additive health risks that are not yet well documented, including hearing loss and cardiovascular effects of stress and noise.

  12. Success Rate and Technical Quality of Home Polysomnography with Self-Applicable Electrode Set in Subjects with Possible Sleep Bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Tomi; Myllymaa, Katja; Westeren-Punnonen, Susanna; Ahlberg, Jari; Hukkanen, Taina; Toyras, Juha; Lappalainen, Reijo; Mervaala, Esa; Sipila, Kirsi; Myllymaa, Sami

    2017-08-18

    Using sleep laboratory polysomnography (PSG) is restricted for the diagnosis of only the most severe sleep disorders due to its low availability and high cost. Home PSG is more affordable, but applying conventional electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes increases its overall complexity and lowers the availability. Simple, self-administered single-channel EEG monitors on the other hand suffer from poor reliability. In this study, we aimed to quantify the reliability of self-administrated home PSG recordings conducted with a newly designed ambulatory electrode set (AES) that enables multi-channel EEG, electrooculography, electromyography and electrocardiography recordings. We assessed the sleep study success rate and technical quality of the recordings performed in subjects with possible sleep bruxism (SB). Thirty-two females and five males aged 39.6±11.6 years (mean±SD) with self-reported SB were recruited in the study. Self-administrated home PSG recordings with two AES designs were conducted (n=19 and 21). The technical quality of the recordings was graded based on the proportion of interpretable data. Technical failure rate for AES (both designs) was 5% and SB was scorable for 96.9% of all recorded data. Only one recording failed due to mistakes in self-applying the AES. We found that the proportion of good quality self-administrated EEG recordings is significantly higher when multiple channels are used compared to using a single channel. Sleep study success rates and proportion of recordings with high quality interpretable data from EEG channels of AES were comparable to that of conventional home PSG. Self-applicable AES has potential to become a reliable tool for widely available home PSG.

  13. The effects of the duration of mobile phone use on heart rate variability parameters in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Berkay; Tanındı, Aslı; Ekici, Gamze; Diker, Erdem

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to estimate the influence of the duration of mobile phone use on heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy individuals. One hundred forty-eight individuals without any established systemic disease and who had undergone 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring were included in the case-control study. All the individuals had been using mobile phones for more than 10 years. Three-channel 24-h Holter monitoring was performed to derive the mean heart rate, standard deviation of normal NN intervals (SDNN), standard deviation of 5-min (m) mean NN intervals (SDANN), the proportion of NN50 divided by the total number of NNs (pNN50), the root mean square differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD), high (HF)-, low (LF)-, very low (VLF)-frequency power, total power components, and the LF/HF ratio. Individuals were divided into four groups according to their duration of mobile phone use [no mobile phone use (Control group), 60 min/day (Group 3)]. All the groups had similar features with regard to demographic and clinical characteristics. No significant arrhythmias were observed in any of the groups. The LF/HF ratio was higher, whereas the SDNN, SDANN, RMSSD, and pNN50 values were lower in the study groups than in the control group (pheart rate, VLF, and total power values (p>0.05). In this study, it was shown that the duration of mobile phone use may affect the autonomic balance in healthy subjects. The electromagnetic field created by mobile phone use may induce HRV changes in the long term.

  14. The relationship of music preferences and the selected risk-taking and autodestructive behaviour among teenage girls subject to inpatient stay due to mental condition – pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Krajewska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence, related to the crisis of identity, attempts to separate from the family and rebellion against the reality result in the youth to be particularly susceptible to the impact of peers. Identification with the group is most often based on common interests, one of which being music. The aim of the pilot study was to assess the relationship of autodestructive and  antisocial behaviour and  music preferences of  girls subject to  inpatient stay due to  mental problems. Material and methods: Own questionnaire was used concerning music preferences, consisting of the following genres: metal, rock, pop, jazz, hip-hop, reggae, film music, sung poetry, electronic music. The studied group comprised of 26 girls diagnosed with mood disorders, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, eating disorders and behavioural and emotional disorders according to ICD-10. Exclusion criteria were the remaining diagnostic categories, especially active psychotic process and mental retardation as well as lack of understanding of the questionnaire questions or not being familiar with basic types of music. Among the patients aged 13–18 subject to inpatient stay at the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry in Łódź in the period 2013–2014 and consented to the study, the incidence of attempted suicide, inflicting self-harm, alcohol abuse, taking psychoactive substances and the presence of antisocial disorders were assessed. Questionnaire verification was carried out in a group of 30 people tested with a test–retest method with a two-week break; reliability was obtained: 0.89–1. Analysis was carried out with the use of Statistica 9.1 programme. Results: Among the teenage girls subject to inpatient stay, music preferences were not related in a statistically significant manner (p > 0.05 with a greater incidence of attempted suicide, inflicting self-harm, alcohol abuse and contact with psychoactive

  15. Reproducibility of heart rate variability parameters measured in healthy subjects at rest and after a postural change maneuver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Dantas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV provides important information about cardiac autonomic modulation. Since it is a noninvasive and inexpensive method, HRV has been used to evaluate several parameters of cardiovascular health. However, the internal reproducibility of this method has been challenged in some studies. Our aim was to determine the intra-individual reproducibility of HRV parameters in short-term recordings obtained in supine and orthostatic positions. Electrocardiographic (ECG recordings were obtained from 30 healthy subjects (20-49 years, 14 men using a digital apparatus (sampling ratio = 250 Hz. ECG was recorded for 10 min in the supine position and for 10 min in the orthostatic position. The procedure was repeated 2-3 h later. Time and frequency domain analyses were performed. Frequency domain included low (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz and high frequency (HF, 0.15-0.4 Hz bands. Power spectral analysis was performed by the autoregressive method and model order was set at 16. Intra-subject agreement was assessed by linear regression analysis, test of difference in variances and limits of agreement. Most HRV measures (pNN50, RMSSD, LF, HF, and LF/HF ratio were reproducible independent of body position. Better correlation indexes (r > 0.6 were obtained in the orthostatic position. Bland-Altman plots revealed that most values were inside the agreement limits, indicating concordance between measures. Only SDNN and NNv in the supine position were not reproducible. Our results showed reproducibility of HRV parameters when recorded in the same individual with a short time between two exams. The increased sympathetic activity occurring in the orthostatic position probably facilitates reproducibility of the HRV indexes.

  16. Subjective Well-Being in Older Chinese and Korean Immigrants in the United States: Effects of Self-Rated Health and Employment Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung; Jun, Hyeyoun; Lee, Jisun; Linton, Kristen; Kim, Meehye; Browne, Colette

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of association between self-rated health and employment status on subjective well-being among older Chinese and Korean immigrants in the United States. Data were collected from 171 Chinese and 205 Korean older adult immigrants living in Los Angeles County. The primary variables included demographic data, subjective index of well-being, self-rated health, and employment status. Data support the association between self-rated health and subjective well-being for both groups. Employment, education, and age were associated with the level of subjective well-being only for older Korean immigrants. Similarities and differences were noted in these two Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest the need to develop health promotion services for both populations and employment opportunities targeted more so for Korean older immigrants to further support their subjective well-being. Results may have implications for other for older immigrants.

  17. Metabolic rate and cardiorespiratory response during hybrid cycling versus handcycling at equal subjective exercise intensity levels in people with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, Arjan J. T.; de Groot, Sonja; Onderwater, Mark Q.; de Jong, Jelle; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the metabolic rate and cardiorespiratory response during hybrid cycling versus handcycling at equal subjective exercise intensity levels in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Amsterdam Rehabilitation Research Centre vertical bar Reade,

  18. Wear rates of highly cross-linked polyethylene humeral liners subjected to alternating cycles of glenohumeral flexion and abduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Sebastian; Moravek, James E; Budge, Matthew D; Newton, Michael D; Kurdziel, Michael D; Baker, Kevin C; Wiater, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    Although short-term outcomes of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty have been promising, long-term success may be limited due to device-specific complications, including scapular notching. Scapular notching has been explained primarily as mechanical erosion; however, the generation of wear debris may lead to further biologic changes contributing to the severity of scapular notching. A 12-station hip simulator was converted to a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty wear simulator subjecting conventional and highly cross-linked ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene humeral liners to 5 million cycles of alternating abduction-adduction and flexion-extension loading profiles. Highly cross-linked polyethylene liners (36.5 ± 10.0 mm(3)/million cycle) exhibited significantly lower volumetric wear rates compared with conventional polyethylene liners (83.6 ± 20.6 mm(3)/million cycle; P linked polyethylene (P linked wear particles had an equivalent circle diameter significantly smaller than wear particles from conventional polyethylene (P linked polyethylene liners significantly reduced polyethylene wear and subsequent particle generation. More favorable wear properties with the use of highly cross-linked polyethylene may lead to increased device longevity and fewer complications but must be weighed against the effect of reduced mechanical properties. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Combining electroencephalographic activity and instantaneous heart rate for assessing brain-heart dynamics during visual emotional elicitation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, G; Greco, A; Gentili, C; Lanata, A; Sebastiani, L; Menicucci, D; Gemignani, A; Scilingo, E P

    2016-05-13

    Emotion perception, occurring in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, involves autonomic responses affecting cardiovascular dynamics. However, how such brain-heart dynamics is further modulated by emotional valence (pleasantness/unpleasantness), also considering different arousing levels (the intensity of the emotional stimuli), is still unknown. To this extent, we combined electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics and instantaneous heart rate estimates to study emotional processing in healthy subjects. Twenty-two healthy volunteers were elicited through affective pictures gathered from the International Affective Picture System. The experimental protocol foresaw 110 pictures, each of which lasted 10 s, associated to 25 different combinations of arousal and valence levels, including neutral elicitations. EEG data were processed using short-time Fourier transforms to obtain time-varying maps of cortical activation, whereas the associated instantaneous cardiovascular dynamics was estimated in the time and frequency domains through inhomogeneous point-process models. Brain-heart linear and nonlinear coupling was estimated through the maximal information coefficient (MIC). Considering EEG oscillations in theθband (4-8 Hz), MIC highlighted significant arousal-dependent changes between positive and negative stimuli, especially occurring at intermediate arousing levels through the prefrontal cortex interplay. Moreover, high arousing elicitations seem to mitigate changes in brain-heart dynamics in response to pleasant/unpleasant visual elicitation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Nuria eRuffini; Giandomenico eD'alessandro; Nicolò eMariani; Alberto ePollastrelli; Lucia eCardinali; Francesco eCerritelli

    2015-01-01

    Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-ar...

  1. Comparison of two systems for long-term heart rate variability monitoring in free-living conditions - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortensen Ole S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective A number of small portable systems that can measure HRV are available to address questions related to autonomic regulation in free-living subjects. However, ambulatory HRV measurements obtained through use of these systems have not previously been validated against standard clinical measurements such as Holter recordings. The objective of this study was to validate HRV obtained using a commonly used system, Actiheart, during occupational and leisure-time activities. Method Full-day ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG signals were recorded from 8 females simultaneously using Actiheart and Holter recorders, and signals were processed to RR-interval time series. Segments of 5-minute duration were sampled every 30 minutes, and spectral components of the heart rate variability were calculated. Actiheart and Holter values were compared using Deming regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots. Results In total, 489 segments were available with an HRV value from both Actiheart and Holter recordings after filtering out segments with >10% interpolated beats. No systematic differences between Actiheart and Holter HRV were found. The random deviations between Actiheart and Holter were comparable to the repeatability standard deviation between consecutive Holter measurements. Discussion The results show that Actiheart is suited as a stand-alone ambulatory method for heart rate variability monitoring during occupational and leisure-time activities.

  2. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forner, Lone; Hyldegaard, Ole; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack; Specht, Lena; Andersen, Elo; Jansen, Erik C; Hillerup, Søren; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Jensen, Siri Beier

    2011-06-01

    Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. Eighty patients eligible for HBO treatment on the indication of prevention/treatment of osteoradionecrosis or soft tissue radiation injury were consecutively sampled, of whom 45 had hyposalivation (i.e. unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) flow rate hyposalivation achieved an increased UWS flow rate after HBO. In 12 of these, the flow rates increased to levels not associated with hyposalivation. Patient-assessed improvement of xerostomia and slightly increased UWS and SWS secretion after HBO treatment suggest that HBO may have a beneficial effect on radiation-induced salivary gland damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heat stress exposure of aerial spray pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribetz, B; Richter, E D; Krasna, M; Gordon, M

    1980-01-01

    Heat stress (WBGT index) in the cockpits of agricultural spray pilots, and its physiological and subjective effects, were measured for 9 pilots flying in hot weather for a large Israeli aerial spray company. There was concern that heat exposure may be one of the factors involved in a recent increase in the fatal and non-fatal crash rate among Israeli spray pilots. WBGT index calculations were based on sequential cockpit wet bulb, dry bulb, and globe temperatures read when aircraft landed. The WBGT was always above 25 degrees C and exceeded 26.7 degrees C in 70% of observations. In pilots, a daily weight loss of 0.6-1.2% of total body weight was usual, as were rectal temperature increases of 0.5 degrees C. Daily water intakes ranged from less than 100 ml to 2000 ml per workshift. Questionnaires indicated that 42 of 45 pilots said they would drink more fluids if they were provided between flights by ground crews. An unresolved problem was whether conventional threshold standards for heat exposure were set at levels that may produce insidious impairments in pilot psychomotor performance. Cockpit air cooling is suggested as a measure for preventing heat stress in hot climates. However, appropriate filter technologies would be needed to prevent pesticide exposures during flight. Engineering and other measures to prevent heat stress and dehydration should rank high as part of a comprehensive program to protect the health and performance levels of agricultural spray pilots.

  4. The Energy Cost and Heart Rate Response of Trained and Untrained Subjects Walking and Running in Shoes and Boots,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    footwear , athletic shoes of the S subjects’ choice (average weight per pair = 616g), and leather military boots 1 (average weight per pair = 17 76g) at 3...V O2) measured while walking and running on a treadmill. They wore each type of footwear , athletic shoes of the subjects’ choice (average weight per...Also, both these studies demonstrated trends toward increasing energy costs for subjects walking (3.9 km * h- I or more) in footwear of increasing

  5. Effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia in non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in non-diabetic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Itoh, Harumi [Department of Radiology, Fukui Medical University, Matsuoka (Japan); Sadato, Norihiro; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui Medical University (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia (HG) on the non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlc). Five patients who had a meal within an hour before a fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) examination were recruited in this study. They underwent intermittent arterial blood sampling (measured input function), and, based on this sampling, CMRGlc was calculated using an autoradiographic method (CMRGlc{sub real}). Simulated input functions were generated based on standardised input function, body surface area and net injected dose of FDG, and simulated CMRGlc (CMRGlc{sub sim}) was also calculated. Percent error of the area under the curve (AUC) between measured (AUC{sub real}) and simulated input function (AUC{sub IFsim}) and percent error between CMRGlc{sub real} and CMRGlc{sub sim} were calculated. These values were compared with those obtained from a previous study conducted under fasting conditions (F). The serum glucose level in the HG group was significantly higher than that in the F group (165{+-}69 vs 100{+-}9 mg/dl, P=0.0007). Percent errors of AUC and CMRGlc in grey matter and white matter in HG were significantly higher than those in F (12.9%{+-}1.3% vs 3.5%{+-}2.2% in AUC, P=0.0015; 18.2%{+-}2.2% vs 2.9%{+-}1.9% in CMRGlc in grey matter, P=0.0028; 24.0%{+-}4.6% vs 3.4%{+-}2.2% in CMRGlc in white matter, P=0.0028). It is concluded that a non-invasive method of measuring CMRGlc should be applied only in non-diabetic subjects under fasting conditions. (orig.)

  6. Effect of early use of AbobotulinumtoxinA after stroke on spasticity progression: Protocol for a randomised controlled pilot study in adult subjects with moderate to severe upper limb spasticity (ONTIME pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng He Kong

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: This pilot study will facilitate the design and sample size calculation of further confirmatory studies, and is expected to provide insights into the optimal management of post-stroke patients, including timing of BoNT-A therapy and follow-up duration.

  7. The relationship between pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia and subjective knee function during rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and meniscectomy: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichonova, Ana; Rimdeikienė, Inesa; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Lendraitienė, Eglė

    2016-01-01

    Psychological responses to the initial injury and rehabilitation might be an important additional determinant of functional level outcomes after knee surgery. The objectives of this study were (1) to measure pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia levels and (2) determine their association with self-reported subjective knee function during rehabilitation, following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) and meniscectomy. The study involved 41 participants. The levels of catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]), kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia [TSK-11]), pain (Numeric Pain Rating Scale [NRS]), and subjective knee function (the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score [KOOS]) were assessed before and after completion of 14-session rehabilitation program. The mean level of catastrophizing changed from 5.8 (SD, 0.9) to 4.2 (SD, 0.5) during rehabilitation (Pkinesiophobia changed from 22.7 (SD, 0.7) to 18.4 (SD, 0.6) (Pkinesiophobia decreased during rehabilitation. A higher pain catastrophizing level correlated with a greater level of knee pain during activities, more difficulties experienced during daily activities before and after rehabilitation. A high level of kinesiophobia correlated with more difficulties experienced in daily activities and poorer knee-related quality of life before and after rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  8. Total sleep time in Muslim football players is reduced during Ramadan: a pilot study on the standardized assessment of subjective sleep-wake patterns in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    Ramadan is a period in which Muslims fast during daylight hours and is associated with disturbances in sleep-wake behaviour and adverse effects on physical and mental health in normal volunteers. Studies using athletes are rare and remain equivocal as to whether Ramadan influences sleep-wake patterns. Notably, the standardized assessment of subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in athletes has not been established. This study employed the Arabic version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale in nine football players aged 20-35 years (mean ± s: 26 ± 4) one week before and during the last week of Ramadan. Compliance rates with self-administration were high (71%) and the results demonstrated a robust decline in total sleep time (before Ramadan: 6.6 ± 2 h; at the end of Ramadan: 5.3 ± 1 h; P effect size 0.81). Compared with previous research, the study questionnaires offer improved methodology, including less time constraints plus standardization in scoring. Thus, this study demonstrates a framework for greater reproducibility and reliability in the assessment of subjective sleep-wake patterns in athletes before and during Ramadan.

  9. The Relevance of Objective and Subjective Social Position for Self-Rated Health: A Combined Approach for the Swedish Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miething, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the health effects of subjective class position stratified by objective social position. Four types of subjective class were analysed separately for individuals with manual or non-manual occupational background. The cross-sectional analysis is based on the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey from 2000 and includes 4,139…

  10. 'It is nothing more than a senior moment': the moderating role of subjective age in the effect of change in memory on self-rated memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segel-Karpas, Dikla; Palgi, Yuval

    2017-11-10

    The association between memory performance and self-rated memory is yet to be understood. More specifically, little is known about the factors that lie at the base of self-evaluations of memory in relation to actual changes in memory. In this study, we suggest that subjective age modifies the effect of objective change in memory on self-rated memory. We used two waves of the Health and Retirement Study (N = 4624) to examine whether subjective age moderates the effect of experienced changes in memory between T1 and T2 on self-rated memory at T2. Our results suggest that subjective age is a significant moderator of the effect of change in memory on self-rated memory. The effect is weaker among those with younger subjective age, and stronger for those with older subjective age. While preserving a young subjective age is usually considered an adaptive strategy, it also has potential negative effects, masking changes in memory performance.

  11. A simulator investigation of the use of digital data link for pilot/ATC communications in a single pilot operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, David A.; Lohr, Gary W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies have shown that radio communications between pilots and air traffic control contribute to high pilot workload and are subject to various errors. These errors result from congestion on the voice radio channel, and missed and misunderstood messages. The use of digital data link has been proposed as a means of reducing this workload and error rate. A critical factor, however, in determining the potential benefit of data link will be the interface between future data link systems and the operator of those systems, both in the air and on the ground. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the pilot interface with various levels of data link capability, in simulated general aviation, single-pilot instrument flight rule operations. Results show that the data link reduced demands on pilots' short-term memory, reduced the number of communication transmissions, and permitted the pilots to more easily allocate time to critical cockpit tasks while receiving air traffic control messages. The pilots who participated unanimously indicated a preference for data link communications over voice-only communications. There were, however, situations in which the pilot preferred the use of voice communications, and the ability for pilots to delay processing the data link messages, during high workload events, caused delays in the acknowledgement of messages to air traffic control.

  12. Effectiveness of interventions to increase the participation rate of gastric cancer screening in the Republic of Korea: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Ha; Lee, Yoon Young; Jung, Da Won; Park, Boyoung; Yun, E Hwa; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Jun, Jae Kwan; Choi, Kui Son

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of three intervention strategies to improve the participation rate of gastric cancer screening among people who had never undergone such screening, and those who had been screened for the disease, but not recently. It was conducted in the Ilsandong-gu District of Goyang City, Korea. The population for the current study was restricted to male residents, aged 40-65 years, who received an invitation letter to undergo gastric cancer screening from the National Health Insurance (NHI) Corporation at the beginning of 2010. The subjects were divided into two categories according to their screening history: never-screened, and ever-screened. A total of 2,065 men were eligible: 803 never-screened and 1,262 ever-screened. In each screening category they were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: 1) tailored telephone counseling; 2) tailored postcard reminder after tailored telephone counseling;and 3) tailored telephone counseling after tailored postcard reminder. At 3 months post-intervention, never- screened men with any intervention were more likely to undergo gastric cancer screening (OR=2.75, 95% CI: 1.22-6.18) compared to those in the reference group (no intervention). However, there was no statistically significant intervention effect in ever-screened men (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 0.65-2.27). Examination of the intervention effects by intervention group among never-screened men showed that those in the postcard reminder after telephone counseling group to be statistically significantly more likely to undergo gastric cancer screening (OR=4.49, 95% CI: 1.79-11.29) than the reference group (no intervention). Our results highlight that use of tailored postcard reminders after tailored telephone counseling is an effective method to increase participation in gastric cancer screening among men who had never been screened.

  13. Test-retest reliability of heart rate variability and respiration rate at rest and during light physical activity in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijt, Alida M.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variable that remains stable over repeated measurements (in stable conditions) is ideal for tracking modifications of the clinical state. The aim of the present study is to examine test-retest reliability of time-domain heart rate variability and respiration rate measurements using a

  14. An investigation of correlation between pilot scanning behavior and workload using stepwise regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    An electro-optical device called an oculometer which tracks a subject's lookpoint as a time function has been used to collect data in a real-time simulation study of instrument landing system (ILS) approaches. The data describing the scanning behavior of a pilot during the instrument approaches have been analyzed by use of a stepwise regression analysis technique. A statistically significant correlation between pilot workload, as indicated by pilot ratings, and scanning behavior has been established. In addition, it was demonstrated that parameters derived from the scanning behavior data can be combined in a mathematical equation to provide a good representation of pilot workload.

  15. Relation between QT and RR intervals is highly individual among healthy subjects: implications for heart rate correction of the QT interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M; Färbom, P; Batchvarov, V; Hnatkova, K; Camm, A J

    2002-03-01

    To compare the QT/RR relation in healthy subjects in order to investigate the differences in optimum heart rate correction of the QT interval. 50 healthy volunteers (25 women, mean age 33.6 (9.5) years, range 19-59 years) took part. Each subject underwent serial 12 lead electrocardiographic monitoring over 24 hours with a 10 second ECG obtained every two minutes. QT intervals and heart rates were measured automatically. In each subject, the QT/RR relation was modelled using six generic regressions, including a linear model (QT = beta + alpha x RR), a hyperbolic model (QT = beta + alpha/RR), and a parabolic model (QT = beta x RR(alpha)). For each model, the parallelism and identity of the regression lines in separate subjects were statistically tested. The patterns of the QT/RR relation were very different among subjects. Regardless of the generic form of the regression model, highly significant differences were found not only between the regression lines but also between their slopes. For instance, with the linear model, the individual slope (parameter alpha) of any subject differed highly significantly (p Conversion of the QT/RR regressions to QTc heart rate correction also showed substantial intersubject differences. Optimisation of the formula QTc = QT/RR(alpha) led to individual values of alpha ranging from 0.234 to 0.486. The QT/RR relation exhibits a very substantial intersubject variability in healthy volunteers. The hypothesis underlying each prospective heart rate correction formula that a "physiological" QT/RR relation exists that can be mathematically described and applied to all people is incorrect. Any general heart rate correction formula can be used only for very approximate clinical assessment of the QTc interval over a narrow window of resting heart rates. For detailed precise studies of the QTc interval (for example, drug induced QT interval prolongation), the individual QT/RR relation has to be taken into account.

  16. A Pilot Trial of Pioglitazone HCl and Tretinoin in ALS: Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers to Monitor Drug Efficacy and Predict Rate of Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd D. Levine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine if therapy with pioglitazone HCl and tretinoin could slow disease progression in patients with ALS. Levels of tau and pNFH in the cerebrospinal fluid were measured to see if they could serve as prognostic indicators. Methods. 27 subjects on stable doses of riluzole were enrolled. Subjects were randomized to receive pioglitazone 30 mg/d and tretinoin 10 mg/BID for six months or two matching placebos. ALSFRS-R scores were followed monthly. At baseline and at the final visit, lumbar punctures (LPs were performed to measure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarker levels. Results. Subjects treated with tretinoin, pioglitazone, and riluzole had an average rate of decline on the ALSFRS-R scale of −1.02 points per month; subjects treated with placebo and riluzole had a rate of decline of -.86 (P=.18. Over six months of therapy, CSF tau levels decreased in subjects randomized to active treatment and increased in subjects on placebo. Further higher levels of pNF-H at baseline correlated with a faster rate of progression. Conclusion. ALS patients who were treated with tretinoin and pioglitazone demonstrated no slowing on their disease progression. Interestingly, the rate of disease progression was strongly correlated with levels of pNFH in the CSF at baseline.

  17. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiao, E-mail: liuxiao07@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gao Xingbao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Qiao Wei [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhou Yingjun [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nisikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  18. Comparison of EDCs removal in full and pilot scale membrane bioreactor plants: Effect of flux rate on EDCs removal in short SRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komesli, O T; Muz, M; Ak, M S; Bakırdere, S; Gökçay, C F

    2017-12-01

    Currently, it is estimated that over 1 billion people are short of adequate portable water and this is expected to increase to 2.5 billion in the year 2025. Membrane Bioreactors (MBR) are now accepted as important tools to extend the availability of water by facilitating the reuse of wastewaters. Sludge Retention Time (SRT) and liquid flux rate are the two most important parameters for controlling the MBR process. In this study, the removal of selected endocrine disrupter compounds (EDCs), diltiazem, progesterone, estrone (E1), carbamazepine (Cbz) and acetaminophen (Acet), by one full scale (VRM) and one pilot scale (clear-box) MBR plants was investigated. During the study, sludge age was set at 10 days and the sludge concentration was fixed at about 5.0 g/L. The transmembrane pressure (TMP) got higher with either increasing flux or sludge concentration in the membrane chamber. Therefore, changing the flux from 13 to 30 L/m2-h in both plants caused enhancement in TMP from -25 to -300 mbar in the clear-box and from -160 to over -350 in the full scale MBRs. It was understood that flux had very little effect on the removal of EDCs at very low concentrations. Moreover, diltiazem was completely removed in the full scale whereas no removal was achieved in the pilot scale. Estrone and progesterone were completely removed by biodegradation in both plants. Acetaminophen was completely removed in the full scale plant whereas over 95% removal was achieved in the pilot scale MBR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. 61.73 Section 61.73 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a...

  20. Salivary protein concentration, flow rate, buffer capacity and pH estimation: A comparative study among young and elderly subjects, both normal and with gingivitis and periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaila, Mulki; Pai, G. Prakash; Shetty, Pushparaj

    2013-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the salivary protein concentration in gingivitis and periodontitis patients and compare the parameters like salivary total protein, salivary albumin, salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and flow rate in both young and elderly patients with simple methods. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects were grouped based on their age as young and elderly. Each group was subgrouped (20 subjects) as controls, gingivitis and periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from patients and flow rate was noted down during collection of the sample. Salivary protein estimation was done using the Biuret method and salivary albumin was assessed using the Bromocresol green method. pH was estimated with a pHmeter and buffering capacity was analyzed with the titration method. Student's t-test, Fisher's test (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD (ANOVA) tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: A very highly significant rise in the salivary total protein and albumin concentration was noted in gingivitis and periodontitis subjects of both young and elderly. An overall decrease in salivary flow rate was observed among the elderly, and also the salivary flow rate of women was significantly lower than that of men. Conclusion: Significant associations between salivary total protein and albumin in gingivitis and periodontitis were found with simple biochemical tests. A decrease in salivary flow rate among elderly and among women was noted. PMID:23633771

  1. Salivary protein concentration, flow rate, buffer capacity and pH estimation: A comparative study among young and elderly subjects, both normal and with gingivitis and periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulki Shaila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the salivary protein concentration in gingivitis and periodontitis patients and compare the parameters like salivary total protein, salivary albumin, salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and flow rate in both young and elderly patients with simple methods. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects were grouped based on their age as young and elderly. Each group was subgrouped (20 subjects as controls, gingivitis and periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from patients and flow rate was noted down during collection of the sample. Salivary protein estimation was done using the Biuret method and salivary albumin was assessed using the Bromocresol green method. pH was estimated with a pHmeter and buffering capacity was analyzed with the titration method. Student′s t-test, Fisher′s test (ANOVA and Tukey HSD (ANOVA tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: A very highly significant rise in the salivary total protein and albumin concentration was noted in gingivitis and periodontitis subjects of both young and elderly. An overall decrease in salivary flow rate was observed among the elderly, and also the salivary flow rate of women was significantly lower than that of men. Conclusion: S ignificant associations between salivary total protein and albumin in gingivitis and periodontitis were found with simple biochemical tests. A decrease in salivary flow rate among elderly and among women was noted.

  2. Salivary protein concentration, flow rate, buffer capacity and pH estimation: A comparative study among young and elderly subjects, both normal and with gingivitis and periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaila, Mulki; Pai, G Prakash; Shetty, Pushparaj

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the salivary protein concentration in gingivitis and periodontitis patients and compare the parameters like salivary total protein, salivary albumin, salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and flow rate in both young and elderly patients with simple methods. One hundred and twenty subjects were grouped based on their age as young and elderly. Each group was subgrouped (20 subjects) as controls, gingivitis and periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from patients and flow rate was noted down during collection of the sample. Salivary protein estimation was done using the Biuret method and salivary albumin was assessed using the Bromocresol green method. pH was estimated with a pHmeter and buffering capacity was analyzed with the titration method. Student's t-test, Fisher's test (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD (ANOVA) tests were used for statistical analysis. A very highly significant rise in the salivary total protein and albumin concentration was noted in gingivitis and periodontitis subjects of both young and elderly. An overall decrease in salivary flow rate was observed among the elderly, and also the salivary flow rate of women was significantly lower than that of men. Significant associations between salivary total protein and albumin in gingivitis and periodontitis were found with simple biochemical tests. A decrease in salivary flow rate among elderly and among women was noted.

  3. Telemetry System Utilization for Stress Monitoring of Pilots During Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Socha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Air transport development brings an increased focus on the safety of piloting. The safety conditions can be assessed by mental workload. Psychic discomfort or excessive stress on pilots can negatively influence the course of flights. Therefore it appears convenient to monitor such parameters, which represent the mental wellbeing, or discomfort of a pilot. Since physiological measurements can provide a good information about mental workload or stress, this work primarily focuses on the observation of the change in heart rate, as it is an indicator of stress during the training of pilots, using the designed modular telemetry system. Another aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of a change in the avionic data visualization. This can have an unfavorable effect on the piloting of an airplane. This work, based on the evaluation of heart rate shows, that the switch from analog visualization to glass cockpit creates increased levels of stress in pilots, which was proved for all examined subjects except one. Significant level of correlation in the heart beat rate change in subjects in the course of training was also discovered.

  4. Monitoring corrosion rate for ordinary portland concrete (OPC) and high-performance concrete (HPC) specimens subjected to chloride attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ismail M.E; Soleymani H.R

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results and the applicability of an electrochemical technique, the Tafel plot method, for determining the corrosion rate of reinforcing steel embedded in laboratory ordinary portland concrete (OPC...

  5. Similar elimination rates of glucagon-like peptide-1 in obese type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, T; Agersø, H; Krarup, T

    2003-01-01

    We have previously shown that type 2 diabetic patients have decreased plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) compared with healthy subjects after ingestion of a standard mixed meal. This decrease could be caused by differences in the metabolism of GLP-1. The objective...... response seen after ingestion of a standard breakfast meal must therefore be caused by a decreased secretion of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic patients....

  6. [Slowing down the rate of irreversible age-related atrophy of the thymus gland by atopic autotransplantation of its tissue, subjected to long-term cryoconservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, A V; Arkhipova, L V; Smirnova, G N; Novoselova, E G; Shpurova, N A; Shishova, N V; Sukhikh, G T

    2010-01-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed enabling to slow down the rate of irreversible atrophy of the thymus gland. The atopic autotransplantation of its tissue subjected to prolonged cryoconservation enables one to inhibit the aging of the organism with respect to several biochemical and immunological indicators.

  7. Prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis (leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose) in a population of 3645 adult subjects--consequence for measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose in the general population and measure the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in subjects with or without a positive dipstick analysis. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...

  8. Standardized laryngeal videostroboscopic rating : Differences between untrained and trained male and female subjects, and effects of varying sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Schutte, HK; Miller, DG

    To determine the influence of the factors gender, vocal training, sound intensity, pitch, and aging on vocal function, videolaryngostroboscopic images of 214 subjects, subdivided according to gender and status of vocal training, were evaluated by three judges with standardized rating scales,

  9. Energy storage and release of prosthetic feet. Part 2: subjective ratings of 2 energy storing and 2 conventional feet, user choice of foot and deciding factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, K.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; de Vries, J.; de Vries, J.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Eisma, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a study on biomechanical and functional properties of prosthetic feet. The first part dealt with a biomechanical analysis related to user benefits. This part deals with subjective ratings and deciding factors for trans-tibial amputees using 2 energy storing feet

  10. Heart Rate Variability during Simulated Hemorrhage with Lower Body Negative Pressure in High and Low Tolerant Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    rate, respiration rate, and pulse character do not consistently change until hemorrhage has progressed to the point of decompensation (i.e., hemodynamic...Absolute Aliens, Turku, Finland). Beat-to-beat stroke volume was derived from the arterial pressure waveform using the pulse contour method (Jansen et...notion that the magni- tude of tachycardia reflects the degree of hypovolemia. However, the reliability of tachycardia in response to hypovolemia has

  11. Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Residual Symptoms in Bipolar Disorder Type II: A Single-Subject Design Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holländare, Fredrik; Eriksson, Annsofi; Lövgren, Lisa; Humble, Mats B; Boersma, Katja

    2015-04-23

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition with recurring episodes that often lead to suffering, decreased functioning, and sick leave. Pharmacotherapy in the form of mood stabilizers is widely available, but does not eliminate the risk of a new depressive or (hypo)manic episode. One way to reduce the risk of future episodes is to combine pharmacological treatment with individual or group psychological interventions. However, access to such interventions is often limited due to a shortage of trained therapists. In unipolar depression there is now robust evidence of the effectiveness of Internet-based psychological interventions, usually comprising psychoeducation and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Internet-based interventions for persons suffering from bipolar disorder could increase access to psychological treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of an Internet-based intervention, as well as its effect on residual depressive symptoms in persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II (BP-II). The most important outcomes were depressive symptoms, treatment adherence, and whether the patient perceived the intervention as helpful. A total of 7 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II at a Swedish psychiatric outpatient clinic were offered the opportunity to participate. Of the 7 patients, 3 (43%) dropped out before treatment began, and 4 (57%) were treated by means of an online, Internet-based intervention based on CBT (iCBT). The intervention was primarily aimed at psychoeducation, treatment of residual depressive symptoms, emotion regulation, and improved sleep. All patients had ongoing pharmacological treatment at recruitment and established contact with a psychiatrist. The duration of BP-II among the treated patients was between 6 and 31 years. A single-subject design was used and the results of the 4 participating patients were presented individually. Initiating treatment was perceived as too demanding under current life

  12. Behaviour and modelling of aluminium alloy AA6060 subjected to a wide range of strain rates and temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilamosa Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermo-mechanical behaviour in tension of an as-cast and homogenized AA6060 alloy was investigated at a wide range of strains (the entire deformation process up to fracture, strain rates (0.01–750 s−1 and temperatures (20–350 ∘C. The tests at strain rates up to 1 s−1 were performed in a universal testing machine, while a split-Hopkinson tension bar (SHTB system was used for strain rates from 350 to 750 s−1. The samples were heated with an induction-based heating system. A typical feature of aluminium alloys at high temperatures is that necking occurs at a rather early stage of the deformation process. In order to determine the true stress-strain curve also after the onset of necking, all tests were instrumented with a digital camera. The experimental tests reveal that the AA6060 material has negligible strain-rate sensitivity (SRS for temperatures lower than 200 ∘C, while both yielding and work hardening exhibit a strong positive SRS at higher temperatures. The coupled strain-rate and temperature sensitivity is challenging to capture with most existing constitutive models. The paper presents an outline of a new semi-physical model that expresses the flow stress in terms of plastic strain, plastic strain rate and temperature. The parameters of the model were determined from the tests, and the stress-strain curves from the tests were compared with the predictions of the model. Good agreement was obtained over the entire strain rate and temperature range.

  13. Variations in height of jugular "a" wave in relation to heart rate in normal subjects and in patients with atrial septal defect.

    OpenAIRE

    Thiron, J M; Cribier, A.; Cazor, J L; Letac, B

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of jugular tracings in seven normal subjects in sinus rhythm whose heart rate varied spontaneously from one moment to another during expiratory apnoea, showed that a pronounced variation occurred in the size of the "a" waves in relation to that of the "v" waves and in accordance with the corresponding RR interval. In the 53 measurements which were carried out, the "a/v" ratio had a mean value of 0.9 for a heart rate above 87, 1.4 for a heart rate between 87 and 68, and 1.1 for a hear...

  14. The impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program in older adults with schizophrenia on subjectively and objectively measured physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eLeutwyler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA on physical activity in older adults with schizophrenia. Methods: In this one group pretest posttest pilot study, twenty participants played an active videogame for 30 minutes, once a week for 6 weeks. Physical activity was measured by self-report with the Yale Physical Activity Survey and objectively with the Sensewear Pro armband at enrollment and at the end of the 6-week program. Results: There was a significant increase in frequency of self-reported vigorous physical activity. We did not detect a statistically significant difference in objectively measured physical activity although increase in number of steps and sedentary activity were in the desired direction. Conclusions: These results suggest participants’ perception of physical activity intensity differs from the intensity objectively captured with a valid and reliable physical activity monitor.

  15. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ): factorial structure, relations to global subjective memory ratings, and Swedish norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnlund, Michael; Mäntylä, Timo; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2008-02-01

    The factorial structure of the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ; Smith et al., 2000) was examined in a Swedish population based sample (N= 540, age range; 35-90 years). Concurrent validity was assessed by relating PRMQ to global ratings of memory. Confirmatory factor analyses of the PRMQ items indicated a superior fit of a three-factor model, with prospective and retrospective memory as orthogonal factors and episodic memory as a common factor. Furthermore, the PRMQ scales correlated with the global ratings of memory, suggesting that each rating contributed with unique variance in predicting PRMQ scores. Given differences in levels of complaints as compared with prior research (Crawford et al., 2003) norms for the Swedish version are provided. In conclusion, the present findings extend earlier work by providing additional support for the construct and concurrent validity of the PRMQ scales.

  16. Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of a Polymer Matrix Composite with Different Microstructures Subjected to Off-Axis Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the comprehensive influence of three microstructure parameters (fiber cross-section shape, fiber volume fraction, and fiber off-axis orientation and strain rate on the macroscopic property of a polymer matrix composite. During the analysis, AS4 fibers are considered as elastic solids, while the surrounding PEEK resin matrix exhibiting rate sensitivities are described using the modified Ramaswamy-Stouffer viscoplastic state variable model. The micromechanical method based on generalized model of cells has been used to analyze the representative volume element of composites. An acceptable agreement is observed between the model predictions and experimental results found in the literature. The research results show that the stress-strain curves are sensitive to the strain rate and the microstructure parameters play an important role in the behavior of polymer matrix.

  17. Pilot plant demonstration of stable and efficient high rate biological nutrient removal with low dissolved oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Natalie A; Reusser, Steve R; Scarborough, Matthew J; Grooms, Alan L; Seib, Matt; Santo Domingo, Jorge; Noguera, Daniel R

    2017-09-15

    Aeration in biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes accounts for nearly half of the total electricity costs at many wastewater treatment plants. Even though conventional BNR processes are usually operated to have aerated zones with high dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, recent research has shown that nitrification can be maintained using very low-DO concentrations (e.g., below 0.2 mg O2/L), and therefore, it may be possible to reduce energy use and costs in BNR facilities by decreasing aeration. However, the effect of reduced aeration on enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is not understood. In this study, we investigated, at the pilot-scale level, the effect of using minimal aeration on the performance of an EBPR process. Over a 16-month operational period, we performed stepwise decreases in aeration, reaching an average DO concentration of 0.33 mg O2/L with stable operation and nearly 90% phosphorus removal. Under these low-DO conditions, nitrification efficiency was maintained, and nearly 70% of the nitrogen was denitrified, without the need for internal recycling of high nitrate aeration basin effluent to the anoxic zone. At the lowest DO conditions used, we estimate a 25% reduction in energy use for aeration compared to conventional BNR operation. Our improved understanding of the efficiency of low-DO BNR contributes to the global goal of reducing energy consumption during wastewater treatment operations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Postprandial glycemic excursions with the use of a closed-loop platform in subjects with type 1 diabetes: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bon, Arianne C.; Hermanides, Jeroen; Koops, Robin; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a proportional derivative algorithm closed-loop system to control postprandial glucose concentrations in subjects with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Six subjects treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion received a

  19. Reduced Regional Cortical Thickness Rate of Change in Donepezil-Treated Subjects With Suspected Prodromal Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavedo, Enrica; Dubois, Bruno; Colliot, Olivier; Lista, Simone; Croisile, Bernard; Tisserand, Guy Louis; Touchon, Jacques; Bonafe, Alain; Ousset, Pierre J; Rouaud, Olivier; Ricolfi, Fréderic; Vighetto, Alain; Pasquier, Florence; Galluzzi, Samantha; Delmaire, Christine; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Girard, Nadine; Lehericy, Stéphane; Duveau, Françoise; Chupin, Marie; Sarazin, Marie; Dormont, Didier; Hampel, Harald

    2016-12-01

    Cortical thinning, previously identified during prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a "candidate" biomarker implemented in AD clinical therapy trials. We investigated the effect of donepezil treatment on cortical thickness in mild cognitively impaired subjects with the amnestic syndrome of the hippocampal type, a prodromal at-risk group for progression to AD dementia. Data were from a longitudinal analysis of a community-based multicenter suspected prodromal AD cohort diagnosed by the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (81 donepezil vs 92 placebo) enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel group design using donepezil (10 mg/day). The study started in November 2006 and concluded in August 2010. All subjects underwent 2 brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, at baseline and at the end of the trial. Structural MRI images had been processed using the automated pipeline for longitudinal segmentation and surface reconstruction implemented in FreeSurfer. The primary outcome measure of this post hoc study was the annualized percentage change (APC) of cortical thickness. The donepezil group exhibited reduced APC cortical thinning compared to placebo in the rostral anterior cingulate (right: P = .048; left: P = .032), the orbitofrontal (right: P = .012; left: P donepezil treatment may have an impact on cortical structure/morphology in areas innervated by the medial and lateral cholinergic pathways. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00403520.

  20. Measuring Cognitive Task Demands Using Dual-Task Methodology, Subjective Self-Ratings, and Expert Judgments: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Gilabert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the usefulness of dual-task methodology, self-ratings, and expert judgments in assessing task-generated cognitive demands as a way to provide validity evidence for manipulations of task complexity. The participants were 96 students and 61 English as a second language (ESL) teachers. The students, 48 English native speakers and…

  1. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  2. Autonomic neuropathy in nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects is associated with urinary albumin excretion rate and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure: the Fredericia Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Anne-Catherine; Vestbo, Else; Frøland, Anders

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of parental type 2 diabetes on the autonomic nervous system and to determine whether autonomic neuropathy is present and associated with changes in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in nondiabetic subjects...... offspring with parental type 2 diabetes (6.7%) was significantly (P pressure...... UAER, fasting insulin level, and 24-h AMBP and a reduced diurnal blood pressure variation. This study indicates that parental type 2 diabetes has an impact on the cardiac autonomic function in nondiabetic subjects....

  3. Similar elimination rates of glucagon-like peptide-1 in obese type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Agersø, H; Krarup, T

    2003-01-01

    -67) yr; body mass index: 31.2 (27.0-37.7) kg/m(2); fasting plasma glucose: 11.9 (8.3-14.3) mmol/liter; hemoglobin A(1C): 9.6 (7.0-12.5)%]. For comparison, six matched healthy subjects were examined. Peak plasma GLP-1 concentrations increased linearly with increasing doses of GLP-1 and were similar...... statistically significant). GLP-1 was eliminated rapidly with clearances of intact GLP-1 after 2.5, 5, 15, and 25 nmol of GLP-1 amounting to: 9.0 +/- 5.0, 8.1 +/- 6.0, 4.0 +/- 1.0, 4.0 +/- 1.0 liter/min in type 2 diabetic patients and 8.4 +/- 4.2, 7.6 +/- 4.5, 5.0 +/- 2.0, 5.0 +/- 1.0 liter/min in healthy...

  4. Self-compassion training modulates alpha-amylase, heart rate variability, and subjective responses to social evaluative threat in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J; Brown, Kirk Warren; Dean, Derek J; Landy, Lauren N; Brown, Kimberley D; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of research has revealed that social evaluative stressors trigger biological and psychological responses that in chronic forms have been linked to aging and disease. Recent research suggests that self-compassion may protect the self from typical defensive responses to evaluation. We investigated whether brief training in self-compassion moderated biopsychological responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in women. Compared to attention (placebo) and no-training control conditions, brief self-compassion training diminished sympathetic (salivary alpha-amylase), cardiac parasympathetic, and subjective anxiety responses, though not HPA-axis (salivary cortisol) responses to the TSST. Self-compassion training also led to greater self-compassion under threat relative to the control groups. In that social stress pervades modern life, self-compassion represents a promising approach to diminishing its potentially negative psychological and biological effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk Stratification by 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in 5322 Subjects From 11 Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boggia, José; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    subjects (median age, 51.8 years; 43.1% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations, who had baseline measurements of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP(24)) and eGFR. We computed hazard ratios using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Median follow-up was 9.3 years. In fully adjusted models......, which included both ABP(24) and eGFR, ABP(24) predicted (P≤0.008) both total (513 deaths) and cardiovascular (206) mortality; eGFR only predicted cardiovascular mortality (P=0.012). Furthermore, ABP(24) predicted (P≤0.0056) fatal combined with nonfatal events as a result of all cardiovascular causes...... (555 events), cardiac disease (335 events), or stroke (218 events), whereas eGFR only predicted the composite cardiovascular end point and stroke (P≤0.035). The interaction terms between ABP(24) and eGFR were all nonsignificant (P≥0.082). For cardiovascular mortality, the composite cardiovascular end...

  6. Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage phiX174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal.

  7. Comparing Subjective Ratings of Sexual Arousal and Desire in Partnered Sexual Activities from Women of Different Sexual Orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Tonje J; Ryder, Andrew G; Pfaus, James G

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about non-monosexual women's sexual arousal and desire. Typically, bisexual women have been excluded from research on sexual arousal and desire, whereas mostly heterosexual and mostly lesbian women have been placed into monosexual categories. This research (1) compared the subjective sexual arousal and desire of self-identified heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian, and lesbian women in partnered sexual activities with men and with women, and (2) compared within-group differences for subjective sexual arousal and desire with men versus women for the five groups. Participants included 388 women (M age = 24.40, SD = 6.40, 188 heterosexual, 53 mostly heterosexual, 64 bisexual, 32 mostly lesbian, 51 lesbian) who filled out the Sexual Arousal and Desire Inventory (SADI). Sexual orientation was associated with sexual arousal and desire in sexual activities with both men and with women. Bisexuals reported higher sexual arousal and desire for women than heterosexuals and lesbians, while lesbians reported lower sexual arousal and desire with men than the other groups. Heterosexuals and mostly heterosexuals scored higher on the male than on the female motivational dimension of the SADI, while the reverse was found for lesbians and mostly lesbians. Findings indicate that non-monosexuals have higher sexual arousal and desire in sexual activities with women than monosexuals. Further, bisexual women did not differentiate their sexual arousal with men versus women, while the other sexual orientation groups differentiated in terms of their motivation to engage in sexual activity. These findings may have implications for how female sexual orientation is conceptualized.

  8. Temporal dynamics of the circadian heart rate following low and high volume exercise training in sedentary male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Herbert F; Karmakar, C; Kiviniemi, A M; Hautala, A J; Tulppo, M P; Mäkikallio, T H; Huikuri, H V; Khandoker, A H; Palaniswami, M

    2015-10-01

    Increased risk of arrhythmic events occurs at certain times during the circadian cycle with the highest risk being in the second and fourth quarter of the day. Exercise improves treatment outcome in individuals with cardiovascular disease. How different exercise protocols affect the circadian rhythm and the associated decrease in adverse cardiovascular risk over the circadian cycle has not been shown. Fifty sedentary male participants were randomized into an 8-week high volume and moderate volume training and a control group. Heart rate was recorded using Polar Electronics and investigated with Cosinor analysis and by Poincaré plot derived features of SD1, SD2 and the complex correlation measure (CCM) at 1-h intervals over the 24-h period. Moderate exercise significantly increased vagal modulation and the temporal dynamics of the heart rate in the second quarter of the circadian cycle (p = 0.004 and p = 0.007 respectively). High volume exercise had a similar effect on vagal output (p = 0.003) and temporal dynamics (p = 0.003). Cosinor analysis confirms that the circadian heart rate displays a shift in the acrophage following moderate and high volume exercise from before waking (1st quarter) to after waking (2nd quarter of day). Our results suggest that exercise shifts vagal influence and increases temporal dynamics of the heart rate to the 2nd quarter of the day and suggest that this may be the underlying physiological change leading to a decrease in adverse arrhythmic events during this otherwise high-risk period.

  9. Baseline CD4+ T cell counts correlates with HIV-1 synonymous rate in HLA-B*5701 subjects with different risk of disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M Norström

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available HLA-B*5701 is the host factor most strongly associated with slow HIV-1 disease progression, although risk of progression may vary among patients carrying this allele. The interplay between HIV-1 evolutionary rate variation and risk of progression to AIDS in HLA-B*5701 subjects was studied using longitudinal viral sequences from high-risk progressors (HRPs and low-risk progressors (LRPs. Posterior distributions of HIV-1 genealogies assuming a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock were used to estimate the absolute rates of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions for different set of branches. Rates of viral evolution, as well as in vitro viral replication capacity assessed using a novel phenotypic assay, were correlated with various clinical parameters. HIV-1 synonymous substitution rates were significantly lower in LRPs than HRPs, especially for sets of internal branches. The viral population infecting LRPs was also characterized by a slower increase in synonymous divergence over time. This pattern did not correlate to differences in viral fitness, as measured by in vitro replication capacity, nor could be explained by differences among subjects in T cell activation or selection pressure. Interestingly, a significant inverse correlation was found between baseline CD4+ T cell counts and mean HIV-1 synonymous rate (which is proportional to the viral replication rate along branches representing viral lineages successfully propagating through time up to the last sampled time point. The observed lower replication rate in HLA-B*5701 subjects with higher baseline CD4+ T cell counts provides a potential model to explain differences in risk of disease progression among individuals carrying this allele.

  10. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria eRuffini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT on ANS activity through changes of High Frequency, a heart rate variability index indicating the parasympathetic activity, in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group.Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults, both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in 3 groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920.Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 minutes.Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency rate (p<0.001, and decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency rate (p<0.01; results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p<0.001 and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p<0.05. Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing parasympathetic function and decreasing sympathetic activity, compared to sham therapy and control group.

  11. The responses of subjective feeling, task performance ability, cortisol and HRV for the various types of floor impact sound: a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seok Hyeon Yun; Sang Jin Park; Chang Sun Sim; Joo Hyun Sung; Ahra Kim; Jang Myeong Lee; Sang Hyun Lee; Jiho Lee

    2017-01-01

    ...) may have the different effects on the human’s body and mind. The purpose of this study is to assess the responses of subjective feeling, task performance ability, cortisol and HRV for the various types of floor impact...

  12. Diabetic Foot Prevention: Repeatability of the Loran Platform Plantar Pressure and Load Distribution Measurements in Nondiabetic Subjects during Bipedal Standing—A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Zequera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the repeatability of the Loran Platform and evaluate the variability of plantar pressure and postural balance, during barefoot standing in nondiabetic subjects, for future diabetic foot clinical evaluation. Measurements were taken for eight nondiabetic subjects (4 females, 4 males, aged 47±7.2 years who had no musculoskeletal symptoms. Five variables were measured with the platform in the barefoot standing position. Ten measurements were taken using two different techniques for feet and posture positioning, during three sessions, once a week. For most measurements, no significant effect over time was found with Student's t-test (P<.000125. The ANOVA test of statistical significance confirmed that measurement differences between subjects showed higher variations than measurements taken from the same subject (P<.001. The measurements taken by the Loran Platform system were found to be repeatable.

  13. The evaluation of music therapy process in the intersubjective perspective: the music therapy rating scale. A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Raglio, Alfredo; Traficante,; Oasi,

    2011-01-01

    A Raglio1, D Traficante2, O Oasi31Sospiro Foundation, Cremona, Italy; 2Education Technologies Research Center (CRTI), 3Department of Psychology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, ItalyAbstract: This study presents a tool (Music Therapy Rating Scale [MTRS]) to evaluate the progression of the relationship between the patient and the therapist during music therapy sessions. The rating scale was developed from an intersubjective framework and from an improvisational music therapy te...

  14. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  15. No effect of 14 day consumption of whole grain diet compared to refined grain diet on antioxidant measures in healthy, young subjects: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavin Joanne

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence supports that a diet high in whole grains is associated with lowered risk of chronic diseases included coronary heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some types of cancer. One potential mechanism for the protective properties of whole grains is their antioxidant content. The aim of this study was to compare differences in antioxidant measures when subjects consumed either refined or whole grain diets. Methods Twenty healthy subjects took part in a randomized, crossover dietary intervention study. Subjects consumed either a refined grain or whole grain diet for 14 days and then the other diet for the next 14 days. Male subjects consumed 8 servings of grains per day and female subjects consumed 6 servings of grains per day. Blood and urine samples were collected at the end of each diet. Antioxidant measures included oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC in blood, and isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in urine. Results The whole grain diet was significantly higher in dietary fiber, vitamin B6, folate, selenium, copper, zinc, iron, magnesium and cystine compared to the refined grain diet. Despite high intakes of whole grains, no significant differences were seen in any of the antioxidant measures between the refined and whole grain diets. Conclusions No differences in antioxidant measures were found when subjects consumed whole grain diets compared to refined grain diets.

  16. The effects of interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and substrate oxidation rates in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Wallis, Gareth A.; Pedersen, Bente K.

    2016-01-01

    ), substrate oxidation rates and lipid metabolism in the hours following exercise in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Following an overnight fast, ten T2D subjects (M/F: 7/3; age = 60.3 ± 2.3 years; body mass index (BMI) = 28.3 ± 1.1 kg/m2) completed three 60-min interventions in a counterbalanced......, free fatty acids and glycerol concentrations, and glycerol kinetics were increased comparably during and after IW and CW compared to CON. Conclusions Interval exercise results in greater EPOC than oxygen-consumption matched continuous exercise during a post-exercise MMTT in subjects with T2D, whereas......Background For unknown reasons, interval training often reduces body weight more than energy-expenditure matched continuous training. We compared the acute effects of time-duration and oxygen-consumption matched interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC...

  17. Metric distances between hippocampal shapes indicate different rates of change over time in nondemented and demented subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Elvan; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Ceritoğlu, Can; Wang, Lei; Morris, John C; Csernansky, John G; Miller, Michael I; Ratnanather, J Tilak

    2012-10-01

    In this article, we use longitudinal morphometry (shape and size) measures of hippocampus in subjects with mild dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) and nondemented controls in logistic discrimination. The morphometric measures we use are volume and metric distance measures at baseline and follow-up (two years apart from baseline). Morphometric differences with respect to a template hippocampus were measured by the metric distance obtained from the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM) algorithm. LDDMM assigns metric distances on the space of anatomical images, thereby allowing for the direct comparison and quantization of morphometric changes. We also apply principal component analysis (PCA) on volume and metric distance measures to obtain principal components that capture some salient aspect of morphometry. We construct classifiers based on logistic regression to distinguish diseased and healthy hippocampi (hence potentially diagnose the mild form of DAT). We consider logistic classifiers based on volume and metric distance change over time (from baseline to follow-up), on the raw volumes and metric distances, and on principal components from various types of PCA analysis. We provide a detailed comparison of the performance of these classifiers and guidelines for their practical use. Moreover, combining the information conveyed by volume and metric distance measures by PCA can provide a better biomarker for detection of dementia compared to volume, metric distance, or both.

  18. Fish community reassembly after a coral mass mortality: higher trophic groups are subject to increased rates of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, David; Pinyol-Gallemí, Aleix; Alcoverro, Teresa; Arthur, Rohan

    2015-05-01

    Since Gleason and Clements, our understanding of community dynamics has been influenced by theories emphasising either dispersal or niche assembly as central to community structuring. Determining the relative importance of these processes in structuring real-world communities remains a challenge. We tracked reef fish community reassembly after a catastrophic coral mortality in a relatively unfished archipelago. We revisited the stochastic model underlying MacArthur and Wilson's Island Biogeography Theory, with a simple extension to account for trophic identity. Colonisation and extinction rates calculated from decadal presence-absence data based on (1) species neutrality, (2) trophic identity and (3) site-specificity were used to model post-disturbance reassembly, and compared with empirical observations. Results indicate that species neutrality holds within trophic guilds, and trophic identity significantly increases overall model performance. Strikingly, extinction rates increased clearly with trophic position, indicating that fish communities may be inherently susceptible to trophic downgrading even without targeted fishing of top predators. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. The effect on heart rate of combining single-dose fingolimod with steady-state atenolol or diltiazem in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, John M; Lu, Michael; Riviere, Gilles-Jacques; Barbet, Irene; Maton, Steve; Goldwater, D Ronald; Schmouder, Robert L

    2008-05-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator fingolimod (FTY720) is known to elicit a negative chronotropic effect at treatment initiation that attenuates over time with continued dosing. The authors determined the effect of combining a single dose of fingolimod with steady-state atenolol or diltiazem on heart rate and mean arterial pressure. In a partially randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, three-period, crossover study, 25 healthy subjects received (1) a single oral 5-mg dose of fingolimod, (2) either 50 mg atenolol or 240 mg diltiazem once daily for 5 days, and (3) the antihypertensive for 5 days and a single dose of fingolimod on day 5. Telemetry and pharmacokinetic data were collected. The daytime mean heart rate nadir was 15% lower when fingolimod was combined with atenolol (42 +/- 7 bpm) compared with fingolimod alone (51 +/- 9 bpm) yielding a combination/monotherapy ratio of 0.85 (90%CI, 0.79-0.92). The daytime mean heart rate nadir from fingolimod alone (55 +/- 5 bpm) was not altered when combined with diltiazem (56 +/- 8 bpm) yielding a ratio of 0.99 (0.94-1.05). There was no clinically relevant change in mean arterial pressure when fingolimod was administered with atenolol or diltiazem compared with administration of the drugs alone in normotensive subjects. The pharmacokinetics of the drugs were not altered during coadministration. Adding fingolimod to a beta-blocker such as atenolol resulted in a moderately lower mean heart rate nadir compared with fingolimod alone. However, subjects who had a stronger negative chronotropic response to fingolimod alone (nadir < 50 bpm) had minimal or no further reduction in heart rate with the drug combination. Adding fingolimod to a calcium channel blocker such as diltiazem did not further lower the heart rate compared to fingolimod alone.

  20. Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? A Summary of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle N; Howell, Tony

    2016-07-01

    Animal studies and human observational data link energy restriction (ER) to reduced rates of carcinogenesis. Most of these studies have involved continuous energy restriction (CER), but there is increasing public and scientific interest in the potential health and anticancer effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) or intermittent fasting (IF), which comprise periods of marked ER or total fasting interspersed with periods of normal eating. This review summarizes animal studies that assessed tumor rates with IER and IF compared with CER or ad libitum feed consumption. The relevance of these animal data to human cancer is also considered by summarizing available human studies of the effects of IER or IF compared with CER on cancer biomarkers in obese, overweight, and normal-weight subjects. IER regimens that include periods of ER alternating with ad libitum feed consumption for 1, 2, or 3 wk have been reported to be superior to CER in reducing tumor rates in most spontaneous mice tumor models. Limited human data from short-term studies (≤6 mo) in overweight and obese subjects have shown that IER can lead to greater improvements in insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment) than can CER, with comparable reductions in adipokines and inflammatory markers and minor changes in the insulin-like growth factor axis. There are currently no data comparing IER or IF with CER in normal-weight subjects. The benefits of IER in these short-term trials are of interest, but not sufficient evidence to recommend the use of IER above CER. Longer-term human studies of adherence to and efficacy and safety of IER are required in obese and overweight subjects, as well as normal-weight subjects. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? A Summary of Evidence12

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies and human observational data link energy restriction (ER) to reduced rates of carcinogenesis. Most of these studies have involved continuous energy restriction (CER), but there is increasing public and scientific interest in the potential health and anticancer effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) or intermittent fasting (IF), which comprise periods of marked ER or total fasting interspersed with periods of normal eating. This review summarizes animal studies that assessed tumor rates with IER and IF compared with CER or ad libitum feed consumption. The relevance of these animal data to human cancer is also considered by summarizing available human studies of the effects of IER or IF compared with CER on cancer biomarkers in obese, overweight, and normal-weight subjects. IER regimens that include periods of ER alternating with ad libitum feed consumption for 1, 2, or 3 wk have been reported to be superior to CER in reducing tumor rates in most spontaneous mice tumor models. Limited human data from short-term studies (≤6 mo) in overweight and obese subjects have shown that IER can lead to greater improvements in insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment) than can CER, with comparable reductions in adipokines and inflammatory markers and minor changes in the insulin-like growth factor axis. There are currently no data comparing IER or IF with CER in normal-weight subjects. The benefits of IER in these short-term trials are of interest, but not sufficient evidence to recommend the use of IER above CER. Longer-term human studies of adherence to and efficacy and safety of IER are required in obese and overweight subjects, as well as normal-weight subjects. PMID:27422504

  2. Autonomic control of heart rate during non-linear incremental upper-limb resistance exercise with elastic bands in young healthy female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Batalha, Priscila; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Campos Freire, Renato; Zanela DA Silva Arêas, Fernando; Peixoto Tinoco Arêas, Guilherme

    2016-11-01

    Elastic bands are therapeutic tools widely used in rehabilitation. However, knowledge regarding autonomic cardiovascular overload during this type of resistance exercise is limited. This study assessed the autonomic control of heart rate during an incremental exercise protocol with elastic bands in sedentary healthy young individuals. Ten young women were subjected to an exercise protocol involving bilateral shoulder flexion to 90° with various thicknesses of elastic bands; the exercise was performed for 36 uninterrupted repetitions with a 15-minute rest interval between sets. During the exercise, the RR intervals (R-Ri) were collected and determined, the heart rate variability was analyzed. All subjects completed the exercise protocol. Heart rate increased, and RR intervals decreased from the yellow elastic band onward. However, the square root of the sum of the square of the difference of RR intervals divided by the number of RR interval, standard deviation of the arithmetic mean of all normal RR intervals, and standard deviation of the RR interval instantaneous intervals of type I decreased significantly when performed with the green band onward (Pheart rate. However, the green elastic band induces less total and parasympathetic modulation heart rate variability.

  3. Assessment of Salivary Flow Rate and pH Among Areca Nut Chewers and Oral Submucous Fibrosis Subjects: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Khader, Nishat Fatima; Dyasanoor, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Background: To assess and compare the salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary pH among areca nut chewers, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and apparently healthy individuals. Methods: A comparative study was conducted to assess and compare the SFR and pH among 135 outpatients (45 areca nut chewers + 45 OSMF + 45 control) at The Oxford Dental College and Research Hospital, Bangalore, India. Subjects were interviewed using structural proforma and Modified Schirmer strips and pH paper were ...

  4. Genomic study and Medical Subject Headings enrichment analysis of early pregnancy rate and antral follicle numbers in Nelore heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Junior, G. A.; Perez, B. C.; Cole, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Zebu animals (Bos indicus) are known to take longer to reach puberty compared with taurine animals (Bos taurus), limiting the supply of animals for harvest or breeding and impacting profitability. Genomic information can be a helpful tool to better understand complex traits and improve genetic...... gains. In this study, we performed a genomewide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants associated with reproductive traits in Nelore beef cattle. Heifer pregnancy (HP) was recorded for 1,267 genotyped animals distributed in 12 contemporary groups (CG) with an average pregnancy rate of 0.......35 (+/- 0.01). Disregarding one of these CG, the number of antral follicles (NF) was also collected for 937 of these animals, with an average of 11.53 (+/- 4.43). The animals were organized in CG: 12 and 11 for HP and NF, respectively. Genes in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the associated variants can...

  5. Effects of aeration method and aeration rate on greenhouse gas emissions during composting of pig feces in pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Li, Guoxue; Tang, Qiong; Ma, Xuguang; Wang, Gang; Schuchardt, Frank

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to uncover ways to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduce energy consumption during the composting process. We assessed the effects of different aeration rates (0, 0.18, 0.36, and 0.54 L/(kg dry matter (dm)·min)) and methods (continuous and intermittent) on GHG emissions. Pig feces and corn stalks were mixed at a ratio of 7:1. The composting process lasted for 10 weeks, and the compost was turned approximately every 2 weeks. Results showed that both aeration rate and method significantly affected GHG emissions. Higher aeration rates increased NH3 and N2O losses, but reduced CH4 emissions. The exception is that the CH4 emission of the passive aeration treatment was lower than that of the low aeration rate treatment. Without forced aeration, the CH4 diffusion rates in the center of the piles were very low and part of the CH4 was oxidized in the surface layer. Intermittent aeration reduced NH3 and CH4 losses, but significantly increased N2O production during the maturing periods. Intermittent aeration increased the nitrification/denitrification alternation and thus enhanced the N2O production. Forced aeration treatments had higher GHG emission rates than the passive aeration treatment. Forced aeration accelerated the maturing process, but could not improve the quality of the end product. Compared with continuous aeration, intermittent aeration could increase the O2 supply efficiency and reduced the total GHG emission by 17.8%, and this reduction increased to 47.4% when composting was ended after 36 days. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Reduction of death rate due to acute myocardial infarction in subjects with cancers through systemic restoration of impaired nitric oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwary Ghosh

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Excessive aggregation of platelets at the site of plaque rupture on the coronary artery led to the formation of thrombus which is reported to precipitate acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Nitric oxide (NO has been reported to inhibit platelet aggregation and induce thrombolysis through the in situ formation of plasmin. As the plasma NO level in AMI patients from two different ethnic groups was reduced to 0 µM (median compared to 4.0 µM (median in normal controls, the effect of restoration of the NO level to normal ranges on the rate of death due to AMI was determined. METHODS AND RESULTS: The restoration of plasma NO level was achieved by a sticking small cotton pad (10×25 mm containing 0.28 mmol sodium nitroprusside (SNP in 0.9% NaCl to the abdominal skin of the participants using non-toxic adhesive tape which was reported to normalize the plasma NO level. The participants (8,283 were volunteers in an independent study who had different kinds of cancers and did not wish to use any conventional therapy for their condition but opted to receive SNP "pad" for their condition for 3 years. The use of SNP "pad" which normalized (≈4.0 µM the plasma NO level that in consequence reduced the death rate due to AMI, among the participants, was found to be significantly reduced compared to the death due to AMI in normal population. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that the use of SNP "pad" significantly reduced the death due to AMI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.ctri.nic.in CTRI/2013/12/004236.

  7. Salivary flow rates measured during radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients: a pilot study assessing salivary sediment formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Mark S; Tomsett, Kelley L; Artopoulou, Ioli I; Garden, Adam S; El-Naggar, Adel K; Martin, Jack W; Keene, Harris J

    2008-08-01

    Xerostomia often occurs in patients being managed for head and neck cancer who receive radiation therapy. Although accurate salivary sampling can be therapeutically important to measure during radiation, sampling errors can occur because of salivary sediments. Determining the impact that salivary sediments have on measured salivary flow rates during radiation is important for management of patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude of error associated with the inclusion of nonsalivary components (sediment) in the calculation of whole stimulated saliva flow rates prior to and during radiation therapy (SS and SSR) in patients with head and neck cancer. Whole paraffin-stimulated saliva was collected in large-mouth centrifuge tubes from 20 patients with head and neck cancer prior to and during the third week of radiation therapy. Gravimetric methods were used to calculate the flow rates at g/5 min. After centrifugation, supernatant saliva was removed and the sediment was oven-dried to remove residual moisture. Sediment weight was subtracted from the original weight of saliva specimens and flow rates were recalculated. Means and standard deviations were determined and flow rate differences before (BC) and after (AC) sediment correction were evaluated statistically with the paired t test (alpha=.05). A nonparametric analysis of the flow rate data with the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was also used to examine the magnitude and direction of the intrapair (BC-AC) differences (alpha=.05). On average, salivary sediment contributed less than 1% of the total uncorrected weight of saliva prior to radiation therapy. In specimens collected during radiation therapy, sediment contributed an average of 14% of the total uncorrected weight and as high as 95.4% in 1 patient. Sediment percentages were 20% and higher in 4 patients. In the Wilcoxon analysis, 19 out of 20 paired BC and AC flow rates were higher in the BC group in the SS and SSR samples. The

  8. Subjective stress, objective heart rate variability-based stress, and recovery on workdays among overweight and psychologically distressed individuals: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föhr, Tiina; Tolvanen, Asko; Myllymäki, Tero; Järvelä-Reijonen, Elina; Rantala, Sanni; Korpela, Riitta; Peuhkuri, Katri; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Puttonen, Sampsa; Lappalainen, Raimo; Rusko, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate how subjective self-reported stress is associated with objective heart rate variability (HRV)-based stress and recovery on workdays. Another aim was to investigate how physical activity (PA), body composition, and age are associated with subjective stress, objective stress, and recovery. Working-age participants (n = 221; 185 women, 36 men) in this cross-sectional study were overweight (body mass index, 25.3-40.1 kg/m(2)) and psychologically distressed (≥3/12 points on the General Health Questionnaire). Objective stress and recovery were based on HRV recordings over 1-3 workdays. Subjective stress was assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale. PA level was determined by questionnaire, and body fat percentage was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Subjective stress was directly associated with objective stress (P = 0.047) and inversely with objective recovery (P = 0.046). These associations persisted after adjustments for sex, age, PA, and body fat percentage. Higher PA was associated with lower subjective stress (P = 0.037). Older age was associated with higher objective stress (P subjective stress (P = 0.043). The present results suggest that subjective self-reported stress is associated with objective physiological stress, but they are also apparently affected by different factors. However, some of the found associations among these overweight and psychologically distressed participants with low inter-individual variation in PA are rather weak and the clinical value of the present findings should be studied further among participants with greater heterogeneity of stress, PA and body composition. However, these findings suggest that objective stress assessment provides an additional aspect to stress evaluation. Furthermore, the results provide valuable information for developing stress assessment methods.

  9. Urban-rural differences in social capital in relation to self-rated health and subjective well-being in older residents of six regions in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Zawisza, Katarzyna

    2017-06-12

    The aim of the study was to assess the differences between rural and urban areas as regards the role of social capital and its effect on self-rated health and subjective well-being among older people in Poland. The sample was selected on the basis of multi-stage clustered design from the non-institutionalized adult population. Analysis was based on 1,299 elderly people aged 65 and over from the general Polish population who participated in the COURAGE in Europe project. Six regions of Poland were distinguished according to first level of Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics (NUTS) classification . As an indicator of social capital, the COURAGE Social Network Index, the OSLO-3 Social Support Scale, and the three item UCLA Loneliness scale were used, as well as social participation and trust was assessed. Self-rated health (SRH) was measured by WHO-Europe recommended version (ranging from 'very good' to 'very bad'). Well-being was assessed by the Day Reconstruction Method. Results: The results showed that in urban areas, social network and social participation supported positive self-rated health; in rural, older residents the number of years of education and social support played the same role, while self-rated health decreased with an increasing level of loneliness. Self-rated health decreased in both groups of older people with a growing number of diseases. The multivariate linear regression model of predictors of well-being in older age also confirmed differences between urban and rural elderly residents. In rural residents, subjective well-being significantly increased with the positive effect of the social network. In both urban and rural areas, poor assessment of subjective well-being in older age increased with a higher level of loneliness and growing number of chronic diseases.

  10. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate in diabetic subjects: Cockcroft formula or modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigalleau, Vincent; Lasseur, Catherine; Perlemoine, Caroline; Barthe, Nicole; Raffaitin, C; Liu, Chung; Chauveau, Phillipe; Baillet-Blanco, Laurence; Beauvieux, Marie-Christine; Combe, C; Gin, Henri

    2005-04-01

    The Cockcroft-Gault formula is recommended for the evaluation of renal function in diabetic patients. The more recent Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation seems more accurate, but it has not been validated in diabetic patients. This study compares the two methods. In 160 diabetic patients, we compared the Cockcroft-Gault formula and MDRD equation estimations to glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) measured by an isotopic method ((51)Cr-EDTA) by correlation studies and a Bland-Altman procedure. Their accuracy for the diagnosis of moderately (GFR formula (r = 0.74; P formula. Analysis of ROC curves showed that the MDRD equation had a better maximal accuracy for the diagnosis of moderate (areas under the curve [AUCs] 0.868 for the Cockcroft-Gault formula and 0.927 for the MDRD equation; P = 0.012) and severe renal failure (AUC 0.883 for the Cockcroft-Gault formula and 0.962 for the MDRD equation; P = 0.0001). In the 87 patients with renal insufficiency, the MDRD equation estimation was better correlated with isotopic GFR (Cockcroft-Gault formula r = 0.57; the MDRD equation r = 0.78; P < 0.01), and it was not biased as evaluated by the Bland-Altman procedure. Although both equations have imperfections, the MDRD equation is more accurate for the diagnosis and stratification of renal failure in diabetic patients.

  11. Feasibility of strain and strain rate imaging for the assessment of regional left atrial deformation: a study in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbu, C; Herbots, L; D'hooge, J; Claus, P; Marciniak, A; Langeland, T; Bijnens, B; Rademakers, F E; Sutherland, G R

    2006-06-01

    There are no data on the use of Myocardial Velocity Imaging (MVI) to study the left atrium (LA) wall deformation. The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility of measuring regional longitudinal strain/strain rate (epsilon/SR) profiles in the LA wall, to define the normal values and to validate these measurements. MVI data were recorded in 40 healthy young individuals using a GE Vivid7 for the lateral, anterior and inferior LA walls. The peak epsilon/SR values and total epsilon values during the contractile, reservoir and conduit LA phases were measured. For the LA lateral wall, the total epsilon values were correlated with the LA volumetric indicators (LA active emptying fraction: LA AEF; LA expansion index: LA EI; and LA passive emptying fraction: LA PEF). The correlations were significant for all three periods: contractile (total epsilon vs. LA AEF, r=-0.78, P<0.001), reservoir (total epsilon vs. LA EI, r=0.43, P<0.01) and conduit (total epsilon vs. LA PEF, r=-0.46, P<0.005). SR/epsilon imaging for the quantification of longitudinal myocardial LA deformation was shown to be feasible and the normal values were reported and validated. These data may improve the understanding of the LA pathophysiology.

  12. Comparing success rates of anesthesia providers versus trauma surgeons in their use of palpation to identify the cricothyroid membrane in female subjects: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Kenneth N; Karni, Ron J; Cai, Chunyun; Holcomb, John B; Hagberg, Carin A

    2016-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to compare the success rates of anesthesia providers vs trauma surgeons in their use of palpation to identify the cricothyroid membrane (CTM). The secondary aim was to explore whether prior training and experience performing surgical airways affected the success rates for identifying the CTM. Four female adults participated in this prospective observational study. The participants had varying measurements of neck anatomy that were known or theorized to affect the accuracy of identifying the CTM location. For test purposes, the subjects were positioned with optimal neck extension via placement of a shoulder roll. Anesthesia providers (n = 57) and surgeons (n = 14) of various training levels and clinical experience marked the presumed CTM location on each subject. These palpation markings were then referenced against the ultrasound-confirmed CTM location, and the success rates for identifying the CTM were compared between groups. The overall success rate using palpation to identify the CTM was ≤ 50%, and there were no differences in success rates between the anesthesia providers and trauma surgeons (16% vs 26%, respectively; absolute difference, -10%; 95% confidence interval, -23 to 3; P = 0.15). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the success rates for identifying the CTM based on either clinical experience or emergency surgical airway experience. The success rates for identifying the CTM using palpation were low and not significantly different for anesthesia providers and surgeons, collectively, as well as for the various levels of training. Anesthesiologists' ability to mark the CTM location correctly did not improve with years of experience.

  13. The response of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) subjected to large strains, high strain rates, high pressures, a range in temperatures, and variations in the intermediate principal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, T. J.; Bradley, J.; Dwivedi, A.; Casem, D.

    2016-05-01

    This article presents the response of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) subjected to large strains, high strain rates, high pressures, a range in temperatures, and variations in the intermediate principal stress. Laboratory data from the literature, and new test data provided here, are used in the evaluation. The new data include uniaxial stress compression tests (at various strain rates and temperatures) and uniaxial stress tension tests (at low strain rates and ambient temperatures). The compression tests include experiments at ˙ɛ = 13,000 s-1, significantly extending the range of known strain rate data. The observed behavior of PMMA includes the following: it is brittle in compression at high rates, and brittle in tension at all rates; strength is dependent on the pressure, strain, strain rate, temperature, and the intermediate principal stress; the shear modulus increases as the pressure increases; and it is highly compressible. Also presented are novel, high velocity impact tests (using high-speed imaging) that provide insight into the initiation and evolution of damage. Lastly, computational constitutive models for pressure, strength, and failure are presented that provide responses that are in good agreement with the laboratory data. The models are used to compute several ballistic impact events for which experimental data are available.

  14. Flight Simulator Platform Motion and Air Transport Pilot Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.; Bussolari, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of flight simulator platform motion on pilot training and performance was examined In two studies utilizing a B-727-200 aircraft simulator. The simulator, located at Ames Research Center, Is certified by the FAA for upgrade and transition training in air carrier operations. Subjective ratings and objective performance of experienced B-727 pilots did not reveal any reliable effects of wide variations In platform motion de- sign. Motion platform variations did, however, affect the acquisition of control skill by pilots with no prior heavy aircraft flying experience. The effect was limited to pitch attitude control inputs during the early phase of landing training. Implications for the definition of platform motion requirements in air transport pilot training are discussed.

  15. The success rate of narrow body implants used for supporting immediate provisional restorations: a pilot feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hom-Lay; Okayasu, Kozue; Fu, Jia-Hui; Hamerink, Howard A; Layher, Mary G; Rudek, Ivan Elimar

    2012-12-01

    Implants were first designed to be used in the reconstruction of edentulous mandibles. However, with the technological advancement, enormous changes were made to improve the implant design and surface characteristics leading to the wide use of implants in the replacement of missing teeth. During the transition from an edentulous span to a fixed prosthesis, narrow body implants (NBIs) have been proposed to enhance patient comfort and function. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the survival and success rates of NBIs used for supporting immediately nonfunctional loaded provisional fixed partial denture (PFPD). Either 2.2- or 2.4-mm-diameter dental implants were placed transmucosally into the edentulous ridges of 10 partially edentulous patients. PFPD of self-cured bis-acryl composite material were made using either a vacuform template chairside or a relined prefabricated PFPD. Occlusal adjustments were made to ensure that there was no functional loading on the provisional restorations before they were secured onto the transitional implants. At 1 year, the implant success and survival rates were 38.7% and 93.5%, respectively, with a mean percentage of bone loss of 9.46% (0%-40%) and a mean bone loss of 1.19 mm (range: 0-3.5 mm). With a favorable implant survival rate, the use of NBIs to support provisional restorations seemed to be a feasible treatment option. In addition, there is merit for research on the long-term use of NBIs-supported final prostheses.

  16. Evaluation of the effects of the Arm Light Exoskeleton on movement execution and muscle activities: a pilot study on healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, Elvira; Coscia, Martina; Marcheschi, Simone; Roas, Gianluca; Salsedo, Fabio; Frisoli, Antonio; Bergamasco, Massimo; Micera, Silvestro

    2016-01-23

    Exoskeletons for lower and upper extremities have been introduced in neurorehabilitation because they can guide the patient's limb following its anatomy, covering many degrees of freedom and most of its natural workspace, and allowing the control of the articular joints. The aims of this study were to evaluate the possible use of a novel exoskeleton, the Arm Light Exoskeleton (ALEx), for robot-aided neurorehabilitation and to investigate the effects of some rehabilitative strategies adopted in robot-assisted training. We studied movement execution and muscle activities of 16 upper limb muscles in six healthy subjects, focusing on end-effector and joint kinematics, muscle synergies, and spinal maps. The subjects performed three dimensional point-to-point reaching movements, without and with the exoskeleton in different assistive modalities and control strategies. The results showed that ALEx supported the upper limb in all modalities and control strategies: it reduced the muscular activity of the shoulder's abductors and it increased the activity of the elbow flexors. The different assistive modalities favored kinematics and muscle coordination similar to natural movements, but the muscle activity during the movements assisted by the exoskeleton was reduced with respect to the movements actively performed by the subjects. Moreover, natural trajectories recorded from the movements actively performed by the subjects seemed to promote an activity of muscles and spinal circuitries more similar to the natural one. The preliminary analysis on healthy subjects supported the use of ALEx for post-stroke upper limb robotic assisted rehabilitation, and it provided clues on the effects of different rehabilitative strategies on movement and muscle coordination.

  17. The Influence of New Colored Light Stimulation Methods on Heart Rate Variability, Temperature, and Well-Being: Results of a Pilot Study in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Litscher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes of light intensity of different colors can shift many physiological parameters and conditions like melatonin, alertness, body temperature, heart rate (HR, and heart rate variability (HRV. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate acute temperature, HR, HRV, and state of mind reactivities after illumination with red (631 nm and blue (456 nm light (illuminance 140 lux for both. Seven healthy volunteers (5 females, 2 males; mean age ± SD 34.1 ± 11.9 years were investigated at the Medical University of Graz, using new color light panels. Significant decreases were found only after 10 min blue light stimulation in nose temperature (P=0.046, HR (P<0.05, and total HRV (P=0.029, in association with a significant alteration of the emotional state (stress level score, P=0.006. However, red light stimulation of the same persons did not induce the same effects in these parameters. The effect of blue light as environmental stimulation on human health is not clarified in detail and needs further investigations.

  18. Pupils' Activities in a Multimaterial Learning Environment in Craft subject A Pilot Study using an Experience Sampling Method based on a Mobile Application in Classroom Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Jaatinen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates holistic craft processes in craft education with an instrument for data-collection and self-assessment. Teaching in a study context is based on co-teaching and a design process, highlighted by the Finnish Basic Education Core Curriculum 2014. The school architecture and web-based learning environment is combined. Division for textiles and technical work is no longer supported in this multimaterial learning environment. The aim of the study is to 1 make pupils’ holistic craft processes visible in everyday classroom practices with information collected by a mobile-application and 2 point out the curriculum topics that are covered during everyday classroom practices as defined by the teachers. The data is collected using an Experience Sampling Method with a gamified learning analytics instrument. Teachers’ classroom activities were used as the backbone for the thematic mapping of the craft curriculum. Preliminary measurements were carried out in a Finnish primary school in grades 5–6 (age 10–12, n = 125 during a four-week period in October-November 2016. The list of classroom activities was updated after the four weeks’ experiment and was tested in March-May 2017 with all the pupils of the pilot school (N = 353. The key findings were that a for pupils the self-assessment was easy as a technical process but there were several factors in the everyday classroom settings that made the process challenging and b it was relatively difficult for teachers to describe the classroom activities in terms of the new curriculum; however, after four weeks they could not only described the activities in more details but had also developed new activities that supported the ideas of the new curriculum better.Keywords: multi-material craft, learning environment, holistic craft process, experience sampling method

  19. Evaluation of 21-numbered circle and 10-centimeter horizontal line visual analog scales for physician and parent subjective ratings in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filocamo, Giovanni; Davì, Sergio; Pistorio, Angela; Bertamino, Marta; Ruperto, Nicolino; Lattanzi, Bianca; Consolaro, Alessandro; Magni-Manzoni, Silvia; Galasso, Roberta; Varnier, Giulia Camilla; Martini, Alberto; Ravelli, Angelo

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the measurement properties of 21-numbered circle visual analog scales (VAS) and traditional 10-cm horizontal line VAS for physician and parent subjective ratings in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We studied 2 patient samples in whom physician global rating of overall disease activity, parent global rating of the child's overall well-being, and parent rating of intensity of child's pain were performed using traditional 10-cm horizontal line VAS (n = 397) or 21-numbered circle VAS (n = 471). The measurement performances of the 2 VAS formats were examined by assessing construct validity, score distribution, responsiveness to change over time, and minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Most Spearman correlations with other JIA outcome measures yielded by 21-numbered circle VAS were greater than those obtained with 10-cm horizontal line VAS, revealing that the circle VAS format has better construct validity. Ceiling effects (i.e., score = 0) for physician and parent global ratings were 43.7% and 32.9%, respectively, on 21-numbered circle VAS, and 31.6% and 35.3%, respectively, on 10-cm horizontal line VAS. Responsiveness of 21-numbered circle VAS was good (standardized response mean > 0.8) or moderate (standardized response mean > 0.6) among patients classified as improved or worsened, respectively, by the physician or the parent. Overall, MCID values for 21-numbered circle VAS tended to be greater for worsening than for improvement. The 21-numbered circle VAS are a suitable alternative to the 10-cm horizontal line VAS and may facilitate incorporation of physician and parent subjective ratings in standard clinical practice.

  20. Pregnancy rate evaluation in lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination using injectable progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI protocols utilize progesterone (P4 as a hormonal source to achieve synchronization of estrus in cattle. The use of an injectable P4 source to control estrus would be an interesting pharmacological strategy owing to the practicality of parenteral application. However, the effects of injectable P4 on estrus cycle control in cattle remain poorly studied. In particular, no existing studies have investigated the effect of injectable P4 on the fertility of cows subjected to FTAI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rate of lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4. Of the 422 non-lactating cows in this study, 162 (38.3% became pregnant by 60 days post-FTAI. In the lactating group (n = 516, 166 (32.1% were pregnant by 60 days after treatment with injectable P4. The proportions of lactating and non-lactating cows becoming pregnant were compared using the chi-square test, adopting a significance level of P < 0.05. It was found that the pregnancy rate of the cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4 was influenced by lactation status. Lactating cows had lower reproductive performance, possibly because of their higher nutritional requirements. However, the use of injectable P4 shows promising results and may prove to be a useful strategy in large-scale livestock production.

  1. Lean body mass-adjusted Cockcroft and Gault formula improves the estimation of glomerular filtration rate in subjects with normal-range serum creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai H; Lim, Ee M; McDonald, Stephen

    2006-06-01

    Assessment of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in individuals with normal-range serum creatinine is important in certain clinical situations, such as in potential living kidney donors. Accurate measurements of GFR invariably involve using an invasive method (e.g. inulin clearances), but is inconvenient. The aim of the present study was to determine whether serum creatinine-based prediction formulae adjusted for lean body mass (LBM) could improve the accuracy of GFR estimation in these subjects. Glomerular filtration rate was determined by the clearance of technetium-99m-labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid ((99m)Tc DTPA) from plasma in 56 subjects with normal serum creatinine. For each subject, GFR was estimated using prediction formulae +/- LBM adjustment and compared with measured GFR. Formulae analysed include Cockcroft-Gault, Levey, Gates, Mawer, Hull, Toto, Jellife and Bjornsson. All formulae +/- LBM adjustment underestimated measured GFR, with poor precision, poor agreement and correlation (r (2) formulae correctly classified those with a normal measured GFR. LBM-adjusted formulae significantly improved the accuracy of GFR estimation compared with unadjusted formulae. The lean body mass-adjusted Cockcroft-Gault formula was the closest to measured GFR but is not accurate enough to replace radionuclide GFR measurement. Prediction formulae should be adjusted for LBM to improve GFR estimation.

  2. Self-rated health status and subjective health complaints associated with health-promoting lifestyles among urban Chinese women: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingru Cheng

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH and subjective health complaints (SHC of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL.We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II. Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL.Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%, eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%, and insomnia (1542, 18.9%. Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000 and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37.Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives.

  3. Pilot clinical study of the effects of ginger root extract on eicosanoids in colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Suzanna M; Turgeon, D Kim; Ren, Jianwei; Ruffin, Mack T; Wright, Benjamin D; Sen, Ananda; Djuric, Zora; Brenner, Dean E

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a significant cause of mortality. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX) and thus prostaglandin E2, are promising CRC preventives, but have significant toxicities. Ginger has been shown to inhibit COX, to decrease the incidence and multiplicity of adenomas, and decrease PGE2 concentrations in subjects at normal risk for CRC. This study was conducted to determine the effects of 2.0 g/d of ginger given orally on the levels of PGE2, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids, and 5-, 12-, & 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, in the colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for CRC. We randomized 20 subjects to 2.0 g/d ginger or placebo for 28 d. At baseline and Day 28, a flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to obtain colon biopsies. A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was used to determine eicosanoid levels in the biopsies, and levels were expressed per amount of protein or free arachidonic acid (AA). There was a significant decrease in AA between baseline and Day 28 (P = 0.05) and significant increase in LTB4 (P = 0.04) when normalized to protein, in subjects treated with ginger versus placebo. No other changes in eicosanoids were observed. There was no difference between the groups in total adverse events (AE; P = 0.06). Ginger lacks the ability to decrease eicosanoid levels in people at increased risk for CRC. Ginger did appear to be both tolerable and safe; and could have chemopreventive effects through other mechanisms. Further investigation should focus on other markers of CRC risk in those at increased CRC risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A pilot trial on subjects with lactose and/or oligosaccharides intolerance treated with a fixed mixture of pure and enteric-coated α- and ß-galactosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Alexander Bertuccioli,2 Eleonora Marini,3 Leandro Ivaldi4 1Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 2Italian Association Fitness and Medicine, Fano, PU, Italy; 3Pharmextracta, Pontenure, Piacenza, Italy; 4Digestive Endoscopic Department, Ceva Hospital, Ceva, Cuneo, Italy Aim: Lactose and complex carbohydrates maldigestion, common food intolerances due to low gut content of α- and ß-galactosidase, lead to abdominal symptoms including pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Commonly, intolerant patients are advised by physicians to avoid the offending foods (dairy foods, cereals, beans, etc. This food-limiting option, however, has possible nutritional risks. We have therefore evaluated the impact of using pure, enteric-coated α- plus ß-galactosidase on gut symptoms in intolerant subjects instead of avoidance of the offending foods. Methods: Sixteen subjects intolerant to lactose and/or complex carbohydrates were enrolled and evaluated in terms of gut symptoms with 1 uncontrolled diet, 2 diet devoid of offending foods, and 3 uncontrolled diet along with pure, enteric-coated α- and ß-galactosidase (DDM Galactosidase®. Results: Even with the uncontrolled diet, intolerant subjects treated with DDM Galactosidase® exhibited reduced gut symptoms (bloating, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation significantly better than the control treatment as well as having a diet devoid of offending foods. Conclusion: DDM Galactosidase® is a valid and safe optional treatment to counteract lactose and complex carbohydrate intolerance in subjects who prefer not to avoid, at least partially, offending foods. Keywords: lactase, lactose intolerance, complex carbohydrate intolerance

  5. Objective and subjective assessment of sleep in chronic low back pain patients compared with healthy age and gender matched controls: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heneghan Conor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While approximately 70% of chronic low back pain (CLBP sufferers complain of sleep disturbance, current literature is based on self report measures which can be prone to bias and no objective data of sleep quality, based exclusively on CLBP are available. In accordance with the recommendations of The American Sleep Academy, when measuring sleep, both subjective and objective assessments should be considered as the two are only modestly correlated, suggesting that each modality assesses different aspects of an individual's sleep experience. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to expand previous research into sleep disturbance in CLBP by comparing objective and subjective sleep quality in participants with CLBP and healthy age and gender matched controls, to identify correlates of poor sleep and to test logistics and gather information prior to a larger study. Methods 15 CLBP participants (mean age = 43.8 years (SD = 11.5, 53% female and 15 healthy controls (mean age = 41.5 years (SD = 10.6, 53% female consented. All participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Diary and the SF36v2. CLBP participants also completed the Oswestry Disability Index. Sleep patterns were assessed over three consecutive nights using actigraphy. Total sleep time (TST, sleep efficiency (SE, sleep latency onset (SL and number of awakenings after sleep onset (WASO were derived. Statistical analysis was conducted using unrelated t-tests and Pearson's product moment correlation co-efficients. Results CLBP participants demonstrated significantly poorer overall sleep both objectively and subjectively. They demonstrated lower actigraphic SE (p = .002 and increased WASO (p = .027 but no significant differences were found in TST (p = .43 or SL (p = .97. Subjectively, they reported increased insomnia (p = Conclusion CLBP participants demonstrated poorer overall sleep, increased insomnia symptoms and

  6. Different organic loading rates on the biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of rice straw: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Yang, Jun; Yu, Qing; Yong, Xiaoyu; Xie, Xinxin; Zhang, Lijuan; Wei, Ping; Jia, Honghua

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mesophilic methane fermentation of rice straw at different organic loading rates (OLRs) in a 300m 3 bioreactor. It was found that biogas production increased when the OLR was below 2.00kg VS substrate /(m 3 ·d). The average volumetric biogas production reached 0.86m 3 /(m 3 ·d) at an OLR of 2.00kg VS substrate /(m 3 ·d). Biogas production rate was 323m 3 /t dry rice straw over the whole process. The pH, chemical oxygen demand, volatile fatty acid, and NH 4 + -N concentrations were all in optimal range at different OLRs. High-throughput sequencing analysis indicated that Firmicutes, Fibrobacteres, and Spirochaetes predominated in straw samples. Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Planctomycetes were more abundant in the slurry. The hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main biochemical pathway of methanogenesis in the reactor. This study provides new information regarding the OLR and the differences in the spatial distribution of specific microbiota in a rice straw biogas plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel method to evaluate salivary flow rates of head and neck cancer patients after radiotherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Luiz Felipe; Gonnelli, Fernanda Aurora Stabile; Marcucci, Marcelo; Giordani, Adelmo José; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Segreto, Roberto Araújo; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo

    2017-03-25

    The procedure used to evaluate salivary flow rate is called sialometry. It can be performed through several techniques, but none appears to be really efficient for post-radiotherapy patients. To adequate sialometry tests for head and neck cancer patients submitted to radiotherapy. 22 xerostomic patients post-radiotherapy (total radiation dose ranging from 60 to 70Gy) were included in this study. Ten patients were evaluated using sialometries originally proposed by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and twelve were assessed by our modified methods. Unstimulated and stimulated sialometries were performed and the results were classified according a grading scale and compared between both groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the salivary evaluations of both groups (p=0.4487 and p=0.5615). Also, most of these rates were classified as very low and low. This novel method seems to be suitable for patients submitted to radiotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between Asian Dust-Borne Air Pollutants and Daily Symptoms on Healthy Subjects: A Web-Based Pilot Study in Yonago, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majbauddin, Abir; Onishi, Kazunari; Otani, Shinji; Kurosaki, Yasunori; Kurozawa, Youichi

    2016-01-01

    During the spring, Asian dust (AD) repeatedly makes its way to Japan, originating from drylands. We evaluated the association between AD-borne air pollutants and daily reported subjective symptoms in healthy subjects. We constructed an Internet questionnaire on daily ocular, nasal, respiratory, and skin symptoms. Forty-two healthy volunteers residents of Yonago (mean age, 33.57) were selected from the self-reporting web-based survey and recorded their symptoms between 1 and 31 of March 2013. We also collected information on levels of suspended particulate matter (SPM), particulate matter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxide (NO x ) per hour on each of those days. SPM and PM2.5 were the dominant pollutants recorded throughout the month. A positive correlation was observed between SPM and ocular (r = 0.475, p < 0.01), nasal (r = 0.614, p < 0.001), and skin (r = 0.445, p < 0.05) symptoms. PM2.5 correlations were significant for ocular (r = 0.428, p < 0.05), nasal (r = 0.560, p < 0.01), and skin (r = 0.437, p < 0.05) symptoms. Our findings provide introductory evidence of AD-borne air pollutants and their association with several bodily symptoms in healthy subjects with the implementation of a self-administrated web-based survey application.

  9. Association between Asian Dust-Borne Air Pollutants and Daily Symptoms on Healthy Subjects: A Web-Based Pilot Study in Yonago, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Majbauddin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the spring, Asian dust (AD repeatedly makes its way to Japan, originating from drylands. We evaluated the association between AD-borne air pollutants and daily reported subjective symptoms in healthy subjects. We constructed an Internet questionnaire on daily ocular, nasal, respiratory, and skin symptoms. Forty-two healthy volunteers residents of Yonago (mean age, 33.57 were selected from the self-reporting web-based survey and recorded their symptoms between 1 and 31 of March 2013. We also collected information on levels of suspended particulate matter (SPM, particulate matter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and nitrogen oxide (NOx per hour on each of those days. SPM and PM2.5 were the dominant pollutants recorded throughout the month. A positive correlation was observed between SPM and ocular (r=0.475, p<0.01, nasal (r=0.614, p<0.001, and skin (r=0.445, p<0.05 symptoms. PM2.5 correlations were significant for ocular (r=0.428, p<0.05, nasal (r=0.560, p<0.01, and skin (r=0.437, p<0.05 symptoms. Our findings provide introductory evidence of AD-borne air pollutants and their association with several bodily symptoms in healthy subjects with the implementation of a self-administrated web-based survey application.

  10. Reproducibility and seasonal variation of ambulatory short-term heart rate variability in healthy subjects during a self-selected rest period and during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Olsen, Annemarie; Skotte, Jørgen H; Garde, Anne Helene

    2009-01-01

    Although ambulatory measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) are widely used, the reproducibility and seasonal variation of ambulatory sampled short-term HRV measurements in healthy participants has not been investigated before. In the present study we collected ambulatory ECGs from 19 healthy participants monthly for 12 months, and for a sub-group of 12 participants weekly for one month. Frequency-domain HRV-metrics were calculated for 5 min ECG segments during (i) a 15-min self-selected rest period (awake period), and (ii) a 30-min sleep period starting 45 min after estimated sleep onset. Total, within- and between-subject coefficient of variation (CV) and seasonal variation were estimated for ln (TP), ln (LFP), ln (HFP), ln (LF/HF), LFnu, HFnu, the mean heart period and the ECG derived respiratory frequency.The within- and between-subject CV varied considerably between different variables, from 100% for ln (LF/HF). Within- and between-subject CV of ln (HFP), LFnu and HFnu were 10-40%. A weak, but significant, seasonal variation was found for ln (TP) (p = 0.05), ln (LFP) (p<0.05) and the respiratory frequency (p<0.01), but the seasonal variation did not affect the within-subject CV. Furthermore, sample size calculations demonstrated that the reproducibility was sufficient for ambulatory HRV measurements to be used to study autonomic cardiac regulation in healthy populations.

  11. Furosemide continuous rate infusion diluted with 5% dextrose in water or hypertonic saline in normal adult dogs: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adin, D; Atkins, C; Papich, M; DeFrancesco, T; Griffiths, E; Penteado, M; Kurtz, K; Klein, A

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term safety and diuretic efficacy of furosemide constant rate infusion (CRI) diluted with 5% dextrose in water (D5W) compared to dilution with 2.4% hypertonic saline in healthy dogs. Six healthy dogs. Dogs were studied in a randomized, blinded, crossover manner. Furosemide 3.3mg/kg was diluted to 2.2mg/mL with either 1.5mL/kg D5W for the DEX method or with 1.0mL/kg D5W and 0.5mL/kg of 7.2% hypertonic saline for the H-SAL method. After a 0.66mg/kg furosemide IV bolus, the infusion rate was 0.3 mL/kg/hr for 5 h such that both methods delivered 0.66 mg/kg/hr (total 3.3mg/kg) furosemide in equal volume for the study duration. Urine output, water intake, central venous pressure (CVP), physical parameters, furosemide concentrations, blood and urine electrolytes, and urine aldosterone to creatinine ratio (UAldo:C) were evaluated. Measured variables were not different between methods but showed changes over time consistent with diuresis. Mean CVP decreased over time similarly for both methods. Plasma furosemide and urine concentrations were stable and not different between methods. Both furosemide CRI methods showed an increase in the UAldo:C, however, the rise was greater for DEX than for H-SAL. Diuresis was similar for both furosemide CRI methods; however, the H-SAL method induced less renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation than the DEX method. The absence of intravascular volume expansion based on CVP suggests that dilution of a furosemide CRI with 2.4% hypertonic saline may be well tolerated in heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Training-induced changes in muscle CSA, muscle strength, EMG, and rate of force development in elderly subjects after long-term unilateral disuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per; Rosted, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The ability to develop muscle force rapidly may be a very important factor to prevent a fall and to perform other tasks of daily life. However, information is still lacking on the range of training-induced neuromuscular adaptations in elderly humans recovering from a period of disuse. Therefore......, the present study examined the effect of three types of training regimes after unilateral prolonged disuse and subsequent hip-replacement surgery on maximal muscle strength, rapid muscle force [rate of force development (RFD)], muscle activation, and muscle size. Thirty-six subjects (60-86 yr) were randomized...... to a 12-wk rehabilitation program consisting of either 1) strength training (3 times/wk for 12 wk), 2) electrical muscle stimulation (1 h/day for 12 wk), or 3) standard rehabilitation (1 h/day for 12 wk). The nonoperated side did not receive any intervention and thereby served as a within-subject control...

  13. Pilot Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Maria Ie

    This PhD dissertation engages in the study of pilot (system) implementation. In the field of information systems, pilot implementations are commissioned as a way to learn from real use of a pilot system with real data, by real users during an information systems development (ISD) project and before...... objective. The prevalent understanding is that pilot implementations are an ISD technique that extends prototyping from the lab and into test during real use. Another perception is that pilot implementations are a project multiple of co-existing enactments of the pilot implementation. From this perspective...

  14. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p ANS activity increasing parasympathetic function and decreasing sympathetic activity, compared to sham therapy and control group.

  15. Effects of rates and time of zeolite application on controlling runoff generation and soil loss from a soil subjected to a freeze-thaw cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Behzadfar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many factors such as freeze-thaw (FT cycle influence soil behavior. Application of soil amendments can play an important role on runoff time commencement (RT, volume (RV and soil loss (SL on soils subjected to FT cycles. However, limited studies have been documented on this subject. The present study was therefore carried out under rainfall simulation circumstances to investigate the effect of different rates of zeolite application to control the effects of FT on basic hydrological variables such as runoff production and soil loss. Towards this attempt, the effect of application of different rates of 250, 500 and 750 g m−2 of zeolite applied before, during and after the occurrence of FT cycle on RT, RV and SL was assessed in a completely randomized design. Treatments were set up in two categories viz. control (without zeolite application, and three rates and times of zeolite application in small 0.25 m2-experimental plots in three replications. The results showed that application of zeolite had significant effects on hydrological behavior of soil induced by FT cycles. Application rate of 750 g m−2 prior to FT cycle increased RT and reduced RV and SL at rates of 644%, 68% and 91%, respectively. The results also verified that zeolite could successfully mitigate the impacts of FT cycle on the main soil hydrological variables of soil profile induced by FT cycle. It is accordingly recommended to employ zeolite as an effective amendment to control soil erosion in steep and degraded rangelands where surface soil is exposed to rainfall and runoff.

  16. Juice Powder Concentrate and Systemic Blood Pressure, Progression of Coronary Artery Calcium and Antioxidant Status in Hypertensive Subjects: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Houston

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Because micronutrients from plants may have beneficial cardiovascular effects, the hypothesis that an encapsulated juice powder concentrate might affect several measures of vascular health was tested in free living adults at low cardiovascular risk. Blood pressure, vascular compliance, lipid and antioxidant markers, and serial electron beam tomography (to calculate a coronary artery calcium score as a measure of atherosclerosis burden, were monitored in 51 pre-hypertensive and hypertensive subjects over 2 years. By the end of follow-up, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly (−2.4 ± 1.0 mmHg, P < 0.05 and −2.2 ± 0.6 mmHg, P < 0.001, and large artery compliance improved significantly (1.9 ± 0.6 ml mmHg−1 × 100, P < 0.01. The progression of coronary artery calcium score was smaller than expected compared with a historical database (P < 0.001. Laboratory testing showed a significant decrease in homocysteine (P = 0.05, HDL cholesterol (P = 0.025 and Apo A (P = 0.004, as well as a significant increase in β-carotene, folate, Co-Q10 and α-tocopherol (all P < 0.001. The phytonutrient concentrate we utilized induced several favorable modifications of markers of vascular health in the subjects. This study supports the notion that plant nutrients are important components of a heart healthy diet.

  17. [Pilot scheme to gain young professionals in orthopedics and trauma surgery. A new optional subject for students at the medical school in Göttingen (Germany)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttrumpf, Jan Philipp; Münzberg, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    The Young Forum of the German Society of Orthopedics and Traumatology is an interest group of young orthopedics and trauma surgeons in Germany. Besides dealing with topics of political interest, the group tries to arouse enthusiasm and interest for musculoskeletal surgery by means of new lectures and teaching methods.An example is the newly invented optional subject for students at the Medical School in Göttingen (Germany). The idea for such a new teaching offer was built by the Young Forum itself. The optional subject was on the syllabus for the first time this year and the organization was done by the university Department of Trauma Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. The course is divided in two main parts: a theoretical (16 hours) and a practical (10 hours) one. A good ratio of lectures, skills stations and workshops was on choice. This article explains the course in detail and shows a first evaluation result. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Statistical Evaluations of the Reproducibility and Reliability of 3-Tesla High Resolution Magnetization Transfer Brain Images: A Pilot Study on Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly H. Zou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetization transfer imaging (MT may have considerable promise for early detection and monitoring of subtle brain changes before they are apparent on conventional magnetic resonance images. At 3 Tesla (T, MT affords higher resolution and increased tissue contrast associated with macromolecules. The reliability and reproducibility of a new high-resolution MT strategy were assessed in brain images acquired from 9 healthy subjects. Repeated measures were taken for 12 brain regions of interest (ROIs: genu, splenium, and the left and right hemispheres of the hippocampus, caudate, putamen, thalamus, and cerebral white matter. Spearman's correlation coefficient, coefficient of variation, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC were computed. Multivariate mixed-effects regression models were used to fit the mean ROI values and to test the significance of the effects due to region, subject, observer, time, and manual repetition. A sensitivity analysis of various model specifications and the corresponding ICCs was conducted. Our statistical methods may be generalized to many similar evaluative studies of the reliability and reproducibility of various imaging modalities.

  19. Diminished disease progression rate in a chronic kidney disease population following the replacement of dietary water source with quality drinking water: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Edirisinghe Arachchige Ranga Iroshanie Edirisinghe; Perera, Ponnamperuma Aratchige Jayasumana; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Abeysekara, Tilak; Nugegoda, Danaseela Bandara; Weerakoon, Kosala; Siriwardhana, Dunusingha Asitha Surandika

    2017-03-29

    Environmental toxin/s is alleged to be the contributory factor for the chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka. The potential of drinking water as a medium for the nephrotoxic agents in the affected subjects has been comprehensively discoursed in the recent past. The present study was aimed to assess the effect of replacing the habitual drinking water on the kidney function of CKDu patients residing in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka: METHODS: An interventional study was carried out to assess the disease progression rate of a CKDu population whose habitual drinking water was replaced by bottled spring water certified by Sri Lanka Standard (SLS) for a period of 18 month along with a population of CKDu patients who continued with their usual drinking water. Kidney function of subjects in both groups were monitored in terms of blood pressure, serum creatinine, serum calcium, serum phosphorus, hemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary protein at 6 months intervals during the intervention and follow up periods. Diminished disease progression rate was observed in CKDu patients in the intervention group when compared with the non- intervention group based on serum creatinine, Hb, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary protein levels. Extensive interventional studies are required to generalize effect of drinking water on CKDu population. The habitual drinking water is likely to be a contributory factor towards the progression of the disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Pilot-scale comparison of constructed wetlands operated under high hydraulic loading rates and attached biofilm reactors for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, M S; Terzakis, S; Chatzinotas, A; Brix, H; Kalogerakis, N; Manios, T

    2009-04-01

    Four different pilot-scale treatment units were constructed to compare the feasibility of treating domestic wastewater in the City of Heraklio, Crete, Greece: (a) a free water surface (FWS) wetland system, (b) a horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) wetland system, (c) a rotating biological contactor (RBC), and (d) a packed bed filter (PBF). All units operated in parallel at various hydraulic loading rates (HLR) ranging from 50% to 175% of designed operating HLR. The study was conducted during an 8 month period and showed that COD removal efficiency of HSF was comparable (>75%) to that of RBC and PBF, whereas that of the FWS system was only 57%. Average nutrient removal efficiencies for FWS, HSF, RBC and PBF were 6%, 21%, 40% and 43%, respectively for total nitrogen and 21%, 39%, 41% and 42%, respectively for total phosphorus. Removals of total coliforms were lowest in FWS and PBF (1.3 log units) and higher in HSF and RBC (2.3 to 2.6 log units). HSF showed slightly lower but comparable effluent quality to that of RBC and PBF systems, but the construction cost and energy requirements for this system are significantly lower. Overall the final decision for the best non-conventional wastewater treatment system depends on the construction and operation cost, the area demand and the required quality of effluent.

  1. Modification, calibration and verification of the IWA River Water Quality Model to simulate a pilot-scale high rate algal pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Niall; Park, Jason B K; McBride, Graham B; Craggs, Rupert J

    2012-06-01

    We implemented the IWA River Water Quality Model No. 1 (Reichert et al., 2001. River Water Quality Model No. 1, IWA Scientific & Technical Report No. 12) to simulate water-quality characteristics in two pilot-scale High Rate Algal Ponds. Simulation results were compared with two years' of data from the ponds. The first year's data from one pond were used for model calibration; the remaining data were used for validation. As originally formulated and parameterized, the model consistently yielded summer-time algal biomass concentrations which were too low - with consequent failures in its reproduction of dissolved oxygen, pH and nutrient dynamics. We experimented with various structural/parametric changes to improve the model's performance. The most effective strategy was to greatly increase the respiratory losses suffered by the heterotrophic osmotrophs (thereby giving the algae access to a larger fraction of the incoming dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen). This suggests that CO(2)-bubbling alone cannot entirely preclude resource-limitation of algal production. We doubt that our parameterization of heterotrophic osmotrophs is correct and infer that the algae derive a large fraction of their nutrition by direct osmotrophic uptake of dissolved organic matter. This inference is supported by the literature concerning the physiology of the dominant algal species in our ponds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pilot-scale comparison of constructed wetlands operated under high hydraulic loading rates and attached biofilm reactors for domestic wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountoulakis, M.S. [School of Agricultural Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece)], E-mail: mfountoul@teemail.gr; Terzakis, S. [School of Agricultural Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania (Greece); Chatzinotas, A. [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Environmental Microbiology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Brix, H. [Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Kalogerakis, N. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania (Greece); Manios, T. [School of Agricultural Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Greek Open University, School of Science and Technology, Patras (Greece)

    2009-04-01

    Four different pilot-scale treatment units were constructed to compare the feasibility of treating domestic wastewater in the City of Heraklio, Crete, Greece: (a) a free water surface (FWS) wetland system, (b) a horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) wetland system, (c) a rotating biological contactor (RBC), and (d) a packed bed filter (PBF). All units operated in parallel at various hydraulic loading rates (HLR) ranging from 50% to 175% of designed operating HLR. The study was conducted during an 8 month period and showed that COD removal efficiency of HSF was comparable (> 75%) to that of RBC and PBF, whereas that of the FWS system was only 57%. Average nutrient removal efficiencies for FWS, HSF, RBC and PBF were 6%, 21%, 40% and 43%, respectively for total nitrogen and 21%, 39%, 41% and 42%, respectively for total phosphorus. Removals of total coliforms were lowest in FWS and PBF (1.3 log units) and higher in HSF and RBC (2.3 to 2.6 log units). HSF showed slightly lower but comparable effluent quality to that of RBC and PBF systems, but the construction cost and energy requirements for this system are significantly lower. Overall the final decision for the best non-conventional wastewater treatment system depends on the construction and operation cost, the area demand and the required quality of effluent.

  3. A pilot study on short term heart rate variability & its correlation with disease activity in Indian patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rajiva; Deepak, Kishore Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular complications may lead to mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We assessed heart rate variability (HRV), an important autonomic function, to quantify the risk for cardiovascular complications in Indian patients with RA. The study was carried out in RA patients (n=45) diagnosed as per American College of Rheumatology criteria and healthy controls. HRV recording and analysis was done using Nevrokard software using time and frequency domain analyses. The overall autonomic tone, parasympathetic drive, sympathetic drive and sympatho-vagal ratio were quantified by using various parameters. It included standard deviation of all R-R intervals (SDNN), standard deviation of successive differences between adjoining normal cycles (SDSD), root-mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), and number of R-R intervals differing by >50 ms from adjacent intervals (NN50) in the time domain analysis. In frequency domain analysis, low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF), LF/HF and total power were assessed. Demographic profile was comparable between groups; however, systolic BP was higher in patients with RA. SDNN, SDSD, RMSSD, NN50, LF and HF power and total power (ms x ms) were significantly lower in patients with RA versus healthy controls (PSDSD (r=0.375, R 2 =14.06; P=0.045) while LF and HF power (ms × ms) were significantly and inversely correlated with rheumatoid factor (r=-0.438 and -0.445; R 2 =19.1 and 19.8; P=0.017 and 0.016, respectively). HRV was significantly altered in patients with RA and independently associated with disease activity. Hence autonomic function testing, using HRV, may be useful as part of cardiovascular risk assessment in these patients.

  4. Change of International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale subscales with treatment and placebo: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell UH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike H Mitchell,1 Sterling C Hilton2 1Brigham Young University, Department of Exercise Sciences, 2Department of Educational Leadership and Foundations, Provo, UT, USA Background: In 2003, the 10-question International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale (IRLS was developed as a means of assessing the severity of restless legs syndrome. Two subscales were identified: symptom severity (SS 1 and symptom impact (SS 2. Only one study has investigated the subscales' responsiveness to a 12-week treatment with ropinirole. This current study was undertaken to assess the impact of a 4-week, non-pharmaceutical treatment on the two subscales and to explore whether or not both subscales were impacted by the observed placebo effect. Methods: The pooled data from questionnaires of 58 patients (41 from both treatment groups and 17 from the sham treatment control group, who participated in two clinical studies, were reviewed. Their change in score over a 4-week trial was computed. The average change in both subscales in both groups was computed and t-tests were performed. Results: In the treatment group, the average scores of both subscales changed significantly from baseline to week 4 (P<0.005 for both. Compared to the control, SS 1 changed (P<0.001, but not SS 2 (P=0.18. In the sham treatment group, the scores for SS 1 changed significantly (P=0.002, but not for SS 2 (P=0.2. Conclusion: This study corroborated findings from an earlier study in which both subscales changed with a 12-week drug treatment. It also showed that the observed placebo effect is attributed to a small but significant change in symptom severity, but not symptom impact. Keywords: restless legs syndrome, RLS severity scale, IRLS subscales, symptom impact, symptom severity

  5. Purchase rates and energy content of nutritionally promoted and traditional fast foods purchased at lunchtime in Australia - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Louise F; Palmer, Michelle A

    2012-03-01

    Nutritionally promoted foods are now available at fast-food establishments. Little is known about their popularity, who is purchasing them, or their impact on dietary intake. Our study aimed to determine: how often nutritionally promoted fast foods were purchased; the demographic characteristics of people purchasing these foods; and if purchasing these foods resulted in reduced energy, and increased vegetable, content of lunches compared with those who purchased traditional fast foods. A survey collecting lunchtime fast-food purchases and demographic details was administered over two months. Nutritionally promoted products included the McDonalds' 'Heart Foundation Tick Approved' range and Subway's 'Six grams of fat or less' range. Energy and vegetable contents were estimated using information from fast-food companies' websites. Differences in demographics, energy and vegetable contents between individuals purchasing nutritionally promoted and traditional lunches were assessed using χ2 and t tests. Queensland, Australia. Lunchtime diners aged over 16 years at Subway and McDonalds. Surveys were collected from 927 respondents (58 % male, median age 25 (range 16-84) years; 73 % response rate). Only 3 % (n 24/910) of respondents who ordered a main option had purchased a nutritionally promoted item. Purchasers of nutritionally promoted foods were ∼13 years older, predominantly female (79 %), and more often reported involvement in a health-related profession (29 % v. 11 %) than purchasers of traditional foods (P foods ordered 1·5 fewer megajoules and 0·6 more vegetable servings than purchasers of traditional foods (P foods may reduce lunchtime energy content, however these foods were infrequently chosen.

  6. Influence of two administration rates of propofol at induction of anaesthesia on its relative potency in cats: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauquier, Sébastien H; Bayldon, Wendy; Warne, Leon N; Carter, Jennifer E; Beths, Thierry

    2017-12-01

    Objectives This was a randomised, blinded trial to investigate the influence of administration rate on the dose of propofol required for the orotracheal intubation of cats. Methods Twenty-four female domestic cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy were premedicated with oral tramadol (6 mg/kg) or intramuscular tramadol (4 mg/kg), and intramuscular dexmedetomidine (0.007 mg/kg). Oral or intramuscular (IM) tramadol was administered 60 or 30 mins prior to induction of anaesthesia, respectively. Dexmedetomidine was administered 30 mins prior to anaesthetic induction. Sedation scores were established prior to anaesthesia induction with propofol intravenously at 4 mg/kg/min (fast) or 1 mg/kg/min (slow) to effect until orotracheal intubation was achieved without coughing. If coughing occurred, the intubation process was paused for 15 s. Four groups were determined: IM tramadol/propofol fast (GIMF, n = 6); IM tramadol/propofol slow (GIMS, n = 6); oral tramadol/propofol fast (GOF, n = 6); oral tramadol/propofol slow (GOS, n = 6). The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to evaluate for normality of residuals. Sedation scores and propofol anaesthetic induction doses were compared between GIMF and GIMS groups, and between GOF and GOS groups using the Mann-Whitney test and the t-test, respectively ( P = 0.05). The presence of hypotension (mean arterial blood pressure propofol anaesthetic induction doses were higher in GIMF (9.1 ± 1.8 mg/kg) and GOF (7.9 ± 1.7 mg/kg) than in GIMS (5.1 ± 1.5 mg/kg; P propofol relative potency.

  7. A pilot study to evaluate renal hemodynamics in cirrhosis by simultaneous glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, renal resistive indices and biomarkers measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindikoglu, Ayse L; Dowling, Thomas C; Wong-You-Cheong, Jade J; Christenson, Robert H; Magder, Laurence S; Hutson, William R; Seliger, Stephen L; Weir, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Renal hemodynamic measurements are complicated to perform in patients with cirrhosis, yet they provide the best measure of risk to predict hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Currently, there are no established biomarkers of altered renal hemodynamics in cirrhosis validated by measured renal hemodynamics. In this pilot study, simultaneous measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), renal resistive indices and biomarkers were performed to evaluate renal hemodynamic alterations in 10 patients with cirrhosis (3 patients without ascites, 5 with diuretic-sensitive and 2 diuretic-refractory ascites). Patients with diuretic-refractory ascites had the lowest mean GFR (36.5 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) and RPF (133.6 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) when compared to those without ascites (GFR 82.9 ml/min/1.73 m(2), RPF 229.9 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) and with diuretic-sensitive ascites (GFR 82.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2), RPF 344.1 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). A higher mean filtration fraction (FF) (GFR/RPF 0.36) was noted among those without ascites compared to those with ascites. Higher FF in patients without ascites is most likely secondary to the vasoconstriction in the efferent glomerular arterioles (normal FF ~0.20). In general, renal resistive indices were inversely related to FF. While patients with ascites had lower FF and higher right kidney main and arcuate artery resistive indices, those without ascites had higher FF and lower right kidney main and arcuate artery resistive indices. While cystatin C and β2-microglobulin performed better compared to Cr in estimating RPF, β-trace protein, β2-microglobulin, and SDMA, and (SDMA+ADMA) performed better in estimating right kidney arcuate artery resistive index. The results of this pilot study showed that identification of non-invasive biomarkers of reduced RPF and increased renal resistive indices can identify cirrhotics at risk for HRS at a stage more amenable to therapeutic intervention and reduce mortality from kidney failure in cirrhosis.

  8. Cystatin C, vascular biomarkers and measured glomerular filtration rate in patients with unresponsive hypertensive phenotype: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čabarkapa, Velibor; Ilinčić, Branislava; Đerić, Mirjana; Vučaj Ćirilović, Viktorija; Kresoja, Milena; Žeravica, Radmila; Sakač, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Biomarkers are commonly used to estimate the presence of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with essential arterial hypertension (HT). In addition to known association between cystatin C and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), elucidating the association between cystatin C and vascular biomarkers (intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (CCIMT), carotid plaque and renal artery resistance index (RRI)) in patients with unresponsive hypertensive phenotype could be of significant clinical interest. Participants (n = 200, median age 58 (52-64) years, 49% female) under treatment with antihypertensive drugs were stratified into two subgroups based on their blood pressure level as having responsive hypertension (RHT - compliant and responsive to treatment, n = 100), or nonresponsive (URHT - compliant but nonresponsive to treatment, n = 100). GFR was measured by isotopic (slope-intercept) method (99m Tc diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid - mGFR). The URHT group had significantly higher median cystatin C serum concentration (p = 0.02) and CCIMT (p = 0.00) compared to the RHT group, with no significant difference in RRI (p = 0.51) and mGFR among subgroups [69.9 ± 28.2 vs 76.74 ± 23.61 ml/min/1.73m(2), p = 0.27]. In the URHT group, cystatin C was found to be associated with CCIMT (p = 0.02), hsCRP (p = 0.01) and duration of HT (p = 0.02), independently of mGFR and age. Independent predictors of URHT phenotype were CCIMT (p= 0.02) and hsCRP (p= 0.04). In addition to GFR, cystatin C serum concentration is positively and independently associated with CCIMT in patient with URHT phenotype and subclinical CVD. Prospective larger studies should further investigate the clinical importance of this relationship.

  9. Age and pilot performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyraud, M Y; Borowsky, M S

    1985-06-01

    In military and civilian aviation, pilot age is a major factor which determines if the individual is allowed to continue flying. Many factors, including legal considerations, escalating personnel and training costs, and higher skill levels necessitated by increasing equipment complexity, have generated considerable interest in the development of "age free" criteria to determine continued suitability for aviation duty. Central to this issue is a demonstration that older pilots are not necessarily unsafe pilots. Naval Safety Center data relating mishap rates and causal factors to pilot age are presented and policy implications discussed. Results indicate that there are significant differences in mishap rates and mishap causal factors as a function of age, but these differences are not those which might be expected based on a knowledge of the aging literature.

  10. Effect of low-level laser therapy on blood flow and oxygen- hemoglobin saturation of the foot skin in healthy subjects: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heu, Franziska; Forster, Clemens; Namer, Barbara; Dragu, Adrian; Lang, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: This study on healthy test subjects intends to show whether one-off Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has an instant effect on the perfusion or the oxygenation of the skin tissue. These possible instant effects may have an influence on the accelerated wound healing which is often observed after application of LLLT, in addition to the usual postulated effects of LLLT which occur with a time delay normally. Study design/materials and methods: The study was carried out double-blind and placebo-controlled in two batches of testing. The test subjects received one-off LLLT on a defined area of the arch of the foot. Simultaneously a placebo treatment was carried out on the corresponding contralateral area. In the first batch of tests, the blood flow was measured immediately before and after treatment using thermography and LDI. In the second batch of tests, the blood flow and the oxygen saturation were determined immediately before and after the treatment using an O2C device. Results: No evidence that the LLLT has a significant instant effect on the circulation or the oxygen saturation could be found. Conclusion: No immediate effect of an LLLT on the perfusion or oxygenation situation is to be expected with physiologically normal starting conditions. An additional investigation should be carried out in which either the radiation dose is varied or the starting conditions are pathological (e.g. chronic wounds) in order to rule out immediate effects on circulation or oxygen saturation as the cause of the improved wound healing which is often observed. PMID:24155546

  11. fMRI of pain studies using laser-induced heat on skin with and without the loved one near the subject - a pilot study on 'love hurts'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofina, T.; Kamil, W. A.; Ahmad, A. H.

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study are to image and investigate the areas of brain response to laser-induced heat pain, to analyse for any difference in the brain response when a subject is alone and when her loved one is present next to the MRI gantry. Pain stimuli was delivered using Th-YAG laser to four female subjects. Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) fMRI experiment was performed using blocked design paradigm with five blocks of painful (P) stimuli and five blocks of non-painful (NP) stimuli arranged in pseudorandom order with an 18 seconds rest (R) between each stimulation phase. Brain images were obtained from 3T Philips Achieva MRI scanner using 32-channel SENSE head coil. A T1-weighted image (TR/TE/slice/FOV = 9ms/4ms/4mm slices/240×240mm) was obtained for verification of brain anatomical structures. An echo-planar-imaging sequence were used for the functional scans (TR/TE/slice/flip/FOV=2000ms/35ms/4mm slices/90°/220×220mm). fMRI data sets were analysed using SPM 8.0 involving preprocessing steps followed by t-contrast analysis for individuals and FFX analysis. In both with and without-loved-one conditions, neuronal responses were seen in the somatosensory gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and insula regions, consistent with pain-related areas. FFX analysis showed that the presence of loved one produced more activation in the frontal and supramarginal gyrus during painful and non-painful stimulations compared to absence of a loved one. Brain response to pain is modulated by the presence of a loved one, causing more activation in the cognitive/emotional area i.e. 'love hurts'.

  12. Very Low Volume Sprint Interval Exercise Suppresses Subjective Appetite, Lowers Acylated Ghrelin, and Elevates GLP-1 in Overweight Individuals: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Adrian; Blannin, Andrew K

    2017-04-05

    High-intensity exercise has been shown to elicit a transient suppression of appetite and create a more anorexigenic profile of appetite-associated hormones. It is yet to be fully elucidated whether such a response is observed following very low-volume, intermittent exercise at supramaximal intensity in those who are overweight. Eight overweight individuals (BMI 27.7 ± 1.7 kg·m²) completed resting (REST) and exercise (EX) trials in a counterbalanced order. EX consisted of 4 × 30 s "flat-out" cycling on an ergometer (adapted Wingate test). Two hours post-exercise (or REST), participants were presented with an ad libitum meal. Subjective appetite measures and blood samples were obtained throughout. Subjective appetite, measured using VAS, was significantly lower immediately after exercise compared with REST (38.0 ± 28.5 mm vs. 75.1 ± 26.2 mm, p = 0.018, d = 1.09). This difference remained significant 30 min post-exercise. Acylated ghrelin concentration was suppressed in EX compared with REST immediately post-exercise (113.4 ± 43.0 pg·mL-1 vs. 189.2 ± 91.8 pg·mL-1, p = 0.03, d = 1.07) and remained lower until the ad libitum test-meal. Area-under-the-curve for GLP-1 concentration was significantly greater for EX, versus REST. There was no difference in absolute adlibitum intake or relative energy intake. As little as 4 × 30 s of "flat-out" cycling was sufficient to elicit a transient suppression of appetite and an enduring suppression of plasma acylated ghrelin. Nonetheless, food intake 2-h post-exercise was unaffected.

  13. Ergonomic evaluation of pilot oxygen mask designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, W.; Yang, Xiaopeng; Jung, Daehan; Park, Seikwon; Kim, Heeeun; You, Heecheon

    2018-01-01

    A revised pilot oxygen mask design was developed for better fit to the Korean Air Force pilots’ faces. The present study compared an existing pilot oxygen mask and a prototype of the revised mask design with 88 Korean Air Force pilots in terms of subjective discomfort, facial contact pressure,

  14. 75 FR 1591 - Green Technology Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Green Technology Pilot Program ACTION: Proposed collection; comment [email protected] . Include A0651-0062 Green Technology Pilot Program [email protected] in the subject line of the... examination pilot program for patent applications pertaining to green technologies, including greenhouse gas...

  15. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Ae; Song, Chorong; Oh, Yun-Ah; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Son, Ki-Cheol

    2017-09-20

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD) method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS). Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln) ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2-3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  16. The elimination rates of intact GIP as well as its primary metabolite, GIP 3-42, are similar in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Agersø, Henrik; Lauritsen, Torsten

    2006-01-01

    The incretin hormone, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP, previously known as gastric inhibitory polypeptide), is rapidly degraded to the biologically inactive metabolite GIP (3-42) in the circulation, but little is known about the kinetics of the intact hormone and the metabolite....../l and 8 healthy subjects matched for age, gender and BMI. An intravenous bolus injection of GIP (7.5 nmol) was given and venous blood samples were drawn the following 45 minutes. Peak concentrations of total GIP (intact+metabolite, mean+/-SEM) and intact GIP (in brackets) were 920+/-91 (442+/-52) pmol....../l in the type 2 diabetic patients and 775+/-68 (424+/-30) pmol/l in the healthy subjects (NS). GIP was eliminated rapidly with the clearance rate for intact GIP being 2.3+/-0.2 l/min in the type 2 diabetic patients and 2.4+/-0.2 l/min in the healthy subjects (NS). The volumes of distributions were similar...

  17. Effects of nutritional intervention and physical training on energy intake, resting metabolic rate and body composition in frail elderly. a randomised, controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammes, E; Rydwik, E; Akner, G

    2012-02-01

    To analyse the effect of nutritional intervention and physical training on energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition in the frail elderly. Open, randomised, controlled pilot treatment study. Community-based research centre. Ninety-six community-dwelling frail elderly people aged 75 and older, 40% men. Four treatment arms: i) individual nutritional advice and group sessions on nutrition for the elderly, ii) physical training 2 x 45 minutes per week for 3 months, iii) combined nutritional and physical intervention and iv) control group. The outcomes were energy intake (4-day food diary); resting metabolic rate (indirect calorimetry) and body composition (anthropometry) performed at baseline, after 3 months' intervention (completed by 79 individuals), and as a follow-up at 9 months (completed by 64 individuals). The training group showed a significantly increased RMR at 3 months. Otherwise, there were no observed differences within or between the four groups. There was no correlation over time between energy intake, RMR and fat free mass. The participants with a low energy intake who managed to increase their energy intake during the study ('responders') had a statistically significantly lower BMI (21 vs. 24) and a lower fat percentage (23 vs. 30) at baseline than the 'non-responders'. The 'non-responders' showed a small but statistically significant decrease in body fat percentage at F1, and in body weight, BMI and FFM at 9 months (F3). Individual nutrition counselling and physical exercise had no effect on energy intake, RMR or fat free mass in community-dwelling frail elderly people aged 75 and older. Interventions in frail elderly people should be targeted according to the needs of the individual patients. The issues of randomisation, targeting and responders in are problematised and discussed.

  18. Investigation of thermomechanical couplings, strain localization and shape memory properties in a shape memory polymer subjected to loading at various strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczyska, E. A.; Staszczak, M.; Maj, M.; Kowalczyk-Gajewska, K.; Golasiński, K.; Cristea, M.; Tobushi, H.; Hayashi, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents experimental and modeling results of the effects of thermomechanical couplings occurring in a polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) subjected to tension at various strain rates within large strains. The SMP mechanical curves, recorded using a testing machine, and the related temperature changes, measured in a contactless manner using an IR camera, were used to investigate the polymer deformation process at various loading stages. The effects of thermomechanical couplings allowed the determination of the material yield point in the initial loading stage, the investigation of nucleation and development of the strain localization at larger strains and the estimation of the effects of thermoelastic behavior during the unloading process. The obtained stress-strain and thermal characteristics, the results of the dynamic mechanical analysis and estimated values of the shape fixity and shape recovery parameters confirmed that the shape memory polymer (T g = 45 °C) is characterized by good mechanical and shape memory properties, as well as high sensitivity to the strain rate. The mechanical response of the SMP subjected to tension was simulated using the finite element method and applying the large strain, two-phase model. Strain localization observed in the experiment was well reproduced in simulations and the temperature spots were correlated with the accumulated viscoplastic deformation of the SMP glassy phase.

  19. The Study on Work Load Calibration by Using Step Test and Ergometer Test Was Carried Out in Order to Find the Best Way 10 Calibrate the Data Measurement and to Predict Human Work Load by Using Heart Rate Data. This Study Was Conducted on Four Male Subjects. But the Data Analysis Has Just Been Done to Three Subjects Due One of the Subject Was Insufficient Performance. the Sport Tester PE3000 Heart Rate Monitor is Used for Measuring the Heart Rate Data Which Will Be Useful for Predicting the Work

    OpenAIRE

    Herodian, Sam; Kastaman, Roni

    1998-01-01

    The study on Work Load Calibration by using Step Test and Ergometer test was carried out in order to find the best way 10 calibrate the data measurement and to predict human work load by using heart rate data. This study was conducted on four male subjects. but the data analysis has just been done to three subjects due one of the subject was insufficient performance. The sport tester PE3000 heart rate monitor is used for measuring the heart rate data which will be useful for predicting the wo...

  20. The effects of interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and substrate oxidation rates in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Wallis, Gareth A; Pedersen, Bente K; Solomon, Thomas P J

    2016-09-01

    For unknown reasons, interval training often reduces body weight more than energy-expenditure matched continuous training. We compared the acute effects of time-duration and oxygen-consumption matched interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), substrate oxidation rates and lipid metabolism in the hours following exercise in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Following an overnight fast, ten T2D subjects (M/F: 7/3; age=60.3±2.3years; body mass index (BMI)=28.3±1.1kg/m(2)) completed three 60-min interventions in a counterbalanced, randomized order: 1) control (CON), 2) continuous walking (CW), 3) interval-walking (IW - repeated cycles of 3min of fast and 3min of slow walking). Indirect calorimetry was applied during each intervention and repeatedly for 30min per hour during the following 5h. A liquid mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT, 450kcal) was consumed by the subjects 45min after completion of the intervention with blood samples taken regularly. Exercise interventions were successfully matched for total oxygen consumption (CW=1641±133mL/min; IW=1634±126mL/min, P>0.05). EPOC was higher after IW (8.4±1.3l) compared to CW (3.7±1.4l, PEPOC than oxygen-consumption matched continuous exercise during a post-exercise MMTT in subjects with T2D, whereas effects on substrate oxidation and lipid metabolism are comparable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Bromocriptine-QR Therapy on Glycemic Control and Daily Insulin Requirement in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Subjects Whose Dysglycemia Is Poorly Controlled on High-Dose Insulin: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Erin D; Chamarthi, Bindu; Raskin, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The concurrent use of a postprandial insulin sensitizing agent, such as bromocriptine-QR, a quick release formulation of bromocriptine, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist, may offer a strategy to improve glycemic control and limit/reduce insulin requirement in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients on high-dose insulin. This open label pilot study evaluated this potential utility of bromocriptine-QR. Ten T2DM subjects on metformin (1-2 gm/day) and high-dose (TDID ≥ 65 U/day) basal-bolus insulin were enrolled to receive once daily (morning) bromocriptine-QR (1.6-4.8 mg/day) for 24 weeks. Subjects with at least one postbaseline HbA1c measurement (N = 8) were analyzed for change from baseline HbA(1c), TDID, and postprandial glucose area under the curve of a four-hour mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT). Compared to the baseline, average HbA1c decreased 1.76% (9.74 ± 0.56 to 7.98 ± 0.36, P = 0.01), average TDID decreased 27% (199 ± 33 to 147 ± 31, P = 0.009), and MMTT AUC(60-240) decreased 32% (P = 0.04) over the treatment period. The decline in HbA(1c) and TDID was observed at 8 weeks and sustained over the remaining 16-week study duration. In this study, bromocriptine-QR therapy improved glycemic control and meal tolerance while reducing insulin requirement in T2DM subjects poorly controlled on high-dose insulin therapy.

  2. Grey-Matter Metabolism in Relation with White-Matter Lesions in Older Hypertensive Patients with Subjective Memory Complaints: A Pilot Voxel-Based Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoine; Hossu, Gabriela; Kearney-Schwartz, Anna; Bracard, Serge; Roch, Veronique; Van der Gucht, Axel; Fay, Renaud; Benetos, Athanase; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Joly, Laure

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the changes in brain metabolism related to white-matter magnetic resonance (MR) hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, with a voxel-based quantitative analysis of (18F)-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging. Sixty older hypertensive patients with subjective memory complaints (75 ± 5 years, 34 women) were prospectively referred to FDG-PET and MRI brain imaging. The Statistical Parametric Mapping software was used to assess the correlation between brain distribution of FDG and white-matter hyperintensities assessed by the Fazekas score on MRI images. The Fazekas score was inversely related to FDG uptake, independently of age and gender, within 14 Brodmann areas located mainly in the frontal lobe but also in certain limbic, insular and temporal areas. This relationship was also found to be largely independent of the volume of grey matter expressed in percentage of cranial volume, an index of atrophy. White-matter MR hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin are cross-sectionally associated with a lower grey-matter metabolism, mainly but not only within frontal areas and independently of age, gender and grey-matter atrophy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The predictive value of self-rated health in the presence of subjective memory complaints on permanent nursing home placement in elderly primary care patients over 4-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    self-rated health (SRH) predicts nursing home (NH) placement; subjective memory complaints (SMC) too. However, the predictive value of SRH in the presence of SMC is unclear.......self-rated health (SRH) predicts nursing home (NH) placement; subjective memory complaints (SMC) too. However, the predictive value of SRH in the presence of SMC is unclear....

  4. Evaluation of the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) as a predictor of febrile neutropenia in gynecologic cancer patients receiving combination chemotherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phippen, Neil T; Lowery, William J; Barnett, J Cory; Hall, Lisa A; Landt, Cristy; Leath, Charles A

    2011-11-01

    Determine if pre-treatment Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) predicts febrile neutropenia (FN) in gynecologic cancer patients receiving primary combination chemotherapy. Following IRB approval, clinicopathologic variables, pre-treatment laboratory values and PG-SGA were recorded from eligible patients. Bone marrow toxicity (CTC 3.0) divided groups of patients: (1) No grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, (2) grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, (3) FN. Statistical analysis with Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were performed. 58 patients met study inclusion: 25 in group 1, 28 in group 2, and 5 in group 3. Mean age was 61 and the majority, 42 (72%), had ovarian cancer. Median PG-SGA scores were: 6 (group 1) vs. 7 (group 2) vs. 14 (group 3) (p=0.019). Both median albumin: (1) 4.2 vs. (2) 4.0 vs. (3) 3.4 g/dl (p=0.041), and hemoglobin: (1) 12.1 vs. (2) 11.75 vs. (3) 10.6g/dl (p=0.05) differed between the groups. The overall AUC of the ROC curve for PG-SGA was 0.831 ± 0.064 (95% CI=0.706 to 0.956, p=0.015). Using the ROC, selecting a PG-SGA score of 7.5 to be predictive of febrile neutropenia yields a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 60%. When the cutoff value is set at 12.5, the specificity improves to 81% while decreasing sensitivity to 80%. PG-SGA scores were higher for patients experiencing FN and may be a reasonably predictive marker of FN in patients receiving multi-agent primary chemotherapy and likely benefactors of prophylactic GCSF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Effect of a Klamath algae product ("AFA-B12") on blood levels of vitamin B12 and homocysteine in vegan subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Luciana; Scoglio, Stefano; Benedetti, Serena; Bonetto, Chiara; Pagliarani, Silvia; Benedetti, Yanina; Rocchi, Marco; Canestrari, Franco

    2009-03-01

    Vitamin B12 is a critical nutrient that is often inadequate in a plant-based (vegan) diet, thus the inclusion of a reliable vitamin B12 source in a vegan diet is recommended as essential. Unfortunately, many natural sources of vitamin B12 have been proven to contain biologically inactive vitamin B12 analogues, inadequate for human supplementation. The aim of this non-randomized open trial was to determine whether supplementation with a natural Klamath algae-based product ("AFA-B12", Aphanizomenon flos-aquae algae plus a proprietary mix of enzymes) could favorably affect the vitamin B12 status of a group of 15 vegan subjects. By assessing blood concentration of vitamin B12, folate, and more importantly homocysteine (Hcy, a reliable marker in vegans of their B12 absorption), the vitamin B12 status of the participants at the end of the 3-month intervention period, while receiving the Klamath-algae supplement (T2), was compared with their vitamin B12 status at the end of the 3-month control period (T1), when they were not receiving any supplement, having stopped taking their usual vitamin B12 supplement at the beginning of the study (T0). Compared to the control period, in the intervention period participants improved their vitamin B12 status, significantly reducing Hcy blood concentration (p=0.003). In conclusion, the Klamath algae product AFA-B12 appears to be, in a preliminary study, an adequate and reliable source of vitamin B12 in humans.

  6. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p < 0.001), expressed in normalized and absolute unit, and possibly decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency power (p < 0.01); results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p < 0.001) and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing

  7. Simple artificial training device for respiratory muscle strength and lung volumes in healthy young male and female subjects: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Pinkaew, Decha; Yankai, Araya; Chautrakoon, Busaba; Kuntain, Rungtiwa

    2017-10-01

    , with or without EB exercise, showed no statistical difference when compared to use of the standard device. This study proposed that a simple artificial device can be used to train the respiratory muscle with or without elastic band exercise in healthy young subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pilot Randomized Study of a Gratitude Journaling Intervention on Heart Rate Variability and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Patients With Stage B Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwine, Laura S; Henry, Brook L; Pung, Meredith A; Wilson, Kathleen; Chinh, Kelly; Knight, Brian; Jain, Shamini; Rutledge, Thomas; Greenberg, Barry; Maisel, Alan; Mills, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Stage B, asymptomatic heart failure (HF) presents a therapeutic window for attenuating disease progression and development of HF symptoms, and improving quality of life. Gratitude, the practice of appreciating positive life features, is highly related to quality of life, leading to development of promising clinical interventions. However, few gratitude studies have investigated objective measures of physical health; most relied on self-report measures. We conducted a pilot study in Stage B HF patients to examine whether gratitude journaling improved biomarkers related to HF prognosis. Patients (n = 70; mean [standard deviation] age = 66.2 [7.6] years) were randomized to an 8-week gratitude journaling intervention or treatment as usual. Baseline (T1) assessments included the six-item Gratitude Questionnaire, resting heart rate variability (HRV), and an inflammatory biomarker index. At T2 (midintervention), the six-item Gratitude Questionnaire was measured. At T3 (postintervention), T1 measures were repeated but also included a gratitude journaling task. The gratitude intervention was associated with improved trait gratitude scores (F = 6.0, p = .017, η = 0.10), reduced inflammatory biomarker index score over time (F = 9.7, p = .004, η = 0.21), and increased parasympathetic HRV responses during the gratitude journaling task (F = 4.2, p = .036, η = 0.15), compared with treatment as usual. However, there were no resting preintervention to postintervention group differences in HRV (p values > .10). Gratitude journaling may improve biomarkers related to HF morbidity, such as reduced inflammation; large-scale studies with active control conditions are needed to confirm these findings. Clinicaltrials.govidentifier:NCT01615094.

  9. Early observed transient prostate-specific antigen elevations on a pilot study of external beam radiation therapy and fractionated MRI guided High Dose Rate brachytherapy boost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stall Bronwyn R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To report early observation of transient PSA elevations on this pilot study of external beam radiation therapy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI guided high dose rate (HDR brachytherapy boost. Materials and methods Eleven patients with intermediate-risk and high-risk localized prostate cancer received MRI guided HDR brachytherapy (10.5 Gy each fraction before and after a course of external beam radiotherapy (46 Gy. Two patients continued on hormones during follow-up and were censored for this analysis. Four patients discontinued hormone therapy after RT. Five patients did not receive hormones. PSA bounce is defined as a rise in PSA values with a subsequent fall below the nadir value or to below 20% of the maximum PSA level. Six previously published definitions of biochemical failure to distinguish true failure from were tested: definition 1, rise >0.2 ng/mL; definition 2, rise >0.4 ng/mL; definition 3, rise >35% of previous value; definition 4, ASTRO defined guidelines, definition 5 nadir + 2 ng/ml, and definition 6, nadir + 3 ng/ml. Results Median follow-up was 24 months (range 18–36 mo. During follow-up, the incidence of transient PSA elevation was: 55% for definition 1, 44% for definition 2, 55% for definition 3, 33% for definition 4, 11% for definition 5, and 11% for definition 6. Conclusion We observed a substantial incidence of transient elevations in PSA following combined external beam radiation and HDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Such elevations seem to be self-limited and should not trigger initiation of salvage therapies. No definition of failure was completely predictive.

  10. Unpredictability of fighter pilots' g duration tolerance by anthropometric and physiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myunghwan; Yoo, Seunghoon; Seol, Hyeongju; Kim, Cheonyoung; Hong, Youngseok

    2015-04-01

    While the factors affecting fighter pilots' G level tolerance have been widely accepted, the factors affecting fighter pilots' G duration tolerance have not been well understood. Thirty-eight subjects wearing anti-G suits were exposed to sustained high G forces using a centrifuge. The subjects exerted AGSM and decelerated the centrifuge when they reached the point of loss of peripheral vision. The G profile consisted of a +2.3 G onset rate, +7.3 G single plateau, and -1.6 G offset rate. Each subject's G tolerance time was recorded and the relationship between the tolerance time and the subject's anthropometric and physiological factors were analyzed. The mean tolerance time of the 38 subjects was 31.6 s, and the min and max tolerance times were 20 s and 58 s, respectively. The correlation analysis indicated that none of the factors had statistically significant correlations with the subjects' G duration tolerance. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that G duration tolerance was not dependent on any personal factors of the subjects. After the values of personal factors were simplified into 0 or 1, the t-test analysis showed that subjects' heights were inversely correlated with G duration tolerance at a statistically significant level. However, a logistic regression analysis suggested that the effect of the height factor to a pilot's G duration tolerance was too weak to be used as a predictor of a pilot's G tolerance. Fighter pilots' G duration tolerance could not be predicted by pilots' anthropometric and physiological factors.

  11. Assessment of Re-sighting Rates of Previously Dart-Tagged False Killer Whales and Short-Finned Pilot Whales in Hawai’i: A Preliminary Report Taking into Account Re-sighting of Social Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    PSRG-2011-18   1  Assessment of re-sighting rates of previously dart-tagged false killer whales and short- finned pilot whales in Hawai‘i: a...98501 2Wild Whale Research Foundation, Box 139, Holualoa, HI 96725 3NOAA Southeast Fisheries Science Center, 101 Pivers Island Road, Beaufort, NC...Research, we are conducting follow-up studies on tagged whales to assess the effects of tagging on survival and reproduction. These studies are

  12. Power Spectral Analysis of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Healthy and Arrhythmia Subjects by the Adaptive Continuous Morlet Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Sewak SINGH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Power spectral analysis of short-term heart rate variability (HRV can provide instant valuable information to understand the functioning of autonomic control over the cardiovascular system. In this study, an adaptive continuous Morlet wavelet transform (ACMWT method has been used to describe the time-frequency characteristics of the HRV using band power spectra and the median value of interquartile range. Adaptation of the method was based on the measurement of maximum energy concentration. The ACMWT has been validated on synthetic signals (i.e. stationary, non-stationary as slow varying and fast changing frequency with time modeled as closest to dynamic changes in HRV signals. This method has been also tested in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN to show its robustness towards the noise. From the results of testing on synthetic signals, the ACMWT was found to be an enhanced energy concentration estimator for assessment of power spectral of short-term HRV time series compared to adaptive Stockwell transform (AST, adaptive modified Stockwell transform (AMST, standard continuous Morlet wavelet transform (CMWT and Stockwell transform (ST estimators at statistical significance level of 5%. Further, the ACMWT was applied to real HRV data from Fantasia and MIT-BIH databases, grouped as healthy young group (HYG, healthy elderly group (HEG, arrhythmia controlled medication group (ARCMG, and supraventricular tachycardia group (SVTG subjects. The global results demonstrate that spectral indices of low frequency power (LFp and high frequency power (HFp of HRV were decreased in HEG compared to HYG subjects (p<0.0001. While LFp and HFp indices were increased in ARCMG compared to HEG (p<0.00001. The LFp and HFp components of HRV obtained from SVTG were reduced compared to other group subjects (p<0.00001.

  13. Self-rating scales assessing subjective well-being and distress correlate with rCBF in PTSD-sensitive regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, D; Högberg, G; Flumeri, F; Jacobsson, H; Larsson, S A; Hällström, T; Pagani, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in occupational-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subjects and to seek possible correlations between brain perfusion and self-rating scales (SRS) in order to cross-check their diagnostic value and to look for their neural correlates. A total of 13 traumatized underground and long-distance train drivers developing (S) and 17 not developing (NS) PTSD who had experienced a 'person under train' accident or who had been assaulted at work underwent clinical assessment and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT imaging during autobiographical trauma scripts. Statistical parametric mapping was applied to analyse rCBF changes in S as compared with NS and to search for correlations between rCBF and the administered SRS scores, modelling age, months to SPECT and the ratio 'grey matter/intra-cranial volume' as nuisance variables. Significantly higher activity was observed during trauma script in left posterior and anterior insula, posterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, precuneus, caudate and putamen in PTSD subjects as compared with the trauma-exposed control group. Impact of Event Scale and World Health Organisation (10) Well-Being Index scores highly correlated with tracer uptake to a great extent in the same regions in which rCBF differences between S and NS were found. These findings support the involvement of insular, cingulate and parietal cortices (as well as the basal ganglia) in the pathogenesis of PTSD and in the processing of related subjective well-being and distress.

  14. Investigation of an Immediate Effect of Bright Light on Oxygen Consumption, Heart Rate, Cortisol, and α-Amylase in Seasonal Affective Disorder Subjects and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Iana A; Danilenko, Konstantin V; Aftanas, Lyubomir I

    2016-01-01

    Body (fat) mass has been shown to decrease following bright light treatment for overweight women, irrespective of their seasonal (light) dependence. It is not known if this is due to an (immediate) increase of metabolism. Ten women with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and 10 non-SAD women matched by age, body mass index, and menopausal status participated in a laboratory study in the morning, twice within 1-5 days. During one session, bright light (4,300 lx) was presented for 30 min, and during the other session, red light (250 lx "placebo") was used. After an initial 15 min of sitting quietly in an experimental chamber, 10-min measurements were done before, at the end, and 15 min after light exposure; the subjects remained seated for 80 min in total. The measurements included 5-min oxyspirography (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide emission, and heart rate), saliva sampling for the estimation of cortisol and α-amylase concentrations, and self-rating of mood, energy, and sleepiness. There was no light-specific effect on the measured variables, except that sleepiness was reduced more with bright light than with red light in the combined group. α-Amylase values were lower in the SAD patients than in the non-SAD controls. Morning artificial bright light, in comparison with dim red light, had no immediate effect on metabolism and resting sympathetic tone, though subjective sleepiness decreased more with bright light. SAD patients have low salivary α-amylase levels, indicating lower sympathetic tone. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Assessing sleep architecture and continuity measures through the analysis of heart rate and wrist movement recordings in healthy subjects: comparison with results based on polysomnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzet, Alain; Werner, Sandra; Fuchs, Gil; Roth, Thomas; Saoud, Jay B; Viola, Antoine U; Schaffhauser, Jean-Yves; Luthringer, Rémy

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the reliability of a new methodology for assessing sleep architecture descriptors based on heart rate and body movement recordings. Twelve healthy male and female subjects between 18 and 40 years of age, without sleep disorders and not taking any drug or medication that could affect sleep, were recorded continuously during five consecutive nights. Together with the standard polysomnography, heart rate was recorded with a Holter and wrist movements by actimetry. Of the 60 recorded nights, 48 artifact-free nights were analyzed by two independent and well-trained visual scorers according to the rules of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Sleep stages were assigned to every 30-s epoch. In parallel, the same nights were analyzed by the new methodology using only heart rate and actimetry data, allowing a 1-s epoch sleep stage classification. Sleep architecture was measured for 48 nights, independently for the two manual scorings and the automatic analysis. Over 42 nights, the intra-class correlation coefficient, used to assess the consistency or reproducibility of quantitative measurements made by different observers, was classified as excellent when all 12 descriptors were combined. Analyses of the individual descriptors showed excellent interclass correlation for eight and good for four of the 12. The automatic analysis of heart rate and body movement during sleep allows for the evaluation of sleep architecture and continuity that is equivalent to those obtained by manual scoring of polysomnography. The technique used here is simple and robust to allow for home sleep monitoring. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect and safety of highly standardized Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia) extract supplementation on inflammation and chronic pain in NSAIDs poor responders. A pilot study in subjects with knee arthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Allegrini, Pietro; Faliva, Milena Anna; Naso, Maurizio; Miccono, Alessandra; Peroni, Gabriella; Degli Agosti, Irene; Perna, Simone

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale and Echinacea angustifolia extract supplementation (25 mg of ginger and 5 mg of Echinacea) for 30 days on inflammation and chronic pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Consecutive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory-drugs (NSAIDs) poor responders with chronic inflammation and pain due to knee arthrosis were assessed (15 subjects, age: 67.2 ± 7.9, body mass index: 30.6 ± 7.1, men/women:2/13). The primary endpoint was to determine pain improvement from baseline to Day 30 by Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring. The secondary endpoints were the assessment of Visual Analog Scale for Pain, health-related quality of life, by the ShortForm36 (SF-36), anthropometric parameters, hydration. After supplementation, a significant improvement of 12.27 points was observed for Lysholm scale score (p < 0.05), SF-36 (p < 0.05), and a decrease in -0.52 cm in knee circumference (left) (p < 0.01). This pilot study provides feasibility and safety data for the use of highly standardised ginger and Echinacea extract supplementation in people with knee OA.

  17. Blood homocysteine and fasting insulin levels are reduced and erythrocyte sedimentation rates increased with a glycophospholipid-vitamin formulation: a retrospective study in older subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita R. Ellithorpe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevations in Homocyteine (Hcys levels in the blood have been correlated with increased risk for coronary heart disease and stroke, loss of cognition and memory, and other chronic medical conditions. Objective: A retrospective study was initiated to determine if Hcys levels and other blood markers were altered in subjects taking an oral functional food supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids (NT Factor® and vitamins. Methods: Thirty-five patients (28 females, 7 males, Av. Age=60.7±9.6 years who had used the functional food Advanced Physician’s FormulaTM with NTFactor® in tablet form each day were enrolled in a retrospective study on blood chemistry. This retrospective study followed a prospective study on the use of the same supplement to reduce fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue. Participants were patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (myalgic encephalomyelitis or other fatiguing illnesses. Subjects had blood drawn over a 6-month period, and routine blood testing was performed. In this laboratory study the results were analyzed for differences, and statistical analyses were performed. Results: All participants responded in the study and showed an average reduction of 31.8% in Hcys levels (from 10.85±0.42 to 7.40±0.42 µmol/L; t-test, p<0.001; Wilcoxon, p<0.001. Women responded better than men: women (from 11.06±0.50 to 8.67±0.82 µmol/L, 34.4% reduction, t-test, p< 0.001; Wilcoxon, p<0.001 versus men (from 10.80±0.51 to 7.01±0.47 µmol/L, 21.6% reduction, t-test, p< 0.0862. Differences were also found in fasting insulin levels (from 12.80±3.11 to 5.30±1.77 µIU/mL, 58.6% reduction, t-test, p<0.005 and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. ESR increased from 10.5±2.21 to 20.19±3.20 mm/hr (92.2% increase, t-test, p<0.0314; Wilcoxon, p<0.0154. Other tests were not significantly different after 6 months of supplement, there were no side effects from the test supplement, and none of the participants had

  18. Pregnancy rate in lactating Bos indicus cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination and treated with different follicular growth inducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ériklis Nogueira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of replacing eCG with FSH or FSH/LH on the diameter of ovulatory follicles (DOF and the pregnancy rates (PR of lactating Bos indicus cows subjected to a synchronization of ovulation protocol and fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI based on progesterone, estradiol benzoate (EB, PGF2α, and estradiol cypionate (EC. On day 0, primiparous and multiparous Nellore cows (n = 329 at 68 days postpartum were body condition scored (BCS and received a P4 implant (PRIMER 1.0 g P4 plus 2 mg EB intramuscularly (IM. At day 8, the implant was removed, and 250 μg cloprostenol were injected IM along with 0.5 mg EC. At the time of implant removal, the animals were divided into one of four treatments: cows received (G1 1 mL of saline solution IM (Control; n = 80; (G2 300 IU eCG IM (ECG300; n = 84; (G3 15 mg FSH IM (Folltropin; n = 82; and (G4 30 IU FSH/LH IM (Pluset; n = 83; all cows were subjected to FTAI 48-54 h after implant removal (day 10. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed to measure the DOF to FTAI and to estimate the pregnancy rate on day 35. A statistical analysis examined the effects of the treatment, technician, semen, BCS, calf age and parity on PR to FTAI. There was no significant difference in PR and DOF among the treatment groups (G1, 41.3%, 13.1 mm; G2, 46.4%, 14.5 mm; G3, 46.3%, 14.2 mm; and G4, 48.2%, 14.3 mm, but PR was higher in multiparous than in primiparous cows. Commercial FSH solutions (Pluset or Folltropin do not promote increases in PR or DOF of lactating Nellore cows and are equal to eCG in promoting growth in preovulatory follicles and elevating the PR in Nellore cows with a moderate BCS subjected to a progesterone-based FTAI protocol with EC.

  19. Comparison of the traditional paper visual analogue scale questionnaire with an Apple Newton electronic appetite rating system (EARS) in free living subjects feeding ad libitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, R J; Stubbs, R J; Hughes, D; King, N; Blundell, J E; Elia, M

    1998-10-01

    Assessing the value of a newly developed electronic visual analogue scale questionnaire (Apple Newton Message Pad) with the traditional paper method for appetite rating. In a random, crossover design, subjects completed both electronic and paper questionnaires to compare results obtained by the two methods; individual methods were completed consecutively to assess test-retest reliability; preference was established using a questionnaire. Healthy, free-living adults were studied for comparison of methods (n = 12), test-retest reliability (n = 8) and preference (n = 13). Visual analogue scales were completed each waking hour to assess appetite. Preference was assessed after both methods were completed. There was no significant difference in the hourly results obtained by the paper and electronic methods for 'desire to eat', 'how much can you eat now', 'urge to eat' and 'preoccupation with thoughts of food'. Small differences in 'hunger' and 'fullness' ratings were noted (approximately 5% mean difference between methods, P Apple Newton questionnaire is as sensitive and reliable as the paper method, has the advantage that it automatically records the time of data acquisition and data collection and processing are more efficient for the researcher. The two methods should not be used interchangeably.

  20. Evaluation of three-dimensional navigator-gated whole heart MR coronary angiography: The importance of systolic imaging in subjects with high heart rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yenwen [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoinkawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Tadamura, Eiji [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoinkawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)]. E-mail: et@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Yamamuro, Masaki [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoinkawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kanao, Shotaro [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoinkawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nakayama, Kazuki [Department of Radiology, Sakazaki Clinic, 11 Nishinokyoshimoai-cho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8436 (Japan); Togashi, Kaori [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoinkawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2007-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of heart rate (HR) on magnetic resonance coronary angiography (MRCA) image quality in diastolic and systolic phases. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven healthy volunteers (9 men; 33 {+-} 9 years, HR 53-110 bpm), were evaluated with the electrocardiography and three-dimensional navigator-gating MRCA in a 1.5-T MR scanner (Avanto, Siemens) in diastolic and systolic phases (steady-state free precession; TR/TE/flip angle = 3.2 ms/1.6 ms/90{sup o}). The timing of scanning was individually adapted to the cardiac rest periods obtained in the prescanning, by visually identifying when the movement of right coronary artery was minimized during diastole and systole. Images of two phases were side-by-side compared on a four-point scale (from 1 = poor to 4 = excellent visibility; score of 3 or 4 as diagnostic). Results: Of 13 subjects with HR {<=}65 bpm (low HR group, mean 59.8 {+-} 4.9 bpm, range 53-65), the image quality scores were significantly better than that with higher heart rates (73.9 {+-} 9.0 bpm, range 68-110) in diastolic MRCA. The image quality was significantly improved during systole in high HR group. Overall, 91.3% of low HR group had MRCA image of diagnostic quality acquired at diastole, while 88.3% of high HR group had diagnostic images at systole by segmental analysis (p = NS). Conclusions: MRCA at systole offered superior quality in patients with high heart rates.

  1. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on fertility quality of life and pregnancy rates among women subjected to first in vitro fertilization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Long, Ling; Liu, Yu; He, Wei; Li, Min

    2016-02-01

    Generally, undergoing an in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is an emotional and physical burden for the infertile woman, which may negatively influence the treatment outcome. We conducted a study to investigate the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) among women subjected to first IVF treatment at a fertility medical center in China. Among infertile women registered for their first IVF treatment, 58 completed the intervention, and 50 were assigned to a control group using a non-randomized controlled study. Standardized measures of mindfulness, self-compassion, emotion regulation difficulties, infertility-related coping strategies and fertility quality of life (FertiQoL) were endorsed pre- and post-MBI, and measure of pregnancy rates at the sixth months after the intervention. Both groups were shown to be equivalent at baseline. By the end of the intervention, women who attended the intervention revealed a significant increase in mindfulness, self-compassion, meaning-based coping strategies and all FertiQoL domains. Inversely, they presented a significant decrease in emotion regulation difficulties, active- and passive-avoidance coping strategies. Women in the control group did not present significant changes in any of the psychological measures. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences between participants in the pregnancy rates, the experiment group higher than the control group. Being fully aware of the present moment without the lens of judgment, seems to help women relate to their infertility and IVF treatment in new ways. This is beneficial for promoting their self-compassion, adaptive emotion regulation and infertility-related coping strategies, which, in turn, may influence the FertiQoL and pregnancy rates. The brief and nonpharmaceutical nature of this intervention makes it a promising candidate for women' use during first IVF treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of pregnancy rates of Bos indicus cows subjected to different synchronization ovulation protocols using injectable progesterone or an intravaginal device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pregnancy rate in Nelore cows (Bos indicus that were subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI using different protocols consisting of injectable progesterone (P4 or an intravaginal device (impregnated with P4. Multiparous cows 72-84 months in age, 30-45 days postpartum, were selected on the basis of the absence of a corpus luteum (CL and follicles < 8 mm after transrectal palpation and ultrasound examinations. On a random day of the estrus cycle (D0, the selected animals (n = 135 were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (n = 45 each. Group I (injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours received 250 mg of injectable P4 and 2 mg EB on D0; on D7, they received 500 µg of cloprostenol; on D8, 300 IU of eCG and 1 mg of EB were administered; and finally, FTAI was performed 36 hours after the application of EB. Group II (injectable P4/FTAI 48 hours received the same protocol as Group I, except that the FTAI was performed 48 hours after ovulation induction. The animals of Group III (Control/CIDR received a conventional protocol for FTAI using an intravaginal device (D0: P4 and 2 mg EB; D8: device removal, 500 µg cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, 1 mg EB; and FTAI performed 48 hours after removal of the device. The results showed that cows synchronized with the conventional protocol for FTAI (Control/CIDR had a higher pregnancy rate (60 %, 27/45 than those synchronized with an injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours (33.33 %; 15/45, P = 0.010. However, the group receiving injectable P4 group/FTAI 48 hours had a similar pregnancy rate (48.9 %; 22/45; P = 0.290 when compared to both the group receiving the conventional protocol and that receiving injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours (P = 0.134. Although the injectable P4 may affect pregnancy rate with the FTAI performed in 36 hours, we found similar pregnancy rates from cows inseminated 48 hours after induction ovulation, considering injectable or intravaginal P4. Therefore, we suggest that

  3. The Measurement of Pilot Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    visual display system. It is mounted on a motion platform having two degrees of freedom and is able to provide vestibular and kinesthetic pilot cueing...I. . . . . .. . APPENDIX C-I MANEUVERS BRIEFING (TRAINING/SCREENING OF PILOTS) NORMAL TAKEOFF At Vr , rotate to 100 - 120. When a positive rate of

  4. A comprehensive visual rating scale of brain magnetic resonance imaging: application in elderly subjects with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Won; Park, So Young; Park, Young Ho; Baek, Min Jae; Lim, Jae-Sung; Youn, Young Chul; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows cerebral structural changes. However, a unified comprehensive visual rating scale (CVRS) has seldom been studied. Thus, we combined brain atrophy and small vessel disease scales and used an MRI template as a CVRS. The aims of this study were to design a simple and reliable CVRS, validate it by investigating cerebral structural changes in clinical groups, and made comparison to the volumetric measurements. Elderly subjects (n = 260) with normal cognition (NC, n = 65), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 101), or Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 94) were evaluated with brain MRI according to the CVRS of brain atrophy and small vessel disease. Validation of the CVRS with structural changes, neuropsychological tests, and volumetric analyses was performed. The CVRS revealed a high intra-rater and inter-rater agreement and it reflected the structural changes of subjects with NC, MCI, and AD better than volumetric measures (CVRS-coronal: F = 13.5, p < 0.001; CVRS-axial: F = 19.9, p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operation curve (aROC) of the CVRS showed higher accuracy than volumetric analyses. (NC versus MCI aROC: CVRS-coronal, 0.777; CVRS-axial, 0.773; MCI versus AD aROC: CVRS-coronal, 0.680; CVRS-axial, 0.681). The CVRS can be used clinically to conveniently measure structural changes of brain. It reflected cerebral structural changes of clinical groups and correlated with the age better than volumetric measures.

  5. Hypoxia symptoms during altitude training in professional Iranian fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagha, Babak; AhmadBeygi, Shervin; Ahmadbeigy, Shervin; Moosavi, Seyed Ali Javad; Jalali, Seyed Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility to hypoxia is influenced by a multitude of factors, including fatigue, physical activity, illnesses, ambient temperature, rate of ascent, destination altitude, medications, and alcohol. Anecdotally, several reports have been made regarding changes in the form of hypoxia presentation in Iranian fighter pilots in the absence of these factors. This study focused specifically on the effect of pilot age on susceptibility to hypoxia and its initial presentation. We assumed that a pilot's age may increase his susceptibility to hypoxia and consequently reduce the amount of time it takes for hypoxia to present. Because our literature review did not reveal any previous study addressing the possible relationship between age and susceptibility to hypoxia, the purpose of this study is to address and clarify this relationship. In this retrospective study, we collected information from Iranian fighter pilots (n = 30) through an anonymous questionnaire in 2000. The form of hypoxia presentation of each subject was evaluated during five altitude chamber training (ACT) sessions that were conducted routinely from 1972 to 1984. To enhance the accuracy of the study's results, confounding factors such as prior hypoxia experience in an ACT session have been taken into consideration. The results revealed a statistically significant relationship between age and a change in the form of hypoxia presentation in our subjects. Increased age reduced the amount of time before the first individual hypoxia symptom appeared (P pilots to recognize their symptoms earlier, its effect was not statistically significant (P pilot age and change in the nature of symptoms. Susceptibility ot hypoxia increases with pilot age. Copyright © 2012 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Single Arm Pilot Study of Effects of Berberine on the Menstrual Pattern, Ovulation Rate, Hormonal and Metabolic Profiles in Anovulatory Chinese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Li, Chengyan; Pan, Ping; Chen, Xiaoli; Wu, Xiaoke; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Yang, Dongzi

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of berberine on the menstrual pattern, ovulation rate, hormonal and metabolic profiles in anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Berberine 0.4 g three times per day was given for four months to 102 anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The menstrual pattern, ovulation rate, hormonal and metabolic profiles were compared before and after the berberine treatment. Ovulation was confirmed by serum progesterone level ≥10 ng/ml. A total of 98 of 102 subjects (96.1%) completed the four month treatment, including 69 (70.4%, 69/98) normal weight and 29 (29.6%, 29/98) overweight/obese. Fourteen women (14.3%, 14/98) had regained regular menses after berberine treatment and there was no significant difference between normal weight and overweight/obese groups. The ovulation rate was 25.0% over four months in the whole group, 22.5% in the normal weight group and 31.0% in the overweight/obese group. Sex hormone binding globulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, total triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased after berberine treatment in the normal weight group only. Our study found that administration of berberine alone may improve the menstrual pattern and ovulation rate in anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Berberine can also decrease sex hormone binding globulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome women. Chictr.org ChiCTR-OO-13003943.

  7. The Treatment of Maladaptive Shame in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study of "Opposite Action"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Shireen L.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to pilot test a short-term intervention for maladaptive shame in borderline personality disorder (BPD) based on the skill of "opposite action" from dialectical behavior therapy. Five women with BPD were treated with the intervention using a single-subject, multiple-baseline design. Results indicate that, although state ratings of…

  8. Heart rate response and rating of perceived exertion in novice subjects during Indoor Cycling Session Respuesta de la frecuencia cardiaca y percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo en principiantes, durante la práctica de ciclismo Indoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. López

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Indoor Cycling has become a popular cardio-vascular activity for group exercise classes in the fitness centers. The purposes of this study were to measure the heart rate response and rating of perceived exertion in novice subjects performing a 45-min indoor cycling session. Fifty-nine subjects volunteered ranged from 13 to 48 years (mean ± SD, age: 32.1 ± 10.2 years old were recruited from the clients of a private fitness club. They participated in a 45-min Spinning cycle indoor session. Heart rate was measured during the session and the overall rating of perceived exertion (overall-RPE was measured to finish the session. The indoor cycling session was comprised of a warm-up (10 min, followed by a 25 min trial (cardiovascular phase of flat, run, seated climb and standing climb activities, followed by a cool down (10 min. The mean values of percentage of heart rate reserve (%HRR and overall-RPE in the session were 62.1% ± 10.5% and 14.2 ± 1.8 point, respectively. The most time of the session was associated to moderate and hard intensities. The intensity during indoor cycling class in novice adults ranged from moderate to hard values. These data suggest that indoor cycling must be considered a high-intensity exercise mode of exercise for novice subjects.

    Key Words: indoor cycling; RPE; cardiovascular exercise; fitness.

    El Ciclismo Indoor es una actividad para practicar ejercicio físico de manera colectiva muy popular en los centros de fitness. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta de la frecuencia cardiaca, las intensidades alcanzadas y la percepción de esfuerzo percibida en sujetos principiantes durante una sesión de ciclismo indoor. Cincuenta y nueve sujetos voluntarios, de un centro deportivo privado, con edades de 13 a 48 años (media ± desviación típica: 32,1 ± 10,2 años participaron en este estudio. La frecuencia cardiaca fue registrada durante toda la sesi

  9. Predicting survival in heart failure case and control subjects by use of fully automated methods for deriving nonlinear and conventional indices of heart rate dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K. K.; Moody, G. B.; Peng, C. K.; Mietus, J. E.; Larson, M. G.; Levy, D.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite much recent interest in quantification of heart rate variability (HRV), the prognostic value of conventional measures of HRV and of newer indices based on nonlinear dynamics is not universally accepted. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have designed algorithms for analyzing ambulatory ECG recordings and measuring HRV without human intervention, using robust methods for obtaining time-domain measures (mean and SD of heart rate), frequency-domain measures (power in the bands of 0.001 to 0.01 Hz [VLF], 0.01 to 0.15 Hz [LF], and 0.15 to 0.5 Hz [HF] and total spectral power [TP] over all three of these bands), and measures based on nonlinear dynamics (approximate entropy [ApEn], a measure of complexity, and detrended fluctuation analysis [DFA], a measure of long-term correlations). The study population consisted of chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) case patients and sex- and age-matched control subjects in the Framingham Heart Study. After exclusion of technically inadequate studies and those with atrial fibrillation, we used these algorithms to study HRV in 2-hour ambulatory ECG recordings of 69 participants (mean age, 71.7+/-8.1 years). By use of separate Cox proportional-hazards models, the conventional measures SD (P.3), were not. In multivariable models, DFA was of borderline predictive significance (P=.06) after adjustment for the diagnosis of CHF and SD. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that HRV analysis of ambulatory ECG recordings based on fully automated methods can have prognostic value in a population-based study and that nonlinear HRV indices may contribute prognostic value to complement traditional HRV measures.

  10. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    implementation, and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can...

  11. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    implementation and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can be difficult...

  12. Comparison of two systems for long-term heart rate variability monitoring in free-living conditions--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Korshøj, Mette; Skotte, Jørgen H; Jespersen, Tobias; Søgaard, Karen; Mortensen, Ole S; Holtermann, Andreas

    2011-04-12

    A number of small portable systems that can measure HRV are available to address questions related to autonomic regulation in free-living subjects. However, ambulatory HRV measurements obtained through use of these systems have not previously been validated against standard clinical measurements such as Holter recordings. The objective of this study was to validate HRV obtained using a commonly used system, Actiheart, during occupational and leisure-time activities. Full-day ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG) signals were recorded from 8 females simultaneously using Actiheart and Holter recorders, and signals were processed to RR-interval time series. Segments of 5-minute duration were sampled every 30 minutes, and spectral components of the heart rate variability were calculated. Actiheart and Holter values were compared using Deming regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots. In total, 489 segments were available with an HRV value from both Actiheart and Holter recordings after filtering out segments with >10% interpolated beats. No systematic differences between Actiheart and Holter HRV were found. The random deviations between Actiheart and Holter were comparable to the repeatability standard deviation between consecutive Holter measurements. The results show that Actiheart is suited as a stand-alone ambulatory method for heart rate variability monitoring during occupational and leisure-time activities.

  13. Quantification of strontium in human serum by ICP-MS using alternate analyte-free matrix and its application to a pilot bioequivalence study of two strontium ranelate oral formulations in healthy Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Wang, Xiaolin; Liu, Man; Zhang, Lina; Deng, Ming; Liu, Huichen

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and accurate ICP-MS method using alternate analyte-free matrix for calibration standards preparation and a rapid direct dilution procedure for sample preparation was developed and validated for the quantification of exogenous strontium (Sr) from the drug in human serum. Serum was prepared by direct dilution (1:29, v/v) in an acidic solution consisting of nitric acid (0.1%) and germanium (Ge) added as internal standard (IS), to obtain simple and high-throughput preparation procedure with minimized matrix effect, and good repeatability. ICP-MS analysis was performed using collision cell technology (CCT) mode. Alternate matrix method by using distilled water as an alternate analyte-free matrix for the preparation of calibration standards (CS) was used to avoid the influence of endogenous Sr in serum on the quantification. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, carry-over, matrix effects, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), linearity, precision and accuracy, and stability. Instrumental linearity was verified in the range of 1.00-500ng/mL, corresponding to a concentration range of 0.0300-15.0μg/mL in 50μL sample of serum matrix and alternate matrix. Intra- and inter-day precision as relative standard deviation (RSD) were less than 8.0% and accuracy as relative error (RE) was within ±3.0%. The method allowed a high sample throughput, and was sensitive and accurate enough for a pilot bioequivalence study in healthy male Chinese subjects following single oral administration of two strontium ranelate formulations containing 2g strontium ranelate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of far-infrared radiation on heart rate variability and central manifestations in healthy subjects: a resting-fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yii-Jeng; Kung, Yen-Ying; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Niddam, David M; Cheng, Chou-Ming; Chou, Chih-Che; Yeh, Tzu-Chen; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen; Chiu, Jen-Hwey

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the autonomic responses and central manifestations by peripheral FIR stimulation. Ten subjects (mean ± SD age 26.2 ± 3.52 years) received FIR stimulation at left median nerve territory for 40 min. Electrocardiograph was continuously recorded and heart rate variability (HRV) were analyzed. By using a 3 T-MRI scanner, three sessions of resting-state functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) were acquired, namely, before (baseline-FIR), immediately after (IA-FIR) and 15 min after FIR was turned off (Post-FIR). The fractional amplitude of low-frequency (0.01-0.08 Hz) fluctuation (fALFF) of each session to evaluate the intensity of resting-brain activity in each session was analyzed. Our results showed that FIR stimulation induced significant HRV responses such as an increasing trend of nLF and LF/HF ratio, while FIR increased fALFF in right superior front gyrus, middle frontal gyrus and decreased the resting brain activity at fusiform gyrus, extrastriae cortex, inferior temporal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, especially 15 min after FIR was turned off. We conclude that the central manifestation and the autonomic responses are prominent during and after FIR stimulation, which provide important mechanistic explanation on human disorder treated by such energy medicine.

  15. An Ergonomic Evaluation of Aircraft Pilot Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Yolanda Nicole

    Seat comfort has become increasingly important in today's society as we spend more time at consoles, instrument panels, or just online. However, seat comfort is hard to define and difficult to measure. Several measures both objective and subjective were used to evaluate seat comfort in commercially available average pilot seats. Three pilot seats, which had the same material and similar adjustments but different physical attributes, and a universal classroom seat, with different material and no adjustments, were compared by 20 volunteers using subjective and objective measures in a Latin square controlled repeated measures design. A Friedman's test was used to determine that both the comfort questionnaire and the body-map rating results were able to discriminate objective comfort levels between the seats. One-way repeated measures ANOVA tests were used to analyze both the objective tests, actigraph and pressure pad data. All results indicated that one seat was clearly the most comfortable and another, the classroom seat was clearly the most uncomfortable seat. Furthermore, the overall comments per seat were compiled and compared to Fazlollahtabar's 2010) predictive automobile seat comfort theory to determine which factors influence comfort perception. The use of both subjective and objective data can better distinguish comfort from one seat over the other. These results have implications for future tests of seats that will be used for long durations. Limitations and future recommendations are discussed later in the paper. An interesting finding may explain why pressure pad data are typically seemingly at odds with subjective measures of seat comfort.

  16. 14 CFR 61.5 - Certificates and ratings issued under this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Recreational pilot. (iv) Private pilot. (v) Commercial pilot. (vi) Airline transport pilot. (2) Flight... two pilots. (8) Instrument ratings (on private and commercial pilot certificates only)— (i) Instrument... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61...

  17. The effects of diet- and diet plus exercise-induced weight loss on basal metabolic rate and acylated ghrelin in grade 1 obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes AL

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available André L Lopes,1 Ana Paula T Fayh,2,3 Luisa G de Souza Campos,4 Bruno C Teixeira,1 Randhall B Kreismann Carteri,1 Jerri L Ribeiro,4 Rogério Friedman,2 Álvaro Reischak-Oliveira1 1Exercise Research Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 2Endocrine Unit, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 3Health Sciences College of Trairi, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Santa Cruz, RN, Brazil; 4Centro Universitário Metodista – IPA, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Background: Diet and exercise are often prescribed as primary intervention regarding obesity-related disorders. Additionally, recent studies have shown beneficial effects of weight loss through diet and exercise in ghrelin concentrations in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 5% weight loss on lipid profile, resting metabolic rate (RMR, and acylated ghrelin (AG using two different methods of intervention (diet or diet plus exercise. Materials and methods: Eighteen subjects (twelve women and six men aged 20–40 years with a body mass index of 30–34.9 kg/m2 (grade 1 obesity were randomized into two intervention groups: diet (n=9 or diet plus exercise (n=9. Both groups underwent treatment until 5% of the initial body weight was lost. At baseline and upon completion, RMR and AG were analyzed. Results: Both groups showed a significant decrease in body fat percentage and fat mass. The diet-plus-exercise group showed a decrease in AG (pre: 54.4±25.3 pg/mL and post: 33.2±19.1 pg/mL and an increase in RMR (pre: 1,363±379 kcal/day, post: 1,633±223 kcal/day. Conclusion: These data suggest that diet plus exercise induced weight loss and had beneficial effects on AG concentration and RMR, essential factors to ensure the benefits of a weight-loss program. Keywords: exercise therapy, diet, energy regulation, obesity

  18. 14 CFR 61.68 - Category III pilot authorization requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate or commercial pilot certificate with an instrument rating or an airline transport pilot... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Category III pilot authorization... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Aircraft...

  19. Air Force Pilot Retention-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Politica l Science from Texas A&M University in 1973. He earned his commission S’- ,t the same time. This project will fulfill partial r(,quir(,m,nts...12 years of Air Force pilot retention rates , (2:12: 5:2). 0>. _ , FISCAL YEAR PILOT RETENTION RATES 1976 50.6% 1977 47.9% 1978 39.6% 1979 26.0% 1980

  20. Can we Identify the Heart Rate Deflection Point and Rating of Perceived Exertion Threshold during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 in University Basketball Players? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymczak Conde Juan Henrique

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to identify the heart rate deflection point (HRDP and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE threshold (DmaxRPE during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1 in university basketball players. Methods. Eleven male university basketball athletes performed two incremental tests, interspersed by seven days, in a random crossover pattern: (1 the treadmill test with the initial velocity of 6 km ‧ h-1, increments of 1 km ‧ h-1 each 2 minutes, and pauses of 15 seconds between the stages; (2 the Yo-Yo IR1. Results. During the Yo-Yo IR1, the HRDP and the DmaxRPE were identified only in six and seven subjects, respectively. In the treadmill test, the HRDP and the DmaxRPE were found in 11 and 10 individuals, respectively. Additionally, there were no differences between the velocity of occurrence of the HRDP and the DmaxRPE recognized in the treadmill test and in the Yo-Yo IR1 (p > 0.05. Conclusions. The results suggest that if the goal is to determine aerobic capacity by the HRDP and the DmaxRPE, Yo-Yo IR1 should not be used. Instead, the treadmill test is a reliable tool.

  1. Electronic cigarette user plasma nicotine concentration, puff topography, heart rate, and subjective effects: Influence of liquid nicotine concentration and user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiler, Marzena; Breland, Alison; Spindle, Tory; Maloney, Sarah; Lipato, Thokozeni; Karaoghlanian, Nareg; Shihadeh, Alan; Lopez, Alexa; Ramôa, Carolina; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Electronic cigarette (ECIG) nicotine delivery and other effects may depend on liquid nicotine concentration and user experience. This study is the first to systematically examine the influence of ECIG liquid nicotine concentration and user experience on nicotine delivery, heart rate, puff topography, and subjective effects. Thirty-three ECIG-experienced individuals and 31 ECIG-naïve cigarette smokers completed 4 laboratory conditions consisting of 2, 10-puff bouts (30-sec interpuff interval) with a 3.3-V ECIG battery attached to a 1.5-Ω "cartomizer" (7.3 W) filled with 1 ml ECIG liquid. Conditions differed by liquid nicotine concentration: 0, 8, 18, or 36 mg/ml. Participants' plasma nicotine concentration was directly related to liquid nicotine concentration and dependent on user experience, with significantly higher mean plasma nicotine increases observed in ECIG-experienced individuals relative to ECIG-naïve smokers in each active nicotine condition. When using 36 mg/ml, mean plasma nicotine increase for ECIG-experienced individuals was 17.9 ng/ml (SD = 17.2) and 6.9 (SD = 7.1; p users: collapsed across condition, mean puff duration was 5.6 sec (SD = 3.0) for ECIG-experienced and 2.9 (SD = 1.5) for ECIG-naïve individuals. ECIG use also suppressed nicotine/tobacco abstinence symptoms in both groups; the magnitude of abstinence symptom suppression depended on liquid nicotine concentration and user experience. These and other recent results suggest that policies intended to limit ECIG nicotine delivery will need to account for factors in addition to liquid nicotine concentration (e.g., device power and user behavior). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Self-rated Subjective Health Status Is Strongly Associated with Sociodemographic Factors, Lifestyle, Nutrient Intakes, and Biochemical Indices, but Not Smoking Status: KNHANES 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2015-09-01

    Despite advertised health warnings regarding the deadly hazards of smoking, many people have not heeded recommendations to quit smoking. We examined factors that affect self-rated subjective health status (SRH) scores among lifestyle, nutrient intake and biochemical parameters, and the association of SRH scores and smoking status in a large Korean adult population. Adjusted odd ratios for SRH were calculated for smoking status, selected biochemical data, and food and nutrient intake obtained using the 24-hr recall method after covariate adjustment in the 2007-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (27,534 men and women aged ≥ 20 yr). Age, sex, income, education, drinking, exercise and stress levels were associated with SRH scores, regardless of smoking status (P smoking status groups considered the well-known indicators for metabolic diseases (HDL cholesterol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in the circulation), and the intake of fiber, total vitamins A, and vitamin C as indicators of SRH. Especially in current smokers, higher intake of nutritious food groups such as grains (OR = 1.227), vegetables (OR = 1.944), and milk (OR = 2.26) significantly increased the adjusted odds ratio of SRH. However, smoking status was not associated with SRH scores. In conclusion, SRH is affected by the indices related to health but not smoking status in Korean adults. The development of a new indicator of the direct adverse effects of smoking at regular health check-ups might be required to modulate the SRH in smokers and a nutritional education should not include the possible attenuation of adverse effects of smoking by good nutrition.

  3. Combustion instability of pilot flame in a pilot bluff body stabilized combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Xiao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Combustion instability of pilot flame has been investigated in a model pilot bluff body stabilized combustor by running the pilot flame only. The primary objectives are to investigate the pilot flame dynamics and to provide bases for the study of the interaction mechanisms between the pilot flame and the main flame. Dynamic pressures are measured by dynamic pressure transducers. A high speed camera with CH∗ bandpass filter is used to capture the pilot flame dynamics. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD is used to further analyze the high speed images. With the increase of the pilot fuel mass flow rate, the pilot flame changes from stable to unstable state gradually. The combustion instability frequency is 136 Hz when the pilot flame is unstable. Numerical simulation results show that the equivalence ratios in both the shear layer and the recirculation zone increase as the pilot fuel mass flow rate increases. The mechanism of the instability of the pilot flame can be attributed to the coupling between the second order acoustic mode and the unsteady heat release due to symmetric vortex shedding. These results illustrate that the pilot fuel mass flow rate has significant influences on the dynamic stability of the pilot flame.

  4. Adaptive Controller Adaptation Time and Available Control Authority Effects on Piloting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna; Gregory, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive control is considered for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic of adverse conditions. This experiment looked at how adaptive controller adaptation time to recover nominal aircraft dynamics affects pilots and how pilots want information about available control authority transmitted. Results indicate that an adaptive controller that takes three seconds to adapt helped pilots when looking at lateral and longitudinal errors. The controllability ratings improved with the adaptive controller, again the most for the three seconds adaptation time while workload decreased with the adaptive controller. The effects of the displays showing the percentage amount of available safe flight envelope used in the maneuver were dominated by the adaptation time. With the displays, the altitude error increased, controllability slightly decreased, and mental demand increased. Therefore, the displays did require some of the subjects resources but these negatives may be outweighed by pilots having more situation awareness of their aircraft.

  5. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabari, Anil [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States); Fadipe, Oloruntomi [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States)

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  6. Increased frequency of chromosome translocations in airline pilots with long-term flying experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, L C; Sigurdson, A J; Ward, E M; Waters, M A; Whelan, E A; Petersen, M R; Bhatti, P; Ramsey, M J; Ron, E; Tucker, J D

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are an established biomarker of cumulative exposure to external ionising radiation. Airline pilots are exposed to cosmic ionising radiation, but few flight crew studies have examined translocations in relation to flight experience. We determined the frequency of translocations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 83 airline pilots and 50 comparison subjects (mean age 47 and 46 years, respectively). Translocations were scored in an average of 1039 cell equivalents (CE) per subject using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) whole chromosome painting and expressed per 100 CE. Negative binomial regression models were used to assess the relationship between translocation frequency and exposure status and flight years, adjusting for age, diagnostic x ray procedures, and military flying. There was no significant difference in the adjusted mean translocation frequency of pilots and comparison subjects (0.37 (SE 0.04) vs 0.38 (SE 0.06) translocations/100 CE, respectively). However, among pilots, the adjusted translocation frequency was significantly associated with flight years (p = 0.01) with rate ratios of 1.06 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.82) for a 1- and 10-year incremental increase in flight years, respectively. The adjusted rate ratio for pilots in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of flight years was 2.59 (95% CI 1.26 to 5.33). Our data suggests that pilots with long-term flying experience may be exposed to biologically significant doses of ionising radiation. Epidemiological studies with longer follow-up of larger cohorts of pilots with a wide range of radiation exposure levels are needed to clarify the relationship between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk.

  7. High-Sequence Diversity and Rapid Virus Turnover Contribute to Higher Rates of Coreceptor Switching in Treatment-Experienced Subjects with HIV-1 Viremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedellec, Rebecca; Herbeck, Joshua T; Hunt, Peter W; Deeks, Steven G; Mullins, James I; Anton, Elizabeth D; Reeves, Jacqueline D; Mosier, Donald E

    2017-03-01

    Coreceptor switching from CCR5 to CXCR4 is common during chronic HIV-1 infection, but is even more common in individuals who have failed antiretroviral therapy (ART). Prior studies have suggested rapid mutation and/or recombination of HIV-1 envelope (env) genes during coreceptor switching. We compared the functional and genotypic changes in env of viruses from viremic subjects who had failed ART just before and after coreceptor switching and compared those to viruses from matched subjects without coreceptor switching. Analysis of multiple unique functional env clones from each subject revealed extensive diversity at both sample time points and rapid diversification of sequences during the 4-month interval in viruses from both 9 subjects with coreceptor switching and 15 control subjects. Only two subjects had envs with evidence of recombination. Three findings distinguished env clones from subjects with coreceptor switching from controls: (1) lower entry efficiency via CCR5; (2) longer V1/V2 regions; and (3), lower nadir CD4 T cell counts during prior years of infection. Most of these subjects harbored virus with lower replicative capacity associated with protease (PR) and/or reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations, and the extensive diversification tended to lead either to improved entry efficiency via CCR5 or the gain of entry function via CXCR4. These results suggest that R5X4 or X4 variants emerge from a diverse, low-fitness landscape shaped by chronic infection, multiple ART resistance mutations, the availability of target cells, and reduced entry efficiency via CCR5.

  8. Are first ventilatory threshold and 6-minute walk test heart rate interchangeable? A pilot study in healthy elderlies and cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morard, M D; Bosquet, L; Laroche, D; Joussain, C; Besson, D; Deley, G; Casillas, J M; Gremeaux, V

    2015-04-01

    Heart rate (HR) at the ventilatory threshold (VT) is often used to prescribe exercise intensity in cardiac rehabilitation. Some studies have reported no significant difference between HR at VT and HR measured at the end of a 6-min walk test (6-MWT) in cardiac patients. The aim of this work was to assess the potential equivalence between those parameters at the individual level. Three groups of subjects performed a stress test and a 6-MWT: 22 healthy elderlies (GES, 77 ± 3.7 years), 10 stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients (GMI, 50.9 ± 4.2 years) and 30 patients with chronic heart failure (GHF, 63.3 ± 10 years). We analyzed the correlation, mean bias, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of the mean bias and the magnitude of the bias between 6-MWT-HR and VT-HR. There was a significant difference between 6-MWT and VT-HR in GHF (99.1 ± 8.8 vs 91.6 ± 18.6 bpm, P=0.016) but not in GES and GMI. The correlation between those 2 parameters was high for GMI (r=0.78, P30%) in GES and GHF and acceptable in GMI (8-12%). 6-MWT-HR and VT-HR do not appear interchangeable at the individual level in healthy elderlies and CHF patients. In CAD patients, further larger studies and/or the development of other walk tests could help in confirming the interest of a training prescription based on walking performance, after an exhaustive study of their cardiometabolic requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of hyperthermic baths on depression, sleep and heart rate variability in patients with depressive disorder: a randomized clinical pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Johannes; Grebe, Julian; Kaifel, Sonja; Weinert, Tomas; Sadaghiani, Catharina; Huber, Roman

    2017-03-28

    Despite advances in the treatment of depression, one-third of depressed patients fail to respond to conventional antidepressant medication. There is a need for more effective treatments with fewer side effects. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether hyperthermic baths reduce depressive symptoms in adults with depressive disorder. Randomized, two-arm placebo-controlled, 8-week pilot trial. Medically stable outpatients with confirmed depressive disorder (ICD-10: F32/F33) who were moderately depressed as determined by the 17-item Hamilton Scale for Depression (HAM-D) score ≥18 were randomly assigned to 2 hyperthermic baths (40 °C) per week for 4 weeks or a sham intervention with green light and follow-up after 4 weeks. Main outcome measure was the change in HAM-D total score from baseline (T0) to the 2-week time point (T1). A total of 36 patients were randomized (hyperthermic baths, n = 17; sham condition, n = 19). The intention-to-treat analysis showed a significant (P = .037) difference in the change in HAM-D total score with 3.14 points after 4 interventions (T1) in favour of the hyperthermic bath group compared to the placebo group. This pilot study suggests that hyperthermic baths do have generalized efficacy in depressed patients. DRKS00004803 at drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de, German Clinical Trials Register (registration date 2016-02-02), retrospectively registered.

  10. A pilot study of the efficacy of a computerized executive functioning remediation training with game elements for children with ADHD in an outpatient setting: outcome on parent- and teacher-rated executive functioning and ADHD behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Oord, S; Ponsioen, A J G B; Geurts, H M; Ten Brink, E L; Prins, P J M

    2014-11-01

    This pilot study tested the short- and long-term efficacy (9 weeks follow-up) of an executive functioning (EF) remediation training with game elements for children with ADHD in an outpatient clinical setting, using a randomized controlled wait-list design. Furthermore, in a subsample, that is, those treated with methylphenidate, additive effects of the EF training were assessed. A total of 40 children (aged 8-12 years) were randomized to the EF training or wait-list. The training consisted of a 25-session training of inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory. Treatment outcome was assessed by parent- and teacher-rated EF, ADHD, oppositional deviant disorder, and conduct disorder symptoms. Children in the EF training showed significantly more improvement than those in the wait-list condition on parent-rated EF and ADHD behavior in the total sample and in the subsample treated with methylphenidate. Effects were maintained at follow-up. This pilot study shows promising evidence for the efficacy of an EF training with game elements. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  11. Sample size requirements to estimate key design parameters from external pilot randomised controlled trials: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teare, M Dawn; Dimairo, Munyaradzi; Shephard, Neil; Hayman, Alex; Whitehead, Amy; Walters, Stephen J

    2014-07-03

    External pilot or feasibility studies can be used to estimate key unknown parameters to inform the design of the definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT). However, there is little consensus on how large pilot studies need to be, and some suggest inflating estimates to adjust for the lack of precision when planning the definitive RCT. We use a simulation approach to illustrate the sampling distribution of the standard deviation for continuous outcomes and the event rate for binary outcomes. We present the impact of increasing the pilot sample size on the precision and bias of these estimates, and predicted power under three realistic scenarios. We also illustrate the consequences of using a confidence interval argument to inflate estimates so the required power is achieved with a pre-specified level of confidence. We limit our attention to external pilot and feasibility studies prior to a two-parallel-balanced-group superiority RCT. For normally distributed outcomes, the relative gain in precision of the pooled standard deviation (SDp) is less than 10% (for each five subjects added per group) once the total sample size is 70. For true proportions between 0.1 and 0.5, we find the gain in precision for each five subjects added to the pilot sample is less than 5% once the sample size is 60. Adjusting the required sample sizes for the imprecision in the pilot study estimates can result in excessively large definitive RCTs and also requires a pilot sample size of 60 to 90 for the true effect sizes considered here. We recommend that an external pilot study has at least 70 measured subjects (35 per group) when estimating the SDp for a continuous outcome. If the event rate in an intervention group needs to be estimated by the pilot then a total of 60 to 100 subjects is required. Hence if the primary outcome is binary a total of at least 120 subjects (60 in each group) may be required in the pilot trial. It is very much more efficient to use a larger pilot study, than to

  12. Patterns of physical conditioning in Royal Australian Air Force F/A-18 pilots and the implications for +Gz tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D G; White, S W; Callister, R

    1999-08-01

    The role of physical conditioning in tolerance to +Gz remains the subject of debate, particularly in relation to the relative merits of aerobic vs. anaerobic conditioning. The purpose of this study was to document the patterns of physical conditioning in Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) fighter pilots and to relate these findings to the question of +Gz tolerance. A questionnaire was used to determine the physical conditioning activities of RAAF F/A-18 pilots. Aerobic fitness levels (VO2max) were determined in a sample of eight pilots using a progressive cycle ergometer protocol. Of the 42 F/A-18 pilots who completed the questionnaire, 86% reported regular physical conditioning, mostly three times per week. Aerobic activities were the most common (83%), with running the most popular activity (55%). Anaerobic activities were reported by 26% of respondents. Most respondents reported doing more than one activity, with an average weekly training volume of 129+/-77 min. The ergometer test results revealed a mean VO2max of 50+/-6 ml O2 x kg x min(-1). The high rates of participation in regular physical activity suggest that physical fitness is perceived as important by the fighter pilot operating in the high +Gz environment. The fighter pilots in this study participated in aerobic activities at a much higher rate than anaerobic activities. The aerobic fitness levels measured suggest that the pilots have good but not exceptionally high levels of aerobic power that are unlikely to influence +Gz tolerance.

  13. My mind is as clear as it used to be: A pilot study illustrating the difficulties of employing a single-item subjective screen to detect cognitive impairment in outpatients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibiger, Gail; Kirsh, Kenneth L; Wall, Jacqueline R; Passik, Steven D

    2003-08-01

    Oncology patients often complain that their "mind does not seem to be clear." This subjective perception, sometimes referred to as "chemo brain," may be due to situational stressors, psychological disorders, organic factors, or effects of neurotoxic medications. Cognitive decline cannot only diminish quality of life, but can also interfere with a patient's ability to make decisions regarding complex treatment issues. The current study investigated the utility of using item 11 of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Screen (ZSDS) as a cognitive screen. A sample of 61 ambulatory cancer patients completed this study. Participants were recruited from four sites of Community Cancer Care, Inc., in Indiana. A battery of cognitive instruments and psychosocial inventories was administered in a standardized order. The sample had a mean age of 58.6 years and comprised 57.4% (n=35) women and 42.6% (n=26) men. Item 11 of the ZSDS was not significantly correlated to the cognitive measures. Correlates of the perception of cognitive impairment were the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) Attention Scale (r=-0.26, PStroop test (F=19.8, Pcancer patients, there may be problems in interpreting the nature of these complaints, particularly in separating them from depressive preoccupation.

  14. Predictors of skin cancer in commercial airline pilots

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas, Joyce S.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Kilmer, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Skin cancers among commercial airline pilots have been reported to occur at increased rates in pilot populations worldwide. The reasons for these increases are unclear, but postulated factors include ionizing radiation, circadian disruption and leisure sun exposure.

  15. Effects of dietary Gracilaria sp. and Alaria sp. supplementation on growth performance, metabolic rates and health in meagre (Argyrosomus regius) subjected to pathogen infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peixoto, Maria João; Salas-Leitón, Emílio; Brito, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    . Standard and routine metabolic rates, and aerobic metabolic scope did not vary significantly among dietary treatments. Conversely, maximum metabolic rate was significantly higher in fish fed Alaria sp. diet when compared to control group. Non-infected fish had higher hematocrit levels than the infected...... enzymes activities when compared to non-infected. An interaction between infection and diet was found for glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione activities. The current study suggests that dietary seaweed supplementation modulates metabolic rates and biomarker responses in meagre, which may confer...

  16. Pilot Greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot greenhouse was built in collaboration with the "Association des Maraichers" of Geneva in the frame of the study for making use of the heat rejected as warm water by CERN accelerators and experiments. Among other improvements, more automated and precise regulation systems for heating and ventilation were developed. See also 8305598X.

  17. Relationship Between Drug Discrimination and Ratings of Subjective Effects: Implications for Assessing and Understanding the Abuse Potential of d-Amphetamine in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Anna R.; Bolin, B. Levi; Stoops, William W.; Rush, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    The discriminative and subjective effects of drugs in humans are related, but the full extent of this relationship remains to be determined. To further explore this relationship, a retrospective analysis was conducted on data from six studies completed in our laboratory that used identical procedures. The relationship between the discriminative and subjective effects of a range of doses of d-amphetamine (i.e., 2.5–15 mg) was examined using correlational analyses. Significant correlations with discrimination performance were observed on 15 of 20 items from the Drug-Effect Questionnaire across a range of qualities (e.g., Pay For [a positive effect indicative of abuse potential] and Active [a stimulant-like effect]), but the magnitude of these relationships was modest (r amphetamine and indicate that the former are a more practical means to assess abuse potential of drugs. Although these procedures are fundamentally related in that they rely on the presence of an interoceptive drug state, they differ in the dimension(s) of the interoceptive effects that participants must quantify. The simultaneous use of drug discrimination and subjective effects may, therefore, reveal complimentary aspects of drug effects that underlie their potential for abuse. PMID:23851485

  18. Relationship between drug discrimination and ratings of subjective effects: implications for assessing and understanding the abuse potential of D-amphetamine in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Anna R; Bolin, B Levi; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    2013-09-01

    The discriminative and subjective effects of drugs in humans are related, but the full extent of this relationship remains to be determined. To further explore this relationship, a retrospective analysis was conducted on data from six studies completed in our laboratory that used identical procedures. The relationship between the discriminative and subjective effects of a range of doses of D-amphetamine (i.e. 2.5-15 mg) was examined using correlational analyses. Significant correlations with discrimination performance were observed on 15 of 20 items from the Drug-Effect Questionnaire across a range of qualities [e.g. Pay For (a positive effect indicative of abuse potential) and Active (a stimulant-like effect)], but the magnitude of these relationships was modest (reffects contribute to the discriminative effects of D-amphetamine and indicate that the former are a more practical means to assess the abuse potential of drugs. Although these procedures are fundamentally related in that they rely on the presence of an interoceptive drug state, they differ in the dimension(s) of the interoceptive effects that participants must quantify. The simultaneous use of drug discrimination and subjective effects may, therefore, reveal complimentary aspects of drug effects that underlie their potential for abuse.

  19. Fracto-mechanoluminescent light emission of EuD4TEA-PDMS composites subjected to high strain-rate compressive loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Donghyeon; Castaño, Nicolas; Bhakta, Raj; Kimberley, Jamie

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to understand light emission characteristics of fracto-mechanoluminescent (FML) europium tetrakis(dibenzoylmethide)-triethylammonium (EuD4TEA) crystals under high strain-rate compressive loading. As a sensing material that can play a pivotal role for the self-powered impact sensor technology, it is important to understand transformative light emission characteristics of the FML EuD4TEA crystals under high strain-rate compressive loading. First, EuD4TEA crystals were synthesized and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer to fabricate EuD4TEA-PDMS composite test specimens. Second, the prepared EuD4TEA-PDMS composites were tested using the modified Kolsky bar setup equipped with a high-speed camera. Third, FML light emission was captured to yield 12 bit grayscale video footage, which was processed to quantify the FML light emission. Finally, quantitative parameters were generated by taking into account pixel values and population of pixels of the 12 bit grayscale images to represent FML light intensity. The FML light intensity was correlated with high strain-rate compressive strain and strain rate to understand the FML light emission characteristics under high strain-rate compressive loading that can result from impact occurrences.

  20. Variability in testing policies and impact on reported Clostridium difficile infection rates: results from the pilot Longitudinal European Clostridium difficile Infection Diagnosis surveillance study (LuCID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K; Davis, G; Barbut, F; Eckert, C; Petrosillo, N; Wilcox, M H

    2016-12-01

    Lack of standardised Clostridium difficile testing is a potential confounder when comparing infection rates. We used an observational, systematic, prospective large-scale sampling approach to investigate variability in C. difficile sampling to understand C. difficile infection (CDI) incidence rates. In-patient and institutional data were gathered from 60 European hospitals (across three countries). Testing methodology, testing/CDI rates and case profiles were compared between countries and institution types. The mean annual CDI rate per hospital was lowest in the UK and highest in Italy (1.5 vs. 4.7 cases/10,000 patient bed days [pbds], p testing rate was highest in the UK compared with Italy and France (50.7/10,000 pbds vs. 31.5 and 30.3, respectively, p tested for CDI across all countries. Overall, only 64 % of hospitals used recommended testing algorithms for laboratory testing. Small hospitals were significantly more likely to use standalone toxin tests (SATTs). There was an inverse correlation between hospital size and CDI testing rate. Hospitals using SATT or assays not detecting toxin reported significantly higher CDI rates than those using recommended methods, despite testing similar testing frequencies. These data are consistent with higher false-positive rates in such (non-recommended) testing scenarios. Cases in Italy and those diagnosed by SATT or methods NOT detecting toxin were significantly older. Testing occurred significantly earlier in the UK. Assessment of testing practice is paramount to the accurate interpretation and comparison of CDI rates.

  1. Experimental pain ratings and reactivity of cortisol and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor II following a trial of hypnosis: results of a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Burel R; Quinn, Noel B; Kronfli, Tarek; King, Christopher D; Page, Gayle G; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Edwards, Robert R; Stapleton, Laura M; McGuire, Lynanne

    2012-01-01

    Current evidence supports the efficacy of hypnosis for reducing the pain associated with experimental stimulation and various acute and chronic conditions; however, the mechanisms explaining how hypnosis exerts its effects remain less clear. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and pro-inflammatory cytokines represent potential targets for investigation given their purported roles in the perpetuation of painful conditions; yet, no clinical trials have thus far examined the influence of hypnosis on these mechanisms. Healthy participants, highly susceptible to the effects of hypnosis, were randomized to either a hypnosis intervention or a no-intervention control. Using a cold pressor task, assessments of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were collected prior to the intervention (Pre) and following the intervention (Post) along with pain-provoked changes in salivary cortisol and the soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor II (sTNFαRII). Compared with the no-intervention control, data analyses revealed that hypnosis significantly reduced pain intensity and pain unpleasantness. Hypnosis was not significantly associated with suppression of cortisol or sTNFαRII reactivity to acute pain from Pre to Post; however, the effect sizes for these associations were medium-sized. Overall, the findings from this randomized controlled pilot study support the importance of a future large-scale study on the effects of hypnosis for modulating pain-related changes of the HPA axis and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The effect of Burns & Wounds (B&W)/burdock leaf therapy on burn-injured Amish patients: a pilot study measuring pain levels, infection rates, and healing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolacz, Nicole M; Jaroch, Mark T; Bear, Monica L; Hess, Rosanna F

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this pilot study were to measure pain associated with dressing changes, assess the presence of infection, and document healing times of burn-injured Amish in central Ohio using an herbal therapy consisting of Burns and Wounds™ ointment (B&W) and burdock (Arctium ssp.) leaves. B&W contains honey, lanolin, olive oil, wheat germ oil, marshmallow root, Aloe vera gel, wormwood, comfrey root, white oak bark, lobelia inflata, vegetable glycerin, bees wax, and myrrh. A prospective, case series design guided the study within a community-based participatory research framework. Amish burn dressers provided burn care. Registered nurses monitored each case and documented findings. Pain scores were noted and burns were inspected for infection during dressing changes; healing times were measured from day of burn to complete closure of the skin. All cases were photographed. Between October 2011 and May 2013, five Amish were enrolled. All had first- and second-degree burns. B&W/burdock leaf dressing changes caused minimal or no pain; none of the burns became infected, and healing times averaged less than 14 days. The use of this herbal remedy appears to be an acceptable alternative to conventional burn care for these types of burns. The trauma of dressing changes was virtually nonexistent. Nurses working in communities with Amish residents should be aware of this herbal-based method of burn care and monitor its use when feasible. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 141 - Airline Transport Pilot Certification Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rating for which the course applies, and: (a) Hold a commercial pilot certificate and an instrument... experience requirements under § 61.73 of this chapter to qualify for a commercial pilot certificate and an... commercial pilot license and an instrument rating, if the person holds a pilot license issued by a...

  4. Self- and other-estimates of multiple abilities in Britain and Turkey: a cross-cultural comparison of subjective ratings of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Arteche, Adriane; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Keser, Askin; Swami, Viren

    2009-12-01

    This study is part of a programmatic research effort into the determinants of self-assessed abilities. It examined cross-cultural differences in beliefs about intelligence and self- and other-estimated intelligence in two countries at extreme ends of the European continent. In all, 172 British and 272 Turkish students completed a three-part questionnaire where they estimated their parents', partners' and own multiple intelligences (Gardner (10) and Sternberg (3)). They also completed a measure of the 'big five' personality scales and rated six questions about intelligence. The British sample had more experience with IQ tests than the Turks. The majority of participants in both groups did not believe in sex differences in intelligence but did think there were race differences. They also believed that intelligence was primarily inherited. Participants rated their social and emotional intelligence highly (around one standard deviation above the norm). Results suggested that there were more cultural than sex differences in all the ratings, with various interactions mainly due to the British sample differentiating more between the sexes than the Turks. Males rated their overall, verbal, logical, spatial, creative and practical intelligence higher than females. Turks rated their musical, body-kinesthetic, interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence as well as existential, naturalistic, emotional, creative, and practical intelligence higher than the British. There was evidence of participants rating their fathers' intelligence on most factors higher than their mothers'. Factor analysis of the ten Gardner intelligences yield two clear factors: cognitive and social intelligence. The first factor was impacted by sex but not culture; it was the other way round for the second factor. Regressions showed that five factors predicted overall estimates: sex (male), age (older), test experience (has done tests), extraversion (strong) and openness (strong). Results are discussed in

  5. Comparison of the rhythm control treatment strategy versus the rate control strategy in patients with permanent or long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation and heart failure treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy - a pilot study of Cardiac Resynchronization in Atrial Fibrillation Trial (Pilot-CRAfT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszewski, Jan; Maciag, Aleksander; Kowalik, Ilona; Syska, Pawel; Lewandowski, Michal; Farkowski, Michal M; Borowiec, Anna; Chwyczko, Tomasz; Pytkowski, Mariusz; Szwed, Hanna; Sterlinski, Maciej

    2014-10-04

    The only subgroups of patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation in which the efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy has been scientifically proven are patients with indications for right ventricular pacing and patients after atrioventricular junction ablation. However it is unlikely that atrioventricular junction ablation would be a standard procedure in the majority of the heart failure patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy and concomitant atrial fibrillation due to the irreversible character of the procedure and a spontaneous sinus rhythm resumption that occurs in about 10% of these patients. Pilot-CRAfT is the first randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a rhythm control strategy in atrial fibrillation patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy devices. The aim of this prospective, single center randomized controlled pilot study is to answer the question whether the patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy and permanent atrial fibrillation would benefit from a strategy to restore and maintain sinus rhythm (that is 'rhythm control' strategy) in comparison to rate control strategy. The study population consists of 60 patients with heart failure and concomitant long-standing persistent or permanent atrial fibrillation who underwent a cardiac resynchronization therapy device implantation at least 3 months before qualification. Study participants are randomly assigned to the rhythm control strategy (including electrical cardioversion and pharmacotherapy) or to the rate control group whose goal is to control ventricular rate. The follow-up time is 12 months. The primary endpoint is the ratio of effectively captured biventricular beats. The secondary endpoints include peak oxygen consumption, six-minute walk test distance, heart failure symptom escalation, reverse remodelling of the heart on echo and quality of life. NCT01850277 registered on 22 April 2013 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

  6. Affective Norms for 718 Polish Short Texts (ANPST): Dataset with Affective Ratings for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Subjective Significance and Source Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Affective sciences are of burgeoning interest and are attracting more and more research attention. Three components of stimuli meaning have traditionally been distinguished: valence (degree of pleasantness), arousal (degree of intensity of sensations), and dominance (degree of control over sensations). Recently, another three dimensions have been introduced to measure qualities connected to the emotion-duality model: origin (the main component originating in the heart or in the mind), subjective significance (the degree of the subjective goal's relevance), and source (the location of the stimuli evoking the state). All six affective dimensions were assessed in our study of 718 Polish short texts (sentences of 5-23 words and 36-133 characters in length) describing situations or states in a way that can be referenced to an individual's experience. Assessments were carried out by 148 psychology students (all women for 108 sentences) and 2,091 students of different faculties (social science, engineering, life science, and science) from Warsaw colleges and universities (1,061 women and 1,030 men for all 718 sentences). Assessing sets of sentences for emotional response is especially useful for researchers interested in emotion elicitation through the use of a phrase such as "imagine that …" or by simply reading emotionally charged material that is more complex and that provides better context than single pictures or words.

  7. Sensitivity of primary phasic heart rate deceleration to stimulus repetition in an habituation procedure: influence of a subjective measure of activation/arousal on the evoked cardiac response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Marek; Barry, Robert J; Kaiser, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The post-stimulus primary bradycardia--sometimes labelled as the first evoked cardiac response, ECR1--is regarded as a response which is independent of the stimulus novelty factor. Despite this however, in our previous research we have observed a noticeable variation of this response, which made us suspect that there could be some additional factor influencing it. To test this, we designed a habituation procedure to measure susceptibility of the ECR1 to stimulus repetition. In our experimental design, we also included a measure of the level of activation (arousal) as a possible additional factor influencing the time-course of the cardiac response. The level of arousal over the study was measured by the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD ACL). Our results show that mere stimulus repetition does not influence the time-course of ECR1. However, another pattern of results appeared when one of the dimensions of AD ACL, namely Tense Arousal, was taken into account. We observed different ECR time-courses during the initial stimulus presentations for subjects with high and low levels of Tense Arousal. These results are interpreted within the framework of Preliminary Process Theory in terms of the different attentional patterns in subjects with high and low levels of Tense Arousal.

  8. Within-Subject Testing of the Signaled-Reinforcement Effect on Operant Responding as Measured by Response Rate and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Doughty, Adam H.

    2005-01-01

    Response rates under random-interval schedules are lower when a brief (500 ms) signal accompanies reinforcement than when there is no signal. The present study examined this signaled-reinforcement effect and its relation to resistance to change. In Experiment 1, rats responded on a multiple random-interval 60-s random-interval 60-s schedule, with…

  9. Removal of the veterinary antimicrobial sulfamethazine in a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass (HAIB) reactor subjected to step changes in the applied organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, G H D; Santos-Neto, A J; Zaiat, M

    2017-12-15

    A bench-scale horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass (HAIB) reactor treating synthetic swine wastewater was operated under different applied organic loading rates (OLR) through both variations in feed strength and in hydraulic retention time (HRT). The influence of step changes in OLR on the removal of the veterinary antimicrobial sulfamethazine (SMZ) was assessed. The highest observed SMZ removal efficiency, 75 ± 6%, was achieved with an OLR of 2.7 ± 0.4 kg O 2  m -3  d -1 when a significant increase in COD removal rate was observed. The SMZ removal rate was positively correlated (r = 0.899) to the COD removal rate in all of the experimental conditions in which the HRT was kept at 24 h, indicating a cometabolic transformation of the antimicrobial. Decreasing the HRT caused a significant decrease in SMZ removal efficiency without affecting the HAIB reactor performance in terms of stability, COD removal or metabolic intermediates production. Functionally equivalent steady states were observed in four different operational phases with similar operating conditions but with widely different behavior in relation to SMZ removal. The experimental results showed the potential of anaerobic technology in removing environmentally relevant concentrations of SMZ, and the possibility of enhancing reactor performance by controlling operating conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  11. Geochemical Rate/RNA Integration Study (GRIST): A Pilot Field Experiment for Inter-Calibration of Biogeochemistry and Nucleic Acid Measurements Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronk, Deborah

    2007-01-08

    The Geochemical Rate/RNA Integration Study (GRIST) project sought to correlate biogeochemical flux rates with measurements of gene expression and mRNA abundance to demonstrate the application of molecular approaches to estimate the presence and magnitude of a suite of biogeochemical processes. The study was headed by Lee Kerkhoff of Rutgers University. In this component of the GRIST study, we characterized ambient nutrient concentrations and measured uptake rates for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, ammonium, nitrate and nitrite) and dissolved organic nitrogen (urea and dissolved free amino acids) during two diel studies at the Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory (LEO-15) on the New Jersey continental shelf.

  12. Cross-national invariance of dimensions of parental rearing behaviour: comparison of psychometric data of Swedish depressives and healthy subjects with Dutch target ratings on the EMBU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrindell, W A; Perris, C; Perris, H; Eisemann, M; van der Ende, J; von Knorring, L

    1986-03-01

    A psychometric study on Swedish and Dutch samples used the EMBU, a self-report instrument designed to assess memories of parents' rearing behaviour. Of the four primary factors identified previously with Dutch individuals (Rejection, Emotional Warmth, Over-protection, and Favouring Subject), the first three were retrieved in a similar form in the two Swedish groups (depressives and healthy, non-patients). Examination of the metric equivalence of the scales and the strength of the factors for each group indicated that comparisons of patterns and levels between groups from the respective countries on the three factors showing cross-national constancy would be warranted. Scale-level factor analyses of these dimensions produced identical two-factor compositions (CARE and PROTECTION) across national groups which further supported this conclusion.

  13. Serotonin transporter binding in the hypothalamus correlates negatively with tonic heat pain ratings in healthy subjects: A [11C]DASB PET study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Ron; Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Erritzoe, David

    2010-01-01

    ) tonic noxious heat stimulus. PET data were analyzed using both volume-of-interest (VOI) and voxel-based approaches. VOI analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between tonic pain ratings and SERT binding in the hypothalamus (r = −0.59; p = 0.008), a finding confirmed by the parametric...... analysis revealed a positive correlation between pain tolerance and SERT binding in the hypothalamus (r = 0.53; p = 0.02) although this was not seen in the parametric analysis. These data extend our earlier observation that cortical 5-HT receptors co-determine responses to tonic but not to phasic pain....... The negative correlation between SERT binding in the hypothalamus and insula with tonic pain ratings suggests a possible serotonergic control of the role of these areas in the modulation or in the affective appreciation of pain....

  14. Does Subjective Rating Reflect Behavioural Coding? Personality in 2 Month-Old Dog Puppies: An Open-Field Test and Adjective-Based Questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanis Barnard

    Full Text Available A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behavioural analyses of the dogs' behaviour. However, only a few studies have assessed the correspondence between these two methods, with results varying considerably across studies. Furthermore, most studies have focused on adult dogs, despite the fact that an understanding of personality traits in young puppies may be important for research focusing on the genetic basis of personality traits. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the correspondence between a questionnaire based method and the in depth analyses of the behaviour of 2-month old puppies in an open-field test in which a number of both social and non-social stimuli were presented to the subjects. We further evaluated consistency of traits over time by re-testing a subset of puppies. The correspondence between methods was high and test- retest consistency (for the main trait was also good using both evaluation methods. Results showed clear factors referring to the two main personality traits 'extroversion,' (i.e. the enthusiastic, exuberant approach to the stimuli and 'neuroticism,' (i.e. the more cautious and fearful approach to the stimuli, potentially similar to the shyness-boldness dimension found in previous studies. Furthermore, both methods identified an 'amicability' dimension, expressing the positive interactions the pups directed at the humans stranger, and a 'reservedness' dimension which identified pups who largely chose not to interact with the stimuli, and were defined as quiet and not nosey in the questionnaire.

  15. Does Subjective Rating Reflect Behavioural Coding? Personality in 2 Month-Old Dog Puppies: An Open-Field Test and Adjective-Based Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Chiara; Beghelli, Valentina; Capra, Alexa; Normando, Simona; Pelosi, Annalisa; Valsecchi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behavioural analyses of the dogs’ behaviour. However, only a few studies have assessed the correspondence between these two methods, with results varying considerably across studies. Furthermore, most studies have focused on adult dogs, despite the fact that an understanding of personality traits in young puppies may be important for research focusing on the genetic basis of personality traits. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the correspondence between a questionnaire based method and the in depth analyses of the behaviour of 2-month old puppies in an open-field test in which a number of both social and non-social stimuli were presented to the subjects. We further evaluated consistency of traits over time by re-testing a subset of puppies. The correspondence between methods was high and test- retest consistency (for the main trait) was also good using both evaluation methods. Results showed clear factors referring to the two main personality traits ‘extroversion,’ (i.e. the enthusiastic, exuberant approach to the stimuli) and ‘neuroticism,’ (i.e. the more cautious and fearful approach to the stimuli), potentially similar to the shyness-boldness dimension found in previous studies. Furthermore, both methods identified an ‘amicability’ dimension, expressing the positive interactions the pups directed at the humans stranger, and a ‘reservedness’ dimension which identified pups who largely chose not to interact with the stimuli, and were defined as quiet and not nosey in the questionnaire. PMID:26977588

  16. Comparison between IDMS-traceable Jaffe and enzymatic creatinine assays for estimation of glomerular filtration rate by the CKD-EPI equation in healthy and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuiche, Amanda Veiga; Soares, Ariana Aguiar; Camargo, Eduardo Guimarães; Weinert, Letícia Schwerz; Camargo, Joíza Lins; Silveiro, Sandra Pinho

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the agreement between creatinine measured by Jaffe and enzymatic methods and their putative influence on eGFR as calculated by the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) equation in healthy and diabetic individuals. Cross-sectional study conducted in 123 adult southern Brazilians with GFR>60 mL/min/1.73 m² (53 patients with type 2 diabetes, 70 healthy volunteers). Mean age was 49±16 years (range of 19-86). Most were female (55%) and white (83%). Creatinine was measured by a traceable Jaffe method (Modular P, Roche Diagnostic) and by an enzymatic method (CREA plus, Roche/Hitachi 917). GFR was measured by the ⁵¹Cr-EDTA single-injection method. Serum creatinine measured by the Jaffe and enzymatic methods was similar in healthy subjects (0.79±0.16 vs. 0.79±0.15 mg/dL, respectively, P=0.76), and diabetic patients (0.96±0.22 vs. 0.92±0.29 mg/dL, respectively, P=0.17). However, the correlation between the two methods was higher in the healthy group (r=0.90 vs. 0.76, P<0.001). The difference between Jaffe creatinine and enzymatic creatinine was <10% in 63% of cases in the healthy group and 40% of cases in the diabetes group (P=0.018). In the subset of patients with diabetes, eGFR based on enzymatic assay results showed better agreement with measured GFR than did eGFR based on Jaffe results. Jaffe and enzymatic creatinine methods show adequate agreement in healthy subjects, but in the presence of diabetes, the enzymatic method performed slightly better. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? A Summary of Evidence12

    OpenAIRE

    Harvie, Michelle N; Howell, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies and human observational data link energy restriction (ER) to reduced rates of carcinogenesis. Most of these studies have involved continuous energy restriction (CER), but there is increasing public and scientific interest in the potential health and anticancer effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) or intermittent fasting (IF), which comprise periods of marked ER or total fasting interspersed with periods of normal eating. This review summarizes animal studies that as...

  18. Seminal plasma insemination during ovum-pickup—a method to increase pregnancy rate in IVF/ICSI procedure. A pilot randomized trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chicea, Radu; Ispasoiu, Florin; Focsa, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    In IVF procedures, endometrial function is a limiting factor of the pregnancy rate and the aims of this study is to determine whether seminal plasma insemination at ovum pick-up in IVF has any effect on pregnancy...

  19. Surveillance during pregnancy: methods and response rates from a hospital based pilot study of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System in Ireland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Keeffe, Linda M; Kearney, Patricia M; Greene, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    .... PRAMS is a CDC surveillance program which was established in the United States in 1987 to generate high quality, population based data to reduce infant mortality rates and improve maternal and infant health...

  20. Isometric force production in experienced fighter pilots during +3 Gz centrifuge acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiera, Simon; Bock, Otmar; Pongratz, Hans; Krause, Wolfgang

    2007-11-01

    Previously, we have shown that naïve subjects produce exaggerated isometric forces when exposed to increased acceleration (+Gz) for the first time. The present study investigates whether +G,-experienced PA-200 Tornado pilots show similar deficits. Experiments were conducted in the stationary (+1 Gz) or rotating (+3 Gz) gondola of a human-rated centrifuge. With their dominant hand, seven pilots produced visually prescribed forces of specific direction and magnitude using an isometric joystick. In practice trials, subjects received continuous visual feedback about their performance, while in test trials they did not. Peak forces during test trials were significantly higher in +3 Gz than in +1 Gz, although this increase of about 25% referring to the +1 Gz value was somewhat smaller in pilots than in nonpilot controls (increase of about 36%). Since pilots' responses were exaggerated in +3 Gz, it seems that frequent exposure to varying +Gz levels is not sufficient for a profound adaptation of force-producing mechanisms to +3 Gz. In consequence, pilots' performance on isometric tasks could be compromised during flight maneuvers in +Gz.

  1. Perceived harmfulness of substance use: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Harm ratings of substances help in understanding the perception toward substance use and formulating policies. Evidence of such harm ratings by substance users and their caregivers provides a clearer perspective of those who experience and observe such harm closely. Materials and Methods: Substance users and their caregivers were recruited from the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh. Sociodemographic details of the subjects were noted. The subjects were then asked to rate a list of psychoactive preparations according to the harms they thought the preparation caused. The list of substances was developed taking into consideration substance commonly encountered in the geographical area. The harm ratings were transformed on a scale of 0-100. Results: All subjects were males and majority of them were educated above 10 th standard, were not employed and belonged to urban background. Most of them had taken psychoactive substances in their lifetimes but were currently abstinent. Most of the subjects endorsed intravenous drugs as the most harmful, followed by heroin. Beer and chewable tobacco considered the least harmful substances. Greater degree of education was associated with lower harm rankings for heroin, cannabis, dextropropoxyphene, and raw opium; while urban residence was associated with greater harm ratings for cannabis and raw opium. Differences in the harms were perceived for different preparations of the same active compound for alcohol and nicotine. Conclusion: Harm ratings of substances can be a useful guide while formulating policies and allocating resources. Need for further research extending this pilot study is emphasized.

  2. Assessment of potential Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, clays when subjected to high rates of heating; Avaliacao da potencialidade de argilas do Rio Grande do Norte quando submetidas a elevadas taxas de aquecimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filgueira, R.L.; Pereira, L.M.; Dutra, R.P.S.; Nascimento, R.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEMat/CT/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    In this work we study three clays of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, to evaluate the potential them when subjected to high rates of heating. The samples were formed by pressing and subject to rates of 5 deg C / min, 10 deg C / min and 15 deg C / min, with temperature of 950 deg C. This study determined the technological properties of the samples. The mineralogical composition was identified by X-ray diffraction. The chemical composition was determined by Xray fluorescence. The Atterberg limits, were used to classify the samples on the plasticity. Were also performed: dilatometry, size analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The examination of the processing variables and the intrinsic characteristics of each material indicates that the RX clay showed the best results for the manufacture of blocks and tiles. The techniques used in this study were efficient and the initial objectives were achieved. (author)

  3. Systemic clonidine increases feeding and wheel running but does not affect rate of weight loss in rats subjected to activity-based anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieg, T S; Aravich, P F

    1994-02-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an animal model of anorexia nervosa with two characteristics of the disorder, decreased food intake and increased activity. We have shown that chronic noradrenergic stimulation of the paraventricular hypothalamus exacerbates ABA rather than ameliorates it. This study determined if peripheral chronic administration of clonidine affects ABA. Rats were implanted SC with osmotic minipumps infusion 0, 30, or 300 micrograms/kg/day of clonidine and exposed to ABA (1.5 h/day ad lib food, 22.5 h/day ad lib wheel access). Results showed that clonidine did not affect the rate of weight loss during ABA, but increased food intake at the lower dose and wheel activity at the higher dose. It is proposed that increased energy expenditure due to wheel running is counteracted by an inhibition of sympathetically mediated diet-induced thermogenesis, and that the elevation in running by the higher dose potentially increases the risk of developing ABA.

  4. Does the prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis and frequency of Rhesus-negative subjects correlate with the nationwide rate of traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Dama, Madhukar

    2014-12-01

    Latent toxoplasmosis is probably the most common protistan parasitic disease with many indirect negative impacts on human health. One of the important impacts is impaired psychomotor function leading to reduced driving efficiency in Toxoplasma-seropositive subjects. Numerous case-control studies have established a positive relation between the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) and probability of traffic accidents in study populations. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis varies between populations according to local geographical conditions, hygienic practices and kitchen habits. Similarly, we see a striking variation in the incidence of traffic accidents across countries. Hence, we compiled the largest ever data set on the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and tried to understand its role in traffic accident-related deaths and disabilities across 87 countries. Simple non-parametric analysis showed a positive and strong relation of T. gondii seroprevalence and traffic accident related disabilities. Further, we conducted multivariate analysis to control for confounding factors. After controlling for wealth, geographical latitude, health of population, length of roads and number of vehicles, the correlation disappeared. When the frequency of RhD negativity and its interaction with toxoplasmosis were included into the model, the effects of toxoplasmosis seemingly returned. However, the analysed data suffered from the problem of multicollinearity. When a proper method of analysis, ridge regression, was applied, the effects of toxoplasmosis prevalence and RhD negativity frequency disappeared again. The existence of a strong correlation between the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and health of population in particular countries, which was the probable cause of multicollinearity and possible reason for the negative result of the present study, suggests that 'asymptomatic' latent toxoplasmosis could have a large impact on public health.

  5. Novel Estimation of Pilot Performance Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Edward N.; Aponso, Bimal

    2017-01-01

    Two mechanisms internal to the pilot that affect performance during a tracking task are: 1) Pilot equalization (i.e. lead/lag); and 2) Pilot gain (i.e. sensitivity to the error signal). For some applications McRuer's Crossover Model can be used to anticipate what equalization will be employed to control a vehicle's dynamics. McRuer also established approximate time delays associated with different types of equalization - the more cognitive processing that is required due to equalization difficulty, the larger the time delay. However, the Crossover Model does not predict what the pilot gain will be. A nonlinear pilot control technique, observed and coined by the authors as 'amplitude clipping', is shown to improve stability, performance, and reduce workload when employed with vehicle dynamics that require high lead compensation by the pilot. Combining linear and nonlinear methods a novel approach is used to measure the pilot control parameters when amplitude clipping is present, allowing precise measurement in real time of key pilot control parameters. Based on the results of an experiment which was designed to probe workload primary drivers, a method is developed that estimates pilot spare capacity from readily observable measures and is tested for generality using multi-axis flight data. This paper documents the initial steps to developing a novel, simple objective metric for assessing pilot workload and its variation over time across a wide variety of tasks. Additionally, it offers a tangible, easily implementable methodology for anticipating a pilot's operating parameters and workload, and an effective design tool. The model shows promise in being able to precisely predict the actual pilot settings and workload, and observed tolerance of pilot parameter variation over the course of operation. Finally, an approach is proposed for generating Cooper-Harper ratings based on the workload and parameter estimation methodology.