Van Maarseveen, Mariette J.J.; Oudejans, Raoul R.D.; Savelsbergh, Geert J.P.
The objective of this study was to compose an objective and detailed notational analysis system for 3 vs. 2GK smallsided soccer games, in which three roles are examined: attacker with ball, attacker without ball and defender. The actions and the outcome of the actions were registered for each player
Roome, S. J.
Quadrature detection is a common technique for demodulating radio and microwave signals in which the signal is demodulated to form two orthogonal components. Complex envelope notation is a compact method of representing the modulation of a real signal in complex form. The relationship between these two concepts is discussed, and there follows an analysis of quadrature demodulation, including the effects of gain mismatch, phase error, local oscillator breakthrough, and dc offsets.
Graphic notation is taught to music therapy students at Aalborg University in both simple and elaborate forms. This is a method of depicting music visually, and notations may serve as memory aids, as aids for analysis and reflection, and for communication purposes such as supervision or within...
paper a comparative analysis of selected models involving multiple users in an interaction is provided in order to identify concepts which are underexplored in today's multi-user interaction task modeling. This comparative analysis is based on three families of criteria: information criteria, conceptual coverage, and expressiveness. Merging the meta-models of the selected models enables to come up with a broader meta-model that could be instantiated in most situations involving multi-user interaction, like workflow information systems, CSCW.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the serving techniques in male top level volleyball, especially the tactical and spatial behavior of the servers and receiving opponents focusing on the pros and cons of the different serving techniques. An analysis was made of 4552 serves from 28 matches played during the 2008-2009 regular season of the Italian volleyball male Top League. Serving techniques were categorized into Jump Serve (JS, Float Jump Serve (FJS and Float Serve (FS, and for each serve several parameters were recorded: role of the server (Setter - S, Hitter - H, and Middle Blocker - MB, kind of serve (JS, FJS, FS, number of players defending the serve (Defense, difficulty in receiving the serve (RS, evaluation of serve outcome (EV, and defensive court zone where the ball was directed (FZ. The results confirmed the largest use of the JS (69.9%, followed by the FJS (26.9% and the FS (3.3%. There were significant relationships between the serve technique, the EV, the Defense and the FZ where the serves were directed (Chi-Square p = 0.000. The zone absolutely most hit was the posterior/central, followed by the left/posteriors. There were significant differences in the RS difficulty for the JS respect to FJS (p = 0.001 and FS (p = 0.000 and also for the defensive strategies performed: a defense strategy with 2 defenders showed significant and better score during the reception respect to that with 3 (p = 0.000. No statistical relationship was found between the role of the server and other parameters. These results are consistent with previous studies in which JS showed to be the most powerful technique in terms of increasing defensive difficulties but, at the same time, with a fairly high percentage of errors. This issue must be taken into consideration in crucial phases of the game, and the serving techniques must be used strategically. JS can be very useful for increasing the defensive “conflict zones” with the aim to score a
Graphic notation is taught to music therapy students at Aalborg University in both simple and elaborate forms. This is a method of depicting music visually, and notations may serve as memory aids, as aids for analysis and reflection, and for communication purposes such as supervision or within...... research work. This article focuses especially on the simple form. It cites and comments examples from a collection by the author. Additionally, the range of purposes as well as didactics is discussed, and bibliographical information is given....
Goldwater, Bram C.; Acker, Loren E.
We describe a notation system for diagramming behavioral contingencies. The system is descriptive. Stimulus functions are not represented with special symbols, such as SR, SD, or UCS, but are simply described in terms of the relation between behavior and stimulus change, and the resulting outcome. The system is atheoretical, self-explanatory, and easy to use. Our goal is to provide an approach to contingency diagramming for the student that represents directly the exact relations and outcomes involved in operant and respondent processes. PMID:22478210
Texbook to be used along with training the practise of graphic notation. Describes method; exercises; bibliography; collection of examples. If you can read Danish, please refer to that edition which is by far much more updated.......Texbook to be used along with training the practise of graphic notation. Describes method; exercises; bibliography; collection of examples. If you can read Danish, please refer to that edition which is by far much more updated....
Herbert, Luke Thomas; Sharp, Robin
, occurrence and ordering of events, reward-based properties, and best- and worst- case scenarios. We develop a simple example of medical workflow and demonstrate the utility of this analysis in accurate provisioning of drug stocks. Finally, we suggest a path to building upon these techniques to cover......We present a framework for modeling and analysis of real-world business workflows. We present a formalized core subset of the business process modeling and notation (BPMN) and then proceed to extend this language with probabilistic nondeterministic branching and general-purpose reward annotations...
Thomas, Camille; Fellingham, Gilbert; Vehrs, Pat
The purposes of this study were to develop a notational system to evaluate passing, dribbling, first touch, and individual defensive skills as they relate to success during women's soccer games and to develop a statistical model to weigh the importance of each skill on creating scoring opportunities. Sequences of skills in ten games of a National…
Sirlin, Samuel W.
Eight-page report describes systems of notation used most commonly to represent tensors of various ranks, with emphasis on tensors in Cartesian coordinate systems. Serves as introductory or refresher text for scientists, engineers, and others familiar with basic concepts of coordinate systems, vectors, and partial derivatives. Indicial tensor, vector, dyadic, and matrix notations, and relationships among them described.
Presenting music and notation to elementary school children exposes them to musical concepts and inspires them to take an interest in music throughout their lives. Nine lessons demonstrate how to introduce rhythmic notation to elementary-age children while utilizing percussion instruments such as timpani drums, tambourines, and rhythm sticks. (TJQ)
Granschow, Lenore; And Others
Case studies are presented of musicians with dyslexia who experienced difficulties in the study of musical notation. The studies focus on their educational histories, musical weaknesses and strengths, and successful compensatory strategies. Suggestions are offered on using multisensory approaches to teach musical notation. (Author/JDD)
Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz .
Wieringa, Roelf J.; Saake, G.
This report compares two notation systems for requirements modeling, the notations used in the Shlaer-Mellor method for object-oriejted analysis and the notations used in TCM (Toolkit for Conceptual Modeling). Both notations systems are semi-formal, but in addition, TCM contains a formal part that
Artiklen behandler sprogbrug som supplement til noderne fra barokken og frem; Fluxus og Scratch Orchestra; den engelske Verbal Anthology; Stockhausens brug af verbal notation før tekst-samlingerne; detaljerede analyser af de to samlinger. Der konkluderes bla. om forskellige grader af fastlæggelse...
Brodsky, Warren; Kessler, Yoav; Rubinstein, Bat-Sheva; Ginsborg, Jane; Henik, Avishai
This study investigated the mental representation of music notation. Notational audiation is the ability to internally "hear" the music one is reading before physically hearing it performed on an instrument. In earlier studies, the authors claimed that this process engages music imagery contingent on subvocal silent singing. This study refines the…
This article presents graphic notations of music and related forms of communication in music therapy contexts, created by different authors and practitioners. Their purposes, objects of description, and the elements of graphic language are reflected upon in a comparative discussion. From...... are also important concerns. Among the authors discussed, there is a large variety both in goals and methods. Keywords are proposed to circumscribe moments of possible interest connected to graphic notations. I suggest that the discipline of graphic notation can be useful for the grounding of music therapy...
Full Text Available This paper describes how a universal language for notating dance and, more generally, movement was elaborated, known as “Kinetography Laban”, or rather “Labanotation”. It was devised by choreographer and movement theorist Rudolf von Laban, who outlined it for the first time in 1928, in the journal Schrifttanz. His system differs from precedent notation systems in that Labanotation is rigorous and universal, as it is based not on one particular style or technique but on the general principles of kinetics underlying human motion. Its geometrical and abstract symbols also free it from language constraints, thus making it universally comprehensible. Through his kinetography, Laban freed dance from the transience of individual performances, thereby providing a way to capture and reproduce dance, to hand down choreographic masterpieces for posterity and to simplify movement analysis in other branches of study as well.
Full Text Available This article presents graphic notations of music and related forms of communication in music therapy contexts, created by different authors and practitioners. Their purposes, objects of description, and the elements of graphic language are reflected upon in a comparative discussion. From that it becomes clear that the aspect of overview is a fundamental one, facilitating perception of complex data. This also makes possible to memorise complex data, extending the natural limits of human memory. Discovering hidden aspects in the clinical data, as well as sharing and communicating these aspects are also important concerns. Among the authors discussed, there is a large variety both in goals and methods. Keywords are proposed to circumscribe moments of possible interest connected to graphic notations. I suggest that the discipline of graphic notation can be useful for the grounding of music therapy presentation and research in empirical, clinical-musical reality, and welcome further discussion and explorative work.
Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] The formalism of quantum mechanics includes a rich collection of representations for describing quantum systems, including functions, graphs, matrices, histograms of probabilities, and Dirac notation. The varied features of these representations affect how computations are performed. For example, identifying probabilities of measurement outcomes for a state described in Dirac notation may involve identifying expansion coefficients by inspection, but if the state is described as a function, identifying those expansion coefficients often involves performing integrals. In this study, we focus on three notational systems: Dirac notation, algebraic wave-function notation, and matrix notation. These quantum notations must include information about basis states and their associated complex probability amplitudes. In this theory paper, we identify four structural features of quantum notations, which we term individuation, degree of externalization, compactness, and symbolic support for computational rules. We illustrate how student reasoning interacts with these structural features with episodes from interviews with advanced undergraduate physics majors reasoning about a superposition state of an infinite square well system. We find evidence of the students coordinating different notations through the use of Dirac notation, using an expression in Dirac notation to guide their work in another notation. These uses are supported by the high degree of individuation, compactness, and symbolic support for computation and the moderate degree of externalization provided by Dirac notation.
AKRAM, ASHFAQ; FUADFUAD, MAHER D; MALIK, ARSHAD MAHMOOD; NASIR ALZURFI, BALSAM MAHDI; CHANGMAI, MANAH CHANDRA; MADLENA, MELINDA
Introduction: MICAP is a new notation in which the teeth are indicated by letters (I-incisor, C-canine, P-premolar, M-molar) and numbers [1,2,3] which are written superscript and subscript on the relevant letters. FDI tooth notation is a two digit system where one digit shows quadrant and the second one shows the tooth of the quadrant. This study aimed to compare the short term retention of knowledge of two notation systems (FDI two digit system and MICAP notation) by lecture method. Methods: Undergraduate students [N=80] of three schools participated in a cross-over study. Two theory-driven classroom based lectures on MICAP notation and FDI notation were delivered separately. Data were collected using eight randomly selected permanent teeth to be written in MICAP format and FDI format at pretest (before the lecture), post-test I (immediately after lecture) and post-test II (one week after the lecture). Analysis was done by SPSS version 20.0 using repeated measures ANCOVA and independent t-test. Results: The results of pre-test and post-test I were similar for FDI education. Similar results were found between post-test I and post-test II for MICAP and FDI notations. Conclusion: The study findings indicated that the two notations (FDI and MICAP) were equally mind cognitive. However, the sample size used in this study may not reflect the global scenario. Therefore, we suggest more studies to be performed for prospective adaptation of MICAP in dental curriculum. PMID:28367462
The book is concerned with the double nature of architectural drawing as both an artefact in itself and an instruction. The creation of measurements for an architectural construction to be takes place as a negotiation of this productive doubleness. The negotiation is termed art of notation...
Addenda to Experimental improvisation practise and notation (please see this title for more information!) Stichwörter: experimentelle Musik, offenes Werk, grafische Notation, musikalische Notation, musikalische Aufführungspraxis, freie Improvisation, Musikpädagogik, Geschichte der Musik, Musikäst...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of complex cytogenetic databases of distinct leukaemia entities may help to detect rare recurring chromosome aberrations, minimal common regions of gains and losses, and also hot spots of genomic rearrangements. The patterns of the karyotype alterations may provide insights into the genetic pathways of disease progression. Results We developed a simplified computer readable cytogenetic notation (SCCN by which chromosome findings are normalised at a resolution of 400 bands. Lost or gained chromosomes or chromosome segments are specified in detail, and ranges of chromosome breakpoint assignments are recorded. Software modules were written to summarise the recorded chromosome changes with regard to the respective chromosome involvement. To assess the degree of karyotype alterations the ploidy levels and numbers of numerical and structural changes were recorded separately, and summarised in a complex karyotype aberration score (CKAS. The SCCN and CKAS were used to analyse the extend and the spectrum of additional chromosome aberrations in 94 patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and secondary chromosome anomalies. Dosage changes of chromosomal material represented 92.1% of all additional events. Recurring regions of chromosome losses were identified. Structural rearrangements affecting (pericentromeric chromosome regions were recorded in 24.6% of the cases. Conclusions SCCN and CKAS provide unifying elements between karyotypes and computer processable data formats. They proved to be useful in the investigation of additional chromosome aberrations in Ph-positive ALL, and may represent a step towards full automation of the analysis of large and complex karyotype databases.
The use of verbal notation elements in Western music from the baroque period and onwards is outlined, with examples. Some important examples of Fluxus, Scratch Orchestra and subsequent works are characterised. Two Stockhausen works before the text collections are examined for their different uses...... of verbal elements. From this as well as from the analysis of Stockhausen's text collections (see the articles mentioned at the top of the article) it is concluded that verbal language since 1945 may describe both musical material (parameters) and processes – including game rules and if-then relations...
The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of music notation reinforcement on aural memory for melodies. Participants were 41 undergraduate and graduate music majors in a within-subjects design. Experimental trials tested melodic memory through a sequence of target melodies, distraction melodies, and matched and unmatched answer choices.…
Beskrivelser af fagene, som har eksisteret på Aalborg Universitet siden midten af firserne. I intuitiv musik trænes fri improvisation gennem bla. gruppedynamiske øvelser, opmærksomhedsøvelser og parameterøvelser. Desuden skaber de studerende selv åbne kompositioner. Faget grafisk notation træner...... det at skabe lyttepartiturer over en given musik. Studerendes arbejder citeres. Forfatteren diskuterer fagenes teoretiske kontekst og argumentererfor mere teoretisk opmærksomhed på musikken som det medium, musikterapien foregår i og peger bla. på sprogteori og Jakobson. NB: beskrivelsen af fagene er i...... skrivende stund, 2011, ikke længere aktuel. Intuitiv musik lægger mindre vægt på komposition og mere vægt på brug af hovedinstrument i intuitiv sammenhæng. Grafisk notation er integreret ind i et større fag (også varetaget af undertegnede) der tillige omfatter andre metoder til beskrivelse og tolkning....
Full Text Available The present paper explores some aspects of the so-called kalophonic musical style which flourished during the last centuries of Byzantium. It focuses on a masterpiece by St. John Koukouzeles, namely the epibole Φρούρησον πανένδοξε (Ο Allglorious, keep watch over the city, in honor of St. Demetrios, the protector of Thessaloniki, and is complementary to some previous musicological analysis of this piece by Stephania Meralidou. After a brief presentation of the old sticheron Ἔχει μὲν ἡ θειοτάτη σου ψυχή, whereof St. John takes his departing point for the kalophonic composition, the paper concentrates on a multi-level analysis of the epibole, firstly on the ground of the late middle-Byzantine notation, according to the ms Vlatadon 46 (A.D. 1551, and secondly by comparing the old notation to its slow exegesis in new-Byzantine notation by Chourmouzios Chartophylax (score and recording issued by the Greek Byzantine Choir, dir. L. Angelopoulos. The analysis comprises several approaches like textual, music-architectural, modal, micro-syntactical, rhetorical, macro-syntactical, generative, comparative (cf. plates 7-12, 17-20. Since this material is also suitable for didactic purposes, the different plates are given again in the appendix, in form of exercises to be filled in by interested students. The different analytical approaches reveal the highly refined melodic fabric of kalophonia with its plethora of theseis-combinations, the extensive use of music-rhetorical devices, basic norms of the complex art of musical exegesis in this style, as well as the beauty of this kind of melodies, which have been acknowledged to represent the ‘zenith’ of Byzantine music (Wellesz.
Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) is becoming increasing popular; practitioners use it in the railway, air traffic management and nuclear industries, amongst others. Originally developed to present safety assurance arguments, GSN need not be restricted to safety assurances only; in principle, you can use it to present (and test) any argument. Anyone wishing to support, or refute, a claim can use GSN. Written by an experienced practitioner, The Goal Structuring Notation is both for those who wish to prepare and present compelling arguments using the notation, and for those who wish to review such arguments critically and effectively. To emphasise the versatility of this approach The Goal Structuring Notation presents examples and questions based on diverse subject areas including Business Management, Drama, Engineering, Politics and Astrobiology. Simple examples introduce each symbol of the notation before introducing more complex structures which illustrate how the symbols work together in practical scena...
Almost all work on music information retrieval to date has concentrated on music in the audio and event (normally MIDI) domains. However, music in the form of notation, especially Conventional Music Notation (CMN), is of much interest to musically trained persons, both amateurs and professionals, and searching CMN has great value for digital music…
Full Text Available BPMN represents an industrial standard created to offer a common and user friendly notation to all the participants to a business process. The present paper aims to briefly present the main features of this notation as well as an interpretation of some of the main patterns characterizing a business process modeled by the working fluxes.
How and why to write a movement? Who is the writer? Who is the reader? They may be choreographers working with dancers. They may be roboticists programming robots. They may be artists designing cartoons in computer animation. In all such fields the purpose is to express an intention about a dance, a specific motion or an action to perform, in terms of intelligible sequences of elementary movements, as a music score that would be devoted to motion representation. Unfortunately there is no universal language to write a motion. Motion languages live together in a Babel tower populated by biomechanists, dance notators, neuroscientists, computer scientists, choreographers, roboticists. Each community handles its own concepts and speaks its own language. The book accounts for this diversity. Its origin is a unique workshop held at LAAS-CNRS in Toulouse in 2014. Worldwide representatives of various communities met there. Their challenge was to reach a mutual understanding allowing a choreographer to access robotics ...
We note substantial inconsistency among authors discussing rotational motions observed with inertial seismic sensors (and much more so in the broader topic of rotational phenomena). Working from physics and other precedents, we propose standard terminology and a preferred reference frame for inertial sensors (Fig. 1) that may be consistently used in discussions of both finite and infinitesimal observed rotational and translational motions in seismology and earthquake engineering. The scope of this article is limited to observations because there are significant differences in the analysis of finite and infinitesimal rotations, though such discussions should remain compatible with those presented here where possible. We recommend the general use of the notation conventions presented in this tutorial, and we recommend that any deviations or alternatives be explicitly defined.
In web projects it is often necessary to mix XML notation and program notation in a single document or program. In mono-lingual situations, the XML notation is either subsumed in the program or the program notation is subsumed in the XML document. As an introduction we analyze XML notation...... and programming notation in relation to each other. As the main contribution of the paper we describe a number of general issues to consider when subsuming XML in a given programming language....
Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad
Dette notat udgør en konsekvensvurdering af at tilføje et CCS anlæg med CO2-lager i undergrunden til IDA's Klimaplan 2050. Analyserne peger på, at et sådant anlæg ikke er en hensigtsmæssig måde at reducere CO2-udslippet på. Der vil være andre alternativer, som koster mindre og passer bedre ind i...... meget høj benyttelse, for at der tilnærmelsesvis kan skabes økonomi i projektet. Omvendt går IDA's Klimaplan 2050 ud på at reducere de centrale kraft/varme-værkers benyttelse gennem efterisolering af boligerne, el-besparelser, inddragelse af vindkraft, geotermi og solvarme m.m.m. Der eksisterer derfor...... ikke kraft/varme-værker i IDA klimaplanen, der tilnærmelsesvis har den benyttelse som forrentningen af et CCS anlæg fordrer. Analyserne omfatter også en vurdering af konsekvenserne af at lade et kraft- og kraft/varmeanlæg køre med en benyttelse på 8.000 timer/år aht. CCS anlægget. Analyserne viser dog...
Sartorelli, P; Ahlers, H W; Cherrie, J W
BACKGROUND: On 29 March 2008 the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) Scientific Committee on Occupational and Environmental Dermatoses organized a Skin Notation Workshop hosted by the 11th International Percutaneous Penetration Perspectives Conference (La Grande Motte, France)....
Computers have profoundly changed the way scientific research is done. Whereas the importance of computers as research tools is evident to everyone, the impact of the digital revolution on the representation of scientific knowledge is not yet widely recognized. An ever increasing part of today's scientific knowledge is expressed, published, and archived exclusively in the form of software and electronic datasets. In this essay, I compare these digital scientific notations to the the traditional scientific notations that have been used for centuries, showing how the digital notations optimized for computerized processing are often an obstacle to scientific communication and to creative work by human scientists. I analyze the causes and propose guidelines for the design of more human-friendly digital scientific notations.
Auh, Myung-Sook; Walker, Robert
Examines compositional strategies and musical creativity of 38 seventh-grade students in junior high schools in Seoul (Korea) when composing with staff notations (traditional group) versus graphic notations (non-traditional group). Finds that musical creativity levels were judged to be significantly higher in the non-traditional compositions. (CMK)
This dissertation is an analysis of my relationship with dyslexia, dysgraphia, and musical notation. The period of this experiment was over seven months, and culminated in my final degree recital on May 31, 2014. The works selected ranged from standard to graphic notation. Throughout this process, I noted, analyzed, and critiqued my work method to learn how to expedite my learning process. My experience with this project has encouraged me to explore learning techniques, which may be beneficia...
LeDuc, Richard D; Schwämmle, Veit; Shortreed, Michael R; Cesnik, Anthony J; Solntsev, Stefan K; Shaw, Jared B; Martin, Maria J; Vizcaíno, Juan A; Alpi, Emanuele; Danis, Paul; Kelleher, Neil L; Smith, Lloyd M; Ge, Ying; Agar, Jeffrey N; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Loo, Joseph; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Tsybin, Yury O
The Consortium for Top-Down Proteomics (CTDP) proposes a standardized notation, ProForma, for writing the se-quence of fully characterized proteoforms. ProForma provides a means to communicate any proteoform by writing the amino acid sequence using standard one-letter notation and specifying modifications or unidentified mass shifts with-in brackets following certain amino acids. The notation is unambiguous, human readable, and can easily be parsed and written by bioinformatic tools. This system uses seven rules and supports a wide range of possible use cases, ensuring compatibility and reproducibility of proteoform annotations. Standardizing proteoform sequences will simplify stor-age, comparison, and reanalysis of proteomic studies, and the Consortium welcomes input and contributions from the research community on the continued design and maintenance of this standard.
This paper subsumes, via documentary examination, the elegance of the accurate use of punctuation notations, the implications of correct application to writing and speech, and the necessity of being mindful of these fundamental language tools enriching writing and speech with elegance, coherence, and endearment.
Vliet, Rudy van
We describe a formal notation for DNA molecules that may contain nicks and gaps. The resulting DNA expressions denote formal DNA molecules. Different DNA expressions may denote the same molecule. Such DNA expressions are called equivalent. We examine which DNA expressions are minimal, which
This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child…
communicate thought remain meaningless without a careful embellishment of writing and speech with punctuation ... the accurate use of punctuation notations, the implications of correct application to writing and speech, and the .... or limit the nouns they modify, i.e. the essential information about the nouns they modify. e.
. Students' works are quoted. The writer discusses the theoretical context and advocates for giving more attention to music as the medium in which music therapy takes place, referring to language theory and Jakobson. NB: the description of the two subjects are, at the present moment (2011) no longer up...
Korobeynikova Olga Mikhaylovna
The article deals with the analysis of payment systems aimed at identifying the categorical terminological apparatus, proving their specific features and revealing the impact of payment systems on the state of money turnover. On the basis of the subject analysis, the author formulates the definitions of a payment system (characterized by increasing speed of effecting payments, by the reduction of costs, by high degree of payments convenience for subjects of transactions, by security of paymen...
By starting with a foundation of sound before sight, we can help our students learn notation organically in a way that honors the natural process. This article describes five organic approaches to learning notation in beginning band: (1) iconic notation, (2) point and play, (3) student lead-sheet, (4) modeling, and (5) kid dictation. While…
Koch, Anders; Børresen, Malene; Nielsen, Nina Odgaard
finansieret af Grønlands Hjemmestyre. Det foreliggende notat omfatter hovedresultater fra SSI’s del af undersøgelsen suppleret med udtræk fra Lands-lægeembedets registre over smitsomme sygdomme og aborter. Vi vil rette en stor og dybfølt tak for udstrakt hjælp og velvilje til en række grupper af personer...
Veselinović, Aleksandar M; Veselinović, Jovana B; Živković, Jelena V; Nikolić, Goran M
SMILES notation based optimal descriptors as a universal tool for the QSAR analysis with further application in drug discovery and design is presented. The basis of this QSAR modeling is Monte Carlo method which has important advantages over other methods, like the possibility of analysis of a QSAR as a random event, is discussed. The advantages of SMILES notation based optimal descriptors in comparison to commonly used descriptors are defined. The published results of QSAR modeling with SMILES notation based optimal descriptors applied for various pharmacologically important endpoints are listed. The presented QSAR modeling approach obeys OECD principles and has mechanistic interpretation with possibility to identify molecular fragments that contribute in positive and negative way to studied biological activity, what is of big importance in computer aided drug design of new compounds with desired activity.
Krajcsi, Attila; Szabó, Eszter
Number notations can influence the way numbers are handled in computations; however, the role of notation itself in mental processing has not been examined directly. From a mathematical point of view, it is believed that place-value number notation systems, such as the Indo-Arabic numbers, are superior to sign-value systems, such as the Roman numbers. However, sign-value notation might have sufficient efficiency; for example, sign-value notations were common in flourishing cultures, such as in ancient Egypt. Herein we compared artificial sign-value and place-value notations in simple numerical tasks. We found that, contrary to the dominant view, sign-value notation can be applied more easily than place-value notation for multi-power comparison and addition tasks. Our results are consistent with the popularity of sign-value notations that prevailed for centuries. To explain the notation effect, we propose a natural multi-power number representation based on the numerical representation of objects.
Full Text Available Number notations can influence the way numbers are handled in computations; however, the role of notation itself in mental processing has not been examined directly. From a mathematical point of view, it is believed that place-value number notation systems, such as the Indo-Arabic numbers, are superior to sign-value systems, such as the Roman numbers. However, sign-value notation might have sufficient efficiency; for example, sign-value notations were common in flourishing cultures, such as in ancient Egypt. Herein we compared artificial sign-value and place-value notations in simple numerical tasks. We found that, contrary to the dominant view, sign-value notation can be applied more easily than place-value notation for multi-power comparison and addition tasks. Our results are consistent with the popularity of sign-value notations that prevailed for centuries. To explain the notation effect, we propose a natural multi-power number representation based on the numerical representation of objects.
Vatrapu, Ravi; Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan
This paper presents an eye-tracking study of notational, informational, and emotional aspects of nine different notational systems (Skill Meters, Smilies, Traffic Lights, Topic Boxes, Collective Histograms, Word Clouds, Textual Descriptors, Table, and Matrix) and three different information states...... of the "average" informational learning state. Qualitative data analysis of the think-aloud comments and post-study interview show that student participants reflected on the meaning-making opportunities and action-taking possibilities afforded by the representations. Implications for the design and evaluation...
Chakravarthy, Ajay; Beales, Richard; Jung, Yvonne; Wagner, Sebastian; Jung, Christoph; Yannopoulous, Angelos; Koutsoutos, Stefanos; Schiffmann, Rolf; Hedtke, Rolf; Saenen, Ignace
This paper describes ANSWER which is a new approach to the creative process of film production. It is based on a symbolic notation system called Director Notation (DN) through which film directors are free to express their creative intent much like a music composer uses musical notation. The notation populates a semantic model which is machine processable and this input is automatically converted into a lightweight 3D pre-vis. ANSWER is integrated with DFT BONES Dailies, so that in post-produ...
Lee, Sang Yun
This thesis describes a notation for rapid specification of information visualization, which can be used as a theoretical framework of integrating various types of information visualization, and its applications at a conceptual level. The notation is devised to codify the major characteristics of data/visual structures in conventionally-used…
Jaarsma, B. S.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M.; Van den Broeck, W.
A study investigated the effects of a new intervention paradigm on learning musical notation for five Dutch students with dyslexia and four typical students. Results found that the dyslexic children needed more time to learn musical notation, made more mistakes, and produced more "third transpositions." Implications for teaching are…
dos Reis, Jorge; Hazan, Valerie
This paper introduces a new vowel notation system aimed at aiding the teaching of English pronunciation. This notation system, designed as an enhancement to orthographic text, was designed to use concepts borrowed from the representation of musical notes and is also linked to the acoustic characteristics of vowel sounds. Vowel timbre is…
Tactile Paths: on and through Notation for Improvisers is an artistic research project that articulates and expands the nexus of notation and improvisation in contemporary and experimental music. The project interweaves direct artistic experience with insights from improvisation studies, the social
Starrfelt, Randi; Wong, Yetta K.
a pure alexic patient, KH, who was a highly skilled amateur musician before a stroke that resulted in PA (elevated reading RTs; word length effect; intact writing and language) and right hemianopia. KH experienced difficulties in note reading and playing by notes post-stroke. KH's visual short......Abstract Pure alexia (PA) is an acquired reading disorder following lesions to left ventral temporo-occipital cortex. Patients with PA read slowly but correctly, and show an abnormal effect of word length on RTs. However, it is unclear how pure alexia may affect musical notation reading. We report......-term memory capacity was intact in the left visual field.1 We investigated KH's letter and note reading using simultaneous matching tasks with stimuli presented slightly to the left of fixation. KH was compared to 9 controls matched for age, education, and music reading experience, using single case...
The purpose of a domain model is to concisely capture the concepts of an application’s domain, and their relation among each other. Even though the main purpose of domain models is not on implementing the application, major parts of an application can be generated from the application’s domain...... on a much more technical level. The Event Coordination Notation (ECNO) allows modelling the behaviour of an application on a high level of abstraction that is closer to the application’s domain than to the software realizing it. Still, these models contain all necessary details for actually executing...... models fully automatically with today’s technologies. The focus of today’s code generation technologies, however, is mostly on the structural aspects of the domain; the domain’s behaviour is often not modelled at all, or implemented manually based on some informal models, or the behaviour is modelled...
Korobeynikova Olga Mikhaylovna
Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of payment systems aimed at identifying the categorical terminological apparatus, proving their specific features and revealing the impact of payment systems on the state of money turnover. On the basis of the subject analysis, the author formulates the definitions of a payment system (characterized by increasing speed of effecting payments, by the reduction of costs, by high degree of payments convenience for subjects of transactions, by security of payments, by acceptable level of risks and by social efficiency, a national payment system, and a local payment system (characterized by the growth of economic and social efficiency of systems participants, by the process of money turnover optimization on the basis of saving transaction costs and increasing speed of money flows within the local payment systems. According to the economic levels, the payment systems are divided to macrosystems (national payment systems, mezosystems (payment systems localized on the operational and territorial basis, microsystems (payments by individual economic subjects. The establishment of qualitative features of payment systems, which is a basis of the author’s terminological interpretation, gave a possibility to reveal the cause-effect relations of payment systems influence on the state of money turnover in the involved subjects, and on the economy as a whole. The result of the present research consists in revealing the payment systems influence on the state of money turnover which is significant: at the state and regional level – in the optimization of budget and inter-budgetary relations, in acceleration of the money turnover, in deceleration of the money supply and inflation rate, in reduced need in money emission; at the level of economic entities – in accelerating the money turnover and accounts receivable, in the reduction of debit and credit loans, in the growth of profit (turnover; at the household level – in
Full Text Available An Optical Music Recognition (OMR system especially adapted for handwritten musical scores of the XVII-th and the early XVIII-th centuries written in white mensural notation is presented. The system performs a complete sequence of analysis stages: the input is the RGB image of the score to be analyzed and, after a preprocessing that returns a black and white image with corrected rotation, the staves are processed to return a score without staff lines; then, a music symbol processing stage isolates the music symbols contained in the score and, finally, the classification process starts to obtain the transcription in a suitable electronic format so that it can be stored or played. This work will help to preserve our cultural heritage keeping the musical information of the scores in a digital format that also gives the possibility to perform and distribute the original music contained in those scores.
Heiland, Teresa L.
Four undergraduate dance majors learned Motif Notation and Labanotation using a second-language acquisition, playful, constructivist approach to learning notation literacy in order to learn and dance the "Parsons Etude." Qualitative outcomes were gathered from student journals and pre- and post-tests that assessed for levels of improved…
... Skin Notation Assignments and Skin Notation Profiles AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety...: In 2009, NIOSH published Current Intelligence Bulletin (CIB) 61: A Strategy for Assigning New NIOSH... contemporary state of scientific knowledge. 2. Provide transparency behind the assignment process. 3...
Notations from children's mathematical thinking: equalizing and dividing quantities at the roots of multiplicative structures / Notações da matemática infantil: igualar e repartir grandezas na origem das estruturas multiplicativas
Maria Lucia Faria Moro
Full Text Available The paper concerns the learning of additive structures on its way to the multiplicative ones according to the equilibration model and Vergnaud's propositions about conceptual fields. It describes the nature and the changes of children's notations produced on tasks of equalization and partition of quantities, and verifies the meaning of those notations in the study of the psychogenetic relationship between those structures. The 12 participants (6,4 to 9,5 years old, attending two State Elementary Schools from suburbs of two different metropolitan areas, performed in triads the tasks, which alternated moments of practical compositions, notations production and their interpretation. The qualitative microgenetic analysis of videotaped data resulted in notation types and in tendencies of the conceptual transformations shown by the notations. The discussion underlines the nature and the progression of the described notations, and the relevant role of equalization and repartition as inherent schemata to the psychogenetic relationship between the focused structures.
Full Text Available Scores of complex, 20th century, solo piano pieces can be difficult to perform and may even include elements that are physically impossible to play. This article investigates the role of music notation in the Opus Clavicembalisticum of Sorabji, which is a rather extreme case in terms of virtuosity and length. To analyze the effect of score notation on learning and performing, 9 pianists were asked to practice music fragments in 3 different score editions, namely the original Urtext edition (a 4-staff score, performance edition (same notes but organized according to an "embodied" performance viewpoint, and study edition (further simplified and with added analytical reading aids. The hypothesis was that the "embodied notation" would have an effect on study time (shorter study time and errors (fewer errors. Objective features of the study process and performance, such as study time, error ratio and markings on the score (fingerings, hand distribution, synchronization were compared. Subjective remarks the performers made about the scores were also analyzed. Findings indicate a significant positive influence of the score type on the study time. These results suggest that players draw on ideomotor principles, which include processes based on learned and "embodied" associations between perceived images of the scores and the motor activity that is directly associated with it.
Kapusinski, Albert T.
Describes the industrial analysis seminar at Caldwell College (New Jersey), which was designed to be a capstone course for undergraduate business majors, allowing them to bring business topics into focus by using all their collected business acumen: accounting, marketing, management, economics, law, etc. (CT)
Jesús Vega Encabo
Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation.
Westbury, C; Bub, D
Models of language processing are becoming extremely complex. As a result, it has become very difficult to develop a thorough understanding of even a single patient's deficits, let alone to represent those deficits in a way which renders their significance apparent to others. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate the use of a notational system which has been developed specifically for representing the complexities of neurolinguistic deficits. The notational system is simple to learn and to use and may easily be extended and adapted to different models of language processing. It may also be used to represent the results from other nonlinguistic neuropsychological batteries which are composed of tightly interdependent subtests with many related factors included in each subtest. Despite its simplicity, the notational system has proven itself in the field as a useful tool for rendering complex deficits more easily interpretable.
Corominas, L.; Rieger, L.; Takacs, I.
Many unit process models are available in the field of wastewater treatment. All of these models use their own notation, causing problems for documentation, implementation and connection of different models (using different sets of state variables). The main goal of this paper is to propose a new...... notational framework which allows unique and systematic naming of state variables and parameters of biokinetic models in the wastewater treatment field. The symbols are based on one main letter that gives a general description of the state variable or parameter and several subscript levels that provide...... is to establish a consistent set of rules that can be applied to existing and most importantly, future models. Applying the proposed notation should make it easier for everyone active in the wastewater treatment field to read, write and review documents describing modelling projects....
Cohen, Susanna; Gilboa, Avi; Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl
The need to describe and analyze the contents of music therapy sessions, together with the need to find methods of raising therapist awareness, are areas of great interest for the music therapist. In this study an expansion of Bergstrøm-Nielsen’s (1993) method of graphic notation for representing...... music therapy improvisations is presented: multipleperspective graphic notation (MGN). A description of the method is provided, followed by a demonstration using a clinical improvisation taken from an individual music therapy session. The use of the MGN as a tool for raising therapist awareness...
leaf In the functional programming language pFP cells or abstract objects) and a set of relations among [ Sheeran 83] the behavior specification implies a...A raduate VLSI design class has employed the notation in the design of modules com- [ Sheeran 83] M. Sheeran , "jvFP - An Algebraic VLSI prising a
Nordquist, Alice L.
The natural musicality so often present in children's singing can begin to fade as the focus of a lesson shifts to the process of reading and writing conventional notation symbols. Approaching the study of music from a linguistic perspective preserves the pace and flow that is inherent in spoken language and song. SongWorks teaching practices…
P. di Gianantonio (Pietro)
textabstractSeveral methods to perform exact computations on real numbers have been proposed in the literature. In some of these methods real numbers are represented by infinite (lazy) strings of digits. It is a well known fact that, when this approach is taken, the standard digit notation cannot
Т. М. Бикова
Full Text Available The purpose of our article is consideration of questions of electronic subject analysis of documents and methodical ensuring editing subject headings in the electronic catalog. The main objective of our article – to show a technique of editing the dictionary of subject headings, to study and apply this technique in work of libraries of higher education institutions. Object of research is the thesaurus of subject headings of the electronic catalog of the Scientific Library of Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University. To improve the efficiency and quality of the search capabilities of the electronic catalog needs constant work on its optimization, that is, technical editing of subject headings, the opening of new subject headings and subheadings. In Scientific library the instruction, which regulates a technique of edition of subject headings, was developed and put into practice and establishes rationing of this process. The main finding of the work should be to improve the level of bibliographic service users and rationalization systematizer. The research findings have the practical value for employees of libraries.
Rogers, George L.
Presents results of a study of color-coded notation to teach music reading to instrumental students. Finds no clear evidence that color-coded notation enhances achievement on performing by memory, sight-reading, or note naming. Suggests that some students depended on the color-coding and were unable to read uncolored notation well. (DK)
Johanson, Mirja; Valli, Katja; Revonsuo, Antti; Wedlund, Jan-Eric
A new content analysis method for systematically describing the phenomenology of subjective experiences in connection with partial epileptic seizures is described. Forty patients provided 262 descriptions of subjective experience relative to their partial epileptic seizures. The results revealed that subjective experiences during seizures consist mostly of sensory and bodily sensations, hallucinatory experiences, and thinking. The majority of subjective experiences during seizures are bizarre and distorted; nevertheless, the patients are able to engage in adequate behavior. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study for which detailed subjective seizure descriptions were collected immediately after each seizure and the first study in which the content of verbal reports of subjective experiences during seizures, including both the ictal and postictal experiences, has been analyzed in detail.
: the notations in which the processes are defined. Traditional process notations are flow-based: control of the process flows from one activity to the next. This paradigm inherently encourages modellers to think in terms of strict orderings instead of supporting flexibility. Flow-based models that do try...... of the process and techniques for runtime adaptation. This dissertation reports on the results of the Technologies for Flexible Cross-organizational Case Management Systems (FLExCMS) research project which was started in cooperation between ITU and the company Exformatics A/S. The goals of the project were...... these tools within customer projects, we report on a number of case studies based on these projects. Finally we report on a new angle of research within the Business Process Management field tentatively called Hybrid BPM Technologies, which aims to combine the advantages of both the flow- and constraint...
Ryan Ross Smith
Since the turn of the century, and in particular the last 5 years, the discourse surrounding dynamic scoring techniques and practices has increased dramatically, while leading to an increasingly disparate terminological melee. With an awareness of what implications exist in the premature analysis and theorization of an emerging field of practice, the author argues that in order to further develop a taxonomy of dynamic scoring techniques and practices, it may be useful to take a reductionist a...
Rios, Joseph L.
Data exchange is an increasingly important aspect of the National Airspace System. While many data communication channels have become more capable of sending and receiving data at higher throughput rates, there is still a need to use communication channels efficiently with limited throughput. The limitation can be based on technological issues, financial considerations, or both. This paper provides a complete description of several important aviation weather data in Abstract Syntax Notation format. By doing so, data providers can take advantage of Abstract Syntax Notation's ability to encode data in a highly compressed format. When data such as pilot weather reports, surface weather observations, and various weather predictions are compressed in such a manner, it allows for the efficient use of throughput-limited communication channels. This paper provides details on the Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) implementation for Alaskan aviation data, and demonstrates its use on real-world aviation weather data samples as Alaska has sparse terrestrial data infrastructure and data are often sent via relatively costly satellite channels.
Rudolf von Laban’s Labanotation: the origin of notational analysis methods in sport sciences. [La Labanotación de Rudolf von Laban: el origen de los métodos de análisis notacional en las ciencias del deporte].
Miguel Ángel Gómez
Full Text Available Rudolf von Laban (born in 1879, Poszony, Hungary; and died in 1958, Addlestone, England was one of the most significant figures in the movement analysis and dance in Europe during the 20th century (Lepczyk, 2009. He was considered a pioneer of modern dance and a theorist of the dance movements. Particularly, his work was considered a breakthrough in the history of dance notation systems (Barbacci, 2002; Lepczyk, 2009, 2011. According to Barbacci (2002 Laban had a live marked by idealism and deep disillusions, on the one hand, he lived in the most important cultural cities in Europe (Paris, Vienna, Munich, Berlin, Zurich, and London where he met and kept contact with intellectuals and artists, this experience allowed him to be influenced by some theories such as “Naturphilosophie”, which developed a biological and romantic vision of movements. In fact, Laban considered the movement as a “Dance of Nature” (Barbacci, 2002. On the other hand, he also was influenced by negative disillusions because he lived through two World Wars, the Weimar Republic and also the origins of Nazism. Laban tried to study the movement from a natural perspective where man has a place in the universe, thus the movement is related to the mind and body, as well as to individuals and groups (Barbacci, 2002. (Full text/texto completo.
Greenwalt, Kyle A.
The purpose of this study is to understand how preservice teachers experience a common university assignment: the videotaping and analysis of their own instruction. Using empirical data and the thought of the French philosophers Michel Foucault and Emmanuel Levinas, the study examines the difficulties in transitioning from student subjectivity to…
Höller, Yvonne; Kronbichler, Martin; Bergmann, Jürgen; Crone, Julia Sophia; Schmid, Elisabeth Verena; Golaszewski, Stefan; Ladurner, Gunther
In previous studies event-related potentials and oscillations in response to subject's own name have been analyzed extensively on group-level in healthy subjects and in patients with a disorder of consciousness. Subject's own name as a deviant produces a P3. With equiprobable stimuli, non-phase-locked alpha oscillations are smaller in response to subject's own name compared to other names or subject's own name backwards. However, little is known about replicability on a single-subject level. Seventeen healthy subjects were assessed in an own-name paradigm with equiprobable stimuli of subject's own name, another name, and subject's own name backwards. Event-related potentials and non-phase locked oscillations were analyzed with single-subject, non-parametric statistics. No consistent results were found either for ERPs or for the non-phase locked changes of oscillatory activities. Only 4 subjects showed a robust effect as expected, that is, a lower activity in the alpha-beta range to subject's own name compared to other conditions. Four subjects elicited a higher activity for subject's own name. Thus, analyzing the EEG reactivity in the own-name paradigm with equiprobable stimuli on a single-subject level yields a high variance between subjects. In future research, single-subject statistics should be applied for examining the validity of physiologic measurements in other paradigms and for examining the pattern of reactivity in patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ehlmann, Bryon K
Conceptually, a database consists of objects and relationships. Object Relationship Notation (ORN) is a simple notation that more precisely defines relationships by combining UML multiplicities with uniquely defined referential actions. ""Object Relationship Notation (ORN) for Database Applications: Enhancing the Modeling and Implementation of Associations"" shows how ORN can be used in UML class diagrams and database definition languages (DDLs) to better model and implement relationships and thus more productively develop database applications. For the database developer, it presents many exa
Havanki, Katherine L.
This dissertation examines the cognitive processes individuals use when reading organic chemistry equations and factors that affect these processes, namely, visual complexity of chemical equations and participant characteristics (expertise, spatial ability, and working memory capacity). A six stage process model for the comprehension of organic chemistry notation was proposed that accounts for the movement of the eyes across the chemical equation (get next); the search of a chemical structure for key features (search); the encoding of features to create an internal representation (encoding and access lexicon); the assignments of relationships among features in the same molecule (intramolecular relationship) and between molecules (intermolecular relationship); and a check of the internal representation for inconsistencies (reaction wrap-up). Two studies were conducted in this investigation. The first study assessed the validity and ability of the Complexity Rubric for Organic Chemistry Notation to quantify visual complexity of structural formulas. A three-part investigation examined the content of the rubric, its capacity to measure visual complexity, and its ability to predict visual complexity as perceived by novices. The results suggest that the rubric differentiates structural formulas with high visual complexity from those with medium-low visual complexity. A follow-up study examined the effect of prior knowledge on the encoding of organic formulas and suggests that knowledge from domains outside chemistry plays a role in the perceived complexity of structural formulas. In the second study, eye tracking methodology was used to validate the proposed process model for the comprehension of organic chemistry notation and examine factors that affect these processes. Eight instructors and 19 students were eye tracked while reading five high/low complexity pairs of organic chemistry equations for comprehension. The frequency, duration, and sequence of participants
Gustavo Silva Siécola
Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Subjective facial analysis is a diagnostic method that provides morphological analysis of the face. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the facial and dental diagnoses and investigate their relationship. METHODS: This sample consisted of 151 children (7 to 13 years old, without previous orthodontic treatment, analyzed by an orthodontist. Standardized extraoral and intraoral photographs were taken for the subjective facial classification according to Facial Pattern classification and occlusal analyses. It has been researched the occurrence of different Facial Patterns, the relationship between Facial Pattern classification in frontal and profile views, the relationship between Facial Patterns and Angle classification, and between anterior open bite and Long Face Pattern. RESULTS: Facial Pattern I was verified in 64.24% of the children, Pattern II in 21.29%, Pattern III in 6.62%, Long Face Pattern in 5.96% and Short Face Pattern in 1.99%. A substantial strength of agreement of approximately 84% between frontal and profile classification of Facial Pattern was observed (Kappa = 0.69. Agreement between the Angle classification and the Facial Pattern was seen in approximately 63% of the cases (Kappa = 0.27. Long Face Pattern did not present more open bite prevalence. CONCLUSION: Facial Patterns I and II were the most prevalent in children and the less prevalent was the Short Face Pattern. A significant concordance was observed between profile and frontal subjective facial analysis. There was slight concordance between the Facial Pattern and the sagittal dental relationships. The anterior open bite (AOB was not significantly prevalent in any Facial Pattern.
Siécola, Gustavo Silva; Capelozza, Leopoldino; Lorenzoni, Diego Coelho; Janson, Guilherme; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha
ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Subjective facial analysis is a diagnostic method that provides morphological analysis of the face. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the facial and dental diagnoses and investigate their relationship. METHODS: This sample consisted of 151 children (7 to 13 years old), without previous orthodontic treatment, analyzed by an orthodontist. Standardized extraoral and intraoral photographs were taken for the subjective facial classification according to Facial Pattern classification and occlusal analyses. It has been researched the occurrence of different Facial Patterns, the relationship between Facial Pattern classification in frontal and profile views, the relationship between Facial Patterns and Angle classification, and between anterior open bite and Long Face Pattern. RESULTS: Facial Pattern I was verified in 64.24% of the children, Pattern II in 21.29%, Pattern III in 6.62%, Long Face Pattern in 5.96% and Short Face Pattern in 1.99%. A substantial strength of agreement of approximately 84% between frontal and profile classification of Facial Pattern was observed (Kappa = 0.69). Agreement between the Angle classification and the Facial Pattern was seen in approximately 63% of the cases (Kappa = 0.27). Long Face Pattern did not present more open bite prevalence. CONCLUSION: Facial Patterns I and II were the most prevalent in children and the less prevalent was the Short Face Pattern. A significant concordance was observed between profile and frontal subjective facial analysis. There was slight concordance between the Facial Pattern and the sagittal dental relationships. The anterior open bite (AOB) was not significantly prevalent in any Facial Pattern. PMID:28658360
Hochgesang, Julie A.
Linguists have long recognized the descriptive limitations of Stokoe notation, currently the most commonly used system for phonetic or phonological transcription, but continue using it because of its widespread influence (e.g., Siedlecki and Bonvillian, 2000). With the emergence of newer notation systems, the field will benefit from a discussion…
This article analyzes the use of the software Grid Algebra with a mixed ability class of 21 nine-to-ten-year-old students who worked with complex formal notation involving all four arithmetic operations. Unlike many other models to support learning, Grid Algebra has formal notation ever present and allows students to "look through" that…
Elyagutu, Dilek Cantekin; Hazar, Muhsin
In this research, Movement Notation (Laban) and Traditional Method in Folk dance Teaching were compared in terms of learning success. Movement notation group (n = 14) and Traditional group (n = 14) consisting of students from the S.U. State Conservatory Turkish Folk Dance Department were formed. During the 14-week-long study, the symbols of the…
Kuo, Yi-Ting; Chuang, Ming-Chuen
Music teachers often encounter obstructions in teaching beginners in music reading. Conventional notational symbols require beginners to spend significant amount of time in memorizing, which discourages learning at early stage. This article proposes a newly-developed color music notation system that may improve the recognition of the staff and the…
Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Disturbances of mandibular border movements is considered to be one of the major signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible association between disturbances of mandibular border movements and the presence of symptoms of TMD in the young. Methods. This study included two groups of volunteers between 18 and 26 years of age. The study group included 30 examineers with signs (symptoms of TMD, and the control group also included 30 persons without any signs (symptoms of TMD. The presence of TMD was confirmed according to the craniomandibular index (Helkimo. The functional analysis of mandibular movements was performed in each subject using the computer pantograph. Results. The results of this study did not confirm any significant differences between the values of the condylar variables/sagittal condylar inclination, length of the sagital condylar guidance, in the control and in the study group. Conclusion. The study did not confirm significant differences in the length and inclination of the protrusive condylar guidance, as well as in the values of the sagittal condylar inclination between the subjects with the signs and symptoms of TMD and the normal asymptomatic subjects.
Smith, Emil; Reimer, David; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup
Følgende notat er et supplement til rapporten ”Årsager til frafald – rapport for Arts” fra 2016. Formålet med notatet er at understøtte og efterprøve den originale undersøgelses fund ved forskellige bivariate og multivariate analyser. Notatet bidrager således med en grundigere analytisk tilgang...... undersøgelse og er suppleret med udtræk fra det studieadministrative system (STADS). Data er derfor baseret på spørgeskemadata fra bachelorstuderende på Arts, der er faldet fra i perioden 1.1.2014- 1.7.2015, samt studieadministrative data fra 10672 bachelorstuderende på Arts optaget i perioden 01.03.2010-18.09.2015....
Full Text Available Building and measuring trust is one of crucial aspects in e-commerce, social networking and computer security. Trust networks are widely used to formalize trust relationships and to conduct formal reasoning of trust values. Diverse trust network analysis methods have been developed so far and one of the most widely used schemes is TNA-SL (Trust Network Analysis with Subjective Logic. Recent papers claimed that TNA-SL always finds the optimal solution by producing the least uncertainty. In this paper, we present some counter-examples, which imply that TNA-SL is not an optimal algorithm. Furthermore, we present a probabilistic algorithm in edge splitting to minimize uncertainty.
Mateo-March, Manuel; Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Doran, Dominic; Romero-Rodríguez, Rubén C; Zabala, Mikel
The objectives of this study were 1) to describe the technical requirements of different tracks where classifying points are disputed for the Olympics as the European continent tracks (E), world championship competitions tracks (W), and Olympic Games track - Beijing, 2008- (O); and 2) to compare and establish differences or similarities between the three previous contexts. The sample used for this study was made of the 8 best qualifying male athletes from each competition (n = 48) during the 2007 and 2008 seasons (pre-Olympic and Olympic years). A descriptive design was used, based on systematic structured observation of the competitions filmed on video, paying attention to the different techniques used (overtaking skills, complete pedalling cycles and registered effort times). The results show that aerial techniques predominate over non aerial techniques on O and W type tracks more than on E tracks by ~20% (p cycles predominate in E vs. W and O by 11.85 and 24.23% respectively (p ≤ 0.05), and effort times predominate in O vs. W and E by 6.50 and 12.94% respectively (p ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, O and W tracks stand out because of the aerial component and greater technical complexity in comparison to E tracks, which has a decisive effect on the way the riders train in relation to the type of championship they aim to compete in. Key pointsEuropean tracks involve more non aerial techniques than world and Olympic tracks, respectively; more non aerial techniques are associated with more pedaling effort time.Bicycle motocross cyclists develop greater values of aerial Techniques in World and Olympic tracks compared with the European tracks and, consequently, reduced non aerial techniques.European tracks involve less technical jumps but more simple jumps. World tracks involve more technical jumps than European and Olympic tracks, but Olympic track jumps, despite being less in number, are more difficult and decisive than the rest.Olympic and World class tracks involve less physical demand than European tracks because of the greater technical requirements and less pedaling cycles.Training should be developed according to the objectives established for each athlete taking into account the type of track in which the competition is going to take place.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were 1 to describe the technical requirements of different tracks where classifying points are disputed for the Olympics as the European continent tracks (E, world championship competitions tracks (W, and Olympic Games track - Beijing, 2008- (O; and 2 to compare and establish differences or similarities between the three previous contexts. The sample used for this study was made of the 8 best qualifying male athletes from each competition (n = 48 during the 2007 and 2008 seasons (pre-Olympic and Olympic years. A descriptive design was used, based on systematic structured observation of the competitions filmed on video, paying attention to the different techniques used (overtaking skills, complete pedalling cycles and registered effort times. The results show that aerial techniques predominate over non aerial techniques on O and W type tracks more than on E tracks by ~20% (p < 0.001, pedaling cycles predominate in E vs. W and O by 11.85 and 24.23% respectively (p < 0.05, and effort times predominate in O vs. W and E by 6.50 and 12.94% respectively (p < 0.01. In conclusion, O and W tracks stand out because of the aerial component and greater technical complexity in comparison to E tracks, which has a decisive effect on the way the riders train in relation to the type of championship they aim to compete in
Marr famously decomposed cognitive theories into three levels. Newell, Pylyshyn, and Anderson offered parallel decompositions of cognitive architectures, which are psychologically plausible computational formalisms for expressing computational models of cognition. These analyses focused on the objective meaning of each level - how it supports computational models that correspond to cognitive phenomena. This paper develops a complementary analysis of the subjective meaning of each level - how it helps cognitive scientists understand cognition. It then argues against calls to eliminatively reduce higher levels to lower levels, for example, in the name of parsimony. Finally, it argues that the failure to attend to the multiple meanings and levels of cognitive architecture contributes to the current, disunified state of theoretical cognitive science.
Jayawardana, Veroni; Mondal, Sumona; Russek, Leslie
Factors contributing to movement-related fear were assessed by Russek, et al. 2014 for subjects with Fibromyalgia (FM) based on the collected data by a national internet survey of community-based individuals. The study focused on the variables, Activities-Specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC), Primary Care Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder screen (PC-PTSD), Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), a Joint Hypermobility Syndrome screen (JHS), Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS-SF), Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD), Pain, work status and physical activity dependent from the "Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire" (FIQR). The study presented in this paper revisits same data with a Bayesian analysis where appropriate priors were introduced for variables selected in the Russek's paper.
Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha
In quantum mechanics, for every physical observable, there is a corresponding Hermitian operator. According to the most common interpretation of quantum mechanics, measurement of an observable collapses the quantum state into one of the possible eigenstates of the operator and the corresponding eigenvalue is measured. Since Dirac notation is an elegant notation that is commonly used in upper-level quantum mechanics, it is important that students learn to express quantum operators corresponding to observables in Dirac notation in order to apply the quantum formalism effectively in diverse situations. Here we focus on an investigation that suggests that, even though Dirac notation is used extensively, many advanced undergraduate and PhD students in physics have difficulty expressing the identity operator and other Hermitian operators corresponding to physical observables in Dirac notation. We first describe the difficulties students have with expressing the identity operator and a generic Hermitian operator corresponding to an observable in Dirac notation. We then discuss how the difficulties found via written surveys and individual interviews were used as a guide in the development of a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) to help students develop a good grasp of these concepts. The QuILT strives to help students become proficient in expressing the identity operator and a generic Hermitian operator corresponding to an observable in Dirac notation. We also discuss the effectiveness of the QuILT based on in-class evaluations.
Hammond, Diana; Gast, David L.
Single subject research methodology is commonly used and cited in special education courses and journals. This article reviews the types of single subject research designs published in eight refereed journals between 1983 and 2007 used to answer applied research questions. Single subject designs were categorized as withdrawal/reversal, time…
Full Text Available The Internet enables us to freely access music as recorded sound and even music scores. For the visually impaired, music scores must be transcribed from computer-based musical formats to Braille music notation. This paper proposes a transcription system from the MusicXML format to Braille music notation using a structural model of Braille music notation. The resultant Braille scores inspected by volunteer transcribers are up to the international standard. Using this simple and efficient transcription system, it should be possible to provide Braille music scores via the Internet to the visually impaired.
Full Text Available Olivier Beauchet1, Gilles Allali2, Gilles Berrut3, Caroline Hommet4, Véronique Dubost5, Frédéric Assal21Department of Geriatrics, Angers University Hospital, France; 2Department of Neurology, Geneva University Hospital, France; 3Department of Geriatrics, Nantes University Hospital, France; 4Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Tours University Hospital, France; 5Department of Geriatrics, Dijon University Hospital, FranceAbstract: Gait disorders are more prevalent in dementia than in normal aging and are related to the severity of cognitive decline. Dementia-related gait changes (DRGC mainly include decrease in walking speed provoked by a decrease in stride length and an increase in support phase. More recently, dual-task related changes in gait were found in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and non-Alzheimer dementia, even at an early stage. An increase in stride-to-stride variability while usual walking and dual-tasking has been shown to be more specific and sensitive than any change in mean value in subjects with dementia. Those data show that DRGC are not only associated to motor disorders but also to problem with central processing of information and highlight that dysfunction of temporal and frontal lobe may in part explain gait impairment among demented subjects. Gait assessment, and more particularly dual-task analysis, is therefore crucial in early diagnosis of dementia and/or related syndromes in the elderly. Moreover, dual-task disturbances could be a specific marker of falling at a pre-dementia stage.Keywords: gait, prediction of dementia, risk of falling, older adult
Full Text Available We embed Safe Recursion on Notation (SRN into Light Affine Logic by Levels (LALL, derived from the logic L4. LALL is an intuitionistic deductive system, with a polynomial time cut elimination strategy. The embedding allows to represent every term t of SRN as a family of proof nets |t|^l in LALL. Every proof net |t|^l in the family simulates t on arguments whose bit length is bounded by the integer l. The embedding is based on two crucial features. One is the recursive type in LALL that encodes Scott binary numerals, i.e. Scott words, as proof nets. Scott words represent the arguments of t in place of the more standard Church binary numerals. Also, the embedding exploits the "fuzzy" borders of paragraph boxes that LALL inherits from L4 to "freely" duplicate the arguments, especially the safe ones, of t. Finally, the type of |t|^l depends on the number of composition and recursion schemes used to define t, namely the structural complexity of t. Moreover, the size of |t|^l is a polynomial in l, whose degree depends on the structural complexity of t. So, this work makes closer both the predicative recursive theoretic principles SRN relies on, and the proof theoretic one, called /stratification/, at the base of Light Linear Logic.
Linley, Heather S; Sled, Elizabeth A; Culham, Elsie G; Deluzio, Kevin J
Trunk lean over the stance limb during gait has been linked to a reduction in the knee adduction moment, which is associated with joint loading. We examined differences in knee adduction moments and frontal plane trunk lean during gait between subjects with knee osteoarthritis and a control group of healthy adults. Gait analysis was performed on 80 subjects (40 osteoarthritis). To define lateral trunk lean two definitions were used. The line connecting the midpoint between two reference points on the pelvis and the midpoint between the acromion processes was projected onto the lab frontal plane and the pelvis frontal plane. Pelvic tilt was also measured in the frontal plane as the angle between the pelvic and lab coordinate systems. Angles were calculated across the stance phase of gait. We analyzed the data, (i) by extracting discrete parameters (mean and peak) waveform values, and (ii) using principal component analysis to extract shape and magnitude differences between the waveforms. Osteoarthritis subjects had a higher knee adduction moment than the control group (α=0.05). Although the discrete parameters for trunk lean did not show differences between groups, principal component analysis did detect characteristic waveform differences between the control and osteoarthritis groups. A thorough biomechanical analysis revealed small differences in the pattern of motion of the pelvis and the trunk between subjects with knee osteoarthritis and control subjects; however these differences were only detectable using principal component analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Shan; Guedes Soares, C.
A hydroelastic analysis of a rectangular plate subjected to slamming loads is presented. An analytical model based on Wagner theory is used for calculations of transient slamming load on the ship plate. A thin isotropic plate theory is considered for determining the vibration of a rectangular plate excited by an external slamming force. The forced vibration of the plate is calculated by the modal expansion method. Analytical results of the transient response of a rectangular plate induced by slamming loads are compared with numerical calculations from finite element method. The theoretical slamming pressure based on Wagner model is applied on the finite element model of a plate. Good agreement is obtained between the analytical and numerical results for the structural deflection of a rectangular plate due to slamming pressure. The effects of plate dimension and wave profile on the structural vibration are discussed as well. The results show that a low impact velocity and a small wetted radial length of wave yield negligible effects of hydroelasticity.
Wang, Shan; Guedes Soares, C.
A hydroelastic analysis of a rectangular plate subjected to slamming loads is presented. An analytical model based on Wagner theory is used for calculations of transient slamming load on the ship plate. A thin isotropic plate theory is considered for determining the vibration of a rectangular plate excited by an external slamming force. The forced vibration of the plate is calculated by the modal expansion method. Analytical results of the transient response of a rectangular plate induced by slamming loads are compared with numerical calculations from finite element method. The theoretical slamming pressure based on Wagner model is applied on the finite element model of a plate. Good agreement is obtained between the analytical and numerical results for the structural deflection of a rectangular plate due to slamming pressure. The effects of plate dimension and wave profile on the structural vibration are discussed as well. The results show that a low impact velocity and a small wetted radial length of wave yield negligible effects of hydroelasticity.
LÓPEZ NOVAL, Borja
Full Text Available In recent years subjective evaluations about own quality of life, resumed in levels of life satisfactionor happiness, are gaining importance as indicators of development. Some authors state that subjectivewell-being is a necessary and sufficient condition for human development. In this work the arguments ofthese authors are explained and it is discussed the role subjective evaluations must play on developmentstudies. The main conclusion is that although it is necessary to integrate subjective well-being into humandevelopment studies we cannot identify subjective well-being and development.
We investigate differences in subjective well-being (life satisfaction) within the household using matched data on co-resident couples drawn from the 2008 National Income Dynamics Study for South Africa. The majority of men and women in co-resident partnerships report different levels of subjective wellbeing. We use ...
Zaslawsky, M.; Sammaddar, S.; Kennedy, W.N.
At the Savannah River Site, High Activity Wastes are stored in carbon steel tanks that are within reinforced concrete vaults. These soil-embedded tank/vault structures are approximately 80 ft. in diameter and 40 ft. deep. The tanks were studied to determine the essentials of governing variables, to reduce the problem to the least number of governing cases to optimize analysis effort without introducing excessive conservatism. The problem reduced to a limited number of cases of soil-structure interaction and fluid (tank contents) -- structure interaction problems. It was theorized that substantially reduced input would be realized from soil structure interaction (SSI) but that it was also possible that tank-to-tank proximity would result in (re)amplification of the input. To determine the governing seismic input motion, the three dimensional SSI code, SASSI, was used. Significant among the issues relative to waste tanks is to the determination of fluid response and tank behavior as a function of tank contents viscosity. Tank seismic analyses and studies have been based on low viscosity fluids (water) and the behavior is quite well understood. Typical wastes (salts, sludge), which are highly viscous, have not been the subject of studies to understand the effect of viscosity on seismic response. The computer code DYNA3D was used to study how viscosity alters tank wall pressure distribution and tank base shear and overturning moments. A parallel hand calculation was performed using standard procedures. Conclusions based on the study provide insight into the quantification of the reduction of seismic inputs for soil structure interaction for a ``soft`` soil site.
Felipe de Almeida Ribeiro
Full Text Available computer music patch/abstraction developed with Max 7 (Cycling74 for frequency analysis and music notation. It features a microtonal interval calculator alongside an interface for musical notation. This patch was made for those who deal with the notation of microtonal music.
Wiemuth, M; Junger, D; Leitritz, M A; Neumann, J; Neumuth, T; Burgert, O
Medical processes can be modeled using different methods and notations. Currently used modeling systems like Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) are not capable of describing the highly flexible and variable medical processes in sufficient detail. We combined two modeling systems, Business Process Management (BPM) and Adaptive Case Management (ACM), to be able to model non-deterministic medical processes. We used the new Standards Case Management Model and Notation (CMMN) and Decision Management Notation (DMN). First, we explain how CMMN, DMN and BPMN could be used to model non-deterministic medical processes. We applied this methodology to model 79 cataract operations provided by University Hospital Leipzig, Germany, and four cataract operations provided by University Eye Hospital Tuebingen, Germany. Our model consists of 85 tasks and about 20 decisions in BPMN. We were able to expand the system with more complex situations that might appear during an intervention. An effective modeling of the cataract intervention is possible using the combination of BPM and ACM. The combination gives the possibility to depict complex processes with complex decisions. This combination allows a significant advantage for modeling perioperative processes.
Søgaard, Jacob; Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell
The HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) technology allows video service providers to improve the network utilization and thereby increasing the end-users’ Quality of Experience (QoE).This has made HAS a widely used approach for audiovisual delivery. There are several previous studies aiming to identify...... the factors influencing on subjective QoE of adaptation events.However, adapting the video quality typically lasts in a time scale much longer than what current standardized subjective testing methods are designed for, thus making the full matrix design of the experiment on an event level hard to achieve....... In this study, we investigated the overall subjective QoE of 6 minutes long video sequences containing different sequential adaptation events. This was compared to a data set from our previous work performed to evaluate the individual adaptation events. We could then derive a relationship between the overall...
Aroldo de Andrade
Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the phenomenon of subject topics, consisting of the movement of either a genitive or a locative constituent into subject position in Brazilian Portuguese. This construction occurs with different verb classes, shows subject-verb agreement and precludes a resumptive pronoun. The goal of the present text is to account for its distribution. To do so, we argue that the two subclasses of unaccusative verbs found with genitive and locative topics instantiate some sort of secondary predication, and that only specific configurations allow for the movement of a constituent out of the argument structure domain. Finally, we address the comparative issue involved in explaining why the derivation of such a construction is not possible in European Portuguese.
Aarnink, Saskia H; Vos, Sjoerd B; Leemans, Alexander
the inter-subject and intra-subject automation in this situation are intended for subjects without gross pathology. In this work, we propose such an automated longitudinal intra-subject analysis (dubbed ALISA) approach, and assessed whether ALISA could preserve the same level of reliability as obtained...
Guzi, M.; de Pedraza García, P.
Purpose - This paper explores the role of work conditions and job characteristics with respect to three subjective well-being indicators: life satisfaction, job satisfaction and satisfaction with work-life balance. From a methodological point of view, the paper shows how social sciences can benefit
C.M.W. Hoedemaekers (Casper)
textabstractThis study seeks to create an account of how the performing subject comes into being within a specific organizational context. It looks at some of the ways in which managerial practices impact upon the selfhood of employees by means of the language in which they are couched. Drawing
Idiom variation is a ubiquitous linguistic phenomenon which has raised a lot of research questions. The past approach was either formal or functional. Both of them did not pay much attention to cognitive factors of language users. By putting idiom variation in the framework of linguistic subjectivity, we have offered a new perspective in the…
Reservoir characterization is essential for effective reservoir and wellbore management. But when a horizontal well is subject to constant-pressure external boundaries, the extent of reservoir characterization that is possible depends on the flow regimes that are encountered in a given flow time. In this paper dimensionless ...
Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard
This work is conducted as a preliminary study for a project where individuals' conceptualizations of domain knowledge will thoroughly be analyzed across 150 subjects from 6 countries. The project aims at investigating how humans' conceptualizations differ according to different types of mother la...
Kano Glückstad, Fumiko; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel N.
This work is conducted as a preliminary study for a project where individuals' conceptualizations of domain knowledge will thoroughly be analyzed across 150 subjects from 6 countries. The project aims at investigating how humans' conceptualizations dier according to dierent types of mother langua...
however, continuing prevalence of a wide range of errors in students' writing. ... were written before. In English, as in many other languages, one of the grammar rules is that the subjects and the verbs must agree both in number and in person. .... The incorrect sentences which were picked were the ones which had types of.
Full Text Available This paper considers epistemological implications of the concept of performative, starting from the elaborate conception provided by Judith Butler’s theories. The primary postulate of this work is that various interpretations of the performative, with their semiotic shifting from the notions of truth-evaluability and the descriptive nature of meaning, form a line of abandoning traditional epistemological distinction between subject and object. Through other semiotic concepts which will be presented and analysed, this line reveals the key epistemological issues in the light of semiology, while Judith Butler’s concept of performativity is viewed as a possible outcome of this course of semiology of knowledge, resulting in final transcending of the category of subject.
Lowery, Kristen Mary
A dynamic simulation of the response of an inflatable dam subjected to a flood was carried out to determine the survivability envelope of the dam where it can operate without rupture, or overflow. A fully nonlinear free-surface flow was applied in two dimensions using a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation. An ABAQUS finite element model was used to determine the dynamic structural response of the dam. The problem was solved in the time domain which allows the prediction of a number ...
Full Text Available The phenomenon of exegesis (εξήγησις of Byzantine music and of transcribing the old musical settings into the New Method of analytical music notation since the beginning of the 19th century is one of the extremely disputed subjects amongst musicologists. A true “apple of discord”, perhaps the practice of translating or interpreting the Byzantine music semiographic system is the best example to describe the totally irreducible mentality which has characterized and is still characterizing part of the researchers in the field with regards to this point. The discussions started from the difficulties in understanding the stenographic and mnemo-technical features of this notation and from the fact that both the oral tradition and the written one accredit the idea that the motivic formulas (theseis in the old Byzantine music notation were semiographic units that focused on the melos or the real, truthful melody. As it is well known, the construction system of the Byzantine melos and, implicitly, of the Sunday koinonikon, is one in which the basic unit is the thesis (the motivic formula and the succession of theseis. Thus, I chose to study the exegesis technique for the Sunday koinonikon in the 18th century on basis of the formulaic character of this music and its relation with the psalm text. This analysis method is known as regressive collations (ἀναδρομικός παραλληλισμός, i.e. starting from the received tradition and going back, step by step, until reaching the medieval sources. The current study presents the conclusions regarding the translation (interpretation technique in the New Semiography of the eleven most important formulas (theseis existent in the Sunday koinonika during the 18th century, beginning with the 42 Sunday creations of Daniel Protopsaltes (8 koinonika, Petros Lampadarios Peloponnesios (26 koinonika and Petros Byzantios (8 koinonika, in the “interpretations” offered by the “fathers” of
Dickinson, Elizabeth M.; And Others
Directed toward the eradication of sexual and racial bias in bibliographic systems, the subcommittee reports its progress in the identification of areas of classification systems and subject headings requiring change. A policy statement and six guidelines establish a framework for three categories of projects: (1) the need for changes in Library…
Peres Penteado, A; Molina Cohrs, F; Diniz Hummel, A; Erbs, J; Maciel, R F; Feijó Ortolani, C L; de Aguiar Roza, B; Torres Pisa, I
Kidney transplantation is considered to be the best treatment for people with chronic kidney failure, because it improves the patients' quality of life and increases their length of survival compared with patients undergoing dialysis. The kidney transplantation process in Brazil is defined through laws, decrees, ordinances, and resolutions, but there is no visual representation of this process. The aim of this study was to analyze official documents to construct a representation of the kidney transplantation process in Brazil with the use of business process modeling notation (BPMN). The methodology for this study was based on an exploratory observational study, document analysis, and construction of process diagrams with the use of BPMN. Two rounds of validations by specialists were conducted. The result includes the kidney transplantation process in Brazil representation with the use of BPMN. We analyzed 2 digital documents that resulted in 2 processes with 45 total of activities and events, 6 organizations involved, and 6 different stages of the process. The constructed representation makes it easier to understand the rules for the business of kidney transplantation and can be used by the health care professionals involved in the various activities within this process. Construction of a representation with language appropriate for the Brazilian lay public is underway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Accounting students often have a negative attitude towards the subject andstruggle to understand core concepts of accounting standards. A large percentageof accounting students do not prepare for class and homework is either not doneor neglected. Many factors contributed to students struggling to prepare for classand complete homework assignments. The flipped classroom approach has grownat a rapid pace and was perceived very successful in many subjects. Little researchhas been done on the effectiveness of this approach for accounting students.Videos was created whereby accounting theory was explained and questions withexamples were given and explained. All contact sessions were transformed into anactive learning environment. During contact sessions, students were provided withquestions. Guidance was given with regards to the interpretation of a practicalcase study. Students had to analyze questions before feedback was provided tothem. Contact sessions commenced with easy questions, and progressedto moredifficult questions.Research was conducted in order to determine whether a flipped classroommethod could improve the learning experience of accounting students at a highereducation institution. The study indicated that students watched the videos beforecontact sessions, they felt more positive about their performance in accountingand improved their time management. The majority of students that completed thesurvey preferred the flipped classroom method. It enables students to learn fromtheir own mistakes in class.
Barrows Jr, R C; Busuioc, M; Friedman, C
This paper describes the extraction of structured data relevant to glaucoma diagnosis and progression from visit notes typed as "notational text" by ophthalmologists during patient encounters. We compared two text processing systems: a limited pattern matching system called GDP (Glaucoma Dedicated Parser) and MedLEE, a proven natural language processing system which is in routine use encoding findings from chest radiograph and mammogram reports at the New York-Presbyterian hospital's Columbia-Presbyterian Center. We also evaluated the use of GDP as a preprocessor program to transform notational text into constructions recognizable by MedLEE. These systems have been evaluated according to their recall and precision in the particular task of processing a corpus of "notational text" documents to extract information related to glaucoma disease.
Dumas, R; Aissaoui, R; de Guise, J A
In the literature, conventional 3D inverse dynamic models are limited in three aspects related to inverse dynamic notation, body segment parameters and kinematic formalism. First, conventional notation yields separate computations of the forces and moments with successive coordinate system transformations. Secondly, the way conventional body segment parameters are defined is based on the assumption that the inertia tensor is principal and the centre of mass is located between the proximal and distal ends. Thirdly, the conventional kinematic formalism uses Euler or Cardanic angles that are sequence-dependent and suffer from singularities. In order to overcome these limitations, this paper presents a new generic method for inverse dynamics. This generic method is based on wrench notation for inverse dynamics, a general definition of body segment parameters and quaternion algebra for the kinematic formalism.
García-Domínguez, A.; Marcos, Mariano; Medina, I.
In order to study their current practices and improve on them, manufacturing firms need to view their processes from several viewpoints at various abstraction levels. Several notations have been developed for this purpose, such as Value Stream Mappings or IDEF models. More recently, the BPMN 2.0 standard from the Object Management Group has been proposed for modeling business processes. A process organizes several activities (manual or automatic) into a single higher-level entity, which can be reused elsewhere in the organization. Its potential for standardizing business interactions is well-known, but there is little work on using BPMN 2.0 to model manufacturing processes. In this work some of the previous notations are outlined and BPMN 2.0 is positioned among them after discussing it in more depth. Some guidelines on using BPMN 2.0 for manufacturing are offered, and its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with the other notations are presented.
Jensen, Rasmus; Lauridsen, Nikolaj; Poulsen, Andreas
The aspects of what provides a good user experience with headphones is initially investigated by an exploratory study (experiment I). Using KJ-Technique, 5 workshop teams of 4-6 participants each provide a number of aspects influencing their experience with headphones. Analysing the aspects...... for uniqueness and relatedness provides 144 aspects of user experience with headphones, arranged in 12 categories. The 144 influencing aspects from experiment I are condensed, and 24 attributes regarding user experience with headphones are selected. These attributes are tested in regard to their correlation...... with and effects on overall evaluation of headphones in a second experiment, thus investigating which attributes are most influential for user experience. Using a within-subject design, eight different headphones are evaluated according to the attributes along with an overall evaluation. The attributes are listed...
Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is exposed to sudden temperature changes during its life cycle. Adaptation to these variations is crucial for parasite survival, reproduction, and transmission. Some of these conditions may change the pattern of genetic expression of proteins involved in homeostasis in the course of stress treatment. In the present study, the proteome of T. cruzi epimastigotes subjected to heat shock and epimastigotes grow normally was compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry for protein identification. Twenty-four spots differing in abundance were identified. Of the twenty-four changed spots, nineteen showed a greater intensity and five a lower intensity relative to the control. Several functional categories of the identified proteins were determined: metabolism, cell defense, hypothetical proteins, protein fate, protein synthesis, cellular transport, and cell cycle. Proteins involved in the interaction with the cellular environment were also identified, and the implications of these changes are discussed.
Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2013
One of the vexing problems in the analysis of SSD is in the assessment of the effect of intervention. Serial dependence notwithstanding, the linear model approach that has been advanced involves, in general, the fitting of regression lines (or curves) to the set of observations within each phase of the design and comparing the parameters of these…
Giannina J. Bellone
Although data accessibility and ease of use was very different for the diverse devices, there were no significant differences for sleep onset, total sleep time and sleep efficiency recordings, where applicable. In conclusion, depending on the type of study and analysis desired (as well as cost and compliance of use, we propose some relative advantages for the different actigraphy/temperature recording devices.
Presents graphic notation as the making of aural scores to memorise or analyse improvised music therapy processes, capturing also those aspectsthe usual music notation would not cover. An example in some detail is shown, the music taken from a well known Nordoff/Robbins recording. Training method......, involving graphic brainstorms,using coordinative systems and other frameworks, interpretative method including working on specifically musical counter-transference and special graphic exercises are outlined. Work by students at Aalborg University, Denmark, is quoted. General perspectives including relations...
Parfilko, Y.; Amaral de Arruda, F.; Varela, B.
A Tornado is one of the most dreadful and unpredictable events in nature. Unfortunately, weather and geographic conditions make a large portion of the United States prone to this phenomenon. Tornado saferooms are monolithic reinforced concrete protective structures engineered to guard against these natural disasters. Saferooms must withstand impacts and wind loads from EF-5 tornadoes – where the wind speed reaches up to 150 m/s (300 mph) and airborne projectiles can reach up to 50 m/s (100 mph). The objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of a saferoom under impact from tornado-generated debris and tornado-dragged vehicles. Numerical simulations were performed to model the impact problem using explicit dynamics and energy methods. Finite element models of the saferoom, windborne debris, and vehicle models were studied using the LS-DYNA software. RHT concrete material was used to model the saferoom and vehicle models from NCAC were used to characterize damage from impacts at various speeds. Simulation results indicate good performance of the saferoom structure at vehicle impact speeds up to 25 meters per second. Damage is more significant and increases nonlinearly starting at impact velocities of 35 m/s (78 mph). Results of this study give valuable insight into the dynamic response of saferooms subjected to projectile impacts, and provide design considerations for civilian protective structures. Further work is being done to validate the models with experimental measurements.
Dulama, Maria Eliza; Magda?, Ioana
In this paper, we analyze some aspects related to "Mathematics and Environmental Exploration" subject syllabus for preparatory grade approved by Minister of National Education of Romania. The analysis aim the place of the subject syllabus into the Framework Plan; the syllabus structure and the argumentation of studying this subject; the…
Full Text Available Acoustic Emission (AE is an effective nondestructive method for investigating the behavior of materials under stress. In recent decades, AE applications in structural health monitoring have been extended to other areas such as rotating machineries and cutting tools. This research investigates the application of acoustic emission data for unbalance analysis and detection in rotary systems. The AE parameter of interest in this study is a discrete variable that covers the significance of count, duration and amplitude of AE signals. A statistical model based on Zero-Inflated Poisson (ZIP regression is proposed to handle over-dispersion and excess zeros of the counting data. The ZIP model indicates that faulty bearings can generate more transient wave in the AE waveform. Control charts can easily detect the faulty bearing using the parameters of the ZIP model. Categorical data analysis based on generalized linear models (GLM is also presented. The results demonstrate the significance of the couple unbalance.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the position of the cranial base, maxilla, and mandible of Brazilian achondroplastic adult subjects through cephalometric measurements of the cranio-dento-facial complex, and to compare the results to normal patterns established in literature. METHODS: Fourteen achondroplastic adult subjects were evaluated based on their radiographic cephalometric measurements, which were obtained using the tracings proposed by Downs, Steinner, Bjork, Ricketts and McNamara. Statistical comparison of the means was performed with Student's t test. RESULTS: When compared to normal patterns, the cranial base presented a smaller size in both its anterior and posterior portions, the cranial base angle was acute and there was an anterior projection of the porion; the maxilla was found to be smaller in size in both the anteroposterior and transversal directions, it was inclined anteriorly with anterior vertical excess, and retropositioned in relation to the cranial base and to the mandible; the mandible presented a normal-sized ramus, a decreased body and transverse dimension, a tendency towards vertical growth and clockwise rotation, and it was slightly protruded in relation to the cranial base and maxilla. CONCLUSION: Although we observed wide individual variation in some parameters, it was possible to identify significant differences responsible for the phenotypical characteristics of achondroplastic patients.OBJETIVO: avaliar o tamanho e o posicionamento da base do crânio, da maxila e da mandíbula de indivíduos acondroplásicos brasileiros adultos, a partir de medidas cefalométricas do complexo dentoesqueletofacial. Confrontar os dados obtidos aos padrões de normalidade estabelecidos na literatura. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 14 indivíduos acondroplásicos adultos, utilizando algumas grandezas cefalométricas radiográficas obtidas a partir dos traçados preconizados por Downs, Steinner, Björk, Ricketts e Mc
inv thaersecondarysframinge ofeua shockn font praessur asd therbatost wav traersesontheystructure plan of the roof and walls from one framing bay to... treatment of f’mese second order effects would sig- nificantly increase the compiexity of the frame analysis. How- ever, both of these effects can be...elastic restraint at (B): A- Aa) + (l/2)(AyB - Am) ABB =0 Case 5 - Yield at (A); pin at (B): ABA AyA- A / A6B = 0 Case 6- Elastic restraint at (A); yield at
Hurst, Michelle A; Cordes, Sara
Fraction and decimal concepts are notoriously difficult for children to learn yet are a major component of elementary and middle school math curriculum and an important prerequisite for higher order mathematics (i.e., algebra). Thus, recently there has been a push to understand how children think about rational number magnitudes in order to understand how to promote rational number understanding. However, prior work investigating these questions has focused almost exclusively on fraction notation, overlooking the open questions of how children integrate rational number magnitudes presented in distinct notations (i.e., fractions, decimals, and whole numbers) and whether understanding of these distinct notations may independently contribute to pre-algebra ability. In the current study, we investigated rational number magnitude and arithmetic performance in both fraction and decimal notation in fourth- to seventh-grade children. We then explored how these measures of rational number ability predicted pre-algebra ability. Results reveal that children do represent the magnitudes of fractions and decimals as falling within a single numerical continuum and that, despite greater experience with fraction notation, children are more accurate when processing decimal notation than when processing fraction notation. Regression analyses revealed that both magnitude and arithmetic performance predicted pre-algebra ability, but magnitude understanding may be particularly unique and depend on notation. The educational implications of differences between children in the current study and previous work with adults are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Rasmus; Lauridsen, Nikolaj; Poulsen, Andreas
in the following categories: sound quality, comfort, build quality, design and brand. A factor analysis shows that the categories fit the attributes. Furthermore, some attributes show high correlations with the overall evaluation, suggesting that these attributes are important for user experience with headphones......The aspects of what provides a good user experience with headphones is initially investigated by an exploratory study (experiment I). Using KJ-Technique, 5 workshop teams of 4-6 participants each provide a number of aspects influencing their experience with headphones. Analysing the aspects...... for uniqueness and relatedness provides 144 aspects of user experience with headphones, arranged in 12 categories. The 144 influencing aspects from experiment I are condensed, and 24 attributes regarding user experience with headphones are selected. These attributes are tested in regard to their correlation...
Full Text Available In this article the psychological experience and needs shown in the discourse of women diagnosed with breast cancer in a psychological group intervention was analyzed. The sessions are transcribed and a discourse analysis is performed, selecting the most prevailing topics. The main psychological difficulties perceived by the participants are the following: body identity change, sexuality changes, new quality of interpersonal relationships, implications of positive thinking culture, fear of recurrence, the relationship with the hospital staff and change after diagnosis. The aspects of the group considered to be helpful are also addressed, i.e. feeling understood by the others, seeing the rest of participants as coping models, changing their relationship with the illness. Several clinical implications are highlighted in order to improve a comprehensive care.
Mohamad Reza Khalili
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Dental implants have been studied for replacement of missing teeth for many years. Productivity of implants is extremely related to the stability and resistance under applied loads and the minimum stress in jaw bone. The purpose of this study was to study numerically the 3D model of implant under thermal loads. Materials and Methods: Bone and the ITI implant were modeled in “Solidworks” software. To obtain the exact model, the bone was assumed as a linear orthotropic material. The implant system, including implant, abutment, framework and crown were modeled and located in the bone. After importing the model in Abaqus software, the material properties and boundary conditions and loads were applied and after meshing, the model was analyzed. In this analysis, the loads were applied in two steps. In the first step, the mechanical load was applied as tightening torque to the abutment and the abutment was tightened in the implant with 35 N.cm torque. In the second step, the thermal load originated from drinking cold and hot water was applied as thermal flux on the ceramic crown surface in this model. Results: Thermal analysis results showed that the thermal gradient in the bone was about 5.5 and 4.9 degrees of centigrade in the case of drinking cold and hot water respectively , although the maximum gradient of the whole system was reduced to 14 degrees, which occurred, in the crown by drinking cold water. Conclusion Thermal stresses were so small and it was because of the low thermal gradient. Maximum stresses occurred in the abutment were due to the tension preloads which were originated from the tightening torque.
Full Text Available By its location in the Septuagint canon, Psalm 151 takes up a place of a certain epilogue of the whole Psalter. Due to its isolation in the Greek text and non-canonicity from the masoretic point of view, as well as to its apparent simplicity and triviality, the Psalm was not often attracting attention of the biblical scholars. Only after discovering of a longer Hebrew version of the Psalm in Qumran the situation began to change. Now the Greek Ps 151 has being engaged into comparative study, but generally remaining in the shadow of the Qumran text. This article deals principally with Septuagint version of the Psalm, that underlies the Slavonic and others recensions adopted in the Christian tradition. A through thematical analysis, beginning with the presumption of the texts meaningfulness, will allow then to compare it with the longer Qumran version, the latter to be found poetical interpretation of the former. The analysis reveals David of the Ps 151 to be very much archetypical than historical personality. This is enough to explain the almost complete withdrawal of the emotional «colours», though not depriving the Psalm of its poetical expressiveness. The hero of Ps 151 is a silhouette with some trates of the Anoited One that cometh. This conclusion leads us to the proper estimation of the signiﬁcance of the Psalm in the history of religious ideas: by the examination of this text we can determine more exactly, what kind of characteristics of the Psalters David collected in its ‘epilogue’ were perceived by the readers as protomessianic: the stainless moral purity, the unfamiliarity to the world, the mysterious conversation with God, the natural possession of power as a mode of the direct divine activity, and the readiness to became a ransomer for the people.
Full Text Available The article analyses the scientists’ views on the phenomenon of “reliability”. The author pays special attention to the fact that the concept “reliability” is considered by the scientists as the systematic characteristic, which is characterized by the specific number of professional, psychological, physiological qualities and functions at the different levels of a person’s activity. This activity provides stable and reliable work. It is found out that scientists think the quality is the most important property which provides definiteness to any phenomenon. Personal qualities that affect the maturity of emotional and volitional reliability are established. Scientific interpretation of the concept of “reliability” and the main features of performing reliability is revealed. The analysis of pedagogical and psychological literature proves that the emotional qualities are being formed throughout the life according to the person’s environmental and genetic conditions. Emotional irritability, emotional stability, emotional tone, emotional reactions, emotional stability are the qualities which depend upon a type of a person’s higher nervous activity. The person’s activity, especially music one, can’t exist without involving emotions and feelings. Music plays an important role; due to it emotions become conscious processes. Thanks to music the person’s higher emotions (moral, intellectual, esthetic are formed. It is noticed that individual differences in demonstration of emotions depend on a person’s volitional qualities. Volition is considered to be a person’s psychological activity that determines purposefulness of actions. The author concluded that the maturity level of emotional and volitional reliability depends on direction and resistance of socially significant motives (needs, interests, values, attitudes; personality’s psychophysical traits (abilities, capacities, which provide the required level and effectiveness
Williams, Donald F.; Glasser, David
Introduces and develops mathematical notation to assist undergraduate students in overcoming conceptual difficulties involving the underlying mathematics of state functions, which tend to be different from functions encountered by students in previous mathematical courses, because of the need to manipulate special types of partial derivatives and…
Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Blanton, Maria; Sawrey, Katharine; Newman-Owens, Ashley; Murphy Gardiner, Angela
In this article, we analyze a first grade classroom episode and individual interviews with students who participated in that classroom event to provide evidence of the variety of understandings about variable and variable notation held by first grade children approximately six years of age. Our findings illustrate that given the opportunity,…
Busch, Henrik; Horst, Sebastian
Dette notat er i foråret 2005 udarbejdet af Henrik Busch og Sebastian Horst for Undervisnings-ministeriet i forbindelse med forberedelsen til Globaliseringsrådets arbejde i efteråret 2005. Notatet er i november 2005 gjort offentligt tilgængeligt efter aftale med Undervisningsministeriet. I den fo...
This study considers the way children listen to classical music composed for them and the effect of age on their spontaneous invented notations and verbal responses. The musical selection is a piano piece for children by Claude Debussy:"'Jimbo's Lullaby" from "Children's Corner". Two hundred and nine children 4-9.5-years-old…
Leyva, Diana; Hopson, Sarah; Nichols, Ashley
Are children's understanding of mental states (understanding of mind) related to their notating skills, that is, their ability to produce and read written marks to convey information about objects and number? Fifty-three preschoolers and kindergarteners were presented with a dictation task where they produced some written marks and were later…
Tattersall, Colin; Sodhi, Tim; Burgos, Daniel; Koper, Rob
Tattersall, C., Sodhi, T., Burgos, D., & Koper, E. J. R. (2007). Using the IMS Learning Design notation for the modelling and delivery of education. In L. Botturi & T. Stubbs (Eds.), Handbook of Visual Languages for Instructional Design: Theories and Practices (pp. 299-314). Hershey-New York, USA:
This study looks at a mixed ability group of 21 Year 5 primary students (aged 9-10 years old) who had previously never had formal instruction using letters to stand for unknowns or variables in a mathematics context; nor had they been introduced to formal algebraic notation. Three lessons were taught using the computer software "Grid Algebra"…
Serhane, Ahcene; Zeghdaoui, Abdelhamid; Debiache, Mehdi
Using a conventional notation for representing forces on diagrams, students were presented with questions on the interaction between two objects. The results show that complete understanding of Newton's Third Law of Motion is quite rare, and that some problems relate to misunderstanding which force acts on each body. The use of the terms…
Fagan, Patsy J.; Thompson, Ann D.
Discusses a classroom project for teaching conceptual meanings and functional purposes of the notations and symbols of mathematics. Describes the background of the approach based on Piaget's theory: concrete level, symbolic level, and abstract level. Lists 14 references and 4 suggested readings. (YP)
Polton, D. J.
Computer programs have been written which enable substructure searches to be carried out on a file of compounds ciphered using a modified version of the IUPAC (Dyson) notation. The search system outlined is to be linked with one which uses input from the chemical structure typewriter. (3 references) (Author)
Blanton, Maria; Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Gardiner, Angela Murphy; Sawrey, Katie; Newman-Owens, Ashley
Recent research suggests that children in elementary grades have some facility with variable and variable notation in ways that warrant closer attention. We report here on an empirically developed progression in first-grade children's thinking about these concepts in functional relationships. Using learning trajectories research as a framework for…
Witulski, Arthur; Austin, Rebekah; Reed, Robert; Karsai, Gabor; Mahadevan, Nag; Sierawski, Brian; Evans, John; LaBel, Ken
A systematic approach is presented to constructing a radiation assurance case using Goal Structured Notation (GSN) for spacecraft containing COTS parts. The GSN paradigm is applied to an SRAM single-event upset experiment board designed to fly on a CubeSat November 2016. Construction of a radiation assurance case without use of hardened parts or extensive radiation testing is discussed.
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SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17 COSATI CODES 18 SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROuP STRUCTURED...Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) This report consolidates the Structured Analysis and Structured Design for the Logistic...SYSTEMS (OR LOGISTICALY EQUIVALENT SYSTEMS) IS CRUCIAL FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE LSA TASK IN QUESTION. LSAR LSAR FILE LOGISTCS SUPPORT ANALYSIS
Full Text Available Purpose: The study tried to answer how catalogers determine the subject of a document.The aim of the research is to understand: (1 which parts of document are most important in the subject analysis process, (2 which approaches in the subject determination are involved, (3 which features of document are most significant, (4 which stages and cognitive processes are present, and, (5 if and how the subject analysis process of catalogers at Slovenian academic libraries differ from conceptions described in textbooks and ISO 5963 standard.Methodology/approach: Ten catalogers from nine Slovenian academic libraries were included into the qualitative research. Observation, think-aloud procedures, diaries and follow up discussions (non-structured interviews were used for collecting the data.Results: Regarding the parts of the document, the participants mostly examine the title,the table of contents, the introduction/preface, they also check the entire document.The document-oriented approach to subject determination was predominant. There were four stages in the process noted: the data input, data processing, text reduction and assignment of subject headings. Based on the results two general models of the subject analysis process were constructed.Research limitation: The small and convenient sample limits the generalization of findings.Originality/practical implications: It is a rare empirical study with qualitative approach in researching the subject analysis in Slovenia.
Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den
The sleep EEGs of 9 young adult males (age 20-28 years) and 8 middle-aged males (42-56 years) were analyzed by visual scoring and spectral analysis. In the middle-aged subjects power density in the delta, theta and sigma frequencies were attenuated as compared to the young subjects. In both age
Han, Bing; Jing, Hongyuan; Liu, Jianping; Wu, Zhangzhong [PetroChina Pipeline RandD Center, Langfang, Hebei (China); Hao, Jianbin [School of Petroleum Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)
Landslides have a serious impact on the integrity of oil and gas pipelines in the tough terrain of Western China. This paper introduces a solving method of axial stress, which uses numerical simulation and regression analysis for the pipelines subjected to landslides. Numerical simulation is performed to analyze the change regularity of pipe stresses for the five vulnerability assessment indexes, which are: the distance between pipeline and landslide tail; the thickness of landslide; the inclination angle of landslide; the pipeline length passing through landslide; and the buried depth of pipeline. A pipeline passing through a certain landslide in southwest China was selected as an example to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. This method has practical applicability, but it would need large numbers of examples to better verify its reliability and should be modified accordingly. Also, it only considers the case where the direction of the pipeline is perpendicular to the primary slip direction of the landslide.
Hawileh, Rami A; Rasheed, Hayder A
...) bars subjected to top surface fire. A finite element (FE) model is developed and a detailed transient thermal analysis is performed on a continuous concrete bridge deck under the effect of various fire curves...
Full Text Available We study properties of the join operation in query languages and describe some of its major drawbacks. We provide strong arguments against using joins as a main construct for retrieving related data elements in general purpose query languages and argue for using references instead. Since conventional references are quite restrictive when applied to data modeling and query languages, we propose to use generalized references as they are defined in the concept-oriented model (COM. These references are used by two new operations, called projection and de-projection, which are denoted by right and left arrows and therefore this access method is referred to as arrow notation. We demonstrate advantages of the arrow notation in comparison to joins and argue that it makes queries simpler, more natural, easier to understand, and the whole query writing process more productive and less error-prone.
International Telecommunication Union. Geneva
Recommendation E.123 defines a standard way to write telephone numbers, e-mail addresses, and web addresses. It recommends the following formats (when dialing the area code is optional for local calling): Telephone number: National notation (042) 123 4567 International notation +31 (0)42 123 4567 E-mail address: email@example.com Internet address / URL: www.company.com It also recommends that a hypen (-), space ( ), or period (.) can be used to visually separate groups of numbers. The parentheses are used to indicate digits that are sometimes not dialed. a slash (/) is used to indicate alternate numbers. This information is important if you want to make sure people know how to dail a phone number in a specific country.
Kaur, Gagan Deep
The design process in Kashmiri carpet weaving is distributed over a number of actors and artifacts and is mediated by a weaving notation called talim. The script encodes entire design in practice-specific symbols. This encoded script is decoded and interpreted via design-specific conventions by weavers to weave the design embedded in it. The cognitive properties of this notational system are described in the paper employing cognitive dimensions (CDs) framework of Green (People and computers, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989) and Blackwell et al. (Cognitive technology: instruments of mind-CT 2001, LNAI 2117, Springer, Berlin, 2001). After introduction to the practice, the design process is described in 'The design process' section which includes coding and decoding of talim. In 'Cognitive dimensions of talim' section, after briefly discussing CDs framework, the specific cognitive dimensions possessed by talim are described in detail.
Full Text Available The scholia add a second or secondary (grammatical; philological text to the main (literary text. They sometimes also add a meaning which might be considered (by modern philologists as superfluous, irrelevant, or even unnecessary. The ancient commentators actually choose what they want to comment upon and how they want to do so. They mostly see the anterior texts from the point of view of their own synchrony and understanding. Scholia certainly don't reflect any denotative objectivity, which would just unfold the true and unique (if possible meaning. The grammarians comment what their minds or their languages lead them to comment upon. Therefore the philological result looks like a mixture of objectivity and subjectivity. When a Greek grammarian of the Alexandrian era comments upon a Greek text of a previous time, in which ways is the Greek language put into a changing perspective? Does the technical language of the scholiasts provide the commented texts with more connotation or more denotation? How do the synchrony (of the commentary and the diachrony (of the texts commented upon meet, and what kind of meaning is then expressed or made available?
The status and subjects on thermal-hydraulic analysis for next-generation light water reactors (LWRs) with passive safety systems were surveyed through about 5 years until March 1999 by subcommittee on improvement of reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis codes under the nuclear code committee in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Based on the survey results and discussion, the status and subjects on system analysis for various types of proposed reactor were summarized in 1998 and those on multidimensional two-phase flow analysis were also reviewed, since the multidimensional analysis was recognized as one of the most important subjects through the investigation on system analysis. In this report, the status and subjects for the following were summarized from the survey results and discussion in 1998 and 1999; (1) BWR neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled analysis, (2) Evaluation of passive safety system performance and (3) Gas-liquid two-phase flow analysis. The contents in this report are the forefront of thermal-hydraulic analysis for LWRs including test results from several large-scale facilities. We expect that the contents can offer a guideline to improve reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis codes in future. (author)
Barrows Jr, R. C.; Busuioc, M.; Friedman, C.
This paper describes the extraction of structured data relevant to glaucoma diagnosis and progression from visit notes typed as "notational text" by ophthalmologists during patient encounters. We compared two text processing systems: a limited pattern matching system called GDP (Glaucoma Dedicated Parser) and MedLEE, a proven natural language processing system which is in routine use encoding findings from chest radiograph and mammogram reports at the New York-Presbyterian hospital's Columbia...
Mishlanova Marina Yur’evna
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of the main provisions of realtor business modeling. In the paper the development of notational complex is presented, which is involved in the design of the conceptual model, the formation of a reference model of real estate business and basic rules for the implementation of the model. In the construction of the proposed model important notational aspects are highlighted. Functional orientation of real estate business for rendering services reflects a functional approach to business modeling. In order to ensure the assessment of the offered services it is proposed to implement a nested model of the object. A reasonable functional approach using object-based elements allows optimizing the processes of business modeling and assessment of the results. The article discusses functional modeling of business, focusing on the results. Synchronizing the functional model with the models of business processes and sub-models of objects, in particular, the model of business result, contributes to the improvement of the notations tools. The article presents the adaptation of the template of the business model to the conditions of the realtor activity. The proposed reference model specifies the logical scheme of decomposition activity, which detaches economic, social and other values. The decomposition of services into functional groups with account for individual values and functional modules is presented: buying and selling real estate; mortgages and loans; rent of residential and commercial property; an independent evaluation of real estate; consultations concerning the issues of real estate transactions. In the focus of the results of business processes and performance standards of realtor organizations transitional notation to the evaluation system efficiency of business performance is developed. The simplest method of feedback for assessing customer satisfaction and, consequently, system efficiency is offered
Witulski, Arthur; Austin, Rebekah; Evans, John; Mahadevan, Nag; Karsai, Gabor; Sierawski, Brian; LaBel, Ken; Reed, Robert; Schrimpf, Ron
A systematic approach is presented to constructing a radiation assurance case using Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) for spacecraft containing commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) parts. The GSN paradigm is applied to an SRAM single-event upset experiment board designed to fly on a CubeSat November 2016. Construction of a radiation assurance case without use of hardened parts or extensive radiation testing is discussed.
Rojo, Marcial García; Rolón, Elvira; Calahorra, Luis; García, Felix Oscar; Sánchez, Rosario Paloma; Ruiz, Francisco; Ballester, Nieves; Armenteros, María; Rodríguez, Teresa; Espartero, Rafael Martín
Process orientation is one of the essential elements of quality management systems, including those in use in healthcare. Business processes in hospitals are very complex and variable. BPMN (Business Process Modelling Notation) is a user-oriented language specifically designed for the modelling of business (organizational) processes. Previous experiences of the use of this notation in the processes modelling within the Pathology in Spain or another country are not known. We present our experience in the elaboration of the conceptual models of Pathology processes, as part of a global programmed surgical patient process, using BPMN. With the objective of analyzing the use of BPMN notation in real cases, a multidisciplinary work group was created, including software engineers from the Dep. of Technologies and Information Systems from the University of Castilla-La Mancha and health professionals and administrative staff from the Hospital General de Ciudad Real. The work in collaboration was carried out in six phases: informative meetings, intensive training, process selection, definition of the work method, process describing by hospital experts, and process modelling. The modelling of the processes of Anatomic Pathology is presented using BPMN. The presented subprocesses are those corresponding to the surgical pathology examination of the samples coming from operating theatre, including the planning and realization of frozen studies. The modelling of Anatomic Pathology subprocesses has allowed the creation of an understandable graphical model, where management and improvements are more easily implemented by health professionals.
Erhardt, Erik Barry; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Bedrick, Edward J; Allen, Elena A; Adali, Tülay; Calhoun, Vince D
Spatial independent component analysis (ICA) applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data identifies functionally connected networks by estimating spatially independent patterns from their linearly mixed fMRI signals. Several multi-subject ICA approaches estimating subject-specific time courses (TCs) and spatial maps (SMs) have been developed, however, there has not yet been a full comparison of the implications of their use. Here, we provide extensive comparisons of four multi-subject ICA approaches in combination with data reduction methods for simulated and fMRI task data. For multi-subject ICA, the data first undergo reduction at the subject and group levels using principal component analysis (PCA). Comparisons of subject-specific, spatial concatenation, and group data mean subject-level reduction strategies using PCA and probabilistic PCA (PPCA) show that computationally intensive PPCA is equivalent to PCA, and that subject-specific and group data mean subject-level PCA are preferred because of well-estimated TCs and SMs. Second, aggregate independent components are estimated using either noise-free ICA or probabilistic ICA (PICA). Third, subject-specific SMs and TCs are estimated using back-reconstruction. We compare several direct group ICA (GICA) back-reconstruction approaches (GICA1-GICA3) and an indirect back-reconstruction approach, spatio-temporal regression (STR, or dual regression). Results show the earlier group ICA (GICA1) approximates STR, however STR has contradictory assumptions and may show mixed-component artifacts in estimated SMs. Our evidence-based recommendation is to use GICA3, introduced here, with subject-specific PCA and noise-free ICA, providing the most robust and accurate estimated SMs and TCs in addition to offering an intuitive interpretation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of subject-specific radio channels in wireless body area networks (WBANs using a simulation tool based on the parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD technique. This technique is well suited to model radio propagations around complex, inhomogeneous objects such as the human body. The impacts of different subjects varying in size on on-body, inter-body, and off-body radio channels are studied. The analysis demonstrates that the characteristics of on-body radio channels are subject-specific and are associated with human gender, height, and body mass index. On the other hand, when waves propagate away from the body, such as in the inter-body and off-body cases, the impacts of different subjects on the channel characteristics are found to be negligible.
Full Text Available In his book "Subjectivity," Andreas RECKWITZ interprets the work of a series of structuralist and poststructuralist authors in relation to the analysis of subjectivity. In the following article I reconstruct this interpretation and attempt to critically analyze the empirical explanatory power of these authors. An excerpt from the school routine of a German class is used to show how these various "subject-theoretical analysis strategies" may lead to different, interesting, and insightful interpretations. It also becomes clear that the idea of subjectivity, and therefore of education and maturity, cannot be abandoned. Without this idea, the application of pedagogy would be cynical, and the ability to understand it impossible. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs090222
Clarys, Peter; Deriemaeker, Peter; Huybrechts, Inge; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Mullie, Patrick
Dietary pattern analysis, based on the concept that foods eaten together are as important as a reductive methodology characterized by a single food or nutrient analysis, has emerged as an alternative approach to study the relation between nutrition and disease. The aim of the present study was to compare nutritional intake and the results of dietary pattern analysis in properly matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects. Vegetarians (n = 69) were recruited via purposeful sampling and matched non-vegetarians (n = 69) with same age, gender, health and lifestyle characteristics were searched for via convenience sampling. Two dietary pattern analysis methods, the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) were calculated and analysed in function of the nutrient intake. Mean total energy intake was comparable between vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (p > 0.05). Macronutrient analysis revealed significant differences between the mean values for vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (absolute and relative protein and total fat intake were significantly lower in vegetarians, while carbohydrate and fibre intakes were significantly higher in vegetarians than in omnivorous subjects). The HEI and MDS were significantly higher for the vegetarians (HEI = 53.8.1 ± 11.2; MDS = 4.3 ± 1.3) compared to the omnivorous subjects (HEI = 46.4 ± 15.3; MDS = 3.8 ± 1.4). Our results indicate a more nutrient dense pattern, closer to the current dietary recommendations for the vegetarians compared to the omnivorous subjects. Both indexing systems were able to discriminate between the vegetarians and the non-vegetarians with higher scores for the vegetarian subjects.
Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell
There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.
McCarty, David E; Punjabi, Naresh M; Kim, Paul Y; Frilot, Clifton; Marino, Andrew A
Analysis of brain recurrence (ABR) is a novel computational method that uses two variables for sleep depth and two for sleep fragmentation to quantify temporal changes in non-random brain electrical activity. We postulated that ABR of the sleep-staged EEG could identify an EEG signature specific for the presence of mental health symptoms. Using the Mental Health Inventory Questionnaire (MHI-5) as ground truth, psychological distress was assessed in a study cohort obtained from the Sleep Heart Health Study. Subjects with MHI-5 50. Sixteen ABR markers derived from the EEG were analyzed using linear discriminant analysis to identify marker combinations that reliably classified individual subjects. A biomarker function computed from 12 of the markers accurately classified the subjects based on their MHI-5 scores (AUROC=82%). Use of additional markers did not improve classification accuracy. Subgroup analysis (20 highest and 20 lowest MHI-5 scores) improved classification accuracy (AUROC=89%). Biomarker values for individual subjects were significantly correlated with MHI-5 score (r=0.36, 0.54 for N=68, 40, respectively). ABR of EEGs obtained during sleep successfully classified subjects with regard to the severity of mental health symptoms, indicating that mood systems were reflected in brain electrical activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Hyuk-Kee; Kim, Seung-Eock, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Highlights: • Structural behavior of SC panel subjected to impact loading is evaluated using numerical analysis. • Sensitivity studies according to fracture energy and erosion value are performed. • Analysis results are compared with impact test for SC panel. - Abstract: After the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center using aircraft in New York City in 2001, safety assessments of nuclear power plant (NPP) structures subjected to impact loading have been actively performed. Since impact tests are possible for small-scale structures but not for full-scale structures, finite element (FE) analysis is necessary for a safety assessment of NPP structure. Analysis factors such as the material model of concrete and steel, strain rate effect, concrete fracture energy, and erosion value influence the analysis results. In this paper, the effect of the concrete fracture energy and the erosion in the material model of a steel-plate concrete (SC) panel subjected to the impact loading is evaluated using the commercial software LS-DYNA. The analysis results are compared with the impact test for an SC panel conducted in other research. A quarter model of an SC panel is adopted for impact analysis. The impact force–time history is applied on the SC panel. Sensitivity studies according to the fracture energy and the erosion value are performed in order to evaluate the structural behavior of SC panels.
Shoji, Satoshi; Tomono, Yoshiro; Liu, Ping
A population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis was conducted to characterize the voriconazole pharmacokinetic profiles in immunocompromised Japanese pediatric subjects and to compare them to those in immunocompromised non-Japanese pediatric subjects. A previously developed two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with first-order absorption and mixed linear and nonlinear elimination adequately described the voriconazole intravenous and oral data from Japanese pediatric subjects with few modifications. Bayesian priors were applied to this analysis by using the NONMEM routine NWPRI, which allowed priors for the fixed-effect parameter vector and variance matrix of the random-effect parameters to be a normal distribution and an inverse Wishart distribution, respectively. Large intersubject variabilities in oral bioavailability and voriconazole exposure were observed in these pediatric subjects. The mean oral bioavailability estimated in Japanese pediatric subjects was 73% (range, 17% to 99%), which is consistent with the reported estimates of 64% in the previous model and less than what was originally estimated for healthy adults—96%. Voriconazole exposures in Japanese pediatric subjects were generally comparable to those in non-Japanese pediatric subjects receiving the same dosing regimens, given the large intersubject variability. Consistent with the previous findings, the CYP2C19 genotyping status did not have a clinically relevant effect on voriconazole exposure in Japanese pediatric subjects, although it was identified as a covariate in the model to help explain the intersubject variability in voriconazole exposure. The CYP2C19 genotyping status alone does not warrant dose adjustment of voriconazole. No other factors besides age and weight were identified to explain the PK variability of voriconazole. PMID:25801557
Miguel Angel Rendón-Rojas
Full Text Available The Epistemology of Informational Community Identity (ECI-I is proposed as a toolbox for the analysis of informational reality within categories as contextual paradigm, informational subject and informational entity, built ex profeso for this theoretical-methodological analysis. The concepts of information user´s and informational subject are distinguished, the latest, to seek an answer from a concrete social enclave within a particular community and its interrelationships with others, to under go a process of self construction, from which specific information needs arise. And the user needs to seek concrete answer after formal questioning many facts occurring in a consumerist, unequal and alienating world. So the emphasis is put on the need for an interdisciplinary approach between social theory and library science in the study of the documentary information world of particular informational subjects, which is often marginalized and excluded
Zadeh, Amir; Zellers, Rowan; Pincus, Eli; Morency, Louis-Philippe
People are sharing their opinions, stories and reviews through online video sharing websites every day. Studying sentiment and subjectivity in these opinion videos is experiencing a growing attention from academia and industry. While sentiment analysis has been successful for text, it is an understudied research question for videos and multimedia content. The biggest setbacks for studies in this direction are lack of a proper dataset, methodology, baselines and statistical analysis of how inf...
Nourbakhsh, M R; Ottenbacher, K J
The purposes of this study were to examine whether the use of three different statistical methods for analyzing single-subject data led to similar results and to identify components of graphed data that influence agreement (or disagreement) among the statistical procedures. Forty-two graphs containing single-subject data were examined. Twenty-one were AB charts of hypothetical data. The other 21 graphs appeared in Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, Physical Therapy, Journal of the Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps, and Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. Three different statistical tests--the C statistic, the two-standard deviation band method, and the split-middle method of trend estimation--were used to analyze the 42 graphs. A relatively low degree of agreement (38%) was found among the three statistical tests. The highest rate of agreement for any two statistical procedures (71%) was found for the two-standard deviation band method and the C statistic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that overlap in single-subject graphed data was the best predictor of disagreement among the three statistical tests (beta = .49, P < .03). The results indicate that interpretation of data from single-subject research designs is directly influenced by the method of data analysis selected. Variation exists across both visual and statistical methods of data reduction. The advantages and disadvantages of statistical and visual analysis are described.
Lasda Bergman, Elaine M.
To determine the mix of resources used in social gerontology research, a citation analysis was conducted. A representative sample of citations was selected from three prominent gerontology journals and information was added to determine subject scatter and database coverage for the cited materials. Results indicate that a significant portion of…
Full Text Available Development of railway control systems aims at computerization. In most cases these systems are Distributed Real Time Systems. However, a huge problem in their putting into practice is the lack of interface standardization in the range of data structures and information exchange methods. It results in a variety of solutions, and thus in problems concerning cooperation of systems that come from different software vendors. Specification of protocols for data exchanging applications should therefore be created with the use of generally accepted standards. One of them is ASN.1 (Abstract Syntax Notation One language, which shall be presented in this article.
Duistermaat, J J; van Braam Houckgeest, J P
Part one of the authors' comprehensive and innovative work on multidimensional real analysis. This book is based on extensive teaching experience at Utrecht University and gives a thorough account of differential analysis in multidimensional Euclidean space. It is an ideal preparation for students who wish to go on to more advanced study. The notation is carefully organized and all proofs are clean, complete and rigorous. The authors have taken care to pay proper attention to all aspects of the theory. In many respects this book presents an original treatment of the subject and it contains man
Kemmerer, D; Tranel, D
Verb retrieval for action naming was assessed in 53 brain-damaged subjects by administering a standardized test with 100 items. In a companion paper (Kemmerer & Tranel, 2000), it was shown that impaired and unimpaired subjects did not differ as groups in their sensitivity to a variety of stimulus, lexical, and conceptual factors relevant to the test. For this reason, the main goal of the present study was to determine whether the two groups of subjects manifested theoretically interesting differences in the kinds of errors that they made. All of the subjects' errors were classified according to an error coding system that contains 27 distinct types of errors belonging to five broad categories-verbs, phrases, nouns, adpositional words, and "other" responses. Errors involving the production of verbs that are semantically related to the target were especially prevalent for the unimpaired group, which is similar to the performance of normal control subjects. By contrast, the impaired group had a significantly smaller proportion of errors in the verb category and a significantly larger proportion of errors in each of the nonverb categories. This relationship between error rate and error type is consistent with previous research on both object and action naming errors, and it suggests that subjects with only mild damage to putative lexical systems retain an appreciation of most of the semantic, phonological, and grammatical category features of words, whereas subjects with more severe damage retain a much smaller set of features. At the level of individual subjects, a wide range of "predominant error types" were found, especially among the impaired subjects, which may reflect either different action naming strategies or perhaps different patterns of preservation and impairment of various lexical components. Overall, this study provides a novel addition to the existing literature on the analysis of naming errors made by brain-damaged subjects. Not only does the study
Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S Natasha; Ferron, John; Van den Noortgate, Wim
One way to combine data from single-subject experimental design studies is by performing a multilevel meta-analysis, with unstandardized or standardized regression coefficients as the effect size metrics. This study evaluates the performance of this approach. The results indicate that a multilevel meta-analysis of unstandardized effect sizes results in good estimates of the effect. The multilevel meta-analysis of standardized effect sizes, on the other hand, is suitable only when the number of measurement occasions for each subject is 20 or more. The effect of the treatment on the intercept is estimated with enough power when the studies are homogeneous or when the number of studies is large; the power of the effect on the slope is estimated with enough power only when the number of studies and the number of measurement occasions are large.
Kim, Seung-Jun; Dontaraju, Krishna K.
Multi-subject fMRI data analysis methods based on sparse dictionary learning are proposed. In addition to identifying the component spatial maps by exploiting the sparsity of the maps, clusters of the subjects are learned by postulating that the fMRI volumes admit a subspace clustering structure. Furthermore, in order to tune the associated hyper-parameters systematically, a cross-validation strategy is developed based on entry-wise sampling of the fMRI dataset. Efficient algorithms for solving the proposed constrained dictionary learning formulations are developed. Numerical tests performed on synthetic fMRI data show promising results and provides insights into the proposed technique.
Full Text Available We consider the problem of analysing magnetoencephalography (MEG data measured from two persons undergoing the same experiment, and we propose a method that searches for sources with maximally correlated energies. Our method is based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA, which provides linear transformations, one for each subject, such that the correlation between the transformed MEG signals is maximized. Here, we present a nonlinear version of CCA which measures the correlation of energies. Furthermore, we introduce a delay parameter in the modelto analyse, e.g., leader-follower changes in experiments where the two subjects are engaged in social interaction.
Kubicka, Katarzyna; Radoń, Urszula; Szaniec, Waldemar; Pawlak, Urszula
The paper concerns the reliability analysis of steel structures subjected to high temperatures of fire gases. Two types of spatial structures were analysed, namely with pinned and rigid nodes. The fire analysis was carried out according to prescriptions of Eurocode. The static-strength analysis was conducted using the finite element method (FEM). The MES3D program, developed by Szaniec (Kielce University of Technology, Poland), was used for this purpose. The results received from MES3D made it possible to carry out the reliability analysis using the Numpress Explore program that was developed at the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences . The measurement of reliability of structures is the Hasofer-Lind reliability index (β). The reliability analysis was carried out according to approximation (FORM, SORM) and simulation (Importance Sampling, Monte Carlo) methods. As the fire progresses, the value of reliability index decreases. The analysis conducted for the study made it possible to evaluate the impact of node types on those changes. In real structures, it is often difficult to define correctly types of nodes, so some simplifications are made. The presented analysis contributes to the recognition of consequences of such assumptions for the safety of structures, subjected to fire.
While all of us regularly use basic math symbols such as those for plus, minus, and equals, few of us know that many of these symbols weren't available before the sixteenth century. What did mathematicians rely on for their work before then? And how did mathematical notations evolve into what we know today? In Enlightening Symbols, popular math writer Joseph Mazur explains the fascinating history behind the development of our mathematical notation system. He shows how symbols were used initially, how one symbol replaced another over time, and how written math was conveyed before and after symbols became widely adopted. Traversing mathematical history and the foundations of numerals in different cultures, Mazur looks at how historians have disagreed over the origins of the numerical system for the past two centuries. He follows the transfigurations of algebra from a rhetorical style to a symbolic one, demonstrating that most algebra before the sixteenth century was written in prose or in verse employing the wr...
Churchill, Nathan W; Yourganov, Grigori; Oder, Anita; Tam, Fred; Graham, Simon J; Strother, Stephen C
A variety of preprocessing techniques are available to correct subject-dependant artifacts in fMRI, caused by head motion and physiological noise. Although it has been established that the chosen preprocessing steps (or "pipeline") may significantly affect fMRI results, it is not well understood how preprocessing choices interact with other parts of the fMRI experimental design. In this study, we examine how two experimental factors interact with preprocessing: between-subject heterogeneity, and strength of task contrast. Two levels of cognitive contrast were examined in an fMRI adaptation of the Trail-Making Test, with data from young, healthy adults. The importance of standard preprocessing with motion correction, physiological noise correction, motion parameter regression and temporal detrending were examined for the two task contrasts. We also tested subspace estimation using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Results were obtained for Penalized Discriminant Analysis, and model performance quantified with reproducibility (R) and prediction metrics (P). Simulation methods were also used to test for potential biases from individual-subject optimization. Our results demonstrate that (1) individual pipeline optimization is not significantly more biased than fixed preprocessing. In addition, (2) when applying a fixed pipeline across all subjects, the task contrast significantly affects pipeline performance; in particular, the effects of PCA and ICA models vary with contrast, and are not by themselves optimal preprocessing steps. Also, (3) selecting the optimal pipeline for each subject improves within-subject (P,R) and between-subject overlap, with the weaker cognitive contrast being more sensitive to pipeline optimization. These results demonstrate that sensitivity of fMRI results is influenced not only by preprocessing choices, but also by interactions with other experimental design factors. This paper outlines a
Fatima, Y; Doi, S A R; Mamun, A A
To assess the effect of poor sleep quality on Overweight/Obesity (Ow/Ob) in young subjects, and explore if this association is independent of sleep duration. Pubmed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases were searched for papers on sleep quality and overweight/obesity, focusing on children, adolescents, and young adults. Studies based on subjects with medical/psychological problems or published in languages other than English were excluded. Quality effects model was used to pool studies for meta-analysis. Findings from the systematic review suggest a link between poor sleep quality and Ow/Ob in young subjects. Pooled estimate (from 26,553 subjects) suggest a role of inadequate sleep (including both short duration and poor quality) in Ow/Ob (OR: 1.27 95% CI: 1.05-1.53). Sub-group-analyses suggest considerably higher odds of Ow/Ob (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.24-1.72) in young subjects with poor sleep quality (independent of duration). Poor sleep quality seems to be associated with Ow/Ob, and some studies indicate this association to be independent of duration. Therefore, considering only sleep duration might not help in disentangling sleep-obesity association. However, this review is mostly composed of cross-sectional studies. Therefore, a causal link or the stability of the sleep quality and Ow/Ob association could not be established. © 2016 World Obesity.
Sarjeev Singh Yadav
Full Text Available Aim: To give notation for quadrants, tooth position, and the type of supernumerary teeth for both permanent and deciduous dentition. Tooth numbering provides dentists with an essential shortcut in clinical record keeping. Materials and Methods: Three systems are favored worldwide: the Zsigmondy/Palmer system, the Universal system, and the Federation Dentaire Internationale (FDI Two-Digit system. Histories of all tooth-numbering methods were traced and the strengths and deficiencies of each system were reviewed. The FDI Two-Digit system is widely used throughout the world, except USA, and is the only method that makes the visual sense, cognitive sense, and computer sense. Conclusion: On review it was noticed that all tooth notation systems in vogue have a drawback as they do not provide any information or notations for supernumerary teeth such as paramolar, distomolar, mesiodens, and fused teeth.
Full Text Available Research for innovative composite material solutions for impact absorbers is focused on the analysis of their ability to absorb impact energy. For this purpose, aramid fiber laminate with DCPD resin matrix was prepared. Laminate samples were tested on the drop test and were subjected to ballistic loads. The laminate structure was modeled with ABAQUS software with the objective to optimize and estimate the ability to absorb impact energy in the range of high speeds (350m/s.
Bocian Miroslaw; Pach Joanna; Jamroziak Krzysztof; Kosobudzki Mariusz; Polak Slawomir; Pyka Dariusz; Kurzawa Adam; Kurowski Janusz
Research for innovative composite material solutions for impact absorbers is focused on the analysis of their ability to absorb impact energy. For this purpose, aramid fiber laminate with DCPD resin matrix was prepared. Laminate samples were tested on the drop test and were subjected to ballistic loads. The laminate structure was modeled with ABAQUS software with the objective to optimize and estimate the ability to absorb impact energy in the range of high speeds (350m/s).
Kumar, Kuldeep; Chauvin, Laurent; Toews, Mathew; Colliot, Olivier; Desrosiers, Christian
International audience; So far, fingerprinting studies have focused on identifying features from single-modality MRI data, which capture individual characteristics in terms of brain structure, function, or white matter microstruc-ture. However, due to the lack of a framework for comparing across multiple modalities, studies based on multi-modal data remain elusive. This paper presents a multi-modal analysis of genetically-related subjects to compare and contrast the information provided by va...
BALAHUR DOBRESCU ALEXANDRA; VAN DER GOOT Erik
Research in automatic Subjectivity and Sentiment Analysis, as subtasks in Affective Computing within the Artificial Intelligence field of Natural Language Processing (NLP), has flourished in the past years. The growth in interest in these tasks was motivated by the birth and rapid expansion of the Social Web that made it possible for people all over the world to share, comment or consult content on any given topic. In this context, opinions, sentiments and emotions expressed in Social Medi...
Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Mazza, Mario Gennaro; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe
Previous research has hypothesised increased uric acid levels, possibly because of an amplified purinergic metabolism and a reduced adenosine activity, in subjects with bipolar disorder. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at estimating if individuals with bipolar disorder had uric acid levels higher than both healthy controls and subjects with major depression (trait marker hypothesis). It also tested if uric acid levels could differ in different phases of bipolar disorder (state marker hypothesis). Meta-analyses were carried out generating pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs), using random-effects models. Heterogeneity between studies was estimated using the I(2) index. Relevant sensitivity and meta-regression analyses were conducted. We searched main Electronic Databases, identifying twelve studies that met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses showed increased uric acid levels in individuals with bipolar disorder as compared with both healthy controls (SMD = 0.65, p uric acid levels were higher in manic/mixed phases as compared with depressive ones (SMD = 0.34; p = 0.04, I(2) = 58.8%), a sensitivity analysis did not confirm the association. In sum, our meta-analysis shows that subjects with bipolar disorder have uric acid levels higher than healthy controls. The potential role of factors that might clarify the nature of this association deserves additional research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jindal, G D; Jain, Rajesh Kumar; Bhat, Sushma N; Pande, Jyoti A; Sawant, Manasi S; Jindal, Sameer K; Deshpande, Alaka K
Power spectral density (PSD) of peripheral pulses in human has been investigated in the past for its clinical applications. Continuing the efforts, data acquired using Peripheral Pulse Analyser in research projects sponsored by Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences in 207 control subjects, 18 descendants of diabetic patients and 22 patients with systemic hypertension have been subjected to PSD analysis for its study of harmonics. Application software, named Pulse Harmonic Analyser specifically developed for this work, selected 131,072 samples from each data file, obtained PSD, derived 52 PHA parameters and saved them in an Excel sheet. Coefficient of variation in control data was reduced significantly by application of Central Limit Theorem, which enabled use of parametric methods for statistical analysis of the observations. Data in hypertensive patients have shown significant difference in comparison to that of controls in eight parameters at low values of α and β. Data in offspring of diabetic patients also have shown significant difference in one parameter indicating its usefulness in screening subjects with genetic disposition of acquiring Type-II Diabetes. PHA analysis has also yielded sub-harmonic components, which are related to combined variability in the heart rate, pulse volume and pulse morphology and has a potential to become method of choice for real time variability monitoring.
Preissler, Pia; Kordovan, Sarah; Ullrich, Anneke; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Oechsle, Karin
Research has shown positive effects of music therapy on the physical and mental well-being of terminally ill patients. This study aimed to identify favored subjects and psychosocial needs of terminally ill cancer patients during music therapy and associated factors. Forty-one Patients receiving specialized inpatient palliative care prospectively performed a music therapy intervention consisting of at least two sessions (total number of sessions: 166; per patient average: 4, range, 2-10). Applied music therapy methods and content were not pre-determined. Therapeutic subjects and psychosocial needs addressed in music therapy sessions were identified from prospective semi-structured "field notes" using qualitative content analysis. Patient- and treatment-related characteristics as well as factors related to music and music therapy were assessed by questionnaire or retrieved from medical records. Seven main categories of subjects were identified: "condition, treatment, further care", "coping with palliative situation", "emotions and feelings", "music and music therapy", "biography", "social environment", and "death, dying, and spiritual topics". Patients addressed an average of 4.7 different subjects (range, 1-7). Some subjects were associated with gender (p = .022) and prior impact of music in patients' life (p = .012). The number of subjects per session was lower when receptive music therapy methods were used (p = .040). Psychosocial needs were categorized into nine main dimensions: "relaxing and finding comfort", "communication and dialogue", "coping and activation of internal resources", "activity and vitality", "finding expression", "sense of self and reflection", "finding emotional response", "defocusing and diversion", and "structure and hold". Patients expressed an average of 4.9 psychosocial needs (range, 1-8). Needs were associated with age, parallel art therapy (p = .010), role of music in patient's life (p = .021), and the applied music
Clark, James H.; Lafreniere, Robert; Stoodt, Robert; Wiedenheft, John
A static structural analysis of an ocean going patrol vessel subjected to hydrodynamic planning loads is discussed. The analysis required the development of a detailed model that included hull plating, five structural bulkheads, longitudinal and transverse stiffners, and a coarse representation of the superstructure. The finite element model was developed from fabrication drawings using the Navy computer aided design system. Various stress and displacement contours are shown for the entire hull. Because several critical areas appeared to be overstressed, these areas were remeshed for detail and are presented for completeness.
Martinez Fernando J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have demonstrated associations between genetic markers and COPD, but results have been inconsistent. One reason may be heterogeneity in disease definition. Unsupervised learning approaches may assist in understanding disease heterogeneity. Methods We selected 31 phenotypic variables and 12 SNPs from five candidate genes in 308 subjects in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT Genetics Ancillary Study cohort. We used factor analysis to select a subset of phenotypic variables, and then used cluster analysis to identify subtypes of severe emphysema. We examined the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of each cluster. Results We identified six factors accounting for 75% of the shared variability among our initial phenotypic variables. We selected four phenotypic variables from these factors for cluster analysis: 1 post-bronchodilator FEV1 percent predicted, 2 percent bronchodilator responsiveness, and quantitative CT measurements of 3 apical emphysema and 4 airway wall thickness. K-means cluster analysis revealed four clusters, though separation between clusters was modest: 1 emphysema predominant, 2 bronchodilator responsive, with higher FEV1; 3 discordant, with a lower FEV1 despite less severe emphysema and lower airway wall thickness, and 4 airway predominant. Of the genotypes examined, membership in cluster 1 (emphysema-predominant was associated with TGFB1 SNP rs1800470. Conclusions Cluster analysis may identify meaningful disease subtypes and/or groups of related phenotypic variables even in a highly selected group of severe emphysema subjects, and may be useful for genetic association studies.
Cho, Michael H; Washko, George R; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Criner, Gerard J; Hoffman, Eric A; Martinez, Fernando J; Laird, Nan; Reilly, John J; Silverman, Edwin K
Numerous studies have demonstrated associations between genetic markers and COPD, but results have been inconsistent. One reason may be heterogeneity in disease definition. Unsupervised learning approaches may assist in understanding disease heterogeneity. We selected 31 phenotypic variables and 12 SNPs from five candidate genes in 308 subjects in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) Genetics Ancillary Study cohort. We used factor analysis to select a subset of phenotypic variables, and then used cluster analysis to identify subtypes of severe emphysema. We examined the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of each cluster. We identified six factors accounting for 75% of the shared variability among our initial phenotypic variables. We selected four phenotypic variables from these factors for cluster analysis: 1) post-bronchodilator FEV1 percent predicted, 2) percent bronchodilator responsiveness, and quantitative CT measurements of 3) apical emphysema and 4) airway wall thickness. K-means cluster analysis revealed four clusters, though separation between clusters was modest: 1) emphysema predominant, 2) bronchodilator responsive, with higher FEV1; 3) discordant, with a lower FEV1 despite less severe emphysema and lower airway wall thickness, and 4) airway predominant. Of the genotypes examined, membership in cluster 1 (emphysema-predominant) was associated with TGFB1 SNP rs1800470. Cluster analysis may identify meaningful disease subtypes and/or groups of related phenotypic variables even in a highly selected group of severe emphysema subjects, and may be useful for genetic association studies.
Kang, Dong Gu [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jhung, Myung Jo, E-mail: email@example.com [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)
Research highlights: Temperature of surge line due to stratified flow is defined using CFD analysis. Fluid-structure interaction analysis is performed to investigate the response characteristics due to thermal stress. Fatigue usage factors due to thermal stratification are relatively low. Simplifying temperature distribution in surge line is not always conservative. - Abstract: Serious mechanical damages such as cracks and plastic deformations due to excessive thermal stress caused by thermal stratification have been experienced in several nuclear power plants. In particular, the thermal stratification in the pressurizer surge line has been addressed as one of the significant safety and technical issues. In this study, a detailed unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis involving conjugate heat transfer analysis is performed to obtain the transient temperature distributions in the wall of the pressurizer surge line subjected to stratified internal flows either during out-surge or in-surge operation. The thermal loads from CFD calculations are transferred to the structural analysis code which is employed for the thermal stress analysis to investigate the response characteristics, and the fatigue analysis is ultimately performed. In addition, the thermal stress and fatigue analysis results obtained by applying the realistic temperature distributions from CFD calculations are compared with those by assuming the simplified temperature distributions to identify some requirements for a realistic and conservative thermal stress analysis from a safety point of view.
Full Text Available Until the end of the twentieth century in Byzantine musicological science there were two diametrically opposite approaches to the interpretation of the Byzantine neum notation systems and post-Byzantine music heritage after the Fall of Constantinople. Western European scholars, ignoring the post-Byzantine Chant tradition and the last semeography reform from the early nineteenth century, looked at the problems of the musical past only from the perspective of the Middle Ages. Greek researchers have shared the belief that the condition of an adequate understanding of the mid-Byzantine notation, or the so-called old method, is the knowledge of analytical neum system and theory, the basics of which were set up by musicians from the end of the seventeenth and during the eighteenth century, and were finally shaped by Chrisantos, Gregory and Chourmouzios and officially accepted in the Greek church in 1814. The path to overcoming the issues relating to the development of neum notation, and finding an adequate manner of decoding it, led through the understanding of the phenomenon of "interpretation" and other tendencies that marked the post-Byzantine music practice. Two scientists -the Danish Jørgen Raasted, a follower of the Western European musicological methods established by founders of Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae, and Greek theologist and musicologist Gregory Stathes - are specifically responsible for the reconciliation of the different methodological approaches. After numerous and often heated debates, the Danish scientist eventually largely accepted the views of his Greek counterpart. Moreover, he himself insisted, at the musicological conferences organized during the 1980s, on reviewing the controversial issues: the existence of chromatic intervals in the psalmody of the Middle-Ages, the problem of syllabic and melismatic interpretations of stenographic neum records, and so on. Concerning the above mentioned issues, the contemporary trends in
Kumar, Kuldeep; Desrosiers, Christian; Siddiqi, Kaleem; Colliot, Olivier; Toews, Matthew
White matter characterization studies use the information provided by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) to draw cross-population inferences. However, the structure, function, and white matter geometry vary across individuals. Here, we propose a subject fingerprint, called Fiberprint, to quantify the individual uniqueness in white matter geometry using fiber trajectories. We learn a sparse coding representation for fiber trajectories by mapping them to a common space defined by a dictionary. A subject fingerprint is then generated by applying a pooling function for each bundle, thus providing a vector of bundle-wise features describing a particular subject's white matter geometry. These features encode unique properties of fiber trajectories, such as their density along prominent bundles. An analysis of data from 861 Human Connectome Project subjects reveals that a fingerprint based on approximately 3000 fiber trajectories can uniquely identify exemplars from the same individual. We also use fingerprints for twin/sibling identification, our observations consistent with the twin data studies of white matter integrity. Our results demonstrate that the proposed Fiberprint can effectively capture the variability in white matter fiber geometry across individuals, using a compact feature vector (dimension of 50), making this framework particularly attractive for handling large datasets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shaw, James A
The ways in which social scientists conceptualize the "reflexive" human subject have important consequences for how we go about our research. Whether and how we understand human subjects to be the authors of our own actions helps to structure what we say about health, health care, and the many other topics addressed in qualitative health research. In this article, I critically discuss assumptions of human reflexivity that are built into qualitative social science of health and medicine. I describe three alternative ways of understanding reflexive thought and human action derived from the theoretical works of Pierre Bourdieu, Bruno Latour, and George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, respectively. I then apply these three different ways of thinking about reflexivity and the acting subject to the analysis of an excerpt of participant observation data from a health services research study of transitions from hospital to home, illuminating the different kinds of analyses that arise from each perspective. I conclude with a call for social scientists to commit to the search for better ways of understanding the human subject, resisting the temptation to "settle" on theoretical statements that close down the path to more sophisticated conceptualizations of human thought and action. © The Author(s) 2016.
Oleg G. Solovev
Full Text Available In the present article, author discusses controversial issues of the criminal law assessment of subjective symptoms of improper spending of state budget funds, offered legal solutions to separate problems. In particular, analysis of the disposition of Art. 285.2 of the Criminal Code allowed the author to come to the conclusion that in this case we are talking about the even narrower subject, than the official - of the state extra-budgetary fund official. Author notes that the weak point of the technical legal rules, the subjects of the crime cannot be persons, performing managerial functions in the company management, which under the Federal Law of July 24, 2002 No. 111-FL "On the Investment of Funds for Financing funded part of labor pensions in the Russian Federation" pension savings of insured claims transferred to the trust. However, in the case of misuse of these funds, these persons may be held in the presence of all other grounds of criminal responsibility under Art. 201 of the Criminal Code. The subjective aspect of the act is characterized by the acts of guilt in the form of direct intent, when a perpetrator (official understands that spending budget funds illegally and wants them to spend. This purpose of committing crime has no legal significance and do not affect characterization of the offense. Motives of the official (falsely understood interests of the Fund, careerist considerations, greed, and other personal motives, do not affect qualification of his actions, but may be considered in the individualization of responsibility.
Mergl, R; Tigges, P; Schröter, A; Möller, H J; Hegerl, U
The diagnosis of movement disorders and the distinction between their possible generation by drug-treatment or illness can be done more objectively by using digitized analyses of hand movements. The aim of this study was to define this method, that is to identify its reliability and the influence of several covariables upon measurements, in healthy subjects. Simple writing and drawing tests were administered, using a digitizing tablet, transmitting signals to a computer for processing. The kinematic parameters identified in this way provided objective, reliable and valid measures for the dynamics and the degree of automation of hand movements. Analysis of the data showed that younger subjects write faster and with a higher degree of automation than older subjects. Other moderating variables, such as verbal intelligence and customary motor activity in everyday life (motoric practice) could be identified, whereas personality and gender were found to have little influence. There were no significant differences between left-handers and right-handers in hand movements. The movement parameters had a high test retest stability. The results of this study in healthy subjects indicate that age, verbal intelligence and motor practice should be considered when evaluating the effects of drug-treatment or psychiatric illness upon hand-movement in patients.
Scholes, Corey J; McDonald, Michael D; Parker, Anthony W
Evidence concerning the alteration of knee function during landing suffers from a lack of consensus. This uncertainty can be attributed to methodological flaws, particularly in relation to the statistical analysis of variable human movement data. The aim of this study was to compare single-subject and group analyses in detecting changes in knee stiffness and coordination during step landing that occur independent of an experimental intervention. A group of healthy men (N=12) stepped-down from a knee-high platform for 60 consecutive trials, each trial separated by a 1-minute rest. The magnitude and within-participant variability of sagittal stiffness and coordination of the landing knee were evaluated with both group and single-subject analyses. The group analysis detected significant changes in knee coordination. However, the single-subject analyses detected changes in all dependent variables, which included increases in variability with task repetition. Between-individual variation was also present in the timing, size and direction of alterations. The results have important implications for the interpretation of existing information regarding the adaptation of knee mechanics to interventions such as fatigue, footwear or landing height. It is proposed that a participant's natural variation in knee mechanics should be analysed prior to an intervention in future experiments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mitchell, Patrick; Krotish, Debra; Shin, Yong-June; Hirth, Victor
The effects of hypertension are chronic and continuous; it affects gait, balance, and fall risk. Therefore, it is desirable to assess gait health across hypertensive and nonhypertensive subjects in order to prevent or reduce the risk of falls. Analysis of electromyography (EMG) signals can identify age related changes of neuromuscular activation due to various neuropathies and myopathies, but it is difficult to translate these medical changes to clinical diagnosis. To examine and compare geriatrics patients with these gait-altering diseases, we acquire EMG muscle activation signals, and by use of a timesynchronized mat capable of recording pressure information, we localize the EMG data to the gait cycle, ensuring identical comparison across subjects. Using time-frequency analysis on the EMG signal, in conjunction with several parameters obtained from the time-frequency analyses, we can determine the statistical discrepancy between diseases. We base these parameters on physiological manifestations caused by hypertension, as well as other comorbities that affect the geriatrics community. Using these metrics in a small population, we identify a statistical discrepancy between a control group and subjects with hypertension, neuropathy, diabetes, osteoporosis, arthritis, and several other common diseases which severely affect the geriatrics community.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The inclusion of students with special educational needs is a process, which faces many challenges. An essential condition for the success of inclusion is the competence of physical educators. We suggest that it is necessary to establish courses focused on adapted physical activity as part of the university education for physical education (PE teachers. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to analyze courses focused on adapted physical activity within teacher preparation programs. METHODS: We conducted quantitative and qualitative content analysis of subjects which was focused on adapted physical activity at selected public universities in the Czech Republic. In total, subjects from the six faculties met the conditions. RESULTS: The results show the lack of emphasis for this area in the current PE teacher preparations programs, which is one of basic requirements for success of the inclusion process.
Zhang, Ye; Li, Si Zhen; Li, Lei; He, Ming Guang; Thomas, Ravi; Wang, Ning Li
We estimate and compare change in iris cross-sectional area (IA) after physiologic and pharmacologic mydriasis in subjects with different dominant mechanisms for primary angle closure. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) measurements in light, dark, and following pharmacologic dilation were obtained on primary angle closure suspects (PACS), primary angle closure (PAC), and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) examined during the 5-year follow-up of the Handan Eye Study. Subjects were categorized into three subgroups according to their dominant angle closure (AC) mechanisms as determined by AS-OCT: pupillary block (PB), plateau iris configuration (PIC), and thick peripheral iris roll (TPIR). The IA and other biometric parameters measured using the Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program in the right eyes of all subjects were analyzed. A total of 364 right eyes of subjects with PACS (333), and PAC/PACG (31) was included in the analysis. Significant differences in the change of IAs (P = 0.030), IA loss per mm pupil diameter (PD) increase (P = 0.001) in light versus pharmacologic dilation, and IA loss per mm PD increase (P = 0.011) from dark versus pharmacologic dilation were observed among the three groups. The smallest decrease occurred in the PB group. There are significant differences in IA and IA loss per mm of pupil change following physiologic or pharmacologic mydriasis in Chinese subjects with dissimilar dominant mechanisms for AC. Dynamic iris change may have a more important role in angle closure where PB is the dominant mechanism. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
Allsopp, Benjamin Brink
others) are the building blocks of new e-learning designs, however most of these representation forms predate the field of e-learning research or even digital media. A less usual approach to e-learning innovations is to design new representation forms. ArcForm (Allsopp, 2013) is a new network notation......New e-learning systems often innovate by bringing together different content representation forms (multi-modality) and the orchestration of access to the individual representations (workflow). The representation forms themselves (e.g. prose text, algebraic equations, video, concept maps and many...... as a foundation for a new category of e-learning systems. The idea is that these e-learning systems would allow users on a meaning by meaning (rather than a page by page) level to follow their own paths through available knowledge, to explore only what they find most interesting for their current learning goals...
Junker, Astrid; Rohn, Hendrik; Czauderna, Tobias; Klukas, Christian; Hartmann, Anja; Schreiber, Falk
The Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an emerging standard for the uniform representation of biological processes and networks. By using examples from gene regulation and metabolism, this protocol shows the construction of SBGN maps by either manual drawing or automatic translation using the tool SBGN-ED. In addition, it discusses the enrichment of SBGN maps with different kinds of -omics data to bring numerical data into the context of these networks in order to facilitate the interpretation of experimental data. Finally, the export of such maps to public websites, including clickable images, supports the communication of results within the scientific community. With regard to the described functionalities, other tools partially overlap with SBGN-ED. However, currently, SBGN-ED is the only tool that combines all of these functions, including the representation in SBGN, data mapping and website export. This protocol aims to assist scientists with the step-by-step procedure, which altogether takes ∼90 min.
Basu, Srijita; Sengupta, Anirban; Mazumdar, Chandan
Enterprises are increasingly using cloud computing for hosting their applications. Availability of fast Internet and cheap bandwidth are causing greater number of people to use cloud-based services. This has the advantage of lower cost and minimum maintenance. However, ensuring security of user data and proper management of cloud infrastructure remain major areas of concern. Existing techniques are either too complex, or fail to properly represent the actual cloud scenario. This article presents a formal cloud model using the constructs of Z-notation. Principles of the Chinese Wall security policy have been applied to design secure cloud-specific operations. The proposed methodology will enable users to safely host their services, as well as process sensitive data, on cloud.
John D. McCalpin
Full Text Available Some issues in the relationship of coding style and compiler optimization are discussed with regard to Fortran 90 array notation. A review of several important Fortran 90 array constructs and their performance on vector and scalar hardware sets the stage for a more detailed example based on the kernel of a finite difference computational fluid dynamics model, specifically the nonlinear shallow water equations. Special attention is paid to the optimization of memory use and memory traffic. It is shown that the style of coding interacts with the rules of Fortran 90 and the current state of the art of Fortran 90 compilers to produce a fairly wide range of performance levels. Although performance degradations are typically small, a few cases of more serious loss of effciency are identified and discussed.
, a single language or an expression, a lingua franca to transform ideas into knowledge, sustain representation of knowledge, and exchange knowledge with the formal, non-virtual organization. Business Process Management Notation (BPMN) has become commonplace for describing and formalizing regular enterprise...... and the enterprise. The chapter also demonstrates how VCs can be applied to develop BPMNs of the enterprise’s knowledge processes, allowing the VCs to strengthen value, but also with the risk of an obsolete VC. Conclusively, BPMN can fuel the VC dynamics and, when used smartly, both retain the VCs’ independent value......Virtual Communities (VCs) are a cornerstone in today’s digitally connected, mediated professional, and popular knowledge development and exchange. They exist in both informal and formal forms. This chapter pays special attention to VCs in industrial and professional environments, where enterprise...
Corriveau, H; Arsenault, A B; Dutil, E; Lepage, Y
An evaluation based on the Bobath approach to treatment has previously been developed and partially validated. The purpose of the present study was to verify the content validity of this evaluation with the use of a statistical approach known as principal components analysis. Thirty-eight hemiplegic subjects participated in the study. Analysis of the scores on each of six parameters (sensorium, active movements, muscle tone, reflex activity, postural reactions, and pain) was evaluated on three occasions across a 2-month period. Each time this produced three factors that contained 70% of the variation in the data set. The first component mainly reflected variations in mobility, the second mainly variations in muscle tone, and the third mainly variations in sensorium and pain. The results of such exploratory analysis highlight the fact that some of the parameters are not only important but also interrelated. These results seem to partially support the conceptual framework substantiating the Bobath approach to treatment.
Dania, Aspasia; Tyrovola, Vasiliki; Koutsouba, Maria
The aim of this paper is to present the design and evaluate the impact of a Laban Notation-based method for Teaching Dance (LANTD) on novice dancers' performance, in the case of Greek traditional dance. In this research, traditional dance is conceived in its "second existence" as a kind of presentational activity performed outside its…
Schrimpf, Marlene; Liegl, Gregor; Boeckle, Markus; Leitner, Anton; Geisler, Peter; Pieh, Christoph
There is strong evidence indicating an interaction between sleep and pain. However, the size of this effect, as well as the clinical relevance, is unclear. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effect of sleep deprivation on pain perception. A systematic literature search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane, Psyndex, Psycinfo, and Scopus. By conducting a random-effect model, the pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) of sleep deprivation on pain perception was calculated. Studies that investigated any kind of sleep deprivation in conjunction with a pain measurement were included. In cases of several pain measurements within a study, the average effect size of all measures was calculated. Five eligible studies (N = 190) for the between-group analysis and ten studies (N = 266) for the within-group analysis were identified. Sleep deprivation showed a medium effect in the between-group analysis (SMD = 0.62; CI95: 0.12, 1.12; z = 2.43; p = 0.015) and a large effect in the within-group analysis (SMD = 1.49; CI95: 0.82, 2.17; z = 4.35; p sleep deprivation on pain perception. As this meta-analysis is based on experimental studies in healthy subjects, the clinical relevance should be clarified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chun, E.; Rosner, R.
We study the linear stability of an optically thin uniform radiating plasma subject to nonlocal heat transport. We derive the dispersion relation appropriate to this problem, and the marginal wavenumbers for instability. Our analysis indicates that nonlocal heat transport acts to reduce the stabilizing influence of thermal conduction, and that there are critical values for the electron mean free path such that the plasma is always unstable. Our results may be applied to a number of astrophysical plasmas, one such example being the halos of clusters of galaxies.
Mei, Chuh; Chiang, C. K.
A finite element formulation is presented for the analysis of beams and rectangular plates undergoing large deflections subjected to Gaussian white noise excitations. Single-mode response is assumed in the present formulation. Root-mean-square (RMS) maximum deflections for simply supported and clamped beams and plates at various sound spectrum levels are obtained and compared with solutions using the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation and the equivalent linearization methods. RMS maximum stains and equivalent linear frequencies are compared with the equivalent linearization results for assessment of the accuracy of the finite element method.
Sal Y Rosas, Victor G; Hughes, James P
In this article, we present nonparametric and semiparametric methods to analyze current status data subject to outcome misclassification. Our methods use nonparametric maximum likelihood estimation (NPMLE) to estimate the distribution function of the failure time when sensitivity and specificity are known and may vary among subgroups. A nonparametric test is proposed for the two sample hypothesis testing. In regression analysis, we apply the Cox proportional hazard model and likelihood ratio based confidence intervals for the regression coefficients are proposed. Our methods are motivated and demonstrated by data collected from an infectious disease study in Seattle, WA.
Koyama, S; Gunji, A; Yabe, H; Oiwa, S; Akahane-Yamada, R; Kakigi, R; Näätänen, R
Evoked magnetic responses to speech sounds [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M. Vainio, P. Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.] were recorded from 13 Japanese subjects (right-handed). Infrequently presented vowels ([o]) among repetitive vowels ([e]) elicited the magnetic counterpart of mismatch negativity, MMNm (Bilateral, nine subjects; Left hemisphere alone, three subjects; Right hemisphere alone, one subject). The estimated source of the MMNm was stronger in the left than in the right auditory cortex. The sources were located posteriorly in the left than in the right auditory cortex. These findings are consistent with the results obtained in Finnish [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M.Vainio, P.Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.][T. Rinne, K. Alho, P. Alku, M. Holi, J. Sinkkonen, J. Virtanen, O. Bertrand and R. Näätänen, Analysis of speech sounds is left-hemisphere predominant at 100-150 ms after sound onset. Neuroreport, 10 (1999) 1113-1117.] and English [K. Alho, J.F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko and R.J. Ilmoniemi, Hemispheric lateralization in preattentive processing of speech sounds. Neurosci. Lett., 258 (1998) 9-12.] subjects. Instead of the P1m observed in Finnish [M. Tervaniemi, A. Kujala, K. Alho, J. Virtanen, R.J. Ilmoniemi and R. Näätänen, Functional specialization of the human auditory cortex in processing phonetic and musical sounds: A magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Neuroimage, 9 (1999) 330-336.] and English [K. Alho, J. F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko
Full Text Available A general symplectic method for the random response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to stationary/non-stationary random excitations is developed using symplectic mathematics in conjunction with variable separation and the pseudo-excitation method (PEM. Starting from the equation of motion for a single loaded substructure, symplectic analysis is firstly used to eliminate the dependent degrees of the freedom through condensation. A Fourier expansion of the condensed equation of motion is then applied to separate the variables of time and wave number, thus enabling the necessary recurrence scheme to be developed. The random response is finally determined by implementing PEM. The proposed method is justified by comparison with results available in the literature and is then applied to a more complicated time-dependent coupled system.
Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA is a widely applied technique to derive functionally connected brain networks from fMRI data. Group ICA (GICA and Independent Vector Analysis (IVA are extensions of ICA that enable users to perform group fMRI analyses; however a full comparison of the performance limits of GICA and IVA has not been investigated. Recent interest in resting state fMRI data with potentially higher degree of subject variability makes the evaluation of the above techniques important. In this paper we compare component estimation accuracies of GICA and an improved version of IVA using simulated fMRI datasets. We systematically change the degree of component spatial variability and evaluate estimation accuracy over all spatial maps (SMs and time courses (TCs of the decomposition. Our results indicate the following: (1 at low levels of SM variability or when just one SM is varied, both GICA and IVA perform well, (2 at higher levels of SM variability or when more than one SMs are varied, IVA continues to perform well but GICA yields SM estimates that are composites of other SMs with errors in TCs, (3 both GICA and IVA remove spatial correlations of overlapping SMs and introduce artificial correlations in their TCs, (4 if number of SMs is over estimated, IVA continues to perform well but GICA introduces artifacts in the varying and extra SMs with artificial correlations in the TCs of extra components, and (5 in the absence or presence of SMs unique to one subject, GICA produces errors in TCs and IVA estimates are accurate. In summary, our simulation experiments (both simplistic and realistic and our holistic analyses approach indicate that IVA produces results that are closer to ground truth and thereby better preserves subject variability. The improved version of IVA is now packaged into the GIFT toolbox (http://mialab.mrn.org/software/gift.
Young, Lisa Saville; Berry, Jessie
This paper elucidates a methodological approach to interview text that tries to acknowledge the psychosocial nature of disability and thereby ensuring that empirical work in disability studies complements theoretical arguments already developed. The aim of this study is to outline a psychosocial conceptualisation of maternal subjectivity in relation to childhood disability and to apply this conceptualisation as an analytic tool to segments of an interview with a mother of a child with physical and developmental disabilities. Drawing on psychoanalysis and attachment literature alongside critical social psychology we take readers through the analysis of an interview extract with a particular mother. Through a fine grained analysis, we demonstrate the value of attending to the affective processes in and around the text rooted in the particular intersubjective exchange ('here and how') of the interview and the particular socio-historical context ('there and then') in which the mother, child and researcher are located. The reading draws attention to discourses that position this particular mother and her children in particular ways while also pointing to investments in these discourses such that these discourses are not purely social but play affective functions. This paper demonstrates the value of using multiple lenses to read the text, seeking to understand what is going on from within each lens (discursive/social, interpersonal, intrapsychic), while also seeking to disrupt this understanding as we take up the position of a different lens. This approach enables us to hold onto the complexity and locatedness of maternal subjectivity for mothers of children with disabilities.
Meyerovitch, Joseph; Antebi, Felice; Greenberg-Dotan, Sari; Bar-Tal, Ornit; Hochberg, Ze'ev
To determine whether an altered hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is inherent to Down's syndrome or if a high level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a feature in a subset of patients with Down's syndrome. Comparative analysis. Major health maintenance organisation (3.8 million insured). A data warehouse search identified all subjects with Down's syndrome who attended Clalit Health Services in 2006 and were tested for TSH and free thyroxine (T4) level on the day of diagnosis (intention-to-treat population). The study group consisted of patients who were not diagnosed with thyroid disease or did not receive thyroid-modulating medication (n=428). Their findings were compared with a control group of healthy age- and sex-matched subjects who were randomly selected from the general population. Distribution of free T4, TSH and total T3 levels. The distribution plot for TSH showed a significant shift of the curve to higher values in the study group compared with the controls (p≤0.0001). This finding held true on further analysis of the whole intention-to-treat population (p95th centile in the presence of normal-range free T4 levels.
Full Text Available Ability to predict consumer’s reaction to particular design solution of the product is very important. Gathering andanalysis of subjective judgments of particular characteristics, based on which the aesthetic of the product is judged,is one of predicting the consumer’s reaction in the future. Knowledge gathered this manner can serve as a referencefor further studies of determining factors for aesthetic results and design quality. There are two opposed opinionsregarding prediction of aesthetic impression. One opinion is that taste of individual cannot be discussed because itis extremely variable and the possibility of meaningful analysis of aesthetic impression is rejected. Other opinionstates that there is a consistent preference of certain aesthetic characteristics despite individual and group differences.Main goal of this paper is to examine the correlation between subjective judgments of certain PET bottlecharacteristics. Analysis showed meaningful correlation between some of the PET bottle characteristics while othercharacteristics showed less correlation. It can be concluded that not all of the characteristics have the same influenceon the aesthetics and design quality of the PET bottle form. Emphasizing the characteristics relative to aesthetics ofthe product can produce better market results, taking in to account that consumer’s buy the product they consider tobe more attractive if other parameters of the product are similar.
Full Text Available This study evaluated the deformations that contribute to Class III mandibular configuration, employing geometric morphometric analysis. Lateral cephalograms of male and female groups of 100 young adults and 70 children with Class III malocclusion were compared to those of counterparts with normal occlusion. The sample included an equal number of both genders. The cephalographs were traced, and 12 homologous landmarks were identified and digitized. Average mandibular geometries were generated by means of Procrustes analysis. Thin-plate spline analysis was then applied to mandibular configurations to determine local form differences in male and female groups of adults and children with normal occlusion and Class III malocclusion. The mandibular morphology was significantly different between these two groups of male and female adults, and children (p < 0.0001. This spline analysis revealed an anteroposterior elongation of the mandible along the condylion-gnathion axis, showing an extension in the regions of the mandibular condyle and ramus, and of the anteroinferior portion of the mandibular symphysis in Class III groups. More extension was evident in Class III adults. The deformations in subjects with Class III malocclusion may represent a developmental elongation of the mandible anteroposteriorly, which leads to the appearance of a prognathic mandibular profile.
Rafael Guimarães Botelho
Full Text Available This paper has the aim to investigate the subject of children’s books published in Spain dealing with Physical Education and Sport. To develop the paper, the subject analysis technique was employed. The corpus of analysis, 60 children’s books collected, can be found in the doctoral thesis Physical Education and children’s literature: applications in the scholastic environment (Botelho, 2010. The results obtained in this paper indicated that: (a 30 subjects were identified in the 60 children’s books analysed; (b the subject football presented the great incidence, with 13,33% (eight books; (c the second subject with great incidence is games, with 10,00% (six children’s books; (d the subjects ballet and running had, each one, 8,33% (five books; (e the other subjects registered an inferior incidence of 8% (with 4 or less books; (f the majority of subjects presented an incidence of 1,67% (only one children’s book. The conclusions obtained in this article indicate that: (1 from the 30 subjects identified in the 60 children’s books, the subject football had the great incidence; (2 the majority of subjects presented only one incidence.
Waehnert, Miriam D; Dinse, Juliane; Schäfer, Andreas; Geyer, Stefan; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Turner, Robert; Tardif, Christine Lucas
Structural magnetic resonance imaging can now resolve laminar features within the cerebral cortex in vivo. A variety of intracortical contrasts have been used to study the cortical myeloarchitecture with the purpose of mapping cortical areas in individual subjects. In this article, we first briefly review recent advances in MRI analysis of cortical microstructure to portray the potential and limitations of the current state-of-the-art. We then present an integrated framework for the analysis of intracortical structure, composed of novel image processing tools designed for high resolution cortical images. The main features of our framework are the segmentation of quantitative T1 maps to delineate the cortical boundaries (Bazin et al., 2014), and the use of an equivolume layering model to define an intracortical coordinate system that follows the anatomical layers of the cortex (Waehnert et al., 2014). We evaluate the framework with 150μm isotropic post mortem T2(∗)-weighted images and 0.5mm isotropic in vivo T1 maps, a quantitative index of myelin content. We study the laminar structure of the primary visual cortex (Brodmann area 17) in the post mortem and in vivo data, as well as the central sulcus region in vivo, in particular Brodmann areas 1, 3b and 4. We also investigate the impact of the layering models on the relationship between T1 and cortical curvature. Our experiments demonstrate that the equivolume intracortical surfaces and transcortical profiles best reflect the laminar structure of the cortex in areas of curvature in comparison to the state-of-the-art equidistant and Laplace implementations. This framework generates a subject specific intracortical coordinate system, the basis for subsequent architectonic analyses of the cortex. Any structural or functional contrast co-registered to the T1 maps, used to segment the cortex, can be sampled on the curved grid for analysis. This work represents an important step towards in vivo structural brain mapping
Full Text Available Correlations between values of components of subjective psychological experiences and states in 26 male football referees before the match and after the match were explored using factor analysis. For evaluation of subjective psychological experiences and states the standardized questionnaire SUPSO was used. The questionnaire was filled in twice by refer ees: before the match and immediately after the match. Four most important factors were described and named. The first factor was called "tendency to discomfort". It relates to referee ́s current mental state being probably a reflection of long - term negativ e circumstances in referee ́s life. It is neither related to the completed match, nor referee ́s temperament . The second factor was called "depression from failure" and it is connected directly to the completed match. It is probably determined by current ref eree ́s physical and mental conditions . The third and fourth factors proved to be consequences of temperament of referees. In conclusion, the two most important factors of current mental state of football referee during the game can probably be influenced b y a systematic psychological preparation . Psychological preparation should therefore become an effective part of the pre - match preparation of football referees.
Bakkum, M J; Plomp, R; Pols, L W
Objective whole-spectrum and formant analyses have been performed on all 15 Dutch vowels pronounced in /C1VC2/ words by 24 deaf and 24 normal-hearing children, in order to develop a model of pronunciation quality for evaluating (deaf) speech; the results as obtained for adult males by Bakkum et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 1989-2004 (1993)] have been verified and extended. Spectral representations of the vowels were created by determining the output levels of a bank of 16 filters (90-7200 Hz), with 1/3-oct bandwidths and logarithmic spacing of their center frequencies. Spectral differences agree well with subjective differences in pronunciation quality obtained from magnitude estimation and identification experiments. Spectral differences not related to pronunciation quality judgments arise as a consequence of physiological interspeaker differences and variation in fundamental frequency, but these differences can be compensated for by speaker-normalization and F0-compensation procedures. Using principal components analysis (PCA), the vowel spectra can be described by a limited number of dimensions, without losing much information; a description in a two-dimensional PCA subspace still agrees well with the subjective judgments and it also agrees with a description by the first two formants. The whole-spectrum approach provides a determinate, readily interpretable model of pronunciation quality for evaluating vowels. As a practical advantage, its computational requirements are modest and, in conjunction with PCA, the vowel dynamics can be visualized, which makes the approach suitable for vowel training and diagnostics.
I V Trotsuk
Full Text Available As a rule, it goes without saying that the generational analysis is one of the major tasks of sociology, which aims to diagnose the state and trends of the social development by comparing value priorities, attitudes and behavioral patterns of the age subgroups that constitute the society. Despite the lack of a common definition of ‘generation’ in the scientific discourse and the differences in its interdisciplinary interpretations researchers agree that in sociology we define ‘generation’ not so much as a demographic group of the same age, but as a certain symbolic community whose members were raised in the similar social conditions. Unfortunately, the Russian sociology adheres to the fragmented version of generational analysis focusing mainly on the youth (less often on the working population as a whole and ‘forgets’ about the elderly and children due to several reasons, but the main ones are evident in both cases - the older generations are largely ignored, and for the youngest it is difficult to choose an adequate methodological approach. The article indicates the thematic priorities of generational analysis in its sociological format (focus on the social status and symbolic features of generations rather than on the culture of childhood, which is the subject of historical research, identifies its key concepts (generation and cohort and problems, summarized the differences of the methodological approaches (primarily quantitative and qualitative and research orientations especially in the study of older ages.
Full Text Available A second-order elastic analysis of tapered steel members with I-shaped sections subjected to span distributed and concentrated loadings is developed. Fixed end forces and moments as well as exact stiffness matrix of tapered Timoshenko-Euler beam are obtained with exact geometrical properties of sections. The simultaneous action of bending moment, shear, and axial force including P−δ effects is also considered in the analysis. A computer code has been developed in MATLAB software using a power series method to solve governing second-order differential equation of equilibrium with variable coefficients for beams with distributed span loading. A generalized matrix condensation technique is then utilized for analysis of beams with concentrated span loadings. The accuracy and efficiency of the results of the proposed method are verified through comparing them to those obtained from other approaches such as finite element methods, which indicates the robustness and time saving of this method even for large scale frames with tapered members.
Li, Yongchao; Wang, Xinkun; Yao, Li
Loss of oligodendrocytes as the result of central nervous system disease causes demyelination that impairs axon function. Effective directional migration of endogenous or grafted oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to a lesion is crucial in the neural remyelination process. In this study, the migration of OPCs in electric fields (EFs) was investigated. We found that OPCs migrated anodally in applied EFs, and the directedness and displacement of anodal migration increased significantly when the EF strength increased from 50 to 200 mV/mm. However, EFs did not significantly affect the cell migration speed. The transcriptome of OPCs subjected to EF stimulation (100 and 200 mV/mm) was analyzed using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), and results were verified by the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis revealed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway that signals cell migration was significantly upregulated in cells treated with an EF of 200 mV/mm compared with control cells. Gene ontology enrichment analysis showed the downregulation of differentially expressed genes in chemotaxis. This study suggests that an applied EF is an effective cue to guiding OPC migration in neural regeneration and that transcriptional analysis contributes to the understanding of the mechanism of EF-guided cell migration. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Dasgupta, Aritra; Burrows, Susannah M.; Han, Kyungsik; Rasch, Philip J.
Scientists working in a particular domain often adhere to conventional data analysis and presentation methods and this leads to familiarity with these methods over time. But does high familiarity always lead to better analytical judgment? This question is especially relevant when visualizations are used in scientific tasks, as there can be discrepancies between visualization best practices and domain conventions. However, there is little empirical evidence of the relationships between scientists’ subjective impressions about familiar and unfamiliar visualizations and objective measures of their effect on scientific judgment. To address this gap and to study these factors, we focus on the climate science domain, specifically on visualizations used for comparison of model performance. We present a comprehensive user study with 47 climate scientists where we explored the following factors: i) relationships between scientists’ familiarity, their perceived levels of com- fort, confidence, accuracy, and objective measures of accuracy, and ii) relationships among domain experience, visualization familiarity, and post-study preference.
Mathematical Imaging is currently a rapidly growing field in applied mathematics, with an increasing need for theoretical mathematics. This book, the second of two volumes, emphasizes the role of mathematics as a rigorous basis for imaging sciences. It provides a comprehensive and convenient overview of the key mathematical concepts, notions, tools and frameworks involved in the various fields of gray-tone and binary image processing and analysis, by proposing a large, but coherent, set of symbols and notations, a complete list of subjects and a detailed bibliography. It establishes a bridg
Background This paper elucidates a methodological approach to interview text that tries to acknowledge the psychosocial nature of disability and thereby ensuring that empirical work in disability studies complements theoretical arguments already developed. Objectives The aim of this study is to outline a psychosocial conceptualisation of maternal subjectivity in relation to childhood disability and to apply this conceptualisation as an analytic tool to segments of an interview with a mother of a child with physical and developmental disabilities. Method Drawing on psychoanalysis and attachment literature alongside critical social psychology we take readers through the analysis of an interview extract with a particular mother. Through a fine grained analysis, we demonstrate the value of attending to the affective processes in and around the text rooted in the particular intersubjective exchange (‘here and how’) of the interview and the particular socio-historical context (‘there and then’) in which the mother, child and researcher are located. Findings The reading draws attention to discourses that position this particular mother and her children in particular ways while also pointing to investments in these discourses such that these discourses are not purely social but play affective functions. Conclusion This paper demonstrates the value of using multiple lenses to read the text, seeking to understand what is going on from within each lens (discursive/social, interpersonal, intrapsychic), while also seeking to disrupt this understanding as we take up the position of a different lens. This approach enables us to hold onto the complexity and locatedness of maternal subjectivity for mothers of children with disabilities. PMID:28730059
Full Text Available Aphasia can globally or selectively affect comprehension and production of verbal and written language. Discourse analysis can aid language assessment and diagnosis.Objective: To explore narratives that produce a number of valid indicators for diagnosing aphasia in speakers of Brazilian Portuguese.  To analyze the macrostructural aspects of the discourse of normal individuals.  To analyze the macrostructural aspects of the discourse of aphasic individuals.Methods:The macrostructural aspects of three narratives produced by aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects were analyzed.Results:A total of 30 volunteers were examined comprising 10 aphasic individuals (AG and 20 healthy controls (CG. The CG included 5 males. The CG had a mean age of 38.9 years (SD=15.61 and mean schooling of 13 years (SD=2.67 whereas the AG had a mean age of 51.7 years (SD=17.3 and mean schooling of 9.1 years (SD=3.69. Participants were asked to narrate three fairy tales as a basis for analyzing the macrostructure of discourse. Comparison of the three narratives revealed no statistically significant difference in number of propositions produced by the groups. A significant negative correlation was found between age and number of propositions produced. Also, statistically significant differences were observed in the number of propositions produced by the individuals in the CG and the AG for the three tales.Conclusion:It was concluded that the three tales are applicable for discourse assessment, containing a similar number of propositions and differentiating aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects based on analysis of the macrostructure of discourse.
Lisa Saville Young
Full Text Available Background: This paper elucidates a methodological approach to interview text that tries to acknowledge the psychosocial nature of disability and thereby ensuring that empirical work in disability studies complements theoretical arguments already developed.Objectives: The aim of this study is to outline a psychosocial conceptualisation of maternal subjectivity in relation to childhood disability and to apply this conceptualisation as an analytic tool to segments of an interview with a mother of a child with physical and developmental disabilities.Method: Drawing on psychoanalysis and attachment literature alongside critical social psychology we take readers through the analysis of an interview extract with a particular mother. Through a fine grained analysis, we demonstrate the value of attending to the affective processes in and around the text rooted in the particular intersubjective exchange (‘here and how’ of the interview and the particular socio-historical context (‘there and then’ in which the mother, child and researcher are located.Findings: The reading draws attention to discourses that position this particular mother and her children in particular ways while also pointing to investments in these discourses such that these discourses are not purely social but play affective functions.Conclusion: This paper demonstrates the value of using multiple lenses to read the text, seeking to understand what is going on from within each lens (discursive/social, interpersonal, intrapsychic, while also seeking to disrupt this understanding as we take up the position of a different lens. This approach enables us to hold onto the complexity and locatedness of maternal subjectivity for mothers of children with disabilities.
安藤, 淑子; 安藤, 淑子; ANDO, Yoshiko; アンドウ, ヨシコ; Ando, Yoshiko
A problem about the notation of the foreign learner includes choice of two kinds of Kana. The learner can replace vocabulary got in a spoken language with Kana. However, he/she cannot determine which one he should use. I analyzed the vocabulary test for the student of the foreigner school to know what kind of problem children of a limited vocabulary had in notation in this report. As a result, instruction about the choice of the Kana notation is indispensable for a learner in the living envir...
Visual analysis is the primary method of analyzing data in single-subject methodology, which is the predominant research method used in the fields of applied behavior analysis and special education. Previous research on the reliability of visual analysis suggests that judges often disagree about what constitutes an intervention effect. Considering…
Full Text Available Safety-Critical Java (SCJ is a version of Java whose goal is to support the development of real-time, embedded, safety-critical software. In particular, SCJ supports certification of such software by introducing abstractions that enforce a simpler architecture, and simpler concurrency and memory models. In this paper, we present SCJ-Circus, a refinement-oriented formal notation that supports the specification and verification of low-level programming models that include the new abstractions introduced by SCJ. SCJ-Circus is part of the family of state-rich process algebra Circus, as such, SCJ-Circus includes the Circus constructs for modelling sequential and concurrent behaviour, real-time and object orientation. We present here the syntax and semantics of SCJ-Circus, which is defined by mapping SCJ-Circus constructs to those of standard Circus. This is based on an existing approach for modelling SCJ programs. We also extend an existing Circus-based refinement strategy that targets SCJ programs to account for the generation of SCJ-Circus models close to implementations in SCJ.
Please see also addenda: Experimental improvisation practise and notation. Addenda 2002-: Pdf edition. (Deutsches Resumée - siehe bitte unten) (Resumé en Francais, voire ci-dessous svp.) This is an attempt to make a broad and comprehensive mapping of existing material, the vast majority being in ...... in printed form, concerning experimental improvisation practise. Bibliographical research has taken place over time, and the methods employed and steps taken are accounted for in each category. It deals with both editions and quotings of open compositions and with writings related...... to these - and with writings related to free improvisation. The bibliography comprises more than 670 entries most of which are annotated, a number of these annotations being summaries of their content. Before the "appendix section" containing the bibliographical information, there is a "text section" providing general...... published but quoted elsewhere - both in extenso and in part and one of unpublished material exemplifying some nevertheless essential and partly influential works by Danish composers. - These lists are at the basis for a discussion of publisher's policies in these matters and the role of unpublished...
Borckardt, Jeffrey J; Nash, Michael R
The behavioural data yielded by single subjects in naturalistic and controlled settings likely contain valuable information to scientists and practitioners alike. Although some of the properties unique to this data complicate statistical analysis, progress has been made in developing specialised techniques for rigorous data evaluation. There are no perfect tests currently available to analyse short autocorrelated data streams, but there are some promising approaches that warrant further development. Although many approaches have been proposed, and some appear better than others, they all have some limitations. When data sets are large enough (∼30 data points per phase), the researcher has a reasonably rich pallet of statistical tools from which to choose. However, when the data set is sparse, the analytical options dwindle. Simulation modelling analysis (SMA; described in this article) is a relatively new technique that appears to offer acceptable Type-I and Type-II error rate control with short streams of autocorrelated data. However, at this point, it is probably too early to endorse any specific statistical approaches for short, autocorrelated time-series data streams. While SMA shows promise, more work is needed to verify that it is capable of reliable Type-I and Type-II error performance with short serially dependent streams of data.
Full Text Available Information organization and subject analysis (IOSA is an important issue in the field of library and information science(LIS.As the fast advance in information technology, more and more digital documents are emerging in a pace such that automated IOSA become inevitable. This article firstly introduces the development of related automatic techniques in recent decades and promotes a tranditional viewpoint based on the workflow of:(1 data collection and aggregation, (2 cataloguing, (3 regulation, (4 archving, and (5 usage,to regulate the whole process when applying automated techniques to any IOSA task.Some application examples are then described to let the readers have a feel of the feasibility of these techniques; specifically the applications of keyword extraction, association analysis, document clustering, and topic categorization are mentioned.We conclude that the related techniques and applications are still developing in a quick pace such that only a few percentages of them can be mentioned.This article is intended to promote the mutual cooperation among the LIS and other fields.
This article is based on analysis of 4 couple's personal and public documents, in order to integrate personal choices, values and ideas with cultural representations and social attitudes. Moreover, being based on Italian sources from the nineteenth century, the study offers an historical insight on the Italian nation-building process and its political and social foundations. This study is based on archival and printed primary sources from: Gianna Maffei and Ercole Trotti Mosti (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento - Roma - MCRR); Augusto Pierantoni and Grazia Mancini (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento - Roma); Luigi Majno and Ersilia Bronzini (Archivio Unione Femminile Nazionale - Milano); Angiolo Orvieto and Laura Cantoni (Archivio Contemporaneo Bonsanti del Gabinetto Vieuesseux - Firenze - ACGV). This study reflects on love as a political and moral issue, by linking the personal sphere of subjectivity to the public dimension of the political community. An extensive understanding of the role played by the perception and the expression of sentiments can be considered as the central issue of this analysis.
Summary This article is based on analysis of 4 couple’s personal and public documents, in order to integrate personal choices, values and ideas with cultural representations and social attitudes. Moreover, being based on Italian sources from the nineteenth century, the study offers an historical insight on the Italian nation-building process and its political and social foundations. This study is based on archival and printed primary sources from: Gianna Maffei and Ercole Trotti Mosti (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento – Roma – MCRR); Augusto Pierantoni and Grazia Mancini (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento – Roma); Luigi Majno and Ersilia Bronzini (Archivio Unione Femminile Nazionale – Milano); Angiolo Orvieto and Laura Cantoni (Archivio Contemporaneo Bonsanti del Gabinetto Vieuesseux – Firenze – ACGV). This study reflects on love as a political and moral issue, by linking the personal sphere of subjectivity to the public dimension of the political community. An extensive understanding of the role played by the perception and the expression of sentiments can be considered as the central issue of this analysis. PMID:22037756
Ash, Stephen R.; Mertz, Susan L.; Ulrich, Daniel P.
The Computerized Notation System (CNS) is a portable microprocessor system designed for use in both outpatient clinics, hospital wards, and intensive care units. It can produce essentially all written communication required of both physicians and nurses, with printout at the bedside or in the clinic examining room. It is designed to ameliorate several problems which have limited direct computer entry by physicians and nurses (keyboard and processor access, marginal typing skills, lack of imme...
Puhan, Milo A; Hansel, Nadia N; Sobradillo, Patricia; Enright, Paul; Lange, Peter; Hickson, DeMarc; Menezes, Ana M; ter Riet, Gerben; Held, Ulrike; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Mosenifar, Zab; Antó, Josep M; Moons, Karel G M; Kessels, Alphons; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith
Background Little evidence on the validity of simple and widely applicable tools to predict mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exists. Objective To conduct a large international study to validate the ADO index that uses age, dyspnoea and FEV1 to predict 3-year mortality and to update it in order to make prediction of mortality in COPD patients as generalisable as possible. Design Individual subject data analysis of 10 European and American cohorts (n=13 914). Setting Population-based, primary, secondary and tertiary care. Patients COPD GOLD stages I–IV. Measurements We validated the original ADO index. We then obtained an updated ADO index in half of our cohorts to improve its predictive accuracy, which in turn was validated comprehensively in the remaining cohorts using discrimination, calibration and decision curve analysis and a number of sensitivity analyses. Results 1350 (9.7%) of all subjects with COPD (60% male, mean age 61 years, mean FEV1 66% predicted) had died at 3 years. The original ADO index showed high discrimination but poor calibration (p<0.001 for difference between predicted and observed risk). The updated ADO index (scores from 0 to 14) preserved excellent discrimination (area under curve 0.81, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.82) but showed much improved calibration with predicted 3-year risks from 0.7% (95% CI 0.6% to 0.9%, score of 0) to 64.5% (61.2% to 67.7%, score of 14). The ADO index showed higher net benefit in subjects at low-to-moderate risk of 3-year mortality than FEV1 alone. Interpretation The updated 15-point ADO index accurately predicts 3-year mortality across the COPD severity spectrum and can be used to inform patients about their prognosis, clinical trial study design or benefit harm assessment of medical interventions. PMID:23242246
Full Text Available Abstract Background The etiology of AIS remains unclear, thus various hypotheses concerning its pathomechanism have been proposed. To date, biomechanical modeling has not been used to thoroughly study the influence of the abnormal growth profile (i.e., the growth rate of the vertebral body during the growth period on the pathomechanism of curve progression in AIS. This study investigated the hypothesis that AIS progression is associated with the abnormal growth profiles of the anterior column of the spine. Methods A finite element model of the spinal column including growth dynamics was utilized. The initial geometric models were constructed from the bi-planar radiographs of a normal subject. Based on this model, five other geometric models were generated to emulate different coronal and sagittal curves. The detailed modeling integrated vertebral body growth plates and growth modulation spinal biomechanics. Ten years of spinal growth was simulated using AIS and normal growth profiles. Sequential measures of spinal alignments were compared. Results (1 Given the initial lateral deformity, the AIS growth profile induced a significant Cobb angle increase, which was roughly between three to five times larger compared to measures utilizing a normal growth profile. (2 Lateral deformities were absent in the models containing no initial coronal curvature. (3 The presence of a smaller kyphosis did not produce an increase lateral deformity on its own. (4 Significant reduction of the kyphosis was found in simulation results of AIS but not when using the growth profile of normal subjects. Conclusion Results from this analysis suggest that accelerated growth profiles may encourage supplementary scoliotic progression and, thus, may pose as a progressive risk factor.
Darwish, Mona; Kirby, Mary; Hellriegel, Edward T; Yang, Ronghua; Robertson, Philmore
Armodafinil (R-modafinil) is the R- and longer-lasting isomer of the racemic compound modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting medication. Armodafinil is eliminated approximately three times more slowly than the S-isomer of racemic modafinil. Published studies have demonstrated the efficacy of armodafinil for treating excessive sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnoea, shift work disorder and narcolepsy. The objectives of this study were to describe the pharmacokinetic profile, tolerability and safety of armodafinil in healthy subjects. Pooled pharmacokinetic data from three separate randomized studies in 119 healthy subjects who received single or multiple (once daily for up to 14 days) oral doses of armodafinil ranging between 50 and 400 mg were analysed. The impact of food on the single-dose pharmacokinetic profile of armodafinil was also assessed in subjects following an overnight fast and after the consumption of a standard fatty meal. Armodafinil was readily absorbed and exhibited linear pharmacokinetics over the 50-400 mg dose range. Peak plasma concentrations were reached around 2 hours after administration in the fasted state. Food had no effect on the overall bioavailability of armodafinil; however, the peak concentration was delayed by approximately 2-4 hours. In the multiple-dose study, dose proportionality was confirmed by linear regression analyses of the log-transformed area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values as a function of dose. After reaching the peak, plasma concentrations of armodafinil declined in a monophasic manner, with a mean elimination half-life of approximately 15 hours. Steady state appeared to be reached within 7 days. At steady state, the systemic exposure to armodafinil was 1.8 times that observed after single-dose administration. Armodafinil was generally well tolerated, the most frequent adverse events being headache, dizziness and nausea. In the present
Nakhleh, Morad K; Amal, Haitham; Jeries, Raneen; Broza, Yoav Y; Aboud, Manal; Gharra, Alaa; Ivgi, Hodaya; Khatib, Salam; Badarneh, Shifaa; Har-Shai, Lior; Glass-Marmor, Lea; Lejbkowicz, Izabella; Miller, Ariel; Badarny, Samih; Winer, Raz; Finberg, John; Cohen-Kaminsky, Sylvia; Perros, Frédéric; Montani, David; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Simonneau, Gérald; Nakhoul, Farid; Baram, Shira; Salim, Raed; Hakim, Marwan; Gruber, Maayan; Ronen, Ohad; Marshak, Tal; Doweck, Ilana; Nativ, Ofer; Bahouth, Zaher; Shi, Da-You; Zhang, Wei; Hua, Qing-Ling; Pan, Yue-Yin; Tao, Li; Liu, Hu; Karban, Amir; Koifman, Eduard; Rainis, Tova; Skapars, Roberts; Sivins, Armands; Ancans, Guntis; Liepniece-Karele, Inta; Kikuste, Ilze; Lasina, Ieva; Tolmanis, Ivars; Johnson, Douglas; Millstone, Stuart Z; Fulton, Jennifer; Wells, John W; Wilf, Larry H; Humbert, Marc; Leja, Marcis; Peled, Nir; Haick, Hossam
We report on an artificially intelligent nanoarray based on molecularly modified gold nanoparticles and a random network of single-walled carbon nanotubes for noninvasive diagnosis and classification of a number of diseases from exhaled breath. The performance of this artificially intelligent nanoarray was clinically assessed on breath samples collected from 1404 subjects having one of 17 different disease conditions included in the study or having no evidence of any disease (healthy controls). Blind experiments showed that 86% accuracy could be achieved with the artificially intelligent nanoarray, allowing both detection and discrimination between the different disease conditions examined. Analysis of the artificially intelligent nanoarray also showed that each disease has its own unique breathprint, and that the presence of one disease would not screen out others. Cluster analysis showed a reasonable classification power of diseases from the same categories. The effect of confounding clinical and environmental factors on the performance of the nanoarray did not significantly alter the obtained results. The diagnosis and classification power of the nanoarray was also validated by an independent analytical technique, i.e., gas chromatography linked with mass spectrometry. This analysis found that 13 exhaled chemical species, called volatile organic compounds, are associated with certain diseases, and the composition of this assembly of volatile organic compounds differs from one disease to another. Overall, these findings could contribute to one of the most important criteria for successful health intervention in the modern era, viz. easy-to-use, inexpensive (affordable), and miniaturized tools that could also be used for personalized screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of a number of diseases, which can clearly be extended by further development.
Full Text Available For a significant period of time biographical research did not focus on the influence of discourses on biographical narratives. In contrast, discourse analysis often disregarded the subject-constituting impact of discourses. This article deals with the theoretical question of how to work with both: discourse and subject. Therefore, I will introduce Stuart HALL's concept of articulation. Since the early 1990's HALL has been working on questions of (cultural identity. In this context he developed an understanding of subjects that enables them not only to be seen as effects of discourses, but also allows focusing on discourses in subject conceptions. Neither biographical research nor discourse analysis In German speaking countries have embraced the work of HALL. But his concept of articulation could link biographical research and discourse analysis, and could also be used for further empirical work. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902369
Conn, Vicki S; Ruppar, Todd M; Enriquez, Maithe; Cooper, Pam
Inadequate medication adherence is a pervasive, under-recognized cause of poor health outcomes. Many intervention trials designed to improve medication adherence have targeted adults with adherence problems. No previous reviews have synthesized the effectiveness of medication adherence interventions focused on subjects with medication adherence difficulties. This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized findings from medication adherence intervention studies conducted among adults with medication adherence difficulties. Primary research studies were eligible for inclusion if they tested an intervention designed to increase medication adherence among adults with documented adherence difficulties and reported medication adherence behavior outcomes. Comprehensive search strategies of 13 computerized databases, author and ancestry searches, and hand searches of 57 journals were used to locate eligible primary research. Participant demographics, intervention characteristics, and methodological features were reliably coded from reports along with medication adherence outcomes. Effect sizes for outcomes were calculated as standardized mean differences, and random effects models were used to estimate overall mean effects. Exploratory dichotomous and continuous variable moderator analyses were employed to examine potential associations between medication adherence effect size and sample, intervention, and methodological characteristics. Data were extracted from 53 reports of studies involving 8243 individual primary study participants. The overall standardized mean difference effect size for treatment vs. control subjects was 0.301. For treatment pre- vs. post-intervention comparisons, the overall effect size was 0.533. Significantly larger effect sizes were associated with interventions incorporating prompts to take medications than interventions lacking medication prompts (0.497 vs. 0.234). Larger effect sizes were also found for interventions that linked
Conn, Vicki S.; Ruppar, Todd M.; Enriquez, Maithe; Cooper, Pam
Background Inadequate medication adherence is a pervasive, under-recognized cause of poor health outcomes. Many intervention trials designed to improve medication adherence have targeted adults with adherence problems. No previous reviews have synthesized the effectiveness of medication adherence interventions focused on subjects with medication adherence difficulties. Objective This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized findings from medication adherence intervention studies conducted among adults with medication adherence difficulties. Methods Primary research studies were eligible for inclusion if they tested an intervention designed to increase medication adherence among adults with documented adherence difficulties and reported medication adherence behavior outcomes. Comprehensive search strategies of 13 computerized databases, author and ancestry searches, and hand searches of 57 journals were used to locate eligible primary research. Participant demographics, intervention characteristics, and methodological features were reliably coded from reports along with medication adherence outcomes. Effect sizes for outcomes were calculated as standardized mean differences, and random effects models were used to estimate overall mean effects. Exploratory dichotomous and continuous variable moderator analyses were employed to examine potential associations between medication adherence effect size and sample, intervention, and methodological characteristics. Results Data were extracted from 53 reports of studies involving 8,243 individual primary study participants. The overall standardized mean difference effect size for treatment vs. control subjects was 0.301. For treatment pre- vs. post-intervention comparisons, the overall effect size was 0.533. Significantly larger effect sizes were associated with interventions incorporating prompts to take medications than interventions lacking medication prompts (0.497 vs. 0.234). Larger effect sizes were also found
Meireles, Marion Schneider; Wazlawik, Elisabeth; Bastos, João Luiz; Garcia, Monique Ferreira
Nutritional risk and malnutrition are highly prevalent among hospitalized patients. As a result, several methods have been developed to produce an adequate nutritional diagnosis. We aimed to assess the relationship between nutritional risk tools and parameters derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis with a Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to September 2010. The study included 124 patients admitted to the Surgical Clinic I, University Hospital, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil, to undergo elective surgery. We utilized SGA and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002), Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), Fat-Free Mass Index (FFMI), Fat Mass Index (FMI), body cell mass as a percentage of the total weight (%BCM), and standardized phase angle (SPA). The agreement was tested by κ coefficient, while bivariate associations were tested by Mann-Whitney U test. Prevalence of nutritional risk by NRS 2002 and NRI or malnutrition by SGA, FFMI, FMI, %BCM, and SPA was 19.3%, 69.5%, 35.5%, 12.9%, 8.1%, 46.8%, and 4.8%, respectively. The best agreement was between SGA and NRS 2002 (κ=.490), possibly because they constitute similar instruments. Patients identified as malnourished by SGA (B+C) showed considerably lower values of FFMI, FMI, BCM, and SPA. The results suggest that the NRS 2002 and parameters derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis identify patients with impaired nutritional status. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Entezari, A.; Filippi, M.; Carrera, E.
This paper is focused on the analysis of complex rotating structures subjected to plausible operating conditions. Effects of the temperature gradient and the centrifugal stiffening contribution have been evaluated. In particular, the analyses have been performed considering disks with constant and variable thicknesses, which have been assumed either clamped at the bore or supported by a deformable shaft. The prestress contributions have been obtained through the integration of the three-dimensional stress state, which is generated by centrifugal and thermal loads, multiplied by the non-linear terms of the strain field. The weak form of the governing equations has been solved using the Finite Element method. High-fidelity one-dimensional elements have been developed according to the Carrera Unified Formulation. The comparisons between the current results and those obtained from solid finite element solutions have demonstrated that the proposed methodology can represent a valuable alternative to the three-dimensional modelling technique by ensuring a comparable accuracy with a lower computational effort.
A.S.M. Ayman Ashab
Full Text Available The mechanical behavior of aluminum hexagonal honeycombs subjected to out-of-plane dynamic indentation and compression loads has been investigated numerically using ANSYS/LS-DYNA in this paper. The finite element (FE models have been verified by previous experimental results in terms of deformation pattern, stress-strain curve, and energy dissipation. The verified FE models have then been used in comprehensive numerical analysis of different aluminum honeycombs. Plateau stress, σpl, and dissipated energy (EI for indentation and EC for compression have been calculated at different strain rates ranging from 102 to 104 s−1. The effects of strain rate and t/l ratio on the plateau stress, dissipated energy, and tearing energy have been discussed. An empirical formula is proposed to describe the relationship between the tearing energy per unit fracture area, relative density, and strain rate for honeycombs. Moreover, it has been found that a generic formula can be used to describe the relationship between tearing energy per unit fracture area and relative density for both aluminum honeycombs and foams.
Hawileh, Rami A.; Rasheed, Hayder A.
This paper presents a numerical study that investigates the behavior of continuous concrete decks doubly reinforced with top and bottom glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars subjected to top surface fire. A finite element (FE) model is developed and a detailed transient thermal analysis is performed on a continuous concrete bridge deck under the effect of various fire curves. A parametric study is performed to examine the top cover thickness and the critical fire exposure curve needed to fully degrade the top GFRP bars while achieving certain fire ratings for the deck considered. Accordingly, design tables are prepared for each fire curve to guide the engineer to properly size the top concrete cover and maintain the temperature in the GFRP bars below critical design values in order to control the full top GFRP degradation. It is notable to indicate that degradation of top GFRP bars do not pose a collapse hazard but rather a serviceability concern since cracks in the negative moment region widen resulting in simply supported spans.
Martínez-Sánchez, F; Meilán, J J G; García-Sevilla, J; Carro, J; Arana, J M
Many studies highlight that an impaired ability to communicate is one of the key clinical features of Alzheimer disease (AD). To study temporal organisation of speech in an oral reading task in patients with AD and in matched healthy controls using a semi-automatic method, and evaluate that method's ability to discriminate between the 2 groups. A test with an oral reading task was administered to 70 subjects, comprising 35 AD patients and 35 controls. Before speech samples were recorded, participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. There were no differences between groups with regard to age, sex, or educational level. All of the study variables showed impairment in the AD group. According to the results, AD patients' oral reading was marked by reduced speech and articulation rates, low effectiveness of phonation time, and increases in the number and proportion of pauses. Signal processing algorithms applied to reading fluency recordings were shown to be capable of differentiating between AD patients and controls with an accuracy of 80% (specificity 74.2%, sensitivity 77.1%) based on speech rate. Analysis of oral reading fluency may be useful as a tool for the objective study and quantification of speech deficits in AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Juárez-Vega, Guillermo; Rangel-Ramírez, Velia; Monsiváis-Urenda, Adriana; Niño-Moreno, Perla; Garcia-Sepúlveda, Christian; Noyola, Daniel E; González-Amaro, Roberto
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in children and young adults has been associated with changes in the innate immune system. We herein analyzed the possible effect of very long term HCMV infection on the expression of several NK cell receptors. Ninety HCMV-seropositive individuals were included and classified as young adults (n=30), elderly (n=30) and very elderly subjects (n=30). A peripheral blood sample was obtained and the expression of NK cell receptors (NKG2A, NKG2C, ILT2, CD161, KIR2DL1, KIR3DL1, and KIR3DL2) by NK and other lymphocyte subsets was assessed by flow cytometry. In addition, the frequency of the sixteen KIR genes was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. We found a significant increase in the number of NKG2C+ NK and T cells in elderly individuals compared to young adults accompanied by an opposite trend in the number of NKG2A+ lymphocytes, and ILT2+ cells were also increased in elderly individuals. A significant increase in the levels of CD3-CD56+NKG2C+CD57+ cells was also detected in the elderly groups. Finally, KIR gene analysis revealed that the KIR genotype 2 was significantly less frequent in the elderly individuals. Our results support that long-term infection by HCMV exerts a significant progressive effect on the innate immune system. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cioni, R; Giannini, F; Paradiso, C; Battistini, N; Denoth, F; Navona, C; Starita, A
40 healthy volunteers (20 males and 20 females) have been studied by an automatic analysis of their surface EMG. The power density spectrum (PDS) of the electromyographic signal, derived from the tibialis anterior muscle, was used to evaluate the RMS values of the EMG developed during maximal voluntary (Vc) and evoked (Vm) contractions. The ratios between Vc, calculated over each of 5 frequency bands (5-15, 20-40, 45-70, 75-110, 115-160 Hz), and the total Vc have also been calculated. No significant differences emerge in the Vm values for males and females, whereas the Vc values for female subjects are found to be significantly reduced (P less than 0.001) with respect to the corresponding values for males. Significant differences have also been found concerning the percentage distribution of power in the above mentioned frequency bands for men and women (P less than 0.001). It can thus, be hypothesized that there are two different modalities of motor unit recruitment and that different sociological and cultural traditions may be more important in producing these differences than sexually determined physiological differences.
Full Text Available An experimental and numerical analysis on the martensitic transformation in AISI 304 steel sheets subjected to perforation by conical and hemispherical projectiles is reported. Two target thicknesses are considered, 0.5 and 1.0 mm, and impact velocities range from 35 to 200 m/s. The perforation mechanisms are identified and the effect of the projectile nose-shape on the ability of the target for energy absorption is evaluated. Martensite has been detected in all the impacted samples and the role played by the projectile nose-shape on the transformation is highlighted. A 3D model implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit allowed to simulate the perforation tests. The material is defined through a constitutive description developed by the authors to describe the strain induced martensitic transformation taking place in metastable austenitic steels at high strain rates. The numerical results are compared with the experimental evidence and satisfactory matching is obtained. The numerical model succeeds in describing the perforation mechanisms associated to each projectile-target configuration analysed.
Full Text Available Annoying building floor vibrations have become a serious serviceability issue. This is mainly due to decrease in the system mass resulting from the use of higher strength materials; use of computer-assisted design and the Load and Resistance Factor Design Method to optimize the structure based on the strength requirements; fewer partitions and more innovative designs by architects achieving long, column free spans resulting in a reduction in the natural frequency and damping. This paper provides details of the vibration analysis and design of a novel office building. Three-dimensional computer models of the structure were created and various modifications were made to the original structure, designed based on static loads, to reduce the possible excessive floor vibrations when subjected to walking excitations. Tuned mass dampers were also designed as a back-up vibration control system. A series of dynamic tests were conducted on the building floor to identify the dynamic properties of the structure and these were then used to update the original computer model. Finally, various forcing functions representing human walks and the updated computer model of the structure were used to evaluate the accuracy of the walking excitation force models to predict the structural response. Conclusions are made on the validity of each forcing function studied here.
Shi, Xiuqin; Xue, Wenhua; Liang, Shuhong; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Xiaojian
According to previous meta-analyses, coffee consumption reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Whether caffeine, the key ingredient in coffee, has a beneficial effect on the glycemic homeostasis and the anti-diabetic effect is particularly controversial. The aim of this study was to summarize the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on insulin sensitivity in healthy men. A comprehensive literature search for papers published before April 2016 was conducted in EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effect of caffeine on insulin sensitivity in healthy humans without diabetes were included. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.3. The search yielded 7 RCTs in which caffeine intake was the single variant. Compared with placebo, caffeine intake significantly decreased the insulin sensitivity index, with a standardized mean difference of -2.06 (95% confidence interval -2.67 to -1.44, I2 = 49%, P for heterogeneity = 0.06). Acute caffeine ingestion reduces insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. Thus, in the short term, caffeine might shift glycemic homeostasis toward hyperglycemia. Long-term trials investigating the role of caffeine in the anti-diabetic effect of coffee are needed.
Full Text Available This study is a corpus-based lexical analysis of subject-specific university textbooks which purports to explore lexical text coverage and frequency distribution of words from the Academic Word List and the British National Corpus frequency-based word families. For this study a 508,802-word corpus was created, the findings of which reflect that the Academic Word List word families constitute only a small coverage (6.5% of the words in the entire corpus, whereas the first two thousand high-frequency word families give the coverage of 88.92%. In terms of the text coverage, the results reveal that if 98% coverage of a text is needed for unassisted comprehension, then a vocabulary size of 9000 word families is required. The results also substantiate the claims that the Academic Word List is not as general an academic vocabulary as it was initially intended to be and, more importantly, supports the assumption that students need a more restricted core academic vocabulary. It is therefore argued that 127 academic word families which are relatively frequent in the overall university textbook corpus can be used as a part of the university word list for second-year English majors who have to read and comprehend university textbooks.
Hawileh, Rami A.; Rasheed, Hayder A.
This paper presents a numerical study that investigates the behavior of continuous concrete decks doubly reinforced with top and bottom glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars subjected to top surface fire. A finite element (FE) model is developed and a detailed transient thermal analysis is performed on a continuous concrete bridge deck under the effect of various fire curves. A parametric study is performed to examine the top cover thickness and the critical fire exposure curve needed to fully degrade the top GFRP bars while achieving certain fire ratings for the deck considered. Accordingly, design tables are prepared for each fire curve to guide the engineer to properly size the top concrete cover and maintain the temperature in the GFRP bars below critical design values in order to control the full top GFRP degradation. It is notable to indicate that degradation of top GFRP bars do not pose a collapse hazard but rather a serviceability concern since cracks in the negative moment region widen resulting in simply supported spans.
Cavallari, Michele; Stamile, Claudio; Umeton, Renato; Calimeri, Francesco; Orzi, Francesco
Morphological analysis of the retinal vessels by fundoscopy provides noninvasive means for detecting and staging systemic microvascular damage. However, full exploitation of fundoscopy in clinical settings is limited by paucity of quantitative, objective information obtainable through the observer-driven evaluations currently employed in routine practice. Here, we report on the development of a semiautomated, computer-based method to assess retinal vessel morphology. The method allows simultaneous and operator-independent quantitative assessment of arteriole-to-venule ratio, tortuosity index, and mean fractal dimension. The method was implemented in two conditions known for being associated with retinal vessel changes: hypertensive retinopathy and Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). The results showed that our approach is effective in detecting and quantifying the retinal vessel abnormalities. Arteriole-to-venule ratio, tortuosity index, and mean fractal dimension were altered in the subjects with hypertensive retinopathy or CADASIL with respect to age- and gender-matched controls. The interrater reliability was excellent for all the three indices (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 85%). The method represents simple and highly reproducible means for discriminating pathological conditions characterized by morphological changes of retinal vessels. The advantages of our method include simultaneous and operator-independent assessment of different parameters and improved reliability of the measurements.
Full Text Available Morphological analysis of the retinal vessels by fundoscopy provides noninvasive means for detecting and staging systemic microvascular damage. However, full exploitation of fundoscopy in clinical settings is limited by paucity of quantitative, objective information obtainable through the observer-driven evaluations currently employed in routine practice. Here, we report on the development of a semiautomated, computer-based method to assess retinal vessel morphology. The method allows simultaneous and operator-independent quantitative assessment of arteriole-to-venule ratio, tortuosity index, and mean fractal dimension. The method was implemented in two conditions known for being associated with retinal vessel changes: hypertensive retinopathy and Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL. The results showed that our approach is effective in detecting and quantifying the retinal vessel abnormalities. Arteriole-to-venule ratio, tortuosity index, and mean fractal dimension were altered in the subjects with hypertensive retinopathy or CADASIL with respect to age- and gender-matched controls. The interrater reliability was excellent for all the three indices (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 85%. The method represents simple and highly reproducible means for discriminating pathological conditions characterized by morphological changes of retinal vessels. The advantages of our method include simultaneous and operator-independent assessment of different parameters and improved reliability of the measurements.
Harne, Ryan L.; Goodpaster, Benjamin A.
Structural components susceptible to adverse, post-buckled dynamic behaviors have long challenged the success of applications requiring lightweight, slender curved structures, while researchers have begun to leverage such bistable systems in emerging applications for novel energy attenuation and shape-changing properties. To expedite development and deployment of these built-up platforms containing post-buckled constituents, efficient approaches are required to complement time-consuming full-field models in the prediction of the near- and far-from-equilibrium dynamics. This research meets the need by introducing a semi-analytical model framework to enable the characterization of steady-state responses in multi degree-of-freedom (DOF) and multistable structural systems subjected to harmonic excitation. In so doing, the pathway for assessing impedance measures is created here so as to identify how energy travels and returns within built-up multistable structures. Verified by simulations and qualitatively validated by experiments, the analysis is shown to accurately reproduce both near- and far-from-equilibrium responses including different classes of energetic snap-through dynamics that only exist in such multistable structures. A first look at the impedance measures of different dynamic regimes reveals a connection between damping in multistable structures and the sustainability of far-from-equilibrium oscillations.
N. V. Litvinenko
Full Text Available The highest value for the philosophical problems of education should consider introducing within the philosophical foundations of marketing management methodology for systematic consideration of education as a social subjectobject process, which is based on needs. Philosophy of Education in the face of marketing philosophy and management philosophy got a good theoretical and methodological framework for the synthesis of market interpretations educational development and the development of fundamental issues about the role of education in postindustrial society as a generator of social development. The main aspect of marketing regulation of educational realm of the public institutions today is to improve the quality of education as a basis for the growth of human potential. In determining the directions of philosophical and educational analysis of marketing management in education must be taken into account and general methodological integrative relations philosophy, philosophy of education, philosophy, management and marketing philosophy and substantive features of marketing management, by sociocultural specificity of the educational sphere. Paradigmatic status of philosophy of education in relation to marketing management in education programming it appears in forms of social activities are implemented through educational transformation in determining the paradigmatic foundations of strategic management of education, and many other determining influence.
Wang, Xueding; Xu, Guan; Tian, Chao; Wan, Shanshan; Welling, Theodore H.; Lok, Anna S. F.; Rubin, Jonathan M.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease affecting 30% of the population in the United States. Biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing NAFLD. Liver histology assesses the amount of fat, and determines type and extent of cell injury, inflammation and fibrosis. However, liver biopsy is invasive and is limited by sampling error. Current radiological diagnostic modalities can evaluate the 'physical' morphology in liver by quantifying the backscattered US signals, but cannot interrogate the 'histochemical' components forming these backscatterers. For example, ultrasound (US) imaging can detect the presence of fat but cannot differentiate steatosis alone from steatohepatitis. Our previous study of photoacoustic physiochemical analysis (PAPCA) has demonstrated that this method can characterize the histological changes in livers during the progression of NAFLD in animal models. In this study, we will further validate PAPCA with human livers. Ex vivo human liver samples with steatosis, fibrosis and cirrhosis will be scanned using optical illumination at wavelengths of 680-1700 nm and compared to histology results. In vivo study on human subjects with confirmed steatosis is planned using our PA-ultrasound (US) parallel imaging system based on Verasonic US imaging flatform with an L7-4 probe. 10 mJ/cm2 per pulse optical energy at 755 nm will be delivered to the skin surface, which is under the safety limit of American National Standard Institute. Preliminary study with ex vivo human tissue has demonstrated the potential of the proposed approach in differentiating human liver conditions.
Lin, Feng; Li, Hong Zhi [Dept. Structural Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)
Nuclear power plants under expansion and under construction in China are mostly located in coastal areas, which means they are at risk of suffering strong earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis. This paper presents a safety analysis for a new reinforced concrete containment vessel in such events. A finite element method-based model was built, verified, and first used to understand the seismic performance of the containment vessel under earthquakes with increased intensities. Then, the model was used to assess the safety performance of the containment vessel subject to an earthquake with peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.56g and subsequent tsunamis with increased inundation depths, similar to the 2011 Great East earthquake and tsunami in Japan. Results indicated that the containment vessel reached Limit State I (concrete cracking) and Limit State II (concrete crushing) when the PGAs were in a range of 0.8–1.1g and 1.2–1.7g, respectively. The containment vessel reached Limit State I with a tsunami inundation depth of 10 m after suffering an earthquake with a PGA of 0.56g. A site-specific hazard assessment was conducted to consider the likelihood of tsunami sources.
Scheuerlein, Hubert; Rauchfuss, Falk; Dittmar, Yves; Molle, Rüdiger; Lehmann, Torsten; Pienkos, Nicole; Settmacher, Utz
Clinical pathways (CP) are nowadays used in numerous institutions, but their real impact is still a matter of debate. The optimal design of a clinical pathway remains unclear and is mainly determined by the expectations of the individual institution. The purpose of the here described pilot project was the development of two CP (colon and rectum carcinoma) according to Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) and Tangible Business Process Modeling (t.BPM). BPMN is an established standard for business process modelling in industry and economy. It is, in the broadest sense, a computer programme which enables the description and a relatively easy graphical imaging of complex processes. t.BPM is a modular construction system of the BPMN symbols which enables the creation of an outline or raw model, e.g. by placing the symbols on a spread-out paper sheet. The thus created outline can then be transferred to the computer and further modified as required. CP for the treatment of colon and rectal cancer have been developed with support of an external IT coach. The pathway was developed in an interdisciplinary and interprofessional manner (55 man-days over 15 working days). During this time, necessary interviews with medical, nursing and administrative staffs were conducted as well. Both pathways were developed parallel. Subsequent analysis was focussed on feasibility, expenditure, clarity and suitability for daily clinical practice. The familiarization with BPMN was relatively quick and intuitive. The use of t.BPM enabled the pragmatic, effective and results-directed creation of outlines for the CP. The development of both CP was finished from the diagnostic evaluation to the adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapy and rehabilitation phase. The integration of checklists, guidelines and important medical or other documents is easily accomplished. A direct integration into the hospital computer system is currently not possible for technical reasons. BPMN and t.BPM are sufficiently
The present status and subjects on thermal-hydraulic analysis for next-generation light water reactors (LWRs) with passive safety systems were summarized based on survey results and discussion by subcommittee on improvement of reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis codes under nuclear code committee in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This survey was performed to promote the research of improvement of reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis codes in future. In the first part of this report, the status and subjects on system analysis and those on evaluation of passive safety system performance are summarized for various types of reactor proposed before. In the second part, the status and subjects on multidimensional two-phase flow analysis are reviewed, since the multidimensional analysis was recognized as one of most important subjects through the investigation in the first part. Besides, databases for bubbly flow and annular dispersed flow were explored, those are needed to assess and verify each multidimensional analytical method. The contents in this report are the forefront of thermal-hydraulic analysis for LWRs and those include current findings for the development of multidimensional two-phase flow analytical method. Thus, we expect that the contents can offer various useful information against the improvement of reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis codes in future. (author)
Leydesdorff, L.; Opthof, T.
Citation analysis of documents retrieved from the Medline database (at the Web of Knowledge) has been possible only on a case-by-case basis. A technique is presented here for citation analysis in batch mode using both Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) at the Web of Knowledge and the Science Citation
Yamauchi, Akihito; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Nito, Takaharu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Tayama, Niro
Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to analyze longitudinal data from high-speed digital images in normative subjects using multi-line kymography. Method: Vocally healthy subjects were divided into young (9 men and 17 women; M[subscript age] = 27 years) and older groups (8 men and 12 women; M[subscript age] = 73 years). From high-speed…
Parsinejad, Payam; Sipahi, Rifat
In this article, we report results on an experimental study conducted with volunteer subjects playing a touch-screen game with two unique difficulty levels. Subjects have knowledge about the rules of both game levels, but only sufficient playing experience with the easy level of the game, making them vulnerable with the difficult level. Several behavioral metrics associated with subjects' playing the game are studied in order to assess subjects' mental-workload changes induced by their vulnerability. Specifically, these metrics are calculated based on subjects' finger kinematics and decision making times, which are then compared with baseline metrics, namely, performance metrics pertaining to how well the game is played and a physiological metric called pnn50 extracted from heart rate measurements. In balanced experiments and supported by comparisons with baseline metrics, it is found that some of the studied behavioral metrics have the potential to be used to infer subjects' mental workload changes through different levels of the game. These metrics, which are decoupled from task specifics, relate to subjects' ability to develop strategies to play the game, and hence have the advantage of offering insight into subjects' task-load and vulnerability assessment across various experimental settings.
Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge; Mysling, Peter
This work investigates a novel way of looking at the regions in the brain and their relationship as possible markers to classify normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and Alzheimer Disease (AD) subjects. MRI scans from a subset of 101 subjects from the ADNI study at baseline was used...
Shiffman, Saul; And Others
Studies of smoking relapse and temptation have relied on retrospective recall and confounded between- and within-subject variability. Real-time data on temptations and lapses to smoke were gathered using palm-top computers in 108 ex-smokers. Made within-subject comparisons of initial lapse, a temptation episode, and base rate data obtained through…
Cui, Ruofei; Zhang, Ming; Li, Zengyong; Xin, Qing; Lu, Liqian; Zhou, Weiei; Han, Qingyu; Gao, Yuanjin
This study aims to assess the relationship between spontaneous oscillations in changes in cerebral tissue oxyhemoglobin concentrations (Delta [HbO2]) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals in healthy elderly subjects during the resting state using wavelet coherence analysis. Continuous recordings of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and ABP signals were obtained from simultaneous measurements in 33 healthy elderly subjects (age: 70.7±7.9 years) and 27 young subjects (age: 25.2±3.7 years) during the resting state. The coherence between Delta [HbO2] and ABP oscillations in six frequency intervals (I, 0.4-2 Hz; II, 0.15-0.4 Hz; III, 0.05-0.15 Hz; IV, 0.02-0.05 Hz, V, 0.005-0.0095 Hz and VI, 0.005-0.0095 Hz) was analyzed using wavelet coherence analysis. In elderly subjects, the Delta [HbO2] and ABP oscillations were significantly wavelet coherent in interval I, and wavelet phase coherent in intervals I, II and IV. The wavelet coherence in interval I was significantly higher (p=0.040), in elderly subjects than in young subjects whereas that in interval V significantly lower (p=0.015). In addition, the wavelet phase coherence in interval IV was significantly higher in elderly subjects than in young subjects (p=0.028). The difference in the wavelet coherence of the elderly subjects and the young subjects indicates an altered cerebral autoregulation caused by aging. This study provides new insight into the dynamics of Delta [HbO2] and ABP oscillations and may be useful in identifying the risk for dynamic cerebral autoregulation processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Coid, Jeremy W.; Ullrich, Simone; Bebbington, Paul; Fazel, Seena; Keers, Robert
There is controversy whether associations between psychosis and violence are due to coexisting substance misuse and factors increasing risk in nonpsychotic persons. Recent studies in clinical samples have implicated independent effects of paranoid delusions. Research findings suggest that individual psychotic-like-experiences on the psychosis continuum in the general population are associated with violence; it remains unclear whether this association is due to psychiatric comorbidity. We pooled data from 7 UK general population surveys (n = 23 444) and conducted a meta-analysis of individual subject data. Further meta-analyses were performed to identify heterogeneity. Main exposure variables: 5 psychotic-like-experiences and a categorical measure of psychosis. Comorbidity was established through standardized self-report instruments. Information was collected on violence, severity, victims. Paranoid ideation was associated with violence (AOR 2.26, 95% CI 1.75–2.91), severity and frequency, even when controlling for effects of other psychotic-like-experiences. Associations were not explained by comorbid conditions, including substance dependence. Psychotic disorder was associated with violence and injury to the perpetrator but associations were explained by paranoid ideation. Individual associations between hypomania, thought insertion, hallucinations, and violence were nonsignificant after adjustments, and significantly associated only when comorbid with antisocial personality disorder. Strange experiences were only associated with intimate partner violence. Paranoid ideation on a psychosis-continuum in the general population was associated with violence. All other associations were explained by comorbidity. Further investigation should determine whether paranoid ideation among persons in the community require preventive interventions, similar to those presenting to mental health services. Nevertheless, risks are considerably increased for psychotic
Weiss, S; LaStayo, P; Mills, A; Bramlet, D
Predisposing factors contributing to the development of first carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis include an inherent laxity or incongruency of this joint, a shallow trapezium saddle, and heavy stresses placed on the joint with pinching and grasping. Splinting is a common mode of conservative treatment for CMC osteoarthritis. This study assessed the objective and subjective responses of patients with CMC osteoarthritis who wore short and long opponens splints, as well as radiographic changes associated with wearing of the splints. The study evaluated 26 hands. Each patient was assigned at random to wear the long or the short splint first. Patients wore the splints for one week. They then documented function in their splints (on 22 activities of daily living) and rated splint satisfaction and pain levels on visual analog scales. One week after application of the first splint, the second splint was applied and worn for one week, and all measures were repeated. On the final visit, tip pinches were evaluated and x-rays were taken to assess subluxation. One-way repeated-measure analysis and paired comparison were used to analyze the pinch, pain, radiographic, and splint-rating measures. Descriptive statistics were used to assess activity-of-daily-living function and splint preference. Both splints appear to reduce subluxation at the first CMC joint in patients with grades 1 and 2 osteoarthritis. The majority of the patients picked the short splint when asked at the end of the study which splint they preferred. The splints do not appear to increase pinch strength or affect pain levels associated with the performance of pinch strength measurements. This study supports anecdotal evidence that patients with CMC osteoarthritis get pain relief with splinting.
Xu, Lei; Zhai, Wanming
This paper devotes to develop a computational model for stochastic analysis and reliability assessment of vehicle-track systems subject to earthquakes and track random irregularities. In this model, the earthquake is expressed as non-stationary random process simulated by spectral representation and random function, and the track random irregularities with ergodic properties on amplitudes, wavelengths and probabilities are characterized by a track irregularity probabilistic model, and then the number theoretical method (NTM) is applied to effectively select representative samples of earthquakes and track random irregularities. Furthermore, a vehicle-track coupled model is presented to obtain the dynamic responses of vehicle-track systems due to the earthquakes and track random irregularities at time-domain, and the probability density evolution method (PDEM) is introduced to describe the evolutionary process of probability from excitation input to response output by assuming the vehicle-track system as a probabilistic conservative system, which lays the foundation on reliability assessment of vehicle-track systems. The effectiveness of the proposed model is validated by comparing to the results of Monte-Carlo method from statistical viewpoint. As an illustrative example, the random vibrations of a high-speed railway vehicle running on the track slabs excited by lateral seismic waves and track random irregularities are analyzed, from which some significant conclusions can be drawn, e.g., track irregularities will additionally promote the dynamic influence of earthquakes especially on maximum values and dispersion degree of responses; the characteristic frequencies or frequency ranges respectively governed by earthquakes and track random irregularities are greatly different, moreover, the lateral seismic waves will dominate or even change the characteristic frequencies of system responses of some lateral dynamic indices at low frequency.
Full Text Available Introduction: Anthropometric proportions and symmetry are considered determinants of beauty. These parameters have significant importance in facial plastic surgery, particularly in rhinoplasty. As the central organ of the face, the nose is especially important in determining facial symmetry, both through the perception of a crooked nose and through the determination of facial growth. The evaluation of the presence of facial asymmetry has great relevance preoperatively, both for surgical planning and counseling. Aim/Objective: To evaluate and document the presence of facial asymmetry in patients during rhinoplasty planning and to correlate the anthropometric measures with the perception of facial symmetry or asymmetry, assessing whether there is a higher prevalence of facial asymmetry in these patients compared to volunteers without nasal complaints. Methods: This prospective study was performed by comparing photographs of patients with rhinoplasty planning and volunteers (controls, n = 201, and by evaluating of anthropometric measurements taken from a line passing through the center of the face, until tragus, medial canthus, corner side wing margin, and oral commissure of each side, by statistical analysis (Z test and odds ratio. Results: None of the patients or volunteers had completely symmetric values. Subjectively, 59% of patients were perceived as asymmetric, against 54% of volunteers. Objectively, more than 89% of respondents had asymmetrical measures. Patients had greater RLMTr (MidLine Tragus Ratio asymmetry than volunteers, which was statistically significant. Discussion/Conclusion: Facial asymmetries are very common in patients seeking rhinoplasty, and special attention should be paid to these aspects both for surgical planning and for counseling of patients.
Cundiff, Jenny M; Matthews, Karen A
Both social stratification (e.g., social rank) as well as economic resources (e.g., income) are thought to contribute to socioeconomic health disparities. It has been proposed that subjective socioeconomic status (an individual's perception of his or her hierarchical rank) provides increased predictive utility for physical health over and above more traditional, well-researched socioeconomic constructs such as education, occupation, and income. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were systematically searched for studies examining the association of subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health adjusting for at least 1 measure of objective SES. The final sample included 31 studies and 99 unique effects. Meta-analyses were performed to: (a) estimate the overlap among subjective and objective indicators of SES and (b) estimate the cumulative association of subjective SES with physical health adjusting for objective SES. Potential moderators such as race and type of health indicator assessed (global self-reports vs. more specific and biologically based indicators) were also examined. Across samples, subjective SES shows moderate overlap with objective indicators of SES, but associations are much stronger in Whites than Blacks. Subjective SES evidenced a unique cumulative association with physical health in adults, above and beyond traditional objective indicators of SES (Z = .07, SE = .01, p Subjective SES may provide unique information relevant to understanding disparities in health, especially self-rated health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Trabelsi, Nir; Yosibash, Zohar; Milgrom, Charles
The use of subject-specific finite element (FE) models in clinical practice requires a high level of automation and validation. In Yosibash et al. [2007a. Reliable simulations of the human proximal femur by high-order finite element analysis validated by experimental observations. J. Biomechanics 40, 3688-3699] a novel method for generating high-order finite element (p-FE) models from CT scans was presented and validated by experimental observations on two fresh frozen femurs (harvested from a 30 year old male and 21 year old female). Herein, we substantiate the validation process by enlarging the experimental database (54 year old female femur), improving the method and examine its robustness under different CT scan conditions. A fresh frozen femur of a 54 year old female was scanned under two different environments: in air and immersed in water (dry and wet CT). Thereafter, the proximal femur was quasi-statically loaded in vitro by a 1000N load. The two QCT scans were manipulated to generate p-FE models that mimic the experimental conditions. We compared p-FE displacements and strains of the wet CT model to the dry CT model and to the experimental results. In addition, the material assignment strategy was reinvestigated. The inhomogeneous Young's modulus was represented in the FE model using two different methods, directly extracted from the CT data and using continuous spatial functions as in Yosibash et al. [2007a. Reliable simulations of the human proximal femur by high-order finite element analysis validated by experimental observations. J. Biomechanics 40, 3688-3699]. Excellent agreement between dry and wet FE models was found for both displacements and strains, i.e. the method is insensitive to CT conditions and may be used in vivo. Good agreement was also found between FE results and experimental observations. The spatial functions representing Young's modulus are local and do not influence strains and displacements prediction. Finally, the p-FE results of
Fatima, Y.; Doi, S.A.R.; Mamun, A. A.
To assess the effect of poor sleep quality on Overweight/Obesity (Ow/Ob) in young subjects, and explore if this association is independent of sleep duration. Pubmed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases were searched for papers on sleep quality and overweight/obesity, focusing on children, adolescents, and young adults. Studies based on subjects with medical/psychological problems or published in languages other than English were excluded. Quality effects model was used to pool studies for meta-anal...
Wen, Yan-hua; Jiang, Zi-Dong; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Lian-Shan; Gao, Zhi-Qiang
To study the characteristics of the normal subjects with postural sway test and discuss the value of postural sway test in the diagnosis of dizzy patients. Totally 112 normal subjects, 72 patients with peripheral vertigo, and 30 patients with central vertigo were examined using a stabilometer (EAB-100, Anima Co., Japan). Items include patterns, length of locus, envelope area, deflection average center displacement, and romberg rate were recorded and compared. The postural sway was classified into the following five patterns: centripetal, forward and backward, right and left, diffuse, and multicentric. Centripetal pattern was the most prominent figure pattern in the normal subjects, while diffuse pattern was the most prominent figure pattern in the patients with central vertigo. When the normal subjects closed their eyes, age was linearly correlated with the length of locus, envelope area, rectangel area, and unit area path length (P < 0.05). Sex was not correlated to all of these parameters. The length of locus and envelope area in the patient groups were significantly increased when compared with the normal subjects (P < 0.0167). Romberg rate was not significantly different between the patients and the normal subjects. The pattern of postural sway is useful for the diagnosis of vertigo. Age is an important factor that affects the balance function. Sex seems has no influence. Visual input plays an important role in maintaining postural balance. Stabilometer is a useful tool for evaluating balance function, and postural sway test may be a valuable assistant examination.
Studerus, Erich; Kometer, Michael; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X
Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial. We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects. All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects. The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk.
Shirai, Koji; Namba, Kosuke; Saegusa, Toshiari
In Japan, the first Interim Storage Facility of spent nuclear fuel away from reactor site is being planned to start its commercial operation around 2010, in use of dual-purpose metal cask in the northern part of Main Japan Island. Business License Examination for safety design approval has started since March, 2007. To demonstrate the more scientific and rational performance of safety regulation activities on each phase for the first license procedure, CREPEI has executed demonstration tests with full scale casks, such as drop tests onto real targets without impact limiters(1) and seismic tests subjected to strong earthquake motions(2). Moreover, it is important to develop the knowledge for the inherent security of metal casks under extreme mechanical-impact conditions, especially for increasing interest since the terrorist attacks from 11th September 2001(3)-(6). This paper presents dynamic mechanical behavior of the metal cask lid closure system caused by direct aircraft engine crash and describes calculated results (especially, leak tightness based on relative dynamic displacements between metallic seals). Firstly, the local penetration damage of the interim storage facility building by a big passenger aircraft engine crash (diameter 2.7m, length 4.3m, weight 4.4ton, impact velocity 90m/s) has been examined. The reduced velocity is calculated by the local damage formula for concrete structure with its thickness of 70cm. The load vs. time function for this reduced velocity (60m/s) is estimated by the impact analysis using Finite Element code LS-DYNA with the full scale engine model onto a hypothetically rigid target. Secondly, as the most critical scenarios for the metal cask, two impact scenarios (horizontal impact hitting the cask and vertical impact onto the lid metallic seal system) are chosen. To consider the geometry of all bolts for two lids, the gasket reaction forces and the inner pressure of the cask cavity, the detailed three dimensional FEM models are
Alonso-Prieto, Esther; Pancaroglu, Raika; Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Handy, Todd; Barton, Jason J S; Oruc, Ipek
Prior event-related potential studies using group statistics within a priori selected time windows have yielded conflicting results about familiarity effects in face processing. Our goal was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of the familiarity effect at all time points at the single-subject level. Ten subjects were shown faces of anonymous people or celebrities. Individual results were analysed using a point-by-point bootstrap analysis. While familiarity effects were less consistent at later epochs, all subjects showed them between 130 and 195 ms in occipitotemporal electrodes. However, the relation between the time course of familiarity effects and the peak latency of the N170 was variable. We concluded that familiarity effects between 130 and 195 ms are robust and can be shown in single subjects. The variability of their relation to the timing of the N170 potential may lead to underestimation of familiarity effects in studies that use group-based statistics.
Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Storkey, Amos J; Bastin, Mark E; Pernet, Cyril R
Single subject fMRI has proved to be a useful tool for mapping functional areas in clinical procedures such as tumor resection. Using fMRI data, clinicians assess the risk, plan and execute such procedures based on thresholded statistical maps. However, because current thresholding methods were developed mainly in the context of cognitive neuroscience group studies, most single subject fMRI maps are thresholded manually to satisfy specific criteria related to single subject analyzes. Here, we propose a new adaptive thresholding method which combines Gamma-Gaussian mixture modeling with topological thresholding to improve cluster delineation. In a series of simulations we show that by adapting to the signal and noise properties, the new method performs well in terms of total number of errors but also in terms of the trade-off between false negative and positive cluster error rates. Similarly, simulations show that adaptive thresholding performs better than fixed thresholding in terms of over and underestimation of the true activation border (i.e., higher spatial accuracy). Finally, through simulations and a motor test-retest study on 10 volunteer subjects, we show that adaptive thresholding improves reliability, mainly by accounting for the global signal variance. This in turn increases the likelihood that the true activation pattern can be determined offering an automatic yet flexible way to threshold single subject fMRI maps.
Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander
Within-subject data from sequential social dilemma experiments reveal a correlation of first and second-mover decisions for which two channels may be responsible, that our experiment allows to separate: i) a direct, preference-based channel that influences both first- and second-mover decisions; ii......) an indirect channel, where second-mover decisions influence beliefs via a consensus effect, and the first-mover decision is a best response to these beliefs. We find strong evidence for the indirect channel: beliefs about second-mover cooperation are biased toward own second-mover behavior, and most subjects...... best respond to stated beliefs. But when first movers know the true probability of second-mover cooperation, subjects' own second moves still have predictive power regarding their first moves, suggesting that the direct channel also plays a role....
Boonstra, A M; Fidler, V; Eisma, W H
This study investigated some aspects of the validity of walking speed recording in 15 normal subjects, 16 trans-femoral amputees and 8 knee disarticulation amputees. The variability and test-retest reliability of walking speed and the influence of simultaneous recording of EMG and goniometry on comfortable and fast walking speeds were studied. The variability between sessions was mainly determined by the variance within each session. The variance of speed within sessions while walking with fast speed, was higher when walking without equipment than when walking with equipment. The variances of speed within sessions of the normal subjects were higher than those for both amputee groups. The test-retest reliability, expressed by the intra-class correlation coefficient, was good: between 0.83 and 0.98. The speed when walking without equipment was significantly higher both in normal subjects and amputees than the speed when walking with equipment.
Cowan, Richard J.; Abel, Leah; Candel, Lindsay
We conducted a meta-analysis of single-subject research studies investigating the effectiveness of antecedent strategies grounded in behavioral momentum for improving compliance and on-task performance for students with autism. First, we assessed the research rigor of those studies meeting our inclusionary criteria. Next, in order to apply a…
Dabancal, Meral Per
A deeper analysis of the art education curriculums applied in developed countries and treating specific subjects within these curriculums holds vital importance in allowing the production of alternative solution methods by providing the educators multiple perspectives in the face of problems concerning art education. In present paper colour…
Stensrud, Silje; Myklebust, Grethe; Kristianslund, Eirik
. The present study investigated the correlation between a two-dimensional (2D) video analysis and subjective assessment performed by one physiotherapist in evaluating knee control. We also tested the correlation between three simple clinical tests using both methods. A cohort of 186 female elite team handball...
Sobrino-Vegas, Paz; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Geskus, Ronald; Padilla, Belén; Segura, Ferrán; Rubio, Rafael; del Romero, Jorge; Santos, Jesus; Moreno, Santiago; del Amo, Julia
Objectives. Since subjects may have been diagnosed before cohort entry, analysis of late HIV diagnosis (LD) is usually restricted to the newly diagnosed. We estimate the magnitude and risk factors of LD in a cohort of seroprevalent individuals by imputing seroconversion dates. Methods. Multicenter
Full Text Available Research subjects and collaboration between universities are important knowledge fields about forms of knowledge networks structures in a scientific community and flow of knowledge traffic. The aims of this study revealed to tourism knowledge network structure and institutional collaboration and examined to the roles of research subjects and collaboration into tourism network structure based on published articles in Anatolia Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi. The data was collected from refereed articles in Anatolia Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi between years of 1997-2010. Social Network Analysis is used to define network structure and to examine links between structures. For that purpose, UCINET and Netdraw programs were utilized. At the end of this study, tourism knowledge structure generally has central structure rather than interdisciplinary structure. Management, marketing, economy, education, accounting-finance, health and transportation research subjects are to be linked with each other rather than other research subjects. In this research, institutional collaborations are determined in low degree. In addition important roles are determined of University of Dokuz Eylül, University of Gazi and University of Mersin at institutional collaboration and separation of knowledge to other universities.
For the incorrect sentences they were to underline the error and give the correct answer. The main findings of the study were: subject-verb agreement errors are prominent in simple sentence constructions and in complex linguistic environments. The study also found that performance errors appear frequently in simple ...
Gage, Nicholas A.; Lewis, Timothy J.
The identification of evidence-based practices continues to provoke issues of disagreement across multiple fields. One area of contention is the role of single-subject design (SSD) research in providing scientific evidence. The debate about SSD's utility centers on three issues: sample size, effect size, and serial dependence. One potential…
This article supports critical, social justice oriented science education research by providing a theoretical and methodological basis for examining how subjectivities may be constituted through discourses found in science education texts. Such research explores how discourses orient teachers and students to the world, others, and themselves, as…
Van Egmond, R.; Pappas, T.N.; De Ridder, H.
In a previous study we investigated the roughness of real world textures taken from the CUReT database. We showed that people could systematically judge the subjective roughness of these textures. However, we did not determine which objective factors relate to these perceptual judgments of
Social studies of technology and particularly the sociology of technology have long explored the reticulations between technology and social life. More specifically, the sociology of technology has contributed numerous studies addressing the relationship between technological artefacts and the social order. Following this tradition, feminist studies of technology have developed robust analyses of technology and subjectivity, with particular attention given to questions of gender i...
Saracevic, Tefko; Perk, Lawrence J.
A combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to analize the journal articles indexed in one volume of Library Literature.'' This approach, merging bibliometrics and classification, yielded results in such areas as dispersion of articles among journals, frequency of article type and types of subjects covered. (16 references)…
BOONSTRA, AM; FIDLER, [No Value; EISMA, WH
This study investigated some aspects of the validity of walking speed recording in 15 normal subjects. 16 trans-femoral empathics and 8 knee disarticulation amputees. The variability and test-retest reliability of walking speed and the influence of simultaneous recording of EMG and goniometry on
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of schizoaffective disorder. Therefore, we obtained electroencephalogram (EEG signals from patients with schizoaffective disorder and analyzed them in comparison to normal subjects.Forty patients with schizoaffective disorder and 40 normal subjects were selected randomly and their electroencephalogram signals were recorded based on 10-20 international system by 23 electrodes in open- and closed-eyes while they were sitting on a chair comfortably. After preprocessing for noise removal and artifact reduction, we took 60- second segments from each recorded signals. Then, the absolute and relative powers of these segments were evaluated in all channels and in 4 frequency bands (i.e., delta, theta, alpha and beta waves. Finally, Data were analyzed by independent t-test using SPSS software.A significant decrease in relative power in the alpha band, a significant decrease in power spectra in the alpha band and a significant increase in power spectra in the beta band were found in patients compared to normal subjects (P < 0.05. The predominant wave in the centro-parietal region was the beta wave in patients, but it was the alpha band in normal subjects (P = 0.048. Also, the predominant wave of the occipital region in patients was the delta wave, while it was the alpha wave in normal subjects (P = 0.038.Considering the findings, particularly based on the significant decrease of the alpha waves in schizoaffective patients, it can be concluded that schizoaffective disorder can be seen in schizophrenia spectrum.
Roy, Jolly; Hamidan, Shazarina; Singh, Rabindarjeet
Some major competitions (e.g. London Olympics, 2012) are scheduled during the Ramadan fasting month. Little attention has been given to explore the archers' performance related subjective experiences with a qualitative method. Therefore, this study addressed individual archers' subjective experiences within the framework of self-regulation during Ramadan. Eleven elite Malaysian Muslim fasting archers volunteered to participate in the study. Grounded theory was the qualitative approach used to examine the subjective experiences of athletes during Ramadan. Interviews were conducted and inductive content analysis was adopted to identify the temporal patterns of self-regulation of subjective experiences across the fasting period. Inductive content analysis identified (a) physical, (b) mental,(c) emotional, (d) behavioral, and (e) spiritual experiences. Overall patterns revealed that experiences associated with physical, emotional, behavioral, and spiritual dimensions dominated in the first phase of fasting, while the mental dimension surfaced increasingly in the latter phase of fasting. The trend showed changes in the patterns of experiences among the major domains across the temporal dimension. Athletes reported increased subjective experiences in mental factors toward the latter half of the fasting period. Practitioners should emphasize on mental aspects of training, as these appear to be salient in archery performance.
Zhao, Y; Feng, G D; Wu, H Y; Zhuang, Y; Gao, Z Q
The aim of this study was to measure the facial motion of patients with facial paralysis using a three-dimensional dynamic quantitative analysis system of facial motion (3D ASFM) and analyze its correlation with subjective grading systems. We included 30 healthy volunteers and 50 patients with unilateral facial paralysis. After placing landmarks on the faces, the facial motions of the patients were measured using the 3D ASFM. The regional symmetry ratios(SRs) and gross scores of different parameters were calculated. Then a comparison with four subjective grading systems(House-Brackmann, Sunnybrook, Facial Nerve Grading System 2.0, Fisch) was performed. The entire test could be completed within five minutes. The normal range of healthy volunteers were obtained, the gross score of which was 91.9±1.5. The SRs of the maximal moving distance(MMD) were most strongly correlated with regional subjective grading systems, followed by the SRs of the maximal moving velocity (MMV). The SRs of the maximal moving acceleration (MMA) were either poorly correlated or uncorrelated with the subjective grading systems. Moreover, the Spearman coefficients with four subjective grading systems were -0.630(House-Brackmann), -0.728(Facial Nerve Grading System 2.0), 0.697(Sunnybrook), and 0.617(Fisch)respectively(Pfacial paralysis. It not only overcomes the shortcomings of conventional subjective grading systems, but also correlates well with them.
Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub
, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...... the exergy concept to the built indoor environment, additional results are going to be explored. By using the data available so far of operative temperature (to), the human body exergy consumption rates increase as to increases above 24°C or decreases below 22°C at relative humidity (RH) lower than 50...
Full Text Available Background and Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the subjective outcome following laparoscopic sacropexy. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study among women treated for descensus with laparoscopic sacropexy between January 2000 and December 2007. 310 patients received questionnaires during followup assessing major pre- and postoperative symptoms and overall satisfaction. Results. 214 (69% patients responded to the questionnaire. Mean followup was 24.5 months. The number of patients with back or lower abdominal pain, foreign body sensation in the vagina and prolapse-related symptoms, urinary symptoms, vaginal and bladder infections, and the need for pessary usage decreased significantly postsurgically. Bowel symptoms increased slightly but not significantly. Two years after surgery, nearly 2 thirds of the women were satisfied or very satisfied with the outcome. Conclusion. Laparoscopic sacropexy is an effective treatment of descensus, with favorable or satisfactory subjective outcomes.
Bernard, Rebecca S; Cohen, Lindsey L; Moffett, Kathryn
In cystic fibrosis (CF), adherence to airway clearance techniques (e.g., chest physiotherapy and exercise) is poor. Exercise is important because pulmonary difficulties are associated with the highest mortality rate. Despite this, very little research has focused on exercise adherence in CF. This study examined a token economy for increasing exercise in children with CF. An ABAB single-subject design evaluated a token economy for increasing and maintaining exercise in three children with CF. Patient report, parent report, and physiological measures were used to assess treatment integrity, medical stability, and changes in exercise. Measures suggested that treatment integrity was strong. Results indicated strong treatment effects for all participants without negative medical side effects. Follow-up of 1 and 3 months supported continued exercise for all participants. A token economy effectively increased exercise in children with CF, and the single-subject design highlighted some of the intricacies of individualized treatment of adherence. Implications and recommendations for further research are discussed.
Sun, Jinming; Fritz, Jessica M.; Del Toro, David R.; Voglewede, Philip A.
A powered ankle-foot prothesis and its control system were previously designed and built. To evaluate this prosthesis, amputee subject testing was performed. The testing results are analyzed and compared between the powered prosthesis, passive prosthesis, and able-bodied gait. Qualitative comparison showed the prosthesis achieved the design objectives. During stance phase, active ankle moment was generated in the powered prosthesis before push-off to help the amputee walk more naturally. Duri...
The importance of the precautionary saving motive for households’ saving behaviour is unquestioned in the literature of the last two decades. However, the magnitude of precautionary savings and its influencing factors could not be satisfactorily determined. A subjective measure of the desired amount of precautionary savings in the German SAVE study 2005-2007 allows for the evaluation of these questions on a new basis without relying on a specific definition of wealth. This study supports the ...
Preissler, Pia; Kordovan, Sarah; Ullrich, Anneke; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Oechsle, Karin
Background Research has shown positive effects of music therapy on the physical and mental well-being of terminally ill patients. This study aimed to identify favored subjects and psychosocial needs of terminally ill cancer patients during music therapy and associated factors. Methods Forty-one Patients receiving specialized inpatient palliative care prospectively performed a music therapy intervention consisting of at least two sessions (total number of sessions: 166; per patient average: 4,...
Falcón-Lezama, Jorge Abelardo; Santos-Luna, René; Román-Pérez, Susana; Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralí; Herrera-Valdez, Marco Arieli; Kuri-Morales, Ángel Fernando; Adams, Ben; Kuri-Morales, Pablo Antonio; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Ramos-Castañeda, José
Mathematical models and field data suggest that human mobility is an important driver for Dengue virus transmission. Nonetheless little is known on this matter due the lack of instruments for precise mobility quantification and study design difficulties. We carried out a cohort-nested, case-control study with 126 individuals (42 cases, 42 intradomestic controls and 42 population controls) with the goal of describing human mobility patterns of recently Dengue virus-infected subjects, and comparing them with those of non-infected subjects living in an urban endemic locality. Mobility was quantified using a GPS-data logger registering waypoints at 60-second intervals for a minimum of 15 natural days. Although absolute displacement was highly biased towards the intradomestic and peridomestic areas, occasional displacements exceeding a 100-Km radius from the center of the studied locality were recorded for all three study groups and individual displacements were recorded traveling across six states from central Mexico. Additionally, cases had a larger number of visits out of the municipality´s administrative limits when compared to intradomestic controls (cases: 10.4 versus intradomestic controls: 2.9, p = 0.0282). We were able to identify extradomestic places within and out of the locality that were independently visited by apparently non-related infected subjects, consistent with houses, working and leisure places. Results of this study show that human mobility in a small urban setting exceeded that considered by local health authority's administrative limits, and was different between recently infected and non-infected subjects living in the same household. These observations provide important insights about the role that human mobility may have in Dengue virus transmission and persistence across endemic geographic areas that need to be taken into account when planning preventive and control measures. Finally, these results are a valuable reference when setting the
Wolf, Susan M.; Jones, Cortney M.
The basic procedures and rules for oversight of U.S. human subjects research have been in place since 1981. Certain types of human subjects research, however, have provoked creation of additional mechanisms and rules beyond the Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS) Common Rule and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) equivalent. Now another emerging domain of human subjects research—nanomedicine—is prompting calls for extra oversight. However, in 30 years of overseeing research on human beings, we have yet to specify what makes a domain of scientific research warrant extra oversight. This failure to systematically evaluate the need for extra measures, the type of extra measures appropriate for different challenges, and the usefulness of those measures hampers efforts to respond appropriately to emerging science such as nanomedicine. This article evaluates the history of extra oversight, extracting lessons for oversight of nanomedicine research in human beings. We argue that a confluence of factors supports the need for extra oversight, including heightened uncertainty regarding risks, fast-evolving science yielding complex and increasingly active materials, likelihood of research on vulnerable participants including cancer patients, and potential risks to others beyond the research participant. We suggest the essential elements of the extra oversight needed.
Moeini, Mahdi; Khaleghi, Ali; Amiri, Nasrin; Niknam, Zahra
The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of schizoaffective disorder. Therefore, we obtained electroencephalogram (EEG) signals from patients with schizoaffective disorder and analyzed them in comparison to normal subjects. Forty patients with schizoaffective disorder and 40 normal subjects were selected randomly and their electroencephalogram signals were recorded based on 10-20 international system by 23 electrodes in open- and closed-eyes while they were sitting on a chair comfortably. After preprocessing for noise removal and artifact reduction, we took 60- second segments from each recorded signals. Then, the absolute and relative powers of these segments were evaluated in all channels and in 4 frequency bands (i.e., delta, theta, alpha and beta waves). Finally, Data were analyzed by independent t-test using SPSS software. A significant decrease in relative power in the alpha band, a significant decrease in power spectra in the alpha band and a significant increase in power spectra in the beta band were found in patients compared to normal subjects (P schizoaffective patients, it can be concluded that schizoaffective disorder can be seen in schizophrenia spectrum.
Wolf, Susan M.; Jones, Cortney
The basic procedures and rules for oversight of U.S. human subjects research have been in place since 1981. Certain types of human subjects research, however, have provoked creation of additional mechanisms and rules beyond the Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS) Common Rule and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) equivalent. Now another emerging domain of human subjects research—nanomedicine—is prompting calls for extra oversight. However, in 30 years of overseeing research on human beings, we have yet to specify what makes a domain of scientific research warrant extra oversight. This failure to systematically evaluate the need for extra measures, the type of extra measures appropriate for different challenges, and the usefulness of those measures hampers efforts to respond appropriately to emerging science such as nanomedicine. This article evaluates the history of extra oversight, extracting lessons for oversight of nanomedicine research in human beings. We argue that a confluence of factors supports the need for extra oversight, including heightened uncertainty regarding risks, fast-evolving science yielding complex and increasingly active materials, likelihood of research on vulnerable participants including cancer patients, and potential risks to others beyond the research participant. We suggest the essential elements of the extra oversight needed. PMID:23226969
Tony Yuqi Tang
Full Text Available Mono- or combine immunosuppressants are commonly used for psoriasis; however the side effect caused by potent systemic immunosuppressants frequently incurred; moreover the inflammation flares up shortly after immunosuppressants are discontinued. An alternative nonimmunosuppressive therapy was introduced to psoriasis subjects. A retrospective observational study consisted of 1583 psoriasis patients who were treated with Herose Psoria capsule 1440 mg three times daily at two clinical centres, one in China, the other in Singapore, from 1 January 2000 to 1 January 2011. Psoriasis lesion evolution was photographed at monthly visit, and efficacy and safety were assessed using psoriasis area severity index PASI score grading, renal and liver function testing, and adverse event reporting and supplemented by information obtained during targeted telephone interviews. The effectiveness of Herose on psoriasis was inversely associated to prior immunosuppressants exposure (r=0.9154, significant improvements occurred in non-immunosuppressants subjects, and complete clearance was achieved in 8 months (87.5%, 14 of 16; the wavelike evolution of psoriatic lesion appeared in prior immunosuppressants subjects.
Full Text Available Ventricular septal defect (VSD is one of the most common types of congenital heart defects (CHD. There are vivid multifactorial causes for VSD in which both genetic and environmental risk factors are consequential in the development of CHD. Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR are two of the key regulatory enzymes involved in the metabolic pathway of homocysteine. Genes involved in homocysteine/folate metabolism may play an important role in CHDs. In this study; we determined the association of A66G and C524T polymorphisms of the MTRR gene and C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene in Iranian VSD subjects. A total of 123 children with VSDs and 125 healthy children were included in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buccal cells of all the subjects. The restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP method was carried out to amplify the A66G and C524T polymorphism of MTRR and C677T polymorphism of MTHFR genes digested with Hinf1, Xho1 and Nde1 enzymes, respectively. The genotype frequencies of CC, CT and TT of MTRR gene among the studied cases were 43.1%, 40.7% and 16.3%, respectively, compared to 52.8%, 43.2% and 4.0%, respectively among the controls. For the MTRR A66G gene polymorphism, the genotypes frequencies of AA, AG and GG among the cases were 33.3%, 43.9% and 22.8%, respectively, while the frequencies were 49.6%, 42.4% and 8.0%, respectively, among control subjects. The frequencies for CC and CT genotypes of the MTHFR gene were 51.2% and 48.8%, respectively, in VSD patients compared to 56.8% and 43.2% respectively, in control subjects. Apart from MTHFR C677T polymorphism, significant differences were noticed (p < 0.05 in C524T and A66G polymorphisms of the MTRR gene between cases and control subjects.
Foroud, Afra; Whishaw, Ian Q
The purpose of this study was to adapt a universal language for human movement, Laban Movement Analysis (LMA), to capture the kinematic and non-kinematic aspects of movement in a reach-for-food task by subjects whose movements had been affected by stroke. Two control subjects, one stroke subject with internal capsule damage, and one subject with right posterior parietal stroke were video recorded while performing the reaching task. The movements of limb advancement, grasping the food, and limb withdrawal to place the food in the mouth, were notated using LMA. A scale, the Expressive Reaching Scale (ERS), was derived from the notation. All subjects completed the task; however, the stroke subjects displayed abnormalities in both the kinematic and non-kinematic aspects of movements during reaching with either limb. The most extensive impairments were in the contralateral-to-stroke limb and were most severe in the subject with internal capsule damage. The ERS rating scale may be a useful diagnosis and assessment tool.
Gallivanone, Francesca; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Perani, Daniela; Gilardi, Maria C; Castiglioni, Isabella
Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) has been applied for single-subject evaluation of [18F]FDG uptake in Alzheimer Disease (AD). In a single-subject framework, the patient is compared to a dataset of [18F]FDG PET images from healthy subjects (HS) evaluating brain metabolic abnormalities. No studies exist that assess the effects on SPM analysis of HS [18F]FDG PET datasets acquired from different subjects and using different PET scanners including the same or different PET scanners than those used for patients. This work aims to elucidate this issue from a methodological perspective. We considered six different [18F]FDG PET datasets, from different HS populations, acquired by different PET scanners. We applied SPM5 procedures for single-subject comparison with each of the six HS datasets in 10 probable AD patients showing the typical [18F]FDG pattern. We also implemented the same comparison in 3 probable AD patients and in 7 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impariment (MCI), showing subtle changes on visual inspection of [18F]FDG distribution. Considering the 10 patients with the typical [18F]FDG pattern, the results were comparable for all the SPM maps. In the 3 probable AD patients with subtle changes in [18F]FDG distribution, no significant AD pattern emerged when a small number (50) HS image set was used. In the 7 considered MCI patients the use of a large (>50) HS image set allowed to assess significant hypometabolic patterns related to a probable neurodegenerative pathology. The use of large HS datasets of PET scans (>50) is recommended for single-subject SPM analysis. On condition that appropriate preprocessing steps are provided, large HS datasets can include HS images acquired with different PET systems, not including images from the same scanner of that used for patients.
Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel
To perform a meta-analysis of subjective (i.e., based on questionnaires) and objective (i.e., using polysomnography or actigraphy) studies comparing sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus controls. We searched for subjective and objective sleep studies (1987-2008) in children with ADHD (diagnosed according to standardized criteria). Studies including subjects pharmacologically treated or with comorbid anxiety/depressive disorders were excluded. Sixteen studies, providing 9 subjective and 15 objective parameters and including a total pooled sample of 722 children with ADHD versus 638 controls, were retained. With regard to subjective items, the meta-analysis indicated that children with ADHD had significantly higher bedtime resistance (z = 6.94, p breathing (z = 2.05, p =.040), and daytime sleepiness (z = 1.96, p =.050) compared with the controls. As for objective parameters, sleep onset latency (on actigraphy), the number of stage shifts/hour sleep, and the apnea-hypopnea index were significantly higher in the children with ADHD compared with the controls (z = 3.44, p =.001; z = 2.43, p =.015; z = 3.47, p =.001, respectively). The children with ADHD also had significantly lower sleep efficiency on polysomnography (z = 2.26, p =.024), true sleep time on actigraphy (z = 2.85, p =.004), and average times to fall asleep for the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (z = 6.37, p children with ADHD are significantly more impaired than the controls in most of the subjective and some of the objective sleep measures. These results lay the groundwork for future evidence-based guidelines on the management of sleep disturbances in children with ADHD.
Hansen, Wencke; Shim, Vickie B; Obst, Steven; Lloyd, David G; Newsham-West, Richard; Barrett, Rod S
This study used subject-specific measures of three-dimensional (3D) free Achilles tendon geometry in conjunction with a finite element method to investigate the effect of variation in subject-specific geometry and subject-specific material properties on tendon stress during submaximal isometric loading. Achilles tendons of eight participants (Aged 25-35years) were scanned with freehand 3D ultrasound at rest and during a 70% maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Ultrasound images were segmented, volume rendered and transformed into subject-specific 3D finite element meshes. The mean (±SD) lengths, volumes and cross-sectional areas of the tendons at rest were 62±13mm, 3617±984mm3 and 58±11mm2 respectively. The measured tendon strain at 70% MVIC was 5.9±1.3%. Subject-specific material properties were obtained using an optimisation approach that minimised the difference between measured and modelled longitudinal free tendon strain. Generic geometry was represented by the average mesh and generic material properties were taken from the literature. Local stresses were subsequently computed for combinations of subject-specific and generic geometry and material properties. For a given geometry, changing from generic to subject-specific material properties had little effect on the stress distribution in the tendon. In contrast, changing from generic to subject-specific geometry had a 26-fold greater effect on tendon stress distribution. Overall, these findings indicate that the stress distribution experienced by the living free Achilles tendon of a young and healthy population during voluntary loading are more sensitive to variation in tendon geometry than variation in tendon material properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gosseye, Thierry P; Willems, Patrick A; Heglund, Norman C
One countermeasure used during long-duration spaceflight to maintain bone and muscle mass is a treadmill equipped with a subject loading system (SLS) that simulates gravity. To date, little is known about the biomechanics of running in weightlessness on such a treadmill-SLS system. We have designed an instrumented treadmill/force plate to compare the biomechanics of running in weightlessness to running on Earth. Gravity was simulated by two pneumatic pistons pulling downward on a subject's harness, with a force approximately equal to body weight on Earth. Four transducers, mounted under the treadmill, measured the three components of the reaction force exerted by the tread belt under the foot. A high-speed video camera recorded the movements of limb segments while the electromyography of the four lower limb muscles was registered. Experiments in weightlessness were conducted during the European Space Agency parabolic flight campaigns. Control experiments were performed on the same subjects on Earth. When running on the treadmill with an SLS, the bouncing mechanism of running is preserved. Depending on the speed of progression, the ground reaction forces, contact and aerial times, muscular work and bone stress differed by a maximum of ± 5-15% during running on the treadmill with an SLS, as compared to that on Earth. The movements of the lower limb segments and the EMG patterns of the lower limb muscles were also comparable. Thus, the biomechanics of running on Earth can reasonably be duplicated in weightlessness using a treadmill with an SLS that generates a pull-down force close to body weight on Earth.
Sun, Jinming; Fritz, Jessica M; Del Toro, David R; Voglewede, Philip A
A powered ankle-foot prothesis and its control system were previously designed and built. To evaluate this prosthesis, amputee subject testing was performed. The testing results are analyzed and compared between the powered prosthesis, passive prosthesis, and able-bodied gait. Qualitative comparison showed the prosthesis achieved the design objectives. During stance phase, active ankle moment was generated in the powered prosthesis before push-off to help the amputee walk more naturally. During swing phase, the powered prosthesis was able to move to natural position to achieve foot clearance. However, the prosthesis is slightly under powered compared with the able-bodied ankle.
Full Text Available This work introduces the concept of time–frequency map of the phase difference between the cantilever response signal and the driving signal, calculated with a wavelet cross-correlation technique. The wavelet cross-correlation quantifies the common power and the relative phase between the response of the cantilever and the exciting driver, yielding “instantaneous” information on the driver-response phase delay as a function of frequency. These concepts are introduced through the calculation of the response of a free cantilever subjected to continuous and impulsive excitation over a frequency band.
Hänsel, Toni; Gauger, Ulrich; Bernhard, Nikolai; Behzadi, Nina; Romo Ventura, Maria Eugenia; Hofmann, Veit; Olze, Heidi; Knopke, Steffen; Todt, Ingo; Coordes, Annekatrin
Postoperative vertigo is a common complaint after cochlear implantation, but published incidence rates differ vastly. The aim of the present study was to investigate both subjective complaints of vertigo before and after cochlear implantation and related vestibular diagnostic tests on cochlear implant candidates. We performed a systematic literature search according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement in PubMed, Cochrane Register, and EMBASE. We presented 116 eligible studies investigating subjective complaints of vertigo after cochlear implantation and/or related vestibular diagnostic tests. We conducted three meta-analyses of 46 eligible studies with matched pre- and postoperative data to calculate the odds ratio of new vertigo onset, as well as the impairment of vestibular receptors measured by nystagmography and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP). Postoperative vertigo was calculated from 95 studies and further subdivided by mean age with pooled data. We observed a significant increase in postoperative vertigo and significant impairment of nystagmography and cVEMP detection. Vertigo after cochlear implantation was reported in 9.3% of the patients with a continuous increase in patient age at surgery. In a subgroup of studies, new onset of vertigo was found in 17.4% of the patients. In addition, 7.2% of the patients had persisting vertigo complaints, whereas 11.6% described an altered vertigo quality and 7.7% had their preoperative complaints resolved. A comparison of round window approach and cochleostomy revealed significantly increased vertigo after cochleostomy. Both insertion methods showed similar effects in nystagmography and cVEMP testing. Cochlear implantation has a significant impact on subjective vertigo and vestibular receptor function. This is affected by the patient's age at the time of surgery. The surgical technique (round window or cochleostomy) may influence the outcome, but
Full Text Available Objectives. Since subjects may have been diagnosed before cohort entry, analysis of late HIV diagnosis (LD is usually restricted to the newly diagnosed. We estimate the magnitude and risk factors of LD in a cohort of seroprevalent individuals by imputing seroconversion dates. Methods. Multicenter cohort of HIV-positive subjects who were treatment naive at entry, in Spain, 2004–2008. Multiple-imputation techniques were used. Subjects with times to HIV diagnosis longer than 4.19 years were considered LD. Results. Median time to HIV diagnosis was 2.8 years in the whole cohort of 3,667 subjects. Factors significantly associated with LD were: male sex; Sub-Saharan African, Latin-American origin compared to Spaniards; and older age. In 2,928 newly diagnosed subjects, median time to diagnosis was 3.3 years, and LD was more common in injecting drug users. Conclusions. Estimates of the magnitude and risk factors of LD for the whole cohort differ from those obtained for new HIV diagnoses.
1.6335 60 1.7782 77 1.8865 (SOURC;E: Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, Calitornia) 30 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Castelli, W. P. " Epedemiology of Coronary...1% AIR WAR COLLEGE RESEARCH REPORT No. AU-AWC-85-057 0AN ANALYSIS OF THE AIR WAR COLLEGE’S EXECUTIVE HEALTH AND FITNESS ASSESSMENT PROGRAM In I...COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Yr., Mo., Day) 15. PAGE COUNT Research FROM TO May 1985 132 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION S COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS
Papazoglou, Sebastian; Würfel, Jens; Paul, Friedemann; Brandt, Alexander U; Scheel, Michael
Non-quantitative MRI is prone to intersubject intensity variation rendering signal intensity level based analyses limited. Here, we propose a method that fuses non-quantitative routine T1-weighted (T1w), T2w, and T2w fluid-saturated inversion recovery sequences using independent component analysis and validate it on age and sex matched healthy controls. The proposed method leads to consistent and independent components with a significantly reduced coefficient-of-variation across subjects, suggesting potential to serve as automatic intensity normalization and thus to enhance the power of intensity based statistical analyses. To exemplify this, we show that voxelwise statistical testing on single-subject independent components reveals in particular a widespread sex difference in white matter, which was previously shown using, for example, diffusion tensor imaging but unobservable in the native MRI contrasts. In conclusion, our study shows that single-subject independent component analysis can be applied to routine sequences, thereby enhancing comparability in-between subjects. Unlike quantitative MRI, which requires specific sequences during acquisition, our method is applicable to existing MRI data. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Singh, Ishbir; Nigam, S P; Saran, V H
Need and importance of modelling in human body vibration research studies are well established. The study of biodynamic responses of human beings can be classified into experimental and analytical methods. In the past few decades, plenty of mathematical models have been developed based on the diverse field measurements to describe the biodynamic responses of human beings. In this paper, a complete study on lumped parameter model derived from 50th percentile anthropometric data for a seated 54- kg Indian male subject without backrest support under free un-damped conditions has been carried out considering human body segments to be of ellipsoidal shape. Conventional lumped parameter modelling considers the human body as several rigid masses interconnected by springs and dampers. In this study, concept of mass of interconnecting springs has been incorporated and eigenvalues thus obtained are found to be closer to the values reported in the literature. Results obtained clearly establish decoupling of vertical and fore-and-aft oscillations. The mathematical modelling of human body vibration studies help in validating the experimental investigations for ride comfort of a sitting subject. This study clearly establishes the decoupling of vertical and fore-and-aft vibrations and helps in better understanding of possible human response to single and multi-axial excitations.
Ishii, Mitsuaki; Mashimo, Hideaki
[Purpose] This study used an accelerometer placed close to the center of gravity to quantitatively investigate whether unexpected gait initiation aggravates start hesitation (freezing of gait in gait initiation). [Subject and Methods] The subject was a 53-year-old female who had been suffering from juvenile parkinsonism since she was aged 21 years. An alternating-treatment design was used to compare acceleration characteristics under two gait initiation conditions, which were 1) deliberate gait initiation and 2) gait initiation on a sudden "go" verbal command (sudden gait initiation), in the "on" state of the medication cycle. [Results] In six out of eight sessions, a combination of reduced peak positive anterior accelerations and large power percentage in the high frequency band was consistently observed in the sudden gait initiation compared with deliberate gait initiation. In the other two sessions, although a large acceleration just after the "go" signal was observed, subsequent acceleration signals were blocked by sudden gait initiation. [Conclusion] The results suggest that, even in the "on" state, start hesitation is apparent without increased reliance on frontal cortical attentional mechanisms to compensate for impaired automaticity. In advanced juvenile parkinsonism, sudden gait initiation may be an effective paradigm as a provoking test for start hesitation.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between clinical/epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of tuberculosis treatment in patients with concomitant tuberculosis and chronic kidney disease (CKD in Brazil. METHODS: We used the Brazilian Ministry of Health National Case Registry Database to identify patients with tuberculosis and CKD, treated between 2007 and 2011. The tuberculosis treatment outcomes were compared with epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the subjects using a hierarchical multinomial logistic regression model, in which cure was the reference outcome. RESULTS: The prevalence of CKD among patients with tuberculosis was 0.4% (95% CI: 0.37-0.42%. The sample comprised 1,077 subjects. The outcomes were cure, in 58%; treatment abandonment, in 7%; death from tuberculosis, in 13%; and death from other causes, in 22%. The characteristics that differentiated the ORs for treatment abandonment or death were age; alcoholism; AIDS; previous noncompliance with treatment; transfer to another facility; suspected tuberculosis on chest X-ray; positive results in the first smear microscopy; and indications for/use of directly observed treatment, short-course strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate the importance of sociodemographic characteristics for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with CKD and underscore the need for tuberculosis control strategies targeting patients with chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as CKD.
Mancini, Matteo; Giulietti, Giovanni; Dowell, Nicholas; Spanò, Barbara; Harrison, Neil; Bozzali, Marco; Cercignani, Mara
Microstructural imaging and connectomics are two research areas that hold great potential for investigating brain structure and function. Combining these two approaches can lead to a better and more complete characterization of the brain as a network. The aim of this work is characterizing the connectome from a novel perspective using the myelination measure given by the g-ratio. The g-ratio is the ratio of the inner to the outer diameters of a myelinated axon, whose aggregated value can now be estimated in vivo using MRI. In two different datasets of healthy subjects, we reconstructed the structural connectome and then used the g-ratio estimated from diffusion and magnetization transfer data to characterize the network structure. Significant characteristics of g-ratio weighted graphs emerged. First, the g-ratio distribution across the edges of the graph did not show the power-law distribution observed using the number of streamlines as a weight. Second, connections involving regions related to motor and sensory functions were the highest in myelin content. We also observed significant differences in terms of the hub structure and the rich-club organization suggesting that connections involving hub regions present higher myelination than peripheral connections. Taken together, these findings offer a characterization of g-ratio distribution across the connectome in healthy subjects and lay the foundations for further investigating plasticity and pathology using a similar approach. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available This paper aims at introducing the debate about the concepts of "space", "territory", "territoriality", "place" and their possible responsibility in the analysis of political subjects, especially in connection with an Argentine unemployment movement: the CTD Aníbal Verón. First of all, we deal with the debate about whether the space can be thought of as a political constituting dimensión or whether it is enough for it to be considered a conflict manifestation, limit demarcation and access control; the space built being understood as territory. Secondly, we also carry out an analysis of the relation between subjects and space, their appropriation and the meaning they give it, involving identity relations which are often analyzed through the category of place. Attention will be paid to two of the various practices which construct places [in terms of identity] in the territories built/appropriated by the organization: the neighborhood and the picket
Srinivasamurthy, Sharath; Iijima, Kazuhiro; Fujikubo, Masahiko; Nihei, Yasunori
Elastic-plastic behavior analysis methodology for a flexible FOWT is developed adopting a coupled simulation code which considers the flexibility of the floater and malfunction of blade pitch control...
E. Boštjančič; Ismagilova, F. S.; G. S. Miroljubova; N. Jansha
Aim. The results of the first stage of the Russian-Slovenian crosscultural research are provided in the present article; the purpose is identification of the key factors that have an impact on the choice of control criteria of a management activity by the Russian and Slovenian leaders.Methods. Empirical information acquisition was made on the basis of the questionnaire «Subjective criteria of monitoring of activities performance» by G. Miroljubova and F. Ismagilova. The correlation analysis u...
Full Text Available Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is suitable for noninvasive mapping of relative changes in regional cortical activity but is limited for quantitative comparisons among cortical sites, subjects, and populations. We have developed a convolutional neural network (CNN analysis method that learns feature vectors for accurate identification of group differences in fNIRS responses. In this study, subject gender was classified using CNN analysis of fNIRS data. fNIRS data were acquired from male and female subjects during a visual number memory task performed in a white noise environment because previous studies had revealed that the pattern of cortical blood flow during the task differed between males and females. A learned classifier accurately distinguished males from females based on distinct fNIRS signals from regions of interest (ROI including the inferior frontal gyrus and premotor areas that were identified by the learning algorithm. These cortical regions are associated with memory storage, attention, and task motor response. The accuracy of the classifier suggests stable gender-based differences in cerebral blood flow during this task. The proposed CNN analysis method can objectively identify ROIs using fNIRS time series data for machine learning to distinguish features between groups.
Benson, Sarah; Verster, Joris C; Alford, Chris; Scholey, Andrew
It has been suggested that mixing alcohol with energy drinks or other caffeinated beverages may alter the awareness of (or 'mask') intoxication. The proposed reduction in subjective intoxication may have serious consequences by increasing the likelihood of engaging in potentially dangerous activities while intoxicated. A literature search was conducted to collect all studies measuring subjective intoxication after administration of alcohol with energy drinks, or with other caffeinated alcoholic drinks compared with alcohol alone. The studies were critically reviewed and, where possible, included in a meta-analysis in order to determine whether masking exists after mixing alcohol with caffeinated beverages. Sixteen articles were identified, of which nine could be used for the meta-analysis. When including the higher caffeine dose studies, the meta-analysis revealed no significant masking effect (p=0.404). Similarly, when including the lower caffeine dose studies, no significant masking effect was found (p=0.406). Despite the large range of caffeine doses (2.0-5.5 mg/kg resulting in absolute levels of 46-383 mg) and alcohol levels 0.29-1.068 g/kg (resulting in blood alcohol concentration (BAC) from 0.032 to 0.12%) investigated, caffeine had no effect on the judgement of subjective intoxication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anyfantis, Konstantinos; Tsouvalis, N. G.
is benchmarking of computational tools. The test is based on a Single Lap Joint subjected to Eccentric Loading (SLJ-EL). The basic concept that lies behind this configuration is that the applied in-plane tensile load leads the adhesive layer to develop normal stresses, in-plane and out-of-plane shear stresses......A new experimental test is proposed, which allows the contribution of Mode I, II and III fracture modes to the failure of the adhesive layer of bonded joints aiming at achieving the realistic conditions often occurring during loading of practical joints. The main objective of this test......, which correspond to Mode I, II and III loading and fracture. These tests were designed so that the metal substrates do not enter plasticity and the adhesive achieves a mode mixity ratio between Mode II and Mode III not lower than 0.5. The experiments were simulated in a 3-dimensional finite element...
Hilburger, Mark W.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.
Results from an analytical study of the response of a built-up, multi-cell noncircular composite structure subjected to combined internal pressure and mechanical loads are presented. Nondimensional parameters and scaling laws based on a first-order shear-deformation plate theory are derived for this noncircular composite structure. The scaling laws are used to design sub-scale structural models for predicting the structural response of a full-scale structure representative of a portion of a blended-wing-body transport aircraft. Because of the complexity of the full-scale structure, some of the similitude conditions are relaxed for the sub-scale structural models. Results from a systematic parametric study are used to determine the effects of relaxing selected similitude conditions on the sensitivity of the effectiveness of using the sub-scale structural model response characteristics for predicting the full-scale structure response characteristics.
Baciu, E. R.; Grădinaru, I.; Baciu, M.; Vasluianu, R. I.; Cimpoesu, R.; Baciu, C.; Bejinariu, C.
Corrosion consists in the degradation of a material under the chemical or electrochemical action of the environment where it is placed. The investigations carried out aimed to show the structural modifications produced in Co-Cr-Mo alloy, Robur 400 (Eisenbacher Dental - Waren ED GmbH, Germany) subjected to electrocorrosion in Fusayama-Mayer artificial saliva. The specimens prepared by mechanical polishing were analysed structurally by using a scanning electron microscope. During the tests run we could notice a general corrosion of the surfaces of the specimens made from Robur alloy. Through 2D and 3D microscopy and qualitative determinations of the luminous variation we could notice the effects of electrocorrosion tests on the surface of the metal material.
Full Text Available Autonomic activity affects beat-to-beat variability of heart rate and QT interval. The aim of this study was to explore whether entropy measures are suitable to detect changes in neural outflow to the heart elicited by two different stress paradigms. We recorded short-term ECG in 11 normal subjects during an experimental protocol that involved head-up tilt and mental arithmetic stress and computed sample entropy, cross-sample entropy and causal interactions based on conditional entropy from RR and QT interval time series. Head-up tilt resulted in a significant reduction in sample entropy of RR intervals and cross-sample entropy, while mental arithmetic stress resulted in a significant reduction in coupling directed from RR to QT. In conclusion, measures of entropy are suitable to detect changes in neural outflow to the heart and decoupling of repolarisation variability from heart rate variability elicited by orthostatic or mental arithmetic stress.
Hua, Hongliang; Qiu, Ming; Liao, Zhenqiang [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)
A dynamic model of an axially moving flexible beam subject to an inner pressure is present. The coupling principle between a flexible beam and inner pressure is analyzed first, and the potential energy of the inner pressure due to the beam bending is derived using the principle of virtual work. A 1D hollow beam element contain inner pressure is established. The finite element method and Lagrange’s equation are used to derive the motion equations of the axially moving system. The dynamic responses are analyzed by Newmark-β time integration method. Based on the computed dynamic responses, the effects of inner pressure on beam dynamics are discussed. Some interesting phenomenon is observed.
Olson, R.J.; Wolterman, R.L.; Wilkowski, G.M. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Kot, C.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)
Argonne National Laboratory and Battelle have jointly conducted a research program for the USNRC to evaluate the ability of current engineering analysis methods and one state-of-the-art analysis method to predict the behavior of circumferentially surface-cracked pipe system water-hammer experiment. The experimental data used in the evaluation were from the HDR Test Group E31 series conducted by the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany. The incentive for this evaluation was that simplified engineering methods, as well as newer ``state-of-the-art`` fracture analysis methods, have been typically validated only with static experimental data. Hence, these dynamic experiments were of high interest. High-rate dynamic loading can be classified as either repeating, e.g., seismic, or nonrepeating, e.g., water hammer. Development of experimental data and validation of cracked pipe analyses under seismic loading (repeating dynamic loads) are being pursued separately within the NRC`s International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. This report describes developmental and validation efforts to predict crack stability under water hammer loading, as well as comparisons using currently used analysis procedures. Current fracture analysis methods use the elastic stress analysis loads decoupled from the fracture mechanics analysis, while state-of-the-art methods employ nonlinear cracked-pipe time-history finite element analyses. The results showed that the current decoupled methods were conservative in their predictions, whereas the cracked pipe finite element analyses were more accurate, yet slightly conservative. The nonlinear time-history cracked-pipe finite element analyses conducted in this program were also attractive in that they were done on a small Apollo DN5500 workstation, whereas other cracked-pipe dynamic analyses conducted in Europe on the same experiments required the use of a CRAY2 supercomputer, and were less accurate.
This dissertation defines the operational problems of, and develops solution methodologies for, a distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows constraints. A multiple-product oil pipeline is a pipeline system composing of pipes, pumps, valves and storage facilities used to transport different types of liquids. Typically, products delivered by pipelines are petroleum of different grades moving either from production facilities to refineries or from refineries to distributors. Time-windows, which are generally used in logistics and scheduling areas, are incorporated in this study. The distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows is modeled as multicommodity network flow structure and mathematically formulated. The main focus of this dissertation is the investigation of operating issues and problem complexity of single-source pipeline problems and also providing solution methodology to compute input schedule that yields minimum total time violation from due delivery time-windows. The problem is proved to be NP-complete. The heuristic approach, a reversed-flow algorithm, is developed based on pipeline flow reversibility to compute input schedule for the pipeline problem. This algorithm is implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. This dissertation also extends the study to examine some operating attributes and problem complexity of multiple-source pipelines. The multiple-source pipeline problem is also NP-complete. A heuristic algorithm modified from the one used in single-source pipeline problems is introduced. This algorithm can also be implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. Computational results are presented for both methodologies on randomly generated problem sets. The computational experience indicates that reversed-flow algorithms provide good solutions in comparison with the optimal solutions. Only 25% of the problems tested were more than 30% greater than optimal values and
Liao, Wen-Hua; Chen, Jin-Wu; Chen, Xin; Lin, Lin; Yan, Hai-Yan; Zhou, Yu-Qi; Chen, Rui
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training on subjects with COPD. We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Elsevier ScienceDirect, EBM Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov and also of leading respiratory journals for randomized controlled trials on COPD treatment for ≥ 4 weeks with resistance training compared with non-exercise control or with combined resistance and endurance training compared with endurance training alone. Data from these studies were pooled to calculate odds ratio and weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% CI. Eighteen trials with 750 subjects with advanced COPD met the inclusion criteria. There were 2 primary and 5 secondary outcomes. Compared with non-exercise control, resistance training led to significant improvements in the dyspnea domain of the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (WMD of 0.59, 95% CI 0.26-0.93, I2 = 0%, P < .001), skeletal muscle strength, and percent-of-predicted FEV1 (WMD of 6.88%, 95% CI 0.41-13.35%, I2 = 0%, P = .04). The combination of resistance and endurance training significantly improved the St George Respiratory Questionnaire total score (WMD of -7.44, 95% CI -12.62 to -2.25, I2 = 0%, P = .005), each domain score, and skeletal muscle strength. There were no significant differences in 6-min walk distance, 6-min pegboard and ring test, maximum exercise work load, and maximum oxygen consumption between the 2 groups. There were no reports of adverse events related to resistance-training intervention. Resistance training can be successfully performed alone or in conjunction with endurance training without increased adverse events during pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.
Fuentes Valdes, Gabriel; del Valle Flores, Miguel; Vega Soto, Claudia
The laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a successful surgical procedure for morbid obesity. However, post surgery weight regain is usual, thus applying the glycemic index could promote good weight control. To compare the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic response (GR) obtained of instant mashed potatoes in individuals subjected to LSG versus control subjects. GI and GR were assessed in 10 LSG subjects and compared with 10 controls. GI methodology proposed by FAO/WHO was used; instant mashed potatoes as test food and white bread as standard food (50g available CHO). Capillary blood sample 0 (fasting), 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. The GI was determined by trapezoidal method. ANOVA was used to compare a factor between RG and IG groups; t-student to compare RG between foods. Statistical significance pglycemic responses in LSG group, and its consumption possibly favoring weight regain. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Santoro, Francesco; Correale, Michele; De Gennaro, Luisa; Conte, Giusy; Di Biase, Matteo
The link between physical activity and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) remains controversial. We therefore sought to further assess by a meta-analysis whether increased levels of physical activity may increase the risk of AF. In October 2015, a PubMed research was conducted for studies that investigated this topic. We identified 11 relevant studies with a total of 81,787 participants. The pooled analysis did not show an increased risk of AF in subjects practicing physical activity (odds ratio (OR)=0.92, 95% C.I.=0.84-1.01, p=0.077, I(2)=90%). However, given the observed large heterogeneity among studies, a subgroup analysis was performed in order to identify possible variables influencing the risk of AF. Significantly higher risk of AF in subjects with reported physical activity was found in studies enrolling exclusively male participants (OR=7.49, 95% C.I.=3.12-19.01, pmeta-regression analysis between age and OR of AF (p=0.047). In conclusion, in our meta-analysis, there is a non-significant trend toward lower risk of AF in subjects practicing physical activity. The risk seems higher in male subjects. A reverse correlation between age and risk of AF seems to be evident. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book addresses and appropriately explains the soccer match analysis, looks at the very latest in match analysis research, and at the innovative technologies used by professional clubs. This handbook is also bridging the gap between research, theory and practice. The methods in it can be used by coaches, sport scientists and fitness coaches to improve: styles of play, technical ability and physical fitness; objective feedback to players; the development of specific training routines; use of available notation software, video analysis and manual systems; and understanding of current academic research in soccer notational analysis. PURPOSE The aim is to provide a prepared manual on soccer match analysis in general for coaches and sport scientists. Thus, the professionals in this field would gather objective data on the players and the team, which in turn could be used by coaches and players to learn more about performance as a whole and gain a competitive advantage as a result. The book efficiently meets these objectives. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the athlete, the coach, the sports scientist professional or any sport conscious person who wishes to analyze relevant soccer performance. The editors and the contributors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depend on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book demonstrates how a notation system can be established to produce data to analyze and improve performance in soccer. It is composed of 9 chapters which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Introduction to Soccer Match Analysis, 2. Developing a Manual Notation System, 3. Video and Computerized Match Analysis Technology, 4. General Advice on Analyzing Match Performance, 5. Analysis and Presentation of the Results, 6. Motion Analysis and Consequences for Training, 7. What Match
Veilleux, Alain; Mayeur, Sylvain; Bérubé, Jean-Christophe; Beaulieu, Jean-François; Tremblay, Eric; Hould, Frédéric-Simon; Bossé, Yohan; Richard, Denis; Levy, Emile
Metabolic alterations relevant to postprandial dyslipidemia were previously identified in the intestine of obese insulin-resistant subjects. The aim of the study was to identify the genes deregulated by systemic insulin resistance in the intestine of severely obese subjects. Transcripts from duodenal samples of insulin-sensitive (HOMA-IR insulin-resistant (HOMA-IR > 7, n = 9) obese subjects were assayed by microarray (Illumina HumanHT-12). A total of 195 annotated genes were identified as differentially expressed between these two groups (Fold change > 1.2). Of these genes, 36 were found to be directly involved in known intestinal functions, including digestion, extracellular matrix, endocrine system, immunity and cholesterol metabolism. Interestingly, all differentially expressed genes (n = 8) implicated in inflammation and oxidative stress were found to be upregulated in the intestine of insulin-resistant compared to insulin-sensitive subjects. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed that several signaling pathways involved in immunity and inflammation were significantly enriched in differently expressed genes and were predicted to be activated in the intestine of insulin-resistant subjects. Using stringent criteria (Fold change > 1.5; FDR insulin-resistant compared to insulin-sensitive subjects: the transcripts of the insulinotropic glucose-dependant peptide (GIP) and of the β-microseminoprotein (MSMB) were significantly reduced, but that of the humanin like-1 (MTRNR2L1) was significantly increased. These results underline that systemic insulin resistance is associated with remodeling of key intestinal functions. Moreover, these data indicate that small intestine metabolic dysfunction is accompanied with a local amplification of low-grade inflammatory process implicating several pathways. Genes identified in this study are potentially triggered throughout the development of intestinal metabolic abnormalities, which could contribute to
Husain M. Husain
Full Text Available In this work a program is developed to carry out the nonlinear analysis (material nonlinearity of prestressed concrete beams using tendons of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP instead of steel. The properties of this material include high strength, light weight, and insusceptibility to corrosion and magnetism. This material is still under investigation, therefore it needs continuous work to make it beneficial in concrete design. Four beams which are tested experimentally by Yan et al. are examined by the developed computer program to reach a certain analytical approach of the design and analysis of such beams because there is no available restrictions or recommendations covering this material in the codes. The program uses the finite element analysis by dividing the beams into isoparametric 20-noded brick elements. The results obtained are good in comparison with experimental results.
Rogers, Leslie Ann; Graham, Steve
There is considerable concern that students do not develop the writing skills needed for school, occupational, or personal success. A frequent explanation for this is that schools do not do a good job of teaching this complex skill. A recent meta-analysis of true- and quasi-experimental writing intervention research (S. Graham & D. Perin,…
The aim of this bachelor thesis, titled "Analysis and Categorization of Information Sources for the Field of Dog-breeding", is to map and analyze information sources relating to the field of dog-breeding, introduce dog-breeding as a field, compile an overview of current information sources for this field and focus on particularly defined groups of information sources.
Olusi, F. I.; Akahomen, D. O.; Otete, C. O.
The study, analysis of student's attrition in Ambrose Alli University (AAU) Ekpoma Nigeria was carried out to determine the exact number of students who attrite from selected faculties of the university. The study employed the descriptive survey design. Three hypotheses were stated and tested. On the hypothesis which tested the general attrition…
Pedersen, Sofie; Bang, Jytte
school, we carry out an analysis of a 16-year old high school student and how her approach to beer, to beer drinking as a part of Danish high school life-style, and to herself changes over time. We suggest a dialectical-ecological model to analyze the dialectical and synthetic movements over time...
Noell, George H.; Gansle, Kristin A.; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Knox, R. Maria; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Dahir, Amanda
Twenty-nine peer-reviewed journal articles that analyzed intervention implementation in schools using single-case experimental designs were meta-analyzed. These studies reported 171 separate data paths and provided 3,991 data points. The meta-analysis was accomplished by fitting data extracted from graphs in mixed linear growth models. This…
Murray, M. C.; Vizzeri, G.; Taibbi, G.; Mason, S. S.; Young, M. H.; Zanello, S. B.; Parsons-Wingerter, P. A.
Accelerated research by NASA  has investigated the significant risks for visual and ocular impairments Spaceflight Associated Neuro-Ocular Syndrome /Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (SANS/VIIP) incurred by microgravity spaceflight, especially long-duration missions. Our study investigates the role of blood vessels in the incidence and etiology of SANS/VIIP within the retinas of Astronaut crewmembers pre-and post-flight to the International Space Station (ISS) by NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN). The response of retinal vessels in crewmembers to microgravity was compared to that of retinal vessels to Head-Down Tilt (HDT) in subjects undergoing 70-Day Bed Rest. The study tests the proposed hypothesis that cephalad fluid shifts missions, resulting in ocular and visual impairments, are necessarily mediated in part by retinal blood vessels, and are therefore accompanied by significant remodeling of retinal vasculature.Vascular patterns in the retinas of crew members and HDTBR subjects extracted from 30° infrared (IR) Heidelberg Spectralis® images collected pre/postflight and pre/post HDTBR, respectively, were analyzed by VESGEN (patent pending). a mature, automated software developed as a research discovery tool for progressive vascular diseases in the retina and other tissues . The weighted, multi-parametric VESGEN analysis generates maps of branching arterial and venous trees and quantification by parameters such as the fractal dimension (Df, a modern measure of vascular space-filling capacity), vessel diameters, and densities of vessel length and number classified into specific branching generations by vascular physiological branching rules [2,3]. The retrospective study approved by NASA’s Institutional Review Board included six HDT subjects (NASA Flight Analogs Research Unit [FARU] Campaign 11; for example, ) and eight ISS crewmembers monitored by routine occupational surveillance who provided their study consents to NASA’s Lifetime
Koay, Cheng Guan; Yeh, Ping-Hong; Ollinger, John M; İrfanoğlu, M Okan; Pierpaoli, Carlo; Basser, Peter J; Oakes, Terrence R; Riedy, Gerard
The purpose of this work is to develop a framework for single-subject analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. This framework is termed Tract Orientation and Angular Dispersion Deviation Indicator (TOADDI) because it is capable of testing whether an individual tract as represented by the major eigenvector of the diffusion tensor and its corresponding angular dispersion are significantly different from a group of tracts on a voxel-by-voxel basis. This work develops two complementary statistical tests based on the elliptical cone of uncertainty, which is a model of uncertainty or dispersion of the major eigenvector of the diffusion tensor. The orientation deviation test examines whether the major eigenvector from a single subject is within the average elliptical cone of uncertainty formed by a collection of elliptical cones of uncertainty. The shape deviation test is based on the two-tailed Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney two-sample test between the normalized shape measures (area and circumference) of the elliptical cones of uncertainty of the single subject against a group of controls. The False Discovery Rate (FDR) and False Non-discovery Rate (FNR) were incorporated in the orientation deviation test. The shape deviation test uses FDR only. TOADDI was found to be numerically accurate and statistically effective. Clinical data from two Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) patients and one non-TBI subject were tested against the data obtained from a group of 45 non-TBI controls to illustrate the application of the proposed framework in single-subject analysis. The frontal portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus seemed to be implicated in both tests (orientation and shape) as significantly different from that of the control group. The TBI patients and the single non-TBI subject were well separated under the shape deviation test at the chosen FDR level of 0.0005. TOADDI is a simple but novel geometrically based statistical framework for analyzing DTI data. TOADDI may be
Rubaha Mariya V.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to analysis of the structure of sources of financing economic subjects, study of commercial and financial risks of formation of the structure of financial capital of subjects of entrepreneurship. The article pays significant attention to calculation of the weighted average cost of capital, degrees of financial and operational leverages and also to assessment of their mutual influence upon results of financial and economic activity of an enterprise. It studies impact of factors of external environment on the structure of sources of financing subjects of entrepreneurship, these factors include specific features of operational activity, quality and liquidity of assets, concentration of own capital, stages of the life cycle, level of profitability of operational activity, credit history of a borrower and a necessity to ensure the prospective repayment capacity, and financial mentality of owners and managers of an enterprise. The article also analyses factors of external environment of an enterprise (cost of attraction of financing from different sources, commodity and financial markets situations, state regulation and control over business processes, level of taxation of profit of enterprises and also income of physical persons and legal entities – investors from owning securities that influence the possibilities to attract financial capital and, consequently, prospects of efficient functioning of a subject of entrepreneurship in a long-term prospect.
Full Text Available Abstract Many torque carrying members have circular sections such as shafts. However, there are certain structural members like automotive chassis frames, cross members and machine frames which are often subjected to twisting loads and their cross sections are non circular. several methods were developed to analyze such sections such as Saint Venant’s semi inverse method, Prandtl’s elastic membrane analogy...etc. In this paper, the second order partial differential stress function equation for non-circular torsional members is applied on a rectangular section for different b/h (height /width of section values and the solutions for maximum torsional shear stress are found by employing second order finite difference method. The results are compared to the results obtained from commercial finite element software (ANSYS 10 and by direct solution of the stress function equation using analytical correlations available for rectangular sections. The results obtained by different approaches are in close congruence with a percentage deviation of only 3.22. It is observed that, in implementing second order finite difference scheme, the error in estimating stress is proportional to S2. Where “S” is the grid size. Keywords: Non-Circular Section, Prandtl’s stress function, Finite difference scheme, Grid size
Amabile, Celia; Moal, Bertrand; Chtara, Oussama Arous; Pillet, Helene; Raya, Jose G; Iannessi, Antoine; Skalli, Wafa; Lafage, Virginie; Bronsard, Nicolas
Muscles have been proved to be a major component in postural regulation during pathological evolution or aging. Particularly, spinopelvic muscles are recruited for compensatory mechanisms such as pelvic retroversion, or knee flexion. Change in muscles' volume could, therefore, be a marker of greater postural degradation. Yet, it is difficult to interpret spinopelvic muscular degradation as there are few reported values for young asymptomatic adults to compare to. The objective was to provide such reference values on spinopelvic muscles. A model predicting the muscular volume from reduced set of MRI segmented images was investigated. A total of 23 asymptomatic subjects younger than 24 years old underwent an MRI acquisition from T12 to the knee. Spinopelvic muscles were segmented to obtain an accurate 3D reconstruction, allowing precise computation of muscle's volume. A model computing the volume of muscular groups from less than six MRI segmented slices was investigated. Baseline values have been reported in tables. For all muscles, invariance was found for the shape factor [ratio of volume over (area times length): SD muscles' values for a reference population have been reported. A new model predicting the muscles' volumes from a reduced set of MRI slices is proposed. While this model still needs to be validated on other populations, the current study appears promising for clinical use to determine, quantitatively, the muscular degradation.
Rotzoll, K.; El-Kadi, A. I.; Gingerich, S.B.
Most published solutions for aquifer responses to ocean tides focus on the one-sided attenuation of the signal as it propagates inland. However, island aquifers experience periodic forcing from the entire coast, which can lead to integrated effects of different tidal signals, especially on narrow high-permeability islands. In general, studies disregard a potential time lag as the tidal wave sweeps around the island. We present a one-dimensional analytical solution to the ground water flow equation subject to asynchronous and asymmetric oscillating head conditions on opposite boundaries and test it on data from an unconfined volcanic aquifer in Maui. The solution considers sediment-damping effects at the coastline. The response of Maui Aquifers indicate that water table elevations near the center of the aquifer are influenced by a combination of tides from opposite coasts. A better match between the observed ground water head and the theoretical response can be obtained with the proposed dual-tide solution than with single-sided solutions. Hydraulic diffusivity was estimated to be 2.3 ?? 107 m 2/d. This translates into a hydraulic conductivity of 500 m/d, assuming a specific yield of 0.04 and an aquifer thickness of 1.8 km. A numerical experiment confirmed the hydraulic diffusivity value and showed that the y-intercepts of the modal attenuation and phase differences estimated by regression can approximate damping factors caused by low-permeability units at the boundary.
Cuschieri, J. M.
The mobility power flow approach that was previously applied in the derivation of expressions for the vibrational power flow between coupled plate substructures forming an L configuration and subjected to mechanical loading is generalized. Using the generalized expressions, both point and distributed mechanical loads on one or both of the plates can be considered. The generalized approach is extended to deal with acoustic excitation of one of the plate substructures. In this case, the forces (acoustic pressures) acting on the structure are dependent on the response of the structure because of the scattered pressure component. The interaction between the plate structure and the acoustic fluid leads to the derivation of a corrected mode shape for the plates' normal surface velocity and also for the structure mobility functions. The determination of the scattered pressure components in the expressions for the power flow represents an additional component in the power flow balance for the source plate and the receiver plate. This component represents the radiated acoustical power from the plate structure. For a number of coupled plate substrates, the acoustic pressure generated by one substructure will interact with the motion of another substructure. That is, in the case of the L-shaped plate, acoustic interaction exists between the two plate substructures due to the generation of the acoustic waves by each of the substructures. An approach to deal with this phenomena is described.
Cuschieri, J. M.; Cimmerman, B.
An analytical investigation based in the Mobility Power Flow (MPF) method is presented for the determination of the vibrational response and power flow for two coupled flat plate structures in an L-shaped configuration, subjected to distributed excitation. The principle of the MPF method consists of dividing the global structure into a series of subsystems coupled together using mobility functions. Each separate subsystem is analyzed independently to determine the structural mobility functions for the junction and excitation locations. The mobility functions, together with the characteristics of the junction between the subsystems, are then used to determine the response of the global structure and the MPF. In the considered coupled plate structure, MPF expressions are derived for distributed mechanical excitation which is independent of the structure response. However using a similar approach with some modifications excitation by an acoustic plane wave can be considered. Some modifications are required to deal with the latter case are necessary because the forces (acoustic pressure) acting on the structure are dependent on the response of the structure due to the presence of the scattered pressure.
Cuschieri, J. M.
An analytical investigation based on the Mobility Power Flow method is presented for the determination of the vibrational response and power flow for two coupled flat plate structures in an L-shaped configuration, subjected to acoustical excitation. The principle of the mobility power flow method consists of dividing the global structure into a series of subsystems coupled together using mobility functions. Each separate subsystem is analyzed independently to determine the structural mobility functions for the junction and excitation locations. The mobility functions, together with the characteristics of the junction between the subsystems, are then used to determine the response of the global structure and the power flow. In the coupled plate structure considered here, mobility power flow expressions are derived for excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. In this case, the forces (acoustic pressures) acting on the structure are dependent on the response of the structure because of the scattered pressure component. The interaction between the structure and the fluid leads to the derivation of a corrected mode shape for the plates' normal surface velocity and also for the structure mobility functions. The determination of the scattered pressure components in the expressions for the power flow represents an additional component in the power flow balance for the source plate and the receiver plate. This component represents the radiated acoustical power from the plate structure.
Bosco, Francesca M; Capozzi, Francesca; Colle, Livia; Marostica, Paolo; Tirassa, Maurizio
The aim of the study was to investigate multidimensional Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities in subjects with alcohol use disorder (AUD). A semi-structured interview and a set of brief stories were used to investigate different components of the participants' ToM, namely first- vs. third-person, egocentric vs. allocentric, first- vs. second-order ToM in 22 persons with AUD plus an equal number of healthy controls. Participants were administered the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale (Th.o.m.a.s., Bosco et al., 2009a) and the Strange Stories test ( Happé et al., 1999). Persons with AUD performed worse than controls at all ToM dimensions. The patterns of differences between groups varied according to the Th.o.m.a.s. dimension investigated. In particular persons with AUD performed worse at third-person than at first-person ToM, and at the allocentric than at the egocentric perspective. These findings support the hypothesis that the ability to understand and ascribe mental states is impaired in AUD. Future studies should focus on the relevance of the different ToM impairments as predictors of treatment outcome in alcoholism, and on the possibility that rehabilitative interventions may be diversified according to ToM assessment.
Daniel S. Stutts
Full Text Available Wind loading and windborne debris (missile impact are the two primary mechanisms that result in window glazing damage during hurricanes. Wind-borne debris is categorized into two types: small hard missiles; such as roof gravel; and large soft missiles representing lumber from wood-framed buildings. Laminated architectural glazing (LAG may be used in buildings where impact resistance is needed. The glass plies in LAG undergo internal damage before total failure. The bulk of the published work on this topic either deals with the stress and dynamic analyses of undamaged LAG or the total failure of LAG. The pre-failure damage response of LAG due to the combination of wind loading and windborne debris impact is studied. A continuum damage mechanics (CDM based constitutive model is developed and implemented via an axisymmetric finite element code to study the failure and damage behavior of laminated architectural glazing subjected to combined loading of wind and windborne debris impact. The effect of geometric and material properties on the damage pattern is studied parametrically.
Hagiwara, Masashi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine
In order to evaluate the morphological features of the proximal femur in the Japanese, 100 femora of normal Japanese subjects (normal group) and 60 femora of 43 Japanese patients with secondary osteoarthrosis of the hip (OA group) were analyzed using CT images. The scans for the dried bones (normal group) were done at a setting of 80 kV and 20 mA, for 2 sec duration. The scans were reconstructed using the soft tissue algorithm built into the GE-9800 scanner. The patient scans (OA group) were done at 120 kV and 170 mA also for 2 sec duration, and reconstructed using the same bone algorithm. The results were as follows: Thinning of the femoral cortex occurred in normal females over 60 years of age. The canal flare index at the proximal part of the femoral diaphysis was negatively correlated with the canal diameter at the isthmus. The index at the upper part was greater than that at the lower part. The two groups showed no statistical difference in this index. In the metaphysis, the canal flare index at the anterior portion was twice that at the posterior portion. In absolute terms, the OA group had a reduced flare or curve along the medial portion. In cross-section, the canal shape of the diaphysis was more elliptical in the OA group than in the normal group. The longitudinal axis of the canal was directed more sagittally in the OA group than in the normal group. (author).
Gudmestad, Aarnes; House, Leanna; Geeslin, Kimberly L.
This study constitutes the first statistical analysis to employ a Bayesian multinomial probit model in the investigation of subject expression in first and second language (L2) Spanish. The study analyzes the use of third-person subject-expression forms and demonstrates that the following variables are important for subject expression:…
Full Text Available In this data article, an OFFGEL fractionator coupled to LTQ Orbitrap XL MS equipment and a SGD filtering were used to detect in a biofilm-forming flor yeast strain, the maximum possible number of stress proteins under the first stage of a biofilm formation conditions (BFC and under an initial stage of fermentation used as reference, so-called non-biofilm formation condition (NBFC. Protein functional analysis – based on cellular components and biological process GO terms – was performed for these proteins through the SGD Gene Ontology Slim Mapper tool. A detailed analysis and interpretation of the data can be found in “Stress responsive proteins of a flor yeast strain during the early stages of biofilm formation” .
Xue, X.; Chen, N.-Z.
A fracture mechanics analysis for the mooring system of a semi-submersible accounting for out-of-plane bending (OPB) is presented in this paper. Stress ranges acting on the mooring chain links are calculated based on tension and OPB of mooring chain links induced by motions of wave frequency (WF) and low frequency (LF). The narrow-banded method is used for predicting the combined mooring loading process. Initial cracks are assumed to propagate from surfaces of chain links and stress intensity factors are then calculated in terms of stress ranges determined by a finite element analysis. The influence of the OPB on the remaining service life of mooring chain links is investigated and the results show that the remaining service life of mooring chain links connecting to fairleads is significantly reduced due to the OPB effects.
Jin-Yun Pan; Szu-Ting Chou; Hong-Po Chang; Pao-Hsin Liu
This study evaluated the deformations that contribute to Class III mandibular configuration, employing geometric morphometric analysis. Lateral cephalograms of male and female groups of 100 young adults and 70 children with Class III malocclusion were compared to those of counterparts with normal occlusion. The sample included an equal number of both genders. The cephalographs were traced, and 12 homologous landmarks were identified and digitized. Average mandibular geometries were generated ...
and seismic motion analysis . In many military and civil applications, nonlinear mechanical wave prop- agation occurs through structural...ture are prepared and performed by using MATLAB . The proposed force iden- tification method is also implemented and studied by using MATLAB and...methods is listed in Table. 3. A Dell desktop with a Intel Core Quad CPU is used for all simulations. The parallel computing toolbox in MATLAB is used to
仲野, 雄一; 高城, 有希久
The stress and strain distributions in adhesively bonded lap joints of dissimilar hollow shafts are examined using the axisymmetric theory of elasticity. In the analysis, the joint is modeled as an elastic three-body contact problem where the hollow shafts and the adhesive are replaced by finite hollow cylinders. The effects of the ratio of Young's modulus of the adhesive to that of the shaft, the overlap length and the thickness of the adhesive on the stress distributions at the interfaces i...
E. Guglielmino; G. Epasto; Crupi, V
The composites, used in the transportation engineering, include different classes with a wide range of materials and properties within each type. The following different typologies of composites have been investigated: laminated composites, PVC foam sandwiches, aluminium foam and honeycomb sandwiches.Aim of this paper was the analysis of low-velocity impact response of such composites and the investigation of their collapse modes. Low velocity impact tests were carried out by a drop test mach...
N. V. Litvinenko
Full Text Available Philosophy of Education creates conceptual and methodological prerequisites for distribution to the field of marketing management in education as a portion of the general laws of development of scientific knowledge. Marketing management education facilitates the implementation of a sociologically principles, adapting to their needs sociocentrical priorities developed within the philosophy of education. The most significant factor in social development has been the ability of society to the creation and innovation through the use of their intellectual potential. The concept of intellectual capacity within the philosophical and educational research marketing management should be used primarily in view of its importance for personal development needs analysis in the context of the needs of social and economic development, that is a combination of the characteristics of carrier capacity (human and its sociocultural environment. For marketing management education is most important composition of individual intellectual potential. The most heuristic value for philosophical and educational analysis of marketing management has its creative cognitive component that directs people to the practical application of knowledge and mental abilities. Intellectual potential can be seen within the philosophical and educational analysis of marketing management is quite close to the economic category of «human capital» and the philosophical category of «personal capacity».
Mendes, Vivian; Dos Santos, Gustavo Oliveira; Moraschini, Vittorio
The aim of this systematic review (SR) is to evaluate the association between asthma and periodontal parameters. An electronic search without date or language restrictions was carried out in MEDLINE, Cochrane, Web of Science, and LILACS until May 2017. In addition, manual search and in the grey literature were also conducted. The search process, data analysis, and quality assessment were performed by two independent reviewing authors. Eligibility criteria included prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case-controls, and randomized clinical trials. For the meta-analysis, the inverse variance method was used in fixed or random effect models, which were chosen according to heterogeneity. The estimates of the intervention effects were expressed as the mean differences. The search and selection process yielded 21 studies, published between 1979 and 2017. The meta-analysis showed a statistically significant difference for the parameters of gingival bleeding, plaque index, and gingival index for asthmatic participants with P<0.0001, P<0.0001, and P=0.0005, respectively. The data from this SR suggest that asthmatic patients may be more susceptible to negative periodontal changes, althought further high-quality research wuold be welcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kang, Dong Gu; Jhung, Myung Jo; Yang, Chae Yong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
Fluid-Structure Interactions (FSIs) occurring inevitably in operating reactor component systems can cause excessive force or stress to the structures resulting in mechanical damages that may eventually threaten the structural integrity of components. To solve FSI problems, results from one field (fluid-thermal) analysis are applied as loads in other fields (structural) analysis. If two media with different densities flow inside a pipe, thermal stratification can occur. Warm water is lighter than cool water and therefore tends to float on top of the cooler and heavier water, resulting in the upper portion of the pipe being hotter than the lower portion. Under these conditions, differential thermal expansion of the pipe metal can cause the pipe to deflect significantly. Unexpected piping movements are highly undesirable because of potential high piping stress that may exceed design limits for fatigue and stress. In PWRs, there are great possibilities of occurrence of thermal stratification at the feed water lines of the steam generator, at the pressurizer surge line and at the injection pipes of the emergency core cooling systems. The most affected pipe by the thermal stratification is reported to be the pressurizer surge line. Therefore in this study, a thermal-stress simulation is performed using ANSYS FSI. For the pressurizer surge line, thermal loads are transferred from ANSYS CFX to ANSYS Multiphysics in order to determine the heat transfer between the fluid and the solid body. From this information, stresses are determined and ultimately a fatigue analysis is performed
Maciá, M. E.
Full Text Available This article discusses heat transfer through a brick element in order to know the thermal behavior of onedimensional brickwork masonry samples exposed to high temperatures. The object of the tests is to build time-temperature curves according to different thermal steps in transient to experimentally determine the temperature profiles in the interior of a wall. Through this study, it is possible to demonstrate absolute moisture of a factory item from 300 °C (variation of temperatures in the interior of the element, avoid the associated phenomenon of evaporation of water during the thermal process as well as to obtain profiles of temperatures that help calculate the cross section of a factory element subjected to high temperatures.En este artículo se analiza la transferencia de calor a través de un elemento de fábrica de ladrillo con el fin de conocer el comportamiento térmico de secciones de fábrica unidimensionales expuestas a altas temperaturas. El objeto de los ensayos es construir curvas tiempo-temperatura en función de diversos escalones térmicos en régimen transitorio para determinar experimentalmente los perfiles de temperatura en el interior de un muro. A través de este estudio es posible evidenciar el contenido de humedad absoluta de un elemento de fábrica a partir de los 300 ºC (variación de las temperaturas en el interior del elemento, evitar el fenómeno asociado de la evaporación del agua durante el proceso térmico así como obtener perfiles de temperaturas que ayuden a calcular la sección eficaz de un elemento de fábrica sometido a altas temperaturas.
Bakkum, M J; Plomp, R; Pols, L C
An objective analysis has been performed on all 15 Dutch vowels pronounced in /hVt/ words by nine native Dutch, nine non-native, and six deaf males. Spectral representations of the vowel segments were created by determining the mean output levels of a bank of 16 filters (90-7200 Hz), with 1/3-oct bandwidths and logarithmic spacing of their center frequencies. The adequacy of the objective analysis is determined by the extent to which spectral information provides an accurate description of pronunciation quality. Spectral distances between the 24 utterances of each monophthong agree rather well with subjective distances obtained by listeners in an elaborate paired-comparisons experiment. For the various monophthongs, the correlation coefficients are within the range 0.63 to 0.88; averaging across all 12 monophthongs of each speaker results in a coefficient of 0.94. Furthermore, it appeared that the objective spectral analysis is as reliable as a subjective assessment by magnitude estimation by two to three listeners. Using principal components analysis (PCA), the number of dimensions by which the vowel spectra are described can be reduced. For the various monophthongs the range of the correlation coefficients between subjective distances and objective distances in a two-dimensional PCA subspace is 0.30-0.93. The three groups of speakers can still be distinguished in this subspace. In the extreme case of the deaf speakers all vowels are strongly "neutralized," whereas the different vowels of the native speakers are well separated, especially after speaker normalization; results are less clear for the non-natives.
Awais, M.; Khalil-Ur-Rehman; Malik, M. Y.; Hussain, Arif; Salahuddin, T.
The present analysis is devoted to probing the salient features of the mixed convection and non-linear thermal radiation effects on non-Newtonian Sisko fluid flow over a linearly stretching cylindrical surface. Properties of heat transfer are outlined via variable thermal conductivity and convective boundary conditions. The boundary layer approach is implemented to construct the mathematical model in the form of partial differential equations. Then, the requisite PDEs are transmuted into a complex ordinary differential system by invoking appropriate dimensionless variables. Solution of subsequent ODEs is obtained by utilizing the Runge-Kutta algorithm (fifth order) along with the shooting scheme. The graphical illustrations are presented to interpret the features of the involved pertinent flow parameters on concerning profiles. For a better description of the fluid flow, numerical variations in local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are scrutinized in tables. From thorough analysis, it is inferred that the mixed convection parameter and the curvature parameter increase the velocity while temperature shows a different behavior. Additionally, both momentum and thermal distribution of fluid flow decrease with increasing values of the non-linearity index. Furthermore, variable thermal parameter and heat generation/absorption parameter amplify the temperature significantly. The skin friction is an increasing function of all momentum controlling parameters. The local Nusselt number also shows a similar behavior against heat radiation parameter and variable thermal conductivity parameter while it shows a dual nature for the heat generation/absorption parameter. Finally, the obtained results are validated by comparison with the existing literature and hence the correctness of the analysis is proved.
Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Lambertsen, Søren Heide; Damkilde, Lars
and generic toolbox which can be applied to any other global response model of a WEC device combined with a control system. The stress responses due to the stochastic wave loads are computed by a FEM model using the frequency-domain approach. The fatigue damage is calculated based on the spectral......-based fatigue analysis in which the fatigue is described by the given spectral moments of the stress response. The question will be discussed, which control case is more favorable regarding the trade off between fatigue damage reduction and increased power production....
Magagnin, V; Caiani, E G; Fusini, L; Turiel, M; Licari, V; Bo, I; Cerutti, S; Porta, A
Robotic assisted locomotion systems are recently gaining appreciation as methods to rehabilitate individuals with lost sensory motor function. In the present study we compare autoregressive power spectral analysis and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) applied to the analysis of short-term heart period variability regarding their ability to typify autonomic response during a robotic assisted locomotion session consisting in the following phases: 1) sitting position; 2) standing position; 3) suspension during subject instrumentation; 4) robotic assisted treadmill locomotion with partial body weight support; 5) standing recovery after exercise. Results showed a significant tachycardia during the suspension phase, but no significant changes of spectral indexes. On the contrary, when spectral indexes were derived according to EMD, changes were evidenced during the suspension and walking phases. The EMD method is more powerful than autoregressive spectral analysis in detecting variations of parasympathetic and sympathetic modulations elicited by a robotic-assisted locomotion protocol.
Kanzler, Christoph M; Barth, Jens; Klucken, Jochen; Eskofier, Bjoern M
Macular degeneration is the third leading cause of blindness worldwide and the leading cause of blindness in the developing world. The analysis of gait parameters can be used to assess the influence of macular degeneration on gait. This study examines the effect of macular degeneration on gait using inertial sensor based 3D spatio-temporal gait parameters. We acquired gait data from 21 young and healthy subjects during a 40 m obstacle walk. All subjects had to perform the gait trial with and without macular degeneration simulation glasses. The order of starting with or without glasses alternated between each subject in order to test for training effects. Multiple 3D spatio-temporal gait parameters were calculated for the normal vision as well as the impaired vision groups. The parameters trial time, stride time, stride time coefficient of variation (CV), stance time, stance time CV, stride length, cadence, gait velocity and angle at toe off showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. Training effects were visible for the trials which started without vision impairment. Inter-group differences in the gait pattern occurred due to an increased sense of insecurity related with the loss of visual acuity from the simulation glasses. In summary, we showed that 3D spatio-temporal gait parameters derived from inertial sensor data are viable to detect differences in the gait pattern of subjects with and without a macular degeneration simulation. We believe that this study provides the basis for an in-depth analysis regarding the impact of macular degeneration on gait.
AVRAM (BOITOŞ CAMELIA
Full Text Available Since the crediting activity occupies the primary role in any banking institution, the necessity of study and its analysis is required by following some steps both at a microeconomic level and at a macroeconomic one. Going over the theme, which aims at the importance of a thorough study of the clients' reliability for highlighting the existing risks in the banking activity in general, and particularly in the crediting activity, becomes as more interesting as their approach at the level of the member states of the European Union tends towards a common theme. Starting from these premises, we have considered as being extremely important the selection of a research theme which aims at the risks in the crediting activity, emphasizing the analysis of the clients' reliability both in the decision of crediting in order to assume the risk of credit and in determining the financial and banking performances. Being given the complexity of the existing risks in the banking activity in general and particularly of the credit risk, the clients' reliability represents an extremely important field, of research and application, bearing in mind both the actual stage of developing the Romanian banking system and the attempts of its alignment to the requirements imposed by the European Union.
Mohseni, Hedieh K; Chettle, David R
Aluminum, as an abundant metal, has gained widespread use in human life, entering the body predominantly as an additive to various foods and drinking water. Other major sources of exposure to aluminum include medical, cosmetic, and occupational routes. As a common environmental toxin, with well-known roles in several medical conditions such as dialysis encephalopathy, aluminum is considered a potential candidate in the causality of Alzheimer's disease. Aluminum mostly accumulates in the bone, which makes bone an indicator of the body burden of aluminum and an ideal organ as a proxy for the brain. Most of the techniques developed for measuring aluminum include bone biopsy, which requires invasive measures, causing inconvenience for the patients. There has been a considerable effort in developing non-invasive approaches, which allow for monitoring aluminum levels for medical and occupational purposes in larger populations. In vivo neutron activation analysis, a method based on nuclear activation of isotopes of elements in the body and their subsequent detection, has proven to be an invaluable tool for this purpose. There are definite challenges in developing in vivo non-invasive techniques capable of detecting low levels of aluminum in healthy individuals and aluminum-exposed populations. The following review examines the method of in vivo neutron activation analysis in the context of aluminum measurement in humans focusing on different neutron sources, interference from other activation products, and the improvements made in minimum detectable limits and patient dose over the past few decades.
Gregory, Jesse F; Park, Youngja; Lamers, Yvonne; Bandyopadhyay, Nirmalya; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Lee, Kichen; Kim, Steven; da Silva, Vanessa; Hove, Nikolas; Ranka, Sanjay; Kahveci, Tamer; Muller, Keith E; Stevens, Robert D; Newgard, Christopher B; Stacpoole, Peter W; Jones, Dean P
Marginal deficiency of vitamin B-6 is common among segments of the population worldwide. Because pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) serves as a coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, and neurotransmitters, as well as in aspects of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin B-6 deficiency could have many effects. Healthy men and women (age: 20-40 y; n = 23) were fed a 2-day controlled, nutritionally adequate diet followed by a 28-day low-vitamin B-6 diet (deficiency, as reflected by a decline of plasma PLP from 52.6±14.1 (mean ± SD) to 21.5±4.6 nmol/L (Pvitamin B6 restriction were analyzed by (1)H-NMR with and without filtration and by targeted quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). Multilevel partial least squares-discriminant analysis and S-plots of NMR spectra showed that NMR is effective in classifying samples according to vitamin B-6 status and identified discriminating features. NMR spectral features of selected metabolites indicated that vitamin B-6 restriction significantly increased the ratios of glutamine/glutamate and 2-oxoglutarate/glutamate (Pvitamin B-6 restriction (adjusted Pvitamin B-6 deficiency has widespread metabolic perturbations and illustrate the utility of metabolomics in evaluating complex effects of altered vitamin B-6 intake.
Shen, Y.; Lindenbergh, R.; Hofland, B.; Kramer, R.
For better understanding how coastal structures with gentle slopes behave during high energy events, a wave attack experiment representing a storm of 3000 waves was performed in a flume facility. Two setups with different steepness of slope were compared under the same conditions. In order to quantify changes in the rock slopes after the wave attack, a terrestrial laser scanner was used to obtain 3D coordinates of the rock surface before and after each experiment. Next, through a series of processing steps, the point clouds were converted to a suitable 2D raster for change analysis. This allowed to estimate detailed and quantitative change information. The results indicate that the area around the artificial coast line, defined as the intersection between sloped surface and wave surface, is most strongly affected by wave attacks. As the distances from the sloped surface to the waves are shorter, changes for the mildly sloped surface, slope 1 (1 : 10), are distributed over a larger area compared to the changes for the more steeply sloped surface, slope 2 (1 : 5). The results of this experiment show that terrestrial laser scanning is an effective and feasible method for change analysis of rock slopes in a laboratory setting. Most striking results from a process point of view is that the transport direction of the rocks change between the two different slopes: from seaward transport for the steeper slope to landward transport for the milder slope.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of numerical analysis of stress and strain states which develop in wind turbine blades, modeled from various lignocellulosic composites. A blade structure type NACA 44XX with length 1.5m, power of 2.5kW and a rotational speed of 636 rpm, based on numerical calculations and the aerodynamic theory was designed in Catia program. The model was imported in finite element analysis program - HyperMesh, which were successively awarded four types of elastic properties corresponding to solid wood - oak, lignocellulose composites based on mixture of polyurethane resin and wood particle, glass fiber composite and carbon fibers. Four types of external loads were placed successively in different areas of the longitudinal axis of the blade, simulating wind force. The variation of stress and strain states expressing the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed materials, noting that risk areas of the blade structure can be reduced through various technological ways - through the addition of material thicknesses, changes to the reinforcement of composite layers by introducing layers with higher elastic properties, the introduction of local or global reinforcing elements.
Garcia, Federico; Poveda, Eva; Pérez-Elías, Maria Jesús; Quero, José Hernández; Ribas, Maria Angels; Martínez-Madrid, Onofre J; Flores, Juan; Crespo, Manel; Gutiérrez, Félix; García-Deltoro, Miguel; Imaz, Arkaitz; Ocampo, Antonio; Artero, Arturo; Blanco, Francisco; Bernal, Enrique; Pasquau, Juan; Mínguez-Gallego, Carlos; Pérez, Núria; Aiestarán, Aintzane; Paredes, Roger
In a previous interim 24-week virological safety analysis of the PROTEST study (1), initiation of Maraviroc (MVC) plus 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in aviremic subjects based on genotypic tropism testing of proviral HIV-1 DNA was associated with low rates of virological failure. Here we present the final 48-week analysis of the study. PROTEST was a phase 4, prospective, single-arm clinical trial (ID: NCT01378910) carried on in 24 HIV care centres in Spain. Maraviroc-naïve HIV-1-positive adults with HIV-1 RNA (VL) 10% in a singleton), initiated MVC with 2 NRTIs and were followed for 48 weeks. Virological failure was defined as two consecutive VL>50 c/mL. Recent adherence was calculated as: (# pills taken/# pills prescribed during the previous week)*100. Tropism results were available from 141/175 (80.6%) subjects screened: 87/141 (60%) were R5 and 74/87 (85%) were finally included in the study. Their median age was 48 years, 16% were women, 31% were MSM, 36% had CDC category C at study entry, 62% were HCV+ and 10% were HBV+. Median CD4+ counts were 616 cells/mm(3) at screening, and median nadir CD4+ counts were 143 cells/mm(3). Previous ART included PIs in 46 (62%) subjects, NNRTIs in 27 (36%) and integrase inhibitors (INIs) in 1 (2%). The main reasons for treatment change were dyslipidemia (42%), gastrointestinal symptoms (22%), and liver toxicity (15%). MVC was given alongside TDF/FTC in 40 (54%) subjects, ABC/3TC in 30 (40%), AZT/3TC in 2 (3%) and ABC/TDF in 2 (3%). Sixty-two (84%) subjects maintained VL<50 c/mL through week 48, whereas 12 (16%) discontinued treatment: two (3%) withdrew informed consent, one (1%) had a R5→X4 shift in HIV tropism between the screening and baseline visits, one (1%) was lost to follow-up, one (1%) developed an ART-related adverse event (rash), two (3%) died due to non-study-related causes (1 myocardial infarction at week 0 and 1 lung cancer at week 36), and five (7%) developed protocol-defined virological
Full Text Available Introduction: In a previous interim 24-week virological safety analysis of the PROTEST study (1, initiation of Maraviroc (MVC plus 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs in aviremic subjects based on genotypic tropism testing of proviral HIV-1 DNA was associated with low rates of virological failure. Here we present the final 48-week analysis of the study. Methods: PROTEST was a phase 4, prospective, single-arm clinical trial (ID: NCT01378910 carried on in 24 HIV care centres in Spain. Maraviroc-naïve HIV-1-positive adults with HIV-1 RNA (VL 10% in a singleton, initiated MVC with 2 NRTIs and were followed for 48 weeks. Virological failure was defined as two consecutive VL>50 c/mL. Recent adherence was calculated as: (# pills taken/# pills prescribed during the previous week*100. Results: Tropism results were available from 141/175 (80.6% subjects screened: 87/141 (60% were R5 and 74/87 (85% were finally included in the study. Their median age was 48 years, 16% were women, 31% were MSM, 36% had CDC category C at study entry, 62% were HCV+ and 10% were HBV+. Median CD4+ counts were 616 cells/mm3 at screening, and median nadir CD4+ counts were 143 cells/mm3. Previous ART included PIs in 46 (62% subjects, NNRTIs in 27 (36% and integrase inhibitors (INIs in 1 (2%. The main reasons for treatment change were dyslipidemia (42%, gastrointestinal symptoms (22%, and liver toxicity (15%. MVC was given alongside TDF/FTC in 40 (54% subjects, ABC/3TC in 30 (40%, AZT/3TC in 2 (3% and ABC/TDF in 2 (3%. Sixty-two (84% subjects maintained VL<50 c/mL through week 48, whereas 12 (16% discontinued treatment: two (3% withdrew informed consent, one (1% had a R5→X4 shift in HIV tropism between the screening and baseline visits, one (1% was lost to follow-up, one (1% developed an ART-related adverse event (rash, two (3% died due to non-study-related causes (1 myocardial infarction at week 0 and 1 lung cancer at week 36, and five (7% developed protocol
Jussila, Vilho [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Kemistintie 3, 02230 Espoo (Finland); Li, Yue [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fülöp, Ludovic, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Kemistintie 3, 02230 Espoo (Finland)
Highlights: • Floor flexibility plays a non-negligible role in amplifying horizontal vibrations. • COV of in-floor horizontal and vertical acceleration are 0.15–0.25 and 0.25–0.55. • In-floor variation of vibrations is higher in lower floors. • Floor spectra from limited nodes underestimates vibrations by a factor of 1.5–1.75. - Abstract: Floor vibration of a reactor building subjected to seismic loads was investigated, with the aim of quantifying the variability of vibrations on each floor. A detailed 3D building model founded on the bedrock was excited simultaneously in three directions by artificial accelerograms compatible with Finnish ground response spectra. Dynamic simulation for 21 s was carried out using explicit time integration. The extracted results of the simulation were acceleration in several floor locations, transformed to pseudo-acceleration (PSA) spectra in the next stage. At first, the monitored locations on the floors were estimated by engineering judgement in order to arrive at a feasible number of floor nodes for post processing of the data. It became apparent that engineering judgment was insufficient to depict the key locations with high floor vibrations, which resulted in un-conservative vibration estimates. For this reason, a more systematic approach was later considered, in which nodes of the floors were selected with a more refined grid of 2 m. With this method, in addition to the highest PSA peaks in all directions, the full vibration distribution in each floor can be determined. A statistical evaluation of the floor responses was also carried out in order to define floor accelerations and PSAs with high confidence of non-exceedance. The conclusion was that in-floor variability can be as high as 50–60% and models with sufficiently dense node grids should be used in order to achieve a realistic estimate of floor vibration under seismic action. The effects of the shape of the input spectra, damping, and flexibility of the
McConnell, Albert Joseph
Standard work applies tensorial methods to subjects within realm of advanced college mathematics. Text explains fundamental ideas and notation of tensor theory; covers geometrical treatment of tensor algebra; introduces theory of differentiation of tensors; and applies mathematics to dynamics, electricity, elasticity and hydrodynamics. 685 exercises, most with answers.
Thomson, Edward; Lamb, Kevin; Nicholas, Ceri
The aim of this study was to devise a valid performance analysis system for the assessment of the movement characteristics associated with competitive amateur boxing and assess its reliability using analysts of varying experience of the sport and performance analysis. Key performance indicators to characterise the demands of an amateur contest (offensive, defensive and feinting) were developed and notated using a computerised notational analysis system. Data were subjected to intra- and inter-observer reliability assessment using median sign tests and calculating the proportion of agreement within predetermined limits of error. For all performance indicators, intra-observer reliability revealed non-significant differences between observations (P > 0.05) and high agreement was established (80-100%) regardless of whether exact or the reference value of ±1 was applied. Inter-observer reliability was less impressive for both analysts (amateur boxer and experienced analyst), with the proportion of agreement ranging from 33-100%. Nonetheless, there was no systematic bias between observations for any indicator (P > 0.05), and the proportion of agreement within the reference range (±1) was 100%. A reliable performance analysis template has been developed for the assessment of amateur boxing performance and is available for use by researchers, coaches and athletes to classify and quantify the movement characteristics of amateur boxing.
R. G. Delalibera
Full Text Available The structural behavior of pile caps with sockets embedded is influenced by interface of column-socket, which can be smooth or rough. With intent to analyze the behavior of two pile caps with embedded socket, considering the friction between the column and the socket, with eccentric normal load, the numerical simulations were carried out, using a program based on the Finite Element Methods (FEM. In the numerical analysis the non-linear behavior of materials was considered, also the friction between the column and the socket. It was considered perfect bond between the reinforcement and the concrete around. It was observed that the embedded length is preponderant factor in the structural behavior of the analyzed element.
Full Text Available The composites, used in the transportation engineering, include different classes with a wide range of materials and properties within each type. The following different typologies of composites have been investigated: laminated composites, PVC foam sandwiches, aluminium foam and honeycomb sandwiches.Aim of this paper was the analysis of low-velocity impact response of such composites and the investigation of their collapse modes. Low velocity impact tests were carried out by a drop test machine in order to investigate and compare their structural response in terms of energy absorption capacity.The failure mode and the internal damage of the impacted composites have been, also, investigated using 3D Computed Tomography.
Full Text Available In this paper, the writer analyzed the objective of English learning at Azkia Integrated Islamic Primary School and the pupils’ needs in learning English. The paper described pupils’ needs, which are divided into the target needs and the learning needs. The study employed qualitative method, which used phenomenology approach. The data were collected from classroom observations, interviews, and documentary analysis, and then were analyzed and classified into the target needs and the learning needs. The findings showed that the pupils’ needs to be fulfilled in learning English are introducing English at the early stage, coping English language in the classroom and the daily lives, emphasizing vocabulary building and its development, applying recognizable topics to support vocabulary mastery, giving a wide range of instruments which stimulates the pupils using English in their daily lives. Further, learning English can be easier for the pupils when the concrete objects are utilized well and visual aids are made available.
Full Text Available The sound produced by a dental air turbine handpiece (dental drill can markedly influence the sound environment in a dental clinic. Indeed, many patients report that the sound of a dental drill elicits an unpleasant feeling. Although several manufacturers have attempted to reduce the sound pressure levels produced by dental drills during idling based on ISO 14457, the sound emitted by such drills under active drilling conditions may negatively influence the dental clinic sound environment. The physical metrics related to the unpleasant impressions associated with dental drill sounds have not been determined. In the present study, psychological measurements of dental drill sounds were conducted with the aim of facilitating improvement of the sound environment at dental clinics. Specifically, we examined the impressions elicited by the sounds of 12 types of dental drills in idling and drilling conditions using a semantic differential. The analysis revealed that the impressions of dental drill sounds varied considerably between idling and drilling conditions and among the examined drills. This finding suggests that measuring the sound of a dental drill in idling conditions alone may be insufficient for evaluating the effects of the sound. We related the results of the psychological evaluations to those of measurements of the physical metrics of equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels (LAeq and sharpness. Factor analysis indicated that impressions of the dental drill sounds consisted of two factors: "metallic and unpleasant" and "powerful". LAeq had a strong relationship with "powerful impression", calculated sharpness was positively related to "metallic impression", and "unpleasant impression" was predicted by the combination of both LAeq and calculated sharpness. The present analyses indicate that, in addition to a reduction in sound pressure level, refining the frequency components of dental drill sounds is important for creating a
van Eijk Kristel R
Full Text Available Abstract Background The predominant model for regulation of gene expression through DNA methylation is an inverse association in which increased methylation results in decreased gene expression levels. However, recent studies suggest that the relationship between genetic variation, DNA methylation and expression is more complex. Results Systems genetic approaches for examining relationships between gene expression and methylation array data were used to find both negative and positive associations between these levels. A weighted correlation network analysis revealed that i both transcriptome and methylome are organized in modules, ii co-expression modules are generally not preserved in the methylation data and vice-versa, and iii highly significant correlations exist between co-expression and co-methylation modules, suggesting the existence of factors that affect expression and methylation of different modules (i.e., trans effects at the level of modules. We observed that methylation probes associated with expression in cis were more likely to be located outside CpG islands, whereas specificity for CpG island shores was present when methylation, associated with expression, was under local genetic control. A structural equation model based analysis found strong support in particular for a traditional causal model in which gene expression is regulated by genetic variation via DNA methylation instead of gene expression affecting DNA methylation levels. Conclusions Our results provide new insights into the complex mechanisms between genetic markers, epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression. We find strong support for the classical model of genetic variants regulating methylation, which in turn regulates gene expression. Moreover we show that, although the methylation and expression modules differ, they are highly correlated.
Jesse F Gregory
Full Text Available Marginal deficiency of vitamin B-6 is common among segments of the population worldwide. Because pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP serves as a coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, and neurotransmitters, as well as in aspects of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin B-6 deficiency could have many effects. Healthy men and women (age: 20-40 y; n = 23 were fed a 2-day controlled, nutritionally adequate diet followed by a 28-day low-vitamin B-6 diet (<0.5 mg/d to induce marginal deficiency, as reflected by a decline of plasma PLP from 52.6±14.1 (mean ± SD to 21.5±4.6 nmol/L (P<0.0001 and increased cystathionine from 131±65 to 199±56 nmol/L (P<0.001. Fasting plasma samples obtained before and after vitamin B6 restriction were analyzed by (1H-NMR with and without filtration and by targeted quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry (MS. Multilevel partial least squares-discriminant analysis and S-plots of NMR spectra showed that NMR is effective in classifying samples according to vitamin B-6 status and identified discriminating features. NMR spectral features of selected metabolites indicated that vitamin B-6 restriction significantly increased the ratios of glutamine/glutamate and 2-oxoglutarate/glutamate (P<0.001 and tended to increase concentrations of acetate, pyruvate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (adjusted P<0.05. Tandem MS showed significantly greater plasma proline after vitamin B-6 restriction (adjusted P<0.05, but there were no effects on the profile of 14 other amino acids and 45 acylcarnitines. These findings demonstrate that marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency has widespread metabolic perturbations and illustrate the utility of metabolomics in evaluating complex effects of altered vitamin B-6 intake.
Hu, Bin; Dong, Qunxi; Hao, Yanrong; Zhao, Qinglin; Shen, Jian; Zheng, Fang
Objective. Neuro-electrophysiological tools have been widely used in heroin addiction studies. Previous studies indicated that chronic heroin abuse would result in abnormal functional organization of the brain, while few heroin addiction studies have applied the effective connectivity tool to analyze the brain functional system (BFS) alterations induced by heroin abuse. The present study aims to identify the abnormality of resting-state heroin abstinent BFS using source decomposition and effective connectivity tools. Approach. The resting-state electroencephalograph (EEG) signals were acquired from 15 male heroin abstinent (HA) subjects and 14 male non-addicted (NA) controls. Multivariate autoregressive models combined independent component analysis (MVARICA) was applied for blind source decomposition. Generalized partial directed coherence (GPDC) was applied for effective brain connectivity analysis. Effective brain networks of both HA and NA groups were constructed. The two groups of effective cortical networks were compared by the bootstrap method. Abnormal causal interactions between decomposed source regions were estimated in the 1-45 Hz frequency domain. Main results. This work suggested: (a) there were clear effective network alterations in heroin abstinent subject groups; (b) the parietal region was a dominant hub of the abnormally weaker causal pathways, and the left occipital region was a dominant hub of the abnormally stronger causal pathways. Significance. These findings provide direct evidence that chronic heroin abuse induces brain functional abnormalities. The potential value of combining effective connectivity analysis and brain source decomposition methods in exploring brain alterations of heroin addicts is also implied.
González-Albuixech, V.F., E-mail: email@example.com [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Structural Integrity Group, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland); Qian, G., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Structural Integrity Group, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland); Sharabi, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Structural Integrity Group, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland); Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura (Egypt); Niffenegger, M.; Niceno, B.; Lafferty, N. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Structural Integrity Group, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland)
Highlights: • RPV fracture mechanics model based on RELAP5. • RPV fracture mechanics model based on CFD. • RPV fracture mechanics analysis. - Abstract: The fracture mechanic analysis of a reactor pressure vessel subjected to pressurized thermal shock loading is one of the most important issues for the assessment of life time extension of a nuclear power plant. The most severe scenario occurs during cold water injection in the cold leg due to a Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (LOCA). In the present study a comprehensive fracture mechanics analysis is performed. Two hypothetical LOCAs are assumed for an adopted reference design of a two-loop Pressurized Water Reactor. Boundary conditions obtained from the RELAP5 code are used as input for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. For the structural integrity analysis, submodeling technique and the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) based on temperatures calculated by CFD are applied. The results from the 3D FEM calculations are compared to those from a simplified axisymmetric model based on axisymmetric thermal hydraulic model results. The analysis identifies the worst crack orientation and location. It also proves that a complete model is needed for a correct analysis as the simplified model is not conservative and fails to describe accurately the local plume effect.
Attar, M.; Karrech, A.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.
In this paper, we present a detailed numerical study of the non-linear dynamics in structural components under unilateral contact constraints. Here, the unilateral term characterises the constitutive law of the restoring force in the constraints as they only sustain elastic reactions in one direction, either compressive or tensile. Thus, the non-differentiability of the contact law at the discontinuity point is the only source of non-linearity. In our approach, the discrete lattice method (DLM) is used to treat the continuous system as a piecewise linear model. Thus, the trajectory of each node in the discrete model would be a sequence of smooth solutions with the switching times between them. The application of the one-step integration scheme allows us to detect the occurrence of contact (i.e. the instants that the lattice nodes cross the discontinuity boundary) and consequently update the active constraints. We also consider embedding the bisection algorithm into the time integration procedure to localise the instants at which the nodes cross the boundary and minimise the accumulative error. Subsequently, the resulting unconditionally stable integration scheme is utilised as the modelling tool in combination with the shooting technique to perform a novel non-smooth modal analysis. In analogy with the smooth non-linear systems, the evolution of non-smooth periodic motions is presented in the frequency-stiffness plots. We apply our method to obtain non-linear normal modes (NNMs) for a number of representative problems, including a bar-obstacle system, a beam-substrate system and a granular chain with tensionless interactions. These numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency of the solution procedure to trace the family of energy-independent non-linear modes across the range of contact stiffnesses. Moreover, the stability analysis of the modes on the plot backbone reveal that they may become unstable due to the interaction with the higher modes or bifurcation of
Ivanov, N. V.; Kakurin, A. M.
Results of simulation and parametric analysis of magnetic island production by helical magnetic perturbation generated under non-axisymmetric halo current are presented. Predictions are made for a cylindrical ITER-size plasma in conditions of disruption. Calculations are carried out with the TEAR code based on the visco-resistive MHD approximation. The radial distribution of the magnetic flux perturbation is calculated with account of the external helical field produced by halo current. The equations for the magnetic flux perturbation describe the dynamics of the tearing mode depending on plasma rotation. In sequence, this rotation is affected by electromagnetic forces depending on the tearing mode magnetic field and external magnetic perturbation. The coupled diffusion-type equations for the helical flux function and for the plasma rotation velocity are numerically treated in a similar way. The magnetic island behavior is analyzed for different plasma parameters expected at the Current Quench stage of disruption. The calculated width of the produced magnetic islands extends to a significant part of plasma minor radius.
Auer, Tibor; Schweizer, Renate; Frahm, Jens [Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH am Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysikalische Chemie, Goettingen (Germany)
Current thresholding strategies for the analysis of functional MRI (fMRI) datasets may suffer from specific limitations (e.g. with respect to the required smoothness) or lead to reduced performance for a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Although a previously proposed two-threshold (TT) method offers a promising solution to these problems, the use of preset settings limits its performance. This work presents an optimised TT approach that estimates the required parameters in an iterative manner. The iterative TT (iTT) method is compared with the original TT method, as well as other established voxel-based and cluster-based thresholding approaches and spatial mixture modelling (SMM) for both simulated data and fMRI of a hometown walking task at different experimental settings (spatial resolution, filtering and SNR). In general, the iTT method presents with remarkable sensitivity and good specificity that outperforms all conventional approaches tested except for SMM in a few cases. This also holds true for challenging conditions such as high spatial resolution, the absence of filtering, high noise level, or a low number of task repetitions. Thus, iTT emerges as a good candidate for both scientific fMRI studies at high spatial resolution and more routine applications for clinical purposes. (orig.)
Strickland, Justin C; Rush, Craig R; Stoops, William W
Drug discrimination procedures use dose-dependent generalization, substitution, and pretreatment with selective agonists and antagonists to evaluate receptor systems mediating interoceptive effects of drugs. Despite the extensive use of these techniques in the nonhuman animal literature, few studies have used human participants. Specifically, human studies have not routinely used antagonist administration as a pharmacological tool to elucidate the mechanisms mediating the discriminative stimulus effects of drugs. This study evaluated the discriminative-stimulus effects of tramadol, an atypical analgesic with monoamine and mu opioid activity. Three human participants first learned to discriminate 100 mg tramadol from placebo. A range of tramadol doses (25 to 150 mg) and hydromorphone (4 mg) with and without naltrexone pretreatment (50 mg) were then administered to participants after they acquired the discrimination. Tramadol produced dose-dependent increases in drug-appropriate responding and hydromorphone partially or fully substituted for tramadol in all participants. These effects were attenuated by naltrexone. Individual participant records indicated a relationship between mu opioid activity (i.e., miosis) and drug discrimination performance. Our findings indicate that mu opioid activity may mediate the discriminative-stimulus effects of tramadol in humans. The correspondence of generalization, substitution, and pretreatment findings with the animal literature supports the neuropharmacological specificity of the drug discrimination procedure. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Prathama, Aditya; Pantano, Carlos
We investigate the inviscid linear stability of vertical interface between two fluid columns of different densities under the influence of gravity. In this flow arrangement, the two free streams are continuously accelerating, in contrast to the canonical Kelvin-Helmholtz or Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities whose base flows are stationary (or weakly time dependent). In these classical cases, the temporal evolution of the interface can be expressed as Fourier or Laplace solutions in time. This is not possible in our case; instead, we employ the initial value problem method to solve the equations analytically. The results, expressed in terms of the well-known parabolic cylinder function, indicate that the instability grows as the exponential of a quadratic function of time. The analysis shows that in this accelerating Kelvin-Helmholtz configuration, the interface is unconditionally unstable at all wave modes, despite the presence of surface tension. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (Award No. DE-NA0002382) and the California Institute of Technology.
This study investigates an infinite capacity Markovian queue with a single unreliable service station, in which the customers may balk (do not enter) and renege (leave the queue after entering). The unreliable service station can be working breakdowns even if no customers are in the system. The matrix-analytic method is used to compute the steady-state probabilities for the number of customers, rate matrix and stability condition in the system. The single-objective model for cost and bi-objective model for cost and expected waiting time are derived in the system to fit in with practical applications. The particle swarm optimisation algorithm is implemented to find the optimal combinations of parameters in the pursuit of minimum cost. Two different approaches are used to identify the Pareto optimal set and compared: the epsilon-constraint method and non-dominate sorting genetic algorithm. Compared results allow using the traditional optimisation approach epsilon-constraint method, which is computationally faster and permits a direct sensitivity analysis of the solution under constraint or parameter perturbation. The Pareto front and non-dominated solutions set are obtained and illustrated. The decision makers can use these to improve their decision-making quality.
Full Text Available Variable Speed (VS Pumped Storage Plants (PSP equipped with large asynchronous (Doubly-Fed Induction machines are emerging now in hydropower applications. Motoring mode of operation of Doubly-Fed Induction Machine (DFIM is essential and techno-economical in this application due to: (1 its uniqueness in active power controllability, (2 bulk power handing capability with less rated power converters in rotor circuit, and (3 integrating Renewable Energy Sources (RES. This paper investigates the performance of two DFIMs at different power ratings (2.2 kW and 2 MW under voltage sag with different attribute. The test results are analyzed in terms of the peaks in torque, speed, power taken and transient currents in rotor and stator circuits. During sag, stable region for DFIM operation along with speed and stator side reactive power input control is also illustrated. The negative effects of voltage sag are briefly discussed. MATLAB simulation is validated with experimentation. The various observations during simulation and experimental analysis are also supported by the theoretical explanations.
Puspitasari, Poppy; Wahono, Dwiyana, Ressa Andita; Dika, Johan Wayan
Electroplating is a process in which substances or metal ions precipitate on cathode through electrolysis. Metal plating itself has many purposes, such as corrosion resistance, shiny appearance, and aesthetic appeal. This study aimed at investigating the performance results of a series of simple electroplating processes using nickel as the coating material and medium carbon steel as the coated material. This paper is a report on the analysis results of several simple electroplating treatments using different temperatures of 45°C, 55°C, and 65°C, with a 5-minute immersion time and a voltage of 4 volts. The electroplating at 65°C resulted in the thickest deposit (8,6 μm), whereas the one at 45°C resulted in the thinnest deposit (5.6 μm). The higher the applied temperature, the higher the colour intensity of the result. The nickel electroplating with a temperature of 65°C produced the darkest deposit.
Full Text Available The effect of accidental drops on MEMS sensors are examined within the frame-work of a multi-scale finite element approach. With specific reference to a polysilicon MEMSaccelerometer supported by a naked die, the analysis is decoupled into macro-scale (at dielength-scale and meso-scale (at MEMS length-scale simulations, accounting for the verysmall inertial contribution of the sensor to the overall dynamics of the device. Macro-scaleanalyses are adopted to get insights into the link between shock waves caused by the impactagainst a target surface and propagating inside the die, and the displacement/acceleration his-tories at the MEMS anchor points. Meso-scale analyses are adopted to detect the most stresseddetails of the sensor and to assess whether the impact can lead to possible localized failures.Numerical results show that the acceleration at sensor anchors cannot be considered an ob-jective indicator for drop severity. Instead, accurate analyses at sensor level are necessary toestablish how MEMS can fail because of drops.
Full Text Available The presence of geological structures such as faults, joints, and dykes has been observed near excavation boundaries in many rockburst case histories. In this paper, the role of discontinuities around tunnels in rockburst occurrence was studied. For this purpose, the Abaqus explicit code was used to simulate dynamic rock failure in deep tunnels. Material heterogeneity was considered using Python scripting in Abaqus. Rockbursts near fault regions in deep tunnels under static and dynamic loads were studied. Several tunnel models with and without faults were built and static and dynamic loads were used to simulate rock failure. The velocity and the released kinetic energy of failed rocks, the failure zone around the tunnel, and the deformed mesh were studied to identify stable and unstable rock failures. Compared with models without discontinuities, the results showed that the velocity and the released kinetic energy of failed rocks were higher, the failure zone around the tunnel was larger, and the mesh was more deformed in the models with discontinuities, indicating that rock failure in the models with discontinuities was more violent. The modeling results confirm that the presence of geological structures in the vicinity of deep excavations could be one of the major influence factors for the occurrence of rockburst. It can explain localized rockburst occurrence in civil tunnels and mining drifts. The presented methodology in this paper for rockburst analysis can be useful for rockburst anticipation and control during mining and tunneling in highly stressed ground.
VOSTRÁ VYDROVÁ, Hana
Full Text Available The university studies of adult people in the combined or distance form of study denotes many differences in comparison with the regular studies. Very important question is if the results of the distance students are on the same level as those of regular students. The Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague has steadily high number of combined students in tutorial centres outside Prague. The contribution is based on an inquiry survey among the students of tutorial centres. Another data source is the official database of the university. The level of satisfaction of students was compared with their results and a negative dependency was found. We also investigated the relation between socio demographic characteristics and the motivation and attitude to the study. We found dependencies in three questions. Finally, we compare the results of the students from the tutorial centers and regular students and have not found remarkable differences. The good (not worse results of students from the centers of distance studies can be explained by more intensive motivation which implies more intensive and more responsible preparation for exams. For the statistical analysis we used the software SPSS, version 18.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic response of a train-bridge system subjected to earthquakes, and the running safety indices of the train on the bridge under earthquake are studied. Taking a long span cable-stayed bridge across the Huangpu River as an example, a full three-dimensional finite element model of the train-bridge system was established, in which the soil-bridge and rail-train interactions were considered. Parallel computing based on contact balance was utilized to deal with this large-scale numerical simulation problem. The dynamic nonlinear analysis was performed on a Hummingbird supercomputer using the finite element code LS-DYNA 971. The results show that the acceleration responses of the train subjected to an earthquake are much greater than the ones without earthquake input, and the running safety of a moving train is affected by both the earthquake intensity and the running speed of the train. The running safety of the moving train can be evaluated by the threshold curve between earthquake intensity and train speed. The proposed modeling strategies and the simulated results can give a reference prediction of the dynamic behaviour of the train-bridge subjected to an earthquake.
Nguyen, Trung Dung; Oloyede, Adekunle; Singh, Sanjleena; Gu, YuanTong
Besides the elastic stiffness, the relaxation behavior of single living cells is also of interest of various researchers when studying cell mechanics. It is hypothesized that the relaxation response of the cells is governed by both intrinsic viscoelasticity of the solid phase and fluid-solid interactions mechanisms. There are a number of mechanical models have been developed to investigate the relaxation behavior of single cells. However, there is lack of model enable to accurately capture both of the mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, the porohyperelastic (PHE) model, which is an extension of the consolidation theory, combined with inverse Finite Element Analysis (FEA) technique was used at the first time to investigate the relaxation response of living chondrocytes. This model was also utilized to study the dependence of relaxation behavior of the cells on strain-rates. The stress-relaxation experiments under the various strain-rates were conducted with the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results have demonstrated that the PHE model could effectively capture the stress-relaxation behavior of the living chondrocytes, especially at intermediate to high strain-rates. Although this model gave some errors at lower strain-rates, its performance was acceptable. Therefore, the PHE model is properly a promising model for single cell mechanics studies. Moreover, it has been found that the hydraulic permeability of living chondrocytes reduced with decreasing of strain-rates. It might be due to the intracellular fluid volume fraction and the fluid pore pressure gradients of chondrocytes were higher when higher strain-rates applied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dadakova, K; Havelkova, M; Kurkova, B; Tlolkova, I; Kasparovsky, T; Zdrahal, Z; Lochman, J
Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important diseases of grapevine resulting in significant reductions in yield and fruit quality. In order to examine the molecular mechanisms that characterize the interaction between B. cinerea and the host plant, the grapevine cytoplasmic proteome was analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The interaction between Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay cells and B. cinerea was characterized by the increase in spot abundance of 30 proteins, of which 21 were successfully identified. The majority of these proteins were related to defence and stress responses and to cell wall modifications. Some of the modulated proteins have been previously found to be affected by other pathogens when they infect V. vinifera but interestingly, the proteins related to cell wall modification that were influenced by B. cinerea have not been shown to be modulated by any other pathogen studied to date. Transcript analysis using the quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction additionally revealed the up-regulation of several acidic, probably extracellular, chitinases. The results indicate that cell wall strengthening, accumulation of PR proteins and excretion of lytic enzymes are likely to be important mechanisms in the defence of grapevine against B. cinerea. Although gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important diseases of grapevine, little information is available about proteomic changes in this pathosystem. These results suggest that cell wall strengthening, accumulation of PR proteins and excretion of lytic enzymes are important molecular mechanisms in the defence of grapevine against B. cinerea. Surprisingly, the proteins related to cell wall modification that were modulated by B. cinerea have not been shown to be affected by any other pathogen studied to date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Himes, Blanca E; Jiang, Xiaofeng; Hu, Ruoxi; Wu, Ann C; Lasky-Su, Jessica A; Klanderman, Barbara J; Ziniti, John; Senter-Sylvia, Jody; Lima, John J; Irvin, Charles G; Peters, Stephen P; Meyers, Deborah A; Bleecker, Eugene R; Kubo, Michiaki; Tamari, Mayumi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Szefler, Stanley J; Lemanske, Robert F; Zeiger, Robert S; Strunk, Robert C; Martinez, Fernando D; Hanrahan, John P; Koppelman, Gerard H; Postma, Dirkje S; Nieuwenhuis, Maartje A E; Vonk, Judith M; Panettieri, Reynold A; Markezich, Amy; Israel, Elliot; Carey, Vincent J; Tantisira, Kelan G; Litonjua, Augusto A; Lu, Quan; Weiss, Scott T
Bronchodilator response (BDR) is an important asthma phenotype that measures reversibility of airway obstruction by comparing lung function (i.e. FEV(1)) before and after the administration of a short-acting β(2)-agonist, the most common rescue medications used for the treatment of asthma. BDR also serves as a test of β(2)-agonist efficacy. BDR is a complex trait that is partly under genetic control. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BDR, quantified as percent change in baseline FEV(1) after administration of a β(2)-agonist, was performed with 1,644 non-Hispanic white asthmatic subjects from six drug clinical trials: CAMP, LOCCS, LODO, a medication trial conducted by Sepracor, CARE, and ACRN. Data for 469,884 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to measure the association of SNPs with BDR using a linear regression model, while adjusting for age, sex, and height. Replication of primary P-values was attempted in 501 white subjects from SARP and 550 white subjects from DAG. Experimental evidence supporting the top gene was obtained via siRNA knockdown and Western blotting analyses. The lowest overall combined P-value was 9.7E-07 for SNP rs295137, near the SPATS2L gene. Among subjects in the primary analysis, those with rs295137 TT genotype had a median BDR of 16.0 (IQR = [6.2, 32.4]), while those with CC or TC genotypes had a median BDR of 10.9 (IQR = [5.0, 22.2]). SPATS2L mRNA knockdown resulted in increased β(2)-adrenergic receptor levels. Our results suggest that SPATS2L may be an important regulator of β(2)-adrenergic receptor down-regulation and that there is promise in gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms of differential response to β(2)-agonists through GWAS.
Lin, Sue-Jin; Lam, Janet; Beveridge, Samantha; Vavasour, Irene; Traboulsee, Anthony; Li, David K B; MacKay, Alex; McKeown, Martin; Kosaka, Brenda
The authors explored the relations between clinical/demographic characteristics and performance on a neuropsychological battery (eight tests) in a cohort (N=46) of multiple sclerosis (MS) subjects. Findings resulted from a secondary analysis of a study examining the relationships between imaging biomarkers in MS and cognitive tasks of executive functioning. The objective was to determine whether the overlapping test results could be judiciously combined and associated with clinical/demographic variables. Canonical-correlation analysis (CCA) was utilized, and it was found that differences between performance on untimed tests, and the sum of performance on timed Trail-Making Tests, Parts A and B, best matched clinical/demographic variables, and gender was the most important feature.
Bradley, David T; Wang, Lily M
This project utilizes computational modeling to study the effects of varying two architectural parameters, absorption ratio and aperture size, in a realistic coupled volume concert hall. Coupled volumes have been shown to exhibit non-exponential sound energy decay profiles, referred to as double slope effect. A number of objective metrics (T30/T15, LDT/T10, decay ratio, and DeltaL) have been used to quantify the double slope effect of the profiles generated in the virtual hall. T30/T15 and LDT/T10 showed similar trends across all hall configurations, indicating decreasing double slope effect with increasing coupled volume absorption ratio for each aperture size, and producing highest values at a specific aperture size for each absorption ratio. Generally, LDT/T10 provides finer resolution than T30/T15 when analyzing the decay profiles in this study. Results from the two metrics derived from Bayesian analysis, decay ratio and DeltaL, seem less consistent. Subjective testing has also been conducted to determine the effect of varying the two architectural parameters in the hall, and multidimensional scaling analysis shows that, in general, listener preference is inversely proportional to the level of double slope effect, with the highest levels of preference occurring at low and medium levels of double slope effect. Recommended design guidelines for coupled volume halls are provided based on these computational and subjective results.
Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Link, Thomas M.; Majumdar, Sharmila
MR relaxation time measurements of knee cartilage have shown potential to characterize knee osteoarthritis (OA). In this work, techniques that allow localized intra- and inter-subject comparisons of cartilage relaxation times, as well as cartilage flattening for texture analysis parallel and perpendicular to the natural cartilage layers, are presented. The localized comparisons are based on the registration of bone structures and the assignment of relaxation time feature vectors to each point...
Fronczek, Judith; Lulf, Ronald; Korkmaz, H Ibrahim; Witte, Birgit I; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Begieneman, Mark P V; Schalkwijk, C G; Krijnen, Paul A J; Rozendaal, Lawrence; Niessen, Hans W M; Reijnders, Udo J L
In forensic medicine it is important to determine the age of skin wounds in living subjects. The aim of this study was to assess whether analysis of inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators in skin biopsies of wounds from living subjects could improve wound age determination. Biopsies (n=101), representing the superficial border area of a skin wound, were taken from skin injuries of known wound age (range: 4.5 hours to 25 days) of living subjects. All biopsies were analyzed for 3 inflammatory cell markers (MPO, CD45 and CD68) and 4 inflammatory mediators (MIP-1, IL-8, CML and vitronectin). For quantification, biopsies were subdivided in 4 different timeframes: 0.2-2 days, 2-4 days, 4-10 days and 10-25 days old wounds. Subsequently, a probability scoring system was developed. MPO, CD45, MIP-1, IL-8 (inflammatory cell markers) and N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) positivity were maximal in wounds of 0.2-2 days old and then decreased in time. Remarkably, CD45, CD68 and CML showed a minor but non-significant increase again in 10-25 days old wounds. MPO and CD68 positivity was significantly lower in 4-25 days old wounds compared to 0.2-4 days old wounds. MPO positivity was also significantly lower in 10-25 days old wounds compared to 0.2-10 days old wounds. For CD45, MIP-1, IL-8 and CML no significant differences between the age groups were found. In case of vitronectin positivity in the extravasate or when the number of MIP-1 or IL-8-positive cells was more than 10 cells/mm(2) the probability that a wound was more than 10 days old was 0%. A probability scoring system of all analyzed markers can be used to calculate individual wound age probabilities in biopsies of skin wounds of living subjects. We have developed a probability scoring system of inflammatory cells and mediators that can be used to determine wound age in skin biopsies of living subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kántor, Noémi; Kovács, Attila; Takács, Ágnes
Wide research attention has been paid in the last two decades to the thermal comfort conditions of different outdoor and semi-outdoor urban spaces. Field studies were conducted in a wide range of geographical regions in order to investigate the relationship between the thermal sensation of people and thermal comfort indices. Researchers found that the original threshold values of these indices did not describe precisely the actual thermal sensation patterns of subjects, and they reported neutral temperatures that vary among nations and with time of the year. For that reason, thresholds of some objective indices were rescaled and new thermal comfort categories were defined. This research investigates the outdoor thermal perception patterns of Hungarians regarding the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature ( PET) index, based on more than 5800 questionnaires. The surveys were conducted in the city of Szeged on 78 days in spring, summer, and autumn. Various, frequently applied analysis approaches (simple descriptive technique, regression analysis, and probit models) were adopted to reveal seasonal differences in the thermal assessment of people. Thermal sensitivity and neutral temperatures were found to be significantly different, especially between summer and the two transient seasons. Challenges of international comparison are also emphasized, since the results prove that neutral temperatures obtained through different analysis techniques may be considerably different. The outcomes of this study underline the importance of the development of standard measurement and analysis methodologies in order to make future studies comprehensible, hereby facilitating the broadening of the common scientific knowledge about outdoor thermal comfort.
Hashimoto, Naoki; Ito, Yoichi M; Okada, Naohiro; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Fujimoto, Michiko; Kudo, Noriko; Takemura, Ariyoshi; Son, Shuraku; Narita, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Maeri; Tha, Khin Khin; Katsuki, Asuka; Ohi, Kazutaka; Yamashita, Fumio; Koike, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Fukunaga, Masaki; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Yamasue, Hidenori; Suzuki, Michio; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kusumi, Ichiro; Hashimoto, Ryota
The effect of duration of illness and antipsychotic medication on the volumes of subcortical structures in schizophrenia is inconsistent among previous reports. We implemented a large sample analysis utilizing clinical data from 11 institutions in a previous meta-analysis. Imaging and clinical data of 778 schizophrenia subjects were taken from a prospective meta-analysis conducted by the COCORO consortium in Japan. The effect of duration of illness and daily dose and type of antipsychotics were assessed using the linear mixed effect model where the volumes of subcortical structures computed by FreeSurfer were used as a dependent variable and age, sex, duration of illness, daily dose of antipsychotics and intracranial volume were used as independent variables, and the type of protocol was incorporated as a random effect for intercept. The statistical significance of fixed-effect of dependent variable was assessed. Daily dose of antipsychotics was positively associated with left globus pallidus volume and negatively associated with right hippocampus. It was also positively associated with laterality index of globus pallidus. Duration of illness was positively associated with bilateral globus pallidus volumes. Type of antipsychotics did not have any effect on the subcortical volumes. A large sample size, uniform data collection methodology and robust statistical analysis are strengths of the current study. This result suggests that we need special attention to discuss about relationship between subcortical regional brain volumes and pathophysiology of schizophrenia because regional brain volumes may be affected by antipsychotic medication.
Cardim, Adriane B; Marinho, Patrícia Em; Nascimento, Jasiel F; Fuzari, Helen Kb; Dornelas de Andrade, Armèle
Whole-body vibration (WBV) is considered a type of physical activity based on the assumption that it results in an increase in muscle strength and performance and, therefore, may be a promising way to exercise patients with COPD. A comprehensive database search (PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, and COCHRANE Library) for randomized trials, including original articles, that compared WBV groups versus control groups was conducted and studies were selected for comparison. The effect of WBV treatment was compared for minimum clinically important differences. The statistical heterogeneity among the studies was assessed using the I2 statistic; the results are expressed as percentages. Inconsistencies of up to 25% were considered low, those between 50 and 75% were considerate moderate, and those > 75% were considered high. Risk of bias was classified based on the Cochrane Collaboration tool, the meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.3 software, and the level of evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. The primary outcome was functional exercise capacity. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, performance in activities of daily living, muscle strength of the lower limbs, and possible adverse effects assessed clinically or by subject reports. We included 4 articles involving 185 subjects for analysis. All subjects in the groups undergoing WBV showed improvement in distance walked in the 6-min walk test compared with the control group (57.85 m, 95% CI 16.36-99.33 m). Regarding the secondary end points, just one article reported improved quality of life and activities of daily living. The only article that assessed muscle strength found no difference between the groups. The quality of evidence for functional exercise capacity outcome was considered moderate. WBV seems to benefit subjects with COPD by improving their functional exercise capacity, without producing adverse effects. The quality of evidence is moderate, but the degree of
Full Text Available Noriyuki Kanzaki,1 Yuta Otsuka,1 Takayuki Izumo,1 Hiroshi Shibata,1 Hideyuki Nagao,2 Keita Ogawara,3 Hiroshi Yamada,3 Seiji Miyazaki,3 Yutaka Nakamura3 1Institute for Health Care Science, Suntory Wellness Ltd, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto, Japan; 2Research Institute of Sports Medical Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, Japan; 3School of Physical Education, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, Japan Background: Previously, we demonstrated that glucosamine-containing supplementation was effective for improving locomotor functions, especially walking speed. However, the biomechanical mechanism of efficacy has not been elucidated. This study aimed to address this challenge in subjects with knee pain, using a motion capture system. Methods: An open label study was conducted in 30 Japanese subjects with knee pain. The subjects were administered a daily supplement containing 1,200 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride, 60 mg of chondroitin sulfate, 45 mg of type II collagen peptides, 90 mg of quercetin glycosides, 10 mg of imidazole peptides, 1 mg of proteoglycan, and 5 µg of vitamin D (GCQID. The intervention continued for 16 weeks. Efficacy for locomotor functions involving the knee joint was evaluated mainly using the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM and the 5-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-5. To examine the biomechanical mechanism of efficacy for locomotor functions, motions of subjects in a normal walking state were captured. Gait analysis was conducted and efficacy for gait parameters such as normal walking speed, stride length, cadence, and angle of soles was evaluated. Results: GCQID significantly improved total scores on the JKOM and GLFS-5. In gait analysis, normal walking speed, stride length, and angle of soles at the end of the stance phase were all significantly increased, but cadence did not change significantly during the intervention period. There were significant intercorrelations of changes in
McCallin, Shawna, E-mail: email@example.com [Nestlé Research Centre, Nestec Ltd, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Alam Sarker, Shafiqul, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Barretto, Caroline, E-mail: Caroline.Barretto@rdls.nestle.com [Nestlé Research Centre, Nestec Ltd, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Sultana, Shamima, E-mail: email@example.com [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Berger, Bernard, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Nestlé Research Centre, Nestec Ltd, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Huq, Sayeda, E-mail: email@example.com [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Krause, Lutz, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Nestlé Research Centre, Nestec Ltd, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Bibiloni, Rodrigo, E-mail: Rodrigo.Bibiloni@agresearch.co.nz [Nestlé Research Centre, Nestec Ltd, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Schmitt, Bertrand, E-mail: email@example.com [Nestlé Research Centre, Nestec Ltd, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Reuteler, Gloria, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Nestlé Research Centre, Nestec Ltd, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Brüssow, Harald, E-mail: email@example.com [Nestlé Research Centre, Nestec Ltd, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland)
Phage therapy has a long tradition in Eastern Europe, where preparations are comprised of complex phage cocktails whose compositions have not been described. We investigated the composition of a phage cocktail from the Russian pharmaceutical company Microgen targeting Escherichia coli/Proteus infections. Electron microscopy identified six phage types, with numerically T7-like phages dominating over T4-like phages. A metagenomic approach using taxonomical classification, reference mapping and de novo assembly identified 18 distinct phage types, including 7 genera of Podoviridae, 2 established and 2 proposed genera of Myoviridae, and 2 genera of Siphoviridae. De novo assembly yielded 7 contigs greater than 30 kb, including a 147-kb Myovirus genome and a 42-kb genome of a potentially new phage. Bioinformatic analysis did not reveal undesired genes and a small human volunteer trial did not associate adverse effects with oral phage exposure. - Highlights: • We analyzed the composition of a commercial Russian phage cocktail. • The cocktail consists of at least 10 different phage genera. • No undesired genes were detected. • No adverse effects were seen upon oral application in a small human clinical trial.
Ngo, Lien; Yoo, Hee-Doo; Tran, Phuong; Cho, Hea-Young; Lee, Yong-Bok
In this study, the population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of rebamipide (Reba) in healthy male Korean subjects was analyzed using the nonlinear mixed effects modeling method. The possible effects of physiological covariates and the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene 3435C>T polymorphism on PK parameters were also investigated. Data were collected from a bioequivalence study, in which 26 subjects who participated in the study were administered a single oral dose of 100 mg Reba; only data from the reference formulation were used. Reba showed a relatively large inter-individual variability (from 2.6- to 3.3-fold) in the PK parameters with double peaks or the concentration plateau after the peak concentration in its serum concentration-time profiles. The population PKs of Reba was best described by a one-compartment model with three fraction absorption processes followed a single Weibull-type function and two first-order kinetics, and lag times. The study suggests that the efflux transporter MDR1 3435C>T allele affects the substantial inter-individual variability in the absorption of Reba according to genetic polymorphism. A significant difference was found in the absorption rate ka 1 among the MDR1 3435C>T genotype groups (P T and body mass index as covariates for ka 1 exerted a more significant effect (P < 0.05). In addition, body surface area significantly affected the apparent total clearance (P < 0.05).
Full Text Available The strain rate sensitivity of concrete material was discovered approximately one hundred years ago, and it has a marked effect on the behaviour of concrete members subjected to dynamic loadings such as strong earthquake and impact loading. Because of the great importance of the confined reinforced concrete (RC columns in RC structures, the dynamic behaviour of the columns induced by the strain rate effect has been studied, but only few experiments and analyses have been conducted. To investigate the behaviour of overlapping hoop-confined square reinforced normal-strength concrete columns, considering the strain rate effect at a strain rate of 10-5/sec to 10-1/sec induced by earthquake excitation, an explicit dynamic finite element analysis (FEA model was developed in ABAQUS to predict the behaviour of confined RC columns subjected to the rapid concentric loading. A locally modified stress-strain relation of confined concrete with the strain rate sensitivity of the concrete material and the confining effect of overlapping hoops were proposed to complete the simulation of the dynamic behaviour of concrete with the concrete plastic-constitutive model in ABAQUS. The finite element predictions are consistent with the existing test results. Based on the FEA model, a parametric investigation was conducted to capture more information about the behaviour of confined RC columns under varying loading rates.
Full Text Available Parametric statistical methods, such as Z-, t-, and F-values, are traditionally employed in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for identifying areas in the brain that are active with a certain degree of statistical significance. These parametric methods, however, have two major drawbacks. First, it is assumed that the observed data are Gaussian distributed and independent; assumptions that generally are not valid for fMRI data. Second, the statistical test distribution can be derived theoretically only for very simple linear detection statistics. With nonparametric statistical methods, the two limitations described above can be overcome. The major drawback of non-parametric methods is the computational burden with processing times ranging from hours to days, which so far have made them impractical for routine use in single-subject fMRI analysis. In this work, it is shown how the computational power of cost-efficient graphics processing units (GPUs can be used to speed up random permutation tests. A test with 10000 permutations takes less than a minute, making statistical analysis of advanced detection methods in fMRI practically feasible. To exemplify the permutation-based approach, brain activity maps generated by the general linear model (GLM and canonical correlation analysis (CCA are compared at the same significance level.
Eklund, Anders; Andersson, Mats; Knutsson, Hans
Parametric statistical methods, such as Z-, t-, and F-values, are traditionally employed in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for identifying areas in the brain that are active with a certain degree of statistical significance. These parametric methods, however, have two major drawbacks. First, it is assumed that the observed data are Gaussian distributed and independent; assumptions that generally are not valid for fMRI data. Second, the statistical test distribution can be derived theoretically only for very simple linear detection statistics. With nonparametric statistical methods, the two limitations described above can be overcome. The major drawback of non-parametric methods is the computational burden with processing times ranging from hours to days, which so far have made them impractical for routine use in single-subject fMRI analysis. In this work, it is shown how the computational power of cost-efficient graphics processing units (GPUs) can be used to speed up random permutation tests. A test with 10000 permutations takes less than a minute, making statistical analysis of advanced detection methods in fMRI practically feasible. To exemplify the permutation-based approach, brain activity maps generated by the general linear model (GLM) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) are compared at the same significance level. PMID:22046176
Iacus, Stefano Maria; Salini, Silvia; Siletti, Elena
This paper applies a novel technique of opinion analysis over social media data with the aim of proposing a new indicator of perceived and subjective well-being. This new index, namely SWBI, examines several dimension of individual and social life. The indicator has been compared to some other existing indexes of well-being and health conditions in Italy: the BES (Benessere Equo Sostenibile), the incidence rate of influenza and the abundance of PM10 in urban environments. SWBI is a daily measure available at province level. BES data, currently available only for 2013 and 2014, are annual and available at regional level. Flu data are weekly and distributed as regional data and PM10 are collected daily for different cities. Due to the fact that the time scale and space granularity of the different indexes varies, we apply a novel statistical technique to discover nowcasting features and the classical latent analysis to study the relationships among them. A preliminary analysis suggest that the environmental and...
Yadav, Amit; Panda, Sarat Kumar; Dey, Tanish
Present analysis deals with nonlinear flexural-torsional vibration and dynamic instability of thin-walled stiffener beam with open section subjected to harmonic in-plane loading. The static and dynamic components of the applied harmonic in-plane loading are assumed to vary uniformly. A set of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) describing the vibration of system is derived. Using Galerkin's method, these partial differential equations are reduced into coupled Mathieu equations. The steady state response of the system is determined by solving the condition for a non-trivial solution. The principal regions of parametric resonance are determined using the method suggested by Bolotin. The numerical results are presented to investigate the effect of aspect ratios, boundary conditions and static load factor on the frequency-amplitude responses and instability regions.
Bao, Yi; Chen, Yizheng; Hoehler, Matthew S; Smith, Christopher M; Bundy, Matthew; Chen, Genda
This paper presents high temperature measurements using a Brillouin scattering-based fiber optic sensor and the application of the measured temperatures and building code recommended material parameters into enhanced thermomechanical analysis of simply supported steel beams subjected to combined thermal and mechanical loading. The distributed temperature sensor captures detailed, nonuniform temperature distributions that are compared locally with thermocouple measurements with less than 4.7% average difference at 95% confidence level. The simulated strains and deflections are validated using measurements from a second distributed fiber optic (strain) sensor and two linear potentiometers, respectively. The results demonstrate that the temperature-dependent material properties specified in the four investigated building codes lead to strain predictions with less than 13% average error at 95% confidence level and that the Europe building code provided the best predictions. However, the implicit consideration of creep in Europe is insufficient when the beam temperature exceeds 800°C.
Monticone, Marco; Ferrante, Simona; Rocca, Barbara; Nava, Tiziana; Parini, Chiara; Cerri, Cesare
Cross-sectional evaluation of the psychometric properties of a translated questionnaire. To validate the Italian version of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) to allow its use with Italian-speaking patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). Growing attention is being given to cognitive-behavioral measures to improve interventions for LBP. The CPAQ has never been validated in Italian subjects with chronic LBP. The psychometric testing included confirmatory factor analysis, reliability by internal consistency (Cronbach α), test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient), sensitivity to change by calculating the smallest detectable change, and construct validity by comparing CPAQ with a pain numerical rating scale, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (Pearson correlations). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were computed to further investigate construct validity of the CPAQ subscales. The questionnaire was administered to 142 subjects with chronic LBP. Factor analysis confirmed a 2-factor (viz., Activities Engagement and Pain Willingness) 20-item solution, achieving a good data-model fit. Internal consistency (α = 0.88) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.86) were good. The smallest detectable change was 22. Construct validity showed a moderate correlation between the CPAQ and numerical rating scale (r = -0.485), Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire Scale (r = -0.594), and Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (r = -0.595), and a close correlation with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (r = -0.610 for the Anxiety score and r = -0.659 for the Depression score) and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (r = -0.658). The standardized regression coefficients for Activity Engagement were significant in all of the equations, and those for Pain Willingness were significant in the anxiety
This study investigated the relationship among emotional intelligence, gratitude, and subjective well-being in a sample of university students. A total of 365 undergraduates completed the emotional intelligence scale, the gratitude questionnaire, and the subjective well-being measures. The results of the structural equation model showed that emotional intelligence is positively associated with gratitude and subjective well-being, that gratitude is positively associated with subjective well-being, and that gratitude partially mediates the positive relationship between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being. Bootstrap test results also revealed that emotional intelligence has a significant indirect effect on subjective well-being through gratitude.
Emig, Christian; Momm, Christof; Weisser, Jochen; Abeck, Sebastian
A software application is related to the processes it supports. Today, UML diagrams esp. use case diagrams and activity diagrams are often used to model the relevant aspects of the processes within the analysis phase. In the design phase the models are manually mapped to the business layer of the software application. In the context of Service-oriented Architectures (SOA) Programming in the Large takes a different approach: Business processes are described in a programming language, i.e. a pr...
Hou, G-L; Hung, C-C; Yang, Y-S; Shieh, T-Y; Tsai, C-C
To determine differences in radiographic alveolar bone loss (RABL) by age group, gender and tooth type in subjects with adult periodontitis using the digital scanning radiographic image analysis (DSRIA) method...
Tomita, Tetsu; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sugawara, Norio; Takahashi, Ippei; Sawada, Kaori; Nakamura, Kazuhiko
We aimed to discriminate individuals with depressive state from individuals with cognitive impairment among community-dwelling people using the subjective memory complaints (SMC) scale. The study group consisted of 289 volunteers (over 60 years old; 104 males and 185 females). Participants' SMCs were assessed using the SMC scale. The Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination were administered. Participants whose Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression scores were 16 or higher were defined as the depressive group and participants whose Mini-Mental State Examination scores were less than 24 were defined as the cognitive impairment group. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify the factor structure of the items of the SMC scale. A multiple logistic regression analysis of the association between depressive state and cognitive impairment and the score of each factor was performed. In the final factor analysis model, six items of the SMC scale remained, and a two-factor structure was adequate. Factor 1 included the items 8, 9, and 10 about thought or the ability to think; thus, Factor 1 was defined as "thought disturbance factor". Factor 2 included the items 1, 2, and 4 about memory or forgetfulness; thus, Factor 2 was defined as "memory disturbance factor". In the multiple logistic regression analysis, Factor 1 was significantly associated with depressive state and Factor 2 was significantly associated with cognitive impairment. For individuals with SMCs, we might be able to discriminate depressive state or depression from cognitive impairment or dementia through a detailed investigation using the SMC scale.
This book comprehensively presents topics, such as Dirac notation, tensor analysis, elementary differential geometry of moving surfaces, and k-differential forms. Additionally, two new chapters of Cartan differential forms and Dirac and tensor notations in quantum mechanics are added to this second edition. The reader is provided with hands-on calculations and worked-out examples at which he will learn how to handle the bra-ket notation, tensors, differential geometry, and differential forms; and to apply them to the physical and engineering world. Many methods and applications are given in CFD, continuum mechanics, electrodynamics in special relativity, cosmology in the Minkowski four-dimensional spacetime, and relativistic and non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Tensors, differential geometry, differential forms, and Dirac notation are very useful advanced mathematical tools in many fields of modern physics and computational engineering. They are involved in special and general relativity physics, quantum m...
Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung
RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value genes were found to be differentially expressed on days 1, 2, and 3 out of which 343, 261 and 256 genes were upregulated and 159, 133, and 120 genes were downregulated. Only 356 genes out of these were expressed on all 3 days, and only they were considered as significantly differentially expressed. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that ten pathways were significantly enriched; the top two among them were protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.
Castro, Verônica Moreira Ferreira de; Melo, Angelita Cristine de; Belo, Vinícius Silva; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia
Although uric acid is not part of any definition of metabolic syndrome, a number of studies have shown strong associations between the concentration of uric acid and metabolic syndrome or its components. The purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate, using prospective interventional studies, the effects of allopurinol therapy and uric acid normalization on serum concentrations of triacylglycerol, total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in hyperuricemic subjects. A systematic search of the PubMed and Scopus databases was performed following the guidelines described in the PRISMA statement. Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis, including six randomized controlled trials and one controlled before-and-after study. Despite differences in the follow-up periods (4, 12 and 24weeks) and allopurinol dose (100-300mg/day), all the studies showed decreases in the mean serum uric acid level (95% confidence interval: -2.61 to -1.55 (4weeks), -2.94 to -1.09 (12weeks) and -2.59 to -1.22 (24weeks); plipid levels, although larger and longer trials of higher quality are needed to confirm this. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mam-Lam-Fook, C; Danset-Alexandre, C; Pedron, L; Amado, I; Gaillard, R; Krebs, M-O
Cognitive disorders are currently considered as central components of disorders found in schizophrenia and are a major handicap for patients day to day. These disorders appear before the first psychotic episode, in the prodromal phase, during which time the symptoms are below the threshold for psychosis. People with these symptoms are considered as presenting an at-risk mental state (or at ultra-high risk, UHR of psychosis) and their risk for psychotic transition is between 20% and 40% within one year. Despite a number of studies, the chronology in which cognitive disorders appear in relation to the psychotic symptoms has not clearly been established and the study of the links between cognition and symptoms could improve our understanding of psychotic disorders. The detection of certain cognitive disorders before the onset of psychotic disorders could help improve early detection. We carried out a systematic analysis of the literature exploring cognitive disorders found in subjects with UHR for psychosis. The objective of most studies was to establish the predictive value for psychotic transition. Nevertheless study results have shown little consensus. Faced with this heterogeneity of results from past studies, we carried out a critical analysis of the literature and suggest areas of reflection for future research. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Chase Ivan D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers have developed a variety of techniques for the visual presentation of quantitative data. These techniques can help to reveal trends and regularities that would be difficult to see if the data were left in raw form. Such techniques can be of great help in exploratory data analysis, making apparent the organization of data sets, developing new hypotheses, and in selecting effects to be tested by statistical analysis. Researchers studying social interaction in groups of animals and humans, however, have few tools to present their raw data visually, and it can be especially difficult to perceive patterns in these data. In this paper I introduce a new graphical method for the visual display of interaction records in human and animal groups, and I illustrate this method using data taken on chickens forming dominance hierarchies. Results This new method presents data in a way that can help researchers immediately to see patterns and connections in long, detailed records of interaction. I show a variety of ways in which this new technique can be used: (1 to explore trends in the formation of both group social structures and individual relationships; (2 to compare interaction records across groups of real animals and between real animals and computer-simulated animal interactions; (3 to search for and discover new types of small-scale interaction sequences; and (4 to examine how interaction patterns in larger groups might emerge from those in component subgroups. In addition, I discuss how this method can be modified and extended for visualizing a variety of different kinds of social interaction in both humans and animals. Conclusion This method can help researchers develop new insights into the structure and organization of social interaction. Such insights can make it easier for researchers to explain behavioural processes, to select aspects of data for statistical analysis, to design further studies, and to formulate
Busch, Robert; Hobbs, Brian D; Zhou, Jin; Castaldi, Peter J; McGeachie, Michael J; Hardin, Megan E; Hawrylkiewicz, Iwona; Sliwinski, Pawel; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin; Kim, Deog K; Agusti, Alvar; Make, Barry J; Crapo, James D; Calverley, Peter M; Donner, Claudio F; Lomas, David A; Wouters, Emiel F; Vestbo, Jørgen; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Litonjua, Augusto A; Sparrow, David; Paré, Peter D; Levy, Robert D; Rennard, Stephen I; Beaty, Terri H; Hokanson, John; Silverman, Edwin K; Cho, Michael H
The heritability of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cannot be fully explained by recognized genetic risk factors identified as achieving genome-wide significance. In addition, the combined contribution of genetic variation to COPD risk has not been fully explored. We sought to determine: (1) whether studies of variants from previous studies of COPD or lung function in a larger sample could identify additional associated variants, particularly for severe COPD; and (2) the impact of genetic risk scores on COPD. We genotyped 3,346 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2,588 cases (1,803 severe COPD) and 1,782 control subjects from four cohorts, and performed association testing with COPD, combining these results with existing genotyping data from 6,633 cases (3,497 severe COPD) and 5,704 control subjects. In addition, we developed genetic risk scores from SNPs associated with lung function and COPD and tested their discriminatory power for COPD-related measures. We identified significant associations between SNPs near PPIC (P = 1.28 × 10-8) and PPP4R4/SERPINA1 (P = 1.01 × 10-8) and severe COPD; the latter association may be driven by recognized variants in SERPINA1. Genetic risk scores based on SNPs previously associated with COPD and lung function had a modest ability to discriminate COPD (area under the curve, ∼0.6), and accounted for a mean 0.9-1.9% lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted for each additional risk allele. In a large genetic association analysis, we identified associations with severe COPD near PPIC and SERPINA1. A risk score based on combining genetic variants had modest, but significant, effects on risk of COPD and lung function.
Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the use of linear and nonlinear methods for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV in healthy subjects and in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Heart rate (HR was recorded for 15 min in the supine position in 10 patients with AMI taking β-blockers (aged 57 ± 9 years and in 11 healthy subjects (aged 53 ± 4 years. HRV was analyzed in the time domain (RMSSD and RMSM, the frequency domain using low- and high-frequency bands in normalized units (nu; LFnu and HFnu and the LF/HF ratio and approximate entropy (ApEn were determined. There was a correlation (P < 0.05 of RMSSD, RMSM, LFnu, HFnu, and the LF/HF ratio index with the ApEn of the AMI group on the 2nd (r = 0.87, 0.65, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.64 and 7th day (r = 0.88, 0.70, 0.69, 0.69, and 0.87 and of the healthy group (r = 0.63, 0.71, 0.63, 0.63, and 0.74, respectively. The median HRV indexes of the AMI group on the 2nd and 7th day differed from the healthy group (P < 0.05: RMSSD = 10.37, 19.95, 24.81; RMSM = 23.47, 31.96, 43.79; LFnu = 0.79, 0.79, 0.62; HFnu = 0.20, 0.20, 0.37; LF/HF ratio = 3.87, 3.94, 1.65; ApEn = 1.01, 1.24, 1.31, respectively. There was agreement between the methods, suggesting that these have the same power to evaluate autonomic modulation of HR in both AMI patients and healthy subjects. AMI contributed to a reduction in cardiac signal irregularity, higher sympathetic modulation and lower vagal modulation.
Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen
A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...
Delir Haghighi, Pari; Kang, Yong-Bin; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Burstein, Frada; Whittle, Samuel
Little is understood about the determinants of symptom expression in individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). While individuals with FMS often report environmental influences, including weather events, on their symptom severity, a consistent effect of specific weather conditions on FMS symptoms has yet to be demonstrated. Content analysis of a large number of messages by individuals with FMS on Twitter can provide valuable insights into variation in the fibromyalgia experience from a first-person perspective. The objective of our study was to use content analysis of tweets to investigate the association between weather conditions and fibromyalgia symptoms among individuals who tweet about fibromyalgia. Our second objective was to gain insight into how Twitter is used as a form of communication and expression by individuals with fibromyalgia and to explore and uncover thematic clusters and communities related to weather. Computerized sentiment analysis was performed to measure the association between negative sentiment scores (indicative of severe symptoms such as pain) and coincident environmental variables. Date, time, and location data for each individual tweet were used to identify corresponding climate data (such as temperature). We used graph analysis to investigate the frequency and distribution of domain-related terms exchanged in Twitter and their association strengths. A community detection algorithm was applied to partition the graph and detect different communities. We analyzed 140,432 tweets related to fibromyalgia from 2008 to 2014. There was a very weak positive correlation between humidity and negative sentiment scores (r=.009, P=.001). There was no significant correlation between other environmental variables and negative sentiment scores. The graph analysis showed that "pain" and "chronicpain" were the most frequently used terms. The Louvain method identified 6 communities. Community 1 was related to feelings and symptoms at the time
Full Text Available Backgrounds: There is growing evidence from both observational and intervention studies that Whole Grain (WG cereals exert beneficial effects on human health, especially on the metabolic profile. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT to assess the acute and medium/long-term effect of WG foods on glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals. Methods: A search for all the published RCT on the effect of WG food intake on glycaemic and insulin response was performed up to December 2016. Effect size consisted of mean difference (MD and 95% CI between the outcomes of intervention and the control groups using the generic inverse-variance random effects model. Results: The meta-analysis of the 14 studies testing the acute effects of WG foods showed significant reductions of the post-prandial values of the glucose iAUC (0–120 min by −29.71 mmol min/L (95% CI: −43.57, −15.85 mmol min/L, the insulin iAUC (0–120 min by −2.01 nmol min/L (95% CI: −2.88, −1.14 nmol min/L, and the maximal glucose and insulin response. In 16 medium- and long-term RCTs, effects of WG foods on fasting glucose and insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance values were not significant. Conclusions: The consumption of WG foods is able to improve acutely the postprandial glucose and insulin homeostasis compared to similar refined foods in healthy subjects. Further research is needed to better understand the long-term effects and the biological mechanisms.
Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Jun; Yoshii, Fumuhito; Kazama, Toshiki; Kawada, Shuichi; Imai, Yutaka
Discrimination between Alzheimer's disease and other dementia is clinically significant, however it is often difficult. In this study, we developed classification models among Alzheimer's disease (AD), other dementia (OD) and/or normal subjects (NC) using patient factors and indices obtained by brain perfusion SPECT. SPECT is commonly used to assess cerebral blood flow (CBF) and allows the evaluation of the severity of hypoperfusion by introducing statistical parametric mapping (SPM). We investigated a total of 150 cases (50 cases each for AD, OD, and NC) from Tokai University Hospital, Japan. In each case, we obtained a total of 127 candidate parameters from: (A) 2 patient factors (age and sex), (B) 12 CBF parameters and 113 SPM parameters including (C) 3 from specific volume analysis (SVA), and (D) 110 from voxel-based analysis stereotactic extraction estimation (vbSEE). We built linear classifiers with a statistical stepwise feature selection and evaluated the performance with the leave-one-out cross validation strategy. Our classifiers achieved very high classification performances with reasonable number of selected parameters. In the most significant discrimination in clinical, namely those of AD from OD, our classifier achieved both sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) of 96%. In a similar way, our classifiers achieved a SE of 90% and a SP of 98% in AD from NC, as well as a SE of 88% and a SP of 86% in AD from OD and NC cases. Introducing SPM indices such as SVA and vbSEE, classification performances improved around 7-15%. We confirmed that these SPM factors are quite important for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease.
Choi, J W; Kim, B R; Lee, H S; Youn, S W
Rosacea and seborrhoeic dermatitis are common diseases that cause facial erythema. They have common features and are frequently misdiagnosed. To extract characteristic features of erythrotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR), papulopustular rosacea (PPR) and seborrhoeic dermatitis (SEB) through computer-aided image analysis (CAIA) and compare them with subjectively recognized features and to use these findings to construct a decision tree for differential diagnosis. Thirty-four clinical photos of patients with facial erythema were assessed: 12 patients were classified as showing ETR, 12 as PPR and 10 as SEB. Five dermatologists blinded to the original diagnosis gave their impressions of each photo. The mean, SD and T-zone to U-zone (T/U) ratios of the erythema parameter a* (a* of the L*a*b* colour space) were calculated for each photo using CAIA. These CAIA parameters were compared between impression groups. The most closely related CAIA parameter for each disease was established using the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. A decision tree which predicts the diagnosis from given CAIA parameters was constructed. All the photos classified as PPR generated impressions of PPR. However, approximately 30% of the photos classified as ETR generated impressions of SEB and vice versa. PPR was characterized by a large SD of erythema of the cheek, ETR was characterized by a large mean erythema of the U-zone, and SEB was characterized by a large T/U ratio of mean erythema. Fifteen additional photos were examined: the decision tree predicted the original diagnosis for 14, but incorrectly predicted one case of ETR as SEB. The CAIA result of facial erythema is well correlated with the actual clinical diagnosis. The accuracy of differential diagnosis using a decision tree with CAIA parameters is as good as that of global examination impressions of dermatologists. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.
Tenan, Matthew S
Indirect calorimetry and oxygen consumption (VO2) are accepted tools in human physiology research. It has been shown that indirect calorimetry systems exhibit differential measurement error, where the error of a device is systematically different depending on the volume of gas flow. Moreover, systems commonly report multiple decimal places of precision, giving the clinician a false sense of device accuracy. The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate the use of a novel statistical tool which models the reliability of two specific indirect calorimetry systems, Douglas bag and Parvomedics 2400 TrueOne, as univariate normal distributions and implements the distribution overlapping coefficient to determine the likelihood that two VO2 measures are the same. A command line implementation of the tool is available for the R programming language as well as a web-based graphical user interface (GUI). This tool is valuable for clinicians performing a single-subject analysis as well as researchers interested in determining if their observed differences exceed the error of the device.
Wang, Weiwei; Jovel, Juan; Halloran, Brendan; Wine, Eytan; Patterson, Jordan; Ford, Glenn; OʼKeefe, Sandra; Meng, Bo; Song, Deyong; Zhang, Yong; Tian, Zhijian; Wasilenko, Shawn T; Rahbari, Mandana; Reza, Salman; Mitchell, Troy; Jordan, Tracy; Carpenter, Eric; Madsen, Karen; Fedorak, Richard; Dielemann, Levinus A; Ka-Shu Wong, Gane; Mason, Andrew L
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are poorly understood disorders affecting the intestinal tract. The current model for disease suggests that genetically susceptible patients develop intolerance to gut microflora, and chronic inflammation develops as a result of environmental insults. Although interest has mainly focused on studying genetic variants and gut bacterial flora, little is known about the potential of viral infection to contribute to disease. Accordingly, we conducted a metagenomic analysis to document the baseline virome in colonic biopsy samples from patients with IBD in order to assess the contribution of viral infection to IBD. Libraries were generated from colon RNA to create approximately 2 GB sequence data per library. Using a bioinformatic pipeline designed to detect viral sequences, more than 1000 viral reads were derived directly from tissue without any coculture or isolation procedure. Herein, we describe the complexity and abundance of viruses, bacteria/bacteriophage, and human endogenous retroviral sequences from 10 patients with IBD and 5 healthy subjects undergoing surveillance colonoscopy. Differences in gut microflora and the abundance of mammalian viruses and human endogenous retroviruses were readily detected in the metagenomic analyses. Specifically, patients with herpesviridae sequences in their colon demonstrated increased expression of human endogenous viral sequences and differences in the diversity of their microbiome. This study provides a promising metagenomic approach to describe the colonic microbiome that can be used to better understand virus-host and phage-bacteria interactions in IBD.
Zapata, Félix; García-Ruiz, Carmen
Post-explosion scenes offer such chaos and destruction that evidence recovery and detection of post-blast residues from the explosive in the surrounding materials is highly challenging and difficult. The suitability of materials to retain explosives residues and their subsequent analysis has been scarcely investigated. Particularly, the use of explosive mixtures containing inorganic oxidizing salts to make improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a current security concern due to their wide availability and lax control. In this work, a wide variety of materials such as glass, steel, plywood, plastic bag, brick, cardboard or cotton subjected to open-air explosions were examined using confocal Raman microscopy, aiming to detect the inorganic oxidizing salts contained in explosives as black powder, chloratite, dynamite, ammonium nitrate fuel oil and ammonal. Post-blast residues were detected through microscopic examination of materials surfaces. In general, the more homogeneous and smoother the surface was, the less difficulties and better results in terms of identification were obtained. However, those highly irregular surfaces were the most unsuitable collectors for the posterior identification of explosive traces by Raman microscopy. The findings, difficulties and some recommendations related to the identification of post-blast particles in the different materials studied are thoroughly discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung
RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.
Ren, Peng; Zhang, Wei
Dynamic response analysis of structures subjected to underwater explosion loading has been always an interesting field for researchers. Understanding the deformation and failure mechanism of simple structures plays an important role in an actual project under this kind of loading. In this paper, the deformation and failure characteristics of 5A06 aluminum circular plates were investigated computationally and theoretically. The computational study was based on a Johnson-cook material parameter mode which was obtained from several previous studies provides a good description of deformation and failure of 5A06 aluminum circular plates under underwater explosion loading. The deformation history of the clamped circular plate is recorded; the maximum deflection and the thickness reduction measurements of target plates at different radii were conducted. The computational approach provided insight into the relationship between the failure mechanism and the strength of impact wave, and a computing formulae for strain field of the specimen was derived based on the same volume principle and rigid-plastic assumption. The simulation and theoretical calculation results are in good agreement with the experiments results. National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO:11272057).
Karen Greco Soares
Full Text Available This study aims to understand how the discursive formation of the LGBT subject occurs on a communication strategy of the Carrefour multinational, the primer “ Valorizamos a diversidade”. Starting from bibliographical research about social communication as a space of dispute of senses, this study intends to approximate the area of public relations with the studies of gender, prospecting how this new strategies are part of a process of redefinition of communicative practices on organizations, which becomes to act towards the recognition of the gender issues. Through the methodological assumptions presented in Pêcheaux (1988, this study is also an exercise about the gender discourse analysis on the organizations. By this perspective, this process is understood as a symbolic change in the meanings that the organizations attribute to their strategies and also a place that benefits the recognition and visibility of the LGBT sociocultural group in those places.
Damsgård, Elin; Fors, Terese; Anke, Audny; Røe, Cecilie
The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia in patients with low back pain and in patients with more widespread pain distribution including low back pain. A total of 120 subjects, 48 with isolated low back pain and 72 with more widespread pain distribution were included. The Norwegian translation of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, Hopkins Symptom Check List 25 question version and Fear Avoidance Behaviour Questionnaire were completed. The properties of the Norwegian translation of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia were explored by a Rasch analysis. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia fitted the Rasch model and passed the independent t-test for a unidimensional scale. The response categories for some of the items needed to be collapsed from 4 to 3 levels. Only the item "It's not really safe for a person with a condition like mine to be physically active" was significantly different in men and women. The Norwegian translation of Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia seems to reflect a unidimensional construct of kinesiophobia. The scale seemed to be quite robust across age and gender, and the response patterns to the items were similar in patients with low back pain and widespread pain distribution including low back pain.
Full Text Available In this study, elasto-plastic stress analysis is carried out in a polymer matrix composite cantilever beam of arbitrary fiber orientation subjected to a single transverse force applied to the free end by using the anisotropic elasticity theory. The residual stress component of ?x and yield points are determined for 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° fiber orientation angles. The yielding begins for 0° and 90° fiber orientation angles at the upper and lower surfaces of the beam at the same distances from the free end. It is seen that the yielding begins for 30°, 45° and 60° fiber orientation angles at the upper surface of the beam. The intensity of the residual stress component of ?x is maximum at the upper and lower surfaces of the beam. In this study, the residual stress component of ?x obtained for the polymer matrix composite thermoplastic cantilever beam reinforced by reinforced unidirectional fibers is compared with that of the thermoplastic cantilever beam reinforced by woven Cr-Ni steel fibers.
Prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis (leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose) in a population of 3645 adult subjects--consequence for measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate
Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K
OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose in the general population and measure the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in subjects with or without a positive dipstick analysis. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...
Full Text Available Aim. The results of the first stage of the Russian-Slovenian crosscultural research are provided in the present article; the purpose is identification of the key factors that have an impact on the choice of control criteria of a management activity by the Russian and Slovenian leaders.Methods. Empirical information acquisition was made on the basis of the questionnaire «Subjective criteria of monitoring of activities performance» by G. Miroljubova and F. Ismagilova. The correlation analysis using nonparametric criteria (Kendall’s tau-b and Spearman’s rho, Mann – Whitney U-test and a method of descriptive statistics were used to process the received results of the research. Calculation of data was performed by means of a software package SPSS Statistics 17,0.Results. The research unit which is stated in the publication has comparative character and includes three stages. The difference of managers’ positions in Russia and Slovenia concerning self-checking of managerial activities was studied at the first stage. When researching the Russian managerial activity, listeners and graduates of the Presidential program of preparation of a managerial personnel provided by the Business School of the Ural State Federal University named after B. N. Yeltsin (Ekaterinburg were engaged. The research has showed that both groups of measurable and weakly-measurable parameters are equally presented in the structure of subjective control criteria among managers. The significant differences are revealed between average values of the measured criteria of all types (natural, binary, criteria of a ratio and fitting in the Russian (56,11 and Slovenian (60,39 samples. Scientific novelty. Activities control is a capability of a person to influence on the process and result of own work that is an extremely important aspect of professional competence of leading experts and managers. This aspect should be considered in programs of managerial professional training
Jarosova, Darja; Gurkova, Elena; Ziakova, Katarina; Nedvedova, Daniela; Palese, Alvisa; Godeas, Gloria; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Song, Mi Sook; Lee, Jongwon; Cordeiro, Raul; Babiarczyk, Beata; Fras, Malgorzata
There is a considerable amount of empirical evidence to indicate a positive association between an employee's subjective well-being and workplace performance and job satisfaction. Compared with nursing research, there is a relative lack of consistent scientific evidence concerning midwives' subjective well-being and its determinants related to domains of job satisfaction. The purpose of the study was to examine the association between the domains of job satisfaction and components of subjective well-being in hospital midwives. This cross-sectional descriptive study involved 1190 hospital midwives from 7 countries. Job satisfaction was measured by the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale. Subjective well-being was conceptualized in the study by the 2 components (the affective and the cognitive component). The affective component of subjective well-being (ie, emotional well-being) was assessed by the Positive and the Negative Affect Scale. The cognitive component of subjective well-being (ie, life satisfaction) was measured by the Personal Well-Being Index. Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to determine associations between variables. Findings from correlation and regression analyses indicated an overall weak association between the domains of job satisfaction and components of subjective well-being. Satisfaction with extrinsic rewards, coworkers, and interaction opportunities accounted for only 13% of variance in the cognitive component (life satisfaction). The affective component (emotional well-being) was weakly associated with satisfaction with control and responsibility. The low amount of variance suggests that neither component of subjective well-being is influenced by the domains of job satisfaction. Further studies should focus on identifying other predictors of subjective well-being among midwives. A better understanding of how specific job facets are related to the subjective well-being of midwives might assist employers in the
Full Text Available Considerando o consumo como o conjunto de processos socioculturais nos quais se realizam a apropriação e os usos dos produtos, este artigo tem por proposta uma análise histórica das principais teorizações sobre esta temática, com destaque às análises que se preocuparam com efeitos de subjetivação advindos da "sociedade de consumo". Apresenta e analisa as primeiras contribuições para esta discussão em Marx e em alguns autores da Escola de Frankfurt; discute os desenvolvimentos teóricos que buscam na Semiologia um apoio para a compreensão do comportamento consumista e finaliza com a apresentação e análise de algumas teorizações que tomaram a temática no contexto da globalização. O artigo conclui destacando a importância da continuidade dos estudos sobre a temática, que considerem as suas múltiplas facetas - econômicas, políticas, históricas, sociais, culturais e psicológicas - e que relevem, no exame empírico, a concreticidade de espaços sociais específicos.Considering the consumption as a set of sociocultural processes in which the appropriation and the uses of the products take place, this article proposes a historical analysis of the main theories about this topic, emphasizing the analysis that examined the effects of subjectivity on the "consumer society". It presents and analyzes the first contributions for this discussion in Marx and in some authors from the Frankfurt School; it discusses the theoretical developments that borrow from Semiology a support for the understanding of the consumption behavior and it concludes with the presentation and analysis of some theories that consider the topic in the global context. The paper concludes with an exam of the importance of further studies about consumption, considering its multiple interfaces, economical, political, historical, social, cultural and psychological, and that raise, in the empiric exam, the concrete aspect of specific social spaces.
Avaliação da qualidade das anotações de enfermagem embasadas no processo de enfermagem Evaluacion de las anotaciones de enfermerÍa con base en el processo de enfermería Evaluation of the nursing notations based on nursing process
Full Text Available Estudo retrospectivo no qual foram analisadas as anotações de enfermagem em uma Unidade Especializada que desenvolve o cuidado ao paciente embasado no Processo de Enfermagem. Os dados foram coletados em dois prontuários, utilizando-se instrumento construído para esta finalidade. Na análise, considerou-se, aspectos que avaliaram aparência e conteúdo dos registros. Nos resultados, o auxiliar de enfermagem destacou-se pelo maior número de anotações extensas e pouco específicas, já nos registros realizados pelo enfermeiro observou-se maior número de anotações legíveis e objetivas. Por expressar o trabalho da Enfermagem, maiores investimentos devem ser feitos para tornar as anotações de enfermagem mais objetivas e completas.Estudio retrospectivo en el cual furaon analizados las anotaciones de enfermería en una Unidad Especializada que desarrolla el cuidado al paciente baseado en el Proceso de Enfermería. Los datos fueron colectados en dos historias clínicas utilizandose instrumento construido para esta finalidad. En el análisis fueron considerados aspectos que evaluaron la apariencia y el contenido de los registros. En los resultados el auxiliar de enfermería se destacó por el mayor número de anotaciones de características extensas y poco específicas. En los registros realizados por el enfermero se observó mayor número de anotaciones legibles y objetivas. Por expresar el trabajo de Enfermería, mayores inversiones deben ser realizadas para tornar las anotaciones de enfermería más completas y objetivas.This is a retrospective study that analyzed the nursing notations in a Specialized Unit which develops the care to the patient based on Nursing Process. The data were collected through two promptuaries utilizing instrument constructed for this purpose. Aspects which valuate appearance and content were considered in the analysis. The nursing assistant was distinguished in the results considering the bigger number of
Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other.
Salem, Ahmed Hamed; Jones, Aksana Kaefer; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Taylor, Graham P; Patterson, Kristine B; Nilius, Angela M; Klein, Cheri Enders
Lopinavir-ritonavir is frequently prescribed to HIV-1-infected women during pregnancy. Decreased lopinavir exposure has been reported during pregnancy, but the clinical significance of this reduction is uncertain. This analysis aimed to evaluate the need for lopinavir dose adjustment during pregnancy. We conducted a population pharmacokinetic analysis of lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations collected from 84 pregnant and 595 nonpregnant treatment-naive and -experienced HIV-1-infected subjects enrolled in six clinical studies. Lopinavir-ritonavir doses in the studies ranged between 400/100 and 600/150 mg twice daily. In addition, linear mixed-effect analysis was used to compare the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h (AUC0-12) and concentration prior to dosing (Cpredose) in pregnant women and nonpregnant subjects. The relationship between lopinavir exposure and virologic suppression in pregnant women and nonpregnant subjects was evaluated. Population pharmacokinetic analysis estimated 17% higher lopinavir clearance in pregnant women than in nonpregnant subjects. Lopinavir clearance values postpartum were 26.4% and 37.1% lower than in nonpregnant subjects and pregnant women, respectively. As the tablet formulation was estimated to be 20% more bioavailable than the capsule formulation, no statistically significant differences between lopinavir exposure in pregnant women receiving the tablet formulation and nonpregnant subjects receiving the capsule formulation were identified. In the range of lopinavir AUC0-12 or Cpredose values observed in the third trimester, there was no correlation between lopinavir exposure and viral load or proportion of subjects with virologic suppression. Similar efficacy was observed between pregnant women and nonpregnant subjects receiving lopinavir-ritonavir at 400/100 mg twice daily. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic results support the use of a lopinavir-ritonavir 400/100-mg twice-daily dose during pregnancy
A three-dimensional finite elements analysis is reported of the nonlinear behavior of PCRV subjected to internal pressure by comparing calculated results with test results. As the first stage, an analysis considering the nonlinearity of cracking in concrete was attempted. As a result, it is found possible to make an analysis up to three times the design pressure (50 kg/sqcm), and calculated results agree well with test results.
The article focus on the complementarity of oral/aural transmission and written documents in the sustainment and development of Byzantine chant from c. 500 -c. 1500.......The article focus on the complementarity of oral/aural transmission and written documents in the sustainment and development of Byzantine chant from c. 500 -c. 1500....
Almomania, Belal; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sanghoon [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)
Several numerical methods and tests have been carried out to measure the capability of storage cask to withstand extreme impact loads. Testing methods are often constrained by cost, and difficulty in preparation for several impact conditions with different applied loads, and areas of impact. Instead, analytic method is an acceptable process that can easily apply different impact conditions for the evaluation of cask integrity. The aircraft engine impact is considered as one of the most critical impact accidents on the storage cask that significantly affects onto the lid closure system and may cause a considerable release of radioactive materials. This paper presents a method for evaluating the dynamic responses of one upper metal cask lid closure without impact limiters subjected to lateral impact of an aircraft engine with respect to variation of the impact velocity. An assessment method to predict damage response due to the lateral engine impact onto metal storage cask has been studied by using computer code LS-DYNA. The dynamic behavior of the lid movements was successfully calculated by utilizing a simplified finite element cask model, which showed a good agreement with the previous research. The simulation analyses results showed that no significant plastic deformation for bolts, lid, and the cask body. In this study, the lid opening and sliding displacements are considered as the major factors in initiating the leakage path. This analysis may be useful for evaluating the instantaneous leakage rates in a connection with the sliding and opening displacements between the lid and the flange to ensure that the radiological consequences caused by an aircraft engine crash accident during the storage phase are within the permissible level.
Barnes, Sam C; Ball, Naomi; Haunton, Victoria Joanna; Robinson, Thompson G; Panerai, Ronney B
Squat-stand maneuvers (SSMs) have been used to improve the coherence of transfer function analysis (TFA) estimates during the assessment of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA). There is a need to understand the influence of peripheral changes resulting from SSMs on cerebral blood flow, which might confound estimates of dCA. 29 healthy subjects underwent recordings at rest (5 min standing) and 15 SSMs (0.05Hz). Heart rate (3-lead ECG), end-tidal CO2 (capnography), blood pressure (Finometer), cerebral blood velocity (CBV, transcranial Doppler, MCA) and the angle of the thigh (tilt sensor) were measured continuously. The response of CBV to SSMs was decomposed into the relative contributions of mean arterial pressure (MAP), resistance area product (RAP) and critical closing pressure (CrCP). Upon squatting, a rise in MAP (83.6 ± 21.1 % contribution) is followed by increased CBV. A dCA response can be detected, determined by adjustments in RAP and CrCP (left hemisphere) with peak contributions of 24.8 ± 12.7 % and 27.4 ± 22.8 %, respectively, at different times during SSMs. No interhemispheric differences were detected. During standing, the contributions of MAP, RAP and CrCP change considerably. The changes of CBV subcomponents during repeated SSMs indicate a complex response of CBVms. to SSMs that can only be partially explained by myogenic mechanis More work is needed to clarify the potential contribution of other co-factors, such as breath-to-breath changes in pCO2, HR, stroke volume and the neurogenic component of dynamic CA. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.
de Vries, Marieke; Emons, Wilco H M; Plantinga, Arnoud; Pietersma, Suzanne; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Stiggelbout, Anne M; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske
Allocation of inevitably limited financial resources for health care requires assessment of an intervention's effectiveness. Interventions likely affect quality of life (QOL) more broadly than is measurable with commonly used health-related QOL utility scales. In line with the World Health Organization's definition of health, a recent Delphi procedure showed that assessment needs to put more emphasis on mental and social dimensions. To identify the core dimensions of health-related subjective well-being (HR-SWB) for a new, more comprehensive outcome measure. We formulated items for each domain of an initial Delphi-based set of 21 domains of HR-SWB. We tested these items in a large sample (N = 1143) and used dimensionality analyses to find a smaller number of latent factors. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a five-factor model, which explained 65% of the total variance. Factors related to physical independence, positive affect, negative affect, autonomy, and personal growth. Correlations between the factors ranged from 0.19 to 0.59. A closer inspection of the factors revealed an overlap between the newly identified core dimensions of HR-SWB and the validation scales, but the dimensions of HR-SWB also seemed to reflect additional aspects. This shows that the dimensions of HR-SWB we identified go beyond the existing health-related QOL instruments. We identified a set of five key dimensions to be included in a new, comprehensive measure of HR-SWB that reliably captures these dimensions and fills in the gaps of the existent measures used in economic evaluations. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nakahara, Y; Takahashi, K; Konuma, K
The excretion of methoxyphenamine (MOP) and methamphetamine (MA) into beards has been studied. Six healthy male subjects orally took 50 mg of MOP at a single dose and 7 doses for a successive 7 days. Their beard hairs were collected by an electric shaver every morning until MOP disappeared from the beard. After washing with 0.1% SDS, the beard samples were extracted with methanol-5 N HCl (20:1) under ultra-sonication for 1 h and the solution was kept overnight. MOP in the extract was determined by GC/MS using deuterium labelled MOP as an internal standard after trifluoroacetyl-derivatization. The drug concentrations in beard and the reproducibility of analysis were compared with the three procedures, unwashed, 0.1% SDS (wash I) and the additional ethanol (wash II) wash. The drug concentration in beard after SDS wash was 0.5-2.5 ng/mg lower than that in unwashed beard during the first 5-6 days. The drug concentration in beard after ethanol wash was much lower than that in the unwashed beard. The drug excreted into beard was detected 10 approximately 12 days for a single dose and 12-14 days for 7 doses after the last dosage at the cut off level of 1 ng/mg. On the contrary, the drug excreted in urine was not detected after more than 3 days after use. O-Desmethyl MOP, a major metabolite of MOP, was also detected in beard. The procedures were applied to the detection of MA in beard of MA abusers. It was realized that a beard sample was more useful than a urine sample assuming a longer detection.
P. P. Oleynik
Full Text Available The paper deals with domain-driven design applicability of information systems for client queuing subject areas. The following optimality criteria were put forward for the final implementation: the possibility of automation with a single system both for small institution and a whole network of institutions; advanced graphical interface with support for sensor screens; implementation of multi-users account of orders from clients; flexible application architecture with the ability of future enhancement; ability of integration with a variety of peripherals. The necessity of each criterion definition is shown. For implementability estimation, test information system was designed, automating the queuing system. Unified modeling language UML is used. Description of each class functionality is given and the association with other classes as well. Attention is paid to the design of tree (hierarchical structures and selection procedure of base classes based on the analysis of existing common attributes. For the system implementation, its own development environment SharpArchitect RAD Studio is used, offering MDA approach for implementation of systems based on standardized meta object system. A graphical view of order form developed prototype is presented, composition and structure are described, and notation developed by the author is given simplifying the prototyping process. Approaches to differentiation of access rights for different user roles are shown. Conformity of the received implementation to each selected optimality criterion is determined. Recommendations for further system development are given.
Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim
Background Individual differences in subjective alcohol intoxication, as measured by laboratory-based alcohol challenge, have been identified as a phenotypic risk factor for alcohol use disorders. Further, recent evidence indicates that subjective alcohol response is also associated with event-level physiological consequences among college students, including blackouts and hangovers. Methods The current investigation tested predictors of and outcomes associated with subjective intoxication in the natural drinking environment. In a preliminary laboratory alcohol-challenge study (N = 53), we developed a brief measure of subjective alcohol intoxication for use in event level research. Participating students in the principal study (N = 1,867; 63% female; 54% Caucasian) completed 30 days of Web-based self-monitoring in each of the four college years. Results In the principal study, Generalized Estimating Equation analyses revealed that both lighter drinking and a family history of alcohol problems predicted greater subjective intoxication after accounting for estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC). Moreover, greater subjective intoxication during a given drinking episode was associated with negative alcohol-related consequences, illicit drug use, and unsafe sex, and at higher eBACs, was associated with aggression, sex, and property crime. Students who on average experienced greater subjective intoxication were also more likely to experience negative consequences and engage in illicit drug use, sex, unsafe sex, and aggression. Conclusions These findings suggest that both within-person variability and between-person individual differences in subjective intoxication may be risk factors for adverse drinking outcomes at the event level. Intervention efforts aimed at reducing problems associated with collegiate drinking may benefit from consideration both of who experiences greater subjective intoxication and of the situations in which they are more likely to do so
DerSarkissian, Maral; Bhak, Rachel H; Huang, Joanna; Buchs, Sarah; Vekeman, Francis; Smolarz, B Gabriel; Brett, Jason; Ganguly, Rahul; Duh, Mei Sheng
Characterize patterns of weight change among subjects with obesity. A retrospective observational longitudinal study of subjects with obesity was conducted using the General Electric Centricity electronic medical record database. Subjects who were ≥18 years old with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (first defining index BMI), had no medical conditions associated with unintentional weight loss, and had ≥4 BMI measurements/year for ≥2.5 years were included and categorized into groups (stable weight: within weight loss: ≥5 to weight loss: ≥10 to weight loss: ≥15% of index BMI lost) based on weight change during 6 months following index. No interventions were considered. Patterns of weight change were then assessed for 2 years. A total of 177,743 subjects were included: 85.1% of subjects were in the stable weight, 9.3% in the modest, 2.3% in the moderate, and 3.3% in the high weight loss groups. The proportion of subjects who maintained or continued to lose weight decreased over the 2 year observation period; 11% of those with high weight loss continued to lose weight and 19% maintained their weight loss. This group had the lowest percentage of subjects who regained ≥50% of lost weight and the lowest proportion of subjects with weight cycling (defined as not continuously losing, gaining, or maintaining weight throughout the 2 year observation period relative to its beginning). This trend persisted in subgroups with class II-III obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes. Weight cycling and regain were commonly observed. Subjects losing the most weight during the initial period were more likely to continue losing weight.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT FRACTURE MECHANICS UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS IN THE RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF THE REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL: (2D SUBJECTED TO INTERNAL PRESSURE. The reactor pressure vessel (RPV is a pressure boundary in the PWR type reactor which serves to confine radioactive material during chain reaction process. The integrity of the RPV must be guaranteed either in a normal operation or accident conditions. In analyzing the integrity of RPV, especially related to the crack behavior which can introduce break to the reactor pressure vessel, a fracture mechanic approach should be taken for this assessment. The uncertainty of input used in the assessment, such as mechanical properties and physical environment, becomes a reason that the assessment is not sufficient if it is perfomed only by deterministic approach. Therefore, the uncertainty approach should be applied. The aim of this study is to analize the uncertainty of fracture mechanics calculations in evaluating the reliability of PWR`s reactor pressure vessel. Random character of input quantity was generated using probabilistic principles and theories. Fracture mechanics analysis is solved by Finite Element Method (FEM with MSC MARC software, while uncertainty input analysis is done based on probability density function with Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS using python script. The output of MSC MARC is a J-integral value, which is converted into stress intensity factor for evaluating the reliability of RPV’s 2D. From the result of the calculation, it can be concluded that the SIF from probabilistic method, reached the limit value of fracture toughness earlier than SIF from deterministic method. The SIF generated by the probabilistic method is 105.240 MPa m0.5. Meanwhile, the SIF generated by deterministic method is 100.876 MPa m0.5. Keywords: Uncertainty analysis, fracture mechanics, LHS, FEM, reactor pressure vessels ABSTRAK ANALISIS KETIDAKPASTIAN FRACTURE MECHANIC PADA EVALUASI KEANDALAN
Gabapentin enacarbil in subjects with moderate to severe primary restless legs syndrome with and without severe sleep disturbance: an integrated analysis of subjective and novel sleep endpoints from two studies
Full Text Available Richard K Bogan,1 Aaron Ellenbogen,2 Philip M Becker,3 Clete Kushida,4 Eric Ball,5 William G Ondo,6 Christine K Caivano,7 Sarah Kavanagh71SleepMed, Columbia, SC, 2Quest Research Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 3Sleep Medicine Associates of Texas, Dallas, TX, 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford Center for Human Sleep Research, Stanford, CA, 5Walla Walla Clinic, Walla Walla, WA, 6University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, 7Global Regulatory Affairs (CKC* and Neurosciences MDC (SK, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA*Development Sciences department at the time of the analysisPurpose: The aim of the study reported here was assessment of subjective and novel sleep endpoints, according to sleep disturbance severity at baseline, in adult subjects with moderate to severe primary restless legs syndrome (RLS treated with gabapentin enacarbil (GEn 1200 mg or placebo.Methods: Integrated analysis of two 12-week randomized trials in subjects with RLS was undertaken. Sleep outcomes from the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS Sleep Scale and the Post Sleep Questionnaire were evaluated. Novel sleep endpoints derived from the 24-Hour RLS Symptom Diary were compared with similar endpoints derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Diary (PghSD. Subjects were divided into two subgroups based on their level of sleep disturbance (responses to item 4 of the International Restless Legs Scale at baseline. Data were analyzed using a last observation carried forward approach.Results: The modified intent-to-treat population comprised 427 subjects (GEn 1200 mg, n = 223; placebo, n = 204. GEn significantly improved all MOS Sleep Scale domain scores from baseline compared with placebo (P < 0.05 in both subgroups. Compared with placebo, GEn-treated subjects with very severe to severe sleep disturbance reported higher overall sleep quality, fewer nighttime awakenings, and fewer hours awake per night due to RLS
Sugita, Takashi; Tajima, Mami; Amaya, Misato; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Nishikawa, Akemi
Lipophilic yeasts of the genus Malassezia colonize the skin surface of humans and are an exacerbating factor in atopic dermatitis (AD). Two species, M. restricta and M. globosa are major cutaneous microflora in both AD patients and healthy subjects. We compared the DNA sequences of the intergenic spacer (IGS) region, located between the 26S and 5S rRNA genes of M. restricta colonizing the skin surfaces of 13 AD patients and 12 healthy subjects, and of three CBS stock strains as references. The IGS 1 sequences were divided into two major groups, corresponding to AD patients and healthy subjects. These findings suggest that a specific genotype of M. restricta plays a significant role in AD, although M. restricta commonly colonizes both AD patients and healthy subjects.
Witter, D.J.; Woda, A.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the masticatory function of subjects characterised by different occlusal and prosthodontic status. Using Optosil((R)) as a test food, the masticatory normative indicator (MNIOPT) was used to differentiate between sufficient ('normal') and impaired masticatory function.
Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.
Roy, Jolly; Hamidan, Shazarina; Singh, Rabindarjeet
Purpose Some major competitions (e.g. London Olympics, 2012) are scheduled during the Ramadan fasting month. Little attention has been given to explore the archers’ performance related subjective experiences with a qualitative method. Therefore, this study addressed individual archers’ subjective experiences within the framework of self-regulation during Ramadan. Methods Eleven elite Malaysian Muslim fasting archers volunteered to participate in the study. Grounded theory was the qualitative ...
S. Benson; Verster, J.; Alford, C.; Scholey, A.
It has been suggested that mixing alcohol with energy drinks or other caffeinated beverages may alter\\ud the awareness of (or ‘mask’) intoxication. The proposed reduction in subjective intoxication may have\\ud serious consequences by increasing the likelihood of engaging in potentially dangerous activities while\\ud intoxicated. A literature search was conducted to collect all studies measuring subjective intoxication\\ud after administration of alcohol with energy drinks, or with other caffein...
Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Cefiderocol, a Parenteral Siderophore Cephalosporin, in Healthy Subjects, Subjects with Various Degrees of Renal Function, and Patients with Complicated Urinary Tract Infection or Acute Uncomplicated Pyelonephritis.
Kawaguchi, Nao; Katsube, Takayuki; Echols, Roger; Wajima, Toshihiro
Cefiderocol, a novel parenteral siderophore cephalosporin, exhibits potent efficacy against most Gram-negative bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant strains. The aim of this study was to perform a population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis based on plasma cefiderocol concentrations in healthy subjects, subjects with various degrees of renal function, and patients with complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) or acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (AUP) caused by Gram-negative pathogens and to calculate the fraction of the time during the dosing interval where the free drug concentration in plasma exceeds the MIC ( fT MIC ). Population PK models were developed with three renal function markers, body surface area-adjusted estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), absolute eGFR, and creatinine clearance, on the basis of 2,571 plasma concentrations from 91 subjects without infection and 238 patients with infection. The population PK models with each renal function marker adequately described the plasma cefiderocol concentrations. Clear relationships of total clearance (CL) to all renal function markers were observed. Body weight and disease status (with or without infection) were also significant covariates. The CL in patients with infection was 26% higher than that in subjects without infection. The fT MIC values were more than 75% in all patients (and were 100% in most patients), suggesting that a sufficient exposure to cefiderocol was provided by the tested dose regimens (2 g every 8 h as the standard dose regimen) for the treatment of cUTI or AUP caused by Gram-negative pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Kawaguchi et al.
de Nijs, Robin; Miranda, Maria J.; Hansen, Lars Kai
For single-voxel spectroscopy, the acquisition of the spectrum is typically repeated n times and then combined with a factor in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. In practice, the acquisitions are not only affected by random noise but also by physiologic motion and subject movements. Since...... the influence of physiologic motion such as cardiac and respiratory motion on the data is limited, it can be compensated for without data loss. Individual acquisitions hampered by subject movements, on the other hand, need to be rejected if no correction or compensation is possible. If the individual...... acquisitions are stored, it is possible to identify and reject the motion-disturbed acquisitions before averaging. Several automatic algorithms were investigated using a dataset of spectra from nonanesthetized infants with a gestational age of 40 weeks. Median filtering removed most subject movement artifacts...
Igor Yu. Pelevin
Full Text Available The article is devoted to estimation of factors, which impact on formation of the tax debt in the regions. Description of the dynamics of the tax debt in the North Caucasus Federal District from 2009 to 2011 is given. Also an analysis of this tax debt was made according to the subjects of the federal district. Proposals to form an active fiscal policy are formulated based on this analysis.
Verkhlyutov, VM; Shchuchkin, YV; Ushakov, VL; Strelets, VB; Pirogov, YA
In 12 healthy subjects and 9 schizophrenic patients in the background conditions (with eyes closed) EEG was recorded from 16 standard derivations (10-20 system) during 3 min. The record underwent the spectral analysis detecting alpha- and theta-frequency bands. After the preliminary narrow band
M.B.C. Aries; J. van Hoof; J. Straathof; M.P.J. Aarts
Aarts, M.P.J., Aries, M.B.C., Straathof, J., van Hoof, J. (2014) Dynamic lighting systems in psychogeriatric care facilities in The Netherlands: a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the subjective responses of stakeholders and technology. Indoor and Built Environment doi:
A report on a study of a large number of subjects afflicted with sensory aphasia. Topics covered are: the distributional pattern of grammatical categories; paraphasia; a statistical analysis of associated syndromes; possible relationship to the location of the lesion. Some examples of spontaneous language are included. (Text is in French.) (AMH)
Hu, Chun-mei; Cui, Shu-jing; Wang, Lei
Objective: To investigate the path analysis of work family conflict, job salary and promotion satisfaction, work engagement to subjective well-being of the primary and middle school principals, and provide advice for enhancing their well-being. Methods: Using convenient sampling, totally 300 primary and middle school principals completed the WFC,…