Lee, J. W. C.; Tanusia, A.
This paper examines the influence of attitude towards energy conservation at home, the attitude in the campus, subjective norm, and self-efficacy on energy conservation behavioural intention among students in a private university using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Data was collected from about 194 students using a questionnaire developed from current literature on TPB. Data analysis using Smart PLS version 3.2.4 found that attitude towards energy conservation at home has an indirect significant influence on attitude towards energy conservation behavioural intention via the mediating effect of attitude towards energy conservation in the campus. Self-efficacy and subjective norm are also positively related to energy conservation intention. The study also indicates the suitability of the TPB in predicting behavioural intention through attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. Results suggest that energy education is vital in creating a positive attitude towards energy conservation while facilities managers in institutions need to formulate appropriate policies and regulations to inculcate the right attitude and behaviour towards energy saving.
Bartle, Naomi C; Harvey, Kate
Breastfeeding confers important health benefits to both infants and their mothers, but rates are low in the United Kingdom and other developed countries despite widespread promotion. This study examined the relationships between personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding, self-efficacy, the theory of planned behaviour variables of attitudes and subjective norm, and the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks post-natally. A prospective questionnaire study of both first-time mothers (n = 77) and experienced breastfeeders (n = 72) recruited at an antenatal clinic in South East England. Participants completed a questionnaire at 32 weeks pregnant assessing personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding (breastfeeding, formula-feeding, and maternal grandmother's experience of breastfeeding), perceived control, self-efficacy, intentions, attitudes (to breastfeeding and formula-feeding), and subjective norm. Infant feeding behaviour was recorded at 6-8 weeks post-natally. Multiple linear regression modelled the influence of vicarious experience on attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy (but not perceived control) and modelled the influence of attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and past experience on intentions to breastfeed. Logistic regression modelled the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks. Previous experience (particularly personal experience of breastfeeding) explained a significant amount of variance in attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy. Intentions to breastfeed were predicted by subjective norm and attitude to formula-feeding and, in experienced mothers, self-efficacy. Breastfeeding at 6 weeks was predicted by intentions and vicarious experience of formula-feeding. Vicarious experience, particularly of formula-feeding, has been shown to influence the behaviour of first-time and experienced mothers both directly and indirectly via attitudes and subjective norm. Interventions that reduce exposure to formula
Walker, Denise D.; Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Stephens, Robert S.; Roffman, Roger A.
Adolescence is a time in which individuals are particularly likely to engage in health-risk behaviors, with marijuana being the most prevalent illicit drug used. Perceptions of others’ use (i.e., norms) have previously been found to be related to increased marijuana use. Additionally, low refusal self-efficacy has been associated with increased marijuana consumption. This cross-sectional study examined the effects of normative perceptions and self-efficacy on negative marijuana outcomes for a...
Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Mannan, Mahafuz; Rahman, Mohammad Mahboob
Purpose: From the perspective of developing countries, studies regarding the behavioral effects of quitting tobacco consumption on emerging psychological determinants are limited. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of emotional intelligence (EI), social norms, susceptibility and self-efficacy on the behavioral effects of…
The objective was to determine the reliability and validity of scales measuring low-fat milk consumption self-efficacy and norms during school lunch among a cohort of 5th graders. Two hundred seventy-five students completed lunch food records and a psychosocial questionnaire measuring self-efficacy ...
Muller, Doreen; Ziegelmann, Jochen P.; Simonson, Julia; Tesch-Römer, Clemens; Huxhold, Oliver
This study investigated age differences in longitudinal effects of volunteering on three facets of subjective well-being (SWB), i.e. positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and life satisfaction (LS). Both direct and indirect effects with self-efficacy as mediator were tested. Longitudinal structural equation modeling was used on 5,564…
Rajati, Fatemeh; Ghanbari, Masoud; Hasandokht, Tolou; Hosseini, Seyed Younes; Akbarzadeh, Rasool; Ashtarian, Hossein
Self-efficacy plays a key role in varying areas of human conditions which can be measured by different scales. The present study was aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES) in Iranian Subjects with Physical Disability (SWPD). Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and self-report surveys from 214 subjects. The face and content validity, and reliability were evaluated. Discriminates were evaluated between the sub-groups of disability levels, physical activity, and health condition levels. The concurrent, convergent, divergent, and construct validity were assessed by short form health survey scale (SF-36), general self-efficacy scale (GSES), hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), respectively. Replaceable exploratory factor analysis was evaluated. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. There were acceptable face and content validity, and reliability. Furthermore, significant correlation was found between PSES and SF-36 (p disability levels (p = 0.02), physical activity levels (p disability problems. Implications for rehabilitation Psychometric properties of the Persian version of self-Efficacy scale (PSES) appear to be similar to original, English version. The PSES has been shown to have validity and reliability in Persian physical disables and can be used for patients with more different types of physical disability than individuals suffering from only Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). The PSES can be used in clinical practice and research work to evaluate the patients' confidence in performing daily activities.
Erozkan, Atilgan; Dogan, Ugur; Adiguzel, Arca
This study investigated the relationship between self-efficacy, self-esteem, and subjective happiness. The study group is composed by 556 (291 female; 265 male) students who were studying at the pedagogical formation program at Mugla Sitki Kocman University. The data were collected by using the General Self-Efficacy Scale-Turkish Form,…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community engagement strategies are often integrated in public health interventions designed to promote condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM, a key population for HIV prevention. However, the ways in which condom use peer norms and self-efficacy play a role in the association between community engagement and condom use is unclear. This study examines the potential mediating roles of peer norms and self-efficacy in this association. Methods A nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted among Chinese MSM in 2015. Recruitment criteria included being born biologically male, being older than 16 years, having had anal sex with a man at least once during their lifetime, and having had condomless anal or vaginal sex in the past three months. Mplus 6.11 was used to conduct confirmatory factor analysis and path modeling analysis to examine the structural relationships between HIV/sexual health community engagement (e.g., joining social media and community events related to HIV and sexual health services, condom use peer norms, condom use self-efficacy, and frequency of condom use. Results The study found that HIV/sexual health community engagement, condom use peer norms, condom use self-efficacy, and frequency of condom use were mutually correlated. A good data model was achieved with fit index: CFI = 0.988, TLI = 0.987, RMSEA = 0.032, 90% CI (0.028, 0.036. HIV/sexual health community engagement was associated with frequency of condom use, which was directly mediated by condom use peer norms and indirectly through self-efficacy. Conclusion The study suggests that condom use peer norms and self-efficacy may be mediators in the pathway between community engagement and condom use, and suggests the importance of peer-based interventions to improve condom use.
Li, Haochu; Xue, Li; Tucker, Joseph D; Wei, Chongyi; Durvasula, Maya; Hu, Wenqi; Kang, Dianming; Liao, Meizhen; Tang, Weiming; Ma, Wei
Community engagement strategies are often integrated in public health interventions designed to promote condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM), a key population for HIV prevention. However, the ways in which condom use peer norms and self-efficacy play a role in the association between community engagement and condom use is unclear. This study examines the potential mediating roles of peer norms and self-efficacy in this association. A nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted among Chinese MSM in 2015. Recruitment criteria included being born biologically male, being older than 16 years, having had anal sex with a man at least once during their lifetime, and having had condomless anal or vaginal sex in the past three months. Mplus 6.11 was used to conduct confirmatory factor analysis and path modeling analysis to examine the structural relationships between HIV/sexual health community engagement (e.g., joining social media and community events related to HIV and sexual health services), condom use peer norms, condom use self-efficacy, and frequency of condom use. The study found that HIV/sexual health community engagement, condom use peer norms, condom use self-efficacy, and frequency of condom use were mutually correlated. A good data model was achieved with fit index: CFI = 0.988, TLI = 0.987, RMSEA = 0.032, 90% CI (0.028, 0.036). HIV/sexual health community engagement was associated with frequency of condom use, which was directly mediated by condom use peer norms and indirectly through self-efficacy. The study suggests that condom use peer norms and self-efficacy may be mediators in the pathway between community engagement and condom use, and suggests the importance of peer-based interventions to improve condom use.
González-Iglesias, Beatriz; Gómez-Fraguela, José Antonio; Luengo, Ma Ángeles
The aim of this work was to examine the role of sensation seeking in drunk driving by youths, and the potential mediational effect of social, cognitive and emotional variables on their relationship. To this end, a survey was conducted on 274 drivers (164 females and 110 males) aged 24.36±2.96 years (range 18-30 years). The results obtained confirm the significance of sensation seeking to drunk driving by youths and the mediating role of biased self-efficacy perceptions in their relationship. The important practical implications of this finding on the development of effective interventions to prevent the risks of drunk driving in youths are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Omholt, M L; Tveito, T H; Ihlebæk, C
The European civilian aviation industry has undergone major changes in the last decade. Despite this, there is little knowledge about work-related stress and subjective health complaints (SHCs) affecting Norwegian aircrew. To investigate the relationships between work-related stress, self-efficacy and SHCs in commercial aircrew in Norway and to explore differences between cockpit and cabin crew. Aircrew members from the three major airlines operating from Norway completed an electronically distributed questionnaire. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between work-related stress, self-efficacy and SHCs. There was a 21% response rate. Among the 843 study subjects, tiredness, sleep problems, bloating, low back pain, headaches and neck pain were the most prevalent SHCs. Cabin crew reported significantly higher numbers, prevalences and mean values for all SHCs compared with cockpit crew (P stress levels. High levels of work-related stress were significantly associated with all SHC factors in both groups. Self-efficacy partly moderated the relationship between stress and psychological complaints in both cockpit and cabin crew, and for musculoskeletal complaints in cockpit crew. The model explained 23 and 32% of the variance in psychological complaints for cockpit and cabin crew, respectively. Commercial aircrew in Norway reported high numbers of SHCs, and high levels of work-related stress were associated with high numbers of SHC. More knowledge is needed on the physical, organizational and psychosocial stressors affecting cockpit and cabin crew in order to create a healthier work environment for these groups. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Leddy, Anna; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Dladla, Sibongile; de Bruyn, Guy; Darbes, Lynae
Hegemonic masculine norms (HMN), which promote sexual risk-taking among males and the subordination of women, are believed to play a key role in the HIV epidemic among heterosexual couples in South Africa (SA). Sexual communication self-efficacy (SCSE) (i.e., a couple's confidence in their ability to communicate about HIV prevention) may be a key leverage point for increasing HIV prevention behaviors among this population. We interviewed 163 sexually active heterosexual couples in Soweto, SA to investigate the association between SCSE, HMN, and consistent condom use. We collected information on demographics, relationship dynamics, and sexual activity. We utilized the SCSE scale to measure couples' SCSE, and a subscale of the Gender Equitable Men scale to measure HMN among males. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses to determine the association of consistent condom use with couples' SCSE as well as the male partner's endorsement of HMN. We found that couples with higher SCSE have greater odds of consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15-1.47). Furthermore, male endorsement of HMN was found to be negatively associated with consistent condom use among couples (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.24-0.89). Joint HIV serostatus was not significantly associated with the outcome. Future interventions that equip heterosexual couples with sexual communication skills, while simultaneously promoting more gender equitable norms, may increase consistent condom use and thereby reduce the transmission of HIV among this at-risk population.
Vanessa Pirani Gaioso
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to test a theoretical model based on the Parent-Based Expansion of the Theory of Planned Behavior examining relation between selected parental, teenager and cultural variables and Latino teenagers' intentions to engage in sexual behavior.METHOD: a cross-sectional correlational design based on a secondary data analysis of 130 Latino parent and teenager dyads.RESULTS: regression and path analysis procedures were used to test seven hypotheses and the results demonstrated partial support for the model. Parent familism and knowledge about sex were significantly associated with parents' attitudes toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Parent Latino acculturation was negatively associated with parents' self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenagers and positevely associated with parents' subjective norms toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Teenager knowledge about sex was significantly associated with higher levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms about sexual communication with parents. Only the predictor of teenagers' attitudes toward having sex in the next 3 months was significantly associated with teenagers' intentions to have sex in the next 3 months.CONCLUSION: the results of this study provide important information to guide future research that can inform development of interventions to prevent risky teenager sexual behavior among Latinos.
Gaioso, Vanessa Pirani; Villarruel, Antonia Maria; Wilson, Lynda Anne; Azuero, Andres; Childs, Gwendolyn Denice; Davies, Susan Lane
to test a theoretical model based on the Parent-Based Expansion of the Theory of Planned Behavior examining relation between selected parental, teenager and cultural variables and Latino teenagers' intentions to engage in sexual behavior. a cross-sectional correlational design based on a secondary data analysis of 130 Latino parent and teenager dyads. regression and path analysis procedures were used to test seven hypotheses and the results demonstrated partial support for the model. Parent familism and knowledge about sex were significantly associated with parents' attitudes toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Parent Latino acculturation was negatively associated with parents' self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenagers and positevely associated with parents' subjective norms toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Teenager knowledge about sex was significantly associated with higher levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms about sexual communication with parents. Only the predictor of teenagers' attitudes toward having sex in the next 3 months was significantly associated with teenagers' intentions to have sex in the next 3 months. the results of this study provide important information to guide future research that can inform development of interventions to prevent risky teenager sexual behavior among Latinos.
Gaioso, Vanessa Pirani; Villarruel, Antonia Maria; Wilson, Lynda Anne; Azuero, Andres; Childs, Gwendolyn Denice; Davies, Susan Lane
OBJECTIVE: to test a theoretical model based on the Parent-Based Expansion of the Theory of Planned Behavior examining relation between selected parental, teenager and cultural variables and Latino teenagers' intentions to engage in sexual behavior. METHOD: a cross-sectional correlational design based on a secondary data analysis of 130 Latino parent and teenager dyads. RESULTS: regression and path analysis procedures were used to test seven hypotheses and the results demonstrated partial support for the model. Parent familism and knowledge about sex were significantly associated with parents' attitudes toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Parent Latino acculturation was negatively associated with parents' self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenagers and positevely associated with parents' subjective norms toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Teenager knowledge about sex was significantly associated with higher levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms about sexual communication with parents. Only the predictor of teenagers' attitudes toward having sex in the next 3 months was significantly associated with teenagers' intentions to have sex in the next 3 months. CONCLUSION: the results of this study provide important information to guide future research that can inform development of interventions to prevent risky teenager sexual behavior among Latinos. PMID:26312635
Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Friedman, Bruce; Costa, Paul T.
This study examined the association among caregivers’ five-factor personality traits and subjective health with particular emphasis on the role of two theoretically implicated mediators: multi-domain self-efficacy and caregiver strain. The sample comprised 536 informal caregivers (mean age = 62.9 years, SD = 19.9, 72% female, 98% White) of community-dwelling older adults with multiple functional impairments. Both physical health and mental health were negatively associated with neuroticism and positively associated with extraversion and conscientiousness. Agreeableness and openness were associated with better subjective mental health and physical health, respectively. Multiple mediation analyses indicated that self-efficacy mediated all observed associations between personality and subjective health, whereas caregiver strain selectively mediated the associations of neuroticism and agreeableness with mental health. PMID:21417534
Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna
This study investigated the role of sensation seeking, peer group drinking and self-efficacy in refusing to drink alcohol in influencing alcohol consumption of a sample of 588 Italian university students. Results confirmed that heavy drinkers are typically males living in university residences. Alcohol use is more frequent among students with…
Phillips, Siobhan M; Lloyd, Gillian R; Awick, Elizabeth A; McAuley, Edward
Many breast cancer survivors report cancer and cancer treatment-associated cognitive change. However, very little is known about the relationship between physical activity and subjective memory impairment (SMI) in this population. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between physical activity and SMI and longitudinally test a model examining the role of self-efficacy, fatigue and distress as potential mediators. Post-treatment breast cancer survivors (N = 1477) completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, distress (depression, concerns about recurrence, perceived stress, anxiety), fatigue and SMI at baseline and 6-month follow-up. A subsample (n = 362) was randomly selected to wear an accelerometer. It was hypothesized that physical activity indirectly influences SMI via exercise self-efficacy, distress and fatigue. Relationships were examined using panel analysis within a covariance modeling framework. The hypothesized model provided a good fit in the full sample (χ 2 = 1462.5, df = 469, p = exercise self-efficacy and reduced distress and fatigue. Higher levels of physical activity, lower levels of fatigue and distress and higher exercise self-efficacy may play an important role in understanding SMI in breast cancer survivors across time. Future research is warranted to replicate and explore these relationships further. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fraze, Lacee Brianne; Wingenbach, Gary; Rutherford, Tracy; Wolfskill, Lawrence A.
The purpose of this study was to determine if selected high school students' participation in a summer agricultural communications workshop affected their self-efficacy and attitudes toward agriculture as a subject, college major, and/or as a career. Data were gathered from an accessible population (N = 145), from which a purposive sample (n = 94)…
Lee, Kwan Min
Proposes a theoretical framework for analyzing the effect of MUD (Multi-User Dungeons) playing on users' self-efficacy by applying Bandura's social learning theory, and introduces three types of self-efficacy: computer self-efficacy; social self-efficacy; and generalized self-efficacy. Considers successful performance, vicarious experience,…
This thesis attempts to probe into the dialectical relationship between the subjectivity of the translator and socio-cultural norms. The socio-cultural norms inevitably regulate the translator's translating activity, as acceptability of the translated text is the primary concern of most translators. However, this does not mean that the…
... counsellors and personnel psychologists should develop intervention programmes aimed at helping the unemployed in coping with long-lasting unemployment, social isolation and financial deprivation. Counselling implications were also highlighted. Keywords: financial hardship, subjective norms, job seeking behaviour ...
... behaviour of consumption of 2–3 servings of dairy daily among nutrition professionals. ... Keywords: dairy intake, nutrition professionals, Theory of Planned Behaviour. Introduction ... reduce the risks for developing NCDs,4–6 even though differences ... subjective norms and perceived behavioural control to consume dairy.
Prada, Marília; Rodrigues, David; Silva, Rita R; Garrido, Margarida V
This article presents subjective rating norms for a new set of 600 symbols, depicting various contents (e.g., transportation, technology, and leisure activities) that can be used by researchers in different fields. Symbols were evaluated for aesthetic appeal, familiarity, visual complexity, concreteness, valence, arousal, and meaningfulness. The normative data were obtained from 388 participants, and no gender differences were found. Descriptive results (means, standard deviations, and confidence intervals) for each symbol in each dimension are presented. Overall, the dimensions were highly correlated. Additionally, participants were asked to briefly describe the meaning of each symbol. The results indicate that the present symbol set is varied, allowing for the selection of exemplars with different levels on the seven examined dimensions. This set of symbols constitutes a tool with potential for research in different areas. The database with all of the symbols is available as supplemental materials.
Okun, Morris A; Karoly, Paul; Lutz, Rafer
To clarify the contribution of subjective norm to exercise intention and behavior by considering the influence of descriptive as well as injunctive social norms related to family and friends. A sample of 530 college students completed a questionnaire that assessed descriptive and injunctive social norms related to family and to friends, perceived behavioral control, attitude, intention, and leisure-time exercise. Friend descriptive social norm was a significant predictor of both intention (pleisure-time exercise (p<.001). Descriptive norms should be incorporated into tests of the theory of planned behavior in the exercise domain.
Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; Graaf, P.M. de
This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct
Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; de Graaf, P.M.
This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct
Kin, Min Shiew
2014 dissertation for MBA in International Business. Selected by academic staff as a good example of a masters level dissertation. The research examines the correlation between consumer attitude and subject norm influence towards online banking behaviour in Malaysia. The main theory discussed in the research is the Fishbein’s model: the theory of reasoned action. Subject norm is derived from the theory and are widely used in this research. A quantitative survey dealing with facts and figures ...
Loria Meneses, Luis Guillermo
Related studies with the presence of NORMs in Costa Rica were developed. CICANUM has had equipment and personnel to perform analysis using gamma spectroscopy (for solid and liquid samples), beta spectroscopy (for liquid milk samples and water), alpha spectroscopy (water samples). These techniques are frequently used in the analysis for food purchased from stores, monitoring, export (safety certicates), directly from the farm (research and projects ARCAL), several matrices (meristems, iron, etc..). The CICANUM supported by the Universidad de Costa Rica and the Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Gamma has participated in various projects by the IAEA, in research on food, marine species, quality assurance, development of reference material. The term NORMs is used to distinguish natural radioactive elements of radioactive elements of anthropogenic origin, among which are those produced by: terrestrial, mediums cosmogenic and industrial. One conclusion is that human activity has been responsible for increasing exposure of people to ionizing radiation. This increase has resulted of the production of coal, natural gas, mining and fossil fuels, and the use of fertilizers. Radon trapped in the rocks is released when performing scans or during extraction. (author) [es
Norton, Melanie K; Smith, Megan V; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S
This study examined the relationship between traditional masculine role norms (status, toughness, anti-femininity) and psychosocial mechanisms of sexual risk (sexual communication, sexual self-efficacy) among young, low-income, and minority parenting couples. Between 2007 and 2011, 296 pregnant adolescent females and their male partners were recruited from urban obstetrics clinics in Connecticut. Data regarding participants' beliefs in masculine role norms, frequency of general sex communication and sexual risk communication, and sexual self-efficacy were collected via computer-assisted self-interviews. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to test for actor effects (whether a person's masculine role norms at baseline influence the person's own psychosocial variables at 6-month follow-up) and partner effects (whether a partner's masculine role norms at baseline influence an actor's psychosocial variables at 6-month follow-up). Results revealed that higher actor status norms were significantly associated with more sexual self-efficacy, higher actor toughness norms were associated with less sexual self-efficacy, and higher actor anti-femininity norms were significantly associated with less general sex communication, sexual risk communication, and sexual self-efficacy. No partner effects were found. These results indicate a need for redefining masculine role norms through family centered approaches in pregnant or parenting adolescent couples to increase sexual communication and sexual self-efficacy. Further research is needed to understand partner effects in the context of a relationship and on subsequent sexual risk behavior. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Full Text Available This study investigated the lexical-semantic space organized by the semantic and affective features of Indonesian words and their relationship with gender and cultural aspects. We recruited 1,402 participants who were native speakers of Indonesian to rate affective and lexico-semantic properties of 1,490 Indonesian words. Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Predictability, Subjective Frequency, and Concreteness ratings were collected for each word from at least 52 people. We explored cultural differences between American English ANEW, Spanish ANEW, and the new Indonesian inventory (called CEFI. We found functional relationships between the affective dimensions that were similar across languages, but also cultural differences dependent on gender.
Full Text Available Abstract Earlier studies show an effect of self-efficacy on students’ learning and achievement. Self efficacy has operationally defined as one’s belief that people can successfully perform a given task. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss how self-efficacy developed and the way it influences students’ academic performance in addition to social interaction with peers. A scenario was given to Pakistani high school students by solving mathematical problems. Present study was designed to study the impact of self-efficacy on 15 boys, students of the 5th grade of a local school. Hague’s (1990 Urdu Self-efficacy scale was administered. It was found that students with high self-efficacy obtained higher scores on 50 mathematical problems test. Further, content analysis of interviewees’ responses showed that students with high self-efficacy planned to study complex subjects in future. A cross-cultural study is strongly recommended in this issue that determines the students’ future.
Saraih Ummi Naiemah
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationships between attitude towards behaviour, subjective norm and entrepreneurial intention among engineering students from Public Higher Educational Institution (PHEI in Malaysia. This research is carried out by using the quantitative method (questionnaire. Data are gathered from 345 respondents which consisted of the final year students from one PHEI in Malaysia. Results presented that entrepreneurial intention are positively associated with attitude towards behaviour (β=.62, p<.01 and subjective norm (β=.25, p<.01. Thus, it is confirmed that both factors of Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, namely attitude towards behaviour and subjective norm are significantly related to entrepreneurial intention among the engineering students in this institution. Elevating the degree of attitude towards behaviour and subjective norm are the best strategies to enhance the level of entrepreneurial intention among the engineering students in this institution. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. In this line, recommendations for the institution management are provided
Schepers, J.J.L.; Wetzels, M.G.M.
We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis of previous research on the technology acceptance model (TAM) in an attempt to make well-grounded statements on the role of subjective norm. Furthermore, we compared TAM results by taking into account moderating effects of one individual-related factor (type
Estévez-López, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412501031; Álvarez-Gallardo, I.C.; Segura-Jiménez, V.; Soriano-Maldonado, A.; Borges-Cosic, M; Pulido-Martos, M.; Aparicio, V.A.; Carbonell-Baeza, A.; Delgado-Fernández, M.; Geenen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087017571
Purpose: People with fibromyalgia experience a disagreement between patient-reported (i.e., subjective) and performance-based (i.e., objective) status. This study aimed to (i) corroborate the discordance between subjectively and objectively measured physical function and (ii) examine whether
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The prevalence of substance abuse among college students is increasing drastically and requires immediate skill-based substance abuse intervention such as assertive skills. The purpose of this study was to develope the healthy behavior to change the subjective norms of students in order to decrease their tendency towards substance abuse. Materials & Methods: A pre and post nonequivalent control group design study carried out on college students. A total number of 140 students were selected through randomized cluster sampling and randomly assigned to the intervention (n=70 and the control (n=70 groups. The data-gathering tool consisted of a self-report questionnaire assessing the variables of moral , descriptive , and injunctive norms. After the diagnostic evaluation, assertive skills promoting program was applied to persuade the participants against substances abuse. Respondents in the control and experimental groups completed questionnaires at baseline and 2 months after the intervention. Results: The result showed that educational manipulation had significant effect on intervention group’s average response for moral norms (t= -3.36, P<0.001, descriptive norms (t= -3.07, P<0.003, and injunctive norms for persuading substance abuse (t=-3.79, P<0.000.Conclusion: These findings suggest that assertive skills training would be an efficient tool in drug abuse prevention programs among adolescents that should also be included in the comprehensive school health programs. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;18(3:40-49
Full Text Available Abstract The interest in scientific research of the self-efficacy phenomenon provides new data and reveals further relationships between this phenomenon and the functioning of the individual in the society. The Albert Bandura’s socio-cognitive theory presents its important and the most popular theoretical construct - self-efficacy, which is a part of the cognitive components of personality. It is an assessment of the individual's competences, its conviction about the possibility of managing planned activities in a given field. Studies on the relationship between coping with the learning process and self-efficacy seem to be particularly interesting. In the analysis of the problem, there are a number of personality variables that could be important for undertaking and continuing education and training in adulthood, which is particularly important among people performing medical professions, including midwives. Motivation, conscientiousness, conviction about self-efficacy or cognitive abilities are mentioned in literature of the subject.
Farahnaz Mohamadi Shahbalaghi
Full Text Available This study with a co relational design has conducted to determine relationship between caregiving strain and self-efficacy in family caregiver of patient with Alzheimer. Accessible sample of the study consisted of 81 family caregivers that all of them were member of Iranian Alzheimer Association. Data was gathered by demographic, self-efficacy and care giving strain questioners. Findings showed the most of the subjects were female (%60, spouse of care giving recipient (56%, married (64%, reside in same household (55%, 49% under high school education, 45% of them haven't taken formal courses about the care of the patients, 53% of them were satisfied about providing of care, 36% reported bad health status. The most important caring needs consisted education for better care providing. the Mean of self-efficacy was 66/96 (29-106 and strain 39/43 (17-65. There were not any relations between strain and self-efficacy with demographic variables. There was positive significant Pearson correlation (r=0/539, p=O/ 01 between self-efficacy and strain. Findings indicated that self-efficacy and care giving strain are subjective and individualized concepts. Care giving to elderly patients is a stressful event but moderate co-relationship shows that caregivers apprise the stress of care giving as a constructive and controllable manner.
Full Text Available This type of research is quantitative research with the help of Smart PLS 3.0 application. The population in this study are all students of marketing program of SMK Negeri Boyolali on entrepreneuship learning. Through the sampling formula Issac and Michael obtained as many as 175 student samples. Sampling technique used proportionate stratified random sampling. Technical analysis used is structural equation model analysis. Testing hypothesis with significant level 5% obtained by coefficient of beta (original sample at specific indirect effects equal to 0,105. It shows that entrepreneuship learning has positive predictive properties of entrepreneurship intention (EI through students' subjective norms. The value of t-count is 2,844, the value of t-table is 1.96 then t-count > t-table (2,844> 1,96. It shows that student EI is significantly influenced by entrepreneuship learning through students' subjective norms. While the value of coefficient of determination (r-square obtained coefficient of determination for subjective norms (SN variable shows that the amount of contribution, contribution given by entrepreneurship learning (EL variables 9.3% and the value of coefficient of determination for EI variable shows that the amount of contribution, contribution given by variable SN 37.8%. So this research is well used in the development of economic learning innovation, especially entrepreneurship subjects.
Hopp, Toby M.
In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…
Work engagement, organizational commitment and self-efficacy will create a positive attitude in records ... counseling, effective communication and leadership skills. This study therefore ...... self-efficacy and self-esteem: Toward theoretical and ...
Educator's Self Efficacy and Collective Educators' Self Efficacy among University Academic Staff: An Ethical Issue. ... staff on collective educators' self efficacy. The implication of the result in terms of collaborative work among academic staff was discussed in line with ethical principles and code of conduct of psychologists.
Zuya, Habila Elisha; Kwalat, Simon Kevin; Attah, Bala Galle
Pre-service mathematics teachers' mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics teaching self-efficacy were investigated in this study. The purpose was to determine the confidence levels of their self-efficacy in mathematics and mathematics teaching. Also, the study was aimed at finding whether their mathematics self-efficacy and teaching…
Fryer, Luke K.; Oga-Baldwin, W. L. Quint
Self-efficacy is an essential source of motivation for learning. While considerable research has theorised and examined the how and why of self-efficacy in a single domain of study, longitudinal research has not yet tested how self-efficacy might generalise or transfer between subjects such as mathematics, native and foreign language studies. The…
Neergaard, Helle; Mauer, René; Kirketerp Linstad, Anne
Research that has sought to identify the underlying determinants of self-efficacy is sparse. This chapter seeks to identify antecedents of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and the processes that produce and reinforce self-efficacy. It seeks to broaden our understanding of the self-efficacy concept t...... through an exploration of its origins and via a journey to its impact in the field of entrepreneurship. Finally, it suggests pedagogical initiatives needed to promote entrepreneurial self-efficacy in the different social arenas of life....
Stewart-Sicking, Joseph A
Few studies of the clergy have examined emotional well-being using normed measures. This study examined subjective well-being among 1,581 non-retired Episcopal priests. Subjective well-being was measured with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Predictors of subjective well-being were measured with the Dispositional Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991) and scales of personal practices, social support, congregational dynamics, fit, and economic satisfaction. Participants reported more positive affect (Hedges's g = 1.19), more negative affect (Hedges's g = 0.61) and more satisfaction with life (Hedges's g = 0.73) than nonclinical norms. Hope agency was the strongest predictor for positive affect and satisfaction with life; stress was the strongest predictor for negative affect and partially mediated the effect of congregational dynamics and fit on this outcome. Results suggest that prevention programs must focus on all aspects of subjective well-being and consider the direct effects of different levels of the ecosystem to be effective.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify opportunities to learn for teachers’ motivational orientations. Motivational orientations are relevant characteristics of psychological functioning, which are important for the behavior of a teacher and mandatory for effective teaching. We focus on three domains: self-efficacy, subject-specific enthusiasm, and enthusiasm for teaching the subject. Self-efficacy covers the belief of an individual that he or she is capable of performing required behaviors to produce a desired outcome. Teacher enthusiasm is an affective teacher orientation that is related to a specific subject and to teaching this specific subject. Different opportunities to learn are considered for teachers’ motivational orientations. Since teacher education particularly focuses on the acquisition of professional knowledge, we added a further exploratory focus to the study and investigated the relationships between motivational orientations and professional knowledge (content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. 134 biology teachers participated in the study. The results reveal that teacher education at university, the attendance in professional development courses, and self-study provide opportunities to learn for self-efficacy and enthusiasm for teaching the subject. Moreover, we found self-efficacy and subject-specific enthusiasm to be positively related to pedagogical content knowledge.
Full Text Available Academic Flow is a condition where person feel comfortable, able to concentrate, has inner motivation, and also able to enjoy doing academic activity. Self efficacy is believe inside someone has the ability to decide correct behavior to achieve desired success. Purpose of this research is to know the correlation between self efficacy and academic flow on student acceleration. Self efficacy is acknowledged as the trigger which pushes someone learning activity until they had flow condition. This research is correlational quantitative with a subject 24 acceleration students. The result of the study showed correlation between self efficacy and academic flow on acceleration students positive linear, which is mean the higher self efficacy the higher academic flow. High self efficacy able to control the behavior to maintain the effort to do the assignment which make easy to reach the academic flow.
Mansyur, Carol L; Rustveld, Luis O; Nash, Susan G; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L
The purpose of this study was to determine whether perceived support, social norms, and their association with self-efficacy varied by gender and language-based acculturation in Hispanic men and women with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A cross-sectional, secondary analysis of baseline survey data from a randomized control trial. Participants were 248 Hispanic patients from 4 community health centers who participated in a culturally targeted intervention for diabetes management. Quantitative statistical methods were used, including chi-square analyses, one-way ANOVA, and multiple regression. Gender and language both moderated the relationship between social factors and self-efficacy. Regardless of language, better perceived support was associated with improved self-efficacy in women but not men. Dietary norms were associated with self-efficacy in English-speaking men and women, while physical activity norms were associated with self-efficacy for Spanish-speaking women only. This study builds on previous research by exploring the extent to which the social context of diabetes self-management may vary in its effects depending on gender and acculturation. The findings revealed potentially important differences based on both gender and language, suggesting that interventions must be designed with these differences in mind. Diabetes-specific support from family members, especially spouses, may be especially important for Hispanic women. For both men and women, it may be effective to find creative ways of involving the family in creating healthier social norms and expectations. © 2016 The Author(s).
Full Text Available During the past few decades, researchers have proposed that teacher self-efficacy influences student achievement and motivation. The main aim of this work is to identify possible teacher self-efficacy profiles and to determine possible differences in some affective-motivational variables of students. 95 teachers and 1924 students from five Spanish public Universities took part in this study. Using cluster analysis, three distinctive profiles of teachers were generated: high self-efficacy, medium self-efficacy, and low self-efficacy. ANOVA results suggest that teachers with intermediate self-efficacy perception have more learning-oriented students than teachers with high self-efficacy. Students of teachers who are overconfident of their teaching capacity seem to engage less in studying to learn, they are more indifferent to the subjects, and they value the contents of the subject less. These students could also be less confident about the results of their efforts, showing a low perception of self-efficacy, greater academic work avoidance, and more anxiety than students of teachers with a moderate perception of self-efficacy. The results are discussed in light of the hypothesis of overconfidence.
Hong, Soo Jung
This study investigates the effects of cultural norms on family health history (FHH) communication in the American, Chinese, and Korean cultures. More particularly, this study focuses on perceived family boundaries, subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and privacy boundaries, including age and gender, that affect people's FHH communication. For data analyses, hierarchical multiple regression and logistic regression methods were employed. The results indicate that participants' subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and perceived family/privacy boundaries were positively associated with current FHH communication. Age- and gender-related privacy boundaries were negatively related to perceived privacy boundaries, however. Finally, the results show that gendered cultural identities have three-way interaction effects on two associations: (1) between perceived family boundaries and perceived privacy boundaries and (2) between perceived privacy boundaries and current FHH communication. The findings have meaningful implications for future cross-cultural studies on the roles of family systems, subjective norms, and stigma beliefs in FHH communication.
Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... Work engagement, organizational commitment and self-efficacy will create a positive ... effective training, counseling, effective communication and leadership skills.
Zahodne, Laura B; Nowinski, Cindy J; Gershon, Richard C; Manly, Jennifer J
Previous studies showed that control beliefs are more strongly related to global cognition and mortality among adults with low education, providing preliminary evidence that self-efficacy buffers against the negative impact of educational disadvantage on physical and cognitive health. The current study extends these findings to a nationally representative sample of men and women aged 30 to 85 and explores which cognitive domains are most strongly associated with self-efficacy, educational attainment, and their interaction. Data were obtained from 1032 adult (30-85) participants in the United States norming study for the NIH Toolbox. Self-efficacy, executive functioning, working memory, processing speed, episodic memory, and vocabulary were assessed with the NIH Toolbox. Multivariate analysis of covariance and follow-up regressions tested the hypothesis that self-efficacy would be more strongly related to cognitive performance among individuals with lower education, controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, reading level, testing language, and depressive symptoms. Higher education was associated with higher self-efficacy and better performance on all cognitive tests. Higher self-efficacy was associated with better set-switching and attention/inhibition. Significant self-efficacy by education interactions indicated that associations between self-efficacy and executive abilities were stronger for individuals with lower education. Specifically, individuals with low education but high self-efficacy performed similarly to individuals with high education. This study provides evidence that self-efficacy beliefs buffer against the negative effects of low educational attainment on executive functioning. These results have implications for future policy and/or intervention work aimed at reducing the deleterious effects of educational disadvantage on later cognitive health.
Zahodne, Laura B.; Nowinski, Cindy J.; Gershon, Richard C.; Manly, Jennifer J.
Objective Previous studies showed that control beliefs are more strongly related to global cognition and mortality among adults with low education, providing preliminary evidence that self-efficacy buffers against the negative impact of educational disadvantage on physical and cognitive health. The current study extends these findings to a nationally-representative sample of men and women aged 30 to 85 and explores which cognitive domains are most strongly associated with self-efficacy, educational attainment, and their interaction. Method Data were obtained from 1,032 adult (30-85) participants in the United States norming study for the NIH Toolbox. Self-efficacy, executive functioning, working memory, processing speed, episodic memory, and vocabulary were assessed with the NIH Toolbox. Multivariate analysis of covariance and follow-up regressions tested the hypothesis that self-efficacy would be more strongly related to cognitive performance among individuals with lower education, controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, reading level, testing language, and depressive symptoms. Results Higher education was associated with higher self-efficacy and better performance on all cognitive tests. Higher self-efficacy was associated with better set-switching and attention/inhibition. Significant self-efficacy by education interactions indicated that associations between self-efficacy and executive abilities were stronger for individuals with lower education. Specifically, individuals with low education but high self-efficacy performed similarly to individuals with high education. Conclusions This study provides evidence that self-efficacy beliefs buffer against the negative effects of low educational attainment on executive functioning. These results have implications for future policy and/or intervention work aimed at reducing the deleterious effects of educational disadvantage on later cognitive health. PMID:25877284
The purpose of this study is to determine the computer self-efficacy, performance outcome, personal outcome, and affect and anxiety level of physical education teachers. Influence of teaching experience, computer usage and participation of seminars or in-service programs on computer self-efficacy level were determined. The subjects of this study…
Chang, Chiung-Sui; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Sung, Hung-Yen; Lin, Chun-Hung; Chen, Nian-Shing; Cheng, Shan-Shan
This study investigates how Internet self-efficacy helps students to transform motivation into learning action, and its influence on learning performance. In this study, the effects of Internet self-efficacy on motivation and the learning performance of online college students were examined using social cognitive theory. The subjects of this study…
Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Merritt, Eileen G.; Patton, Christine L.
Self-efficacy forecasts student persistence and achievement in challenging subjects. Thus, it is important to understand factors that contribute to students' self-efficacy, a key factor in their success in math and science. The current cross-sectional study examined the contribution of students' gender and math and science anxiety as well as…
Full Text Available Students with higher self-efficacy utilize higher tendency, endeavor, and strength in performing academic tasks and feel ensure of their ability, thus self-efficacy can influence their academic achievement. Current study was conducted aiming at investigating relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement of students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. It is a descriptive – analytical research on 190 students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences during 2015 – 2016. Subjects were selected randomly and two-part questionnaire was used as data collection tool. First part was related to demographic characteristics and second part was related to self-efficacy questionnaire. Finally data were analyzed by SPSS 19 Software using deceptive statistics, Pearson correlation and independent t. Average age of individuals was 21.46 ± 312 and 82 students were female.Relationship between gender and self-efficacy of students was significant and self-efficacy was higher in females. But relationship between gender and academic achievementis not significant. Relationship between age and academic achievement was not significant. Relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement of students was measured through Pearson correlation test and significant relationship was observed. People with higher selfefficacy have more optimal academic status compared to people with low self-efficacy and there is direct positive relationship between GPA and self-efficacy.
Schwerdtfeger, Andreas; Konermann, Leslie; Schönhofen, Katja
To examine the psychobiological correlates of self-efficacy in teachers. Study 1 examined associations between teacher self-efficacy and cardiac activation on a working day and Study 2 assessed the cortisol morning response in teachers with varying levels of teacher self-efficacy. Teacher self-efficacy was assessed by questionnaire. In Study 1 heart rate, heart rate variability, and locomotor activity were recorded by 22 hours ambulatory monitoring and subjective measures of stress and strain were obtained. Study 2 assessed the cortisol response to awakening to obtain a measure of HPA-axis activation and teachers filled in a questionnaire on physical complaints. Study 1 found that self-efficacy proved protective for psychological well-being. Moreover, after controlling for locomotor activity, demographic, and lifestyle variables, self-efficacy was associated with elevated heart rate and attenuated heart rate variability during school and leisure time, respectively, but not during the night, thus questioning the health-implications of self-efficacy. Study 2 found that teachers high in self-efficacy exhibited an attenuated cortisol response to awakening and fewer cardiac complaints. The results of both studies are compatible with the view that teacher self-efficacy might act as a physiological toughening agent with possibly favorable health outcomes.
Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Ying
This study aimed to use an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB), which incorporated additional self-efficacy and past behaviour, to predict the intention to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the MVPA level of Chinese adolescents. Questionnaires that focused on MVPA, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control (PBC), self-efficacy and past behaviour related to the MVPA engagement were administered to a sample of 488 young people. Multiple regression analyses provided moderate support for TPB. Three TPB constructs predicted 28.7% of the variance in intentions to engage in MVPA, and that PBC, but not intention, explained 3.4% of the variance in MVPA. Self-efficacy significantly affected intention and behaviour over and above the influence of TPB. Past behaviour had a small but significant improvement in the prediction of intention, but no improvement in the prediction of MVPA. Based on the results, interventions should target adolescent self-efficacy and PBC in physical activity participation.
Howardson, Garett N.; Behrend, Tara S.
Self-efficacy is clearly important for learning. Research identifying the most important sources of self-efficacy beliefs, however, has been somewhat limited to date in that different disciplines focus largely on different sources of self-efficacy. Whereas education researchers focus on Bandura's original sources of "enactive mastery,"…
Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.
One purpose of the present study was to develop and test the factor structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between principal self-efficacy and work engagement. Principal self-efficacy was measured by the 22-item NPSES. Work…
Lockwood, Adam B.; Mcclure, John; Sealander, Karen; Baker, Courtney N.
There is an ever-increasing need for school psychology training programs to demonstrate their ability to produce competent practitioners. One method of addressing this need is through the assessment of self-efficacy. However, little research on self-efficacy in school psychology exists likely due to the lack of a psychometrically sound measure of…
Purssell, Edward; While, Alison
To field test a parental self-efficacy scale regarding its acceptability and feasibility and to describe parental self-efficacy in a convenience sample of parents with children aged 6 years old or less. Self-care within families is increasingly emphasised in health policy as a means of maximising healthcare resources. This study reports the field testing of a scale designed to measure parental self-efficacy. Cross-sectional survey of parents of children aged 6 years old or less. Subjects were recruited through a parenting internet website (n = 84) and local parenting and community organisations (n = 68) and asked to complete a questionnaire containing the scale. Data collection took place between January and August 2011. The scale, previously validated with an expert panel of professionals, gathered information about parental self-efficacy when administered either directly or through an on-line data collection portal, although there were more missing data when administered via the Internet. Although convenience and self-selecting samples precluded parameter estimation, areas of concern highlighted were difficulties differentiating children with serious illnesses and the use of the Personal Child Health Record. Use of the Internet was widespread, as was use of community pharmacists and nursery staff. Although the primary purpose was not to collect specific data, the data indicated the continuing concern of parents regarding serious illness and where additional investment may be required to meet parental needs and expectations. The previously validated scale can be used to collect information about parental self-efficacy either through a paper questionnaire or the Internet. Although there was slightly more missing data from the Internet version, the ease of its administration makes this an attractive option. Parents generally reported high levels of self-efficacy and satisfaction with services; however, the scale was able to identify areas where further investment
Sherer, Mark; Adams, Carol
Self-efficacy is defined as the belief that one can successfully perform a behavior. Self-efficacy theory asserts that self-efficacy expectancies exert powerful influence on behavior and behavior change. The Self-efficacy Scale, which was developed to assess generalized self-efficacy expectations, consists of two subscales: general self-efficacy…
Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Merritt, Eileen G; Patton, Christine L
Self-efficacy forecasts student persistence and achievement in challenging subjects. Thus, it is important to understand factors that contribute to students' self-efficacy, a key factor in their success in math and science. The current cross-sectional study examined the contribution of students' gender and math and science anxiety as well as schools' use of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) practices to students' math and science self-efficacy. Fifth graders (n = 1,561) completed questionnaires regarding their feelings about math and science. Approximately half of the students attended schools implementing the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach, an SEL intervention, as part of a randomized controlled trial. Results suggested no difference in math and science self-efficacy between boys and girls. Students who self-reported higher math and science anxiety also reported less self-efficacy toward these subjects. However, the negative association between students' anxiety and self-efficacy was attenuated in schools using more RC practices compared with those using fewer RC practices. RC practices were associated with higher science self-efficacy. Results highlight anxiety as contributing to poor self-efficacy in math and science and suggest that RC practices create classroom conditions in which students' anxiety is less strongly associated with negative beliefs about their ability to be successful in math and science. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Pennell, Claire; Whittingham, Koa; Boyd, Roslyn; Sanders, Matthew; Colditz, Paul
There is a lack of research investigating parental self-efficacy in parents of infants born preterm as well as a paucity of parental self-efficacy measures that are domain-specific and theoretically grounded. This study aimed to compare parental self-efficacy in parents of infants born term, preterm and very preterm as well as to test whether parental self-efficacy mediates the relationship between psychological symptoms and parental competence. In order to achieve this, a new measure of parental self-efficacy and parental competence relevant for the preterm population and consistent with Bandura's (1977, 1986, 1989) conceptualisation of self-efficacy was developed. Participants included 155 parents, 83 of whom were parents of very preterm (GAparents of preterm (GAparents of term born infants. Parents completed the Preterm Parenting & Self-Efficacy Checklist (the new measure), Family Demographic Questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. This initial study indicates that the Preterm Parenting & Self-Efficacy Checklist has adequate content validity, construct validity, internal consistency and split half reliability. Contrary to expectations, parents of very preterm infants did not report significantly lower overall levels of parental self-efficacy or significantly higher levels of psychological symptoms compared to parents of preterm and term infants. Parental self-efficacy about parenting tasks mediated the relationship between psychological symptoms and self perceived parental competence as predicted. Clinical implications of the results and suggestions for future research are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Su, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Liu, Jiling; Thornton, Michael A.
This study examined at-risk boys' social self-efficacy and physical activity self-efficacy within Bandura's self-efficacy framework. A total of 97 boys, aged between 10 and 13 years, attending a summer sports camp completed questionnaires assessing their social self-efficacy, physical activity self- efficacy, prosocial behaviors, and effort.…
Full Text Available Abstrak Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk meneliti hubungan antara kepercayaan diri (self-efficacy dan prestasi akademik siswa pada sekolah menengah. Sampel penelitian ini berjumlah 37 orang siswa sekolah tahun akademik 2014/2015 yang dipilih dengan teknik total sampling. Pengukuran kepercayaan diri (self – efficacy menggunakan skala The Teacher Efficacy Scale, sedangkan pengukuran prestasi siswa menggunakan nilai rata-rata rapor siswa. Analisis data menggunakan korelasi product moment. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kepercayaan diri (self-efficacy diri siswa memiliki hubungan dengan prestasi akademik siswa pada mata pelajaran ilmu pengetahuan alam terpadu (Biologi. Semakin tinggi kepercayaan diri (self efficacy siswa, semakin tinggi prestasi mereka, sebaliknya semakin rendah kepercayaan diri (self-efficacy siswa maka semakin rendah prestasi akademik mereka pada mata pelajaran ilmu pengetahuan alam (Biologi. Kata kunci: Self Efficacy, Prestasi, Siswa Abstract [Relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement in science subjects (Biology].The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between self-efficacy and academic achievement in high school students. In this study, 37 students in the academic year 2014/2015 were selected by means of total sampling. To measure self efficacy, The Teacher Efficacy Scale was used. To measure achievement score grade point average (school report in classes was used. To analyze data product moment correlation analysis was used. Analysis of data revealed that self –efficacy are correlated with academic achievement in Biology. The higher the students' self efficacy, the higher the student achievement in science subject (Biology. Conversely, the lower the students' self-efficacy, the lower the learning achievements of students in science subjects (Biology. Keywords: Sel -f Efficacy, Achievement, Student
Present research investigates reciprocal relations amidst computer self-efficacy, scientific research and information literacy self-efficacy. Research findings have demonstrated that according to standardized regression coefficients, computer self-efficacy has a positive effect on information literacy self-efficacy. Likewise it has been detected…
Doménech-Betoret, Fernando; Abellán-Roselló, Laura; Gómez-Artiga, Amparo
Although there is considerable evidence to support the direct effects of self-efficacy beliefs on academic achievement, very few studies have explored the motivational mechanism that mediates the self-efficacy-achievement relationship, and they are necessary to understand how and why self-efficacy affects students' academic achievement. Based on a socio-cognitive perspective of motivation, this study examines the relationships among academic self-efficacy, students' expectancy-value beliefs, teaching process satisfaction, and academic achievement. Its main aim is to identify some motivational-underlying processes through which students' academic self-efficacy affects student achievement and satisfaction. Student achievement and satisfaction are two of the most important learning outcomes, and are considered key indicators of education quality. The sample comprises 797 Spanish secondary education students from 36 educational settings and three schools. The scales that referred to self-efficacy and expectancy-value beliefs were administered at the beginning of the course, while student satisfaction and achievement were measured at the end of the course. The data analysis was conducted by structural equation modeling (SEM). The results revealed that students' expectancy-value beliefs (Subject value, Process expectancy, Achievement expectancy, Cost expectancy) played a mediator role between academic self-efficacy and the achievement/satisfaction relationship. These results provided empirical evidence to better understand the mechanism that mediates self-efficacy-achievement and efficacy-course satisfaction relationships. The implications of these findings for teaching and learning in secondary education are discussed.
Miller, Kelly; Schell, Julie; Ho, Andrew; Lukoff, Brian; Mazur, Eric
Peer Instruction, a well-known student-centered teaching method, engages students during class through structured, frequent questioning and is often facilitated by classroom response systems. The central feature of any Peer Instruction class is a conceptual question designed to help resolve student misconceptions about subject matter. We provide students two opportunities to answer each question—once after a round of individual reflection and then again after a discussion round with a peer. The second round provides students the choice to "switch" their original response to a different answer. The percentage of right answers typically increases after peer discussion: most students who answer incorrectly in the individual round switch to the correct answer after the peer discussion. However, for any given question there are also students who switch their initially right answer to a wrong answer and students who switch their initially wrong answer to a different wrong answer. In this study, we analyze response switching over one semester of an introductory electricity and magnetism course taught using Peer Instruction at Harvard University. Two key features emerge from our analysis: First, response switching correlates with academic self-efficacy. Students with low self-efficacy switch their responses more than students with high self-efficacy. Second, switching also correlates with the difficulty of the question; students switch to incorrect responses more often when the question is difficult. These findings indicate that instructors may need to provide greater support for difficult questions, such as supplying cues during lectures, increasing times for discussions, or ensuring effective pairing (such as having a student with one right answer in the pair). Additionally, the connection between response switching and self-efficacy motivates interventions to increase student self-efficacy at the beginning of the semester by helping students develop early mastery or
Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Data were gathered using a self report questionnaire consisting of scales measuring variables in the study. Self efficacy, job insecurity, sexual harassment and target selling significantly jointly ...
Nielsen, Tine; Makransky, Guido; Vang, Maria Louison
academic learning self-efficacy (SAL-SE) and specific academic exam self-efficacy (SAE-SE), each scale being measurement invariant relative to age, Gender, admission method and specific course targeted. Furthermore, significant and relevant differences between the SAL-SE and SAE-SE scores dependent......Self-efficacy is an important and much used construct in psychology and social science studies. The validity of the measurements used is not always sufficiently evaluated. The aim was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Danish translation of the self-efficacy subscale of The Motivated...... Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ-SE) within a higher education context. Rasch measurement models were employed focusing on measurement invariance and dimensionality. Results with one students sample showed the MSLQ-SE to be not one, but two separate unidimensional subscales, measuring specific...
Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of social networks and subjective norms on an individual’s online pornography consumption. The empirical survey results of 324 voluntary participants indicated that the individual’s positive outcome evaluation was associated with a higher level of online pornography exposure. Social pressure also plays a significant, but negative, role in one’s viewing decision.
Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y
How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.
Maddock, Jay; Glanz, Karen
Heavy drinking among college students is a major concern across the country. Several studies have shown that students tend to overestimate the alcohol consumption of students, in general (global social norms), and of their close friends (proximal normative beliefs). Research has also shown that beliefs about others' alcohol consumption is strongly related to alcohol use. We hypothesized that normative beliefs about important referent individuals would mediate the relationship between campus social norms and alcohol consumption. A survey of alcohol use and related variables was completed by 433 university students. Multiple regression was used to examine the mediational role of normative beliefs on social norms and alcohol consumption. These analyses indicate that normative beliefs are a significant mediator of the relationship between social norms and alcohol consumption. Normative beliefs accounted for 52-62% of the proportion of variance mediated. Normative beliefs are an important construct in understanding the relationship between social norms and alcohol use among college students and may be an important area for future interventions.
Natalia V. Popova
Full Text Available The aim of the publication is to determine the interrelation of the formation of subjective qualities and norms process of adaptation of young employees at the enterprise.Methods. The research methodology involves a comprehensive combination of the theoretical analysis and the results of applied research at the enterprises of the Sverdlovsk region. The dialectical method and comparative analysis are used.Results and theoretical novelty. The questions of adaptation of young employees at the enterprise are considered. The concepts of «subjectivity» and «norms» in philosophy are analyzed. Subjectivity is presented as a personal basis of social activity of the young worker at the entity; regulations – as a method of adaptation of the personality, individual to that community in which it emerged to be. The characteristics of the youth working at the industrial enterprise are disclosed on the basis of socio-philosophical analysis; youth policy at the industrial enterprises is described; the formation of values and norms of young workers in the process of adapting the enterprise is observed. The personal subjectivity as the basis of social activity of the young worker in the enterprise is demonstrated. It is shown that relevance of subject qualities forming and regulations at youth is caused not only by the need of development of the identity of young workers, but also by economic safety of industrial enterprises wellbeing where their working career begins.Practical significance consists in the social-philosophical substantiation of interrelation of formation of subjective qualities and norms in the process of adaptation of young employees in the company, of the main provisions for the development of programs of adaptation of young employees at the enterprise; in providing the teaching social and humanitarian disciplines for bachelors and masters majoring in «Organization of Work with Youth».
Full Text Available Self-efficacy has been proposed as an important element of a successful cognitive behavioral treatment. Positive changes in perceived self-efficacy have been linked to an improved adaptive emotional and behavioral responding in the context of anxiety-provoking situations. Furthermore, a positive influence of self-efficacy on cognitive functions has been confirmed. The present study examined the effect of verbal persuasion on perceived self-efficacy and fear extinction. Healthy participants were subjected to a standardized differential fear conditioning paradigm. After fear acquisition, half of the participants received a verbal persuasion aimed at increasing perceived self-efficacy. The extinction of fear was assessed immediately thereafter on both the implicit and explicit level. Our results suggest that an increased perceived self-efficacy was associated with enhanced extinction, evidenced on the psychophysiological level and accompanied by more pronounced decrements in conditioned negative valence. Changes in extinction were not due to a decrease in overall emotional reactivity to conditioned stimuli. In addition, debriefing participants about the false positive feedback did not affect the processing of already extinguished conditioned responses during a subsequent continued extinction phase. Our results suggest that positive changes in perceived self-efficacy can be beneficial for emotional learning. Findings are discussed with respect to strategies aimed at increasing extinction learning in the course of exposure-based treatments.
Sahara, Rifki; Mardiyana, S., Dewi Retno Sari
Full Text Available Background: Self-efficacy is known as a factor which influences health behaviors, chronic diseases management and quality of life in patients with cancer. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of self-efficacy and quality of life in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 100 women with breast cancer referred to Seyed Al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan in 2015. The study subjects were selected by simple random sampling method. The measurement tools were the Sherer self-efficacy scale and the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Findings: Mean age was 48.25±11.93 years. The mean self-efficacy score and quality of life score were 55.78± 11 and 75.91±15.28, respectively and both of them were average. There was positive significant correlation between self-efficacy and quality of life. There was also significant association between self-efficacy and quality of life domains including physical health, mental health, social relationships and environment. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it seems that activities such as workshops for patients, presence of a psychologist in department of chemotherapy, and providing health facilities can be effective for increasing self-efficacy and quality of life in patients with cancer.
Full Text Available The frame of reference in this paper is based on Bandura's concept of self-efficacy. The theory of self-efficacy is based on the importance of subjective experience of personal competence in realizing different goals and tasks, rather than on real knowledge and skills. It supports reciprocal causation according to which a person is observed holistically through dynamic effect of personal factors (cognitive, emotional and biological, factors of the environment and behavior. Development of self-efficacy strongly determines future behavior of a person in achieving goals, since it initiates action, determines the amount of required effort, persistence in facing obstacles, and resilience in unwanted situations. Many different scales are used in assessing selfefficacy (e.g. Children's Self-Efficacy Scale, Parents' Self-Efficacy Scale, Teachers' Self-Efficacy Scale, etc.. They consist of several subscales that can greatly contribute to understanding adolescents and predicting their functioning, depending on the assessed contextual area. Previous researches confirmed the influence of students' selfefficacy on their academic achievements, professional aspirations, and prosocial behavior. In the last couple of years there have been more and more researches which analyze the role of self-efficacy in behavioral disorders, such as peer aggression, cigarette smoking, drug abuse, excessive use of the Internet, etc.
Doba, Nobutaka; Tokuda, Yasuharu; Saiki, Keiichirou; Kushiro, Toshio; Hirano, Masumi; Matsubara, Yoshihiro; Hinohara, Shigeaki
Objective It has been increasingly recognized in various clinical areas that self-efficacy promotes the level of competence in patients. The validity, applicability and potential usefulness of a new, simple model for assessing self-efficacy in the elderly with special reference to frailty were investigated for improving elderly patients' accomplishments. Methods The subjects of the present study comprised 257 elderly people who were members of the New Elder Citizen Movement in Japan and their mean age was 82.3±3.8 years. Interview materials including self-efficacy questionnaires were sent to all participants in advance and all other physical examinations were performed at the Life Planning Center Clinic. Results The internal consistency and close relation among a set of items used as a measure of self-efficacy were evaluated by Cronbach's alpha index, which was 0.79. Although no age-dependent difference was identified in either sex, gender-related differences in some factors were noted. Regarding several parametric parameters, Beck's inventory alone revealed a significant relationship to self-efficacy in both sexes. Additionally, non-parametric items such as stamina, power and memory were strongly correlated with self-efficacy in both sexes. Frailty showed a significant independent relationship with self-efficacy in a multiple linear regression model analysis and using Beck's inventory, stamina, power and memory were identified to be independent factors for self-efficacy. Conclusion The simple assessment of self-efficacy described in this study may be a useful tool for successful aging of elderly people. PMID:27725537
Tan, K L; Suhaida, S; Leong, Y P
The objective of this study is to investigate empirically the extent to which self-efficacy contributes to the development of green entrepreneurial intention. The measurement constructs of self-efficacy were classified into market opportunities, innovative environment, initiating relationships, defining purpose, coping with challenges, and developing human resources. The study comprises 252 usable convenient samples through structured questionnaires. The coefficient of determination R 2 shows that the variance of intention to entrepreneurship is explained by the variance of the independent variables. It was also found that the model is fit for prediction.
Tan, K. L.; Suhaida, S.; Leong, Y. P.
The objective of this study is to investigate empirically the extent to which self-efficacy contributes to the development of green entrepreneurial intention. The measurement constructs of self-efficacy were classified into market opportunities, innovative environment, initiating relationships, defining purpose, coping with challenges, and developing human resources. The study comprises 252 usable convenient samples through structured questionnaires. The coefficient of determination R2 shows that the variance of intention to entrepreneurship is explained by the variance of the independent variables. It was also found that the model is fit for prediction.
What factors influence ninth grade students' expectations for success in science? Using social cognitive theory and bioecological systems theory as theoretical frameworks, this dissertation employs data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) to examine the relative impact of teacher practices and their perceived attitudes on students' science self-efficacy. Further, as they relate to this broader issue, the relative impact of student subjective task value and teacher characteristics is also investigated. It has been well documented that U.S. students are not achieving at satisfactory levels in science. Education policy has focused on improving science teacher quality as one way to address this problem. Teacher effectiveness has been primarily measured by student achievement on standardized tests. However, not enough attention has been given to the social cognitive factors that can lead to increased achievement and persistence in science as well as how teachers may influence these factors. This study interrogates the relationship between student and teacher variables and the social cognitive construct of self-efficacy, which has proven to have a significant impact on student achievement and persistence in science. Findings add to the current literature surrounding ways that educators may increase student performance in science by employing policies and practices that benefit the development of student science self-efficacy.
Al-Swidi, Abdullah; Huque, Sheikh Mohammed Rafiul; Hafeez, Muhammad Haroon; Shariff, Mohd Noor Mohd
The purpose of the paper is to investigate the applicability of theory of planned behavior (TPB) with special emphasis on measuring the direct and moderating effect of subjective norms on attitude, perceived behavioral control and buying intention in context of buying organic food. Structured questionnaires were randomly distributed among academic staffs and students of two universities in southern Punjab, Pakistan. Structural equation modeling was employed to test the proposed model fit....
Yang, Jie Chi; Quadir, Benazir; Chen, Nian-Shing
A growing number of studies have been conducted on digital game-based learning (DGBL). However, there has been a lack of attention paid to individuals' self-efficacy and learning performance in the implementation of DGBL. This study therefore investigated how the badge mechanism in DGBL enhanced users' self-efficacy in the subject domain of…
Pisconti, Fernando; Mahmoud Smaili Santos, Suhaila; Lopes, Josiane; Rosa Cardoso, Jefferson; Lopes Lavado, Edson
The Exercise Self-Efficacy scale (ESES) is a reliable measure, in the English language, of exercise self-efficacy in individuals with spinal cord injury. The aim of this study was to culturally adjust and validate the Exercise Self-Efficacy scale in the Portuguese language. The Exercise Self-Efficacy scale was applied to 76 subjects, with three-month intervals (three applications in total). The reliability was appraised using the intra-class correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman methods, and the internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach´s alpha. The Exercise Self-Efficacy scale was correlated with the domains of the Quality of life Questionnaire SF-36 and Functional Independence Measure and tested using the Spearman rho coefficient. The Exercise Self-Efficacy scale-Brazil presented good internal consistency (alpha 1 = 0.856; alpha 2 = 0.855; alpha 3 = 0.822) and high reliability in the test-retest (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.97). There was a strong correlation between the Exercise Self-Efficacy scale-Brazil and the SF-36 only in the functional capacity domain (rho = 0.708). There were no changes in Exercise Self-Efficacy scale-Brazil scores between the three applications (p = 0.796). The validation of the Exercise Self-Efficacy scale questionnaire permits the assessor to use it reliably in Portuguese speaking countries, since it is the first instrument measuring self-efficacy specifically during exercises in individuals with spinal cord injury. Furthermore, the questionnaire can be used as an instrument to verify the effectiveness of interventions that use exercise as an outcome. The results of the Brazilian version of the Exercise Self-Efficacy scale support its use as a reliable and valid measurement of exercise self-efficacy for this population.
Desi Dwi Damaryanti
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the geometrical reasoning ability of the students viewed from the self-efficacy through the learning of Connected Mathematic Project (CMP ethnomathematic-based. The type of this research was qualitative which was descriptive. To obtained the validity of the qualitative data, the checking technique used in this research was sources triangulation, which had been done by comparing the suitability of the obtained data from the results of the interview and the test. Population of this research was the students of grade VIII at SMP Negeri 1 Sidoharjo and the sample was the students from VIII A Class. At the final, 12 research subjects were chosen to represent the group of level 1 self-efficacy, level 2 self-efficacy, level 3 self-efficacy, level 4 self efficacy, level 5 self-efficacy, and level 6 self-efficacy. In this research, there was a finding which shows us that the students with high self-efficacy had low ability to finish the geometrical reasoning ability test, while the students with low self-efficacy had the ability to finish the geometrical reasoning ability test. The factors which affected the finding were the motivations and the interest of learning mathematics which was affecting the attitude of the students in the classroom.
Lau, Christine Y K; Lok, Kris Y W; Tarrant, Marie
Introduction Numerous studies have shown that the constructs of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy (BSE) Framework can effectively identify relationships between maternal psychosocial factors and breastfeeding initiation. However, the ability of these theories to predict breastfeeding duration has not been adequately analyzed. The aim of the review was to examine the utility of the constructs of TRA/TPB and BSE to predict breastfeeding duration. Methods We conducted a literature search using Pubmed (1980-May 2015), Medline (1966-May 2015), CINAHL (1980-May 2015), EMBASE (1980-May 2015) and PsycINFO (1980-May 2015). We selected studies that were observational studies without randomization or blinding, using TRA, TPB or BSE as the framework for analysis. Only studies reporting on breastfeeding duration were included. Results Thirty studies were selected, which include four using TRA, 10 using TPB, 15 using BSE and one using a combination of TPB and BSE. Maternal intention and breastfeeding self-efficacy were found to be important predictors of breastfeeding duration. Inconsistent findings were found in assessing the relationship between maternal attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavior control and breastfeeding duration. Discussion The inadequacy of these constructs in explaining breastfeeding duration indicates a need to further explore the role of maternal self-determination in breastfeeding behavior.
This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the "Leadership Behavior Description Question" (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969),…
Career self efficacy, achievement motivation and organizational commitments are considered as predictors of lecturers‟ conflict preventive behaviours in tertiary institutions in Oyo town. 300 lecturers (149 male and 151 female) of the four tertiary institutions were randomly sampled. What is the relative contributions of each ...
This paper takes as its starting point the difficulties inherent in listening in a second language. It argues that self-efficacy, broadly defined as the belief in one's ability to carry out specific tasks successfully, is crucial to the development of effective listening skills, and that listening strategy instruction has the potential to boost…
Sahendra, A.; Budiarto, M. T.; Fuad, Y.
This descriptive qualitative research aims at investigating student represented in mathematical word problem solving based on self-efficacy. The research subjects are two eighth graders at a school in Surabaya with equal mathematical ability consisting of two female students with high and low self-efficacy. The subjects were chosen based on the results of test of mathematical ability, documentation of the result of middle test in even semester of 2016/2017 academic year, and results of questionnaire of mathematics word problem in terms of self-efficacy scale. The selected students were asked to do mathematical word problem solving and be interviewed. The result of this study shows that students with high self-efficacy tend to use multiple representations of sketches and mathematical models, whereas students with low self-efficacy tend to use single representation of sketches or mathematical models only in mathematical word problem-solving. This study emphasizes that teachers should pay attention of student’s representation as a consideration of designing innovative learning in order to increase the self-efficacy of each student to achieve maximum mathematical achievement although it still requires adjustment to the school situation and condition.
Didarloo, A R; Shojaeizadeh, D; Gharaaghaji Asl, R; Habibzadeh, H; Niknami, Sh; Pourali, R
Continuous performing of diabetes self-care behaviors was shown to be an effective strategy to control diabetes and to prevent or reduce its- related complications. This study aimed to investigate predictors of self-care behavior based on the extended theory of reasoned action by self efficacy (ETRA) among women with type 2 diabetes in Iran. A sample of 352 women with type 2 diabetes, referring to a Diabetes Clinic in Khoy, Iran using the nonprobability sampling was enrolled. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the variables of interest (diabetes knowledge, personal beliefs, subjective norm, self-efficacy and behavioral intention along with self- care behaviors). Reliability and validity of the instruments using Cronbach's alpha coefficients (the values of them were more than 0.70) and a panel of experts were tested. A statistical significant correlation existed between independent constructs of proposed model and modelrelated dependent constructs, as ETRA model along with its related external factors explained 41.5% of variance of intentions and 25.3% of variance of actual behavior. Among constructs of model, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions among women with type 2 diabetes, as it lonely explained 31.3% of variance of intentions and 11.4% of variance of self-care behavior. The high ability of the extended theory of reasoned action with self-efficacy in forecasting and explaining diabetes mellitus self management can be a base for educational intervention. So to improve diabetes self management behavior and to control the disease, use of educational interventions based on proposed model is suggested.
Soares, Ana Paula; Costa, Ana Santos; Machado, João; Comesaña, Montserrat; Oliveira, Helena Mendes
Words are widely used as stimuli in cognitive research. Because of their complexity, using words requires strict control of their objective (lexical and sublexical) and subjective properties. In this work, we present the Minho Word Pool (MWP), a dataset that provides normative values of imageability, concreteness, and subjective frequency for 3,800 (European) Portuguese words-three subjective measures that, in spite of being used extensively in research, have been scarce for Portuguese. Data were collected with 2,357 college students who were native speakers of European Portuguese. The participants rated 100 words drawn randomly from the full set for each of the three subjective indices, using a Web survey procedure (via a URL link). Analyses comparing the MWP ratings with those obtained for the same words from other national and international databases showed that the MWP norms are reliable and valid, thus providing researchers with a useful tool to support research in all neuroscientific areas using verbal stimuli. The MWP norms can be downloaded along with this article or from http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/about/databases .
Schwarzer, Ralf; Antoniuk, Agata; Gholami, Maryam
The roles of self-efficacy and self-monitoring as proximal predictors of dental flossing frequency are studied in the context of an oral health intervention. A study among 287 university students, aged 19 to 26 years, compared an intervention group that received a brief self-regulatory treatment, with a passive and an active control group. Dental flossing, self-efficacy, and self-monitoring were assessed at baseline and 3 weeks later. The intervention led to an increase in dental flossing regardless of experimental condition. However, treatment-specific gains were documented for self-efficacy and self-monitoring. Moreover, changes in the latter two served as mediators in a path model, linking the intervention with subsequent dental flossing and yielding significant indirect effects. Self-efficacy and self-monitoring play a mediating role in facilitating dental flossing. Interventions that aim at an improvement in oral self-care should consider using these constructs. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? The adoption and maintenance of oral self-care can be facilitated by a number of social-cognitive variables. Interventions that include planning, action control, or self-efficacy components have been shown to improve dental flossing. In one recent study on flossing in adolescent girls, planning intervention effects were mediated by self-efficacy. What does this study add? Self-monitoring is associated with better oral self-care. A 10-min intervention improves self-efficacy and self-monitoring. Self-efficacy and self-monitoring operate as mediators between treatment and flossing. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Although there is considerable evidence to support the direct effects of self-efficacy beliefs on academic achievement, very few studies have explored the motivational mechanism that mediates the self-efficacy–achievement relationship, and they are necessary to understand how and why self-efficacy affects students' academic achievement. Based on a socio-cognitive perspective of motivation, this study examines the relationships among academic self-efficacy, students' expectancy-value beliefs, teaching process satisfaction, and academic achievement. Its main aim is to identify some motivational-underlying processes through which students' academic self-efficacy affects student achievement and satisfaction. Student achievement and satisfaction are two of the most important learning outcomes, and are considered key indicators of education quality. The sample comprises 797 Spanish secondary education students from 36 educational settings and three schools. The scales that referred to self-efficacy and expectancy-value beliefs were administered at the beginning of the course, while student satisfaction and achievement were measured at the end of the course. The data analysis was conducted by structural equation modeling (SEM. The results revealed that students' expectancy-value beliefs (Subject value, Process expectancy, Achievement expectancy, Cost expectancy played a mediator role between academic self-efficacy and the achievement/satisfaction relationship. These results provided empirical evidence to better understand the mechanism that mediates self-efficacy–achievement and efficacy–course satisfaction relationships. The implications of these findings for teaching and learning in secondary education are discussed.
The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between shyness, perception of general self-efficacy, and life satisfaction in young adolescents. The study participants included 489 freshman students living in Turkey and studying under different faculty at public universities in Ankara (184 female; 37.6% and 305 male; 62.4%). The subjects ranged in age between 18 (n = 207; 42.3%) and 19 (n = 282; 57.7%) years. Study data collection included the Shyness Scale (Cheek and Buss 1981), the Perception of General Self-efficacy Scale (Schwarzer and Jerusalem 1995), and the General Life Satisfaction Scale (Diener, Emmons, Laresen and Griffin 1985). The data obtained were examined through Correlation analysis, simple linear regression analysis, multiple linear regression analysis and the sobel test. The results of the study showed that there was a moderately significant negative correlation between shyness and perception of general self-efficacy, moderately significant negative correlation between shyness and life satisfaction and moderately significant positive correlation between the perception of general self-efficacy and life satisfaction. Finally, the level of shyness and perceptions of general self-efficacy significantly predicted life satisfaction. The findings of the present study may contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between shyness, perception of self-efficacy and "life satisfaction. The results are discussed in the context of the current literature on these topics.
Tovel, Hava; Carmel, Sara
This article describes the development and validation of the Function Self-Efficacy Scale (FSES) for assessing the degree of confidence in self-functioning while facing decline in health and function (DHF). The FSES was evaluated in two studies of older Israelis, aged 75+ years. Data were collected by structured home interviews. Exploratory factor analyses conducted in both studies clearly revealed two underlying factors: emotion self-efficacy and action self-efficacy. Confirmatory factor analyses resulted in acceptable model fit criteria. The shortened final 13-item FSES had good internal consistency and satisfactory criterion and convergent validity. Multiple regression analyses, conducted to predict subjective well-being in each of the studies, showed that function self-efficacy had a positive and significant contribution to the explanation of well-being, while controlling for general self-efficacy, self-rated health, and sociodemographic variables. We propose that appropriate interventions can strengthen function self-efficacy, thus improving the well-being of elderly persons and their ability to cope with DHF. © The Author(s) 2015.
Self-efficacy and parental motivation as correlates ofstudends' academic ... and academic performance of secondary school students in attaining academic ... and improve their self-efficacy and to motivate parents to provide more support, care ...
Srinathasya Br Sitepu
Full Text Available A business start up is identical to a new business run by an entrepeneur to gain profit. The research is to analyze the function of the entrepreneurship training given by Universitas Ciputra Surabaya to the villagers in Desa Mojowarno. The objectives of the research are: 1 to learn the proper innovation technique to increase the self efficacy of the entrepreneur/participant, 2 to understand the impact of the increased self-efficacy towards the business continuity managed by the entrepreneur/participant. The research method used is qualitative descriptive analysis with the subject of the research are entrepreneurs (ten training participants who managed banana trunk chips in Mojowarno. The validation technique used in this research is triangulation data method with participative observation, in depth interview and documentation (photo and video of the participants’ capability. The result of the research: 1 Innovation realization (5+1 concept succeeded in increasing the self efficacy of the participants (ten training participants; 2 The self-efficacy increase provides a positive impact (business increase so that the entrepreneur has an additional income. It is suggested that the entrepreneur must keep on innovating innovated to increase their self-efficacy so that the business can improve the continuity.Keywords: descriptive qualitative, innovation, self-efficacy, business entrepreneur start up, trainingABSTRAKStart-up bisnis identik dengan usaha baru yang dijalankan oleh seorang entrepreneur untuk mendapatkan keuntungan. Penelitian ini menganalisis peran pelatihan kewirausahaan yang diberikan Universitas Ciputra Surabaya kepada masyarakat Desa Mojowarno. Tujuan penelitian ini terdiri dari: 1 mengetahui teknik yang tepat untuk berinovasi guna meningkatkan self-efficacy dari entrepreneur/peseta yang mengikuti pelatihan, 2 Mengetahui dampak dari peningkatan self-efficacy terhadap keberlangsungan bisnis yang dijalankan oleh entrepreneur
Lee, Hyun Jung; Choi-Kwon, Smi
In this study an examination was done of the effect of self-efficacy promoting vestibular rehabilitation (S-VR) on dizziness, exercise selfefficacy, adherence to vestibular rehabilitation (VR), subjective and objective vestibular function, vestibular compensation and the recurrence of dizziness in patients with vestibular hypofunction. This was a randomized controlled study. Data were collected 3 times at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks after beginning the intervention. Outcome measures were level of dizziness, exercise self-efficacy, and level of adherence to VR. Subjective and objective vestibular function, vestibular compensation and the recurrence of dizziness were also obtained. Data were analyzed using Windows SPSS 21.0 program. After 4 weeks of S-VR, there was no difference between the groups for dizziness, subjective and objective vestibular functions. However, exercise self-efficacy and adherence to VR were higher in the experimental group than in the control group. After 8 weeks of S-VR, dizziness (p=.018) exercise self-efficacy (pexercise self-efficacy, subjective vestibular function and adherence to VR. Objective vestibular function and vestibular compensation were also improved in the experimental group at the end of 8 weeks of S-VR.
Cave, Paul N.; Evans, Norman W.; Dewey, Dan P.; Hartshorn, K. James
The present study investigated the relationship between student use of self-efficacy-building strategies through motivational partnerships and student levels of self-efficacy and motivation in an adult intensive English programme in the United States. The extent to which self-efficacy influenced motivation was also examined. After being organized…
Bobo, Linda; Andrews, Amanda
When a student has a high sense of self-efficacy, foreseeing success and providing positive guides and supports for performing the skill will usually occur. A low self-efficacy tends to predict failure and anticipation of what could go wrong. Videotape feedback provided to students has reported favorable outcomes. Self-efficacy could alter…
Bruning, Roger; Dempsey, Michael; Kauffman, Douglas F.; McKim, Courtney; Zumbrunn, Sharon
A multifactor perspective on writing self-efficacy was examined in 2 studies. Three factors were proposed--self-efficacy for writing ideation, writing conventions, and writing self-regulation--and a scale constructed to reflect these factors. In Study 1, middle school students (N = 697) completed the Self-Efficacy for Writing Scale (SEWS), along…
Siwatu, Kamau Oginga; Chesnut, Steven Randall; Alejandro, Angela Ybarra; Young, Haeni Alecia
This study was designed to add to the research on teachers' self-efficacy beliefs by examining preservice teachers' culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy doubts. We examined the tasks that preservice teachers felt least efficacious to successfully execute and explored the reasoning behind these self-efficacy doubts. Consequently, we were…
Baleghi-Zadeh, Sousan; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Mahmud, Rosnaini; Daud, Shaffe Mohd
In recent years, the use of learning management system by universities has been increasingly growing. However, the results of several studies have revealed that students do not fully use the information systems. The present study proposes a model which investigates the influence of three constructs of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and subjective norm on behavior intention to use of learning management system. The sample size was 216 Malaysian undergraduate students. The results of the study revealed that the proposed model accounts for 31.1 % variance of behavior intention to use.
Eduardo Muñoz Bautista
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intention in offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes mellitus in two cities in the state of Hidaldo, Mexico. Methods: This is a quantitative, nonexperimental, explanatory and cross-sectional study. Through a two-stage probabilistic sample, 246 subjects (between 15 and 59 years old whose parents were enrolled in a diabetes program in the social security service were interviewed in a personal manner. Results: It was observed that the reduction in the risk of developing diabetes affects the intent of developing preventive behaviors mediated by attitude toward prevention (p=0.000, which is the most important predictor of that intention (p=0.000. Subjective norms also have a significant impact on the preventive behavioral intention (p=0.000, although the preventive attitude is not affected by beliefs regarding the development (p=0.095 and severity of the disease (p=0.056. Conclusion: The application of the model allowed the identification of relevant aspects to support health promotion, oriented to influence the processes of change in social behavior, in a population at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p43
It is important to promote self-efficacy for exercise for developing exercise habit. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influenced by self-efficacy for exercise among community-dwelling elderly men in urban areas. The subjects were 69 elderly men (mean age of 74.2±2.0 SD) who had given approval for participation in the study. We examined the following factors: family situation, history of falls, frequency of going out, stage model of a change, self-efficacy for exercise, fall efficacy scale (FES), geriatric depression scale (GDS), subjective health, functional ability and motor function (5 m walking time, chair stand test-5times). Analysis of variance was used to assess a stage model of a change differences in self-efficacy for exercise and other measures. Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were performed to determine the relationships between self-efficacy for exercise and other measures. We found that self-efficacy of exercise, FES, GDS (pSelf-efficacy for exercise was found to correlate with psychological factors and functional ability (|r|=0.47-0.67). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the independent factors related to self-efficacy for exercise were FES and GDS. FES and GDS were found to be significant and independent predictors of self-efficacy for exercise in community-dwelling elderly men in urban areas. We should consider not only the approach based on behavioral science but also mental support for depression and fear of falling to promote exercise self-efficacy.
Chang, Yevvon Yi-Chi; Chiou, Wen-Bin
Self-efficacy toward science learning has been shown to play a crucial role in determining students' motivation and achievements. Social cognitive theory proposes that positive and negative task outcomes affect mastery experiences from which self-efficacy develops. The current research examined whether prior level of self-efficacy would serve as a…
Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Velozo, Craig; Romero, Sergio; Shulman, Lisa M
The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System ® (PROMIS ® ) was designed to develop, validate, and standardize item banks to measure key domains of physical, mental, and social health in chronic conditions. This paper reports the calibration and validation testing of the PROMIS Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Conditions measures. PROMIS Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Conditions item banks comprise five domains, Self-Efficacy for Managing: Daily Activities, Symptoms, Medications and Treatments, Emotions, and Social Interactions. Banks were calibrated in 1087 subjects from two data sources: 837 patients with chronic neurologic conditions (epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, neuropathy, Parkinson disease, and stroke) and 250 subjects from an online Internet sample of adults with general chronic conditions. Scores were compared with one legacy scale: Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease 6-Item scale (SEMCD6) and five PROMIS short forms: Global Health (Physical and Mental), Physical Function, Fatigue, Depression, and Anxiety. The sample was 57% female, mean age = 53.8 (SD = 14.7), 76% white, 21% African American, 6% Hispanic, and 76% with greater than high school education. Full-item banks were created for each domain. All measures had good internal consistency and correlated well with SEMCD6 (r = 0.56-0.75). Significant correlations were seen between the Self-Efficacy measures and other PROMIS short forms (r > 0.38). The newly developed PROMIS Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Conditions measures include five domains of self-efficacy that were calibrated across diverse chronic conditions and show good internal consistency and cross-sectional validity.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the relationships between belief, attitude, subjective norm, intention, and behavior towards the choice of infant food based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA. An analysis on a sample of 108 mothers indicates that the TRA could be used in predicting choice decision of infant food formulas by explaining 57 percent of the variance in the behavioral intention. The subjective norm component had a higher predictive power than the attitudinal component. Of this normative component, parents or relatives and doctors were found to be more influential. Intention to choose an infant formula was also influenced by family income. The belief outcomes in evaluating a premium infant formula and economic infant formula were found to be different. For premium infant formula, brand trusted, closest to breast milk and nutrients content were identified as the dominant attributes. In contrast, availability, affordable, and nutrients content were identified as the prime beliefs in evaluating economic infant formula. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Shattuck, Paul T.; Steinberg, Jessica; Yu, Jennifer; Wei, Xin; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Newman, Lynn; Roux, Anne M.
The number of youth on the autism spectrum approaching young adulthood and attending college is growing. Very little is known about the subjective experience of these college students. Disability identification and self-efficacy are two subjective factors that are critical for the developmental and logistical tasks associated with emerging…
Webb, Donna Louise
Currently, STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) is a popular buzz word in P-12 education as it represents a means to advance American competitiveness in the global economy. Proponents of the engineering component of STEM advocate additional benefits in teaching engineering, such as its capacity to engage students in collaboration, and to apply critical thinking, systems thinking, negotiation, and communication skills to solve real-life contextual problems. Establishing a strong foundation of engineering knowledge at a young age will provide students with internal motivation as it taps into their curiosity toward how things work, and it also prepares them for secondary science courses. Successful STEM education is often constrained by elementary teachers' low perception of self-efficacy to teach science and engineering. Elementary teachers with low self-efficacy in science are more likely to spend less instructional time teaching science, which suggests that teachers with little to no training in engineering might avoid teaching this topic. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the effects of engineering professional development on elementary (K-6) teachers' content and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and perceptions of self-efficacy to teach engineering, and (b) to identify and explain sources influencing self-efficacy. Professional development was conducted in a metropolitan area in the Pacific Northwest. Results revealed that after the engineering professional development, teachers experienced statistically significant gains in content, PCK, and self-efficacy to teach engineering. Increases in self-efficacy were mainly attributed to mastery experiences and cultivation of a growth mindset by embracing the engineering design process.
Pang, Marco Y C; Eng, Janice J; Lin, Kwan-Hwa; Tang, Pei-Fang; Hung, Chihya; Wang, Yen-Ho
To determine factors influencing disease-management self-efficacy in individuals with spinal cord injury. A cross-sectional study. Forty-nine community-dwelling individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (mean age 44 years) participated in the study. Each subject was evaluated for disease-management self-efficacy (Self-efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease), depression (10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), pain interference (Pain Interference Scale), and availability of support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List short form). Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the relative contributions of these factors to disease-management self-efficacy. The mean disease-management self-efficacy score was 6.5 out of 10 (standard deviation 1.6). Bivariate correlation analysis showed that higher self-efficacy was significantly correlated with longer time since injury (r = 0.367, p = 0.010), better social support (r = 0.434, p = 0.002), lower pain interference (r = -0.589, p management self-efficacy (F 4,44=10.249, R2=0.482, pmanagement self-efficacy is suboptimal in many community-living people with spinal cord injury. This research suggests that rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injury should include self-efficacy-enhancing strategies. Alleviation of depressive symptoms and pain self-management may be important for improving disease-management self-efficacy in this population, but this requires further study.
Paul T. Shattuck
Full Text Available The number of youth on the autism spectrum approaching young adulthood and attending college is growing. Very little is known about the subjective experience of these college students. Disability identification and self-efficacy are two subjective factors that are critical for the developmental and logistical tasks associated with emerging adulthood. This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 to examine the prevalence and correlates of disability identification and self-efficacy among college students on the autism spectrum. Results indicate nearly one-third of these students do not report seeing themselves as disabled or having a special need. Black race was associated with lower likelihood of both disability identification and self-efficacy.
M, Ardiany; W, Wahyu; A, Supriatna
The more students who feel less confident in learning, so doing things that are less responsible, such as brawl, drunkenness and others. So researchers need to do research related to student self efficacy in learning, in order to reduce unwanted things. This study aims to determine the effect of guided inquiry learning on improving self-efficacy of learners in the buffer solution topics. The method used is the mixed method which is the two group pretest postest design. The subjects of the study are 60 students of class XI AK in one of the SMKN in Bandung, consisting of 30 experimental class students and 30 control class students. The instruments used in this study mix method consist of self-efficacy questionnaire of pretest and posttest learners, interview guides, and observation sheet. Data analysis using t test with significant α = 0,05. Based on the result of inquiry of guided inquiry study, there is a significant improvement in self efficacy aspect of students in the topic of buffer solution. Data of pretest and posttest interview, observation, questionnaire showed significant result, that is improvement of experimental class with conventionally guided inquiry learning. The mean of self-efficacy of student learning there is significant difference of experiment class than control class equal to 0,047. There is a significant relationship between guided inquiry learning with self efficacy and guided inquiry learning. Each correlation value is 0.737. The learning process with guided inquiry is fun and challenging so that students can expose their ideas and opinions without being forced. From the results of questionnaires students showed an attitude of interest, sincerity and a good response of learning. While the results of questionnaires teachers showed that guided inquiry learning can make students learn actively, increased self-efficacy.
Gardner, Cynthia Crompton
Despite research showing Environmental Education can provide positive student outcomes in academic achievement, critical thinking, motivation and engagement (Ernst, 2007; Lieberman & Hoody, 1998; Orr, 1992; Palmer, 1998; Powers, 2004; Volk & Cheak, 2003), Environmental Education is currently not a critical element in American public school K-12 education. The present study investigates self-efficacy in Environmental Education through a mixed methods research approach. The data reveal the participants' perspectives of their sense of self-efficacy in Environmental Education. It adds to the body of work on Environmental Education and self-efficacy by specifically investigating the topics through interviews with preservice teachers. Purposeful sampling is used to identify preservice elementary education teachers in their senior year of college with a high measure of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is measured using the Environmental Education Efficacy Belief Instrument (Sia, 1992). Forty-six preservice teachers completed the instrument. Six preservice teachers were interviewed to determine experiences that impact their self-efficacy in Environmental Education. Continual comparison and cross-case analysis are used to analyze the data. The results reveal a relationship between personal experiences with nature as a young child and current beliefs toward their personal efficacy and teaching outcome efficacy in Environmental Education. Similar to the findings of Sia (1992), the researcher discovered that preservice teachers realize that they lack sufficient knowledge and skill in Environmental Education but believe that effective teaching can increase students understanding of Environmental Education. While the preservice teachers do not believe they will teach Environmental Education as well as other subjects, they will continually seek out better ways to teach Environmental Education. Interviews with participants who had a high self-efficacy revealed the importance of
Kinsaul, Jessica A E; Curtin, Lisa; Bazzini, Doris; Martz, Denise
Sociocultural norms pertaining to an ideal of thinness for women likely play a role in the development and maintenance of disturbance in body image, and by extension, disordered eating. However, competing norms associated with feminism may buffer women from pressures associated with achieving the thin ideal. The present study explored the relationship between feminist ideology, empowerment, and self-efficacy relative to body image and eating behavior with a sample of U.S. undergraduate women (N=318) attending a southeastern U.S. mid-sized university. In planned hierarchical multiple regression analyses, endorsement of feminist ideology predicted perceptions of positive body image, but did not appear to predict disordered eating. Self-efficacy emerged as a robust predictor of positive body image and lower disordered eating even after controlling for perceptions of personal empowerment and feminism. Results, although limited by correlational data, suggest that self-efficacy may protect college-aged women from disordered eating and negative body image. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buck, Daniel J M; Hutchinson, Jasmin C; Winter, Christa R; Thompson, Brian A
This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of mental imagery supplemented with video-modeling on self-efficacy and front squat strength (three repetition maximum; 3RM). Subjects (13 male, 7 female) who had at least 6 months of front squat experience were assigned to either an experimental ( n = 10) or a control ( n = 10) group. Subjects' 3RM and self-efficacy for the 3RM were measured at baseline. Following this, subjects in the experimental group followed a structured imagery protocol, incorporating video recordings of both their own 3RM performance and a model lifter with excellent technique, twice a day for three days. Subjects in the control group spent the same amount of time viewing a placebo video. Following three days with no physical training, measurements of front squat 3RM and self-efficacy for the 3RM were repeated. Subjects in the experimental group increased in self-efficacy following the intervention, and showed greater 3RM improvement than those in the control group. Self-efficacy was found to significantly mediate the relationship between imagery and front squat 3RM. These findings point to the importance of mental skills training for the enhancement of self-efficacy and front squat performance.
Korkmaz, Özgen; Altun, Halis
Students might have different type and different level of perceptions: Positive or negative perceptions on programming; a perception on benefit of programming, perceptions related to difficulties of programming process etc. The perception of student on their own competence is defined as self-efficacy. Based on the discussions reported in…
This study investigates the effect of preschool teachers' collective self-efficacy. A study group consists of 172 preschool teachers who are working in public preschools affiliated with the Ministry of National Education in different cities of Turkey. In this study, teacher self-efficiency scale is employed to assess professional efficiency…
Dybowski, Christoph; Sehner, Susanne; Harendza, Sigrid
Being exposed to good teachers has been shown to enhance students' knowledge and their clinical performance, but little is known about the underlying psychological mechanisms that provide the basis for being an excellent medical teacher. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) postulates that more self-regulated types of motivation are associated with higher performance. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) focuses on self-efficacy that has been shown to be positively associated with performance. To investigate the influences of different types of teaching motivation, teaching self-efficacy, and teachers' perceptions of students' skills, competencies and motivation on teaching quality. Before the winter semester 2014, physicians involved in bedside teaching in internal medicine at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf completed a questionnaire with sociodemographic items and instruments measuring different dimensions of teaching motivation as well as teaching self-efficacy. During the semester, physicians rated their perceptions of the participating students who rated the teaching quality after each lesson. We performed a random intercept mixed-effects linear regression with students' ratings of teaching quality as the dependent variable and students' general interest in a subject as covariate. We explored potential associations between teachers' dispositions and their perceptions of students' competencies in a mixed-effects random intercept logistic regression. 94 lessons given by 55 teachers with 500 student ratings were analyzed. Neither teaching motivation nor teaching self-efficacy were directly associated with students' rating of teaching quality. Teachers' perceptions of students' competencies and students' general interest in the lesson's subject were positively associated with students' rating of teaching quality. Physicians' perceptions of their students' competencies were significantly positively predicted by their teaching self-efficacy. Teaching quality
DeChenne, Sue Ellen; Koziol, Natalie; Needham, Mark; Enochs, Larry
Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) have a large impact on undergraduate instruction but are often poorly prepared to teach. Teaching self-efficacy, an instructor’s belief in his or her ability to teach specific student populations a specific subject, is an important predictor of teaching skill and student achievement. A model of sources of teaching self-efficacy is developed from the GTA literature. This model indicates that teaching experience, departmental teaching climate (including peer and supervisor relationships), and GTA professional development (PD) can act as sources of teaching self-efficacy. The model is pilot tested with 128 GTAs from nine different STEM departments at a midsized research university. Structural equation modeling reveals that K–12 teaching experience, hours and perceived quality of GTA PD, and perception of the departmental facilitating environment are significant factors that explain 32% of the variance in the teaching self-efficacy of STEM GTAs. This model highlights the important contributions of the departmental environment and GTA PD in the development of teaching self-efficacy for STEM GTAs. PMID:26250562
DeChenne, Sue Ellen; Koziol, Natalie; Needham, Mark; Enochs, Larry
Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) have a large impact on undergraduate instruction but are often poorly prepared to teach. Teaching self-efficacy, an instructor's belief in his or her ability to teach specific student populations a specific subject, is an important predictor of teaching skill and student achievement. A model of sources of teaching self-efficacy is developed from the GTA literature. This model indicates that teaching experience, departmental teaching climate (including peer and supervisor relationships), and GTA professional development (PD) can act as sources of teaching self-efficacy. The model is pilot tested with 128 GTAs from nine different STEM departments at a midsized research university. Structural equation modeling reveals that K-12 teaching experience, hours and perceived quality of GTA PD, and perception of the departmental facilitating environment are significant factors that explain 32% of the variance in the teaching self-efficacy of STEM GTAs. This model highlights the important contributions of the departmental environment and GTA PD in the development of teaching self-efficacy for STEM GTAs. © 2015 S. E. DeChenne et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Full Text Available This research is aimed at investigating the correlation between selfefficacy and authoritarian parenting style toward student s’ academic procrastination. The subject of this research is 150 students of faculty of of Psychology, Medicine, and Economy of Sultan Agung Islamic University who are working on the final project. The major hypothesis proposed in the research is that there is a correlation between self-efficacy and authoritarian parenting style with students’ academic procrastination. The minor hypotheses are as follows: (1 there is a negative correlation between self-efficacy with academic procrastination; and (2 there is a positive correlation between authoritarian parenting style with academic procrastination. This research used three of scale for the data collection namely academic procrastination scale, self-efficacy scale and authoritarian parenting stale scale. The statistic analysis used in the research is regression to test major hypothesis and the parsial analysis to test minor hypothesis. The research results show that (1 there is correlation between self-efficacy and authoritarian pareting style with students’ academic procrastination; (2 there is a significant negative correla tion between self-efficacy with academic procrastination toward college students; and (3 there is a significant positive correlation between authoritarian parenting style with academic procrastination toward college sudents.
Full Text Available This research aimed to develop a training design to increase self-efficacy on negotiation for students of vocational school. Research subjects were 18 students of the SMK 1 Bandung class of 2011 marketing majoring. The design of the training program was conceived and developed with reference to the strength aspect of self-efficacy and negotiation, by applying the model of experiential learning. The training material organized into two main activities to improve selfefficacy in negotiation namely our business and making a profit. The effectiveness of the training is measured by the increase of self-efficacy category by using an instrument on negotiation selfefficacy, behavioral observation and evaluation of training. This study used a quasi-experimental method with the untreated control group pretest and posttest sample dependent design. T-Test results showed there’s no significant improvement in the category of self-efficacy negotiations after the training program. Quantitatively and observations during training showed an increase in self-efficacy negotiation in aspects of communication, strategy and relationships, as well as a decrease in the emotional aspects among training participants.
The underrepresentation of women in physics has been well documented and a source of concern for both policy makers and educators. My dissertation focuses on understanding the role self-efficacy plays in retaining students, particularly women, in introductory physics. I use an explanatory mixed methods approach to first investigate quantitatively the influence of self-efficacy in predicting success and then to qualitatively explore the development of self-efficacy. In the initial quantitative studies, I explore the utility of self-efficacy in predicting the success of introductory physics students, both women and men. Results indicate that self-efficacy is a significant predictor of success for all students. I then disaggregate the data to examine how self-efficacy develops differently for women and men in the introductory physics course. Results show women rely on different sources of self-efficacy than do men, and that a particular instructional environment, Modeling Instruction, has a positive impact on these sources of self-efficacy. In the qualitative phase of the project, this dissertation focuses on the development of self-efficacy. Using the qualitative tool of microanalysis, I introduce a methodology for understanding how self-efficacy develops moment-by-moment using the lens of self-efficacy opportunities. I then use the characterizations of self-efficacy opportunities to focus on a particular course environment and to identify and describe a mechanism by which Modeling Instruction impacts student self-efficacy. Results indicate that the emphasizing the development and deployment of models affords opportunities to impact self-efficacy. The findings of this dissertation indicate that introducing key elements into the classroom, such as cooperative group work, model development and deployment, and interaction with the instructor, create a mechanism by which instructors can impact the self-efficacy of their students. Results from this study indicate that
Liu, Joanna M; Liu, Alexander; Leal, Joana; McMillan, Fiona; Francis, Jane; Greiser, Andreas; Rider, Oliver J; Myerson, Saul; Neubauer, Stefan; Ferreira, Vanessa M; Piechnik, Stefan K
Native T1-mapping provides quantitative myocardial tissue characterization for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), without the need for gadolinium. However, its translation into clinical practice is hindered by differences between techniques and the lack of established reference values. We provide typical myocardial T1-ranges for 18 commonly encountered CVDs using a single T1-mapping technique - Shortened Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (ShMOLLI), also used in the large UK Biobank and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Registry study. We analyzed 1291 subjects who underwent CMR (1.5-Tesla, MAGNETOM-Avanto, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) between 2009 and 2016, who had a single CVD diagnosis, with mid-ventricular T1-map assessment. A region of interest (ROI) was placed on native T1-maps in the "most-affected myocardium", characterized by the presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), or regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA) on cines. Another ROI was placed in the "reference myocardium" as far as possible from LGE/RWMA, and in the septum if no focal abnormality was present. To further define normality, we included native T1 of healthy subjects from an existing dataset after sub-endocardial pixel-erosions. Native T1 of patients with normal CMR (938 ± 21 ms) was similar compared to healthy subjects (941 ± 23 ms). Across all patient groups (57 ± 19 yrs., 65% males), focally affected myocardium had significantly different T1 value compared to reference myocardium (all p Fabry disease (863 ± 23 ms) had the lowest native reference T1 (all p < 0.001). Future studies designed to detect the large T1 differences between affected and reference myocardium are estimated to require small sample-sizes (n < 50). However, studies designed to detect the small T1 differences between reference myocardium in CVDs and healthy controls can require several thousand of subjects. We provide typical T1-ranges for common clinical cardiac conditions in the largest cohort
Abdul Rahman Barakatu
Full Text Available All individuals wish to get achievement in their activities done, including take formal education institution levels, but their wishes sometimes getting failure and cannot be achieved. There are a lot of students facing some difficulties and they are difficult to overcome them. One of the handicaps is psychological problem, because intrinsically he/she has failure imagination that cannot face the subject or finish his/her task. Bandura states that a construction psychology is called self efficacy. He believes that individual who has self efficacy grow up successful motivation.
Clark, N M; Dodge, J A
Self-efficacy is posited in social cognitive theory as fundamental to behavior change. Few health behavior studies have examined self-efficacy prospectively, viewed it as part of a reciprocal behavioral process, or compared self-efficacy beliefs in the same population across different behaviors. This article first discusses self-efficacy in its theoretical context and reviews the available prospective studies. Second, it explores self-efficacy as a predictor of disease management behaviors in 570 older women with heart disease. Although the R2 statistics in each case were modest, the construct is shown to be a statistically significant (pmanagement behaviors: using medicine as prescribed, getting adequate exercise, managing stress, and following a recommended diet. Building self-efficacy is likely a reasonable starting point for interventions aiming to enhance heart disease management behaviors of mature female patients.
Daniel J. M. Buck
Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of mental imagery supplemented with video-modeling on self-efficacy and front squat strength (three repetition maximum; 3RM. Subjects (13 male, 7 female who had at least 6 months of front squat experience were assigned to either an experimental (n = 10 or a control (n = 10 group. Subjects′ 3RM and self-efficacy for the 3RM were measured at baseline. Following this, subjects in the experimental group followed a structured imagery protocol, incorporating video recordings of both their own 3RM performance and a model lifter with excellent technique, twice a day for three days. Subjects in the control group spent the same amount of time viewing a placebo video. Following three days with no physical training, measurements of front squat 3RM and self-efficacy for the 3RM were repeated. Subjects in the experimental group increased in self-efficacy following the intervention, and showed greater 3RM improvement than those in the control group. Self-efficacy was found to significantly mediate the relationship between imagery and front squat 3RM. These findings point to the importance of mental skills training for the enhancement of self-efficacy and front squat performance.
Pedersen, Mette Merete; Zebis, Mette K; Jørgensen, Henning Langberg
the influence of exercise-specific self-efficacy on compliance to workplace physical exercise. PURPOSE: To determine the influence of exercise-specific self-efficacy on compliance to specific strength exercises during working hours for laboratory technicians. METHODS: We performed a cluster...... of compliance to exercises during 20 weeks, but found self-efficacy to be a predictor of compliance in a private sector setting. Workplace-specific differences might be present and should be taken into account....
Research has shown that self-efficacy is one of the most important personal resources in the work context. However, research on working life has mainly focused on a cognitive and task-oriented dimension of self-efficacy representing employees’ perceptions of their capacity to successfully complete work tasks. Thus, little is known about the influence that believing in one’s social and emotional competence could have. This thesis aims to expand previous theory regarding self-efficacy in the wo...
Crudden, Adele; O'Mally, Jamie; Antonelli, Karla
Social problem-solving skills and transportation self-efficacy were assessed for 48 vocational rehabilitation consumers with visual disabilities who required assistance securing work transportation. Social problem solving was at the upper end of the normed average; transportation self-efficacy averaged 101.5 out of 140. Level of vision loss was not associated with score differences; urban residence related to slightly higher self-efficacy than suburban or rural residency. Participants appeared to have the skills necessary to secure employment transportation, but were less confident about transportation-seeking activities that required more initiative of social interaction. Training and information might help consumers gain confidence in these tasks and increase viable transportation options.
Schaubroeck, J; Lam, S S; Xie, J L
This study examined how cultural differences and efficacy perceptions influence the role of job control in coping with job demands. Perceiving higher control mitigated the effects of demands on psychological health symptoms and turnover intentions only among American bank tellers reporting high job self-efficacy. Among American tellers reporting low job self-efficacy, perceived control exacerbated the effects of demands. However, in a matched Hong Kong sample, collective efficacy interacted in the same way with control and demands as job self-efficacy had in the American sample. These differences appear to be explained by the individual attributes of idiocentrism and allocentrism that are linked to the societal norms of individualism and collectivism, respectively.
Adam Al Sultan
Full Text Available Many educators and educational institutions worldwide have agreed that the main goal of science education is to produce a scientifically literate community. Science teachers are key to the achievement of scientific literacy at all levels of education because of the essential role they play in preparing scientifically literate individuals. Studies show that pre-service elementary teachers need to build more confidence in teaching science and scientific literacy during their teacher education programs in order for them to successfully teach science knowledge to their students. Therefore, the purpose of this study is threefold. First, pre-service elementary teachers' scientific literacy levels were examined. Second, pre-service teachers' self-efficacy beliefs were measured by distinguishing between their personal and subject-specific self-efficacy beliefs. Third, the extent to which pre-service elementary teachers' scientific literacy levels and self-efficacy levels are related was investigated. Participants were 49 pre-service elementary teachers registered in two science methods courses (introductory and advanced at a mid-sized university in the United States. Quantitative data were collected using the Test of Basic Scientific Literacy, the Science Teaching Efﬁcacy Belief Instrument-Preservice, and Beliefs about Teaching. Results showed that participants had a satisfactory level of scientific literacy. However, pre-service teachers had borderline scores on the Nature of Science scale. Regarding self-efficacy, findings showed that both groups had the highest self-efficacy in teaching biology and the lowest in teaching physics. Participants in the advanced science methods course exhibited a moderate preexisting positive relationship between scientific literacy and subject-specific self-efficacy in teaching science.
Patrick, Lyn; Care, Esther; Ainley, Mary
The influence of vocational interest, self-efficacy beliefs, and academic achievement on choice of educational pathway is described for a cohort of Australian students. Participants were 189 students aged 14-15 years, who were considering either academic or applied learning pathways and subject choices for the final 3 years of secondary school.…
Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen
In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to…
Bandura, Albert; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Pastorelli, Concetta
Tested a structural model of the network of sociocognitive influences shaping children's career aspirations and trajectories among 272 early adolescents. Found that subjects' perceived efficacy rather than their actual academic achievement was the key determinant of their perceived occupational self-efficacy and preferred choice of worklife.…
Demirci, Filiz; Ozyurek, Cengiz
The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and safe scale for determining the self-efficacy levels of science teachers in the teaching of astronomy subjects. The study used a survey approach, which is a qualitative research method. The study was conducted with a total of 106 science teachers working in the secondary schools of Ordu city…
This study aims to investigate the relationship between Turkish teachers' attitudes and their self-efficacy for inclusive practices using a relational survey design. Study participants included a total of 1163 preschool, classroom, subject-matter, and special-education teachers from four different geographical regions in Turkey. The data was…
Velthuis, Chantal; Fisser, Petra; Pieters, Jules
The purpose of this study was to establish whether participation in a teacher design team (TDT) is an effective way to increase the science teaching self-efficacy of primary school teachers who vary in their levels of experience and interest in science. A TDT is a group of at least 2 teachers from the same or related subjects working together to…
Full Text Available Background Patients with sickle cell disease suffer from various complications during their lifetime. In order to cope with the disease, they must adapt themselves to a complex set of behaviors that promote self-management and prevent complications associated with the disease. Chronic disease self-management programs are a combination of strategies that increase self-efficacy and promote self-management behaviors. Objectives This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of self-management programs on self-efficacy in patients with sickle cell disease. Patients and Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 69 patients with sickle cell disease who were referred to the Thalassemia Clinic of Ahvaz Shafa Hospital were entered into the study through the census method. Then, the self-management program was implemented using the 5A method for 12 weeks. The Levels of pre and post intervention self-efficacy were assessed using the sickle cell self-efficacy scale (SCSES, while descriptive statistics, paired t-test and Wilcoxon test were used to analyze the data. Results Before the intervention, the majority of subjects (50.7% had moderate self-efficacy, whereas after the intervention, the majority of patients (81.2% showed high self-efficacy. The overall scores and scores of the post-intervention self-efficacy sub-groups were significantly increased (P < 0.001. Conclusions The results of this study showed that self-management interventions are effective in promoting self-efficacy in patients with sickle cell disease. Thus, the use of self-management programs is advisable to change behaviors and promote self-efficacy in such patients.
Tilden, Ellen L.; Caughey, Aaron B.; Lee, Christopher S.; Emeis, Cathy
Objective To synthesize and critique the quantitative literature on measuring childbirth self-efficacy and the effect of childbirth self-efficacy on perinatal outcomes. Data Sources Eligible studies were identified through searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Study Selection Published research using a tool explicitly intended to measure childbirth self-efficacy and also examining outcomes within the perinatal period were included. All manuscripts were in English and published in peer-reviewed journals. Data Extraction First author, country, year of publication, reference and definition of childbirth self-efficacy, measurement of childbirth self-efficacy, sample recruitment and retention, sample characteristics, study design, interventions (with experimental and quasi-experimental studies), and perinatal outcomes were extracted and summarized. Data Synthesis Of 619 publications, 23 studies published between 1983 and 2015 met inclusion criteria and were critiqued and synthesized in this review. Conclusions There is overall consistency in how childbirth self-efficacy is defined and measured among studies, facilitating comparison and synthesis. Our findings suggest that increased childbirth self-efficacy is associated with a wide variety of improved perinatal outcomes. Moreover, there is evidence that childbirth self-efficacy is a psychosocial factor that can be modified through various efficacy-enhancing interventions. Future researchers will be able to build knowledge in this area through: (a) utilization of experimental and quasi-experimental design; (b) recruitment and retention of more diverse samples; (c) explicit reporting of definitions of terms (e.g. ‘high risk’); (d) investigation of interventions that increase childbirth self-efficacy during pregnancy; and, (e) investigation regarding how childbirth self-efficacy enhancing interventions might lead to decreased active labor pain and suffering. Exploratory research should
Iancu, Iulian; Bodner, Ehud; Ben-Zion, Itzhak Z
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fear and avoidance in social situations where one perceives being in danger of scrutiny by others. Low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, high self-criticism and high dependency are additional potential features of SAD, and thus their examination is warranted, as is the elucidation of their inter-relationship. Thirty-two SAD subjects diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and 30 healthy controls, were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) that assesses self-criticism, dependency and self-efficacy, and a socio-demographic questionnaire. We hypothesized that the SAD group would present higher scores of dependency and self-criticism and lower self-esteem and self-efficacy. We also hypothesized that low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, high self-criticism and high dependency will predict the severity of SAD. In line with the hypotheses, SAD patients had higher scores of self-criticism and dependency and lower scores of self-esteem. The social anxiety score correlated negatively with self-esteem and self-efficacy, and positively with dependency and self-criticism. Self-criticism, but not the other measures, predicted the total LSAS score. Self-esteem, self-criticism, dependency and self-efficacy are related to SAD and their relations should be examined in future studies that will employ larger samples. It is suggested to search for ways to affect these factors through cognitive-behavioral interventions and additional psychotherapeutic treatments. Research should also focus on the specific role of self-criticism in SAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Muñoz-Silva, A; Sánchez-García, M; Nunes, C; Martins, A
There is much evidence that demonstrates that programs and interventions based on the theoretical models of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) have been effective in the prevention of the sexual transmission of HIV. The objective of this work is to compare the effectiveness of both models in the prediction of condom use, distinguishing two components inside the variable Perceived Behavioural Control of the TPB model: self-efficacy and control. The perspective of gender differences is also added. The study was carried out in a sample of 601 Portuguese and Spanish university students. The results show that the females have a higher average in all the TPB variables than males, except in the frequency of condom use: females request the use of condoms less frequently than males. On the other hand, for both females and males the TPB model predicts better condom-use intention than the TRA. However there are no differences between the two models in relation to the prediction of condom-use behaviour. For prediction of intention, the most outstanding variable among females is attitude, while among males they are subjective norm and self-efficacy. Finally, we analyze the implications of these data from a theoretical and practical point of view.
Hosokawa, Chizuru; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masafumi; Kato, Mio; Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Kiuchi, Takahiro
Gender role, independent of biological sex, affects health. However, research on healthy eating that considers the importance of gender norms is scarce. People who are androgynous and have high masculinity and femininity are reported to have better health practices than other people. The present study aimed to examine the differences in health literacy (HL) and self-efficacy for healthy eating by gender role in Japanese men and women. Participants were 629 men and women aged 25-34 years, recruited via a Japanese Internet research company database. Participants were categorized into four gender role groups using the Japanese Gender Role Index. HL and self-efficacy for healthy eating were assessed using the healthy eating literacy (HEL) scale and the healthy eating and weight self-efficacy (HEWSE) scale. Analysis of variance with Bonferroni-adjusted post hoc tests and hierarchical multiple regression were used to test the research hypotheses. We found that the Androgynous group had significantly higher HEL and HEWSE scores than the Feminine and Undifferentiated groups. The Masculine group scored significantly higher on both measures than the Undifferentiated group. Being Androgynous (HEL: β = 0.34, p gender role orientation and individual HL and self-efficacy for healthy eating. These findings may be relevant for promoting healthy eating from the perspective of gender norms.
The focus in this study is on developing a teacher training program for improving teachers’ science teaching self-efficacy. Teachers with a high sense of self-efficacy will set higher goals for themselves, are less afraid of failure and will find new strategies when old ones fail. If their sense of
Bingöl, Tugba Yilmaz
In this study, it was aimed to determine the variables affecting self-efficacy and cyber bullying. The participants of the study were 223 high school students. The data was collected through the use of self-administered questionnaires which were the General Self-efficacy Scale, the Gratitude Scale, the Early Memories of Warmth and Safeness Scale…
In the present era of outcome assessment and accountability, self-efficacy is a popular outcome measure in outdoor and adventure education. Self-efficacy beliefs are context specific perceptions an individual possesses about a likelihood of success in future tasks and are related to well-being confidence, and persistence. However, recent research…
Concannon, James P.; Barrow, Lloyd H.
This study examines differences in women's engineering self-efficacy beliefs across grade levels in comparison to men's engineering self-efficacy (ESE) beliefs across grade levels. Data for this study was collected from 746 (635 men, 111 women) engineering students enrolled in a large research extensive university. Four major conclusions resulted…
Cornick, Jessica E.
The current study utilized exercise self-efficacy ratings from undergraduate students to assess the factor structure of the Self-Efficacy to Regulate Exercise Scale (Bandura, 1997, 2006). An exploratory factor analysis (n = 759) indicated a two-factor model solution and three separate confirmatory factor analyses (n = 1,798) supported this…
Fallan, Lars; Opstad, Leiv
The present study examines the self-efficacy levels and self-efficacy strength for male and female students in a course in Principle of Economics. The groups of male and female students may be mutually heterogeneous when it comes to personality types in a business school (Fallan & Opstad, 2014). This study does not treat the gender groups as…
Malm, Esther Kweiki; Henrich, Christopher; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel
This study investigated associations of general and specific parental self-efficacy factors with bullying and peer victimization behaviors among 142 fourth and fifth graders and their parents. Using structural equation modeling, exploratory factor analysis was used to examine one general parenting self-efficacy measure and a bullying-specific…
Lemon, Narelle; Garvis, Susanne
Self-efficacy is an important motivational construct for primary school teachers (teachers of children aged 5-12 years) within Australia. Teacher self-efficacy beliefs will determine the level of teacher confidence and competence to engage with a task. In this study, we explore engagement with digital technology and the associated learning and…
Addresses issues concerning the extension of self-efficacy theory to memory functioning. Issues include perceived memory capabilities, memory self-appraisal, personal control over memory functioning, preservation of a favorable sense of memory self-efficacy, and strategies for generalizing the impact of training in memory skills. (RJC)
Vrugt, A.J.; Koenis, M.
Investigated the extent to which perceived self-efficacy, personal goals, and upward comparison predict the scientific productivity of academic staff members. 123 academic staff employed at different Dutch universities answered written questions about their judgment of self-efficacy in the area of
Full Text Available We present a method of analyzing the development of self-efficacy in real time using a framework of self-efficacy opportunities (SEOs. Considerable research has shown a connection between self-efficacy, or the confidence in one’s own ability to perform a task, and success in science fields. Traditional methods of investigating the development of self-efficacy have required participants to recollect past events. This reliance on participant memory makes it difficult to understand what impact particular events may have on developing self-efficacy in the moment. We use video recordings of three undergraduate Modeling Instruction students solving a physics problem to characterize SEOs in a moment-by-moment analysis. We then validate these characterizations of the development of self-efficacy by reviewing the problem-solving session with the participants and find evidence that the SEOs identified are taken up and impact self-efficacy. This characterization and validation of SEOs in the moment represents a first step towards establishing a methodology for analyzing the development of self-efficacy in real time.
Wernersbach, Brenna M.; Crowley, Susan L.; Bates, Scott C.; Rosenthal, Carol
Although study skills courses improve student retention, the impact of study skills courses on students' academic self-efficacy has not been investigated. The present study examined pre- and posttest levels of academic self-efficacy in college students enrolled in a study skills course (n = 126) compared to students enrolled in a general education…
Interactive digital games can promote self-efficacy by engaging players in enactive and observational learning. However, interactivity does not always lead to greater self-efficacy. Important constructs in social cognitive theory, such as performance outcome and perceived similarity, are often not accounted for in studies that have tested the effect of digital game interactivity on self-efficacy. This study assessed the effects of interactive digital games compared with passive digital games based on video comparison, a common experimental design used to test the effect of digital game interactivity on self-efficacy. In addition, this study also evaluated player performance and measured perceived similarity to the observed player. Findings suggested that in general, digital game interactivity predicted higher self-efficacy compared with noninteractive passive games. However, in the noninteractive conditions, the effects of performance on self-efficacy were moderated by perceived similarity between the observer and the observed player. When the observed player was perceived to be similar to the observer, the effects of performance on self-efficacy were comparable to the interactive game, but when the observed player was perceived as dissimilar to the observer, observing the dissimilar player failed to increase observer self-efficacy. Implications for interactivity manipulations and game developers are discussed.
This study investigated the relationships between burnout and self-efficacy among school counselors. Also, the level of their burnout and self-efficacy was examined in terms of the social support, task perception and the number of students. A sample of 194 school counselors filled out the Maslach Burnout Inventory, The School Counselors…
Smith, Sheila M.
Using Bandura's four sources of influence on self-efficacy, 210 students rated their computer self-efficacy. Mastery experiences were most influential for white males; vicarious learning had the most influence for females and nonwhite students. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)
Meera, K. P.; Jumana, M. K.
This study reviews the relevant self-efficacy related literature, a central point of social cognitive theory, in the area of language learning. Role of self-efficacy in academic performance of learners is also considered. In the global world, English language has become the fundamental means of international affairs and communication. As a…
Raoofi, Saeid; Tan, Bee Hoon; Chan, Swee Heng
This study reviews the empirical literature of self-efficacy, a central component of social cognitive theory, in the area of second language learning by focusing on two research questions: first, to what extent, has self-efficacy, as a predicting variable, been explored in the field of second language learning? Second, what factors affect…
Sehgal, Prachee; Nambudiri, Ranjeet; Mishra, Sushanta Kumar
Purpose: Teacher effectiveness has been a matter of concern not only for the parents and students but also for the policy makers, researchers, and educationists. Drawing from the "self-efficacy" theory (Bandura, 1977), the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between teacher self-efficacy and teacher effectiveness. In…
Dupere, Veronique; Leventhal, Tama; Vitaro, Frank
Self-efficacy beliefs are central to mental health. Because adolescents' neighborhoods shape opportunities for experiences of control, predictability, and safety, we propose that neighborhood conditions are associated with adolescents' self-efficacy and, in turn, their internalizing problems (i.e., depression/anxiety symptoms). We tested these…
Tierney, Pamela; Farmer, Steven M.
Building from an established framework of self-efficacy development, this study provides a longitudinal examination of the development of creative self-efficacy in an ongoing work context. Results show that increases in employee creative role identity and perceived creative expectation from supervisors over a 6-month time period were associated…
However, different psychosocial constructs are found in separate settings to ... 509 participants aged 35-80 years from randomly selected health facilities in ... Physical activity level, self-efficacy, social support and perceived barriers of the ... using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, ...
Quinn-Nilas, Christopher; Milhausen, Robin R.; Breuer, Rebecca; Bailey, Julia; Pavlou, Menelaos; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.
This study assessed a newly developed Sexual Communication Self-Efficacy Scale designed to measure the sexual communication self-efficacy of adolescent men and women. Three-hundred and seventy-four U.K. adolescents completed this new scale, along with several other validity measures. Factor analysis revealed that the Sexual Communication…
Vieluf, S.; Kuenther, M.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.
In the present study, teacher self-efficacy was examined in a cross-national setting. The cross-national generalizability of the scale and the meaning of cross-national variation in mean scores were investigated. Using data from TALIS involving 73,100 teachers in 23 countries, teacher self-efficacy
Kunseler, F.C.; Hankel, M.A.; Balm, K.E.; Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.
Parental self-efficacy (PSE) is defined as "the expectation caregivers hold about their ability to parent successfully" (Jones & Prinz, 2005, p. 342). According to Bandura (1977), self-efficacy is based on four sources, including ‘performance accomplishments’: if successful experiences are repeated
Kaplan, Abdullah; Öztürk, Mesut; Doruk, Muhammet; Yilmaz, Alper
This study was conducted in order to determine the computer self-efficacy perceptions of gifted students. The research group of this study is composed of gifted students (N = 36) who were studying at the Science and Arts Center in Gümüshane province in the spring semester of the 2012-2013 academic year. The "Computer Self-Efficacy Perception…
self-efficacy and professional commitment to engineering. A total of 88 students from a national girls' high school participated in STEM project-based learning. A survey questionnaire named The STEM Self-efficacy and Professional Commitment to Engineering Questionnaire, developed by the researchers, was ...
Camelo-Lavadores, Ana Karen; Sánchez-Escobedo, Pedro; Pinto-Sosa, Jesus
The purpose of this study was to explore for differences in the academic self-efficacy of Mexican high school students. A gird questionnaire was administered to 1,460 students form private and public schools. As expected, high achieving students showed significantly higher academic self-efficacy that their peers. However, interesting gender…
Olmez, Cemil; Ozbas, Serap
This study examined the self-efficacy of Turkish Cypriot science teachers working at high schools in Northern Cyprus. The study sample was 200 science teachers who participated in the survey. The Teacher Self-Efficacy (TSE) Scale was used as a data source. It was observed that the science teachers' efficacy beliefs about student engagement in…
Hampson, Sarah E; Andrews, Judy A; Barckley, Maureen; Severson, Herbert H
The authors tested a mediation model in which childhood hostility and sociability were expected to influence the development of intentions to use alcohol in the future through the mediating mechanisms of developing attitudes and norms. Children in 1st through 5th grades (N=1,049) from a western Oregon community participated in a longitudinal study involving 4 annual assessments. Hostility and sociability were assessed by teachers' ratings at the 1st assessment, and attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions were assessed by self-report at all 4 assessments. For both genders, latent growth modeling demonstrated that sociability predicted an increase in intentions to use alcohol over time, whereas hostility predicted initial levels of these intentions. These personality effects were mediated by the development of attitudes and subjective norms, supporting a model wherein childhood personality traits exert their influence on the development of intentions to use alcohol through the development of these more proximal cognitions. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Pedersen, Mette Merete; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Langberg, Henning
BACKGROUND: Continuous neck and shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal complaint. Physical exercise can reduce pain symptoms, but compliance to exercise is a challenge. Exercise-specific self-efficacy has been found to be a predictor of participation in preplanned exercise. Little is known about...... the influence of exercise-specific self-efficacy on compliance to workplace physical exercise. PURPOSE: To determine the influence of exercise-specific self-efficacy on compliance to specific strength exercises during working hours for laboratory technicians. METHODS: We performed a cluster......). The participants answered baseline and follow-up questions regarding self-efficacy and registered all exercises in a diary. RESULTS: Overall compliance to exercises was 45 %. Compliance in company A (private sector) differed significantly between the three self-efficacy groups after 20 weeks. The odds ratio...
Northrup, Angela A; Smaldone, Arlene
This exploratory study examined maternal attitudes, normative beliefs, subjective norms, and meal selection behaviors of mothers of 2- and 3-year-old children. Guided by the Theory of Reasoned Action, we had mothers complete three surveys, two interviews, and a feeding simulation exercise. Data were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate statistics and multivariate linear regression. A total of 31 mothers (50% Latino, 34% Black, 46.9% ≤ high school education, 31.3% poor health literacy) of 32 children (37.5% overweight/obese) participated in this study. Maternal normative beliefs (knowledge of U.S. Department of Agriculture recommendations) did not reflect actual U.S. Department of Agriculture recommendations. Collectively, regression models explained 13% (dairy) to 51% (vegetables) of the variance in behavioral intent, with normative belief an independent predictor in all models except grain and dairy. Meal selection behaviors, on average, were predicted by poor knowledge of U.S. Department of Agriculture recommendations. Dietary guidance appropriate to health literacy level should be incorporated into well-child visits. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Distinctiveness and Influence of Subjective Norms, Personal Descriptive and Injunctive Norms, and Societal Descriptive and Injunctive Norms on Behavioral Intent: A Case of Two Behaviors Critical to Organ Donation
Park, Hee Sun; Smith, Sandi W.
The effects of the attitudinal, normative, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) components of the theory of planned behavior and personal- and societal-level descriptive and injunctive norms were investigated with regard to their impact on the intent to enroll on a state organ-donor registry and the intent to engage in family discussion about…
Killi, Carita; Kauppinen, Merja; Coiro, Julie; Utriainen, Jukka
This paper reports on two studies designed to examine pre-service teachers' self-efficacy beliefs. Study I investigated the measurement properties of a self-efficacy beliefs questionnaire comprising scales for computer self-efficacy, teacher self-efficacy, and self-efficacy towards technology integration. In Study I, 200 pre-service teachers…
Karaçam, Aydin; Pulur, Atilla
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between referee self-efficacy and general self-efficacy levels of football, basketball and handball referees in terms of gender, refereeing branch, age and refereeing experience. Study group was created within a convenience sampling method. 195 referees, 14% (n = 27) female and 86% (n = 168)…
Srisupawong, Yuwarat; Koul, Ravinder; Neanchaleay, Jariya; Murphy, Elizabeth; Francois, Emmanuel Jean
Motivation and success in computer-science courses are influenced by the strength of students' self-efficacy (SE) beliefs in their learning abilities. Students with weak SE may struggle to be successful in a computer-science course. This study investigated the factors that enhance or impede the computer self-efficacy (CSE) of computer-science…
Kaya, Deniz; Bozdag, Hüseyin Cihan
The main objective of this study is to determine the predictive power of mathematics self-efficacy resources and perception of science self-efficacy on academic achievement. The study, adopting a relational screening model, was conducted with a total of 698 students in sixth, seventh and eighth grade level of a state secondary school. Mathematics…
Koyio, L.N.; Kikwilu, E.N.; Mulder, J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.
Objectives: To assess attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions of primary health-care (PHC) providers in performing routine oral examination for oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) during outpatient consultations. Methods: A 47-item Theory of Planned Behaviour-based questionnaire was developed and
What Influences Chinese Adolescents’ Choice Intention between Playing Online Games and Learning? Application of Theory of Planned Behavior with Subjective Norm Manipulated as Peer Support and Parental Monitoring
Wang, Jia; Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Liu, Ying; Xu, Le; Zhen, Rui
This study investigated how and why Chinese adolescents choose between playing online games and doing homework, using the model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in which the subjective norm was manipulated as two sub-elements (peer support and parental monitoring). A total of 530 students from an elementary school and a middle school in China were asked to complete the measures assessing two predictors of TPB: attitude and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Next, they completed a survey about their choice intention between playing an online game and doing homework in three different situations, wherein a conflict between playing online games and doing homework was introduced and subjective norm was manipulated as peers supporting and parents objecting to playing online games. The results showed that adolescents’ attitude and PBC, as well as the perception of obtaining or not obtaining support from their peers and caregivers (manipulated subjective norm), significantly influenced their choice intention in online gaming situations. These findings contribute to the understanding of the factors affecting adolescents’ online gaming, which has been a concern of both caregivers and educators. With regard to the theoretical implications, this study extended previous work by providing evidence that TPB can be applied to analyze choice intention. Moreover, this study illuminated the effects of the separating factors of subjective norm on choice intention between playing online games and studying. PMID:28458649
What Influences Chinese Adolescents' Choice Intention between Playing Online Games and Learning? Application of Theory of Planned Behavior with Subjective Norm Manipulated as Peer Support and Parental Monitoring.
Wang, Jia; Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Liu, Ying; Xu, Le; Zhen, Rui
This study investigated how and why Chinese adolescents choose between playing online games and doing homework, using the model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in which the subjective norm was manipulated as two sub-elements (peer support and parental monitoring). A total of 530 students from an elementary school and a middle school in China were asked to complete the measures assessing two predictors of TPB: attitude and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Next, they completed a survey about their choice intention between playing an online game and doing homework in three different situations, wherein a conflict between playing online games and doing homework was introduced and subjective norm was manipulated as peers supporting and parents objecting to playing online games. The results showed that adolescents' attitude and PBC, as well as the perception of obtaining or not obtaining support from their peers and caregivers (manipulated subjective norm), significantly influenced their choice intention in online gaming situations. These findings contribute to the understanding of the factors affecting adolescents' online gaming, which has been a concern of both caregivers and educators. With regard to the theoretical implications, this study extended previous work by providing evidence that TPB can be applied to analyze choice intention. Moreover, this study illuminated the effects of the separating factors of subjective norm on choice intention between playing online games and studying.
Wang, Ji-Wei; Wei, Chang-Nian; Harada, Koichi; Minamoto, Keiko; Ueda, Kimiyo; Cui, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Cheng-Gang; Cui, Zhi-Ting; Ueda, Atsushi
When predicting volunteer intention, much attention is paid to the volunteer organization environment (VOE). Given that self-efficacy and motivation have emerged as important predictors of volunteer intention, we adopted a combination of ideas of Bandura's social cognitive theory and Ajzen's theory of planned behavior integrating VOE, self-efficacy and motivation to examine their effects on volunteer intention and to determine whether self-efficacy and motivation mediate the relationship between VOE and volunteer intention. The subjects of this study consisted of 198 community health volunteers in Shanghai city, China. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify the factor structure using standard principal component analysis. Six new factors were revealed, including two VOE factors, relation with organization and support from government; two motivation factors, personal attitude and social recognition; self-efficacy and volunteer intention. The results of a hierarchical regression analysis indicated that relation with organization accounted for 14.8% of the variance in volunteer intention, and support from government failed to add significantly to variance in volunteer intention; self-efficacy and personal attitude motivation partially mediated the effects of relation with organization on volunteer intention; social recognition motivation did not mediate the relationship between relation with organization and volunteer intention; and relation with organization, self-efficacy and personal attitude motivation accounted for 33.7% of the variance in volunteer intention. These results provide support for self-efficacy and personal attitude motivation as mediators and provide preliminary insight into the potential mechanisms for predicting volunteer intention and improving volunteering by integrating VOE, self-efficacy and motivation factors.
Tsaousides, Theodore; Warshowsky, Adam; Ashman, Teresa A; Cantor, Joshua B; Spielman, Lisa; Gordon, Wayne A
This study examines the relative contribution of employment-related and general self-efficacy to perceptions of quality of life (QoL) for individuals with traumatic brain injury. Correlational. Community-based research and training center. 427 individuals with self-reported TBI under the age of 65 were included in analysis. Employment-related self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, perceived quality of life (PQoL), unmet important needs (UIN). Significant correlations were found between income, injury severity, age at injury, and employment and the QoL variables. In addition, employment-related and general self-efficacy correlated positively with both PQoL and UIN. Employment-related and general self-efficacy accounted for 16% of the variance in PQoL and 9.5% of the variance in UIN, over and above other variables traditionally associated with QoL. These findings highlight the importance of including subjective appraisals of employment, such as perceived self-efficacy at the workplace, in assessing QoL and successful return to work following TBI. (c) 2009 APA
Shattuck, Paul T.; Steinberg, Jessica; Yu, Jennifer; Wei, Xin; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Newman, Lynn; Roux, Anne M.
The number of youth on the autism spectrum approaching young adulthood and attending college is growing. Very little is known about the subjective experience of these college students. Disability identification and self-efficacy are two subjective factors that are critical for the developmental and logistical tasks associated with emerging adulthood. This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 to examine the prevalence and correlates of disability identification and...
Eriko eMatsuo; Eriko eMatsuo; Shigeru eMatsubara; Seigo eShiga; Kentaro eYamanaka; Kentaro eYamanaka
Although self-efficacy (SE) is an important determinant of regular exercise, it is unclear how subjective and physiological states before, during, and after the exercise session affects post-exercise SE. The aim of this study was to clarify subjective and physiological factors affecting post-exercise SE assessed after a single exercise session at a physiologically equivalent level. Forty-three healthy volunteers (28 women, 15 men) completed an 82-min experimental session, comprising a 22-min ...
Matsuo, Eriko; Matsubara, Shigeru; Shiga, Seigo; Yamanaka, Kentaro
Although self-efficacy (SE) is an important determinant of regular exercise, it is unclear how subjective and physiological states before, during, and after the exercise session affects post-exercise SE. The aim of this study was to clarify subjective and physiological factors affecting post-exercise SE assessed after a single exercise session at a physiologically equivalent level. Forty-three healthy volunteers (28 women, 15 men) completed an 82-min experimental session, comprising a 22-min ...
Nooijen, Carla F J; Post, Marcel W M; Spijkerman, Dorien C M; Bergen, Michael P; Stam, Henk J; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J G
To assess the reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the exercise self-efficacy scale (ESES) in persons with spinal cord injury. This is the first independent study of ESES psychometric properties, and the first report on ESES test-retest reliability. A total of 53 Dutch persons with spinal cord injury. Subjects completed the Dutch ESES twice, with 2 weeks between (ESES_1 and ESES_2). Subjects also completed the General self-efficacy scale (GSE), and a questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics and lesion characteristics. Psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the ESES were assessed and compared with those of the original English-language version. The Dutch ESES was found to have good internal consistency (Cronbach's α for ESES_1 = 0.90, ESES_2 = 0.88). Test-retest reliability was adequate (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.70-0.89). For validity, a moderate, statistically significant correlation was found between ESES and the GSE (Spearman's ρ ESES_1 = 0.52, ESES_2 = 0.66, p exercise self-efficacy.
Henderson, Rachel; DeVore, Seth; Michaluk, Lynnette; Stewart, John
Within the general university environment, students' perceived self-efficacy has been widely studied and findings suggest it plays a role in student success. The current research adapted a self-efficacy survey, from the ``Self-Efficacy for Learning Performance'' subscale of the Motivated Learning Strategies Questionnaire and administered it to the introductory, calculus-based physics classes (N=1005) over the fall 2015 and spring 2016 semesters. This assessment measured students' self-efficacy in domains including the physics class, other science and mathematics classes, and their intended future career. The effect of gender was explored with the only significant gender difference (p gender difference was not explained by a student's performance which was measured by test average. However, a mediation analysis showed that students' overall academic self-efficacy, measured by their math and science self-efficacy, acts as a mediator for the effect of test average on self-efficacy towards the physics class domain. This mediation effect was significant for both female (p < . 01) and male students (p < . 001) however, it was more pronounced for male students.
Tuthill, Emily L.; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Graber, Melanie; Cusson, Regina M.; Young, Sera L.
Increasing breastfeeding rates in the United States is a national priority. Yet, initiation and duration of breastfeeding remains below national targets. Breastfeeding self-efficacy has been shown to be a strong predictor of both breastfeeding initiation and duration and is therefore an important characteristic to be able to measure. However, there is currently a myriad of instruments for measuring breastfeeding self-efficacy, which makes selection of an appropriate instrument difficult. Thus, our aim was to identify, compare, and critically review available breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments. In a systematic review, 6 breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments were identified. The instruments’ purposes, theoretical framework, final scale development, and application in 5 most recent settings were analyzed. The 6 breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments apply a number of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in their development, with Bandura’s social cognitive theory being most common. Content, construct, and predictive validity were strong for most scales. Some, but not all, have been successfully adapted to novel settings. In sum, there are several measurements of breastfeeding self-efficacy that can and should be employed to better understand reasons for suboptimal breastfeeding rates and the effects of interventions on breastfeeding self-efficacy. Instrument selection should be based on domains of primary interest, time available, peripartum timing, and assessment of previous adaptations. Failure to apply appropriate measures in research may garner results that are inconclusive, inaccurate, or nonrepresentative of true study effects. PMID:26319113
Solcová, Iva; Gushin, Vadim; Vinokhodova, Alla; Lukavský, Jirí
The objective of the present research was to study the dynamics of changes in emotional energy, work self-efficacy and perceived similarity in the crew of the Mars 520 experimental study. The study comprised six volunteers, all men, between 27-38 yr of age (M = 32.16; SD = 4.99). The Mars 520 experimental study simulated all the elements of the proposed Mars mission that could be ground simulated, i.e., traveling to Mars, orbiting it, landing, and returning to Earth. During the simulation, measures of emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity were repeated every month. The data were analyzed using linear mixed effect models. Emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity gradually increased in the course of the simulation. There was no evidence for a so-called third quarter phenomenon (the most strenuous period of group isolation, psychologically, emotionally, and socially) in our data. On the contrary, work self-efficacy, emotional energy, and group cohesion (indexed here by the subject's perceived similarity to others) increased significantly in the course of the simulation, with the latter two variables showing positive growth in the group functioning.
Gloudemans, Henk A; Schalk, René M J D; Reynaert, Wouter
In the Netherlands, the distinction between Bachelor degree and diploma nursing educational levels remains unclear. The added value of Bachelor degree nurses and how they develop professionally after graduation are subject to debate. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Bachelor degree nurses have higher critical thinking skills than diploma nurses do and whether there is a positive relationship between higher critical thinking skills and self-efficacy beliefs. Outcomes might provide instruments that are helpful in positioning of nursing levels in education and practice. Questionnaire data were used of a sample of 95 registered mental health staff nurses (62 diploma nurses and 33 Bachelor degree nurses). First, ANOVA was performed to test whether the two groups were comparable with respect to elements of work experience. Second, t-tests were conducted to compare the two groups of nurses on self-efficacy, perceived performance and critical thinking outcomes. Third, relationships between the study variables were investigated. Finally, structural equation modelling using AMOS was applied to test the relationships. The hypothesis that Bachelor degree nurses are better critical thinkers than diploma nurses was supported (p<0.01). Years in function turned out to be positively related to self-efficacy beliefs (p<0.01). No significant relation was found between the level of education and self-efficacy beliefs. The results of this study support career development and facilitate more efficient positioning of nursing levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This research aims to investigate the enhancement of students’ mathematical self- efficacy through teaching with metacognitive scaffolding approach. This research used a quasi- experimental design with pre-post respon control. The subjects were pre-service elementary school teachers in a state university in Bandung. In this study, there were two groups: experimental and control groups. The experimental group consists of 60 students who acquire teaching mathematics under metacognitive approach, while the control group consists of 58 students who acquire teaching mathematics under direct approach. Students were classified into three categories based on the mathematical prior ability, namely high, middle, and low. Data collection instruments consist of mathematical self-efficacy instruments. By using mean difference test, two conclusions of the research: (1) there is a significant difference in the enhancement of mathematical self-efficacy between the students who attended the course under metacognitive scaffolding approach and students who attended the course under direct approach, and (2) there is no significant interaction effect of teaching approaches and ability level based on the mathematical prior ability toward enhancement of students’ mathematical self-efficacy.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between decision making styles, self-esteem and self-beliefs about decision- making ability and the differences linked to academic performance. A sample of 100 students split into two groups aged 15-16 years and 17-18 years participated in the study. All subjects compiled the Multidimensional Self-esteem Test (T.M.A. – Bracken, 1993 for the evaluation of academic success and competence of environmental control and How I Make my Choices (H.M.C. – Filippello et al., 2011, a structured interview, specifically designed to measure decision-making styles in two different contexts (school context vs. social context and decision-making self-efficacy (Low vs. High Self-efficacy in making decisions.The exploratory factor analysis reflects the theorized construction. Age and gender differences were found. Furthermore, as expected, low academic performance was associated with lower self-esteem, lower decision-making self-efficacy and more dysfunctional decision-making styles. Students with a high academic performance, instead, showed higher self-esteem, higher decision-making self-efficacy and more functional decision-making styles.Data encourages the use of H.M.C., not only in the research of personality but also for educational and counseling purposes.
Paterson, Marie; Green, J M; Basson, C J; Ross, F
There is little information on the probability of assertive behaviour, interpersonal anxiety and self-efficacy in the literature regarding dietitians. The objective of this study was to establish baseline information of these attributes and the factors affecting them. Questionnaires collecting biographical information and self-assessment psychometric scales measuring levels of probability of assertiveness, interpersonal anxiety and self-efficacy were mailed to 350 subjects, who comprised a random sample of dietitians registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. Forty-one per cent (n=145) of the sample responded. Self-assessment inventory results were compared to test levels of probability of assertive behaviour, interpersonal anxiety and self-efficacy. The inventory results were compared with the biographical findings to establish statistical relationships between the variables. The hypotheses were formulated before data collection. Dietitians had acceptable levels of probability of assertive behaviour and interpersonal anxiety. The probability of assertive behaviour was significantly lower than the level noted in the literature and was negatively related to interpersonal anxiety and positively related to self-efficacy.
Dwi Nur Rachmah
Full Text Available Jigsaw learning as a cooperative learning method, according to the results of some studies, can improve academic skills, social competence, behavior in learning, and motivation to learn. However, in some other studies, there are different findings regarding the effect of jigsaw learning method on self-efficacy. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of jigsaw learning method on self-efficacy and motivation to learn in psychology students at the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat. The method used in the study is the experimental method using one group pre-test and post-test design. The results of the measurements before and after the use of jigsaw learning method were compared using paired samples t-test. The results showed that there is a difference in students’ self-efficacy and motivation to learn before and after subjected to the treatments; therefore, it can be said that jigsaw learning method had significant effects on self-efficacy and motivation to learn. The application of jigsaw learning model in a classroom with large number of students was the discussion of this study.
Jackson, Andrew M.
Engineering design activities are frequently included in technology and engineering classrooms. These activities provide an open-ended context for practicing critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, and innovation---collectively part of the 21st Century Skills which are increasingly needed for success in the workplace. Self-efficacy is a perceptual belief that impacts learning and behavior. It has been shown to directly impact each of these 21st Century Skills but its relation to engineering design is only recently being studied. The purpose of this study was to examine how instructional considerations made when implementing engineering design activities might affect student self-efficacy outcomes in a middle school engineering classroom. Student responses to two self-efficacy inventories related to design, the Engineering Design Self-Efficacy Instrument and Creative Thinking Self-Efficacy Inventory, were collected before and after participation in an engineering design curriculum. Students were also answered questions on specific factors of their experience during the curriculum which teachers may exhibit control over: teamwork and feedback. Results were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, paired and independent t-tests, and structural equation modeling to better understand patterns for self-efficacy beliefs in students. Results suggested that design self-efficacy and creative thinking self-efficacy are significantly correlated, r(1541) = .783, p classroom strategies for increasing self-efficacy and given specific recommendations related to teamwork and feedback to support students. Finally, although there were weaknesses in the study related to the survey administration, future research opportunities are presented which may build from this work.
Pedersen, Mette Merete; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Langberg, Henning; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Bredahl, Thomas; Andersen, Lars Louis
Continuous neck and shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal complaint. Physical exercise can reduce pain symptoms, but compliance to exercise is a challenge. Exercise-specific self-efficacy has been found to be a predictor of participation in preplanned exercise. Little is known about the influence of exercise-specific self-efficacy on compliance to workplace physical exercise. To determine the influence of exercise-specific self-efficacy on compliance to specific strength exercises during working hours for laboratory technicians. We performed a cluster-randomized controlled trial, including laboratory technicians from two industrial production units in Copenhagen, Denmark. The participants were randomized to supervised specific strength exercises for the neck and shoulder muscles for 20 minutes three times a week (n = 282) or to a reference group (n = 255). The participants answered baseline and follow-up questions regarding self-efficacy and registered all exercises in a diary. Overall compliance to exercises was 45 %. Compliance in company A (private sector) differed significantly between the three self-efficacy groups after 20 weeks. The odds ratio of compliance was 2.37 for moderate versus low self-efficacy, and 2.93 for high versus low self-efficacy. No significant difference was found in company B (public sector) or in the intervention group as a whole. We did not find self-efficacy to be a general statistically significant predictor of compliance to exercises during 20 weeks, but found self-efficacy to be a predictor of compliance in a private sector setting. Workplace-specific differences might be present and should be taken into account.
Williams, Betsy W; Kessler, Harold A; Williams, Michael V
The relationship between an individual's sense of self-efficacy, motivation to change, and the implementation of improvement programs has been reported. This research reports the relationship among self-efficacy, motivation to change, and intent to implement continuing medical education (CME) activity learnings. The measure of individual sense of self-efficacy was a 4-item scale. The measure of motivation was a 4-item scale following on the work of Johnson, et al. The self-efficacy scale has been confirmed for structure, and together the 2 scales provide indicators of 3 underlying variables-2 self-efficacy constructs and a motivation variable. In addition, a global intent to implement measure was collected. Preliminary analysis demonstrates a significant relationship between a self-efficacy construct, the motivation to change construct, and global intent to change. Specifically, the sense of efficacy in effecting change in the practice environment is predictive of a high level of motivation to change, which, in turn, is predictive of formation of an intent to change practice patterns. Further inspection of the motivation to change construct suggests that it mediates the self-efficacy constructs' effect on intent. This is consistent with an earlier report on the relationship among self-efficacy, barriers to change, and stated intent. This new finding suggests that the proximal construct motivation completely masks an important underlying causal relationship that appears to contribute to practice change following CME: self-efficacy. A focus on the participants' sense of self-agency may provide a path to practice change. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.
Seyed Reza Mazlom
Full Text Available Background: Self-efficacy is a crucial factor in controlling adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM. Subsequently the negative behavioral reactions such as aggression adversely affect on self-efficacy. Therefore, interventions are essential to reduce the aggression and to improve the self- efficacy in these patients. Aim: To determine the efficacy of the modified "aggression replacement training" program on self-efficacy of adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes. Methods: In this clinical trial, 70 adult subjects with IDDM who were referred to Parsian Diabetes clinic of Mashhad in 2014 were divided into two groups of intervention and control. The intervention program, including three aspects including: anger control training, social skills training and moral reasoning training was performed in five sessions, each 1.5-2 hours. A five-day interval was between the sessions and each group consisted of 8-10 individuals. The self-management standard questionnaire of “insulin-dependent diabetes management self-efficacy scale (IDMSE” was filled before the intervention and two months afterwards. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 with paired and Independent t-tests. Results: In this study, 38.5 and 61.5 percent of the subjects were boys and girls, respectively with total mean age of 15.9±2. The self-efficacy of the subjects before the intervention was not significantly different within the groups (p=0/57. Nevertheless in post-intervention assessment, the self-efficacy of the Intervention group significantly increased (49.0±11.1 compared to the control group (33.7±5.5 (p
This study investigated the effects of a brief tailored intervention on self-efficacy beliefs and exercise energy expenditure in active and inactive overweight and obese women. Participants were randomly assigned to either control (N = 50) or intervention (N = 47) conditions, and their exercise self-efficacy was assessed three times over a 12-week period. Results showed that the intervention increased schedule, physical, exercise-worries efficacy, and energy expenditure in the previously inactive group. The results suggest that self-efficacy interventions are effective at increasing exercise energy expenditure in inactive overweight and obese women. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to measure the relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem on student achievement. The research was conducted using quantitative descriptive analysis by the method of field research, which is conducted by survey to respondents. To analyze the data using correlational analysis techniques and multiple regression analysis techniques. The conclusion from this study showed that the relationship of self-efficacy and self-esteem on learning achievement. Keywords: Self Efficacy, Self Esteem, Achievement
Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship between self-efficacy and achievement in the derivative concept in university level. University students from education, engineering and science faculties attended the study. 1660 students’ data were gathered and the study has demonstrated that the there is a moderate and positive relationship between university students’ self-efficacy levels and their achievement in derivative concept. It is suggested that university level students’ self-efficacy levels be addressed when considering their achievement in the derivative concept.
Full Text Available Self-efficacy beliefs do not reflect a generic sense of competence, but are instead context-specific. Therefore, self-efficacy should be assessed by using an ad hoc scale measuring individual behaviors that allows social workers to exercise influence over events that affect their work life. The present study describes the development and initial validation of the self-efficacy scale for social workers (SESSW. Items were generated through the Critical Incident Technique. Sixteen social workers with at least 10 years of service participated in two focus groups; they were asked to recall critical incidents in their work and to indicate the most effective behaviors to manage the incidents. Content analysis of the focus group transcripts provided 13 key self-efficacy beliefs. The 13-item scale was validated with a sample of 805 social workers. Data were analyzed using a split-sample technique. Exploratory factor analysis on the first split sample (n = 402 revealed three dimensions of self-efficacy, corresponding to emotion regulation, support request, and procedural self-efficacy. The three-factor structure of the scale was further confirmed with confirmatory factor analysis on the second split sample (n = 403. Our results show that SESSW is an adequate instrument for assessment of self-efficacy beliefs in social work.
Full Text Available Ayako Saito,1 Shigeko Kojima,2 Fumihiko Sasaki,3 Masamichi Hayashi,4 Yuki Mieno,4 Hiroki Sakakibara,5 Shuji Hashimoto1 1Department of Hygiene, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan; 2Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nihon Fukushi University, Handa, Japan; 3SDB Research Laboratory, Takaoka Clinic, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine and Clinical Allergy, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan; 5Tokushige Kokyuki Clinic, Nagoya, Japan Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a self-efficacy instrument for Japanese obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP. Analyzed subjects were 653 Japanese OSA patients (619 males and 34 females treated with CPAP at a sleep laboratory in a respiratory clinic in a Japanese city. Based on Bandura's social cognitive theory, the CPAP Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Sleep Apnea in Japanese (CSESA-J was developed by a focus group of experts, using a group interview of OSA patients for the items of two previous self-efficacy scales for Western sleep apnea patients receiving CPAP treatment. CSESA-J has two subscales, one for self-efficacy and the other for outcome expectancy, and consists of a total of 15 items. Content validity was confirmed by the focus group. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the factor loadings of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy were 0.47–0.76 and 0.41–0.92, respectively, for the corresponding items. CSESA-J had a significant but weak positive association with the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and a strong positive association with “Self-efficacy scale on health behavior in patients with chronic disease.” Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.85 for the self-efficacy subscale and 0.89 for the outcome expectancy subscale. The intraclass correlation coefficient using data from the first and second measurements with
Isaac, Vivian; Pit, Sabrina Winona; McLachlan, Craig S
Social isolation in medical students is a subjective experience that may influence medical career decision making. Rural self-efficacy has been shown to influence rural career intentions following a rural clinical placement, however its impact on social isolation during a rural clinical placement has not been previously modeled. The objective of this study is to explore whether self-perception of social isolation is associated with rural career intent in rural medical students. Secondly, to determine whether self-efficacy influences the association between social isolation and rural career intent. 2015 data, from a cross-sectional survey of the National Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) study. Among 619 medical students attending rural clinical schools (RCS), rural career intent was assessed. This included intended rural location for either postgraduate medical specialist or generalist training or completion of that training. Self-efficacy beliefs in rural medical practice were based on a validated scale consisting of six questions. Social isolation was measured asking students whether they felt socially isolated during their RCS placement. 31.3% of surveyed students self-reported feeling socially isolated during their rural placement. Social isolation was associated with reduced rural career intent after controlling for gender, rural background, RCS preference, RCS support and wellbeing. In step-wise logistic regression the association between social isolation and rural intent disappeared with the inclusion of rural self-efficacy. Social isolation during a rural clinical placement is commonly reported and is shown to reduce rural career intent. High levels of rural clinical self-efficacy reduce the effects of social isolation on future rural workforce intentions.
Ritter, Philip L; Lorig, Kate
Self-efficacy theory, as developed by Bandura, suggests that self-efficacy is an important predictor of future behavior. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program was designed to enhance self-efficacy as one approach to improving health behaviors and outcomes for people with varying chronic diseases. The six-item Self-Efficacy to Manage Chronic Disease Scale (SEMCD) and the four-item Spanish-language version (SEMCD-S) were developed to measure changes in self-efficacy in program participants and have been used in a numerous evaluations of chronic disease self-management programs. This study describes the development of the scales and their psychometric properties. Secondary analyses of questionnaire data from 2,866 participants in six studies are used to quantify and evaluate the SEMCD. Data from 868 participants in two studies are used for the SEMCD-S. Subjects consisted of individuals with various chronic conditions, who enrolled in chronic disease self-management programs (either small group or Internet based). Subjects came from United States, England, Canada, Mexico, and Australia. Descriptive statistics are summarized, reliability tested (Cronbach alpha), and principal component analyses applied to items. Baseline and change scores are correlated with baseline and change scores for five medical outcome variables that have been shown to be associated with self-efficacy measures in past studies. Principal component analyses confirmed the one-dimensional structure of the scales. The SEMCD had means ranging from 4.9 to 6.1 and the SEMCD-S 6.1 and 6.2. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach alpha, 0.88-0.95). The scales were sensitive to change and significantly correlated with health outcomes. The SEMCD and SEMCD-S are reliable and appear to be valid instruments for assessing self-efficacy for managing chronic disease. There was remarkable consistency across a range of studies from varying countries using two languages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All
consisting of two Universities, two Polytechnics, two Colleges of Education and one. School of Nursing. ... 12 No 2, March, 2017 82. INTRODUCTION ..... Park, & Baek, 2011) found self-efficacy .... Oxford: Oxford University Press. Facione, P.
Faculty of Education and Communication Sciences, College of Technology .... low self-esteem and harbour pessimistic thoughts concerning their ability to ... Thus, teachers' perceived self-efficacy is not an assessment of their skill set, but ...
Many studies have been conducted on self-efficacy and academic achievement but ... efficacy beliefs affect how people approach new challenges and will contribute to ..... In addition, three psychology instructors critically assessed and ...
Schutte, Nicola S; Bhullar, Navjot
This paper describes a model focused on the role of self-efficacy and belief in changeability of behavior in motivating environmentally sustainable behavior. The model was tested in two studies. The first study found that participants who had greater self-efficacy for sustainability behavior and a greater belief in their changeability of sustainability behavior had a higher level of approach motivation toward sustainability behavior and reported more such actual behavior. The second study investigated the effect of brief interventions intended to increase perception of self-efficacy for sustainability-related purchasing and changeability of sustainability-related purchasing. The intervention that focused on enhancing self-efficacy for making sustainability-related purchases had the strongest impact on intention to purchase. These findings have implications for interventions intended to change behavior related to environmental sustainability.
This study aims to measure the relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem on student achievement. The research was conducted using quantitative descriptive analysis by the method of field research, which is conducted by survey to respondents. To analyze the data using correlational analysis techniques and multiple regression analysis techniques. The conclusion from this study showed that the relationship of self-efficacy and self-esteem on learning achievement.
Kandies, Jerry T.
The purpose of this study was (a) to investigate the functional use of e-mail in a university setting and the relationship of attitudes toward and self-efficacy with email technology, and (b) to evaluate writing effectiveness in an electronic medium. The study also sought to determine if certain personal characteristics could serve as predictor variables for explaining e-mail use, attitudes toward email, and self-efficacy with e-mail technology. The population of inter...
Aim: Academic motivation and academic self-efficacy play important roles in the learning process. They increase academic achievement and the attainment of educational goals, thus providing opportunities in the training of qualified nurses. This study was conducted to determine nursing students%u2019 academic motivation and academic self-efficacy levels. Material and Method: This is a descriptive study. A total of 346 students who are attending a nursing school as either a first, second, third...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable measurement tool determining teachers’ self-efficacy regarding rubrics. Especially in educational environments, rubrics are measurement tools used in the assessment phase of student products usually based on higher-order thinking skills. Determination of teachers’ self-efficacy regarding rubrics can give researchers an idea on how often and how accurately teachers use such tools. For this reason, the existence of a tool accurately measuring self-efficacy variable is necessary. This study’s sample consists of 641 elementary, middle and high school teachers. To determine teachers’ self-efficacy levels regarding rubrics, 47-item draft was developed. As a result of validity and reliability analyzes, a 28-item measurement tool with a four-factor structure was obtained. The total scale’s and sub-factors’ internal consistency is quite high. Using this scale, researchers can examine the relationships between teachers’ self-efficacy and various variables that play an important role in education. In addition, comparative studies on the intended use of rubrics can be conducted by determining teachers’ self-efficacy levels regarding rubrics.
Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Falese, Lavinia; Mancone, Stefania; Purromuto, Francesco
The study aimed to identify factors predicting self-efficacy in a sample of 248 Italian handball referees. The main hypothesis was that perception of teamwork efficacy would be a significant predictor of self-efficacy in handball referees. Participants completed an online questionnaire including Referee Self-Efficacy Scale (α = 0.85), Self-Determination Scale (α = 0.78), and an adaptation for Referees of the Sport Commitment Model (α = 0.80). Two hierarchical regression analyses have identified: (1) Enjoyment (β = 0.226), Couple Efficacy (β = 0.233), and Personal Awareness (β = 0.243), as predictors of Self-Efficacy; (2) Span of Co-Refereeing (β = 0.253), Perceived Quality of the Relationship (β = 0.239), and Mutual Agreement (β = 0.274), as predictors of Couple Self-Efficacy. A further SEM analysis confirmed the fit of a structural model of Self-efficacy considering the reciprocal influence of Couple Efficacy, Enjoyment and Awareness (χ2: 5.67; RMSEA: 0.000; SRMR: 0.019). The study underlines the importance of teamwork (or co-refereeing) as it relates to enjoyment and awareness in officiating and how it enhances the psychological well-being of handball referees. Future studies should investigate the relationship between factors influencing perceived teamwork efficacy and officiating performance outcome. PMID:28572783
Vancampfort, Davy; Gorczynski, Paul; De Hert, Marc; Probst, Michel; Naisiga, Annetie; Basangwa, David; Mugisha, James
Despite the recognition of the importance of exercise self-efficacy in exercise adoption and maintenance, previous investigations on exercise self-efficacy in people with psychosis is scarce. The present study aimed to (1) explore if exercise self-efficacy differed between stages of behavior change in Ugandan outpatients with psychosis, and (2) assess sociodemographic, clinical and motivational correlates of exercise self-efficacy. In total, 48 patients (24 women) completed the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES), the Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise questionnaire, the Brief Symptoms Inventory-18 (BSI-18), and questions pertaining to intrinsic motivation in the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2. Additionally, participants were asked about their exercise behavior in the past 7 days and screened for cardio-metabolic risk factors. Higher ESES-scores were observed in those in the maintenance (n = 17) versus those in the pre-action stage (n = 17) of behavior change. Higher ESES-scores were also significantly associated with lower BSI-18 somatization and higher intrinsic motivation scores. Our data indicated that health care professionals should assist patients with psychosis in interpreting physiological states during exercise. Future research should explore whether bolstering such sources of information might directly or indirectly effect exercise self-efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The widespread of smartphones usage have increased the convenience of accessing information and knowledge sharing for higher learning students. University’s students are exposed with the multi channels of knowledge from various sources primarily from online learning’s resources. The study examines smartphone habit, internet literacy, and mobile learning in relation to self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers to the internal forces of a student’s belief in the abilities in utilizing smartphone as educational aid in the context of mobile learning. This study deploys a quantitative approach in assessing the relationship between self-efficacy, internet literacy and smartphone’s habits for of university students. Understanding student self-efficacy is important factor to deliver an effective ways in supporting mobile learning activities. In addition to documenting the findings of self-efficacy and mobile learning, the research also represents a model of internal and external factors that affects student self-efficacy to make mobile learning successful.
Maja Fesel Martinčevič
Full Text Available The article outlines the concept of self-efficacy and its applications in context of work and organizational behavior. Self-efficacy stems from the social cognitive theory of A. Bandura and is believed to be an important determinant of behavior. Numerous studies have confirmed its connection to actual effectiveness. First, the article focuses on definition of self-efficacy in general and on its theoretical background. It continues by reviewing the concept's cases of use within organizational psychology either in connection with consequences of self-efficacy on employees (work effectiveness, absenteeism, work satisfaction and burn-out, in relation to sources of employee's self-efficacy (application of the self-efficacy concept in leadership and training, or in connection with counseling of organizations or individuals (application in selection and work-team formation. It is concluded, that the application of the concept in connection with work and organizational behavior is useful and perspective. Finally, a critical review of the concept is given and guidelines for its further use and studies are outlined.
Black, Oliver; Keegel, Tessa; Sim, Malcolm R; Collie, Alexander; Smith, Peter
Purpose Work absence can result in substantial losses to the economy and workers. As a result, identifying modifiable factors associated with return-to-work (RTW) following an injury or illness is the focus of many empirical investigations. Self-efficacy, the belief about one's ability to undertake behaviours to achieve desired goals, has been identified as an important factor in RTW for injured workers. This paper systematically reviewed the literature on the association between self-efficacy and RTW outcomes for workers with an upper-body musculoskeletal injury or psychological injury. Methods A systematic search was conducted across five databases using two main search concepts- 'self-efficacy' and 'RTW'. After removing duplicates, our search strategy identified 836 studies, which were screened for relevance using titles and abstracts. Results A two stage screening process reduced the study pool to six studies using psychological injury cohorts and three using upper-body musculoskeletal (UB-MSK) cohorts. Eight cohorts from seven prospective cohort studies and one sample from a randomised control trial (RCT) were subjected to a risk of bias assessment. Higher levels of self-efficacy appeared to have a consistent and positive association with RTW across return-to-work status and work absence outcomes, injury type and follow-up periods. Effect ratios ranged from 1.00 to 5.26 indicating a potentially large impact of self-efficacy on RTW outcomes. The relationship between self-efficacy and RTW strengthened as the domain of self-efficacy became more specific to RTW and job behaviours. Studies assessing workers with psychological injuries were of a lower quality compared to those assessing workers with UB-MSK injuries. Conclusions Higher self-efficacy had consistent positive associations with RTW outcomes. Further empirical research should identify the determinants of self-efficacy, and explore the processes by which higher self-efficacy improves RTW outcomes.
Rohmatun Rohmatun; Taufik Taufik
This research is aimed at investigating the correlation between selfefficacy and authoritarian parenting style toward student s’ academic procrastination. The subject of this research is 150 students of faculty of of Psychology, Medicine, and Economy of Sultan Agung Islamic University who are working on the final project. The major hypothesis proposed in the research is that there is a correlation between self-efficacy and authoritarian parenting style with students’ academic procrastination...
Kalpouzos, Gr?goria; Eriksson, Johan
Background: While the use of different cognitive strategies when encoding episodic memory information has been extensively investigated, modulation of brain activity by memory self-efficacy beliefs has not been studied yet. Methodology/Principal Findings: Sixteen young adults completed the prospective and retrospective metamemory questionnaire, providing individual subjective judgments of everyday memory function. The day after, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the participants ha...
Full Text Available The development of internet in Indonesia is quite fast and the majority of users are students. Internet growth made every fields include banking provided internet based service that called internet banking. The purpose of this research is to explore the factors that affect student’s intention to use internet banking by used the combination model of TAM (Technology Acceptance Model. Independent variables used in this research are Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Subjective Norm, and Experience. While the dependent variable is Student’s Intention to Use Internet Banking. The results show that perceived ease of use and experience are significantly influence students to use internet banking and perceived usefulness and subjective norm are unsignificantly influence students to use internet banking. The usefulness of internet banking did not make the students feel interested to use internet banking, one of the reasons is usefulness of internet banking is limited to non-cash transaction
Abrams, Dominic; Ando, Kaori; Hinkle, Steve
Two studies wed the theory of reasoned action, social identity theory, and Ashforth and Mael's work on organizational identification to predict turnover intentions in Japanese and British commercial and academic organizations. In both studies and in both countries, the authors expected and found that identification with the organization substantially and significantly predicted turnover intentions. Attitudes predicted intentions only in Study 2, and subjective norms significantly predicted in...
Jayson M. Nissen
Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] There is growing evidence of persistent gender achievement gaps in university physics instruction, not only for learning physics content, but also for developing productive attitudes and beliefs about learning physics. These gaps occur in both traditional and interactive-engagement (IE styles of physics instruction. We investigated one gender gap in the area of attitudes and beliefs. This was men’s and women’s physics self-efficacy, which comprises students’ thoughts and feelings about their capabilities to succeed as learners in physics. According to extant research using pre- and post-course surveys, the self-efficacy of both men and women tends to be reduced after taking traditional and IE physics courses. Moreover, self-efficacy is reduced further for women than for men. However, it remains unclear from these studies whether this gender difference is caused by physics instruction. It may be, for instance, that the greater reduction of women’s self-efficacy in physics merely reflects a broader trend in university education that has little to do with physics per se. We investigated this and other alternative causes, using an in-the-moment measurement technique called the Experience Sampling Method (ESM. We used ESM to collect multiple samples of university students’ feelings of self-efficacy during four types of activity for two one-week periods: (i an introductory IE physics course, (ii students’ other introductory STEM courses, (iii their non-STEM courses, and (iv their activities outside of school. We found that women experienced the IE physics course with lower self-efficacy than men, but for the other three activity types, women’s self-efficacy was not reliably different from men’s. We therefore concluded that the experience of physics instruction in the IE physics course depressed women’s self-efficacy. Using complementary measures showing the IE
Wang, Jianhua; Deng, Yuanyuan; Ma, Yuting
Improper use of pesticides among farmers has caused food safety issues which are serious threats to public health in China. A central question concerns how to motivate farmers to self-regulate their pesticide usage. The paper aims to identify the influence of an internal driving factor, i.e., perceived benefits, and an external driving factor, i.e., subjective norm, on farmers' safe pesticide behaviors, and whether the two factors are moderated by the exposure to information on government policies and the market, based on a sample of 971 farmers selected from 5 Chinese provinces. The results revealed that farmers' safe pesticide usage was predominately driven by perceived benefits whereas external pressure or subjective norm did not play much of a role. Interaction effects were found between the exposure to market information and perceived benefits, and also between subjective norm and exposure to government policy. Extensions agencies are recommended to effectively convey to farmers the benefits to follow safe pesticide practices. Meanwhile, surveillance and monitoring systems should be established so that the prices of their agricultural products are reflected by the quality of the products.
Byars-Winston, Angela; Diestelmann, Jacob; Savoy, Julia N; Hoyt, William T
Self-efficacy beliefs are strong predictors of academic pursuits, performance, and persistence, and in theory are developed and maintained by 4 classes of experiences Bandura (1986) referred to as sources: performance accomplishments (PA), vicarious learning (VL), social persuasion (SP), and affective arousal (AA). The effects of sources on self-efficacy vary by performance domain and individual difference factors. In this meta-analysis (k = 61 studies of academic self-efficacy; N = 8,965), we employed B. J. Becker's (2009) model-based approach to examine cumulative effects of the sources as a set and unique effects of each source, controlling for the others. Following Becker's recommendations, we used available data to create a correlation matrix for the 4 sources and self-efficacy, then used these meta-analytically derived correlations to test our path model. We further examined moderation of these associations by subject area (STEM vs. non-STEM), grade, sex, and ethnicity. PA showed by far the strongest unique association with self-efficacy beliefs. Subject area was a significant moderator, with sources collectively predicting self-efficacy more strongly in non-STEM (k = 14) compared with STEM (k = 47) subjects (R2 = .37 and .22, respectively). Within studies of STEM subjects, grade level was a significant moderator of the coefficients in our path model, as were 2 continuous study characteristics (percent non-White and percent female). Practical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Wang, Chih-hsuan; Harrison, Jamie; Cardullo, Victoria; Lin, Xi
One of the major challenges for international students to pursue academic goals in the United States is English language proficiency, which often negatively affects academic success. Even students with confidence in their English language proficiency encounter challenges using English in class. Previous research indicates self-efficacy positively…
Marina de Góes Salvetti
Full Text Available A crença de auto-eficácia relaciona-se com a percepção da dor e com a funcionalidade física e psíquica dos doentes. O objetivo deste estudo foi validar para a língua portuguesa a Chronic Pain Self-efficacy Scale. A amostra foi de 132 pacientes com dor crônica de etiologia variada. A validade da escala em língua portuguesa foi confirmada pela análise fatorial, que manteve os três domínios e os 22 itens da escala original; a variância explicada foi de 60,8%. A confiabilidade, analisada pelo alfa de Cronbach, variou entre 0,76 e 0,92 para os domínios e foi de 0,94 para a escala total. A validade convergente, verificada por meio da comparação entre a Escala de Auto-Eficácia para Dor Crônica (AEDC e o Inventário de Depressão de Beck (IDB mostrou correlação negativa e estatisticamente significativa. Este estudo disponibiliza para a língua portuguesa um instrumento válido e confiável para a avaliação da auto-eficácia de pacientes com dor crônica.The self-efficacy belief relates to pain perception and physical and psychiatric functionality. The goal of this study was to validate to the Portuguese language the Chronic Pain Self-efficacy Scale (CPSS. The subjects were 132 chronic pain patients with pain from several etiologies. The scale validity in the Portuguese language was confirmed by factor analyzis, which maintained the 3 factors and 22 items of the original scale; the accounted variance was 60,8%. The reliability, analyzed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, were 0,76 - 0,92 to the factors and 0,94 to the total scale. The convergent validity, verified by the comparison with the Portuguese version of the Chronic Pain Self-efficacy Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (IDB showed significantly negative correlation. This study made available to the Portuguese language a valid and reliable instrument to assess self-efficacy in chronic pain patients.
Baker, Dale R.; Wood, Lorelei; Corkins, James; Krause, Stephen
Self-efficacy in engineering is important because individuals with low self-efficacy have lower levels of achievement and persistence in engineering majors. To examine self-efficacy among community college engineering students, an instrument to specifically measure two important aspects of engineering, tinkering and technical self-efficacy, was…
Hortz, Brian; Petosa, R. Lingyak; Grim, Melissa L.; Stevens, Emily
Background: Self-efficacy has been associated with adolescent exercise. Previous studies have revealed that self-efficacy is relatively resistant to change. Effective strategies to build self-efficacy among adolescents are needed. Purpose: To describe the changes in self-efficacy and leisure time exercise produced by the "Planning to be…
Bunketorp Käll, Lina
This study explores the internal structure of the Self-Efficacy Scale (SES) using item response analysis. The SES was previously translated into Swedish and modified to encompass all types of pain, not exclusively back pain. Data on perceived self-efficacy in 47 patients with subacute whiplash-associated disorders were derived from a previously conducted randomized-controlled trial. The item-level factor analysis was carried out using a six-step procedure. To further study the item inter-relationships and to determine the underlying structure empirically, the 20 items of the SES were also subjected to principal component analysis with varimax rotation. The analyses showed two underlying factors, named 'social activities' and 'physical activities', with seven items loading on each factor. The remaining six items of the SES appeared to measure somewhat different constructs and need to be analysed further.
Menéndez-González, Lara; Orts-Cortés, María Isabel
To identify the relationship and behaviour of the variables of self-control, self-efficacy and locus control in weight regulation of obese, overweight and normal weight adults. Transversal study undertaken in the Health Centre of El Coto (Gijón) from 1st April to 30th July 2015. Subjects between 18-65 years of age with a body mass index recording within the last two years. serious medical illness, eating disorders or pregnant women. Behavioural variables: self-regulation of body weight (Inventory of self-control of body weight), perceived self-efficacy in weight regulation (Inventory of perceived self-efficacy in weight regulation) and locus control in weight regulation (Inventory of locus control in weight regulation). Anthropometric variables: weight (kg) and height (m), body mass index. One hundred and six participants were included: 32 were obese, 28 overweight and 46 normal weight. Significant differences were found between the 3 study groups for total scale of self-efficacy (F=61.77; pcontrol (F=13.92; p=.019), other weighty influences of locus control (F=9.21; pcontrol (F=3.50; p=.011). The relationship between body mass index and behavioural variables of self-efficacy, self-regulation and locus control, suggests the need for healthcare professionals to include psychological factors of behaviour in any preventive action and intervention directed at weight control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Dos Santos, Hildemar; Bredehoft, Margaret Dinhluu; Gonzalez, Frecia M; Montgomery, Susanne
The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants' exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants.
Hildemar Dos Santos MD, DrPH
Full Text Available The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants’ exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants.
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan self-efficacy dan konformitas dengan prokrastinasi akademik mahasiswa Bimbingan dan Konseling Universitas Negeri Semarang baik secara parsial maupun secara bersama-sama. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain kuantitatif korelasional. Sampel yang digunakan berjumlah 125 dari populasi 284 mahasiswa dengan teknik pengambilan sampel simple random sampling. Adapun teknik analisis data menggunakan regresi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa antara self-efficacy dengan prokrastinasi akademik memiliki hubungan yang signifikan (R= 0,565, F(3,121 = 18,903, p = 0,05. Sedangkan antara self-efficacy dan konformitas dengan prokrastinasi akademik memiliki hubungan yang signifikan (R = 0,595, F(18,903 = 7,957, p = 0,05. While between self-efficacy and conformity with academic procrastination have significant relationship (R = 0,595, F (18,903 = 7,957, p = <0,01. Based om the results of research Guidance and Counseling teachers are advised to provide Guidance and Counseling services to decrease academic procrastination through the development of self-efficacy and conformity.
Daniela Alves Gastal
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a public health problem and good glycemic control is able to prevent or contain its complications. Self-efficacy is a key factor in successfully achieving behavior goals. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the insulin management diabetes self-efficacy scale (IMDSES on type 1 diabetes patients from southern Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Validation study in two cities in southern Brazil. METHODS: The psychometric properties of IMDSES were evaluated in a population of type 1 diabetes patients (n = 213, from September to December 2004, who were attended within the Brazilian public healthcare system. Principal component analysis was conducted to develop the subscales. Cronbach’s alpha was used as the reliability coefficient. RESULTS: The analysis of psychometric properties resulted in an IMDSES consisting of 20 items and three subscales: diet (alpha: 0.83, insulin (alpha: 0.92 and general management (alpha: 0.78 and accounted for 53% of the variance. Criteria validity was investigated through two parameters: glycohemoglobin, which showed significant association with self-efficacy on the insulin subscale (p = 0.04, and the variable "adherence", which was significantly associated with self-efficacy on two subscales (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the IMDSES is valid and reliable, and can be used to measure results from diabetes educational programs and to measure self-efficacy relating to diabetes management, for possible interventions.
Domas Chandra Pramudianti
Full Text Available Abstract: The research aimsto determine the relationship of the levelof formal education with parenting self-efficacy in the early period ofpostnatal maternal post Sectio Caesarea(SC.The methods is anobservational study with cross sectional design. The study populationincludes all mothers post SC in RSIA ‘Aisyiyah Klaten and DelangguPKU Muhammadiyah Hospital, the subject of the study involved 66people. Samples were selected purposively to the inclusion criteriaof exclusion. Data analysis using Spearman Rank at the 95% confidencelevel. The results is level of formal education have a meaningfulrelationship with parenting self-efficacy in the early postnatal periodwith a value of p = 0.000 (p <0.05.Keywords: formal education, parenting self-efficacy
Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Foltz, Melissa Pinto; Scheetz, James; Myers, John A.
Based upon the Self-Efficacy Theory, this study examined the relationship between self-efficacy, self-efficacy-related variables, and postpartum depression teaching behaviors of hospital-based perinatal nurses. Findings revealed that teaching new mothers about postpartum depression is related to a perinatal nurse's self-efficacy in postpartum-depression teaching, self-esteem, and the following self-efficacy-related variables: social persuasion (supervisor's expectations for teaching); mastery...
Parker, Elisabeth Allyn
Bandura (1986) posited that self-efficacy beliefs help determine what individuals do with the knowledge and skills they have and are critical determinants of how well skill and knowledge are acquired. Research has correlated self-efficacy beliefs with academic success and subject interest (Pajares, Britner, & Valiante, 2000). Similar studies report a decreasing interest by students in school science beginning in middle school claiming that they don't enjoy science because the classes are boring and irrelevant to their lives (Basu & Barton, 2007). The hypothesis put forth by researchers is that students need to observe models of how science is done, the nature of science (NOS), so that they connect with the human enterprise of science and thereby raise their self-efficacy (Britner, 2008). This study examined NOS understandings and science self-efficacy of students enrolled in a sixth grade earth science class taught with explicit NOS instruction. The research questions that guided this study were (a) how do students' self-efficacy beliefs change as compared with changes in their nature of science understandings?; and (b) how do changes in students' science self-efficacy beliefs vary with gender and ethnicity segregation? A mixed method design was employed following an embedded experimental model (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). As the treatment, five NOS aspects were first taught by the teachers using nonintegrated activities followed by integrated instructional approach (Khishfe, 2008). Students' views of NOS using the Views on Nature of Science (VNOS) (Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick, & Schwartz, 2002) along with their self-efficacy beliefs using three Likert-type science self-efficacy scales (Britner, 2002) were gathered. Changes in NOS understandings were determined by categorizing student responses and then comparing pre- and post-instructional understandings. To determine changes in participants' self-efficacy beliefs as measured by the three subscales, a multivariate
Quinn-Nilas, Christopher; Milhausen, Robin R; Breuer, Rebecca; Bailey, Julia; Pavlou, Menelaos; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M
This study assessed a newly developed Sexual Communication Self-Efficacy Scale designed to measure the sexual communication self-efficacy of adolescent men and women. Three-hundred and seventy-four U.K. adolescents completed this new scale, along with several other validity measures. Factor analysis revealed that the Sexual Communication Self-Efficacy Scale consisted of five underlying factors: contraception communication, positive sexual messages, negative sexual messages, sexual history, and condom negotiation. These factors demonstrated high internal consistency and presents evidence to support construct validity. This scale may have utility in assessing the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance sexual communication and sexual health behaviors among young people. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Full Text Available The concept of self-efficacy, introduced by Albert Bandura, has received a lot of attention in psychological research. This comes as no surprise, as it encompasses a person's beliefs about his or her capabilities to successfully do what is necessary for desired goals, which is a central mechanism in human agency. The concept has been linked to many outcomes (e.g. motivation and performance, almost exclusively yielding positive results. Recently, however, arguments have risen that a strong sense of selfefficacy may not always be as beneficial as presumed until now. In this article, I review the core of the positive literature on self-efficacy and highlight studies that question and oppose the dominance of these positive self-efficacy associations. Implications for future research, emphasizing the need of a different research approach, are mentioned.
Full Text Available The study investigated self-efficacy of a sample of Slovak primary schoolteachers in two areas: area of instruction and area of parent involvement. Twoinstruments were used: the 16-item Slovak version of Teacher Efficacy Scale ofGibson and Dembo, and ZdUR, a 24-item scale to measure self-efficacy of teacherin parents’ involvement, developed by authors of the present study. The correlation between scores of personal teaching efficacy dimension of TES and ZdUR was 0.58 and between general teaching efficacy of TES and ZdUR was only 0.01. Teachers inthis sample had better scores in all dimensions of ZdUR than those of TES, with theexception of engaging parents in school activities. Scores of four teachers in TES andZdUR were analysed to document the possibility of making the individual profiles ofteacher self-efficacy.
Emme, Christina; Mortensen, Erik L; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan
Scand J Caring Sci; 2012; 26; 615-623 Danish version of 'The COPD self-efficacy scale': translation and psychometric properties The aim of the study was to translate 'The COPD self-efficacy scale' (CSES) into Danish and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Danish version (CSES-DK). CSES...... enables assessment of self-efficacy in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The scale consists of 34 items, describing situations which may cause dyspnoea in patients with COPD. The CSES was translated into Danish using a standard forward-backward translation procedure...... analysis was conducted to compare the internal structure of the Danish version and the American source version. The study included 151 patients with COPD, recruited from three outpatient clinics. Estimates of reliability were in accordance with the original version of CSES (Cronbach's a = 0.97, test...
Self-efficacy has been shown to influence student engagement, effort and performance as well as course selection and future career choice. Extending our knowledge regarding the development of self-efficacy has important implications for educators and for those concerned about the international uptake of science careers. Previous research has identified four sources that may contribute towards self-efficacy: mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion and physiological/affective states. Very little research has been conducted within the school environment that looks at the formation of these sources and yet early school experiences have been posited to be a key factor in girls' lack of engagement in post compulsory science education. This paper investigates children's self-efficacy beliefs in science and reports on findings from mixed method research conducted with 182 children aged between 10 and 12 years. Classroom data were collected through focus groups, individual interviews and surveys. Findings revealed that although girls and boys held similar levels of academic performance in science, many girls underestimated their capability. The four sources of self-efficacy identified by Bandura (1997) plus self-regulation as an additional source, were evident in the children's descriptions, with boys being more influenced by mastery experience and girls by a combination of vicarious experience and physiological/affective states. Girl's appraisal of information appeared to operate through a heuristic process whereby girls disregarded salient information such as teacher feedback in favour of reliance on social comparison. Contextual factors were identified. Implications for science teachers are discussed.
Won, Sungjun; Lee, Sun-Young; Bong, Mimi
The primary purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the degree to which Korean middle school students perceived their teachers to be credible made a difference in the effectiveness of teachers' persuasion as a source of students' academic self-efficacy. In the contexts of both general school learning and a specific subject of Korean…
Soutome, Sakiko; Kajiwara, Kazumi; Oho, Takahiko
Objective: To examine whether the combined use of a task-specific self-efficacy scale for oral health behaviour (SEOH) and an oral health questionnaire (OHQ) would be useful for evaluating subjects' behaviours and cognitions. Design: Questionnaires. Methods: One hundred and eighty-five students completed the SEOH and OHQ. The 30-item OHQ uses a…
Betz, Nancy E.; Hackett, Gail
Subjects, (N=134) female and (N=101) male undergraduates, were asked to indicate their perceptions of their capabilities to successfully complete the educational requirements and job duties of each of 10 traditionally female and 10 traditionally male occupations. Results indicated sex differences in self-efficacy with regard to traditional versus…
Thomas, Elizabeth C; Muralidharan, Anjana; Medoff, Deborah; Drapalski, Amy L
The purposes of this research were to assess relationships between social support and objective and subjective recovery in a sample of adults with serious mental illness and to examine self-efficacy as a potential mediator of these relationships. In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 250 individuals completed measures tapping social support network size, satisfaction with social support, perceived support from the mental health system, self-efficacy, objective recovery (i.e., psychiatric symptoms, social functioning), and subjective recovery. Pearson product-moment correlations and multiple linear regression analyses examined relationships among social support, self-efficacy, and recovery. A bootstrapping procedure was used to estimate the magnitude and significance of indirect effects in mediation analyses. All social support domains (i.e., social support network size, satisfaction with support, perceived support from the mental health system) were significantly related to at least 1 objective recovery outcome and to subjective recovery. Self-efficacy was a mediator of all relationships between social support and objective and subjective recovery. The present study aids in better understanding the relationship between social support and recovery in individuals with serious mental illness and paves the way for future research. Particularly relevant to mental health service providers, it highlights the importance of establishing and maintaining an effective therapeutic relationship as well as assisting consumers with developing supportive relationships with others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Delforterie, M.J.; Larsen, J.K.; Bardone-Cone, A.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.
Pro-anorexia websites portray an extreme form of thin-ideal. This between-subjects experiment examined the effects of viewing such a website on body satisfaction, affect, and appearance self-efficacy compared to viewing control websites (fashion, home decoration, automutilation). The sample
Delforterie, M.J.; Larsen, J.K.; Bardone, A.; Scholte, R.H.J.
Pro-anorexia websites portray an extreme form of thin-ideal. This between-subjects experiment examined the effects of viewing such a website on body satisfaction, affect, and appearance self-efficacy compared to viewing control websites (fashion, home decoration, automutilation). The sample
Hoge, Gretchen L; Stylianou, Amanda M; Hetling, Andrea; Postmus, Judy L
Experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) and financial hardship are often intertwined. The dynamics of an abusive relationship may include economic abuse tactics that compromise a survivor's ability to work, pursue education, have access to financial resources, and establish financial skills, knowledge, and security. An increasingly common goal among programs serving IPV survivors is increasing financial empowerment through financial literacy. However, providing financial education alone may not be enough to improve financial behaviors. Psychological factors also play a role when individuals make financial choices. Economic self-efficacy focuses on the individual's perceived ability to perform economic or financial tasks, and may be considered a primary influence on one's ability to improve financial decisions and behaviors. The current study tests the reliability and validity of a Scale of Economic Self-Efficacy with a sample of female survivors of IPV. This study uses a calibration and validation analysis model including full and split-sample exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, assesses for internal consistency, and examines correlation coefficients between economic self-efficacy, economic self-sufficiency, financial strain, and difficulty living with income. Findings indicate that the 10-item, unidimensional Scale of Economic Self-Efficacy demonstrates strong reliability and validity among this sample of IPV survivors. An ability to understand economic self-efficacy could facilitate individualized service approaches and allow practitioners to better support IPV survivors on their journey toward financial empowerment. Given the increase in programs focused on assets, financial empowerment, and economic well-being, the Scale of Economic Self-Efficacy has potential as a very timely and relevant tool in the design, implementation, and evaluation of such programs, and specifically for programs created for IPV survivors.
Cziraki, Karen; Read, Emily; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Wong, Carol
Purpose This paper aims to test a model examining precursors and outcomes of nurses' leadership self-efficacy, and their aspirations to management positions. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional survey of 727 registered nurses across Canada was conducted. Structural equation modelling using Mplus was used to analyse the data. Findings Results supported the hypothesized model: χ 2 (312) = 949.393; CFI = 0.927; TLI = 0.919; RMSEA = 0.053 (0.049-0.057); SRMR 0.044. Skill development opportunities ( ß = 0.20), temporary management roles ( ß = 0.12) and informal mentoring ( ß = 0.11) were significantly related to nurses' leadership self-efficacy, which significantly influenced motivation to lead ( ß = 0.77) and leadership career aspirations ( ß = 0.23). Motivation to lead was significantly related to leadership career aspirations ( ß = 0.50). Practical implications Nurses' leadership self-efficacy is an important determinant of their motivation and intention to pursue a leadership career. Results suggest that nurses' leadership self-efficacy can be influenced by providing opportunities for leadership mastery experiences and mentorship support. Leadership succession planning should include strategies to enhance nurses' leadership self-efficacy and increase front-line nurses' interest in leadership roles. Originality value With an aging nurse leader workforce, it is important to understand factors influencing nurses' leadership aspirations to develop and sustain nursing leadership capacity. This research study makes an important contribution to the nursing literature by showing that nurses' leadership self-efficacy appears to be an important determinant of their motivation to lead and desire to pursue a career as a nurse leader.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Many parents do not believe in their ability to fulfill their parental responsibilities. Parental self-efficacy is crucial to parents’ sense of well-being and is considered a predictor for quality of life. However, evidence is scarce on the factors that influence parents’ perception of efficacy. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the predictors for parental self-efficacy in the early postpartum period. Methods:This descriptive analytical study was conducted on 150 primiparous women referring to the health care centers of Mashhad during their early postpartum months. For data collection, we used demographic questionnaires, Bates’ Infant Characteristics Questionnaire (ICQ, Scale of Perceived Social Support, Reece’s parent expectations survey (PES, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. For data analysis, independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and stepwise regression were performed, using SPSS version 16. Results: In this study, a significant association was observed between self-efficacy scores and the parents’ income, educational status, depression, and infant’s gender. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between self-efficacy scores and infant’s characteristics, mother’s satisfaction with childbirth experience, perceived support from friends, infant’s perceived temperament, infant’s gender, mother’s educational level, and depression, which could predict 26.1% of parental self-efficacy. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the most significant predictors of maternal self-efficacy during the early postpartum months were maternal depression and educational status, infant’s gender, and infant’s characteristics.
/2015. The subjects were all students of class XI program accounting axpertise at State Vocational High School 9 Semarang in the academic year 2014/2015. The samples are all subjects that there were 108 students. The dependent variable in this study is the interest in entrepreneurship (Y while the independent variables include entrepreneurship education (X1, the family environment (X2, and self efficacy (X3. Data collection methods were used is questionnaire. Data analysis techniques were using analysis of the descriptive statistical, multiple regression analysis, F test, T Test, and the simultaneous determination coefficient (R2. The results showed that entrepreneurship education, family environment and self efficacy positive effect to interest in entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship education, family environment and self efficacy simultaneously affect 54,4%. In the entrepreneurship education a positive effect 6.05%. The family environment a positive effect 12.82%, as well as self efficacy positive effect partially 16,81%. The researcher suggests that schools are expected to provide the knowledge and values of entrepreneurship, the family is expected to provide support to entrepreneurship as an alternative career options in the future and the teacher is expected to convince students that they are capable of completing the tasks given entrepreneurship so that students will be more confident of its ability.
Peter Gavora; Jana Majerčíková
The study investigated self-efficacy of a sample of Slovak primary schoolteachers in two areas: area of instruction and area of parent involvement. Twoinstruments were used: the 16-item Slovak version of Teacher Efficacy Scale ofGibson and Dembo, and ZdUR, a 24-item scale to measure self-efficacy of teacherin parents’ involvement, developed by authors of the present study. The correlation between scores of personal teaching efficacy dimension of TES and ZdUR was 0.58 and between general teach...
Full Text Available This study examined the use of educational technology by primary and subject teachers (i.e. secondary and high school teachers in a small town in the eastern part of Turkey in the spring of 2012. The study examined the primary, secondary and high school teachers’ Ø personal and computer related (demographic characteristics, Ø their computer self-efficacy perceptions, Ø their computer-using level in certain software, Ø their frequency of computer use for teaching, administrative and communication objectives, and Ø their use of educational technology preferences for preparation and teaching purposes. In this study, all primary, secondary and high school teachers in the small town were given the questionnaires to complete. 158 teachers (n=158 completed and returned them. The study was mostly quantitative and partly qualitative. The quantitative results were analysed with SPSS (i.e. mean, Std. Deviation, frequency, percentage, ANOVA. The qualitative data were analysed with examining the participants’ responses gathered from the open-ended questions and focussing on the shared themes among the responses. The results reveal that the teachers think that they have good computer self-efficacy perceptions, their level in certain programs is good, and they often use computers for a wide range of purposes. There are also statistical differences between; Ø their computer self-efficacy perceptions, Ø frequency of computer use for certain purposes, and Ø computer level in certain programs in terms of different independent variables.
Ha, Seong Ah; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, Kyung A; Seo, Jung Sook; Sohn, Cheong Min; Park, Hae Ryun; Kim, Kyung Won
Childhood obesity has increased in recent decades in Korea. This study was designed to examine differences in the eating habits, physical activity (PA), nutrition knowledge, and self-efficacy of children by obesity status. Subjects were 5th-grade children from 70 elementary schools in 17 cities nationwide. Two-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed. Survey questionnaire included items related to general characteristics, eating habits, PA, nutrition knowledge and self-efficacy. Excluding incomplete responses, 3,531 data were analyzed using SPSS. Subjects were categorized into overweight·obesity (OW) and normal weight (NW) groups based on body mass index percentiles for age by sex. A total of 21.5% of subjects was overweight or obese. There were significant differences in gender, perceived stress, perception of body shape, body satisfaction, and interest in weight control between the OW and NW groups ( P eating habits, the OW group ate breakfast ( P eating habits, PA, and self-efficacy between OW and NW children. Obesity management programs for children need to focus on increasing self-efficacy, modifying eating habits, and increasing PA.
Williams, David M
According to self-efficacy theory, self-efficacy--defined as perceived capability to perform a behavior--causally influences expected outcomes of behavior, but not vice versa. However, research has shown that expected outcomes causally influence self-efficacy judgments, and some authors have argued that this relationship invalidates self-efficacy theory. Bandura has rebutted those arguments saying that self-efficacy judgments are not invalidated when influenced by expected outcomes. This article focuses on a contradiction in Bandura's rebuttal. Specifically, Bandura has argued (a) expected outcomes cannot causally influence self-efficacy, but (b) self-efficacy judgments remain valid when causally influenced by expected outcomes. While the debate regarding outcome expectancies and self-efficacy has subsided in recent years, the inattention to this contradiction has led to a disproportionate focus on self-efficacy as a causal determinant of behavior at the expense of expected outcomes.
Larry, Triaka A.
The need for more diversity in STEM-related careers and college majors is urgent. Self-efficacy and student-teacher relationships are factors that have been linked to influencing students’ pursuit of subject-specific careers and academic achievement. The impact of self-efficacy and student perceptions of teacher interpersonal behaviors on student achievement have been extensively researched in the areas of Mathematics and English, however, most studies using science achievement, as a criterion variable, were conducted using non-diverse, White upper middle class to affluent participants. In order to determine the strength of relationships between perceived science self-efficacy, and student perceptions of teacher interpersonal behaviors as factors that influence science achievement (science GPA), the Science Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ) and Questionnaire on Teacher Interactions (QTI) were administered to twelfth grade students enrolled at a highly diverse urban Title I high school, while controlling for demographics, defined as gender, ethnicity, and minority status. Using a hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis, results demonstrated that the predictor variables (i.e., gender, ethnicity, minority status, science self-efficacy, and teacher interpersonal behaviors) accounted for 20.8% of the variance in science GPAs. Science self-efficacy made the strongest unique contribution to explaining science GPA, while minority status and gender were found to be statistically significant contributors to the full model as well. Ethnicity and teacher interpersonal behaviors did not make a statistically significant contribution to the variance in science GPA, and accounted for ≤ 1% of the variance. Implications and recommendations for future research are subsequently given.
Full Text Available "nObjective: The purpose of this study is to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of preschool, first and second grade versions of Berkeley Parenting self-efficacy scale. "nMethod: The subjects were 317 mothers: (102 mothers of preschool children, 111 mothers of first grade children and 104 mothers of second grade children who were randomly selected from schools in Tehran. They completed Berkeley parenting self-efficacy and Rotter `s locus of control scales. Factor analysis using the principle component method was used to identify the factor structure of parenting self-efficacy scale. Cronbach`s alpha coefficient was used to identify the reliability of parenting self efficacy scale. "nResults: Results of this study indicated that the cronbach`s alpha coefficient was 0.84, 0.87, 0.64 for preschool, first grade and second grade versions respectively. Based on the scree test ,,factor analysis produced two factors of maternal strategy and child outcome, and it also produced the highest level of total variance explained by these 2 factors. The Parenting self-efficacy scale was negatively associated with measure of locus of control(r=-0.54 for the preschool version, -0.64 for the first grade version and -0.54 for the second grade version. "nConclusion: Due to relatively high reliability and validity of preschool, first and second grade versions of Berkeley Parenting Self-Efficacy scale, this scale could be used as a reliable and valid scale in other research areas
The career self-efficacy has positive and strong statistically significant association with past performances accomplishment of the students (r= .752, P< .01). However, it was statistically significant and has weak relationship with career exploration behaviour (r= .214, P<.05).Verbal persuasion is more significant association (r ...
Forty-three randomly selected EFL teachers were taken as a sample of the study. ... of the questionnaires were analyzed by using one sample t-test and Pearson ... teachers‟ EI and self-efficacy beliefs were found low as the observed means ...
Chiesa, R.; Toderi, S.; Dordoni, P.; Henkens, K.; Fiabane, E.M.; Setti, I.
Purpose The present study aims to explore the relationship between organizational age stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy. First, we intend to test the measurement invariance of Henkens (2005)’s age stereotypes scale across two age group, respectively under 50 years and 50 years and older.
This experience of success raises feelings of self efficacy, thus the student will be more likely to continue to apply him/herself to the specific activity, increasing chances of subsequent success. Vicarious experiences refer to the observation of the behaviour/ attitudes of other people and cognitive appraisal of what led to their.
Sezgin, Ferudun; Erdogan, Onur
This study explores the predictive influence of teachers' humility and forgiveness on their self-efficacy perceptions. The population of this research consists of teachers who work at public primary and secondary schools located in the central districts of Ankara, Turkey. The sample of the study is composed of 303 primary and secondary school…
Abaho, Ernest; Olomi, Donath R.; Urassa, Goodluck Charles
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the various entrepreneurship teaching methods in Uganda and how these methods relate to entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE). Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 522 final year students from selected universities and study programs was surveyed using self-reported questionnaires. Findings: There…
The effects of Self- efficacy and Motivational Orientations on Academic Achievement of Freshman Science Students. ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... Data through questionnaire, students' grades in four introductory science courses and College English collected at the end of the semester. Regression ...
Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard
Objective. To examine the relationship between self-efficacy and not wanting help to change health behaviors. Method. All employees in the Danish police department were invited to respond to an electronic questionnaire. All respondents expressing a desire to change health behaviors in relation to...
Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard; Villadsen, Ebbe; Andersen, Lars L.
Objective: To examine the relationship between self-efficacy and not wanting help to change health behaviors. Method: All employees in the Danish police department were invited to respond to an electronic questionnaire. All respondents expressing a desire to change health behaviors in relation to smoking ("n" = 845), alcohol…
For most new students, adjusting to an unfamiliar academic setting can induce homesickness. While most studies have investigated homesickness as a negative outcome of relocation, the present study extended the literature by examining the influence of self esteem, self efficacy, and gender on homesickness among ...
Gkolia, Aikaterini; Dimitrios, Belias A.; Koustelios, Athanasios
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between elementary and secondary teachers' background characteristics and constructs of self-efficacy, using the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale--TSES, during a difficult economic period for Greece and other European countries. Design/methodology/approach Equation modeling…
Field Project A is an elective course in the Bachelor of Exercise Science program at Griffith University and includes elements of both career development learning and work-integrated learning. This paper aims to determine the effects of the learning activities and assessment items developed for the course on students' self-efficacy in making…
Rodgers, W. M.; Wilson, P. M.; Hall, C. R.; Fraser, S. N.; Murray, T. C.
This series of three studies considers the multidimensionality of exercise self-efficacy by examining the psychometric characteristics of an instrument designed to assess three behavioral subdomains: task, scheduling, and coping. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis revealed the expected factor structure in a sample of 395 students.…
Objective: To investigate knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavioural intent towards AIDS prevention behaviours among culturally diverse secondary school pupils in South Africa. Design: Randomised study. Setting: Three urban secondary schools in Pietersburg, South Africa. Participants: Three hundred and sixty six Grade ...
The study investigated the relationship between gender and self-efficacy beliefs in instructional strategies, classroom management and student engagement among senior high school teachers in Kumasi metropolis, as most previous studies tend to focused on the developed countries other than developing countries like ...
This research presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of "self-efficacy". (Editor/RK)
50.08), and there is no significant difference in their self-efficacy between sexes (t (98) = 0.161, p> 0.1), but there is a statistically significant difference in achievement between sexes (t (98) = 0.68, p< 0.1) and also a significant relationship exists ...
Full Text Available This article presents the psychological meaning of school-to-work transition. Transition to taking up new social roles entails numerous difficulties, and that is why young people see it as a crisis point. According to researchers one of the predictors of effective transition to the labour market is self-efficacy.
Bubany, Shawn T.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.
Conceptual differences between self-efficacy and ability self-estimate scores, used in vocational psychology and career counseling, were examined with confirmatory factor analysis, discriminate relations, and reliability analysis. Results suggest that empirical differences may be due to measurement error or scale content, rather than due to the…
Lumpkin, Angela; Franco, Dan; Multon, Karen; Achen, Rebecca M.
Grounded in a social cognitive theoretical perspective, this study explores the career decision-making self-efficacy (CDSE) and vocational identity development process for college students interested or majoring in sport management. While a popular undergraduate major, little research has investigated the specific factors that influence different…
Barrows, Jennifer; Dunn, Samantha; Lloyd, Carrie A.
A student's level of self-efficacy and test anxiety directly impacts their academic success (Abdi, Bageri, Shoghi, Goodarzi, & Hosseinzadeh, 2012; Hassanzadeh, Ebrahimi, & Mahdinejad, 2012). When a student doubts themself and their own ability to test well, the students' sole focus becomes worrying about poor grades and cannot focus on…
Van Dyk, Jennifer; Siedlecki, Sandra L; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J
This study was focused on determining relationships between confidence levels and self-efficacy among nurse managers. Frontline nurse managers have a pivotal role in delivering high-quality patient care while managing the associated costs and resources. The competency and skill of nurse managers affect every aspect of patient care and staff well-being as nurse managers are largely responsible for creating work environments in which clinical nurses are able to provide high-quality, patient-centred, holistic care. A descriptive, correlational survey design was used; 85 nurse managers participated. Years in a formal leadership role and confidence scores were found to be significant predictors of self-efficacy scores. Experience as a nurse manager is an important component of confidence and self-efficacy. There is a need to develop educational programmes for nurse managers to enhance their self-confidence and self-efficacy, and to maintain experienced nurse managers in the role. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Martin, Jeffrey J.
In the current study, variables grounded in social cognitive theory with athletes with disabilities were examined. Performance, training, resiliency, and thought control self-efficacy, and positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect were examined with wheelchair basketball athletes (N = 79). Consistent with social cognitive theory, weak to strong…
Saleh, Hanadi Kassem
Faculty use of technology is a critical issue in higher education; administrators and students are expecting faculty instruction to incorporate technology in classroom and distance education. Competition is demanding technologically proficient graduates for schools and colleges. Research indicates that computer self-efficacy (CSE) may be one…
Writing performance was determined by a robust testing procedure which is usually employed in high-stakes writing tests. The results showed that four motivational constructs (self-efficacy, intrinsic value, attainment value and cost), and four writing strategy categories (metacognitive, cognitive, affective and effort regulation) ...
van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien
Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…
The Internet as a useful tool that supports teaching and learning is not in full use in most secondary schools in Nigeria hence limiting the students from maximizing the potentials of Internet in advancing their academic pursuits. This study, therefore, examined the extent to which computer self-efficacy and computer attitude ...
Türkoglu, Muhammet Emin; Cansoy, Ramazan; Parlar, Hanifi
Teaching in the 21st century poses many challenges for teachers, and thus, they need to take on more roles in their schools to meet the expectations of students, parents and the school community. In this regard, this study examined the relationship between teachers' self-efficacy beliefs and their job satisfaction. Participants of the study were…
In South Africa, dating violence is known to be widespread among adolescents, and is therefore a major public health issue because of its association with sexual risk behaviours. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between dating violence and self-efficacy for delayed sex among school-going ...
Jeong, Eui Jun; Kim, Doo Hwan
This study examines whether social activities with parents, online and offline social self-efficacy, and attitudes toward gaming are associated with the degree of game addiction among adolescents. Using data from a survey of 600 middle- and high-school students in South Korea, we tested the relationships of personal characteristics (grade point average and time spent on gaming each day), social self-efficacy (both on- and offline), general social activities (with parents, friends, and teachers), gaming activities with parents, and attitudes toward gaming (those of self, parents, friends, and teachers) with the degree of game addiction. In addition, we conducted ANOVA tests to determine the differences among three groups: non-addicts (NA), possible (mild or moderate) addicts (PA), and Internet addicts (IA). The results show that social self-efficacy in the real world (offline) was negatively related with the degree of game addiction, whereas social self-efficacy in the virtual world (online) indicated a positive association. Social activities with parents are negatively associated with game addiction, although no relationship is found between gaming activities with parents and game addiction. Parental attitude toward gaming has a negative relationship with the addiction. Results and implications are discussed.
South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... This article aims to provide an initial insight into the role that South African provincial cricket academies play in talent development of cricketers by reflecting on possible changes in academy cricketers' self-efficacy and perceived social ...
The study examined the effectiveness of self efficacy component of the health action process approach (HAPA), and religiosity in the treatment of substance use disorders. Results indicated that belief leading to the adoption, initiation and maintenance of health behaviours must be explicitly conceived by patients as a ...
Full Text Available Educational institutions are urged to provide more enterprising individuals who will either act as entrepreneurs, or will be able to manage their careers and lives in an entrepreneurial way. The purpose of this study is to address the role of teaching at universities in maximizing entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and to examine the possibility to maximize the likelihood of entrepreneurial behavior by enhancing entrepreneurial self-efficacy with university students. The study investigates the impact that entrepreneurial self-efficacy has on the development of entrepreneurial motivation and behavior using a sample of 324 students of Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek in Croatia. The results of the research indicate that students demonstrate a higher propensity for entrepreneurial behavior and a higher probability of starting their own business if they feel more self-efficient. The research has also highlighted that teaching at universities does not significantly improve the perception of entrepreneurial self-efficacy in students and that firsthand experience has a more important role in that. An important conclusion to emerge from this research is that in order to influence entrepreneurial behavior, it is necessary to make better use of experience-based learning and supplement university courses with components of informal and/or non-formal education.
The purpose of this study was to find out whether or not there were differences between male and female students in the way they perceived the conditions under which they studied collaboratively. It was also designed to find out if the collaborative learning context had a differential association with the self-efficacy of males ...
Fisher, Yael; Kostelitz, Yifat
This research examines the influence of teachers' views regarding parental involvement on their perception of self-efficacy. Data were collected from a sample of 319 Israeli elementary schools teachers. A path analysis procedure was employed to test the mediating effect of personal background and organizational variables and perceived parental…
Self–efficacy is the belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to manage prospective situations. The goal of this study was to examine the influence of self-efficacy, academic level and gender in predicting university maladjustment. A total of 200 undergraduate students (100 male and 100 ...
Yada, Hironori; Kobayashi, Mako; Odachi, Ryo; Yamane, Toshie
This study aimed to clarify the factors related to self-efficacy experienced by psychiatric nurses. Analysis of qualitative descriptive data from a free self-description questionnaire administered to 16 psychiatric nurses working in psychiatric hospitals revealed 24 codes across the following 8 categories as factors that increase self-efficacy: A1. possibility of practical use in nursing, A2. nursing judgment, A3. improvement of psychiatric symptoms, A4. the patients presenting a positive attitude, A5. building a relationship of trust with the patients, A6. building a relationship of trust with other nurses, A7. work progressing according to plan and A8. team medical practice. Twenty-five codes across the following 10 categories were identified as factors that decrease self-efficacy: B1. lack of communication, B2. uncertainty in caregiving, B3. recurrence of psychiatric symptoms, B4. feeling overpowered by a patient, B5. sense of being too busy to work adequately, B6. difficulty in bringing about self-improvement, B7. sense of loss regarding one's role as a nurse, B8. lack of physical strength, B9. mechanical performance of nursing and B10. fluctuating view of nursing due to mistakes. These factors require intervention for psychiatric nurses' self-efficacy.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perceived self-efficacy and adherence to self-care activities in type 2 diabetic clients. Low adherence to diabetic self-care activities result in increased risks of developing chronic serious and life-threatening complications with increased morbidity ...
Dr. Mart van Dinther; Prof. dr. Mien Segers; Prof. dr. Filip Dochy
Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning.
Malinauskas, Romualdas K.
In this study, the effectiveness of training module on enhancing self-efficacy in teacher education students was investigated. Sixty-eight (68) teacher education students (M age = 22.74; SD = 0.57) participated in this study, 36 of whom were assigned to an experimental group and the other 32 were assigned to a control group. The training module on…
Chiesa, Rita; Toderi, Stefano; Dordoni, Paola; Henkens, Kene; Fiabane, Elena Maria; Setti, Ilaria
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between organizational age stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy. First, the authors intend to test the measurement invariance of Henkens's (2005) age stereotypes scale across two age group, respectively, under 50 and 50 years
Chiesa, R.; Toderi, S.; Dordoni, P.; Henkens, K.; Fiabane, E.M.; Setti, I.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between organizational age stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy. First, the authors intend to test the measurement invariance of Henkens’s (2005) age stereotypes scale across two age group, respectively, under 50 and 50 years and
Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole
We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.
Nash, W A
Outside of abstinence, correct and consistent condom use is the single most effective tool to prevent the transmission human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This is particularly true in countries such as Belize where incidence rates remain high. Women are physiologically at higher risk for HIV, and many feel powerless to insist on condom use. Although nurses are in a position to promote condom use, variables that influence this decision are not clearly understood. In this study, we examined variables that influence a nurses' self-efficacy to promote and teach condom use to women specifically to reduce their HIV risk. Data related to self-efficacy, vicarious experience related to condom use promotion and a nurse's sexual relationship power were collected from nurses practising in Belize (n = 60). These data were cross-sectional and collected at the annual nurses' conference. Both years of nursing education and positive vicarious experience promoting and teaching condom use to women were positively correlated to their self-efficacy to do so. Vicarious experience was significantly correlated to self-efficacy in a subgroup of nurses with lower sexual relationship power but not in those with higher sexual relationship power. When designing HIV continuing education programmes for nurses in Belize, it is important to consider level of nursing education and access to vicarious experience such as mentoring and role modelling. An additional factor to consider is the influence that a nurse's power in her own primary sexual relationship may play in the formation of her self-efficacy. © 2011 The Author. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.
Gaither, C A; Bagozzi, R P; Ascione, F J; Kirking, D M
To improve upon the theory of reasoned action and apply it to pharmaceutical research, we investigated the effects of relevant appraisals attributes, and past behavior of physicians on the use of drug information sources. We also examined the moderating effects of practice characteristics. A mail questionnaire asked HMO physicians to evaluate seven common sources of drug information on general appraisals (degree of usefulness and ease of use), specific attributes (availability, quality of information on harmful effects and on drug efficacy), and past behavior when searching for information on a new, simulated H2 antagonist agent. Semantic differential scales were used to measure each appraisal, attribute and past behavior. Information was also collected on practice characteristics. Findings from 108/200 respondents indicated that appraisals and attributes were useful determinants of attitudes and subjective norms toward use. Degree of usefulness and quality of information on harmful effects were important predictors of attitudes toward use for several sources of information. Ease of use and degree of usefulness were important predictors of subjective norms toward use. In many cases, moderating effects of practice characteristics were in opposing directions. Past behavior had significant direct effects on attitudes toward the PDR. The findings suggest ways to improve the usefulness of the theory of reasoned action as a model of decision-making. We also propose practical guidelines that can be used to improve the types of drug information sources used by physicians.
O'Shea, Deirdre M; Dotson, Vonetta M; Fieo, Robert A; Tsapanou, Angeliki; Zahodne, Laura; Stern, Yaakov
To investigate whether self-efficacy moderates the association between self-rated memory and depressive symptoms in a large sample of older adults. The influence of self-efficacy and depressive symptoms on memory performance was also examined in a subsample of individuals who reported poor memory. Non-demented participants (n = 3766) were selected from the 2012 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the 8-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. A modified version of the Midlife Developmental Inventory Questionnaire was used as the measure of self-efficacy. Participants were asked to rate their memory presently on a five-point scale from Excellent (1) to Poor (5). Immediate memory and delayed memory (after a 5-min interval) were measured by the number of correct words recalled from a 10-item word list. Multiple regression analyses revealed that negative ratings of memory were significantly associated with greater levels of depressive symptoms, with this effect being greatest in those with low levels of self-efficacy. Additionally, greater self-efficacy was associated with optimal objective memory performances but only when depressive symptoms were low in individuals who reported poor memory function (n = 1196). Self-efficacy moderates the relationship between self-rated memory function and depressive symptoms. Higher self-efficacy may buffer against the impact of subjective memory difficulty on one's mood and thereby mitigating the effect of depressive symptoms on memory. Interventions should focus on increasing perceived self-efficacy in older adults reporting poor memory function to potentially minimize memory impairment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Miguel Ángel Vallejo Pareja
Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the relationship between of self-efficacy expectations, psychological distress and coping strategies among subjects with fibromyalgia, given the physical and psychosocial components of pain, and specially the need to clarify the relationship between them in order to improve the adjustment to any chronic pain condition. One-hundred women diagnosed of fibromyalgia from the rehabilitation center at the Hospital Universitario Gregorio Marañón de Madrid completed the following set of questionnaires, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory (CPCI and the Chronic Pain Self-efficacy Scale (CPSS. The results showed that self-efficacy was inversely correlated with psychological distress (anxiety and depression. Respect to coping strategies, task persistence was significantly related to expectations of self-efficacy, while this variable was inversely correlated with depression. A negative relation was found between guarding, resting and self-efficacy. These findings suggest that expectations of self-efficacy may have greater explanatory power over the use of positive coping strategies and correct emotional functioning in FMS patients.
Muhammad Nadeem ANWAR
Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to compare the formally and non-formally trained in-service public sector teachers’ Self-efficacy. Five hypotheses were developed describing no difference in the self-efficacy of formally and non-formally trained teachers to influence decision making, influence school resources, instructional self-efficacy, disciplinary self-efficacy and create positive school climate. Teacher Efficacy Instrument (TSES developed by Bandura (2001 consisting of thirty 9-point items was used in the study. 342 formally trained and 255 non-formally trained respondents’ questionnaires were received out of 1500 mailed. The analysis of data revealed that the formally trained public sector teachers are high in their self-efficacy on all the five categories: to influence decision making, to influence school resources, instructional self-efficacy, disciplinary self-efficacy and self-efficacy to create positive school climate.
Carmona, Carmen; Buunk, Abraham P.; Dijkstra, Arie; Peiro, Jose M.
The present study examined whether social comparison responses (identification and contrast in social comparison) mediated the relationship between goal orientation (promotion and prevention) and self-efficacy, and whether self-efficacy was subsequently related with a better performance. As
Carla Suellen Pires de Sousa
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: translate and adapt the Condom Self-Efficacy Scale to Portuguese in the Brazilian context. The scale originated in the United States and measures self-efficacy in condom use. Method: methodological study in two phases: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and verification of psychometric properties. The translation and adaptation process involved four translators, one mediator of the synthesis and five health professionals. The content validity was verified using the Content Validation Index, based on 22 experts’ judgments. Forty subjects participated in the pretest, who contributed to the understanding of the scale items. The scale was applied to 209 students between 13 and 26 years of age from a school affiliated with the state-owned educational network. The reliability was analyzed by means of Cronbach’s alpha. Results: the Portuguese version of the scale obtained a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.85 and the total mean score was 68.1 points. A statistically significant relation was found between the total scale and the variables not having children (p= 0.038, condom use (p= 0.008 and condom use with fixed partner (p=0.036. Conclusion: the Brazilian version of the Condom Self-Efficacy Scale is a valid and reliable tool to verify the self-efficacy in condom use among adolescents and young adults.
Wang, Li-Wei; Ou, Shu-Hua; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Chang, Yue-Cune; Kao, Chi-Wen
Patient education has been shown to be more effective when delivered using multimedia than written materials. However, the effects of using multimedia to assist patients in cardiac rehabilitation have not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of an inpatient multimedia exercise training program on distance walked in the 6-minute walking test (6MWT), heart rate recovery, and walking self-efficacy of patients who had undergone heart surgery. For this longitudinal quasi-experimental study, 60 consecutive patients were assigned to an experimental (n = 20; inpatient multimedia exercise training program) or control (n = 40; routine care) group. Data were collected at 3 times (before surgery, 1 to 2 days before hospital discharge, and 1 month after hospital discharge) and analyzed with the generalized estimating equation approach. Most subjects were men (66.7%), had a mean age of 61.32 ± 13.4 years and left ventricular ejection fraction of 56.96% ± 13.28%, and underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (n = 34, 56.7%). Subjects receiving the exercise training program showed significantly greater improvement than those in the control group in the 6MWT walking distance (P self-efficacy (P = .002) at hospital discharge. Furthermore, the intervention effects on 6MWT distance (P self-efficacy (P exercise training program safely improved distance walked in the 6MWT, heart rate recovery, and self-efficacy at hospital discharge in patients after heart surgery and maintained their improvement in 6MWT and self-efficacy 1 month later.
Byrne, Shannon; Barry, Danielle; Petry, Nancy M.
Pre-treatment diet and exercise self-efficacies can predict weight loss success. Changes in diet self-efficacy across treatment appear to be even stronger predictors than baseline levels, but research on changes in exercise self-efficacy is lacking. Using data from a pilot study evaluating tangible reinforcement for weight loss (N = 30), we examined the impact of changes in diet and exercise self-efficacy on outcomes. Multiple regression analyses indicated that treatment attendance and change...
Annisa Rosni Zusya; Sari Zakiah Akmal
Having graduated not at the right time is a common phenomena among college students and procrastinantion which is delaying the final assignment become the reason. One of factors that affect procrastination is self-efficacy. Self-efficacy that is predicting academic achievement is academic self-efficacy. This research uses quantitative methods to examine the relationship between academic self-efficacy and academic procrastination among 210 students who are completing the last assignment. Ins...
Nielsen, Tine; Vang, Maria Louison; Dammeyer, Jesper
Studies have reported gender differences in academic self-efficacy. However, how and if academic self-efficacy questionnaires are gender-biased has not been psychometrically investigated. The psychometric properties of a general version of The Physics Self-Efficacy Questionnaire – the General...... Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (GASE) – were analyzed using Rasch measurement models, with data from 1018 Danish university students (psychology and technical), focusing on gender invariance and the sufficiency of the score. The short 4-item GASE scale was found to be essentially objective and construct...... valid and satisfactorily reliable, though differential item functioning was found relative to gender and academic discipline, and can be used to assess students’ general academic self-efficacy. Research on gender and self-efficacy needs to take gender into account and equate scores appropriately...
ix I. Introduction ......................................................................................................................1...DEVELOPMENT OF A LEADERSHIP SELF-EFFICACY MEASURE I. Introduction Understanding why some people are more effective leaders than others has been a topic...Relationships and Their Conswquences." Academy of Mangement Review (2005): 96‐112. Hoyle, R. H. "Confirmatory factor analysis." Brown, H.E.A. Tinsley
Federici, Roger A.
The purpose of the present study was to explore relations between principals' self-efficacy, perceived job autonomy, job satisfaction, and perceived contextual constraints to autonomy. Principal self-efficacy was measured by a multidimensional scale called the Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale. Job autonomy, job satisfaction, and contextual…
This quantitative correlational study addressed the concept that teacher-perceived high school principal leadership style correlated with teacher self-efficacy. A relationship existed between teacher self-efficacy and student outcomes and research indicated a relationship between leadership style and teacher self-efficacy. Also, the effect of…
Robertson Evia, Jane; Peterman, Karen; Cloyd, Emily; Besley, John
Self-efficacy, or the beliefs people hold about their ability to succeed in certain pursuits, is a long-established construct. Self-efficacy for science communication distinguishes scientists who engage with the public and relates to scientists' attitudes about the public. As such, self-efficacy for public engagement has the potential to serve as…
Yangin, Selami; Sidekli, Sabri
The measurement of teacher self-efficacy has a history of more than 30 years. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the development and validation of a new scale to measure the science teaching self-efficacy of elementary school teachers. Therefore, a scale has been created to measure elementary teachers' science teaching self-efficacy and…
Schumann, Scott; Sibthorp, Jim
Accuracy in emerging outdoor educators' teaching self-efficacy beliefs is critical to student safety and learning. Overinflated self-efficacy beliefs can result in delayed skilled development or inappropriate acceptance of risk. In an outdoor education context, neglecting the accuracy of teaching self-efficacy beliefs early in an educator's…
Johnson, Leonissa V.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie; Haskins, Natoya Hill; Paisley, Pamela O.
This exploratory quantitative study described school counselors' self-efficacy with English language learners. Findings suggest that school counselors with exposure to and experiences with English language learners have higher levels of self-efficacy. Statistically significant and practical differences in self-efficacy were apparent by race, U.S.…
Askar, Petek; Davenport, David
The purpose of this study was to examine the factors related to self-efficacy for Java programming among first year engineering students. An instrument assessing Java programming self-efficacy was developed from the computer programming self-efficacy scale of Ramalingam & Wiedenbeck. The instrument was administered at the beginning of the…
Self-efficacy theory and research contribute to self-concept theory primarily by supporting the enhancement model of belief change. This article describes current problems with self-concept theory, describes self-efficacy research, and suggests that self-efficacy theory and methodology present findings that strengthen the association between…
Jones, Anne; Sheppard, Lorraine
The aim of this research was to determine if self-efficacy can be correlated with prior academic achievement and whether self-efficacy can be an outcome measure of education. A self-efficacy instrument was developed and administered to physiotherapy students following completion of their pre-clinical theory experience. The questionnaire results…
Chen, Yu; Starobin, Soko S.
This study examined a psychosocial mechanism of how general self-efficacy interacts with other key factors and influences degree aspiration for students enrolled in an urban diverse community college. Using general self-efficacy scales, the authors hypothesized the General Self-efficacy model for Community College students (the GSE-CC model). A…
Dentler, Donna J.
A study examined the relationship between the self-efficacy and career aspirations of 37,942 11th-grade students across the state of Pennsylvania. Using Albert Bandura's theory of self-efficacy, which states that the level and strength of self-efficacy of an individual will determine (1) whether or not the individual will initiate coping behavior,…
Shanklin, Jennifer E.
This work includes a discussion of the concept of self-efficacy, originally introduced by Albert Bandura, as it pertains to the therapist-trainee. Therapist self-efficacy has only recently gained attention theoretically as well as empirically. Measures used to assess the self-efficacy of the therapist are highlighted as well as factors…
Pajares, Frank; Johnson, Margaret J.; Usher, Ellen L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Albert Bandura's four hypothesized sources of self-efficacy on students' writing self-efficacy beliefs (N = 1256) and to explore how these sources differ as a function of gender and academic level (elementary, middle, high). Consistent with the tenets of self-efficacy theory, each of the…
Interpreting Albert Bandura's term "self-efficacy" as the individual's belief in his own abilities to succeed in spite of the given circumstances, this study seeks to identify the influences which lead to self-efficacy in Montessori teachers. In order to evaluate perceptions of self-efficacy, 35 pre-service teachers in the…
The purpose of the present research is presenting the relationships between self-efficacy, fear of success and life satisfaction; and determining the predictive power fear of success and self-efficacy on life satisfaction. For this purpose, self-efficacy, fear of achievement and life satisfaction scales were implemented on 625 individuals. In the…
Hubbard, Catana C.
The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy of special education directors serving in public schools in the state of Texas. Within the review of literature the following key components were identified: special education administration, self-efficacy--theoretical perspective and self-efficacy and outcomes-based research. A…
Palmer, David; Dixon, Jeanette; Archer, Jennifer
Many preservice primary teachers have low self-efficacy for science teaching. Although science methods courses have often been shown to enhance self-efficacy, science content courses have been relatively ineffective in this respect. This study investigated whether a tailored science content course would enhance self-efficacy. The participants were…
Lin, Yi-Jiun; Flores, Lisa Y.
Using a sample of 86 East Asian international graduate students, this study examined Bandura's perceived self-efficacy model (1986) in the domain of job search self-efficacy and tested the mediating effects of job search self-efficacy in the relationship between efficacy source variables and job search behaviors. Results show that both performance…
Stagg, Steven D.; Eaton, Elizabeth; Sjoblom, Amanda M.
It may be thought that gaining a place at university confers self-belief on students with dyslexia; after all, they have succeeded in their academic studies. Our research explored self-efficacy beliefs in university students with and without dyslexia. An Academic Self-Efficacy Scale and a Sources of Academic Self-Efficacy Scale were completed by…
Williams, David; Rhodes, Ryan E.
Self-efficacy is central to health behaviour theories due to its robust predictive capabilities. In this paper we present and review evidence for a self-efficacy-as-motivation argument in which standard self-efficacy questionnaires—i.e., ratings of whether participants “can do” the target behaviour—reflect motivation rather than perceived capability. The potential implication is that associations between self-efficacy ratings (particularly those that employ a “can do” operationalization) and health-related behaviours simply indicate that people are likely to do what they are motivated to do. There is some empirical evidence for the self-efficacy-as-motivation argument, with three studies demonstrating causal effects of outcome expectancy on subsequent self-efficacy ratings. Three additional studies show that—consistent with the self-efficacy-as-motivation argument—controlling for motivation by adding the phrase “if you wanted to” to the end of self-efficacy items decreases associations between self-efficacy ratings and motivation. Likewise, a qualitative study using a thought-listing procedure demonstrates that self-efficacy ratings have motivational antecedents. The available evidence suggests that the self-efficacy-as-motivation argument is viable, although more research is needed. Meanwhile, we recommend that researchers look beyond self-efficacy to identify the many and diverse sources of motivation for health-related behaviours. PMID:25117692
Liao, Hsiang-Ann; Edlin, Margot; Ferdenzi, Anita Cuttita
This study examined how self-efficacy and motivation affected student persistence at an urban community college. Self-efficacy was studied at two dimensions: self-regulated learning efficacy and self-efficacy for academic achievement. Motivation was also investigated at two levels: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Results show that…
Murphy, Susan Elaine; Johnson, Stefanie K
This chapter describes the role of two types of self-efficacy-leader self-efficacy and leader developmental efficacy-for enhancing leadership development. Practical implications for designing and developing leadership programs that take into account these two types of self-efficacy are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Rotberg, Heidi L.; And Others
Explored the relation of socioeconomic status (SES), race, gender, career self-efficacy, career interests, and sex role orientation to career-choice range in female-male and non-gender-dominated careers and career self-efficacy. Career interest and career self-efficacy expectations significantly predicted range of perceived career options. Career…
High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...
Ainscough, Louise; Foulis, Eden; Colthorpe, Kay; Zimbardi, Kirsten; Robertson-Dean, Melanie; Chunduri, Prasad; Lluka, Lesley
Academic self-efficacy encompasses judgments regarding one's ability to perform academic tasks and is correlated with achievement and persistence. This study describes changes in biology self-efficacy during a first-year course. Students (n = 614) were given the Biology Self-Efficacy Scale at the beginning and end of the semester. The instrument…
Buser, Trevor J.; Peterson, Christina Hamme; Kearney, Anne
The authors recruited college students (N = 648) and investigated relationships among academic and social self-efficacy, relational aggression from parents and peers, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Results indicated that both types of self-efficacy were related inversely to NSSI. Academic self-efficacy mediated the relationship between…
This study was designed to investigate whether course content self-efficacy, online technologies self-efficacy, and task value change over the course of a semester. Sixty-nine participating students from four classes provided data through two instruments: (1) the self-efficacy instrument and (2) the task value instrument. Students' self-efficacy…
McKim, Aaron J.; Velez, Jonathan J.
This research sought to evaluate the use of the self-efficacy theory in agricultural education. A total of 30 studies, published between 1997 and 2013 using self-efficacy as a theoretical foundation were compiled and analyzed. The findings of these studies were compared to expected outcomes identified by the self-efficacy theory, specifically the…
Zimmerman, Whitney Alicia; Goins, Deborah D.
Self-efficacy and knowledge, both concerning the chi-squared test of independence, were examined in education graduate students. Participants rated statements concerning self-efficacy and completed a related knowledge assessment. After completing a demographic survey, participants completed the self-efficacy and knowledge scales a second time.…
Yuasa, Motoyuki; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Osato, Keiichi; Miranda, Cesar; Condore, Julia; Siles, Roxana
An assessment of self-efficacy and social capital may have the potential to detect an effect of dynamic, complex and comprehensive collective actions in community-based health promotion. In 2003, a healthy village project was launched in Santa Cruz, Bolivia with technical assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The originally developed FORSA (Fortalecimiento de Redes de Salud) model accounted for participatory processes in which people could improve their health and well-being through individual behavioral changes and family/community-driven activities. This study aimed to examine the extent of self-efficacy and social capital obtained via project activities by a cross-sectional analysis. We randomly selected 340 subjects from the healthy village project site and 113 subjects from a control area. Both groups were interviewed using the same structured questionnaire. Self-efficacy was assessed with a General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), while social capital was measured as the frequency of formal group participation in community meetings during the past three months, perceived social solidarity, and general trust. The study results showed that the participants in the project site had higher self-efficacy and social capital compared to those in the control site. The number of times a subject participated in the health committee activities was positively associated with the self-efficacy scale. Regarding social capital, females and lower-educated people were more likely to have had more frequent participation in formal groups; males and higher-educated participants showed less formal group participation, but more generosity to contribute money for the community. The main perceived benefit of participation in formal group activities varied among individuals. The findings suggest that people in the healthy village project site have higher self-efficacy, especially those with active participation in the health committee activities. To recruit
Lechner, L; De Vries, H
This article presents a study of the determinants of starting participation in an employee fitness program. Information from 488 employees, recruited from two worksites, was obtained. From these employees the determinants of participation were studied. A questionnaire based on two theoretical models was used. The Stages of Change model was used to measure the health behavior, consisting of precontemplation (no intention to participate), contemplation (considering participation), preparation (intending to participate within a short period), and action (participating in fitness). The possible determinants were measured according to the ASE model, including the attitude toward an employee fitness program, social influence, and self-efficacy expectations. Subjects in action stage were most convinced of the benefits of participation in the employee fitness program and of their own skills to participate in a fitness program. Subjects in precontemplation stage were least convinced of the advantages of participation and had the lowest self-efficacy scores. Subjects in action stage experienced the most social support to participate in the employee fitness program. Health education for employees within industrial fitness programs can be tailored toward their motivational stage. Promotional activities for industrial fitness programs should concentrate on persons in the precontemplation and contemplation stages, since people in these stages are insufficiently convinced of the advantages of a fitness program and expect many problems with regard to their ability to participate in the program.
Arlington Antonio García Padilla
Full Text Available The presence of the Burnout syndrome in professors may be regarded as a deterioration of their mental health with negative impacts on their job performance. It is known that teachers develop different activities in the areas of teaching, outreach and research. This study aims to analyze the relationship between the Burnout syndrome and self-efficacy beliefs and the academic performance in professors of the psychology and dentistry programs at a private university in the city of Barranquilla. This study is empirical and analytical with a descriptive-correlational design. The study population consisted of 93 teachers of the psychology and dentistry programs. To choose the sample, a non-probabilistic sample was used according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria that allowed selecting a total of 36 teachers who met the criteria for the study. The instruments that were used in this study was the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, 1981 adapted by Seisdedos (1997, and the Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk (2001 adapted by Covarrubias and Mendoza (2016. According to the results, it was observed that there is no significant relationship between Burnout, Self-efficacy Belief and the academic performance.
Patchin, Stephen H.
Not since the Cold War and the launch of Sputnik has there been such a focus on producing college graduates in fields related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As manually driven careers disappear, new diverse careers are created and they have one thing in common, STEM. As students move into these challenging curriculums they will need to have faith in their abilities to achieve their goals. This self-efficacy is vital component for their collegiate and career success. This mixed methods study examines the unique pre-college STEM outreach phenomenon called Mind Trekkers. Mind Trekkers uses the "WOW" of experiential learning in the areas of STEM to motivate K-12 students to engage in STEM related fields. The focus of the study is on the first-year college freshmen that join this program, becoming STEM serviceteers, and how being part of this STEM phenomenon impacts their self-efficacy. The findings can be summed up in a quote. I get to help people understanding in a different way than I would if I was just doing volunteering like I did in high school. It's cool. I just love it and it gives me the confidence that what I am doing is the right thing here at (the university). (Jean). The results of the study indicate that the Mind Trekkers program acted as a catalyst to increase the self-efficacy of the students that participated in it, through personal social and academic impact.
Sri M. Wahyuningrum
Full Text Available Hospitals are always required in order to improve the quality of service in accordance with professional standards in accordance with their code of ethics. Therefore, health workers in hospitals, especially pharmacists, are required to continuously improve its service to the community. To improve health services to the community, then the pharmacist must interact and be accepted by other professional health personnel in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of self-efficacy pharmacist in a hospital organization that became an impact on innovative behavior. This study used an obsevational quantitative measurement using questionnaire instrument. The results measured by number consist of value, rank, and frequencies were analyzed using statistics software smartPLS to answer the research question or hypothesis to predict a particular variable affects another variable. The results showed that effect between self-efficacy of behavioral innovations in the hospital pharmacist significantly different. A pharmacist who has high self-efficacy will obviously have the higher innovation behavior in hospitals.
Larson, Janet L; Covey, Margaret K; Kapella, Mary C; Alex, Charles G; McAuley, Edward
People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease lead sedentary lives and could benefit from increasing their physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if an exercise-specific self-efficacy enhancing intervention could increase physical activity and functional performance when delivered in the context of 4 months of upper body resistance training with a 12-month follow-up. IN THIS RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL, SUBJECTS WERE ASSIGNED TO: exercise-specific self-efficacy enhancing intervention with upper body resistance training (SE-UBR), health education with upper body resistance training (ED-UBR), or health education with gentle chair exercises (ED-Chair). Physical activity was measured with an accelerometer and functional performance was measured with the Functional Performance Inventory. Forty-nine people with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease completed 4 months of training and provided valid accelerometry data, and 34 also provided accelerometry data at 12 months of follow-up. The self-efficacy enhancing intervention emphasized meeting physical activity guidelines and increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Differences were observed in light physical activity (LPA) after 4 months of training, time by group interaction effect (P=0.045). The SE-UBR group increased time spent in LPA by +20.68±29.30 minutes/day and the other groups decreased time spent in LPA by -22.43±47.88 minutes/day and -25.73±51.76 minutes/day. Changes in LPA were not sustained at 12-month follow-up. There were no significant changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time, or functional performance. Subjects spent most of their waking hours sedentary: 72%±9% for SE-UBR, 68%±10% for ED-UBR, and 74%±9% for ED-Chair. The self-efficacy enhancing intervention produced a modest short-term increase in LPA. Further work is needed to increase the magnitude and duration of effect, possibly by targeting LPA.
Full Text Available Yechang Shao,1,2 Honglei Yin,3 Chengsong Wan4 1School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 3Department of Psychiatry, Nanfang Hospital, 4Department of Microbiology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Type D personality and assess the relationship between this personality type and self-efficacy/social support in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Patients and methods: From January 1, 2014, to July 31, 2014, 532 consecutive patients with T2DM were recruited from two hospitals in Guangzhou, China. The participants completed questionnaires containing questions about sociodemographic characteristics, Type D personality, self-efficacy, and social support scales, and their medical records were reviewed for additional data.Results: Of the 532 patients, 18.2% had Type D personality. Patients with this personality type reported significantly lower levels of self-efficacy (P<0.001, total social support (P<0.001, subjective support (P<0.001, and support utilization (P=0.003, but similar level of objective support (P=0.314, compared to those of patients without Type D personality. Negative affectivity and social inhibition, two intrinsic traits of Type D personality, negatively correlated with self-efficacy and social support scores. Type D personality was significantly associated with less self-efficacy and social support (P<0.001, controlling for other sociodemographic factors. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels were significantly higher in T2DM patients with Type D personality than in patients with non-Type D personality.Conclusion: This study provides new evidence linking Type D personality with self-efficacy, social support, and poor
Taghizadeh, Fatemeh; Yazdani Cherati, Jamshid
Self-efficacy is the belief that one has the ability to implement the behaviors needed to produce a desired effect. There has been growing interest in the role of self-efficacy as a predictor and/or mediator of treatment outcome in a number of domains. Procrastination is a self-regulatory failure, defined as the voluntary delay of an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for the delay. Behavioral procrastination is a self-sabotage strategy that allows people to shift blame and avoid action; the decisional procrastination strategy is to put off making a decision when dealing with conflicts or choices. Procrastination has a great role in quitting drug addiction. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between procrastination and self-efficacy and other factors among intravenous drug users. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 178 intravenous drug users in the behavioral disease counseling, health center in Sari city, Mazandaran province, Iran, in 2013. The samples were selected through census sampling, descriptive and inferential statistics were used to measure the properties of distribution that depicts a set of data shown as frequency distribution tables, while for the mean and standard deviation, chi-square, Fisher and Spearman-Brown coefficients were used to analyze the data. The mean age of the participants was 43 years. Seventy-two percent of them were married and opium was the first drug used. The first substance used in them was 54% of opium, 33% cannabis and 5% alcohol and 79% smoking. The reason of the first drug use in 32% of the subjects was temptation and in 10% a friend's influence. The mean age of the first drug use was 23 years, and the frequency was 2 times per day. All of them had relapse at least once. Seven percent of them currently use other materials (2% crystal, 5% alcohol and opium and crack) both in methadone treatment. Behavioral procrastination in 60.5% of them and decisional procrastination in
Lin, Carolyn A.; Roy, Deya; Dam, Linda; Coman, Emil N.
Most college students have never been tested for HIV, even though they regularly have unprotected sex and multiple sex partners. Theory-based research addressing factors influencing HIV testing among college students is limited. This study explored this topic via a conceptual framework that integrates the health belief model with emotion and communication factors. Data was collected with a sample of four focus group panels, including two male and two female groups (N = 52). Transcripts for the seven discussion questions were produced based on the audio recordings of group sessions. Two research assistants reviewed, summarized and cross-validated the discussion content to address each of the four research questions under study. Students believe HIV to be a severe health threat, but feel ‘invincible’ about contracting the virus. Their low emotional self-efficacy is a barrier for adopting HIV testing. Gaining social approval and emotional support for making a testing decision can help them overcome the perceived fear, stigma and lack of response efficacy associated with taking the test. Students are open to receiving cues to action via confidential HIV-testing related communication from health professionals or important others as well as media messaging from various sources. Bridging the perceptual-emotional gap between perceived invulnerability and fear can help increase emotional self-efficacy in coping with HIV testing. Normalizing HIV testing as a primary care routine for harm avoidance/reduction will increase perceived benefits of testing. Communicating cues to action will help reinforce HIV testing as a societally approved and socially supported protective behavioral norm. PMID:29399038
Full Text Available The present study investigated the entrepreneurial self-efficacy perceptions among university students across two countries, i.e., Poland and Turkey. Data were obtained through questionnaires designed to assess the perceptions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. In all, 365 Polish and 278 Turkish students completed the questionnaires. Results indicated that Polish and Turkish students did not differ significantly in regard to the overall measure of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Our study contributed to the entrepreneurship literature by performing a cross-cultural comparison of the perceptions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Thus, it provided recommendations for fostering entrepreneurial self efficacy among university students.
Wiencierz, Stacey; Williams, Lynn
Type D personality is associated with health-damaging behaviours among the general population. This study assessed the relationship between Type D personality, physical activity and self-efficacy. A total of 189 participants completed measures of Type D personality, physical activity and self-efficacy. Type D individuals had significantly lower levels of self-efficacy and engaged in significantly less walking and total exercise compared to non-Type D's. Furthermore, self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between Type D and physical activity. Low levels of self-efficacy may be one mechanism to help explain why Type D individuals engage in more disease-promoting behaviours.
Hawkins, R M
The concept of self-efficacy, as expounded by Bandura as part of his Social Cognitive Theory, has made considerable impact in the psychological literature. It is argued that self-efficacy is a useful hypothetical construct for predicting behavior, but it has no valid claim to being a cause of behavior. Claims for self-efficacy as a causal agent have failed to acknowledge that self-efficacy itself is an epi-phenomenon of performance. Conventional learning theory explanations of observed performance levels are shown to be more parsimonious than accounts relying on the concept of self-efficacy.
Karabacak, Ükke; Serbest, Şehriban; Kan Öntürk, Zehra; Eti Aslan, Fatma; Olgun, Nermin
This study aimed to determine the general self efficacy levels of students studying for undergraduate degree in nursing and to examine the relationship between skills development and self efficacy. The research was conducted in a descriptive way. The sample consisted of 100 students. Data were collected via the use of a student introduction form, Self-Efficacy Scale (SES) and an intramuscular (i.m.) injection procedure checklist; the forms were filled in by 100% of the nursing students. The mean general self-efficacy score of the students in the study was high. the self-efficacy levels of our students were high, and no correlation was observed between personal characteristics and self-efficacy; therefore, education in injection technique had the same influence on all students' self-efficacy. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Annisa Rosni Zusya
Full Text Available Having graduated not at the right time is a common phenomena among college students and procrastinantion which is delaying the final assignment become the reason. One of factors that affect procrastination is self-efficacy. Self-efficacy that is predicting academic achievement is academic self-efficacy. This research uses quantitative methods to examine the relationship between academic self-efficacy and academic procrastination among 210 students who are completing the last assignment. Instrument used are academic procrastination scale and academic self-efficacy scale. Result shows that there is no significant correlation between academic self-efficacy and academic procrastination among students who were completing the last assignment (r = -0.059, p = 0.398. Besides, academic procrastination had significant differences by age, gender, year of admission, residence, and activities. In the same time, the academic self-efficacy had differences by age, year in, obstacles and activities.
Although self-efficacy has been used extensively in the field of nursing (e.g., as an outcome measure of nursing interventions), its underlying nature is poorly understood. Investigation of the relationship between self-efficacy and brain activation will help explain the fundamental nature of self-efficacy. In this study, we compared prefrontal activation measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) across 89 undergraduate students categorized into three groups based on their General Self-Efficacy Scale scores: low self-efficacy ( n = 59), moderate self-efficacy ( n = 17), and high self-efficacy ( n = 13). Changes in the hemoglobin levels of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during a verbal fluency task were assessed using two-channel NIRS. Significant differences in the oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) level of the left PFC (LPFC) were observed via analysis of variance. Post hoc Tukey's test showed a significant difference only between low self-efficacy and moderate self-efficacy groups. We found a medium between-group effect size in the moderate self-efficacy group versus the low self-efficacy group for the changes in oxy-Hb levels of the LPFC ( d = .78; 95% confidence interval for effect size [0.22, 1.33]). No significant between-group differences were observed with respect to changes in the oxy-Hb in the right PFC. The results indicate less left prefrontal activation in the low self-efficacy group than in the moderate self-efficacy group. These findings provide evidence to support the fundamental nature of self-efficacy.
Hamilton, Kyra; Cornish, Stephen; Kirkpatrick, Aaron; Kroon, Jeroen; Schwarzer, Ralf
With 60-90% of children worldwide reportedly experiencing dental caries, poor oral health in the younger years is a major public health issue. As parents are important to children's oral hygiene practices, we examined the key self-regulatory behaviours of parents for supervising their children's toothbrushing using the health action process approach. Participants (N = 281, 197 mothers) comprised Australian parents of 2- to 5-year-olds. A longitudinal design was used to investigate the sequential mediation chain for the effect of intention (Time 1) on parental supervision for their youngest child's toothbrushing (Time 3), via self-efficacy and planning (Time 2), and action control (Time 3). A latent-variable structural equation model, controlling for baseline behaviour and habit, revealed significant indirect effects from intention via self-efficacy and action control and intention via planning and action control, on parental supervision behaviour. The model was a good fit to the data, explaining 74% of the variance in parents' supervising behaviour for their children's toothbrushing. While national recommendations are provided to guide parents in promoting good oral hygiene practices with their children, current results show the importance of going beyond simple knowledge transmission to support parents' intentions to supervise their children's toothbrushing actually materialize. Current findings make a significant contribution to the cumulative empirical evidence regarding self-regulatory components in health behaviour change and can inform intervention development to increase parents' participation in childhood oral hygiene practices, thus helping to curb rising oral health conditions and diseases. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Self-regulatory skills are important to translate intentions into behaviour. Self-efficacy, planning, and action control are key self-regulatory skills for behaviour change. What does this study add
Karaçam, Aydin; Pulur, Atilla
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between referee self-efficacy and general self-efficacy levels of basketball referees in terms of gender, education, age and refereeing experience. The study group was created within a convenience sampling method. 192 referees, 10% (n = 19) female, and 90% (n = 173) male, who performed active…
Wang, Ya-Ling; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Science learning self-efficacy could be regarded as a multi-factor belief which comprises different aspects such as cognitive skills, practical work, and everyday application. However, few studies have investigated the relationships among these factors that compose science learning self-efficacy. Also, culture may play an important role in…
Primdahl, J; Wagner, L; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim
To describe the translation and test of the Danish version of the original British 'Rheumatoid Arthritis Self-Efficacy Questionnaire' (RASE).......To describe the translation and test of the Danish version of the original British 'Rheumatoid Arthritis Self-Efficacy Questionnaire' (RASE)....
Full Text Available Objective: Social support and perceived self-efficacy affect health-related behaviors and play an important role on mothers' adaptability with pregnancy. This paper aims to study the impact of educational interventions based on social support and perceived self-efficacy on maternal prenatal care.Materials and methods: The present study is a before after experimental study in which 90 first-time pregnant women were randomly selected and divided into two 45- participants experimental and control groups. Data were collected from 21 January to 20 May 2016. Determining the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, we used the panel of experts and Cronbach's alpha. The data collected from the two groups were compared before and 3 months after intervention and were analyzed by SPSS 18.Results: Unlike the control subjects, there was a significant difference in maternal prenatal cares before and after an educational intervention between the scores of social support and perceived self-efficacy in the experimental group (p < 0.05. Before intervention, the average score of the experimental group was 12.62 ± 2.63 that rose to 17.71 ± 1.56, three months after the educational intervention, which is statistically significant (p < 0.05. There was a direct and positive relation between self-efficacy and maternal prenatal cares (p = 0.000, r = 0.538. Social support and self-efficacy predicted the variance of maternal cares by 69.2%.Conclusion: Developing an educational program based on social support and perceived self-efficacy on maternal prenatal cares is helpful and efficient. The health system, family and society are in charge of making facilities and opportunities to improve social support and perceived self-efficacy in pregnant women, resulting in improved maternal prenatal cares.
Wang, Yang; Yao, Lutian; Liu, Li; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wu, Hui; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie
Besides the rapid growth of economy, unemployment becomes a severe socio-economic problem in China. The huge population base in China makes the unemployed population a tremendously huge number. However, health status of unemployed population was ignored and few studies were conducted to describe the depressive symptoms of unemployed individuals in China. This study aims to examine the relationship between Big five personality and depressive symptoms and the mediating role of self-efficacy in this relationship. This cross-sectional study was performed during the period of July to September 2011. Questionnaires consisting of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the General Self-efficacy Scale (GSE), as well as demographic factors, were used to collect information of unemployed population. A total of 1,832 individuals (effective response rate: 73.28%) became our subjects. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of self-efficacy. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 67.7% among Chinese unemployed individuals. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness were all negatively associated with depressive symptoms whereas neuroticism was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The proportion of mediating effect of self-efficacy in the relationship between extraversion/agreeableness/conscientiousness/neuroticism and depressive symptoms was 25.42%, 10.91%, 32.21% and 36.44%, respectively. Self-efficacy is a mediator in the relationship between extraversion/agreeableness/conscientiousness/neuroticism and depressive symptoms. Self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between Big five personality and depressive symptoms among Chinese unemployed individuals. Interventions that focus on both individuals' personality and self-efficacy may be most successful to reduce depressive symptoms of unemployed
Kato, Chikako; Ida, Kunio; Harada, Atsushi
We examined the influence of high fall-related self-efficacy on falls due to dissociation with activities of daily living (ADL) among elderly women in nursing homes. We enrolled 72 female nursing home residents who were 70 years old or over and who scored 18 or higher on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Subjects were classified into three groups based on the relationship between ADL and fall-related self-efficacy derived from a scattergram of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) motor items and Falls Efficacy Scale (FES). The three groups were: group I which had low ADL and high fall-related self-efficacy (n=25); group II which had high ADL and low fall-related self-efficacy (n=30); and group III which had a correlation of ADL and fall-related self-efficacy in the 95% confidence interval (n=17). Then, we investigated the incidence of falls and the number of falls after 6 months in the three groups. The risk factor of falls was also investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis. The incidence and number of falls were significantly different in the three groups after 6 months. Moreover, the incidence of those falling was significantly different between group I and group III. The occurrence of falls was also significantly related with a past history of falls, FES, and group I which had low ADL and high fall-related self-efficacy. These findings suggest that the risk of falling increases in the presence of excessive fall-related self-efficacy dissociated from ADL.
Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard
Objective. To examine the relationship between self-efficacy and not wanting help to change health behaviors. Method. All employees in the Danish police department were invited to respond to an electronic questionnaire. All respondents expressing a desire to change health behaviors in relation...... to reporting that one did not want help. Conclusion. A high belief in one's own ability to change lifestyle behaviors in relation to smoking, alcohol, eating, and physical activity may lead to avoidance of help offers in a workplace setting. © 2013 Society for Public Health Education....
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a construct of the instrument for junior high school mathematics teacher self-efficacy and its mapping in the Special Region of Yogyakarta. The population was 816 junior high mathematics teacher and a sample of 274 teachers was selected through proportionate random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA, using software Lisrel 8.80 through the first order and the second order stages. The result of data analysis toward four dimensions obtained: 11 fit items for dimension of personal efficacy (PE, 12 fit items for dimension of general teaching efficacy (GTE, 13 fit items for dimension of subject matter teaching efficacy (STE, and 8 fit items for dimension of outcome efficacy (OE. Afterward, the result of selecting 54 items in the first order stage was examined for the second order CFA which obtained Chi-Square = 297.58; df = 271; p-value = 0.12824; RMSEA = 0.019, which showed the model was fit to the data and obtained 25 fit items. The loading factors for each dimension PE, GTE, STE, and OE consecutively were: 0.46; 0.84; 0.89, and 0.92, and mapping of mathematics teacher self-efficacy level, which showed: 43.07% in low category, 55.47% in medium category (55.47% and 1.46% in the high category.
Kıran, Dekant; Sungur, Semra
The main purpose of the present study is to investigate middle school students' science self-efficacy as well as its sources and outcomes as a function of gender. Bandura's hypothesized sources of self-efficacy (i.e., mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal) in addition to being inviting with self and inviting with others were examined as sources of self-efficacy, while cognitive and metacognitive strategy use was examined as an outcome of self-efficacy. A total of 1,932 students participated in the study and were administered self-report instruments. Results showed that the relationship between science self-efficacy and its proposed sources does not change as a function of gender. All proposed sources, except for vicarious experience, were found to be significantly related to students' scientific self-efficacy. Moreover, girls were found to experience significantly more emotional arousal and to send positive messages to others more than boys. On the other hand, no gender difference was found concerning science self-efficacy and strategy use. The findings also revealed a positive association between science self-efficacy and strategy use. Overall, findings supported Bandura's conception of self-efficacy and suggested invitations as additional sources of self-efficacy.
Manne, Sharon L; Ostroff, Jamie S; Norton, Tina R; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Goldstein, Lori
Although self-efficacy is considered a key psychological resource in adapting to chronic physical illness, this construct has received less attention among individuals coping with cancer. To examine changes in cancer self-efficacy over time among women with early stage breast cancer and associations between task-specific domains of self-efficacy and specific psychological, relationship, and functional outcomes. Ninety-five women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer completed surveys postsurgery and 1 year later. Cancer-related self-efficacy was relatively stable over 1 year, with only 2 domains of efficacy-(a) Activity Management and (b) Self-Satisfaction-evidencing significant increases over the 1-year time period. Cross-sectional findings were relatively consistent with predictions and suggested that specific domains of self-efficacy were more strongly related to relevant domains of adaptation. Longitudinal findings were not as consistent with the domain-specificity hypothesis but did suggest several predictive associations between self-efficacy and outcomes. Personal Management self-efficacy was associated with higher relationship satisfaction, higher Communication Self-Efficacy was associated with less functional impairment, and higher Affective Management self-efficacy was associated with higher self-esteem 1 year later. Specific domains of cancer-related self-efficacy are most closely related to relevant areas of adaptation when considered cross-sectionally, but further study is needed to clarify the nature of these relationships over time.
Young, Henry N.; Schumacher, Jayna B.; Moreno, Megan A.; Brown, Roger L.; Sigrest, Ted D.; McIntosh, Gwen K.; Schumacher, Daniel J.; Kelly, Michelle M.; Cox, Elizabeth D.
Purpose Factors that support self-efficacy must be understood in order to foster family-centered care (FCC) during rounds. Based on social cognitive theory, this study examined (1) how 3 supportive experiences (observing role models, having mastery experiences, and receiving feedback) influence self-efficacy with FCC during rounds and (2) whether the influence of these supportive experiences was mediated by self-efficacy with 3 key FCC tasks (relationship building, exchanging information, and decision making). Method Researchers surveyed 184 students during pediatric clerkship rotations during the 2008–2011 academic years. Surveys assessed supportive experiences and students’ self-efficacy with FCC during rounds and with key FCC tasks. Measurement models were constructed via exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Composite indicator structural equation (CISE) models evaluated whether supportive experiences influenced self-efficacy with FCC during rounds and whether self-efficacy with key FCC tasks mediated any such influences. Results Researchers obtained surveys from 172 eligible students who were 76% (130) White and 53% (91) female. Observing role models and having mastery experiences supported self-efficacy with FCC during rounds (each pFCC tasks, relationship building and decision making (each p FCC during rounds. Conclusions Observing role models and having mastery experiences foster students’ self-efficacy with FCC during rounds, operating through self-efficacy with key FCC tasks. Results suggest the importance of helping students gain self-efficacy in key FCC tasks before the rounds experience and helping educators implement supportive experiences during rounds. PMID:22534602
Brazeau, Natalie; Reisz, Samantha; Jacobvitz, Deborah; George, Carol
Maternal self-efficacy predicts sensitive and responsive caregiving. Low maternal self-efficacy is associated with a higher incidence of postpartum depression. Maternal self-efficacy and postpartum depression can both be buffered by social support. Maternal self-efficacy and postpartum depression have both been linked independently, albeit in separate studies, to the experience of violent trauma, childhood maltreatment, and spousal abuse. This study proposed a model in which postpartum depression mediates the relation between attachment trauma and maternal self-efficacy, with emotional support as a moderator. Participants were 278 first-time mothers of infants under 14 months. Cross-sectional data were collected online. Mothers completed questionnaires on attachment trauma, maternal self-efficacy, postpartum depression, and emotional support. A moderated mediation model was tested in a structural equation modeling framework using Mplus' estimate of indirect effects. Postpartum depression fully mediated the relation between trauma and maternal self-efficacy. Emotional support moderated only the pathway between postpartum depression and maternal self-efficacy. Attachment trauma's implications for maternal self-efficacy should be understood in the context of overall mental health. Mothers at the greatest risk for low maternal self-efficacy related to attachment trauma also are those suffering from postpartum depression. Emotional support buffered mothers from postpartum depression, though, which has implications for intervention and future research. © 2017 The Authors. Infant Mental Health Journal published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Hamilton, Kyra; Warner, Lisa M; Schwarzer, Ralf
Physical activity, including some form of vigorous activity, is a key component of a healthy lifestyle in young people. Self-efficacy and social support have been identified as key determinants of physical activity; however, the mechanism that reflects the interplay of these two factors is not well understood. The aim of the current study was to test social cognitive theory's notion that self-efficacy relates to intention that translates into behavior and to investigate whether friend support and self-efficacy synergize, interfere, or compensate for one another to predict vigorous physical activity in adolescents-a population at risk of rapid decreases in physical activity. A survey at two points in time was conducted in 226 students aged 12 to 16 years. In a conditional process analysis, friend support and physical activity self-efficacy were specified as interacting predictors of intention. The latter was specified as a mediator between self-efficacy and later vigorous physical activity, controlling for sex and age. Self-efficacy emerged as the dominant predictor of intention, followed by friend support, and an interaction between support and self-efficacy. In adolescents with high self-efficacy, intention was independent of support. In those with low self-efficacy, receiving friend support partly compensated for lack of self-efficacy. The effect of self-efficacy on vigorous physical activity was mediated by intention. Adolescent vigorous physical activity was indirectly predicted by self-efficacy via intention, and this mediation was further moderated by levels of friend support, indicating that friend support can partly buffer lack of self-efficacy.
Selzler, Anne-Marie; Rodgers, Wendy M; Berry, Tanya R; Stickland, Michael K
Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves functional exercise capacity and health status in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although these outcomes are often not maintained following PR. Self-efficacy is a precursor to outcomes achievement, yet few studies have examined the importance of self-efficacy to outcome improvement during PR, or how it develops over time. Further, the contribution of exercise-specific self-efficacy to outcomes in PR is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine (a) whether baseline exercise self-efficacy predicts PR attendance and change in functional exercise capacity and health status over PR, and (b) if exercise self-efficacy changes with PR. Fifty-eight out of 64 patients with COPD completed PR and assessments of exercise self-efficacy (task, coping, scheduling), the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) at the beginning and end of PR. Analyses were conducted to predict attendance, and change in 6MWT and SGRQ, while controlling for baseline demographic and clinical indicators. Change in 6MWT, SGRQ, and self-efficacy with PR was also examined. Clinically significant increases in the 6MWT and SGRQ were achieved with PR. Stronger task self-efficacy predicted better attendance, while stronger coping self-efficacy predicted greater 6MWT improvement. No variables predicted SGRQ change. Scheduling self-efficacy significantly improved with PR, whereas task and coping self-efficacy did not. Baseline exercise self-efficacy appears to be a determinant of rehabilitation attendance and functional exercise improvement with PR. Clinicians should evaluate and target exercise self-efficacy to maximize adherence and health outcome improvement with PR. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Sarı, İhsan; Bayazıt, Betül
Abstract The current study aimed to determine the relationship between perceived coaching behaviours, motivation, self-efficacy and general self-efficacy of wrestlers who competed in the Super National Wrestling League. The sample consisted of 289 wrestlers. The Self-Efficacy Scale was used to measure self-efficacy perception, the Sports Motivation Scale to measure the motivation of the athletes, the Leadership Scale for Sport to determine perceived leadership behaviours, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale to determine the general self-efficacy perceptions of the athletes. For data analyses, SPSS 17.0 software was used. According to the results of the regression analyses performed with the enter method, it was found that perceived training and instruction behaviour along with perceived social support behaviour significantly explained self-efficacy (adjusted R2_ = .03), intrinsic motivation (adjusted R2 = .04) and amotivation (adjusted R2 = .05). Also, perceived training and instruction behaviour (β = .51), autocratic behaviour (β = -.17) and social support behaviour (β = -.27) significantly contributed to athletes’ general self-efficacy (adjusted R2 = .10). In light of these findings, it may be argued that perceived training and instruction behaviour may be beneficial for self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation. On the other hand, it could be stated that perceived autocratic behaviour may be detrimental for general self-efficacy of the athletes. As for social support behaviour, it may be suggested that it is negatively related to self-efficacy, general self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation. Lastly, a positive relationship was observed between perceived social support behaviour and amotivation in wrestlers. The results reveal the specific characteristics of wrestlers and suggest some implications for wrestling coaches. PMID:28713476
Full Text Available The current study aimed to determine the relationship between perceived coaching behaviours, motivation, self-efficacy and general self-efficacy of wrestlers who competed in the Super National Wrestling League. The sample consisted of 289 wrestlers. The Self-Efficacy Scale was used to measure self-efficacy perception, the Sports Motivation Scale to measure the motivation of the athletes, the Leadership Scale for Sport to determine perceived leadership behaviours, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale to determine the general self-efficacy perceptions of the athletes. For data analyses, SPSS 17.0 software was used. According to the results of the regression analyses performed with the enter method, it was found that perceived training and instruction behaviour along with perceived social support behaviour significantly explained self-efficacy (adjusted R2_ = .03, intrinsic motivation (adjusted R2 = .04 and amotivation (adjusted R2 = .05. Also, perceived training and instruction behaviour (β = .51, autocratic behaviour (β = -.17 and social support behaviour (β = -.27 significantly contributed to athletes’ general self-efficacy (adjusted R2 = .10. In light of these findings, it may be argued that perceived training and instruction behaviour may be beneficial for self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation. On the other hand, it could be stated that perceived autocratic behaviour may be detrimental for general self-efficacy of the athletes. As for social support behaviour, it may be suggested that it is negatively related to self-efficacy, general self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation. Lastly, a positive relationship was observed between perceived social support behaviour and amotivation in wrestlers. The results reveal the specific characteristics of wrestlers and suggest some implications for wrestling coaches.
Sarı, İhsan; Bayazıt, Betül
The current study aimed to determine the relationship between perceived coaching behaviours, motivation, self-efficacy and general self-efficacy of wrestlers who competed in the Super National Wrestling League. The sample consisted of 289 wrestlers. The Self-Efficacy Scale was used to measure self-efficacy perception, the Sports Motivation Scale to measure the motivation of the athletes, the Leadership Scale for Sport to determine perceived leadership behaviours, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale to determine the general self-efficacy perceptions of the athletes. For data analyses, SPSS 17.0 software was used. According to the results of the regression analyses performed with the enter method, it was found that perceived training and instruction behaviour along with perceived social support behaviour significantly explained self-efficacy (adjusted R 2_ = .03), intrinsic motivation (adjusted R 2 = .04) and amotivation (adjusted R 2 = .05). Also, perceived training and instruction behaviour (β = .51), autocratic behaviour (β = -.17) and social support behaviour (β = -.27) significantly contributed to athletes' general self-efficacy (adjusted R 2 = .10). In light of these findings, it may be argued that perceived training and instruction behaviour may be beneficial for self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation. On the other hand, it could be stated that perceived autocratic behaviour may be detrimental for general self-efficacy of the athletes. As for social support behaviour, it may be suggested that it is negatively related to self-efficacy, general self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation. Lastly, a positive relationship was observed between perceived social support behaviour and amotivation in wrestlers. The results reveal the specific characteristics of wrestlers and suggest some implications for wrestling coaches.
This study has two central purposes: First, it examines not only the roles of gender and persistence in undergraduate computing majors' learning self-efficacy, computer self-efficacy, and programming self-efficacy but also Bandura's hypothesized sources of self-efficacy; second, it examines the influence of sources of efficacy on the three…
Fast, Lindsey C; Harman, Jennifer J; Maertens, Julie A; Burnette, Jeni L; Dreith, Francesca
Over the last few decades, food portion sizes have steadily increased by as much as 700% (Young & Nestle, 2002). Food portions are often much larger than dietary guidelines recommend, leaving individuals to manage their food consumption on their own and making it necessary to understand individual factors impacting food consumption. In the current paper, we focus on self-efficacy for portion control. Specifically, across three studies, we developed and validated a new measure of portion control self-efficacy (PCSE). The PCSE measure yielded good fit statistics and had acceptable test-retest reliability using two cross-sectional surveys (Studies 1(a) and 1(b)). Results from Study 2 demonstrated construct and predictive validity of the PCSE using the Food Amount Rating Scale (FARS; Dohm, & Striegel-Moore, 2002). Study 3 offered additional support for reliability and validity with a sample of overweight and obese adults currently trying to lose weight. Overall, findings indicate that the new PCSE measure is reliable and valid. Individuals often make inaccurate food portion estimates (Slawson & Eck, 1997; Yuhas, Bolland, & Bolland, 1989) which can lead to overeating and weight-gain. Thus, the discussion centers on the need to incorporate PCSE in future research and intervention work targeting weight loss, health, and food consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Delforterie, Monique J; Larsen, Junilla K; Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Scholte, Ron H J
Pro-anorexia websites portray an extreme form of thin-ideal. This between-subjects experiment examined the effects of viewing such a website on body satisfaction, affect, and appearance self-efficacy compared to viewing control websites (fashion, home decoration, automutilation). The sample consisted of 124 normal weight, young adult, Dutch women (mean age 21.2, mean body mass index 21.4). Participants did not differ on affect and appearance self-efficacy. One body satisfaction measure showed that pro-anorexia viewers were more satisfied with their bodies than home decoration viewers. Our findings suggest that viewing a pro-anorexia website might not have detrimental effects on body satisfaction and affect among normal weight young women.
Haley, James M.
There is currently a shortage of students graduating with STEM (science, technology, engineering, or mathematics) degrees, particularly women and students of color. Approximately half of students who begin a STEM major eventually switch out. Many switchers cite the competitiveness, grading curves, and weed-out culture of introductory STEM classes as reasons for the switch. Variables known to influence resilience include a student's implicit theory of intelligence and achievement goal orientation. Incremental theory (belief that intelligence is malleable) and mastery goals (pursuit of increased competence) are more adaptive in challenging classroom contexts. This dissertation investigates the role that college science grading policies and messages about the importance of effort play in shaping both implicit theories and achievement goal orientation. College students (N = 425) were randomly assigned to read one of three grading scenarios: (1) a "mastery" scenario, which used criterion-referenced grading, permitted tests to be retaken, and included a strong effort message; (2) a "norm" scenario, which used norm-referenced grading (grading on the curve); or (3) an "effort" scenario, which combined a strong effort message with the norm-referenced policies. The dependent variables included implicit theories of intelligence, perceived classroom goal structure, and self-efficacy. A different sample of students (N = 15) were randomly assigned a scenario to read, asked to verbalize their thoughts, and responded to questions in a semi-structured interview. Results showed that students reading the mastery scenario were more likely to endorse an incremental theory of intelligence, perceived greater mastery goal structure, and had higher self-efficacy. The effort message had no effect on self-efficacy, implicit theory, and most of the goal structure measures. The interviews revealed that it was the retake policy in the mastery scenario and the competitive atmosphere in the norm
Farrell, Albert D; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael E; Bettencourt, Amie; Tolan, Patrick H
This study examined the direct effects of beliefs about aggression and nonviolence on physical aggression and their role as protective factors that buffer adolescents from key risk factors in the peer, school, and parenting domains. Multilevel analyses were conducted on data from 5,581 adolescents representing two cohorts from 37 schools in four communities collected at the beginning and end of the sixth grade and at the end of the following 2 school years. Individual norms for aggression at Wave 1 moderated relations of delinquent peer associations and parental support for fighting with physical aggression. Self-efficacy for nonviolence at Wave 1 moderated relations of school risk, delinquent peer associations and parental support for fighting with physical aggression. There was clearer evidence for protective effects for self-efficacy for nonviolence for girls than for boys.
Rasmussen, Marianne Uggen; Amris, Kirstine; Rydahl Hansen, Susan
OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that change in pain self-efficacy is associated with observed and self-reported activity, pain intensity, catastrophizing, and quality of life after multi-disciplinary rehabilitation of fibromyalgia patients. DESIGN: In-depth analyses of secondary outcomes...... of a randomized-controlled trial. SUBJECTS: Women (N = 187) with fibromyalgia. METHODS: Outcomes were Pain Self-Efficacy, Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), SF-36 Physical Function (SF-36-PF), pain intensity, and SF-36 Mental Composite Score (SF-36-MCS) to assess quality of life and pain...... catastrophizing. Individual and group associations between outcomes were examined. RESULTS: Individual changes in pain self-efficacy were not associated with changes in observed activity: AMPS motor (rs = 0.08, p = 0.27) and process (rs = 0.12, p = 0.11), not even in those patients with a clinically relevant...
Britner, Shari L.; Pajares, Frank
The purpose of this study was to discover whether the science motivation beliefs of middle school students (N = 262) vary as a function of their gender or race/ethnicity and to determine whether science self-efficacy beliefs predict science achievement when motivation variables shown to predict achievement in other academic areas are controlled. Girls reported stronger science self-efficacy and self-efficacy for self-regulation, and they received higher grades in science. Boys had stronger performance-approach goals. White students had stronger self-efficacy and achievement, and African American students reported stronger task goals. Self-efficacy was the only motivation variable to predict the science achievement of girls, boys, and White students. Self-efficacy and self-concept predicted the science achievement of African American students. Results are interpreted from the perspective of Bandura's social cognitive theory.
Lufiana Harnany Utami
Full Text Available This research study about the correlation between personality trait and psychological climate with teacher’s self-efficacy. Instruments used are NEO-big five scale from Costa and McCrae, teacher’s self-efficacy scales and psychological climate questionnaire. Data analyzed with statistics regression. The result shows that there is a positive and significant correlation between personality trait and self-efficacy. Traits of extraversion, conscientiousness and openness significantly contribute to self-efficacy while neuroticism and agreeableness have no significant contribution. Besides, there is also positive and significant correlation between psychological climate and self-efficacy. At last, personality traits and psychological climate at school together give contribution to self-efficacy significantly.
Byrne, Shannon; Barry, Danielle; Petry, Nancy M
Pre-treatment diet and exercise self-efficacies can predict weight loss success. Changes in diet self-efficacy across treatment appear to be even stronger predictors than baseline levels, but research on changes in exercise self-efficacy is lacking. Using data from a pilot study evaluating tangible reinforcement for weight loss (N=30), we examined the impact of changes in diet and exercise self-efficacy on outcomes. Multiple regression analyses indicated that treatment attendance and changes in exercise self-efficacy during treatment were the strongest predictors of weight loss. Developing weight loss programs that foster the development of exercise self-efficacy may enhance participants' success. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available This article aims to present the adaptation and the search for psychometrics evidence of an academic self-efficacy scale. High school students (N = 453 participated of the research (mean age 15.93; SD 1.2. The Academic Self-efficacy Scale for High School is an adapted scale composed of 16 items and organized into three factors: self-efficacy for learning, self-efficacy to act in school life, and self-efficacy for the career decision. Through exploratory factor analysis, a KMO = 0.90 was verified, and 56.57% of the variance was explained. The internal consistency was 0.88. The scale demonstrated good conditions to identify academic self-efficacy of high school students.
Full Text Available The research is aimed at knowing the self-efficacy catogories and students academic procrastination and finding out the correlation of the two variables toward students’ their academic assignment accomplishment. Quantitative method is used in the research. Data was obtained through 231 respondents using self-efficacy and academic procrastination instruments. The data then is analyzed by SPSS for windows release 20.0. The findings show that students’ self-efficacy belongs to high category (71,90% while procrastination is in moderate category (52,30%. Analysis of Pearson Product Moment Correlation shows that there is negative correlation between self-efficacy and academic procrastination (rcount=-0.590 out of 0,000 significance level. It is implied that the more self-efficacy possessed by a students, the lower is the academic procrastination. Otherwise, the lower self-efficacy possessed by a students, th higher is the academic procrastination.
Amorim Neto, Roque do Carmo; Rodrigues, Vinicius P; Stewart, Douglas
This study aimed to: (1) assess the unique contributions of self-efficacy to entrepreneurial behavior among teachers; (2) identify the best instrument(s) to measure such contributions by testing a domain-specific instrument (teacher self-efficacy) vs. a general (occupational self-efficacy) one; (3......) identify the demographic characteristics associated with entrepreneurial behavior. A sample of 401 teachers from across the USA completed the online survey. The findings indicated that self-efficacy predicts entrepreneurial behavior and that occupational self-efficacy is a slightly better predictor...... of entrepreneurial behavior than teacher self-efficacy. The results also identified age and education as the demographic characteristics associated with entrepreneurial behavior....
self -efficacy on a novel task may be a function of self - esteem and initial instruction on the task. It may be that low SEs initial self ...than will persons low in self -efficacy. This may also have implications for the interaction between self -efficacy and self - esteem . In situations...feedback than persons with low SE. Persons with low self - esteem are likely to perceive 32 greater feedback seeking costs (as noted earlier).
Kashani, Mariam; Eliasson, Arn H; Walizer, Elaine M; Fuller, Clarie E; Engler, Renata J; Villines, Todd C; Vernalis, Marina N
Background: Self-efficacy, defined as confidence in the ability to carry out behavior to achieve a desired goal, is considered to be a prerequisite for behavior change. Self-efficacy correlates with cardiovascular health although optimal timing to incorporate self-efficacy strategies is not well established. We sought to study the effect of an empowerment approach implemented in the introductory phase of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular health outcomes. Design: Prospe...
Rajati, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Feizi, Awat; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Hasandokht, Tolu; Mostafavi, Firoozeh
BACKGROUND Despite exercise is recommended as an adjunct to medication therapy in patients with heart failure (HF), non-adherence to exercise is a major problem. While improving self-efficacy is an effective way to increase physical activity, the evidence concerning the relationship between strategies to enhance self-efficacy and exercise among HF has not been systematically reviewed. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the effect of interventions to change the self-efficacy ...
Baele, J; Dusseldorp, E; Maes, S
To investigate aspects of adolescents' condom use self-efficacy that affect their intended and actual condom use. Four hundred twenty-four male and female sexually experienced and inexperienced adolescents with a mean age of 17.0 years filled out a questionnaire concerning condom use self-efficacy and intended and actual condom use. Specific condom use self-efficacy scales were constructed from 37 items on the basis of a principal component analysis. The effect of self-efficacy, both as a global measure and in terms of specific scales, on condom use intention and consistency was assessed using multiple hierarchic regression analyses. Six specific self-efficacy scales were constructed: Technical Skills, Image Confidence, Emotion Control, Purchase, Assertiveness, and Sexual Control. In sexually inexperienced adolescents, global self-efficacy explained 48%, the six self-efficacy scales 30%, and both together 51% of the variance in intention, after statistical control for gender, age, and education level. In the sexually experienced sample, this was 40%, 50%, and 57% for intention, and 23%, 29%, and 33% for consistency of condom use. Significant predictors of intention in the final model were gender, age, global self-efficacy and purchasing skills in the inexperienced sample, and global self-efficacy, emotion control, assertiveness, image confidence, and sexual control in the experienced sample, whereas gender, age, global self-efficacy, emotion control, assertiveness, and purchase predicted consistency of condom use in the experienced sample. Condom use self-efficacy is a multidimensional construct. Intended and actual condom use in adolescents are best predicted by self-efficacy measures that include both global and relevant specific aspects of condom use.
Baxter, Ryan; Bates, Alan; Al-Bataineh, Adel Tawfig
The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine differences indevelopmental mathematics students’ self-efficacy within the demographic datafrom the survey. Data from a sample of 240 Intermediate Algebra students at asingle four-year university using the Mathematics Self-Efficacy Resultsindicate that males possess higher levels of mathematics self-efficacy andconfidence with their mathematical abilities than females. Students whocompleted a lower developmental mathematics course prior ...
Ryan Baxter; Alan Bates; Adel Tawfig Al-Bataineh
The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine differences in developmental mathematics students’ self-efficacy within the demographic data from the survey. Data from a sample of 240 Intermediate Algebra students at a single four-year university using the Mathematics Self-Efficacy Results indicate that males possess higher levels of mathematics self-efficacy and confidence with their mathematical abilities than females. Students who completed a lower developmental mathematics course ...
Emme, Christina; Mortensen, Erik L; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate how virtual admission during acute exacerbation influences self-efficacy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, compared with conventional hospital admission. BACKGROUND: Telemedicine solutions have been highlighted as a possible way to increas......-efficacy. Clinicians should consider the timing, duration and the content in the design of telemedical interventions directed at improving chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients' self-efficacy, as telemedicine solutions alone may not be sufficient to enhance self-efficacy....
In the following diploma the role of a sports training and a sports recreation for the perception of adolescents’ self-efficacy is presented. In the theoretical part the self-efficacy theory and its placement into adolescence are described as well as all three kinds of sports workout (sports training, sports recreation and sports education), connection between sport and adolescence and sport’s influence on the self-efficacy. In the empirical part the role of the sports training and recreat...
General self-efficacy has been historically assumed to have universal health implications. However, less is known about population differences in long-term health effects of general self-efficacy across diverse populations. This study compared black and white American adults for (1) the association between psychosocial and health factors and general self-efficacy at baseline, and (2) the association between baseline self-efficacy and long-term risk of all-cause mortality over 25 years. The Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) study, 1986-2011, is a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of US adults. The study followed 3361 black (n = 1156) and white (n = 2205) adults for up to 25 years. General self-efficacy as well as demographics, socioeconomics, stressful life events, health behaviors, obesity, depressive symptoms, and self-rated health were measured at baseline in 1986. The outcome was time to all-cause mortality since 1986. Race was the focal moderator. Logistic regression and proportional hazards models were used for data analysis. Although blacks had lower general self-efficacy, this association was fully explained by socioeconomic factors (education and income). Our logistic regression suggested interactions between race and education, self-rated health, and stress on general self-efficacy at baseline. Baseline general self-efficacy was associated with risk of mortality in the pooled sample. Race interacted with baseline general self-efficacy on mortality risk, suggesting stronger association for whites than blacks. Black-white differences exist in psychosocial and health factors associated with self-efficacy in the USA. Low general self-efficacy does not increase mortality risk for blacks. Future research should test whether socioeconomic status, race-related attitudes, world views, attributions, and locus of control can potentially explain why low self-efficacy is not associated with higher risk of mortality among American blacks.
The aim of the study was to discover the contribution of students' interest in school biology, as well as their self-efficacy and attitudes towards different science subjects and mathematics when explaining students' orientation towards biology-related careers at upper-secondary school. The data of 321 K-11 students (49% women) were…
Sanders, M R; Woolley, M L
The present study examined the relationship between maternal self-efficacy, dysfunctional discipline practices and child conduct problems. Specifically, three levels of self-efficacy, global, domain and task-specific self-efficacy, were assessed in mothers of 2- to 8-year-old children with conduct problems (clinic group, n=45) and non-clinic mothers from the community (non-clinic group, n=79). Measures of global, domain and task-specific self-efficacy were completed by mothers. Clinic mothers reported significantly lower self-efficacy than non-clinic mothers for all but one of the parenting tasks assessed. Both groups of mothers reported lowest self-efficacy for similar parenting tasks. In the sample as a whole self-efficacy measures were significant predictors of maternal discipline style after controlling for other parent, child and risk factors. Of the self-efficacy variables behavioural self-efficacy was the best predictor of mothers discipline style. The findings support the importance of developing parenting strategies that enable parents to generalize their parenting skills to a diverse range of diverse parenting contexts both in the home and in the community.
Ji Hye Yu
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic self-efficacy, socially-prescribed perfectionism, and academic burnout in medical school students and to determine whether academic self-efficacy had a mediating role in the relationship between perfectionism and academic burnout. Methods: A total of 244 first-year and second-year premed medical students and first- to fourth-year medical students were enrolled in this study. As study tools, socially-prescribed perfectionism, academic self-efficacy, and academic burnout scales were utilized. For data analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Results: Academic burnout had correlation with socially-prescribed perfectionism. It had negative correlation with academic self-efficacy. Socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy had 54% explanatory power for academic burnout. When socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy were simultaneously used as input, academic self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic burnout. Conclusion: Socially-prescribed perfectionism had a negative effect on academic self-efficacy, ultimately triggering academic burnout. This suggests that it is important to have educational and counseling interventions to improve academic self-efficacy by relieving academic burnout of medical school students.
Rothberger, Sara M; Harris, Brandonn S; Czech, Daniel R; Melton, Bridget
The anxiety or fear associated with physique evaluation is defined as Social Physique Anxiety (SPA). Numerous studies have examined this construct, yet a gap exists exploring this phenomenon among current college students with SPA, self-efficacy, and gender concurrently. Therefore, the purposes of this study included quantitatively analyzing the association between SPA, gender, and self-efficacy. Participants included 237 students at a Southeastern university participating in jogging, body conditioning, or weight training courses. Analysis of Variance yielded a significant main effect for self-efficacy as well, as those with lower self-efficacy displayed higher levels of SPA ( p college student population.
Nørgaard, Birgitte; Draborg, Eva; Vestergaard, Poul Erik
study (ICS) unit including students from nursing, medicine, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, laboratory technology and radiography. Data on students' perceived self-efficacy were collected through web-based questionnaires. Aspects of self-efficacy measured were: (1) collaboration with other...... teamwork. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an interprofessional training programme on students' perceived self-efficacy. Methods: A quasi-experimental study with an intervention group (239 students) and a control group (405 students). The intervention was an interprofessional clinical...... students' perception of self-efficacy more than traditional clinical training....
This study examined the associations between academic delay of gratification, self-efficacy beliefs, and time management among academically unprepared college students participating in a summer-immersion program. This study also examined whether the relation of self-efficacy with time management is mediated by academic delay of gratification. Analysis indicated that self-efficacy was directly associated with time management, as delay of gratification served to mediate this effect partially. Self-efficacy emerged as the strongest positive predictor of academic achievement.
Full Text Available The present longitudinal study (two waves, conducted on a population of 274 secondary-school teachers, expands on previous research on burnout and work engagement. Accordingly, the effect of organizational factors (obstacles, facilitators as well as personal resources (self-efficacy on burnout and engagement is tested longitudinally following the Social Cognitive Theory. More specifically, we test the loss and gain cycles, and reciprocal relationships concerning burnout, engagement, and self-efficacy over time. Four questions are addressed: (1 Are obstacles positively related to burnout and work self-efficacy over time? (2 Are facilitators positively related to engagement and self-efficacy over time? (3 Is work self-efficacy negatively related to burnout and obstacles over time? and (4 Is work self-efficacy positively related to engagement and facilitators over time? The results of a hard-copy survey carried out at two waves (8 months between the two times, which were computed on Structural Equation Modeling show that obstacles are positively related to burnout, which in turn is positively related to self-efficacy over time. Likewise, facilitators are positively related to engagement and self-efficacy, which in turn is positively related to facilitators over time. These findings suggest a positive gain cycle in which self-efficacy plays a central role.
Note: Low scores indicate high self-efficacy SExt Sat E Sat ---X-- No Opin -0 Dissat • Ext Dissat Figure O.10.b Profile Plot for TALJOB 0-46...efficacy SExt Sat - Sat --X No Opin -& Dissat Ext Dissat Figure O.10.c Profile Plot for TALJOB 0-47 Communication Skills SATISFACTION WITH TALENT USE...PRE-TEST) Mean 35 Low Self-Efficacy 30 - 25l 20 ... . . 15 High Self-Efficacy 10 Before After Note: Low scores indicate high self-efficacy SExt Sat E
Yu, Ji Hye; Chae, Su Jin; Chang, Ki Hong
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic self-efficacy, socially-prescribed perfectionism, and academic burnout in medical school students and to determine whether academic self-efficacy had a mediating role in the relationship between perfectionism and academic burnout. A total of 244 first-year and second-year premed medical students and first- to fourth-year medical students were enrolled in this study. As study tools, socially-prescribed perfectionism, academic self-efficacy, and academic burnout scales were utilized. For data analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Academic burnout had correlation with socially-prescribed perfectionism. It had negative correlation with academic self-efficacy. Socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy had 54% explanatory power for academic burnout. When socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy were simultaneously used as input, academic self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic burnout. Socially-prescribed perfectionism had a negative effect on academic self-efficacy, ultimately triggering academic burnout. This suggests that it is important to have educational and counseling interventions to improve academic self-efficacy by relieving academic burnout of medical school students.
Lee, Su Hyun; Jeon, Woo Taek
The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between academic burnout and academic self-efficacy in medical students. The study group comprised 446 students in years 1 to 4 of medical school. They were asked to rate their academic burnout and academic self-efficacy on a scale. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance and regression analysis. Academic self-efficacy was correlated negatively with academic burnout explaining 37% of academic burnout. Academic self-efficacy (especially self-confidence) had the greatest effect on academic burnout. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of an evaluation and support system for students.
Wise, James B
The knowledge-and-appraisal personality architecture has potential as a theoretical framework for understanding the formation of self-efficacy in individuals. Two patterns were observed within 14 of 17 individual persons: a pattern of strong self-efficacy was displayed across outdoor recreation activities for which a self-descriptive attribute was viewed as an asset to successful performances, and a pattern of relatively weak self-efficacy was observed across outdoor recreation activities for which the same attribute was considered a hindrance to performances. Although the theory predicts self-efficacy within individuals, more research is needed to assess why the theory is not accurate in all cases.
Ainscough, Louise; Foulis, Eden; Colthorpe, Kay; Zimbardi, Kirsten; Robertson-Dean, Melanie; Chunduri, Prasad; Lluka, Lesley
Academic self-efficacy encompasses judgments regarding one’s ability to perform academic tasks and is correlated with achievement and persistence. This study describes changes in biology self-efficacy during a first-year course. Students (n = 614) were given the Biology Self-Efficacy Scale at the beginning and end of the semester. The instrument consisted of 21 questions ranking confidence in performing biology-related tasks on a scale from 1 (not at all confident) to 5 (totally confident). The results demonstrated that students increased in self-efficacy during the semester. High school biology and chemistry contributed to self-efficacy at the beginning of the semester; however, this relationship was lost by the end of the semester, when experience within the course became a significant contributing factor. A proportion of high- and low- achieving (24 and 40%, respectively) students had inaccurate self-efficacy judgments of their ability to perform well in the course. In addition, female students were significantly less confident than males overall, and high-achieving female students were more likely than males to underestimate their academic ability. These results suggest that the Biology Self-Efficacy Scale may be a valuable resource for tracking changes in self-efficacy in first-year students and for identifying students with poorly calibrated self-efficacy perceptions. PMID:27193290
Lewis, Beth A.; Williams, David M.; Frayeh, Amanda L.; Marcus, Bess H.
Objective Self-efficacy and physical activity (PA) enjoyment are related to PA behavior, but it is unclear which is more important and how they interrelate. The purpose of this study was to examine how these two constructs interrelate to influence PA behavior. Design Participants were low active adults (n=448) participating in a RCT examining the effect of a PA promotion intervention. Participants completed physical activity, enjoyment, and self-efficacy measures at baseline, six, and 12 months. Results Self-efficacy and enjoyment at both baseline and six months predicted PA at 12 months. However, enjoyment was a stronger predictor than self-efficacy in that self-efficacy no longer predicted PA behavior when included alongside enjoyment. In follow-up mediation analyses, enjoyment at six months did not mediate the effect of baseline self-efficacy on 12-month PA; however, six-month self-efficacy mediated the effect of baseline enjoyment on 12-month PA. Conclusion Our results indicate that interventions should perhaps initially focus on increasing enjoyment of physical activity. Greater PA enjoyment appears to influence individuals’ self-reported ability to engage in regular PA (i.e., higher self-efficacy ratings). Additional research is needed to better understand the interrelationships between self-efficacy and enjoyment and how these constructs affect PA. PMID:26541890
Mitchell, Kim M; Rieger, Kendra L; McMillan, Diana E
This investigation reviews the item content of writing selfefficacy (WSE) measures developed for undergraduate students. Bandura's self-efficacy theory and a writing theory by Flower and Hayes informed the a priori themes used to develop a template of WSE categories critical to the concept. Articles describing WSE measures were identified through Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar (1984-2015). A template analysis method was used to analyze 182 individual items present on 11 WSE instruments. A nursing perspective was applied. The analysis identified 16 categories influencing WSE as well as gaps in current measurement items. The theoretical examination of WSE is the first step toward the development of a WSE measure specific to the nursing context and contributes to nursing education by advancing the measurement of WSE.
Zachariae, Robert; O Connor, Maja; Lassesen, Berit
was to develop a questionnaire to assess medical student and physician patient-centeredness self-efficacy (PCSEQ) and explore its reliability and validity. METHODS: A preliminary 88-item version, based on a review of the literature on patient centeredness and student portfolios on patient communication...... experiences, was completed by 448 medical graduate student interns. Exploratory analyses resulted in a 27-item version (PCSEQ-27) with three underlying factors: Confidence in: a) Exploring the patient perspective, b) Sharing information and power, and c) Dealing with communicative challenges. Psychometric...... properties, including gender-related differential item function (DIF), were examined. The PCSEQ-27 was then completed by 291 medical students from two medical schools and 101 hospital physicians. The fit of the factor structure was examined with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and construct validity...
Chae Ha Yang
Full Text Available We attempted to investigate whether acupuncture stimulation at HT7 can have an effect on brain activation patterns and alcohol abstinence self-efficacy. Thirty-four right-handed healthy subjects were recruited for this study. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the HT7 (Shenmen group and the LI5 (Yangxi group. Acupuncture stimulation was performed using a block paradigm during fMRI scanning. Additionally, the Korean version of Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale (AASES was used to determine the effect of acupuncture stimulation on self-efficacy to abstain from alcohol use. According to the result of fMRI group analysis, the activation induced by HT7 stimulation was found on the bilateral postcentral gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, claustrum, insula, and anterior lobe of the cerebellum, as well as on the left posterior lobe of the cerebellum (p<0.001, uncorrected. According to the AASES analysis, the interaction effect for gender and treatment was marginally significant (F(1,30=4.152, p=0.050. For female group, the simple main effect of treatment was significant (F(1,11=8.040, p=0.016, indicating that the mean change score was higher in the HT7 stimulation than in the LI5 stimulation. Therefore, our study has provided evidence to support that HT7 stimulation has a positive therapeutic effect on the alcohol-related diseases.
Jeong, Heon-Jae; Jo, Heui-Sug; Jung, Su-Mi; Lee, Ja-young
The primary aim of this study was to understand factors associated with condom use behavior among club-working women and identify the most influential factors to be addressed in future health programs. A total of 158 club-working women were surveyed from 3 midsize cities in South Korea from July to September 2004. Survey questionnaires were developed based on the theory of planned behavior. A total of 7 distinct themes emerged: Health aspects, Customer related, Pleasure related, Finance related, Societal norm, Occupational norm, and Perceived control. The results indicated that the Customer-related theme, Societal norm, and Occupational norm were statistically significant factors affecting condom use. On the other hand, self-related factors such as health, pleasure, and finance are not significantly related to the condom use behavior of club-working women in South Korea, suggesting that the currently used knowledge-focused education programs may not be sufficient for this population.
Linden, Michael; Muschalla, Beate; Hansmeier, Thomas; Sandner, Gabriele
The aim of occupational health care management programs (OHMP) is to improve the health status of employees, increase work ability and reduce absence time. This includes better coping abilities, work-related self-efficacy and self-management which are important abilities that should be trained within OHMPs. To study the effectiveness of an OHMP including special interventions to enhance self-efficacy and self-management. Employees from the German Federal Pension Agency. Effects of an OHMP on sickness absence was studied by comparing an intervention group and two control groups. A core feature of the OHMP were group sessions with all members of working teams, focussing on self-efficacy and self management of the individual participant as well as the team as a group (focus groups). Participants in the OHMP were asked for their subjective evaluation of the focus groups. Rates of sickness absence were taken from the routine data of the employer. Participants of the OHMP indicated that they had learned better ways of coping and communication and that they had generated intentions to make changes in their working situation. The rate of sickness absence in the intervention group decreased from 9.26% in the year before the OHMP to 7.93% in the year after the program, while there was in the same time anincrease of 7.9% and 10.7% in the two control groups. The data suggest that OHMP with focus on self-efficacy and self management of individuals and teams are helpful in reducing work absenteeism.
Cox, Elena K.
The recommendations of the United States President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and the multi-agency National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) identified the need to prepare the workforce and specialists in the field of nanotechnology in order for the United States to continue to compete in the global marketplace. There is a lack of research reported in recent literature on the readiness of secondary science teachers to introduce higher level sciences---specifically nanotechnology---in their classes. The central research question of this study examined secondary science teachers' beliefs about teaching nanotechnology comfortably, effectively, and successfully. Bandura's self-efficacy theory provided the conceptual framework for this phenomenological study. A data analysis rubric was used to identify themes and patterns that emerged from detailed descriptions during in-depth interviews with 15 secondary science teachers. The analysis revealed the shared, lived experiences of teachers and their beliefs about their effectiveness and comfort in teaching higher-level sciences, specifically nanotechnology. The results of the study indicated that, with rare exceptions, secondary science teachers do not feel comfortable or effective, nor do they believe they have adequate training to teach nanotechnology concepts to their students. These teachers believed they were not prepared or trained in incorporating these higher level science concepts in the curriculum. Secondary science teachers' self-efficacy and personal beliefs of effectiveness in teaching nanotechnology can be an important component in achieving a positive social change by helping to familiarize high school students with nanotechnology and how it can benefit society and the future of science.
Bell, David C; Cox, Mary L
Social norms are often cited as the cause of many social phenomena, especially as an explanation for prosocial family and relationship behaviors. And yet maybe we love the idea of social norms too much, as suggested by our failure to subject them to rigorous test. Compared to the detail in social norms theoretical orientations, there is very little detail in tests of normative theories. To provide guidance to researchers who invoke social norms as explanations, we catalog normative orientations that have been proposed to account for consistent patterns of action. We call on researchers to conduct tests of normative theories and the processes such theories assert.
Habibi, Rahim; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Shabany Hamedan, Maryam; Saleh Moqadam, Amirreza
The success of drug abuse treatment and relapse prevention methods depends widely on not only pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical therapies but also self efficacy and self esteem promotion. The current study attempted to clarify the effects of Problem Solving Education (PSE) on relapse rate, self efficacy and self esteem among drug abusers. This non-controlled clinical trial (quasi-experimental) assessed 60 opium and heroin abusers who were willing to quit and were referred to the Mehr Center of Addiction Treatment and Rehabilitation Facility. The patients were allocated to two groups of 30 (intervention and control groups). While both groups received the routine care of the clinic, the intervention group also attended eight 45-minute family-centered PSE sessions. The Coopersmith Self esteem Inventory and Quit Addiction Self efficacy Questionnaire were filled out for all subjects before and after the intervention. Drug relapse was investigated four times with two-week intervals. The two groups were compared using chi-square and Student's-t tests. Logistic regression analysis was applied to determine factors affecting drug relapse. A total of 45 individuals (21 and 24 in the intervention and control groups, respectively) completed the study. At baseline, the two groups had no significant difference regarding their mean scores of self esteem and self efficacy (P = 0.692 and 0.329, respectively). After the intervention, however, the mean changes of self esteem scores were 20.10 ± 3.75 for the intervention group and 4.50 for the control group (P self efficacy scores in the mentioned groups were 34 34.17 ± 5.19 and 9.03± 2.04, respectively (P self efficacy and self esteem among patients.
Objective: To explore the characteristic of depression and its relationship with general self-efficacy and coping styles in delinquent teenagers. Methods: 228 delinquent teenagers in jail completed a battery of questionnaires consisted of General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), Short Coping Style Scale (SCSS), and Center for Epidemiological, Depression Scale (CES-D).Results: Mean scores of depression of delinquent teenagers were found to be highly elevated. A total of 52.6% of the subjects showed depression. Depression as assessed by CES-D was found to correlate with General self-efficacy (r=-0.162) and Negative Coping Styles (r=0.177). No significant relationship was found between Positive Coping Styles and depression. Conclusion: Depression of delinquent teenagers was related to low self-efficacy and negative coping styles.
Wang, Ya-Ling; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Science learning self-efficacy could be regarded as a multi-factor belief which comprises different aspects such as cognitive skills, practical work, and everyday application. However, few studies have investigated the relationships among these factors that compose science learning self-efficacy. Also, culture may play an important role in explaining the relationships among these factors. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate cultural differences in science learning self-efficacy and examine the relationships within factors constituting science learning self-efficacy by adopting a survey instrument for administration to students in the U.S. and Taiwan. A total of 218 university students (62.40% females) were surveyed in the U.S.A, and 224 university students (49.10% females) in Taiwan were also invited to take part in the study. The results of the structural equation modelling revealed cultural differences in the relationships among the factors of science learning self-efficacy. It was found that U.S. students' confidence in their ability to employ higher-order cognitive skills tended to promote their confidence in their ability to accomplish practical work, strengthening their academic self-efficacy. However, the aforementioned mediation was not found for the Taiwanese participants.
McCain, Patty Jo
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to develop an understanding of how current and former middle school teachers in a suburban school district in northeast Georgia perceive low self-efficacy impacts their classroom management style. The theory guiding this study was Bandura's (1977) self-efficacy theory as it supported the idea that…
Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M.; Khasawneh, Samar A.; Khalaileh, Huda A.
Two main purposes guided this study. The first was to identify the degree to which Jordanian teachers practise classroom management styles in their classrooms and their level of teacher self-efficacy. The second purpose was to explore the relationships between classroom management styles and teacher self-efficacy. This study is quantitative in…
Haase, Jennifer; Hoff, Eva V.; Hanel, Paul H. P.; Innes-Ker, Åse
This meta-analysis investigated the relations between creative self-efficacy (CSE) and creativity measures and hypothesized that self-assessed questionnaires would have a different relation to self-efficacy beliefs compared to other creativity tests. The meta-analysis synthesized 60 effect sizes from 41 papers (overall N = 17226). Taken as a…
Brant, Cathy A. R.
This article describes a study that investigated preservice teachers' understandings and self-efficacy related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) students and families. The preservice teachers indicated a broad range of understandings in relation to LGBTQ terms. They reported a relatively high sense of self-efficacy in…
The purpose of this enquiry was to examine how research design impacts on the predictive power of measures of self-efficacy. Three cautions for designing research into self-efficacy drawn from the seminal work of Albert Bandura (1986) and a further caution proposed by the current author together form the analytical framework for this enquiry. For…
Research in EFL and ESL has confirmed that self-efficacy affects language learners' choices of learning tasks, persistence, motivation and achievement. As a cognitive construct, self-efficacy can be strengthened by both outcomes of behaviors and input from the environment. This paper studies the effects of an English Bar, a self-access center for…
Morris, David B.; Usher, Ellen L.
The purpose of this study was to assess the sources of award-wining research professors' (six women; six men) teaching self-efficacy through the framework of Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Semi-structured interviews revealed that mastery experiences and social persuasions were particularly influential sources of self-efficacy and that…
McGee, Jennifer R.; Wang, Chuang
The purpose of this study is to provide evidence of reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics Instrument (SETMI). Self-efficacy, as defined by Bandura, was the theoretical framework for the development of the instrument. The complex belief systems of mathematics teachers, as touted by Ernest provided insights into the…
Kiran, Dekant; Sungur, Semra
The main purpose of the present study is to investigate middle school students' science self-efficacy as well as its sources and outcomes as a function of gender. Bandura's hypothesized sources of self-efficacy (i.e., mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal) in addition to being inviting with self and…
Tabrizi, Haleh Mojarrabi; Saeidi, Mahnaz
This study investigated the interrelationships among EFL learners' self-efficacy, autonomy and listening comprehension ability. Ninety female learners of intermediate level participated in the study. They were between 16 and 24 years old. In order to obtain the required data on the three variables (i.e., self-efficacy, autonomy, and listening…
Raphael, Christina; Mtebe, Joel S.
This study examines pre-service teachers' (N = 386) self-efficacy beliefs towards educational technologies integration in the classroom at the two colleges in Tanzania that prepare secondary education teachers. Using regression analysis, the study found out that the determinants of self-efficacy beliefs among pre-service teachers towards…
Kurbanoglu, N. Izzet; Akin, Ahmet
The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between chemistry laboratory anxiety, chemistry attitudes, and self-efficacy. Participants were 395 university students. Participants completed the Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety Scale, the Chemistry Attitudes Scale, and the Self-efficacy Scale. Results showed that chemistry laboratory anxiety…
Shawer, Saad F.
This quantitative investigation examined the influence of low and high self-efficacy on candidate teacher academic performance in a foreign language teaching methodology course through testing the speculation that high self-efficacy levels would improve pedagogical-content knowledge (PCK). Positivism guided the research design at the levels of…
Çimen, Osman; Yilmaz, Mehmet
Anxiety and self-efficacy are among the factors that impact students' performance in biology. The current study aims to investigate high school students' perception of biology anxiety and self-efficacy, in relation to gender, grade level, interest in biology, negative experience associated with biology classes, and teachers' approaches in the…
Sundling, Vibeke; Sundler, Annelie J; Holmström, Inger K; Kristensen, Dorte Vesterager; Eide, Hilde
The aim of this study was to compare student nurses' communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness across two countries, and to analyse the relationship between these qualities. The study had a cross-sectional design. Data was collected from final year student nurses in Norway and Sweden. Communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness were reported by questionnaires; Clear-cut communication with patients, Jefferson Scale of Empathy, and Langer 14 items mindfulness scale. The study included 156 student nurses, 94 (60%) were Swedish. The mean communication self-efficacy score was 119 (95% CI 116-122), empathy score 115 (95% CI 113-117) and mindfulness score 79 (95% CI 78-81). A Mann-Whitney test showed that Swedish students scored significantly higher on communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness than Norwegian students did. When adjusted for age, gender, and country in a multiple linear regression, mindfulness was the only independent predictor of communication self-efficacy. The Swedish student nurses in this study scored higher on communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness than Norwegian students did. Student nurses scoring high on mindfulness rated their communication self-efficacy higher. A mindful learning approach may improve communication self-efficacy and possibly the effect of communication skills training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bunketorp-Käll, Lina Sofia; Andersson, Caroline; Asker, Barbita
Self-efficacy is increasingly being recognized as an important factor to consider in medical research, especially in different pain conditions such as whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). When pain is not effectively treated or relieved, it may negatively affect patients' life situation and cause a decline in perceived self-efficacy. Knowledge of what level of self-efficacy can be considered an actual deficit in patients with WAD is, however, sparse. The purpose of this study is to analyze whether subacute WAD has an impact on self-efficacy beliefs. A cohort study was designed to identify the impact of WAD on self-efficacy beliefs. The exposed group consisted of 47 patients with subacute WAD following a whiplash trauma. The control group representing the general population consisted of 212 participants, and was randomly selected to match the distribution of age and sex in the exposed group. The Self-Efficacy Scale was used to assess the individuals' confidence in their ability to successfully carry out activities of daily living. In the exposed group, 47 responded (100%), and in the control group, 113 (53%) responded. The results show that the total scores on the Self-Efficacy Scale were significantly lower in the exposed group compared with the control group, concerning both the mean (P<0.001) and median (P<0.001) scores. In conclusion, patients with subacute WAD experience a decline in functional self-efficacy, which stresses the importance of incorporating these beliefs in clinical practice and research.
Bekkers, M.J.T.; Knippenberg, F.C.E. van; Borne, H.W. van den; Berge-Henegouwen, G.P. van
Self-efficacy, one's expectations regarding the ability to perform some specific task, was studied prospectively in the adaptation process of stoma patients. One week after surgery, stoma-related self-efficacy was assessed in 59 patients (26 cancer patients and 33 patients with benign diseases) who
Olson, Mark D.
The present study examined the linkages among perceptions of self-efficacy, curriculum, and field experience on students' attitudes and interest in working with older adults. Graduate level social work students were surveyed regarding perceived self-efficacy to intervene with older adult clients, the amount of aging content in the master of social…
Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.
The quantitative results of Sources of Self-Efficacy in Science Courses-Physics (SOSESC-P) are presented as a logistic regression predicting the passing of students in introductory Physics with Calculus I, overall as well as disaggregated by gender. Self-efficacy as a theory to explain human behavior change [Bandura  "Psychological…
Full Text Available Background: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR is the emergency first aid in cardiac arrest. CPR delivery is influenced by knowledge and self-efficacy. Internship students can be the first responder of cardiac arrest in hospital and expected on having knowledge and high self-efficacy of CPR early. But there is no data on self-efficacy of internship students in performing CPR. Objective: The purpose of this research was to identify knowledge and self-efficacy of internship students in performing CPR. Methods: The method in this research was descriptive quantitative with cross-sectional approach on 76 internship students selected by simple random sampling. Knowledge questionnaire and Resuscitation Self-Efficacy Scale instrument were used in this research, with validity score 0.56-0.84 (α=0.91. Data were analysed by distribution frequency. Results: The results showed that 49 respondents (64.5% had moderate knowledge and 73 respondents (96.1% had high self-efficacy. The lowest domain in knowledge was conceptual knowledge, while in self-efficacy were reporting, debriefing and recording. Conclusions: Therefore, it becomes important to increase information on the conceptual knowledge and enhances training on the self-efficacy domain: reporting; debriefing and recording.
The study investigated the level of job performance and self-efficacy of public secondary school teachers in Osun State. It also examined self-efficacy as a predictor of teachers' job performance with a view to enhancing job productivity. The study adopted survey design. The population consisted of public secondary school ...
In this article, I explore how an English teacher's self-efficacy beliefs in using groupwork developed, specifically with regard to his work with young learners, while he was engaged part-time on an in-service BA TESOL programme in the Middle East. Using qualitative case study methodology, I uncover various aspects of his self-efficacy growth,…
Hendricks, Karin S.
Music teachers can empower students with control over their own music ability development by helping them foster positive self-efficacy beliefs. This article reviews general education and music research concerning Bandura's theoretical four sources of self-efficacy (enactive mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal/social persuasion, and…
Li, Andrew; Bagger, Jessica
The present study investigated variables that moderated the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy. Results of a field study found support for the moderating role of learning goal orientation, such that the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy was weaker when learning goal orientation was high. In addition, we found…
The objective of study is the underlying to relationship between emotional self-efficacy and educational stress with a structural equation model. The research was conducted on 232 secondary school students. Emotional self-efficacy scale and educational stress scale were used in the study. It was found that there was a negative correlation between…
Hepler, Teri J.; Feltz, Deborah L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between decision-making self-efficacy and decision-making performance in sport. Undergraduate students (N = 78) performed 10 trials of a decision-making task in baseball. Self-efficacy was measured before performing each trial. Decision-making performance was assessed by decision speed and…
Dwyer, John J. M.; Chulak, Tala; Maitland, Scott; Allison, Kenneth R.; Lysy, Daria C.; Faulkner, Guy E. J.; Sheeshka, Judy
This paper describes a revised measure of self-efficacy to overcome barriers to moderate and vigorous physical activity in a sample of 484 high school students in Toronto, Ontario. The students had a mean age of 15.3 years. Principal axis factoring with oblique rotation yielded five factors: self-efficacy to overcome internal, harassment, physical…
Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lochbaum, Marc; Guan, Jianmin
Purpose: The relationships among students' self-efficacy, 2 × 2 achievement goals (mastery-approach [MAp], mastery-avoidance [MAv], performance-approach [PAp], and performance-avoidance goals), and achievement performance remain largely unanswered. We tested a model of the mediating role of self-efficacy on the relationship between 2 × 2…
Klassen, Robert; Wilson, Elaine; Siu, Angela F. Y.; Hannok, Wanwisa; Wong, Marina W.; Wongsri, Nongkran; Sonthisap, Panwadee; Pibulchol, Chaleosri; Buranachaitavee, Yanisa; Jansem, Anchalee
In this study, we examine the teaching-related stress, self-efficacy, and occupational commitment of preservice teachers from two culturally western and two culturally eastern countries. The sample included 1,187 participants from Canada (n?=?379), England (n?=?203), Hong Kong (n?=?211), and Thailand (n?=?394). Self-efficacy partially reduced…
The level of self-efficacy exhibited by an individual has been closely linked to how that individual will perform a given task. Previous studies on teacher self-efficacy focused on general activities and were less specific regarding special education teachers' perceived ability to perform a given task. Based on the theoretical framework of…
Self-efficacy is reported to be facilitated through interventions, such as sport ... The study also aimed at exploring whether there are significant differences in perceived self-efficacy and self-reported aggression in terms of participants' gender, ...
Bates, Alan B.; Latham, Nancy; Kim, Jin-ah
This study examined preservice teachers' mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics teaching efficacy and compared them to their mathematical performance. Participants included 89 early childhood preservice teachers at a Midwestern university. Instruments included the Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES), Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs…
Cook, Carolyn D.
This study explored the relationship between math anxiety and perceived self-efficacy for teaching mathematics in preschool teachers. Perceptions of and attributions for the teachers' perceived math anxiety and perceived self-efficacy for teaching mathematics were also explored. The study employed a mixed-method design consisting of both…
Bulgan, Gökçe; Çiftçi, Ayse
The authors investigated marital satisfaction and academic self-efficacy in relation to psychological adaptation (i.e., psychological well-being, life satisfaction) in a sample of 198 married international students. Results of multiple regression analyses indicated that marital satisfaction and academic self-efficacy accounted for 45.9% of…
Zinken, Katarzyna M.; Cradock, Sue; Skinner, T. Chas
Objective: The paper presents the development of a coding tool for self-efficacy orientated interventions in diabetes self-management programmes (Analysis System for Self-Efficacy Training, ASSET) and explores its construct validity and clinical utility. Methods: Based on four sources of self-eff...
Werrij, M.Q.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Riet, van 't J.P.; Vries, de H.
This study focuses on self-efficacy as a potential moderator of the effects of gain- and loss-framed health messages. Undergraduate students (N = 124) received a gain- or loss-framed message about consuming ecological meat. The data revealed that for participants high in self-efficacy, the
García-Ros, Rafael; Fuentes, María C.; Fernández, Basilio
Introduction: This study analyzed the predictive capacity and incremental validity of teachers' interpersonal self-efficacy on their levels of burnout. First, it presents the validation process of a Spanish adaptation of the Teacher Interpersonal Self-Efficacy Scale--TISES--(Browers & Tomic, 1999, 2001). Second, the predictive capacity of…
Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Pastorelli, Concetta; Regalia, Camillo; Scabini, Eugenia; Bandura, Albert
In this prospective study, we tested a structural model in which adolescents' perceived self-efficacy to manage parental relationships affected their satisfaction with family life both directly, and indirectly, through its impact on family practices. Findings based on 380 Italian adolescents showed that perceived filial self-efficacy was linked…
Küçüktepe, Seval Eminoglu; Akbag, Müge; Özmercan, Esra Eminoglu
Self-efficacy beliefs and emotional literacy skills are considered as one of the most fundamental characteristics of teachers to create positive effects on students. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between preservice teachers' self-efficacy beliefs and their emotional literacy levels. This study is designed as a relational…
Zimmerman, Whitney Alicia; Kulikowich, Jonna M.
A need was identified for an instrument to measure online learning self-efficacy, which encompassed the wide variety of tasks required of successful online students. The Online Learning Self-Efficacy Scale (OLSES) was designed to include tasks required of students enrolled in paced online courses at one university. In the present study, the…
Bradley, Rachel L.; Browne, Blaine L.; Kelley, Heather M.
This paper examined self-efficacy and self-regulatory skills and their influence on achievement in an online learning environment. This study utilized the Online Academic Success Indicators Scale (OASIS). The results of the scale were compared to previous tests measuring the predictive nature of self-efficacy and self-regulatory skills on academic…
Thornberg, Robert; Jungert, Tomas
The aim of the present study was to investigate how basic moral sensitivity in bullying, moral disengagement in bullying and defender self-efficacy were related to different bystander behaviors in bullying. Therefore, we examined pathways that linked students' basic moral sensitivity, moral disengagement, and defender self-efficacy to different…
Zelenak, Michael S.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the four sources of self-efficacy in music performance and examine responses from the Music Performance Self-Efficacy Scale (MPSES). Participants (N = 290) were middle and high school music students from 10 schools in two regions of the United States. Questions included the following: (1) How much…
The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining the…
Nora, Wong Lok Yan; Zhang, Kaili Chen
A survey research study was conducted with a sample of 100 secondary students from a local secondary school about the motives of cheating. The primary focus of this study was the interplay among variables of self-efficacy, peer influence and cheating. The results showed that students with low self-efficacy were more likely to cheat than those who…
Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Troutman, Beth R.
Infant temperamental difficulty was strongly related to mothers' level of postpartum depression, both directly and through the mediation of parenting self-efficacy. Social support appeared to function protectively against depression, primarily through self-efficacy. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. (Author/RH)
Padilla Rodriguez, Brenda Cecilia; Armellini, Alejandro
Self-efficacy is a strong predictor of academic performance, and an area of interest for higher education institutions. This paper reports on a massive open online course (MOOC) on study skills, aimed at increasing self-efficacy. Participants (n = 32) were from Mexico and Colombia, with ages ranging from 21 to 45 years. At the beginning and the…
Aleta, Beda T.
This research study aims to determine the factors of engineering skills self- efficacy sources contributing on the academic performance of AMAIUB engineering students. Thus, a better measure of engineering self-efficacy is needed to adequately assess engineering students' beliefs in their capabilities to perform tasks in their engineering…
Poyrazli, Senel; Arbona, Consuelo; Nora, Amaury; McPherson, Robert; Pisecco, Stewart
Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, The Inventory for Student Adjustment Strain, and UCLA Loneliness Scale were used to examine a total of 122 graduate international students. Findings indicate that English proficiency, assertiveness, and academic self-efficacy contributed uniquely to the variance in students' general…
Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.
This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…
Turky, Mohamed Abdullah
The present study tries to research the relationship between Social Collaboration Activity and Web 2.0 Self-Efficacy for Higher Education student. It additionally looks to decide how Social Collaboration adds to the forecast of their sense Web 2.0 Self-Efficacy. The study reported in this paper was led to inspect the relationship Social…
This study examined the effectiveness of Bandura's self-efficacy theory to predict exercise adherence. A sample of new members at a gymnasium was assessed on a Physical Self-Efficacy Scale, an Adherence Efficacy Scale and an Outcome Expectancy Scale. The dependent variable, exercise adherence, was assessed by ...
Wernand, J.J.; Kunseler, F.C.; Oosterman, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Schuengel, C.
The aim of the study was to examine parenting self-efficacy in relation to depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy. Five hundred thirty-three first-time pregnant women completed questionnaires at 12, 22, and 32 weeks of pregnancy that measure parenting self-efficacy, anxiety, and depressive
Ozyalcin Oskay, Ozge
The aims of this study are to determine prospective chemistry teachers' internet self-efficacy and preferences of constructivist internet-assisted environments and to examine the relationship between their internet self-efficacy and their preferences for constructivist internet-assisted environments, the relationship between their achievement in…
The notion of work self-efficacy is significant as the self-efficacy beliefs of an individual have considerable influence on his/her level of motivation and performance in the workplace. This paper aims to determine the effects of the learning activities of a work-integrated learning course in Exercise Science in relation to students' perceived…
Chan, Joanne C. Y.; Lam, Shui-fong
Background: Vicarious learning is one of the fundamental sources of self-efficacy that is frequently employed in educational settings. However, little research has investigated the effects of competition on students' writing self-efficacy when they engage in vicarious learning. Aim: This study compared the effects of competitive and…
Alaçam, Nur; Olgan, Refika
This study aimed to investigate the parent involvement self-efficacy beliefs held by pre-service early childhood teachers and their self-reported skills in implementing parent involvement strategies. Another aim was to examine the impact made on parent involvement self-efficacy beliefs by taking a course on parent involvement and by self-reported…
Iskender, Murat; Akin, Ahmet
The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship of internet addiction, social self-efficacy, and academic locus of control. Participants were 311 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale, the Academic Locus of Control Scale, and the Perceived Social Self-efficacy Scale. The…
Bojczyk, Kathryn Elizabeth; Haverback, Heather Rogers; Pae, Hye K.
The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between mothers' self-efficacy beliefs, their preschool children's home learning environments, and literacy skills. A sample of 112 mother-child dyads was recruited from Head Start centers in rural and urban communities. The measures included maternal self-efficacy and maternal perceptions of…
Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Masoun, Atieh
This study investigated the continuous influence of self-assessment on EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' self-efficacy. The participants, divided into an experimental and a control group, were 57 Iranian EFL learners in an English-language institute. The participants' self-efficacy was measured through a questionnaire that was the same…
Zinken, Katarzyna M; Cradock, Sue; Skinner, T Chas
The paper presents the development of a coding tool for self-efficacy orientated interventions in diabetes self-management programmes (Analysis System for Self-Efficacy Training, ASSET) and explores its construct validity and clinical utility. Based on four sources of self-efficacy (i.e., mastery experience, role modelling, verbal persuasion and physiological and affective states), published self-efficacy based interventions for diabetes care were analysed in order to identify specific verbal behavioural techniques. Video-recorded facilitating behaviours were evaluated using ASSET. The reliability between four coders was high (K=0.71). ASSET enabled assessment of both self-efficacy based techniques and participants' response to those techniques. Individual patterns of delivery and shifts over time across facilitators were found. In the presented intervention we observed that self-efficacy utterances were followed by longer patient verbal responses than non-self-efficacy utterances. These detailed analyses with ASSET provide rich data and give the researcher an insight into the underlying mechanism of the intervention process. By providing a detailed description of self-efficacy strategies ASSET can be used by health care professionals to guide reflective practice and support training programmes.
Brubacher, Michael R.; McMahon, Susan D.; Keys, Christopher B.
Self-appraisals can combine with aspects of the school environment in predicting adolescent emotions and behaviors. This study examined how academic self-efficacy and social self-efficacy are related to anxiety and aggression, and how these relations are moderated by school stressors, academic achievement, and school belonging. The participants of…
McMillian, Kimberley Suzanne
The study aims to explore the level of suburban 5th grade students' mathematics self-efficacy, math anxiety, and academic achievement, to discover the possible interconnections between these parameters. The measures used to evaluate each included the Math Anxiety Rating Scale, the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and the North Carolina End of Grade…
Maddy, Luther M., III
Unemployment is, and will likely continue to be, a problem in industrialized nations. Numerous studies have concluded unemployment negatively impacts self-esteem and self-efficacy. Additional studies have shown that unemployed individuals with lower self-esteem and self-efficacy tend to remain unemployed longer than individuals with higher…
Pietsch, James; Walker, Richard; Chapman, Elaine
Examines the relationship among self-concept, self-efficacy, and performance in mathematics among 416 high school students. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the existence of two self-concept components--a competency component and an affective component. Self-efficacy items and the competency items of self-concept also loaded on a single…
McKinnon, Merryn; Lamberts, Rod
The science teaching self-efficacy beliefs of primary school teachers influence teaching practice. The purpose of this research was to determine if informal education institutions, such as science centres, could provide professional development that influences the science teaching self-efficacy beliefs of pre-service and in-service primary school…
The role of interest, self-efficacy and academic self-regulation in predicting academic achievement of students of Islamic Azad University. ... academic achievement and among subtests of interest only subtests of confidence has ability to predict academic achievement, but self-efficacy is not able to predict students' progress.
Carroll, Julia M; Fox, Amy C
The relationship between cognitive skills and reading has been well-established. However, the role of motivational factors such as self-efficacy in reading progress is less clear. In particular, it is not clear how self-efficacy relates to word level reading versus comprehension, and whether this differs in boys and girls. This study examines the relationship between self-efficacy, word reading and reading comprehension across the range of reading abilities after controlling for reading-related cognitive factors. One hundred and seventy nine children (86 males and 93 females) between 8 and 11 years old completed a self-report measure of reading self-efficacy together with measures of reading comprehension and word reading, working memory, auditory short-term memory, phonological awareness, and vocabulary. Boys and girls showed similar levels of attainment and reading self-efficacy. Reading self-efficacy was associated with word reading, but not with reading comprehension in either boys or girls. It is argued that this may reflect important differences between reading self-efficacy and more general measures of reading motivation and engagement. Reading self-efficacy is an element of reading motivation that is closely associated with a child's perceived attainments in reading and is less susceptible to the gender differences seen in broader measures.
Full Text Available Introduction: self-efficacy is referred to individual's beliefs about their abilities to learn and doing significant tasks in life. This study aims to determine the relationship between self-efficacy and academic motivation in a group of medical sciences' students. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 275 students of Golestan University of Medical Sciences (GOUMS were selected using stratified random sampling method. A questionnaire consists of questions regarding demographic, academic motivation, and self-efficacy beliefs were used to collect data. Pearson correlation coefficients, independent T-Test and one way ANOVA were applied on the data. Results: The average of students’ academic motivation was 30.3±4.0. 50.2 percent of students had self-efficacy higher than average. Self-efficacy had significant correlation with intrinsic motivation sub-scale (r=0.196, P=0.001 and total score of academic motivation scale (r=0.155, P=0.01. There were no significant correlations between self-efficacy and extrinsic motivation (r=0.054, P=0.376 and motivation sub-scale (r=0.104, P=0.08. There was no significant difference between two genders in self-efficacy. Conclusion: Improvement in self-efficacy of medical sciences' students could improve their motivation.
Yang, Pei-Ling; Wang, Ai-Ling
The present study aims to investigate the relationship among EFL college learners' language learning strategies, English self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction from the perspectives of Social Cognitive Theory. Three constructs, namely language learning strategies, English learning self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction, were…