WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjective mental workload

  1. Cultural influences on the measurement of subjective mental workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Addie; Widyanti, Ari

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive ergonomics is well entrenched in North American and most European work environments, where systems and products are designed with the capabilities and limitations of the user in mind. A prominent technique for analysing task demands is subjective mental workload measurement. Subjective

  2. Subjective responses of mental workload during real time driving: A pilot field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, N. I. A.; Dawal, S. Z. M.; Yusoff, N.

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated drivers’ mental workload in real time driving to identify the driving situation’s complexity influences in an attempt to further design on a complete experimental study. Three driving settings were prepared: Session A (simple situation); Session B (moderately complex situation); Session C (very complex situation). To determine the mental workload, the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) was administered to four drivers after each experimental driving session. The results showed that the Own Performance (OP) was the highest for session A (highway), while Physical Demand (PD) recorded the highest mean workload score across the session B (rural road) and C (city road). Based on the overall results of the study, it can be concluded that the highway is less demanding compared to rural and city road. It can be highlighted in this study that in the rural and city road driving situation, the timing must be set correctly to assure the relevant traffic density. Thus, the sensitivity of the timing must be considered in the future experiment. A larger number of experience drivers must be used in evaluating the driving situations to provide results that can be used to draw more realistic experiments and conclusions.

  3. Perceived Time as a Measure of Mental Workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2013-01-01

    The mental workload imposed by systems is important to their operation and usability. Consequently, researchers and practitioners need reliable, valid, and easy-to-administer methods for measuring mental workload. The ratio of perceived time to clock time appears to be such a method, yet mental...... is a performance-related rather than task-related dimension of mental workload. We find a higher perceived time ratio for timed than untimed tasks. According to subjective workload ratings and pupil-diameter measurements the timed tasks impose higher mental workload. This finding contradicts the prospective...... the perceived time ratio and mental workload is reversed for task success compared to time constraints. We discuss implications for the use of perceived time as a measure of mental workload....

  4. Assessment of operators’ mental workload using physiological and subjective measures in cement, city traffic and power plant controlcenters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Fallahi

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The results suggested that when operators’ mental demands especially in traffic control and power plant tasks increased, their mental fatigue and stress level increased and their mental health deteriorated. Therefore, it may be necessary to implement an ergonomic program or administrative control to manage mental probably health in these control centers.Furthermore, by evaluating MW, the control center director can organize the human resources for each MW condition to sustain the appropriate performance as well as improve system functions.

  5. State of science: mental workload in ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark S; Brookhuis, Karel A; Wickens, Christopher D; Hancock, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Mental workload (MWL) is one of the most widely used concepts in ergonomics and human factors and represents a topic of increasing importance. Since modern technology in many working environments imposes ever more cognitive demands upon operators while physical demands diminish, understanding how MWL impinges on performance is increasingly critical. Yet, MWL is also one of the most nebulous concepts, with numerous definitions and dimensions associated with it. Moreover, MWL research has had a tendency to focus on complex, often safety-critical systems (e.g. transport, process control). Here we provide a general overview of the current state of affairs regarding the understanding, measurement and application of MWL in the design of complex systems over the last three decades. We conclude by discussing contemporary challenges for applied research, such as the interaction between cognitive workload and physical workload, and the quantification of workload 'redlines' which specify when operators are approaching or exceeding their performance tolerances.

  6. Probe-Independent EEG Assessment of Mental Workload in Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    A TRIDENT SCHOLAR PROJECT REPORT NO. 437 Probe-Independent EEG Assessment of Mental Workload in Pilots by Midshipman 1/C Michael K...INDEPENDENT EEG ASSESSMENT OF MENTAL WORKLOAD IN PILOTS by Midshipman 1/C Michael K. Johnson United States Naval Academy Annapolis, Maryland...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Probe-Independent EEG Assessment of Mental Workload in Pilots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  7. Defining the subjective experience of workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S. G.; Childress, M. E.; Bortolussi, M.

    1981-01-01

    Flight scenarios that represent different types and levels of pilot workload are needed in order to conduct research about, and develop measures of, pilot workload. In order to be useful, however, the workload associated with such scenarios and the component tasks must be determined independently. An initial study designed to provide such information was conducted by asking a panel of general aviation pilots to evaluate flight-related tasks for the overall, perceptual, physical, and cognitive workload they impose. These ratings will provide the nucleus for a data base of flight-related primary tasks that have been independently rated for workload to use in workload assessment research.

  8. Assessment of mental workload and academic motivation in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Kumru Didem; Can, Gulin Feryal; Erdem, Saban Remzi; Muderrisoglu, Ibrahim Haldun

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the level of correlation and direction of linearity between academic motivation and subjective workload. The study was conducted at Baskent University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey, from December 2013 to February 2014, and comprised Phase 5 Phase 6 medical students. Subjective workload level was determined by using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scale that was adapted to Turkish. Academic motivation values were obtained with the help of Academic Motivation Scale university form. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Of the total 105 subjects, 65(62%) students were in Phase 5 and 40(38%) were in Phase 6. Of the Phase 5 students, 18(27.7%) were boys and 47(72.3%) were girls, while of the Phase 6 students, 16(40%) were boys and 24(60%) were girls. There were significant differences in Phase 5 and Phase 6 students for mental effort (p=0.00) and physical effort (p=0.00). The highest correlation in Phase 5 was between mental effort and intrinsic motivation (r=0.343). For Phase 6, highest correlation was between effort and amotivation (r= -0.375). Subjective workload affected academic motivation in medical students.

  9. Mental workload measurement in operator control room using NASA-TLX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarindra, M.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Permana, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    The workload, encountered a combination of physical workload and mental workload, is a consequence of the activities for workers. Central control room is one department in the oil processing company, employees tasked with monitoring the processing unit for 24 hours nonstop with a combination of 3 shifts in 8 hours. NASA-TLX (NASA Task Load Index) is one of the subjective mental workload measurement using six factors, namely the Mental demand (MD), Physical demand (PD), Temporal demand (TD), Performance (OP), Effort (EF), frustration levels (FR). Measurement of a subjective mental workload most widely used because it has a high degree of validity. Based on the calculation of the mental workload, there at 5 units (DTU, NPU, HTU, DIST and OPS) at the control chamber (94; 83.33; 94.67; 81, 33 and 94.67 respectively) that categorize as very high mental workload. The high level of mental workload on the operator in the Central Control Room is a requirement to have high accuracy, alertness and can make decisions quickly

  10. Training and testing ERP-BCIs under different mental workload conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yufeng; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yuqian; Gu, Bin; Qi, Hongzhi; Zhou, Peng; Ming, Dong

    2016-02-01

    Objective. As one of the most popular and extensively studied paradigms of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), event-related potential-based BCIs (ERP-BCIs) are usually built and tested in ideal laboratory settings in most existing studies, with subjects concentrating on stimuli and intentionally avoiding possible distractors. This study is aimed at examining the effect of simultaneous mental activities on ERP-BCIs by manipulating various levels of mental workload during the training and/or testing of an ERP-BCI. Approach. Mental workload was manipulated during the training or testing of a row-column P300-speller to investigate how and to what extent the spelling performance and the ERPs evoked by the oddball stimuli are affected by simultaneous mental workload. Main results. Responses of certain ERP components, temporal-occipital N200 and the late reorienting negativity evoked by the oddball stimuli and the classifiability of ERP features between targets and non-targets decreased with the increase of mental workload encountered by the subject. However, the effect of mental workload on the performance of ERP-BCI was not always negative but depended on the conditions where the ERP-BCI was built and applied. The performance of ERP-BCI built under an ideal lab setting without any irrelevant mental activities declined with the increasing mental workload of the testing data. However, the performance was significantly improved when an ERP-BCI was built under an appropriate mental workload level, compared to that built under speller-only conditions. Significance. The adverse effect of concurrent mental activities may present a challenge for ERP-BCIs trained in ideal lab settings but which are to be used in daily work, especially when users are performing demanding mental processing. On the other hand, the positive effects of the mental workload of the training data suggest that introducing appropriate mental workload during training ERP-BCIs is of potential benefit to the

  11. Mental Workload Measurement in Operational Aircraft Systems: Two Promising Approaches,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental workload (MWL) is becoming a useful construct for the design of complex man-machine systems because it provides a framework to include many...involves very little action but high degrees of mental activity. Although we have employed task-analytic workload measures for many years

  12. Mental workload and its relation with fatigue among urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmin Hassanzadeh-Rangi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Driving crash is one of major concerns in all countries. Mental workload reflects the level of attention resources required to meet both objec­tive and subjective performance criteria, which may be affected by task demand, external support, and past experience. Mental workload has been commonly cited as a major cause of workplace and transportation accidents. The objective of this study was assessment of mental workload and its relation with fatigue among urban bus drivers in Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, the NASA-TLX workload scale and the Samn-Perelli fatigue scale were completed by 194 professional bus drivers. Descriptive statistics as well as correlation and regression analysis were performed for data processing. Results: The total mental workload had highest correlation with the physical demand(r=0.73, p<0.001, the mental demand (r=0.68, p<0.001 and the time pressure (r=0.58, p<0.001. The total fatigue perceived by bus driver had highest correlation with the frustration level (r=0.42, p<0.001, the time pressure (r=0.24, p<0.001 and the mental workload (r=0.21, p<0.001. Conclusion: Mental workload, physical workload and time pressure are important determinants of the total mental workload and fatigue perceived by urban bus drivers. A comprehensive intervention program, include work turnover, trip and work-rest scheduling as well as smoking cessation, was recommended to improve mental workload and fatigue. 

  13. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  14. Comparative analysis of cognitive tasks for modeling mental workload with electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taeho; Kim, Miyoung; Hwangbo, Minsu; Oh, Eunmi

    2014-01-01

    Previous electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have shown that cognitive workload can be estimated by using several types of cognitive tasks. In this study, we attempted to characterize cognitive tasks that have been used to manipulate workload for generating classification models. We carried out a comparative analysis between two representative types of working memory tasks: the n-back task and the mental arithmetic task. Based on experiments with 7 healthy subjects using Emotiv EPOC, we compared the consistency, robustness, and efficiency of each task in determining cognitive workload in a short training session. The mental arithmetic task seems consistent and robust in manipulating clearly separable high and low levels of cognitive workload with less training. In addition, the mental arithmetic task shows consistency despite repeated usage over time and without notable task adaptation in users. The current study successfully quantifies the quality and efficiency of cognitive workload modeling depending on the type and configuration of training tasks.

  15. Filter bank common spatial patterns in mental workload estimation.

    OpenAIRE

    Arvaneh, M.; Umilta, A.; Robertson, I.H.

    2015-01-01

    EEG-based workload estimation technology provides a real time means of assessing mental workload. Such technology can effectively enhance the performance of the human-machine interaction and the learning process. When designing workload estimation algorithms, a crucial signal processing component is the feature extraction step. Despite several studies on this field, the spatial properties of the EEG signals were mostly neglected. Since EEG inherently has a poor spacial resolution, features ex...

  16. Debriefing decreases mental workload in surgical crisis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boet, Sylvain; Sharma, Bharat; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann; Hladkowicz, Emily; Rittenhouse, Neil; Grantcharov, Teodor

    2017-05-01

    Mental workload is the amount of mental effort involved in performing a particular task. Crisis situations may increase mental workload, which can subsequently negatively impact operative performance and patient safety. This study aims to measure the impact of learning through debriefing and a systematic approach to crisis on trainees' mental workload in a simulated surgical crisis. Twenty junior surgical residents participated in a high-fidelity, simulated, postoperative crisis in a surgical ward environment (pretest). Participants were randomized to either an instructor-led debriefing, including performance feedback (intervention; n = 10) or no debriefing (control; n = 10). Subjects then immediately managed a second simulated crisis (post-test). Mental workload was assessed in real time during the scenarios using a previously validated, wireless, vibrotactile device. Mental workload was represented by subject response times to the vibrations, which were recorded and analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Participants in the debriefing arm had a significantly reduced median response time in milliseconds (post-test minus pretest -695, quartile range -2,136 to -297) compared to participants in the control arm (42, -1,191 to 763), (between-arm difference P = .049). Debriefing after simulated surgical crisis situations may improve performance by decreasing trainee's mental workload during a subsequent simulated surgical crisis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Real-time measurement of mental workload: A feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Arthur; Humphrey, Darryl; Sirevaag, Erik; Mecklinger, Axel

    1990-01-01

    The primary goal of the study was to explore the utility of event-related brain potentials (ERP) as real-time measures of workload. To this end, subjects performed two different tasks both separately and together. One task required that subjects monitor a bank of constantly changing gauges and detect critical deviations. Difficulty was varied by changing the predictability of the gauges. The second task was mental arithmetic. Difficulty was varied by requiring subjects to perform operations on either two or three columns of numbers. Two conditions that could easily be distinguished on the basis of performance measures were selected for the real-time evaluation of ERPs. A bootstrapping approach was adopted in which one thousand samples of n trials (n = 1, 3, 5 ...65) were classified using several measures of P300 and Slow Wave amplitude. Classification accuracies of 85 percent were achieved with 25 trials. Results are discussed in terms of potential enhancements for real-time recording.

  18. Register of Research in Progress on Mental Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    are translated into equipment design and training solutions. The Register of Research in Progress on Mental Workload was conceived as one means by which...as a test bed for the workload assessment program. The validity of this aproach will be assessed with a series of simulation experiments in our GAT-I...Discrete mental tasks are used, ranging from search tasks to sentence comprehension tasks to language translation tasks (simultaneous interpretation

  19. Physical and mental workloads in professional dance teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Eileen M; Schmidt, Mike; Leslie-Spinks, Jeremy; Fischer, Axel; Groneberg, David A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the level of mental and physical workloads in professional dance teachers depending on the trained students' age, technique level, or dance style. A total number of 133 professional dance pedagogues responded to an online cross-sectional questionnaire survey on self-assessment of physical and mental workloads occurring during dance units. The majority of dance teachers estimated their level of physical and mental workload to be almost as high as that of their students, with differences in physical and mental workloads observed depending on dance style, age of students, and technical level. More than 60% of the teachers were convinced that their occupation implies positive effects on their own health in terms of self-realization (78.2%), musculoskeletal system (66.9%), and social relationships (61.7%). Of all respondents, 58.6% stated that their musculoskeletal system was jeopardized by the physically demanding activity. This is followed by the fear of financial insecurity (50.4%). The majority of all dance teachers (males 65.4%, females 63.9%) would like to obtain further education on prevention against or dealing with physical workload. Physical and mental workloads play an important role in dance teaching. Coping with or preventing these loads could be keys to a lifelong, healthy career as a professional dance teacher. Future trials should look at clinical parameters of physical and mental load.

  20. The effect of varying task difficulty on subjective workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y.-Y.; Wickens, C. D.; Hart, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of different difficulty distribution patterns on subjective workload, and the presence of a primacy/recency effect in subjective ratings are examined. Eight subjects performed the perceptual central processing required for response selection and manual target acquisition for response execution. The reaction time, movement time, and the percent of correct pattern matching and arithmetic equations are analyzed. The data reveal that subjective rating is unaffected by different task difficulty and no primacy/recency effects are observed in subjective ratings. It is concluded that subjective workload reflects the experience of an ongoing integration process.

  1. Multisubject "Learning" for Mental Workload Classification Using Concurrent EEG, fNIRS, and Physiological Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichuan; Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    An accurate measure of mental workload level has diverse neuroergonomic applications ranging from brain computer interfacing to improving the efficiency of human operators. In this study, we integrated electroencephalogram (EEG), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), and physiological measures for the classification of three workload levels in an n-back working memory task. A significantly better than chance level classification was achieved by EEG-alone, fNIRS-alone, physiological alone, and EEG+fNIRS based approaches. The results confirmed our previous finding that integrating EEG and fNIRS significantly improved workload classification compared to using EEG-alone or fNIRS-alone. The inclusion of physiological measures, however, does not significantly improves EEG-based or fNIRS-based workload classification. A major limitation of currently available mental workload assessment approaches is the requirement to record lengthy calibration data from the target subject to train workload classifiers. We show that by learning from the data of other subjects, workload classification accuracy can be improved especially when the amount of data from the target subject is small.

  2. Pilot workload evaluated with subjective and physiological measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Gaillard, A.W.K.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to validate different measures for mental workload. Ten aspirant fighter jet pilots flew several scenarios in a flight simulator. The scenarios were divided into segments with different levels of task load. During the flight, heart rate, respiration and blood pressure

  3. Analysis of the Body Control System Related to Mental Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Naito

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a model-based analysis of the standing posture control mechanism with consideration to mental workload and the physiological features of sensory feedback. It has been known that standing posture control is not performed autonomously or unconsciously but is affected by “working memory” [1]. In order to investigate how mental workload in working memory influences standing posture control, we consider the feedback groups in the standing posture control mechanism which include the viscoelastic characteristics of the musculoskeletal system and sensory feedback. We use a centre of pressure (COP-based tracking task to investigate the influence of mental workload on voluntary (tracking movement. Maurer-Peterka's model is applied to analyse the standing posture control mechanism, with respect to a change in the internal processes. The simulation results show the relationship of the feedback gain and its delay from the central nervous system with the standing posture control performance. The proposed model-based scheme provides a comprehensive view for physiological data analysis of human body movement in relation to mental workload.

  4. Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT): A User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    The effects of supervisor experience and the presence of a shift technical advisor on the performance of two-man crews in a nuclear power plant...et de Recherches de Medecine Acrospatiale, Laboratoire d’Etudes Medicophysiologiques 16/330). S 110 Potter, S. S., 1986, Subjective workload assessment

  5. A Review of the Mental Workload Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Psychopsychologie, Serie 1. Biologische Psychologie . Enzyklopãdie der Psychologie . Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe. 2 http://www.google.com Report...operator’s meta-controller activities: the cognitive “device” that directs attention, copes with interacting goals, selects strategies, adjusts to task...excess mental effort that comes form anxiety evoking cognitive aspects of the task ...”). Boucsein and Backs (1999, p. 8) outline what is perhaps an

  6. Filter bank common spatial patterns in mental workload estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvaneh, Mahnaz; Umilta, Alberto; Robertson, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    EEG-based workload estimation technology provides a real time means of assessing mental workload. Such technology can effectively enhance the performance of the human-machine interaction and the learning process. When designing workload estimation algorithms, a crucial signal processing component is the feature extraction step. Despite several studies on this field, the spatial properties of the EEG signals were mostly neglected. Since EEG inherently has a poor spacial resolution, features extracted individually from each EEG channel may not be sufficiently efficient. This problem becomes more pronounced when we use low-cost but convenient EEG sensors with limited stability which is the case in practical scenarios. To address this issue, in this paper, we introduce a filter bank common spatial patterns algorithm combined with a feature selection method to extract spatio-spectral features discriminating different mental workload levels. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, we carry out a comparative analysis between two representative types of working memory tasks using data recorded from an Emotiv EPOC headset which is a mobile low-cost EEG recording device. The experimental results showed that the proposed spatial filtering algorithm outperformed the state-of-the algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy.

  7. Evaluation of drivers\\' behavior performing a curve under mental workload

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Sartori Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Driving under distraction may lead drivers to wrong actions that can result in serious accidents. The objective of this thesis was to apply a driving simulator to verify variations in drivers\\' behavior while driving. Behavior to drive on a curve was measured by variation in drivers\\' speed profile in a virtualized highway. The comparison was performed between two identical simulations, one involving drivers distracted with a mental workload, and other in which they were full aware of driving...

  8. School Nurse Workload: A Scoping Review of Acute Care, Community Health, and Mental Health Nursing Workload Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to survey the most recent (5 years) acute care, community health, and mental health nursing workload literature to understand themes and research avenues that may be applicable to school nursing workload research. The search for empirical and nonempirical literature was conducted using search engines such as…

  9. Physiological Evaluation of Mental Workload in Time Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Kyu; Nozawa, Akio; Mizuno, Tota; Ide, Hideto

    There can be seen in many situations where office workers have to make decisions under the time restriction. For example, flight control buisiness, dealing work and so on. Such the time restriction can have the time pressure, which is considerd one of mental workload, on them. In addition, it can cause human error on imformation processing. If mental work load appropriately maintained the work level, office workers would be able to go on the work with moderate tention. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate physiological indexes, which are ECG, EEG, Facial skin thermo image by using adding tasks.

  10. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, I.; Ruitenburg, M. M.; Botje, D.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional

  11. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, I.; Ruitenburg, M.M.; Botje, D.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Sluiter, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional

  12. An assessment of the effects of navigation maps on drivers' mental workloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chin-Jung; Lin, Chia-Hsyang; Hsu, Shang-Hwa

    2014-06-01

    This study compares the mental workloads and subjective feelings of drivers navigating different road patterns using different formats of electronic and paper maps. The results show drivers experience lower mental workloads when using 2D electronic maps compared to 3D electronic maps. Significant differences in galvanic skin responses were observed for navigation map formats with different road intersection patterns. The low- and high-frequency components of heart rate variability showed significant differences between map formats for regular road intersections, but no significant differences between map formats for irregular road intersections. Statistically significant effects on subjective feelings were found between different map formats and road intersection patterns. The wider implications of the study results for the design and use of navigation map interfaces are discussed.

  13. The Effect of Communication Style on Task Performance and Mental Workload Using Wearable Computers

    OpenAIRE

    Nash, Eric B

    2000-01-01

    This thesis measured the mental workload associated with operating a voice activated software application run on wearable computer under five different communication styles (buttons, command line, icon buttons, icon text menus, and text menus). The goal of this thesis was to determine which communication style would be best allow wearable computer users to simultaneously perform other non-computer tasks. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to using one of five software versions (n = 6), ...

  14. Multisubject “Learning” for Mental Workload Classification Using Concurrent EEG, fNIRS, and Physiological Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichuan; Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    An accurate measure of mental workload level has diverse neuroergonomic applications ranging from brain computer interfacing to improving the efficiency of human operators. In this study, we integrated electroencephalogram (EEG), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), and physiological measures for the classification of three workload levels in an n-back working memory task. A significantly better than chance level classification was achieved by EEG-alone, fNIRS-alone, physiological alone, and EEG+fNIRS based approaches. The results confirmed our previous finding that integrating EEG and fNIRS significantly improved workload classification compared to using EEG-alone or fNIRS-alone. The inclusion of physiological measures, however, does not significantly improves EEG-based or fNIRS-based workload classification. A major limitation of currently available mental workload assessment approaches is the requirement to record lengthy calibration data from the target subject to train workload classifiers. We show that by learning from the data of other subjects, workload classification accuracy can be improved especially when the amount of data from the target subject is small. PMID:28798675

  15. Multisubject “Learning” for Mental Workload Classification Using Concurrent EEG, fNIRS, and Physiological Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An accurate measure of mental workload level has diverse neuroergonomic applications ranging from brain computer interfacing to improving the efficiency of human operators. In this study, we integrated electroencephalogram (EEG, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, and physiological measures for the classification of three workload levels in an n-back working memory task. A significantly better than chance level classification was achieved by EEG-alone, fNIRS-alone, physiological alone, and EEG+fNIRS based approaches. The results confirmed our previous finding that integrating EEG and fNIRS significantly improved workload classification compared to using EEG-alone or fNIRS-alone. The inclusion of physiological measures, however, does not significantly improves EEG-based or fNIRS-based workload classification. A major limitation of currently available mental workload assessment approaches is the requirement to record lengthy calibration data from the target subject to train workload classifiers. We show that by learning from the data of other subjects, workload classification accuracy can be improved especially when the amount of data from the target subject is small.

  16. Effects of mental workload and fatigue on the P300, alpha and theta band power during operation of an ERP (P300) brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käthner, Ivo; Wriessnegger, Selina C; Müller-Putz, Gernot R; Kübler, Andrea; Halder, Sebastian

    2014-10-01

    The study aimed at revealing electrophysiological indicators of mental workload and fatigue during prolonged usage of a P300 brain-computer interface (BCI). Mental workload was experimentally manipulated with dichotic listening tasks. Medium and high workload conditions alternated. Behavioral measures confirmed that the manipulation of mental workload was successful. Reduced P300 amplitude was found for the high workload condition. Along with lower performance and an increase in the subjective level of fatigue, an increase of power in the alpha band was found for the last as compared to the first run of both conditions. The study confirms that a combination of signals derived from the time and frequency domain of the electroencephalogram is promising for the online detection of workload and fatigue. It also demonstrates that satisfactory accuracies can be achieved by healthy participants with the P300 speller, despite constant distraction and when pursuing the task for a long time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring Mental Workload with EEG+fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajani, Haleh; Garbey, Marc; Omurtag, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    We studied the capability of a Hybrid functional neuroimaging technique to quantify human mental workload (MWL). We have used electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as imaging modalities with 17 healthy subjects performing the letter n-back task, a standard experimental paradigm related to working memory (WM). The level of MWL was parametrically changed by variation of n from 0 to 3. Nineteen EEG channels were covering the whole-head and 19 fNIRS channels were located on the forehead to cover the most dominant brain region involved in WM. Grand block averaging of recorded signals revealed specific behaviors of oxygenated-hemoglobin level during changes in the level of MWL. A machine learning approach has been utilized for detection of the level of MWL. We extracted different features from EEG, fNIRS, and EEG+fNIRS signals as the biomarkers of MWL and fed them to a linear support vector machine (SVM) as train and test sets. These features were selected based on their sensitivity to the changes in the level of MWL according to the literature. We introduced a new category of features within fNIRS and EEG+fNIRS systems. In addition, the performance level of each feature category was systematically assessed. We also assessed the effect of number of features and window size in classification performance. SVM classifier used in order to discriminate between different combinations of cognitive states from binary- and multi-class states. In addition to the cross-validated performance level of the classifier other metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated for a comprehensive assessment of the classification system. The Hybrid (EEG+fNIRS) system had an accuracy that was significantly higher than that of either EEG or fNIRS. Our results suggest that EEG+fNIRS features combined with a classifier are capable of robustly discriminating among various levels of MWL. Results suggest that EEG+fNIRS should

  18. Driving with varying secondary task levels: mental workload, behavioural effects, and task prioritization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Nina; van Arem, Bart; van der Horst, Richard; Brookhuis, Karel; Alkim, T.P.; Arentze, T.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance (ADA) Systems may provide a solution for safety-critical traffic situations. But these systems are new additions into the vehicle that might increase drivers’ mental workload. How do drivers behave in situations with high mental workload, and do they actively prioritize

  19. On the psychophysics of workload - Why bother with subjective measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopher, D.; Braune, R.

    1984-01-01

    Psychophysical functions describe the relationship between variations in the amplitude of a defined physical quantity and the psychological perception of these changes. Examples are brightness, loudness, and pain. The regularities of these relationships have been formulated into psychophysical laws. The measurement methodology of psychophysical scaling has been refined by the Harvard group led by Stevens (1957 and 1966), who proposed a power function as a general form for such laws. It is argued here that a similar scaling approach can be adapted to the measurement of workload and task demands based upon subjective estimates. The rationale is that these estimates, like other psychophysical judgments, reflect the individual's perception of the amount of processing resources that the subject invests to meet the demand imposed by a task. This approach was successfully applied to the assessment of 21 experimental conditions given to a group of 60 subjects. The paper discusses the main results of this effort and their implications to theory and application in human performance.

  20. A Multiple Processing Resource Explanation of the Subjective Dimensions of Operator Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    Arabie, P. (1979). Auditory versus phonetic accounts of observed confusions between consonant phonemes. Journal of the Acoustal Society of America, 66, 46...similarity. Scaling and clustering analyses of the similarity data produced subjective dimensions/ clusters of workload that were explained in terms of...by subjects and rated according to workload similarity. Scaling and clustering analyses of the similarity data produced subjective dimensions/ clusters

  1. Mental workload under time pressure can trigger frequent hot flashes in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Kyong; Satoh, Noriaki; Kumashiro, Masaharu

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between mental workload and occurrence of hot flashes. Twelve women with moderate to severe menopausal hot flashes participated in the study. Subjects participated in both a mental arithmetic task (Task) and control (Non-task) experiments. We measured heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, near infrared spectroscopy, skin temperature, and skin potential level. The incidence of hot flashes was greater in Task than in Non-task. No significant differences between before, during and after hot flashes emerged for the percentage of correct responses and reaction time. However, the percentage of correct responses for two subjects among the ten who experienced hot flashes in Task substantially declined during hot flashes. Chest skin temperatures increased in both Task and Non-task during hot flashes, and regional oxygen saturation was significantly higher in Non-task than in Task. The present study suggested that mental workload under time pressure might be a risk factor for menopausal hot flashes, and the performance of most people who experienced hot flashes was not affected by hot flashes, however, work-related difficulties due to cognitive disturbance during hot flashes might arise in some people.

  2. Surgeons' display reduced mental effort and workload while performing robotically assisted surgical tasks, when compared to conventional laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lee J; Wilson, Mark R; McGrath, John S; Waine, Elizabeth; Masters, Rich S W; Vine, Samuel J

    2015-09-01

    Research has demonstrated the benefits of robotic surgery for the patient; however, research examining the benefits of robotic technology for the surgeon is limited. This study aimed to adopt validated measures of workload, mental effort, and gaze control to assess the benefits of robotic surgery for the surgeon. We predicted that the performance of surgical training tasks on a surgical robot would require lower investments of workload and mental effort, and would be accompanied by superior gaze control and better performance, when compared to conventional laparoscopy. Thirty-two surgeons performed two trials on a ball pick-and-drop task and a rope-threading task on both robotic and laparoscopic systems. Measures of workload (the surgery task load index), mental effort (subjective: rating scale for mental effort and objective: standard deviation of beat-to-beat intervals), gaze control (using a mobile eye movement recorder), and task performance (completion time and number of errors) were recorded. As expected, surgeons performed both tasks more quickly and accurately (with fewer errors) on the robotic system. Self-reported measures of workload and mental effort were significantly lower on the robotic system compared to the laparoscopic system. Similarly, an objective cardiovascular measure of mental effort revealed lower investment of mental effort when using the robotic platform relative to the laparoscopic platform. Gaze control distinguished the robotic from the laparoscopic systems, but not in the predicted fashion, with the robotic system associated with poorer (more novice like) gaze control. The findings highlight the benefits of robotic technology for surgical operators. Specifically, they suggest that tasks can be performed more proficiently, at a lower workload, and with the investment of less mental effort, this may allow surgeons greater cognitive resources for dealing with other demands such as communication, decision-making, or periods of increased

  3. Mental workload measurement for emergency operating procedures in digital nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Wang, Yang; Song, Fei; Li, Zhizhong; Dong, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    Mental workload is a major consideration for the design of emergency operation procedures (EOPs) in nuclear power plants. Continuous and objective measures are desired. This paper compares seven mental workload measurement methods (pupil size, blink rate, blink duration, heart rate variability, parasympathetic/sympathetic ratio, total power and (Goals, Operations, Methods, and Section Rules)-(Keystroke Level Model) GOMS-KLM-based workload index) with regard to sensitivity, validity and intrusiveness. Eighteen participants performed two computerised EOPs of different complexity levels, and mental workload measures were collected during the experiment. The results show that the blink rate is sensitive to both the difference in the overall task complexity and changes in peak complexity within EOPs, that the error rate is sensitive to the level of arousal and correlate to the step error rate and that blink duration increases over the task period in both low and high complexity EOPs. Cardiac measures were able to distinguish tasks with different overall complexity. The intrusiveness of the physiological instruments is acceptable. Finally, the six physiological measures were integrated using group method of data handling to predict perceived overall mental workload. The study compared seven measures for evaluating the mental workload with emergency operation procedure in nuclear power plants. An experiment with simulated procedures was carried out, and the results show that eye response measures are useful for assessing temporal changes of workload whereas cardiac measures are useful for evaluating the overall workload.

  4. Investigation on the relationship between mental workload and musculoskeletal disorders among nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Mahmoudifar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: High prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders owing to the work is one of the popular discomforts between nursing staff. High level of workload is considered as a serious problem and identified as a stressor in the nursing. This study intends to recognize the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and mental workload in nursing personnel reside at southern part of West Azerbaijan province Iran in 2017. Materials and Methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 100 nurses working in West Azerbaijan hospitals have been randomly selected. Nordic and National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index workload questionnaires have been simultaneously utilized as data collection tools. Data analysis has also carried out using SPSS, variance analysis tests, multiple linear regression, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Results suggest that the most frequent complaints of musculoskeletal problems are associated to the back area. Investigation on sextet scales of mental workload indicates that each of the six scales of workload was at the high-risk level and the average of total workload was 72.45 ± 19.45 which confirms a high-risk level. Pearson's correlation coefficient also indicates mental workload elements have a significant relationship with musculoskeletal disorders (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results suggest there is a relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and mental workload and the majority of personnel had mental workload with high-risk level. The best way of management planning to mitigate the risk of musculoskeletal disorders arising of mental workload is, therefore, managing-controlling approach such as staff training, job rotation, and time management.

  5. Development of staffing evaluation principle for advanced main control room and the effect on situation awareness and mental workload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe, E-mail: cjoelin@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tsung-Ling, E-mail: bm1129@gmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Road, Chiaan Village, Lungtan 32546, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shiau-Feng, E-mail: g9602411@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Road, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A staffing evaluation principle was developed for the advanced main control room. • The principle proposed to improve situation awareness and mental workload. • The principle has good validity that was examined by experimental design. - Abstract: Situation awareness and mental workload, both of which influence operator performance in the advanced main control room of a nuclear power plant, can be affected by staffing level. The key goal of staffing is to ensure the proper number of personnel to support plant operations and events. If the staffing level is not adaptive, the operators may have low situation awareness and an excessive mental workload, which lead to human error. Accordingly, this study developed a staffing evaluation principle based on CPM-GOMS modeling for operations in the advanced main control room. A within-subject experiment was designed to examine the validity of the staffing evaluation principle. The results indicated that the situation awareness, mental workload, and operating performance of the staffing level determined by the staffing evaluation principle was significantly better than that of the non-evaluated staffing level; thus, the validity of the staffing evaluation technique is acceptable. The implications of the findings of this study on managerial practice are discussed.

  6. Neurophysiologic monitoring of mental workload and fatigue during operation of a flight simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael E.; Gevins, Alan

    2005-05-01

    In one experiment, EEG recordings were made during a daytime session while 16 well-rested participants performed versions of a PC flight simulator task that were either low, moderate, or high in difficulty. In another experiment, the same subjects repeatedly performed high difficulty versions of the same task during an all night session with total sleep deprivation. Multivariate EEG metrics of cortical activation were derived for frontal brain regions essential for working memory and executive control processes that are presumably important for maintaining situational awareness, central brain regions essential for sensorimotor control, and posterior parietal and occipital regions essential for visuoperceptual processing. During the daytime session each of these regional measures displayed greater activation during the high difficulty task than during the low difficulty task, and degree of cortical activation was positively correlated with subjective workload ratings in these well-rested subjects. During the overnight session, cortical activation declined with time-on-task, and the degree of this decline over frontal regions was negatively correlated with subjective workload ratings. Since participants were already highly skilled in the task, such changes likely reflect fatigue-related diminishment of frontal executive capability rather than practice effects. These findings suggest that the success of efforts to gauge mental workload via proxy cortical activation measures in the context of adaptive automation systems will likely depend on use of user models that take both task demands and the operator"s state of alertness into account. Further methodological development of the measurement approach outlined here would be required to achieve a practical, effective objective means for monitoring transient changes in cognitive brain function during performance of complex real-world tasks.

  7. A multilevel approach to relating subjective workload to performance after shifts in task demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mracek, Derek L; Arsenault, Matthew L; Day, Eric Anthony; Hardy, Jay H; Terry, Robert A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this laboratory experiment was to demonstrate how taking a longitudinal, multilevel approach can be used to examine the dynamic relationship between subjective workload and performance over a given period of activity involving shifts in task demand. Subjective workload and conditions of the performance environment are oftentimes examined via cross-sectional designs without distinguishing within-from between-person effects. Given the dynamic nature of performance phenomena, multilevel designs coupled with manipulations of task demand shifts are needed to better model the dynamic relationships between state and trait components of subjective workload and performance. With a sample of 75 college students and a computer game representing a complex decision-making environment, increases and decreases in task demand were counterbalanced and subjective workload and performance were measured concurrently in regular intervals within performance episodes. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Both between- and especially within-person effects were dynamic. Nevertheless, at both levels of analysis, higher subjective workload reflected performance problems, especially more downstream from increases in task demand. As a function of cognitive-energetic processes, shifts in task demand are associated with changes in how subjective workload is related to performance over a given period of activity. Multilevel, longitudinal approaches are useful for distinguishing and examining the dynamic relationships between state and trait components of subjective workload and performance. The findings of this research help to improve the understanding of how a sequence of demands can exceed a performer's capability to respond to further demands.

  8. Workflow interruptions and mental workload in hospital pediatricians: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Matthias; Müller, Andreas; Angerer, Peter; Hoffmann, Florian

    2014-09-24

    Pediatricians' workload is increasingly thought to affect pediatricians' quality of work life and patient safety. Workflow interruptions are a frequent stressor in clinical work, impeding clinicians' attention and contributing to clinical malpractice. We aimed to investigate prospective associations of workflow interruptions with multiple dimensions of mental workload in pediatricians during clinical day shifts. In an Academic Children's Hospital a prospective study of 28 full shift observations was conducted among pediatricians providing ward coverage. The prevalence of workflow interruptions was based on expert observation using a validated observation instrument. Concurrently, Pediatricians' workload ratings were assessed with three workload dimensions of the well-validated NASA-Task Load Index: mental demands, effort, and frustration. Observed pediatricians were, on average, disrupted 4.7 times per hour. Most frequent were interruptions by colleagues (30.2%), nursing staff (29.7%), and by telephone/beeper calls (16.3%). Interruption measures were correlated with two workload outcomes of interest: frequent workflow interruptions were related to less cognitive demands, but frequent interruptions were associated with increased frustration. With regard to single sources, interruptions by colleagues showed the strongest associations to workload. The findings provide insights into specific pathways between different types of interruptions and pediatricians' mental workload. These findings suggest further research and yield a number of work and organization re-design suggestions for pediatric care.

  9. Academic context and perceived mental workload of psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Valdehita, Susana; López-Higes, Ramón; Díaz-Ramiro, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The excessive workload of university students is an academic stressor. Consequently, it is necessary to evaluate and control the workload in education. This research applies the NASA-TLX scale, as a measure of the workload. The objectives of this study were: (a) to measure the workload levels of a sample of 367 psychology students, (b) to group students according to their positive or negative perception of academic context (AC) and c) to analyze the effects of AC on workload. To assess the perceived AC, we used an ad hoc questionnaire designed according to Demand-Control-Social Support and Effort-Reward Imbalance models. Using cluster analysis, participants were classified into two groups (positive versus negative context). The differences between groups show that a positive AC improves performance (p < .01) and reduces feelings of overload (p < .02), temporal demand (p < .02), and nervousness and frustration (p < .001). Social relationships with peers and teachers, student autonomy and result satisfaction were relevant dimensions of the AC (p < .001 in all cases).

  10. Sustained mental workload in chronic patients with very severe concussions : A psychophysiological study of menial fatiguability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, W; Riese, H; Hoedemaeker, M; Mulder, B; Veldman, H; Withaar, F

    After severe concussion, return to work is often problematic. Our study focuses on a persistent complaint of these patients, namely mental fatiguableness. To study mental fatiguableness the effect of sustained work load is assessed in a continuous divided attention task at two levels of workload, 50

  11. Combining and comparing EEG, peripheral physiology and eye-related measures for the assessment of mental workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Andreas Hogervorst

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While studies exist that compare different physiological variables with respect to their association with mental workload, it is still largely unclear which variables supply the best information about momentary workload of an individual and what is the benefit of combining them. We investigated workload using the n-back task, controlling for body movements and visual input. We recorded EEG, skin conductance, respiration, ECG, pupil size and eye blinks of 14 subjects. Various variables were extracted from these recordings and used as features in individually tuned classification models. Online classification was simulated by using the first part of the data as training set and the last part of the data for testing the models. The results indicate that EEG performs best, followed by eye related measures and peripheral physiology. Combining variables from different sensors did not significantly improve workload assessment over the best performing sensor alone. Best classification accuracy, a little over 90% (SD 4%, was reached for distinguishing between high and low workload on the basis of 2 minute segments of EEG and eye related variables. A similar and not significantly different performance of 86% (SD 5% was reached using only EEG from single electrode location Pz.

  12. Breakfast high in whey protein or carbohydrates improves coping with workload in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvola, Nora; Korpela, Riitta; Henelius, Andreas; Holm, Anu; Huotilainen, Minna; Müller, Kiti; Poussa, Tuija; Pettersson, Kati; Turpeinen, Anu; Peuhkuri, Katri

    2013-11-14

    Dietary components may affect brain function and influence behaviour by inducing the synthesis of neurotransmitters. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of consumption of a whey protein-containing breakfast drink v. a carbohydrate drink v. control on subjective and physiological responses to mental workload in simulated work. In a randomised cross-over design, ten healthy subjects (seven women, median age 26 years, median BMI 23 kg/m(2)) participated in a single-blinded, placebo-controlled study. The subjects performed demanding work-like tasks after having a breakfast drink high in protein (HP) or high in carbohydrate (HC) or a control drink on separate sessions. Subjective states were assessed using the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), the Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS) and the modified Profile of Mood States. Heart rate was recorded during task performance. The ratio of plasma tryptophan (Trp) to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) and salivary cortisol were also analysed. The plasma Trp:LNAA ratio was 30 % higher after the test drinks HP (median 0·13 (μmol/l)/(μmol/l)) and HC (median 0·13 (μmol/l)/(μmol/l)) than after the control drink (median 0·10 (μmol/l)/(μmol/l)). The increase in heart rate was smaller after the HP (median 2·7 beats/min) and HC (median 1·9 beats/min) drinks when compared with the control drink (median 7·2 beats/min) during task performance. Subjective sleepiness was reduced more after the HC drink (median KSS - 1·5) than after the control drink (median KSS - 0·5). There were no significant differences between the breakfast types in the NASA-TLX index, cortisol levels or task performance. We conclude that a breakfast drink high in whey protein or carbohydrates may improve coping with mental tasks in healthy subjects.

  13. Analysis of Mental Workload in Online Shopping: Are Augmented and Virtual Reality Consistent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Shi, Changxiu; You, Xuqun; Zong, Chenming

    2017-01-01

    A market research company (Nielsen) reported that consumers in the Asia-Pacific region have become the most active group in online shopping. Focusing on augmented reality (AR), which is one of three major techniques used to change the method of shopping in the future, this study used a mixed design to discuss the influences of the method of online shopping, user gender, cognitive style, product value, and sensory channel on mental workload in virtual reality (VR) and AR situations. The results showed that males' mental workloads were significantly higher than females'. For males, high-value products' mental workload was significantly higher than that of low-value products. In the VR situation, the visual mental workload of field-independent and field-dependent consumers showed a significant difference, but the difference was reduced under audio-visual conditions. In the AR situation, the visual mental workload of field-independent and field-dependent consumers showed a significant difference, but the difference increased under audio-visual conditions. This study provided a psychological study of online shopping with AR and VR technology with applications in the future. Based on the perspective of embodied cognition, AR online shopping may be potential focus of research and market application. For the future design of online shopping platforms and the updating of user experience, this study provides a reference.

  14. The sensitivity of Galvanic Skin Response for assessing mental workload in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyanti, Ari; Muslim, Khoirul; Sutalaksana, Iftikar Zahedi

    2017-01-01

    Objective measures have been shown to be equally sensitive in different cultures. However, these measures need special devices that are relatively expensive and need expertise to analyze the result. In Indonesia, there is a need for a sensitive and affordable mental workload measure. To evaluate the sensitivity of Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) in assessing mental workload in Indonesia. A total of 72 Indonesian students with normal visual capability. Participants were asked to work on visual memory search task with a secondary task of counting with three different levels of difficulty. GSR, Heart Rate Variability (HRV), and the NASA-TLX were administered prior to, during, and after the tasks. GSR measure was compared to NASA-TLX and HRV measures. Like the HRV, GSR showed to be sensitive in distinguishing rest and task condition significantly but not sensitive in distinguishing different levels of mental workload. In contrast, both the NASA-TLX and performance measure were sensitive in differentiating different levels of mental workload. GSR has potential as a simple, cost-effective tool for measuring mental workload in Indonesia.

  15. Analysis of Mental Workload in Online Shopping: Are Augmented and Virtual Reality Consistent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Shi, Changxiu; You, Xuqun; Zong, Chenming

    2017-01-01

    A market research company (Nielsen) reported that consumers in the Asia-Pacific region have become the most active group in online shopping. Focusing on augmented reality (AR), which is one of three major techniques used to change the method of shopping in the future, this study used a mixed design to discuss the influences of the method of online shopping, user gender, cognitive style, product value, and sensory channel on mental workload in virtual reality (VR) and AR situations. The results showed that males’ mental workloads were significantly higher than females’. For males, high-value products’ mental workload was significantly higher than that of low-value products. In the VR situation, the visual mental workload of field-independent and field-dependent consumers showed a significant difference, but the difference was reduced under audio–visual conditions. In the AR situation, the visual mental workload of field-independent and field-dependent consumers showed a significant difference, but the difference increased under audio–visual conditions. This study provided a psychological study of online shopping with AR and VR technology with applications in the future. Based on the perspective of embodied cognition, AR online shopping may be potential focus of research and market application. For the future design of online shopping platforms and the updating of user experience, this study provides a reference. PMID:28184207

  16. Sustained mental workload does not affect subsequent sleep intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, EA; Beersma, DGM; Daan, S; Bruin, Eveline A. de

    Mental activity is a neglected factor in sleep research. The few investigations on sleep that manipulate prior mental activity are inconclusive with respect to the possible effects of mental activity on recovery. In the present study, the effects of two levels of mental activity on subsequent sleep

  17. Effects of electronic emergency-department whiteboards on clinicians' time distribution and mental workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Whiteboards are a central tool at emergency departments. We investigate how the substitution of electronic for dry-erase whiteboards affects emergency department clinicians’ mental workload and distribution of their time. With the electronic whiteboard, physicians and nurses spend more of their t......Whiteboards are a central tool at emergency departments. We investigate how the substitution of electronic for dry-erase whiteboards affects emergency department clinicians’ mental workload and distribution of their time. With the electronic whiteboard, physicians and nurses spend more...... of their time in the work areas where other clinicians are present and whiteboard information is permanently displayed, and less in the patient rooms. Main reasons for these changes appear to be that the electronic whiteboard facilitates better timeouts and handovers. Physicians and nurses are, however......, in the patient rooms for longer periods at a time, suggesting a more focused patient contact. The physicians’ mental workload has increased during timeouts, whereas the nurses’ mental workload has decreased at the start of shifts when they form an overview of the emergency department. Finally, the secretaries...

  18. Subjective Cognitive Workload, Interactivity and Feedback in a Web-Based Writing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Lisa; MacKay, Bruce R.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation compares and analyses the experiences and subjective cognitive workload of students undertaking a lesson on an aspect of micro-level writing skills in a web-based and paperbased version. Both versions of the lesson were based on the principles of interactive learning, specifically on a modified version of Chou's (2003) model.…

  19. The Mental Workload Evaluation in Visualizing Telehealth Indicators on Three-Dimensional Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Filho, Amadeu S; Novaes, Magdala A; Gomes, Alex S

    2017-10-27

    As Internet bandwidth has risen, resulting in an exponential increase in the amount of data, one of the challenges is to transform large amounts of unstructured health data into legible information through visualization techniques to facilitate the decision-making between the telehealth managers. Traditionally, data visualization has been two-dimensional (2D), but it is often difficult to visualize and interpret when making decisions with multidimensional data. Three-dimensional (3D) visualization techniques are emerging to address this issue. This study aims to investigate and demonstrate the hypothesis that the use of 3D techniques for information visualization is more effective than some 2D visualization techniques. Hypothesis validation was performed with a usability methodology analyzing of the time, efficiency, effectiveness, and mental workload required in the execution of a task with a developed prototype. A random sample of telehealth professionals was used. Data were collected through observation and usability questionnaires, including the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) mental workload protocol. Data analysis was based on quantitative and qualitative approaches. The study showed that mental workload, despite the time of task execution and effectiveness of the prototype, with 3D technique was less than the 2D technique. The 3D technique required less mental effort than the 2D technique. The 3D environment supports the service manager to verify the telehealth quality of service toward the features provided by 3D environment, especially, its capability to identify trends, clusters of interest, and perform indicators comparison.

  20. Measuring Mental Workload with EEG+fNIRS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haleh Aghajani; Marc Garbey; Ahmet Omurtag

    2017-01-01

    ...). We have used electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as imaging modalities with 17 healthy subjects performing the letter n-back task, a standard experimental paradigm related to working memory (WM...

  1. Haptic Feedback in Motor Hand Virtual Therapy Increases Precision and Generates Less Mental Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ramírez-Fernández

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we show that haptic feedback in upper limb motor therapy improves performance and generates a lower mental workload. To demonstrate this, two groups of participants (healthy adults and elders with hand motor problems used a low-cost haptic device (Novint Falcon and a non-robotic device (Leap Motion Controller. Participants conducted the same rehabilitation task by using a non-immersive virtual environment. Results show significant differences for all participants regarding precision on the use of the haptic feedback device. Additionally, participants in the older adult group demonstrated a lower mental workload while using the haptic device (Novint Falcon. Finally, qualitative results show that participants preferred to conduct their therapy exercises by using the haptic device, as they found it more useful, easier to use and easier to learn

  2. Task-Independent Mental Workload Classification Based Upon Common Multiband EEG Cortical Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, Georgios N; Kakkos, Ioannis; Dai, Zhongxiang; Lim, Julian; deSouza, Joshua J; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Sun, Yu

    2017-11-01

    Efficient classification of mental workload, an important issue in neuroscience, is limited, so far to single task, while cross-task classification remains a challenge. Furthermore, network approaches have emerged as a promising direction for studying the complex organization of the brain, enabling easier interpretation of various mental states. In this paper, using two mental tasks (N-back and mental arithmetic), we present a framework for cross- as well as within-task workload discrimination by utilizing multiband electroencephalography (EEG) cortical brain connectivity. In detail, we constructed functional networks in EEG source space in different frequency bands and considering the individual functional connections as classification features, we identified salient feature subsets based on a sequential feature selection algorithm. These connectivity subsets were able to provide accuracy of 87% for cross-task, 88% for N-back task, and 86% for mental arithmetic task. In conclusion, our method achieved to detect a small number of discriminative interactions among brain areas, leading to high accuracy in both within-task and cross-task classifications. In addition, the identified functional connectivity features, the majority of which were detected in frontal areas in theta and beta frequency bands, helped delineate the shared as well as the distinct neural mechanisms of the two mental tasks.

  3. Examining the Convergent and Discriminant Validity of Visual and Mental Workload Using Ocular Activity Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Measure of Mental Workload Previous research has linked fixations to information processing (Salthouse, Ellis, Diener , & Somberg, 1981), but few...Operating at the Sharp End: The Complexity of Human Error. In M. S. Bogner ( Ed .), Human error in medicine (pp. 255–301). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum (1994...Decision Making Under Time Pressure. In O. Svenson & J. Maule ( Eds .). Time pressure and stress in human judgment and decision making. (pp. 27– 40). New

  4. Event-related brain potentials as indices of mental workload and attentional allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Arthur F.; Donchin, Emanuel; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past decade considerable strides were made in explicating the antecedant conditions necessary for the elicitation, and the modulation of the amplitude and latency, of a number of components of the event-related brain potential (ERP). The focus of this report is on P300. The degree to which the psychophysiological measures contribute to issues in two real-world domains (communication devices for the motor impaired and the assessment of mental workload of aircraft pilots) are examined.

  5. Taking the load off: investigations of how adaptive cruise control affects mental workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark S; Stanton, Neville A

    2004-07-15

    It has been posited that Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) represents a new generation of vehicle automation, in that it has the potential to relieve drivers of mental as well as physical workload. The results of previous research however, have raised some confusing issues about the specific effects of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) on driver mental workload (MWL)--some studies report reduced MWL compared to manual driving, while others find no effect. Two hypotheses are proposed in an attempt to explain these discrepancies: (a) that any potential MWL reductions due to ACC could be masked by the overriding influence of steering demand; or (b) that the tasks designed in some experiments do not exploit the adaptive nature of the ACC system, therefore precluding any potential benefits. Two related experiments were designed to test these hypotheses. It was found that the main reason for the discrepant findings was the nature of the driving task chosen--constant-speed tasks do not realise the mental workload benefits of ACC. Future researchers using ACC devices are advised to use variable-speed tasks to ensure that all aspects of device functionality are covered.

  6. Estimating mental workload through event-related fluctuations of pupil area during a task in a virtual world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Miriam; Gelfeld, Tatiana M

    2014-07-01

    Monitoring mental load for optimal performance has become increasingly central with the recently evolving need to cope with exponentially increasing amounts of data. This paper describes a non-intrusive, objective method to estimate mental workload in an immersive virtual reality system, through analysis of frequencies of pupil fluctuations. We tested changes in mental workload with a number of task-repetitions, level of predictability of the task and the effect of prior experience in predictable task performance, on mental workload of unpredictable task performance. Two measures were used to calculate mental workload: the ratio of Low Frequency to High Frequency components of pupil fluctuations, and the High Frequency alone, all extracted from the Power Spectrum Density of pupil fluctuations. Results show that mental workload decreases with a number of repetitions, creating a mode in which the brain acts as an automatic controller. Automaticity during training occurs only after a minimal number of repetitions, which once achieved, resulted in further improvements in the performance of unpredictable motor tasks, following training in a predictable task. These results indicate that automaticity is a central component in the transfer of skills from highly predictable to low predictable motor tasks. Our results suggest a potentially applicable method to brain-computer-interface systems that adapt to human mental workload, and provide intelligent automated support for enhanced performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of subjective workload in an anaesthesia simulator environment: reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Christian M; Skrzypczak, Matthias; Schneider, Erich; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Martin, Jan; Kochs, Eberhard F; Schneider, Gerhard

    2011-07-01

    For the subjective assessment of workload, Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale is a global measure of perceived workload during anaesthesia induction, maintenance and emergence in the real workplace. In the present study, validity and reliability of the RPE scale were analysed for a full-scale simulator environment using scenarios of induction of general anaesthesia with and without critical incidents. Seventeen anaesthetists (professional experience 1-30 years) participated in this randomised cross-over trial. Each participant rated their workload using the RPE scale after three different simulator sessions. No critical incident was simulated in the 1st session. In a randomised order, workload was increased by simulation of a critical incident in the 2nd or 3rd session. For the analysis of validity and reliability, univariate and multivariate regression analysis and the concordance correlation coefficient were used. RPE scores were significantly increased after managing a simulated critical incident [13.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 11.6-14.5] compared to normal anaesthesia induction (9.4, 95% CI 8.2-10.6; P Reliability was moderate (concordance correlation coefficient = 0.55; 95% CI 0.13-0.80) for uneventful sessions. RPE scores were significantly increased after critical incidents during simulated anaesthesia induction and indicate good construct validity. Reliability may be impaired by the fact that the first session was announced to be without a critical incident. The RPE scale is easy to administer and a valid tool for subjective workload assessment in simulator settings. Reliability is moderate.

  8. A passive brain-computer interface application for the mental workload assessment on professional air traffic controllers during realistic air traffic control tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, P; Borghini, G; Di Flumeri, G; Colosimo, A; Pozzi, S; Babiloni, F

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, it has been a fast-growing concept in the neuroscience field. The passive brain-computer interface (p-BCI) systems allow to improve the human-machine interaction (HMI) in operational environments, by using the covert brain activity (eg, mental workload) of the operator. However, p-BCI technology could suffer from some practical issues when used outside the laboratories. In particular, one of the most important limitations is the necessity to recalibrate the p-BCI system each time before its use, to avoid a significant reduction of its reliability in the detection of the considered mental states. The objective of the proposed study was to provide an example of p-BCIs used to evaluate the users' mental workload in a real operational environment. For this purpose, through the facilities provided by the École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile of Toulouse (France), the cerebral activity of 12 professional air traffic control officers (ATCOs) has been recorded while performing high realistic air traffic management scenarios. By the analysis of the ATCOs' brain activity (electroencephalographic signal-EEG) and the subjective workload perception (instantaneous self-assessment) provided by both the examined ATCOs and external air traffic control experts, it has been possible to estimate and evaluate the variation of the mental workload under which the controllers were operating. The results showed (i) a high significant correlation between the neurophysiological and the subjective workload assessment, and (ii) a high reliability over time (up to a month) of the proposed algorithm that was also able to maintain high discrimination accuracies by using a low number of EEG electrodes (~3 EEG channels). In conclusion, the proposed methodology demonstrated the suitability of p-BCI systems in operational environments and the advantages of the neurophysiological measures with respect to the subjective ones. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Using workload measurement tools in diverse care contexts: the experience of staff in mental health and learning disability inpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanneran, T; Brimblecombe, N; Bradley, E; Gregory, S

    2015-12-01

    What is known on the subject? Difficulties with the recruitment and retention of qualified nursing staff have resulted in nursing shortages worldwide with a consequential impact on the quality of care. It is increasingly recommended that evidence-based staffing levels are central to the development of workforce plans. Due to a paucity of empirical research in mental health and learning disability services the staffing needs and requirements for these settings are undefined and the availability of tools to aid staffing decisions is limited. What this paper adds to existing knowledge? This paper provides a valuable insight into the practical uses of these tools as perceived by staff members with day-to-day experience of the requirements of mental health and learning disability wards. It reveals that while workload measurement tools are considered a valuable aid for the development of workforce plans, they are limited in their ability to capture all aspects of care provision in these settings. It further emphasizes the inapplicability of a one-shoe-fits-all approach for determining nurse staffing levels and the need for individual and customized workforce plans. What are the implications for practice? This study demonstrates that the development of tools for use in mental health and learning disability services is in its infancy, yet no tool that has been validated as such. It highlights the potential for workload measurement tools to aid staffing decisions; however, a more holistic approach that considers additional factors is needed to ensure robust workforce planning models are developed for these services. The critical challenge of determining the correct level and skill mix of nursing staff required to deliver safe and effective health care has become an international concern. It is recommended that evidence-based staffing decisions are central to the development of future workforce plans. Workforce planning in mental health and learning disability nursing is

  10. Analysis of mental workload of electrical power plant operators of control and operation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitório, Daiana Martins; Masculo, Francisco Soares; Melo, Miguel O B C

    2012-01-01

    Electrical systems can be categorized as critical systems where failure can result in significant financial loss, injury or threats to human life. The operators of the electric power control centers perform an activity in a specialized environment and have to carry it out by mobilizing knowledge and reasoning to which they have adequate training under the terms of the existing rules. To reach this there is a common mental request of personnel involved in these centers due the need to maintain attention, memory and reasoning request. In this sense, this study aims to evaluate the Mental Workload of technical workers of the Control Centers of Electrical Energy. It was undertaken a research on operators control centers of the electricity sector in Northeast Brazil. It was used for systematic observations, followed by interview and application of the instrument National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index known as NASA-TLX. As a result there will be subsidies for an assessment of mental workload of operators, and a contribution to improving the processes of managing the operation of electric utilities and the quality of workers.

  11. Effects of Visual Communication Tool and Separable Status Display on Team Performance and Subjective Workload in Air Battle Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwartz, Daniel; Knott, Benjamin A; Galster, Scott M

    2008-01-01

    ... ambient cabin noise while performing several visual and manual tasks. The purpose of this study is to compare team performance and subjective workload on a simulated AWACS scenario, for two conditions of communication...

  12. Scrutinising usability evaluation: does thinking aloud affect behaviour and mental workload?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Hansen, Kristin Due; Andersen, Hans Henrik

    2009-01-01

    participants that think aloud in the classic or relaxed way behave differently compared to performing in silence. Results indicate that whereas classic thinking aloud has little or no effect on behaviour apart from prolonging tasks, relaxed thinking aloud affects behaviour in multiple ways. During relaxed...... thinking aloud participants took longer to solve tasks, spent a larger part of tasks on general distributed visual behaviour, issued more commands to navigate both within and between the pages of the websites used in the experiment, and experienced higher mental workload. Implications for usability...

  13. A Procedure for Collecting Mental Workload Data During an Experiment That Is Comparable to IMPRINT Workload Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    workload by the individual’s level of certain physiological measures such as eye tracking, electrocardiogram ( EKG ), electro -encephalogram (EEG), and...galvanic skin response (GSR) measures. During the test, ATC evaluators instrumented two test participants and collected the EEG, EKG , and GSR data. They

  14. Assessment of pilot workload - Converging measures from performance based, subjective and psychophysiological techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Arthur F.; Sirevaag, Erik J.; Braune, Rolf

    1986-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the P300 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) and the processing demands of a complex real-world task. Seven male volunteers enrolled in an Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) aviation course flew a series of missions in a single engine fixed-based simulator. In dual task conditions subjects were also required to discriminate between two tones differing in frequency. ERPs time-locked to the tones, subjective effort ratings and overt performance measures were collected during two 45 min flights differing in difficulty (manipulated by varying both atmospheric conditions and instrument reliability). The more difficult flight was associated with poorer performance, increased subjective effort ratings, and smaller secondary task P300s. Within each flight, P300 amplitude was negatively correlated with deviations from command headings indicating that P300 amplitude was a sensitive workload metric both between and within the flight missions.

  15. Mental workload and motor performance dynamics during practice of reaching movements under various levels of task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuggi, Isabelle M; Oh, Hyuk; Shewokis, Patricia A; Gentili, Rodolphe J

    2017-09-30

    The assessment of mental workload can inform attentional resource allocation during task performance that is essential for understanding the underlying principles of human cognitive-motor behavior. While many studies have focused on mental workload in relation to human performance, a modest body of work has examined it in a motor practice/learning context without considering individual variability. Thus, this work aimed to examine mental workload by employing the NASA TLX as well as the changes in motor performance resulting from the practice of a novel reaching task. Two groups of participants practiced a reaching task at a high and low nominal difficulty during which a group-level analysis assessed the mental workload, motor performance and motor improvement dynamics. A secondary cluster analysis was also conducted to identify specific individual patterns of cognitive-motor responses. Overall, both group- and cluster-level analyses revealed that: (i) all participants improved their performance throughout motor practice, and (ii) an increase in mental workload was associated with a reduction of the quality of motor performance along with a slower rate of motor improvement. The results are discussed in the context of the optimal challenge point framework and in particular it is proposed that under the experimental conditions employed here, functional task difficulty: (i) would possibly depend on an individuals' information processing capabilities, and (ii) could be indexed by the level of mental workload which, when excessively heightened can decrease the quality of performance and more generally result in delayed motor improvements. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of workload intensity in community and rehabilitation teams in a community mental health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Keith

    2013-10-01

    The purpose was to investigate a perception that clients of a rehabilitation team constitute an 'easy' group of patients, who should be managed outside public sector community psychiatric service settings. A caseload equalisation tool was used to compare the case manager workload in the community team and the rehabilitation team of a community mental health service. Caseload scores of clients of community and rehabilitation teams were not significantly different. Nor was there any significant difference in client complexity, time that case managers spent with clients or liaison activity. The primary sector, even with non-government organisation support, is unlikely to be able to meet the needs of the group of patients who were being managed by the rehabilitation team.

  17. Effect of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in relation to age and use of pedelecs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boele-Vos, M J; Commandeur, J J F; Twisk, D A M

    2017-08-01

    To improve cycling safety, insight is required into the factors that contribute to road safety of older cyclists. From the wide range of possible factors, this paper addresses the role of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists with the aim to investigate whether physical effort affects mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in a field experiment. Two instrumented bicycles, a conventional bicycle and a pedelec, were used. Mental workload of cyclists in two age groups - 30-45 years and 65 years and over - was measured by means of a secondary cognitive task requiring the detection and reaction to visual stimuli on a cycle route that varied in physical effort and task complexity. We expected physical effort to impair performance on the secondary task in complex traffic sections and not in simple sections, and that this impairment would be greater for older cyclists because of age related reduced muscle strength than for younger cyclists. We expected this impairment to be smaller if a pedelec was used. If such would be the case, this would indicate pedelecs to be beneficial for this older age group, because of a lower mental workload. Our study confirmed that increased physical effort in complex traffic sections deteriorated the detection of relevant stimuli in both age groups. Overall, older cyclists had longer reaction times and lower hit rates than younger cyclists. Mental workloads of cyclists are basically the same when cycling on a conventional bicycle or on a pedelec. In theory, pedelecs may be beneficial to reduce physical effort in cycling in order to maintain enough mental capacity to handle complex traffic situations. However, this study did not demonstrate these benefits. As pedelecs are often used for longer trips, by elderly with low muscle strength, future studies should also explore the effect of higher physical effort over longer periods of time, and also specifically in elderly with low muscle strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. Effect of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in relation to age and use of pedelecs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele-Vos, M. J.; Commandeur, J. J.F.; Twisk, D. A.M.

    2017-01-01

    To improve cycling safety, insight is required into the factors that contribute to road safety of older cyclists. From the wide range of possible factors, this paper addresses the role of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists with the aim to investigate whether physical effort affects

  19. Effect of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in relation to age and use of pedelecs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele-Vos, M.J. Commandeur, J.J.F. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    To improve cycling safety, insight is required into the factors that contribute to road safety of older cyclists. From the wide range of possible factors, this paper addresses the role of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists with the aim to investigate whether physical effort affects

  20. Neural and psychophysiological correlates of human performance under stress and high mental workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrick, Kevin; Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Rémy, Florence; Lepron, Evelyne; Causse, Mickaël

    2016-12-01

    In our anxiogenic and stressful world, the maintenance of an optimal cognitive performance is a constant challenge. It is particularly true in complex working environments (e.g. flight deck, air traffic control tower), where individuals have sometimes to cope with a high mental workload and stressful situations. Several models (i.e. processing efficiency theory, cognitive-energetical framework) have attempted to provide a conceptual basis on how human performance is modulated by high workload and stress/anxiety. These models predict that stress can reduce human cognitive efficiency, even in the absence of a visible impact on the task performance. Performance may be protected under stress thanks to compensatory effort, but only at the expense of a cognitive cost. Yet, the psychophysiological cost of this regulation remains unclear. We designed two experiments involving pupil diameter, cardiovascular and prefrontal oxygenation measurements. Participants performed the Toulouse N-back Task that intensively engaged both working memory and mental calculation processes under the threat (or not) of unpredictable aversive sounds. The results revealed that higher task difficulty (higher n level) degraded the performance and induced an increased tonic pupil diameter, heart rate and activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, and a decreased phasic pupil response and heart rate variability. Importantly, the condition of stress did not impact the performance, but at the expense of a psychophysiological cost as demonstrated by lower phasic pupil response, and greater heart rate and prefrontal activity. Prefrontal cortex seems to be a central region for mitigating the influence of stress because it subserves crucial functions (e.g. inhibition, working memory) that can promote the engagement of coping strategies. Overall, findings confirmed the psychophysiological cost of both mental effort and stress. Stress likely triggered increased motivation and the recruitment of additional

  1. Subjective health complaints and self-rated health: are expectancies more important than socioeconomic status and workload?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, Eline; Odeen, Magnus; Eriksen, Hege R; Indahl, Aage; Ihlebæk, Camilla; Hetland, Jørn; Harris, Anette

    2014-06-01

    The associations between socioeconomic status (SES), physical and psychosocial workload and health are well documented. According to The Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS), learned response outcome expectancies (coping, helplessness, and hopelessness) are also important contributors to health. This is in part as independent factors for health, but coping may also function as a buffer against the impact different demands have on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effect of SES (as measured by level of education), physical workload, and response outcome expectancies on subjective health complaints (SHC) and self-rated health, and if response outcome expectancies mediate the effects of education and physical workload on SHC and self-rated health. A survey was carried out among 1,746 Norwegian municipal employees (mean age 44.2, 81 % females). Structural Equation Models with SHC and self-rated health as outcomes were conducted. Education, physical workload, and response outcome expectancies, were the independent 28 variables in the model. Helplessness/hopelessness had a stronger direct effect on self-rated health and SHC than education and physical workload, for both men and women. Helplessness/hopelessness fully mediated the effect of physical workload on SHC for men (0.121), and mediated 30 % of a total effect of 0.247 for women. For women, education had a small but significant indirect effect through helplessness/hopelessness on self-rated health (0.040) and SHC (-0.040), but no direct effects were found. For men, there was no effect of education on SHC, and only a direct effect on self-rated health (0.134). The results indicated that helplessness/hopelessness is more important for SHC and health than well-established measures on SES such as years of education and perceived physical workload in this sample. Helplessness/hopelessness seems to function as a mechanism between physical workload and health.

  2. Mental fatigue after very severe closed head injury: Sustained performance, mental effort, and distress at two levels of workload in a driving simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riese, H.; Hoedemaeker, M.; Brouwer, W.H.; Mulder, L.J.M.; Cremer, R.; Veldman, J.B.P.

    1999-01-01

    In patients with very severe closed head injury (CHI), returning to work is often problematic. The present study focuses on a persistent complaint of these patients, viz. mental fatigue. To study this, the effect of sustained workload is assessed in a continuous dynamic divided attention task. Three

  3. Mental fatigue after very severe closed head injury : Sustained performance, mental effort, and distress at two levels of workload in a driving simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riese, H; Hoedemaeker, M; Brouwer, WH; Mulder, LJM; Veldman, JBP

    In patients with very severe closed head injury (CHI), returning to work is often problematic. The present study focuses on a persistent complaint of these patients, viz. mental fatigue. To study this, the effect of sustained workload is assessed in a continuous dynamic divided attention task. Three

  4. Approximate entropy: a new evaluation approach of mental workload under multitask conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei; Li, Xiaoling; Wang, Wei; Dong, Yuanzhe; Jiang, Ying

    2014-04-01

    There are numerous instruments and an abundance of complex information in the traditional cockpit display-control system, and pilots require a long time to familiarize themselves with the cockpit interface. This can cause accidents when they cope with emergency events, suggesting that it is necessary to evaluate pilot cognitive workload. In order to establish a simplified method to evaluate cognitive workload under a multitask condition. We designed a series of experiments involving different instrument panels and collected electroencephalograms (EEG) from 10 healthy volunteers. The data were classified and analyzed with an approximate entropy (ApEn) signal processing. ApEn increased with increasing experiment difficulty, suggesting that it can be used to evaluate cognitive workload. Our results demonstrate that ApEn can be used as an evaluation criteria of cognitive workload and has good specificity and sensitivity. Moreover, we determined an empirical formula to assess the cognitive workload interval, which can simplify cognitive workload evaluation under multitask conditions.

  5. Mental Workload and Situational Awareness Evaluation of APR1400 Engineered Safety Features- Component Control Activation Systems using Augmented Reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murungi, Mwongeera; Jung, JaeCheon [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the study, an Augmented Reality procedure guidance support system concept was designed and used as a tool for the measurement of mental workload and Situational awareness of an SRO (Senior Reactor Operator). The EOP was chosen as the scenario for testing because it is the one of the critical plant conditions that requires human intervention and it represents (one of the more) conservative approaches to the test scenarios that are possible. The system is expected to realize an improvement in the level of Situational Awareness and mental workload which have been demonstrated by previous studies to be directly linked with the system response to an emergency situation in the MCR. The planning and design of the project adhered to a Systems Engineering approach in order to provide an optimized framework for ensuring the successful implementation of the system design. Previous study and research into this topic has emphasized the importance of situational awareness in determining the human factor performance issues in the nuclear power plant Control Room operations. This paper broadly defined a technique that successfully used the operator’s mental workload (using NASATLX) and Situational Awareness (using SART) as quantifying measures to evaluate the performance of specific ESF-CCS functions based on human factors. These results show that an improvement of the SA/workload could lead to an improvement of the level of certainty that the emergency situation can be brought under control. It is expected that future development work in this area will yield an actualized Augmented Reality system that could incorporate MCR team control and possibly be implemented in the system validation of other I and C systems.

  6. Personnel's health surveillance at work: effect of age, body mass index, and shift work on mental workload and work ability index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Shahram; Akbari, Jafar; Kazemi, Meghdad; Mououdi, Mohammad Amin; Mahaki, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Two great changes in developed countries are taking place: populations are ageing and becoming increasingly overweight. Combination of these factors with shift work is a risk factor for work ability and mental workload that are dynamic processes which change greatly throughout an individual's work life. The aim of this study was to investigate mental workload and work ability in textile workers and to identify factors which affect work ability and mental workload. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 194 male workers in textile industry. Employees based on their job group and work conditions have been divided into 6 categories. They completed work ability index and mental workload questionnaires during three work shifts. Body mass index (BMI) and demographic details were recorded. All of the participants rated their work ability as moderate with high mental workload. The mean WAI and mental workload in age group were significant. The mean BMI was 25.5 kg/m(2) (standard deviation 4.1) and the mean age was 40.22 years. There was a statistically significant correlation between work ability index and shift work. Unlike the previous study, a decrease point in WAI started in early age that may be due to life-style work and another psychological factor; on the other hand, NASA-TLX revealed high score in six subscales that can be another reason for low WAI.

  7. Personnel's Health Surveillance at Work: Effect of Age, Body Mass Index, and Shift Work on Mental Workload and Work Ability Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Safari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Two great changes in developed countries are taking place: populations are ageing and becoming increasingly overweight. Combination of these factors with shift work is a risk factor for work ability and mental workload that are dynamic processes which change greatly throughout an individual's work life. The aim of this study was to investigate mental workload and work ability in textile workers and to identify factors which affect work ability and mental workload. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 194 male workers in textile industry. Employees based on their job group and work conditions have been divided into 6 categories. They completed work ability index and mental workload questionnaires during three work shifts. Body mass index (BMI and demographic details were recorded. Results. All of the participants rated their work ability as moderate with high mental workload. The mean WAI and mental workload in age group were significant. The mean BMI was 25.5 kg/m2 (standard deviation 4.1 and the mean age was 40.22 years. There was a statistically significant correlation between work ability index and shift work. Conclusions. Unlike the previous study, a decrease point in WAI started in early age that may be due to life-style work and another psychological factor; on the other hand, NASA-TLX revealed high score in six subscales that can be another reason for low WAI.

  8. Investigating Mental Workload Changes in a Long Duration Supervisory Control Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-06

    high workload following extended periods of boredom using a non-invasive neuroimaging technique called functional near-infrared spectroscopy ( fNIRS ... fNIRS may be useful for concurrent monitoring of the operator in such settings. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS • Functional near-infrared spectroscopy brain sensing...when engagement and priming were lowest. • fNIRS did not detect a change in workload, but did reflect temporal changes in event onset, which could be

  9. ANALYSIS OF INPATIENT HOSPITAL STAFF MENTAL WORKLOAD BY MEANS OF DISCRETE-EVENT SIMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    the Hebb-Yerkes-Dodson law which describes how the relationship between workload 14 and human performance is an inverted -U: performance is poor... Sugar Maple Dr, Dayton OH 45433 423-539-2583, amanda.anderson.11@us.af.mil ATTN: Capt Amanda Anderson 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 88th

  10. The effect of match standard and referee experience on the objective and subjective match workload of English Premier League referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, M; Bird, S; Helsen, W; Nevill, A; Castagna, C

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of match standard and referee experience on the objective and subjective workload of referees during English Premier League and Football League soccer matches. We also examined the relationship between heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for assessing match intensity in soccer referees. Heart rate responses were recorded using short-range telemetry and RPE scores were collected using a 10-point scale. Analysis revealed a significant relationship between mean match HR and match RPE scores (r=0.485, pFootball League 81.5+/-2.2%HRmax, pFootball League 6.9+/-0.8, pReferee experience had no effect on match HR and RPE responses to Premier League and Football League matches. The results of the present study demonstrate the validity of using HR and RPE as a measure of global match intensity in soccer referees. Referee experience had no effect on the referees' objective and subjective match workload assessments, whereas match intensity was correlated to competition standard. These findings have implications for fitness preparation and evaluation in soccer referees. When progressing to a higher level of competition, referees should ensure that appropriate levels of fitness are developed in order to enable them to cope with an increase in physical match demands.

  11. Speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on e-bikes in simple and complex traffic situations: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlakveld, Willem P; Twisk, Divera; Christoph, Michiel; Boele, Marjolein; Sikkema, Rommert; Remy, Roos; Schwab, Arend L

    2015-01-01

    To study the speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on electrical assisted bicycles (e-bikes) in simple and complex traffic situations compared to these on conventional bicycles, a field experiment was conducted using two instrumented bicycles. These bicycles were identical except for the electric pedal support system. Two groups were compared: elderly cyclists (65 years of age and older) and a reference group of cyclists in middle adulthood (between 30 and 45 years of age). Participants rode a fixed route with a length of approximately 3.5 km on both bicycles in counterbalanced order. The route consisted of secluded bicycle paths and roads in a residential area where cyclist have to share the road with motorized traffic. The straight sections on secluded bicycle paths were classified as simple traffic situations and the intersections in the residential area where participants had to turn left, as complex traffic situations. Speed and mental workload were measured. For the assessment of mental workload the peripheral detection task (PDT) was applied. In simple traffic situations the elderly cyclists rode an average 3.6 km/h faster on the e-bike than on the conventional bicycle. However, in complex traffic situations they rode an average only 1.7 km/h faster on the e-bike than on the conventional bicycle. Except for the fact that the cyclists in middle adulthood rode an average approximately 2.6 km/h faster on both bicycle types and in both traffic conditions, their speed patterns were very similar. The speed of the elderly cyclists on an e-bike was approximately the speed of the cyclists in middle adulthood on a conventional bicycle. For the elderly cyclist and the cyclists in middle adulthood, mental workload did not differ between bicycle type. For both groups, the mental workload was higher in complex traffic situations than in simple traffic situations. Mental workload of the elderly cyclists was somewhat higher than the mental workload of the

  12. Personality traits moderate the effect of workload sources on perceived workload in flying column police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo eChiorri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that personality traits of the Five Factor Model play a role in worker's response to workload. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of personality traits of first responders with their perceived workload in real-life tasks. A flying column of 269 police officers completed a measure of subjective workload (NASA-Task Load Index after intervention tasks in a major public event. Officers' scores on a measure of Five Factor Model personality traits were obtained from archival data. Linear Mixed Modeling was used to test the direct and interaction effects of personality traits on workload scores once controlling for background variables, task type and workload source (mental, temporal and physical demand of the task, perceived effort, dissatisfaction for the performance and frustration due to the task. All personality traits except extraversion significantly interacted at least with one workload source. Perceived workload in flying column police officers appears to be the result of their personality characteristics interacting with the workload source. The implications of these results for the development of support measures aimed at reducing the impact of workload in this category of workers are discussed.

  13. Gaussian Process Regression for Predictive But Interpretable Machine Learning Models: An Example of Predicting Mental Workload across Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caywood, Matthew S; Roberts, Daniel M; Colombe, Jeffrey B; Greenwald, Hal S; Weiland, Monica Z

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest in real-time brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for the passive monitoring of human cognitive state, including cognitive workload. Too often, however, effective BCIs based on machine learning techniques may function as "black boxes" that are difficult to analyze or interpret. In an effort toward more interpretable BCIs, we studied a family of N-back working memory tasks using a machine learning model, Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), which was both powerful and amenable to analysis. Participants performed the N-back task with three stimulus variants, auditory-verbal, visual-spatial, and visual-numeric, each at three working memory loads. GPR models were trained and tested on EEG data from all three task variants combined, in an effort to identify a model that could be predictive of mental workload demand regardless of stimulus modality. To provide a comparison for GPR performance, a model was additionally trained using multiple linear regression (MLR). The GPR model was effective when trained on individual participant EEG data, resulting in an average standardized mean squared error (sMSE) between true and predicted N-back levels of 0.44. In comparison, the MLR model using the same data resulted in an average sMSE of 0.55. We additionally demonstrate how GPR can be used to identify which EEG features are relevant for prediction of cognitive workload in an individual participant. A fraction of EEG features accounted for the majority of the model's predictive power; using only the top 25% of features performed nearly as well as using 100% of features. Subsets of features identified by linear models (ANOVA) were not as efficient as subsets identified by GPR. This raises the possibility of BCIs that require fewer model features while capturing all of the information needed to achieve high predictive accuracy.

  14. Individual differences in cardiorespiratory measures of mental workload: An investigation of negative affectivity and cognitive avoidant coping in pilot candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Mariel; Vlemincx, Elke; von Leupoldt, Andreas; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2017-03-01

    Cardiorespiratory measures provide useful information in addition to well-established self-report measures when monitoring operator capacity. The purpose of our study was to refine the assessment of operator load by considering individual differences in personality and their associations with cardiorespiratory activation. Physiological and self-report measures were analyzed in 115 pilot candidates at rest and while performing a multiple task covering perceptual speed, spatial orientation, and working memory. In the total sample and particularly in individuals with a general tendency to worry a lot, a cognitive avoidant coping style was associated with a smaller task-related increase in heart rate. Negative affectivity was found to moderate the association between cardiac and self-reported arousal. Given that physiological and self-report measures of mental workload are usually combined when evaluating operator load (e.g., in pilot selection and training), our findings suggest that integrating individual differences may reduce unexplained variance and increase the validity of workload assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pattern Recognition of Momentary Mental Workload Based on Multi-Channel Electrophysiological Data and Ensemble Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Sunan; Wang, Rubin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the Mental Workload (MWL) classification problem based on the measured physiological data. First we discussed the optimal depth (i.e., the number of hidden layers) and parameter optimization algorithms for the Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). The base CNNs designed were tested according to five classification performance indices, namely Accuracy, Precision, F-measure, G-mean, and required training time. Then we developed an Ensemble Convolutional Neural Network (ECNN) to enhance the accuracy and robustness of the individual CNN model. For the ECNN design, three model aggregation approaches (weighted averaging, majority voting and stacking) were examined and a resampling strategy was used to enhance the diversity of individual CNN models. The results of MWL classification performance comparison indicated that the proposed ECNN framework can effectively improve MWL classification performance and is featured by entirely automatic feature extraction and MWL classification, when compared with traditional machine learning methods.

  16. Pattern Recognition of Momentary Mental Workload Based on Multi-Channel Electrophysiological Data and Ensemble Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the Mental Workload (MWL classification problem based on the measured physiological data. First we discussed the optimal depth (i.e., the number of hidden layers and parameter optimization algorithms for the Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN. The base CNNs designed were tested according to five classification performance indices, namely Accuracy, Precision, F-measure, G-mean, and required training time. Then we developed an Ensemble Convolutional Neural Network (ECNN to enhance the accuracy and robustness of the individual CNN model. For the ECNN design, three model aggregation approaches (weighted averaging, majority voting and stacking were examined and a resampling strategy was used to enhance the diversity of individual CNN models. The results of MWL classification performance comparison indicated that the proposed ECNN framework can effectively improve MWL classification performance and is featured by entirely automatic feature extraction and MWL classification, when compared with traditional machine learning methods.

  17. Work-load, burnout and mental health of dual-doctor couplesl: Depersonalization as a coping mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Győrffy Zsuzsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In line with the feminization of medicine the rate of dual-doctor couples among physicians has increased. The aim of this study is to describe the impact of the special stress-load related to medical profession on the members of these couples. Methods: Data in this representative cross-sectional epidemiological study were obtained from online questionnaires completed by 5,607 Hungarian physicians. In the quantitative analysis data of those who lived in a partner relationship were processed: 1,549 physicians with a physician partner versus 3,095 physicians with a non-physician partner. In our descriptive analysis we compared the amount of work-load (number of working hours, workplaces and night shifts, leisure time, and time spent on housework in the two groups. We also analyzed certain indicators of mental health (sleep disorders, signs of depression, psychosomatic symptoms, and perceived stress and the presence of burnout and role conflict. Results: There was no difference in the amount of workload between the two groups. No differences were detected in case of mental health indicators either; however, medium and high level of depersonalization and high level of role conflict was more prevalent among doctors with physician partner. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that having a physician partner was an important risk factor of depersonalization. Conclusions: Developing depersonalization might be a response on the 'double' emotional burden that affects doctors who live in a dual-career partner relationship. Higher prevalence of burnout among dual-physician couples draws the attention to the need for prevention and intervention.

  18. The psychophysics of workload - A second look at the relationship between subjective measures and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopher, D.; Chillag, N.; Arzi, N.

    1985-01-01

    Load estimates based upon subjective and performance indices were compared for subjects performing size matching and letter typing tasks under 6 levels of priorities, in single and dual task conditions. Each half of the group used a different task as reference in their subjective judgement. The results are interpreted to indicate that subjective measures are especially sensitive to voluntary allocation of attention and to the load on working memory. Association with performance is expected whenever these two factors are main determinants of performance efficiency, otherwise the two are likely to dissociate.

  19. Cardiorespiratory responses of Hi Fit and Low Fit subjects to mental challenge during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, E O; Webb, H E; Weldy, M L; Fabianke, E C; Orndorff, G R; Starks, M A

    2006-12-01

    The influence of psychological states on physiological responses during exercise is of considerable importance to individuals for which the efficiency of energy production is critical to occupational performance. Numerous studies have shown that aerobic fitness is associated with enhanced cardiovascular efficiency at rest and that responses to mental stress demonstrate evidence of increased sensitivity (relative increase in HR response) and enhanced efficiency (a decrease in absolute HR). However, the effect of aerobic fitness and its impact on cardiorespiratory (CR) responses to psychological stress during exercise has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was three-fold; (1) to examine during exercise, anxiety, effort sense, and CR responses to a mental challenge, (2) to examine anxiety and heart rate (HR) responses from rest to exercise with mental challenge between below average fitness (Low Fit) and well-above average fitness (Hi Fit) individuals (exercising at similar relative intensities), and (3) to examine anxiety, effort sense, and CR responses of Low Fit and Hi Fit individuals to a mental challenge during exercise at a similar relative intensity. Twelve Low Fit and eleven Hi Fit subjects participated in two, 32-minute cycle ergometer rides at 65 % of VO2max. In the mental challenge condition (MCC), subjects rode while participating in mentally challenging tasks (Stroop Color-Word task and mental arithmetic) from min 6 to min 14 of the protocol. In the no mental challenge condition (NMCC), subjects exercised at the same intensity and duration without a stressor. Subjects were counter-balanced between fitness levels and condition. HR, VE, VE/VO2, RR, VO2, RER, effort sense (RPE), and state anxiety (SAI) were assessed at 5, 14, 24, and 30 min. SAI was also assessed at - 5 min before exercise and after 15 min of recovery. In addition, the NASA task load index (NTLX) was used to assess perceived overall workload. SAI increased

  20. ON THE USEFULNESS OF FINGER BLOOD-PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR STUDIES ON MENTAL WORKLOAD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VELDMAN, JBP; RUDDEL, H; ROBBE, HWJ; Mulder, Lambertus; Mulder, Gysbertus

    Two experiments were conducted to explore the usefulness of the Penaz method for non-invasive, continuous finger blood pressure measurements during mental stress testing. In the first study, blood pressure was measured with the Penaz method, in the second it was measured intra-arterially. Two

  1. Beat-to-beat blood-pressure measurements applied in studies on mental workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roon, A.M.; Mulder, L.J.M.; Veldman, J.B.P.; Mulder, G.

    1995-01-01

    Heart rate variability diminishes during mental task performance. This decrease can be related to a change in control of the autonomic nervous system of blood pressure. This change in sympathetic/parasympathetic balance might be caused by a decrease in baroreflex sensitivity. - To study the

  2. An idiographic study into the physiology and selfreported mental workload of learning to drive a car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Dorrestijn, Serena M.; van den Berg, Irma A.; de Waard, Dick; Toffetti, Antonella; Wiczorek, Rebecca; Sonderegger, Andreas; Rottger, Stefan; Bouchner, Petr; Franke, Thomas; Fairclough, Stephen; Noordzij, Matthijs; Brookhuis, Karel

    2017-01-01

    A driving instructor has to monitor the performance and state (e.g. mental work load) of the pupil who is learning to drive. However, the instructor is also responsible for road safety. Therefore, it might be beneficial when additional monitoring technology would be available to the driving

  3. Mental workload and neural efficiency quantified in the prefrontal cortex using fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, Mickaël; Chua, Zarrin; Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Del Campo, Natalia; Matton, Nadine

    2017-07-12

    An improved understanding of how the brain allocates mental resources as a function of task difficulty is critical for enhancing human performance. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a field-deployable optical brain monitoring technology that provides a direct measure of cerebral blood flow in response to cognitive activity. We found that fNIRS was sensitive to variations in task difficulty in both real-life (flight simulator) and laboratory settings (tests measuring executive functions), showing increased concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) and decreased concentration of deoxygenated hemoglobin (HHb) in the prefrontal cortex as the tasks became more complex. Intensity of prefrontal activation (HbO2 concentration) was not clearly correlated to task performance. Rather, activation intensity shed insight on the level of mental effort, i.e., how hard an individual was working to accomplish a task. When combined with performance, fNIRS provided an estimate of the participants' neural efficiency, and this efficiency was consistent across levels of difficulty of the same task. Overall, our data support the suitability of fNIRS to assess the mental effort related to human operations and represents a promising tool for the measurement of neural efficiency in other contexts such as training programs or the clinical setting.

  4. Brain waves-based index for workload estimation and mental effort engagement recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammouri, A.; Chraa-Mesbahi, S.; Ait Moussa, A.; Zerouali, S.; Sahnoun, M.; Tairi, H.; Mahraz, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The advent of the communication systems and considering the complexity that some impose in their use, it is necessary to incorporate and equip these systems with a certain intelligence which takes into account the cognitive and mental capacities of the human operator. In this work, we address the issue of estimating the mental effort of an operator according to the cognitive tasks difficulty levels. Based on the Electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements, the proposed approach analyzes the user’s brain activity from different brain regions while performing cognitive tasks with several levels of difficulty. At a first time, we propose a variances comparison-based classifier (VCC) that makes use of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the EEG signal. The aim of using such a classifier is to highlight the brain regions that enter into interaction according to the cognitive task difficulty. In a second time, we present and describe a new EEG-based index for the estimation of mental efforts. The designed index is based on information recorded from two EEG channels. Results from the VCC demonstrate that powers of the Theta [4-7 Hz] (θ) and Alpha [8-12 Hz] (α) oscillations decrease while increasing the cognitive task difficulty. These decreases are mainly located in parietal and temporal brain regions. Based on the Kappa coefficients, decisions of the introduced index are compared to those obtained from an existing index. This performance assessment method revealed strong agreements. Hence the efficiency of the introduced index.

  5. Development of NPP control room operators`s mental workload measurement system using bioelectric signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Cha, Kyung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Ha [Suwon Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01

    This study developed mentalload measurement system based on the relations between mentalload and physiological responses of the human operators. The measurement system was composed of the telemetry system for EEG, EOG, ECG and respiration pattern of the subjects, A/D converter, the physiological signal processing programs (compiled by the Labview). The signal processing programs transformed the physiological signal into the scores indicating mentalload status of the subjects and recorded the mentalload scores in the form of the table of a database. The acqknowledge and the labview programs additionally transformed the mentalload score database and the operator behavior database so that both database were consolidated into one. 94 figs., 57 refs. (Author).

  6. Higher mental workload is associated with poorer laparoscopic performance as measured by the NASA-TLX tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurko, Yuliya Y; Scerbo, Mark W; Prabhu, Ajita S; Acker, Christina E; Stefanidis, Dimitrios

    2010-10-01

    Increased workload during task performance may increase fatigue and facilitate errors. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is a previously validated tool for workload self-assessment. We assessed the relationship of workload and performance during simulator training on a complex laparoscopic task. NASA-TLX workload data from three separate trials were analyzed. All participants were novices (n = 28), followed the same curriculum on the fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery suturing model, and were tested in the animal operating room (OR) on a Nissen fundoplication model after training. Performance and workload scores were recorded at baseline, after proficiency achievement, and during the test. Performance, NASA-TLX scores, and inadvertent injuries during the test were analyzed and compared. Workload scores declined during training and mirrored performance changes. NASA-TLX scores correlated significantly with performance scores (r = -0.5, P NASA-TLX questionnaire accurately reflects workload changes during simulator training and may identify individuals more likely to experience high workload and more prone to errors during skill transfer to the clinical environment.

  7. Self-report scales alone cannot capture mental workload : A reply to De Winter, Controversy in human factors constructs and the explosive use of the NASA TLX: A measurement perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waard, Dick; Lewis Evans, Ben

    Mental workload is an operational concept that can only be assessed indirectly. Self-reports such as the NASA-TLX however will never suffice to describe how a task was performed, and how heavily loaded operators were.

  8. Tendon reflex asymmetry by voluntary mental effort in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, J.; Speelman, H. D.; van Crevel, H.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of voluntary mental influences on the tendon reflexes was examined in healthy subjects. The patellar reflexes were evoked by a method comparable with the clinical examination, and the reflexes were recorded by surface electrodes. Eighteen subjects were instructed to increase and then

  9. Avaliação da carga mental de trabalho e do desempenho de medidas de mensuração: NASA TLX e SWAT Evaluation of mental workload and performance measurement: NASA TLX and SWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane de Souza Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia a carga mental para atividades desempenhadas em empresa catarinense de soluções em energia e busca comparar os resultados da carga mental de trabalho encontrada a partir de dois métodos de mensuração atualmente mais usados - NASA TLX e SWAT. Por meio deste estudo avaliou-se a carga mental exigida tanto pela atividade de montagem manual, quanto de montagem automática de placas eletrônicas. Os resultados da avaliação da carga mental evidenciaram que entre as duas formas de execução da atividade, as exigências mentais mostram-se maiores na atividade de montagem manual. Os métodos de avaliação da carga mental aplicados em estudos da ergonomia possibilitam conhecer as capacidades e limitações do trabalhador, características da organização do trabalho e facilitam a apresentação quantitativa e qualitativa dos resultados. A comparação do desempenho entre os dois métodos de avaliação da carga mental, também se mostrou como uma investigação pertinente para o campo da ergonomia, já que são poucos os estudos comparativos em relação ao desempenho dos métodos. Na comparação do desempenho geral entre os dois métodos, o método NASA TLX possibilita avaliar a carga mental analisando diversas dimensões da situação de trabalho e apresenta vantagens quando comparado ao SWAT, pois pode ser facilmente aplicado e mostrou-se com maior aceitação por parte dos avaliados.This study evaluates the mental workload in some activities in an electricity generation company in Santa Catarina, Brazil and compares the mental workload measurements obtained using two commonly used measurement methods- NASA TLX and SWAT. The mental workload required by both manual and automated assembly of circuit boards was evaluated. The evaluation of the mental workload showed that comparing these two types of activities, the mental requirements appear to be higher during manual assembly tasks. The methods for assessing the mental

  10. [Mental health beliefs between culture and subjective illness experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Kristina; Chaudhry, Haroon R; Aigner, Martin; Zitterl, Werner; Stompe, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Subjective health beliefs are representations about pathogenesis, course and treatment options of psychic as well as somatic illnesses. They are important for a psychotherapeutic interaction as well as for a stable drug adherence. However, it remains unclear whether these representations are primarily affected by the cultural background or by an individual's specific illness experiences, a question of increasing importance in our era of globalized migration. The study sample consisted of 203 Austrians (125 with schizophrenia, 78 with obsessivecompulsive disorder) and 190 Pakistanis (120 with schizophrenia, 70 with obsessive-compulsive disorder). All patients completed the "Causal Explanations of Mental Disorders" (CEMD), a 41-item self-rating questionnaire. Pakistani patients reported magic-religious oriented mental health beliefs more frequently. In contrast, Austrians' beliefs are more often in line with the bio-psychosocial explanations of Western medicine. Concerning mental health beliefs the cultural background seems to be more important than the subjective experience with a distinctive mental disorder. Although the subjective experience is of importance for the shape of illnessspecific cognitions, mental health beliefs are primarily caused by the patients' socio-cultural origin. It is a challenge for psychiatry to improve the co-operation with culture-anthropology and other social sciences.

  11. The relationship between subjects with mental disorder and social facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Moraes Dantas Moura

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mental care currently provided in primary health care includes tools which present the community territory as a privileged space for the new assistance process. This way, interventions with the population with mental disorders should be aimed at developing strategies which seek the promotion of changes in the social space occupied by these people and at constructing and/or resuming territorial networks. This study aims to understand the relationship between individuals with mental disorder and the community social facilities by means of a qualitative investigation with 7 users, who present a history of psychic suffering, assisted at a unit of the Family Health Strategy. We identified 97 social facilities in the community, distributed into the following categories: health, religion, education, leisure, social organization, and workplaces. We observed that users only participated in religious activities and they resorted to the Family Health Strategy for health care. The lack of spaces and leisure activities in the community increases the difficulty with regard to the social participation of these subjects. We conclude that the subjects present relationships limited to the nuclear family, health professionals at the Family Health Strategy, and religious activities, reflecting a fragile connection to the community network of care. This fact indicates a need for expanding mental care actions in primary care and reinforces the practice of occupational therapy, contributing to increase the territorial and everyday life relationships of subjects with psychosocial needs.

  12. [Subjective Workload, Job Satisfaction, and Work-Life-Balance of Physicians and Nurses in a Municipal Hospital in a Rural Area Compared to an Urban University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, Michael; Schmid, Klaus; Drexler, Hans; Kiesel, Johannes

    2017-02-15

    Medical and nursing shortages in rural areas represent a current serious public health problem. The healthcare of the rural population is at risk. This study compares perceived workload, job satisfaction and work-life balance of physicians and nurses at a clinic in a rural area with two clinics of a University hospital. Physicians and nurses were interviewed anonymously with a standardized questionnaire (paper and pencil), including questions on job satisfaction, subjective workload and work-life balance. The response rate was almost 50% in the University hospital as well as in the municipal hospital. 32 physicians and 54 nurses from the University hospital and 18 physicians and 137 nurses from the municipal hospital participated in the survey. Nurses at the University hospital assessed the organization of the daily routine with 94.1% as better than those at the municipal hospital (82.4%, p=0.03). Physicians at the University hospital were able to better implement acquired knowledge at a University clinic with 87.5% than their counterparts at the municipal hospital (55.5%, p=0.02). In contrast to their colleagues at the municipal hospital, only 50% of the physicians at the University hospital subjectively considered their workload as just right (83.3% municipal, p=0.02). 96.9% of the physicians at the University hospital were "daily" or "several times a week" under time pressure (municipal 50%, pwork and family life (62.9% University hospital, 72.8% Municipal hospital). In contrast, only 20% of the physicians at the University Hospital but 42.9% of the physicians of the municipal hospital had sufficient opportunities to balance workload and family (p=0.13). The return rate of almost 50% can be described as good. Due to the small number of physicians, especially from the municipal hospital, it can be assumed that some interesting differences could not be detected. There were only slight differences between the nurses from the two hospitals. In contrast, subjective

  13. Workload: Measurement and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian Francis; Casner, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Poster: The workload research project has as its task to survey the available literature on: (1) workload measurement techniques; and (2) the effects of workload on operator performance. The first set of findings provides practitioners with a collection of simple-to-use workload measurement techniques along with characterizations of the kinds of tasks each technique has been shown reliably address. This allows design practitioners to select and use the most appropriate techniques for the task(s) at hand. The second set of findings provides practitioners with the guidance they need to design for appropriate kinds and amounts of workload across all tasks for which the operator is responsible. This guidance helps practitioners design systems and procedures that ensure appropriate levels of engagement across all tasks, and avoid designs and procedures that result in operator boredom, complacency, loss of awareness, undue levels of stress, or skill atrophy that can result from workload that distracts operators from the tasks they perform and monitor, workload levels that are too low, too high, or too consistent or predictable. Only those articles that were peer reviewed, long standing and generally accepted in the field, and applicable to a relevant range of conditions in a select domain of interest, in analogous "extreme" environments to those in space were included. In addition, all articles were reviewed and evaluated on uni-dimensional and multi-dimensional considerations. Casner & Gore also examined the notion of thresholds and the conditions that may benefit mostly from the various methodological approaches. Other considerations included whether the tools would be suitable for guiding a requirement-related and design-related question. An initial review of over 225 articles was conducted and entered into an EndNote database. The reference list included a range of conditions in the domain of interest (subjective/objective measures), the seminal works in workload, as

  14. Cardiac-Activity Measures for Assessing Airport Ramp-Tower Controller's Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) potentially offer objective, continuous, and non-intrusive measures of human-operators mental workload. Such measurement capability is attractive for workload assessment in complex laboratory simulations or safety-critical field testing. The present study compares mean HR and HRV data with self-reported subjective workload ratings collected during a high-fidelity human-in-the-loop simulation of airport ramp traffic control operations, which involve complex cognitive and coordination tasks. Mean HR was found to be weakly sensitive to the workload ratings, while HRV was not sensitive or even contradictory to the assumptions. Until more knowledge on stress response mechanisms of the autonomic nervous system is obtained, it is recommended that these cardiac-activity measures be used with other workload assessment tools, such as subjective measures.

  15. Doctor, can you spare some time? The role of workload in general practitioners' involvement in patients' mental health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zangtinge, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    GPs have an important position in the identification of patients’ mental health problems. As generalists, GPs are often the first health professionals contacted by patients with mental health problems and they are assigned to provide integrated care for both patients’ somatic and psychological

  16. [Subjective and objective effects of music use during mental effort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, V; Egger, J

    1981-05-15

    The subjective and objective effects of music consumption during intellectual work were assessed by a special questionnaire and the concentration paper-pencil-test (Brickencamp). Three different styles of music (pop-music, classical music and folk-music) were presented in a standardized way. It appeared that pop-music was experienced to be less conscious, less irritable and more pleasant than classical music. Although there was a subjective preference for pop- and folk-music an adequate increase of the concentration-test-scores could not be ascertained. On the contrary a significant discrepancy was found between subjective recorded music-effect and objective measured task-performance. Under the condition of classical music which was least preferred there was a significant greater variance of false responses than under the condition of no music. Nevertheless the total output of the discrimination-task was relatively the highest during classical music. The results are interpreted primarily as an enhanced psycho-physiological activation and a different selective concentration on music-presentation and task-demands. In accordance with empirical findings on psychological and physiological effects of music the results of this study reinforce the statement that also i mental activities music per se does not principally increase or lower the task output.

  17. [Legal empowerment and mental health: the legal subject in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon, Marianne; Festa, Carole; Hanen, Sylvie; Mercuel, Alain; Monteiro, Michel

    2011-01-01

    A social experiment and pilot project funded by the French Directorate General of Social Cohesion aimed at providing legal aid services ("legal empowerment and mental health") has been conducted since 2009 in three healthcare institutions in Paris (France): the Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, the Groupe Public de Santé Perray-Vaucluse, and the Hôpital Tenon (psychotraumatology unit). Lasting until 2012 and piloted by the NGO Droits d'Urgence, the initiative aims to promote the legal empowerment of socially excluded people suffering from psychiatric or mental disorders and to facilitate access to care. The initiative operates on two levels, providing legal support to vulnerable people and offering legal expertise and advice to medical and social staff. An ad-hoc intervention approach was designed to ensure the implementation of the initiative based on several combined tools: legal aid, technical committees, awareness-raising activities, and pooling of legal resources and information. Developed across the three institutions, this integrated and subsidiary initiative improves our understanding of the complex circumstances of disempowered people ? who are often faced with overlapping social, medical, administrative and legal difficulties ? and helps to take into account their vulnerabilities. The cross-professional and cross-boundary system promoted by this initiative involves medical staff, social workers and lawyers around patients viewed as both actors and legal subjects.

  18. The mental and subjective skin: Emotion, empathy, feelings and thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-López, E; Domínguez, E; Juárez Ramos, V; de la Fuente, J; Meins, A; Iborra, O; Gálvez, G; Rodríguez-Artacho, M A; Gómez-Milán, E

    2015-07-01

    We applied thermography to investigate the cognitive neuropsychology of emotions, using it as a somatic marker of subjective experience during emotional tasks. We obtained results that showed significant correlations between changes in facial temperature and mental set. The main result was the change in the temperature of the nose, which tended to decrease with negative valence stimuli but to increase with positive emotions and arousal patterns. However, temperature change was identified not only in the nose, but also in the forehead, the oro-facial area, the cheeks and in the face taken as a whole. Nevertheless, thermic facial changes, mostly nasal temperature changes, correlated positively with participants' empathy scores and their performance. We found that temperature changes in the face may reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions and feelings like love. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nursing workload: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Mohammed G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a comprehensive understanding of the concept 'workload' within the nursing profession in order to arrive at a clear definition of nursing workload based on the evidence in existing literature. Nursing workload is a common term used in the health literature, but often without specification of its exact meaning. Concept clarification is needed to delineate the meaning of the term 'nursing workload'. A concept analysis was conducted using Walker and Avant's method to clarify the defining attributes of nursing workload. As the subject matter was nursing focused, only one database was searched, the Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Articles that did not use 'workload' in the title or abstract were excluded. A model case, contrary case, related case and empirical referents were constructed to clarify the concept and to demonstrate how the workload is captured by the main attributes. The attributes of nursing workload found in the literature fall into five main categories: the amount of nursing time; the level of nursing competency; the weight of direct patient care; the amount of physical exertion; and complexity of care. The attributes were organised according to the leading antecedents, which were identified as the patient, nurse and health institution. Nurse managers need to address the workload issues with regard to the real nature of nursing work; this could increase nurses' productivity, nurses' satisfaction, turnover, work stress and provide sufficient staffing to patient care needs. The concept analysis demonstrated clearly the complexity of the concept and its implications for practice and research. It is believed that the current concept analysis will help to provide a better understanding of nursing workload and contribute towards the standardisation of the nursing workload and the development of a valid and reliable measurement system. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. An EEG-based mental workload estimator trained on working memory task can work well under simulated multi-attribute task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yufeng; Qi, Hongzhi; He, Feng; Liu, Shuang; Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Lixin; Ming, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Mental workload (MW)-based adaptive system has been found to be an effective approach to enhance the performance of human-machine interaction and to avoid human error caused by overload. However, MW estimated from the spontaneously generated electroencephalogram (EEG) was found to be task-specific. In existing studies, EEG-based MW classifier can work well under the task used to train the classifier (within-task) but crash completely when used to classify MW of a task that is similar to but not included in the training data (cross-task). The possible causes have been considered to be the task-specific EEG patterns, the mismatched workload across tasks and the temporal effects. In this study, cross-task performance-based feature selection (FS) and regression model were tried to cope with these challenges, in order to make EEG-based MW estimator trained on working memory tasks work well under a complex simulated multi-attribute task (MAT). The results show that the performance of regression model trained on working memory task and tested on multi-attribute task with the feature subset picked-out were significantly improved (correlation coefficient (COR): 0.740 ± 0.147 and 0.598 ± 0.161 for FS data and validation data respectively) when compared to the performance in the same condition with all features (chance level). It can be inferred that there do exist some MW-related EEG features can be picked out and there are something in common between MW of a relatively simple task and a complex task. This study provides a promising approach to measure MW across tasks.

  1. Informal care-giving and mental ill-health - differential relationships by workload, gender, age and area-remoteness in a UK region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebler, Stefanie; Ryan, Assumpta; Shortall, Sally; Maguire, Aideen

    2017-05-01

    Informal care-giving can be a demanding role which has been shown to impact on physical, psychological and social well-being. Methodological weaknesses including small sample sizes and subjective measures of mental health have led to inconclusive evidence about the relationship between informal care-giving and mental ill-health. This paper reports on a study carried out in a UK region which investigated the relationship between informal care-giving and mental ill-health. The analysis was conducted by linking three data sets, the Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study, the Northern Ireland Enhanced Prescribing Database and the Proximity to Service Index from the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Our analysis used both a subjective measure of mental ill-health, i.e. a question asked in the 2011 Census, and an objective measure, whether the respondents had been prescribed antidepressants by a General Practitioner between 2010 and 2012. We applied binary logistic multilevel modelling to these two responses to test whether, and for what sub-groups of the population, informal care-giving was related to mental ill-health. The results showed that informal care-giving per se was not related to mental ill-health, although there was a strong relationship between the intensity of the care-giving role and mental ill-health. Females under 50, who provided over 19 hours of care, were not employed or worked part-time and who provided care in both 2001 and 2011 were at a statistically significantly elevated risk of mental ill-health. Caregivers in remote areas with limited access to shops and services were also at a significantly increased risk as evidenced by prescription rates for antidepressants. With community care policies aimed at supporting people to remain at home, the paper highlights the need for further research in order to target resources appropriately. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Experimental validation of navigation workload metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schryver, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wachtel, J.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1994-04-01

    Advanced digital computer display interfaces in the control room may increase operator workload. Workstation monitors provide limited display area, and information is represented in large-scale display networks. Display navigation may generate disorienting effects, require additional resources for window management, and increase memory and data integration requirements. Six ORNL employees participated in an experiment to validate proposed metrics of navigation workload in the advanced control room. The task environment was a display network consisting of 25 windows resembling a simplified Safety Parameter Display System for Pressurized Water Reactors. A repeated measures design with 3 within subjects factors was employed. The factors were task difficulty, navigation distance level, and a blocking factor. Participants were asked to monitor a single parameter or two parameters. Fourteen candidate metrics were tested. Analysis of variance of the modified task load index (MTLX) and rating subscales demonstrated substantial support for the claim that navigation of large-scale display networks can impose additional mental load. Primary and secondary task performance measures exhibited ceiling effects. Memory probes for these tasks were inadequate because they were recognition-based and coarse. Eye gaze measures were not validated, indicating a need for more refined data reduction algorithms. Strong positive correlations were found between MTLX and both navigation duration and standard deviation of pupil diameter. Further study and increased statistical power are required to validate objective navigation workload metrics.

  3. Work-Home Interference, Perceived Total Workload, and the Risk of Future Sickness Absence Due to Stress-Related Mental Diagnoses Among Women and Men: a Prospective Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedberg, Pia; Mather, Lisa; Bergström, Gunnar; Lindfors, Petra; Blom, Victoria

    2018-02-01

    Work-home interference has been proposed as an important explanation for sickness absence (SA). Previous studies show mixed results, have not accounted for familial factors (genetics and shared everyday environment), or investigated diagnosis specific SA. The aim was to study whether work-home interference and perceived total workload predict SA due to stress-related mental diagnoses, or SA due to other mental diagnoses, among women and men, when adjusting for various confounders and familial factors. This study included 11,916 twins, 19-47 years (49% women). Data on work-to-home and home-to-work conflicts, perceived total workload, and relevant confounders were derived from a 2005 survey, and national register data on SA spells until 2013 were obtained. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Discordant twin pair design was applied to adjust for familial factors. Each one unit increase in work-to-home and home-to-work conflicts, and perceived total workload was associated with higher odds for SA due to stress-related mental diagnoses and to SA due to other mental diagnoses among women, when adjusting for sociodemographic factors (ORs 1.15-1.31). Including health or familial factors, no associations remained. For men, each one unit increase in work-to-home conflicts was associated with higher odds for SA due to stress-related diagnoses (ORs 1.23-1.35), independently of confounders. Work-to-home conflict was independently associated with future SA due to stress-related diagnoses among men only. Health- and work-related factors seem to be important confounders when researching work-home interference, perceived total workload, and SA. Not including such confounders involves risking drawing incorrect conclusions. Further studies are needed to confirm sex differences and whether genetic factors are important for the associations studied.

  4. Identification of temporal variations in mental workload using locally-linear-embedding-based EEG feature reduction and support-vector-machine-based clustering and classification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhong; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-07-01

    Identifying the abnormal changes of mental workload (MWL) over time is quite crucial for preventing the accidents due to cognitive overload and inattention of human operators in safety-critical human-machine systems. It is known that various neuroimaging technologies can be used to identify the MWL variations. In order to classify MWL into a few discrete levels using representative MWL indicators and small-sized training samples, a novel EEG-based approach by combining locally linear embedding (LLE), support vector clustering (SVC) and support vector data description (SVDD) techniques is proposed and evaluated by using the experimentally measured data. The MWL indicators from different cortical regions are first elicited by using the LLE technique. Then, the SVC approach is used to find the clusters of these MWL indicators and thereby to detect MWL variations. It is shown that the clusters can be interpreted as the binary class MWL. Furthermore, a trained binary SVDD classifier is shown to be capable of detecting slight variations of those indicators. By combining the two schemes, a SVC-SVDD framework is proposed, where the clear-cut (smaller) cluster is detected by SVC first and then a subsequent SVDD model is utilized to divide the overlapped (larger) cluster into two classes. Finally, three-class MWL levels (low, normal and high) can be identified automatically. The experimental data analysis results are compared with those of several existing methods. It has been demonstrated that the proposed framework can lead to acceptable computational accuracy and has the advantages of both unsupervised and supervised training strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tracking workload in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Scott; France, Daniel J; Hemphill, Robin; Jones, Ian; Chen, Kong Y; Rickard, Dorsey; Makowski, Renee; Aronsky, Dominik

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to create a methodology for measuring transient levels of physician workload in a live emergency department (ED) environment. Characterizing, defining, and measuring aspects of this interrupt-driven work environment represent the preliminary steps in addressing impending issues concerning ED overcrowding, efficiency, and patient and provider safety. A time-motion task analysis was conducted. Twenty emergency medicine (EM) physicians were observed for 180-min intervals in an ED of an academic medical center. Near continuous workload measures were developed and used to track changing workload levels in time. These measures were taken from subjective, objective, and physiological perspectives. The NASA-Task Load Index was administered to each physician after observational sessions to measure subjective workload. Physiological measurements were taken throughout the duration of the observation to measure stress response. Additional information concerning physicians' patient quantity and patient complexity was extracted from the ED information system. Graphical workload profiles were created by combining observational and subjective data with system state data. Methodologies behind the creation of workload profiles are discussed, the workload profiles are compared, and quantitative and qualitative analyses are conducted. Using human factors methods to measure workload in a setting such as the ED proves to be challenging but has relevant application in improving the efficiency and safety of EM. Techniques implemented in this research are applicable in managing ED staff and real-time monitoring of physician workload.

  6. The smartphone and the driver's cognitive workload: A comparison of Apple, Google, and Microsoft's intelligent personal assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Cooper, Joel M; Turrill, Jonna; Coleman, James R; Hopman, Rachel J

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the impact of voice-based interactions using 3 different intelligent personal assistants (Apple's Siri , Google's Google Now for Android phones, and Microsoft's Cortana ) on the cognitive workload of the driver. In 2 experiments using an instrumented vehicle on suburban roadways, we measured the cognitive workload of drivers when they used the voice-based features of each smartphone to place a call, select music, or send text messages. Cognitive workload was derived from primary task performance through video analysis, secondary-task performance using the Detection Response Task (DRT), and subjective mental workload. We found that workload was significantly higher than that measured in the single-task drive. There were also systematic differences between the smartphones: The Google system placed lower cognitive demands on the driver than the Apple and Microsoft systems, which did not differ. Video analysis revealed that the difference in mental workload between the smartphones was associated with the number of system errors, the time to complete an action, and the complexity and intuitiveness of the devices. Finally, surprisingly high levels of cognitive workload were observed when drivers were interacting with the devices: "on-task" workload measures did not systematically differ from that associated with a mentally demanding Operation Span (OSPAN) task. The analysis also found residual costs associated using each of the smartphones that took a significant time to dissipate. The data suggest that caution is warranted in the use of smartphone voice-based technology in the vehicle because of the high levels of cognitive workload associated with these interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Electromagnetic Metrics of Mental Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Biomagnetism ................................................................................ 28 3.4.1 Introduction... Biomagnetic Fields ............................................... 29 3.4.2 Magnetic Sensing Devices...represcnla- tion of response select ion . e\\ecution .jnd control procsst. Figure 2.8.1 Hybrid Capacity Model (Kantowiti & Knight 1978) W~dM"rAAVp 16

  8. Mental activity after early afternoon nap awakenings in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagini, Laura; Gemignani, Angelo; Feinberg, Irwin; Guazzelli, Mario; Campbell, Ian G

    2004-06-30

    Despite the common misconception that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a unique correlate of dreaming, reports of mental activity can be elicited after awakenings from any stage of nocturnal sleep. We extended the investigation to naps and tried to explore the relationship between recall length and level of sleep stage and depth preceding the awakening. We hypothesized that dream report length would be related to arousal level. In 10 healthy young adults, sleep EEG and EOG were recorded for four non-consecutive early afternoon naps. Dream recalls were recorded following 10 s, 1 min, and 6 min of NREM Stage 2 and after 5 min of first REM period. We measured mental recall with total word count (TWC) method, sleep stages by using EEG visual scoring and Delta and Beta activity by period amplitude (PAA) and power spectral (PSA) analyses. All awakening conditions were followed by a dream report. TWC was significantly greater after REM than after 10 s and 1 min of NREM, and TWC did not differ among the NREM awakenings. Delta activity after REM was significantly lower compared to the NREM 6 and 1 min while Beta activity did not differ across the conditions. Assuming that arousal level decreased with increased NREM duration and increasing Delta EEG activity, the constant TWC across the three NREM awakenings indicates that arousal level cannot be the only factor affecting dream report length. Some other factor such as memory processing may explain the longer dream reports following REM sleep, or it may be that the EEG is an imperfect indicator of arousal level.

  9. A psychophysiological assessment of operator workload during simulated flight missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Arthur F.; Sirevaag, Erik J.; Braune, Rolf

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of the dual-task event-related (brain) potential (ERP) paradigm to the assessment of an operator's mental workload and residual capacity in a complex situation of a flight mission was demonstrated using ERP measurements and subjective workload ratings of student pilots flying a fixed-based single-engine simulator. Data were collected during two separate 45-min flights differing in difficulty; flight demands were examined by dividing each flight into four segments: takeoff, straight and level flight, holding patterns, and landings. The P300 ERP component in particular was found to discriminate among the levels of task difficulty in a systematic manner, decreasing in amplitude with an increase in task demands. The P300 amplitude is shown to be negatively correlated with deviations from command headings across the four flight segments.

  10. Pharmacotherapy of Disruptive Behavior in Mentally Retarded Subjects: A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Frank; Reis, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    The review presented here describes the state of the art of pharmacological treatment of aggression in subjects with mental retardation (MR) summing up results for both, children and adults. In general, psychopharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in individuals with MR is similar to the treatment in subjects without MR. Compared to…

  11. Subjective fatigue, mental effort, and attention deficits after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, Angelique; Agar, Nathalie; Azouvi, Philippe

    2009-11-01

    Although fatigue is one of the most frequent complaints of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), its mechanisms remain poorly understood. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between subjective mental fatigue, mental effort, attention deficits, and mood after severe TBI. and participants. A total of 27 patients with subacute/chronic severe TBI were compared with matched controls. Patients first rated their baseline subjective fatigue on the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and on the Visual Analog Scale for Fatigue (VAS-F). Mood was assessed with the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Then, they performed a long-duration selective attention task, separated in 2 parts. Fatigue on the VAS-F was assessed again between the 2 parts and at the end of the attention task. Patients were also asked to rate on the VAS the level of subjective mental effort devoted to the task. Patients reported a higher baseline fatigue than controls. They performed significantly poorer on the selective attention task. Significant correlations were found in the group with TBI between attention performance, mental effort, and subjective fatigue. Depression did not significantly correlate with fatigue. These findings suggest that patients with more severe attention deficits have to produce higher levels of mental effort to manage a complex task, which may increase subjective fatigue, in line with the coping hypothesis.

  12. Associations between subjective social status and DSM-IV mental disorders: results from the World Mental Health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kate M; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Andrade, Laura H; Borges, Guilherme; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Fiestas, Fabian; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lim, Carmen C W; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Williams, David R; Zakhozha, Victoria; Kessler, Ronald C

    2014-12-01

    The inverse social gradient in mental disorders is a well-established research finding with important implications for causal models and policy. This research has used traditional objective social status (OSS) measures, such as educational level, income, and occupation. Recently, subjective social status (SSS) measurement has been advocated to capture the perception of relative social status, but to our knowledge, there have been no studies of associations between SSS and mental disorders. To estimate associations of SSS with DSM-IV mental disorders in multiple countries and to investigate whether the associations persist after comprehensive adjustment of OSS. Face-to-face cross-sectional household surveys of community-dwelling adults in 18 countries in Asia, South Pacific, the Americas, Europe, and the Middle East (N=56,085). Subjective social status was assessed with a self-anchoring scale reflecting respondent evaluations of their place in the social hierarchies of their countries in terms of income, educational level, and occupation. Scores on the 1 to 10 SSS scale were categorized into 4 categories: low (scores 1-3), low-mid (scores 4-5), high-mid (scores 6-7), and high (scores 8-10). Objective social status was assessed with a wide range of fine-grained objective indicators of income, educational level, and occupation. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed the 12-month prevalence of 16 DSM-IV mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. The weighted mean survey response rate was 75.2% (range, 55.1%-97.2%). Graded inverse associations were found between SSS and all 16 mental disorders. Gross odds ratios (lowest vs highest SSS categories) in the range of 1.8 to 9.0 were attenuated but remained significant for all 16 disorders (odds ratio, 1.4-4.9) after adjusting for OSS indicators. This pattern of inverse association between SSS and mental disorders was significant in 14 of 18 individual countries, and in low-, middle-, and high

  13. Higher risk of probable mental emotional disorder in low or severe vision subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfah Rif’ati

    2012-07-01

    health problem priority in Indonesia. This paper presents an assessment of severe visual impairments related to the risk of MED. Methods: This paper assessed a part of Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2007 data. For this assessment, subjects 15 years old or more had their visual acuity measured using the Snellen chart and their mental health status determined using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ 20. A subject was considered to have probable MED if the subject had a total score of 6 or more on the SRQ. Based on the measure of visual acuity, visual acuity was divided into 3 categories: normal/mild (20/20 to 20/60; low vision (less than 20/60 to 3/60; and blind (less than 3/60 to 0/0. Results: Among 972,989 subjects, 554,886 were aged 15 years or older. 11.4% of the subjects had probable MED. The prevalence of low vision and blindness was 5.1% and 0.9%, respectively. Compared to subjects with normal or mild visual impairments, subjects with low vision had a 74% increased risk for probable MED [adjusted relative risk (RRa=1,75; 95% confidence interval (CI=1,71-1,79].  Blind subjects had a 2.7-fold risk to be probable MED (RRa=2.69; 95% CI=2.60-2.78] compared to subjects with normal or mild visual impairments. Conclusion: Visual impairment severity increased probable MED risk. Therefore, visual impairment subjects need more attention on probable MED. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:9-13

  14. Less adrenergic response to mental task during verapamil compared to amlodipine treatment in hypertensive subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevre, K; Lefrandt, JD; Eide, [No Value; Smit, AJ; Rostrup, M

    2001-01-01

    We compared the effects of amlodipine and verapamil slow release on autonomic responses to a 5-min mental arithmetic test (MST) in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Twenty subjects received 8 weeks of verapamil slow release 240 mg or amlodipine 10 mg in a double-blind crossover design,

  15. Exploring Individual Differences in Workload Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-26

    Mark H. Chignell. "Mental Workload Dynamics in Adaptive Interface Design." IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 18, no. 4 (1988): 647-658...J. Colombi, D. Jacques, and J. Miller. "Human Systems Integration within the DOD Architecture Framework." IIE Annual Conference and Expo

  16. Conducted-Energy Device (Taser) Usage in Subjects With Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Cassandra A; Smock, William S; Melendez, Ashlee M; El-Mallakh, Rif S

    2016-06-01

    Use of a conducted-energy device (CED), or Taser, by law enforcement officers (LEOs) is recommended over more lethal forms of force. LEOs interact with a wide variety of people including individuals with mental illness and those with substance use disorders. The literature is devoid of data regarding the effect of CEDs on this special population. We used data collected by LEOs from 2008 to 2009. There were 233 cases over the two-year period. Of the 233 individuals on whom the Taser was used, 38 had a mental illness and 91 were under the influence of substances (not mutually exclusive). The average number of shocks necessary to achieve compliance was 1.92 for persons with a mental illness (t(231) = 2.565; p = .011, versus nonintoxicated control subjects without mental illness and 2.55 for persons under the influence of stimulants (t(143) = 3.027; p = .003, versus nonintoxicated control subjects without mental illness). The results of this study serve to inform LEOs and administrators of the patterns of use of CEDs in communities. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  17. Wealth, justice and freedom: Objective and subjective measures predicting poor mental health in a study across eight countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Scholten

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Multiple subjective and objective MF should be combined to assess the macrosystem’s relationship with poor mental health more precisely. The relationship between MF and poor mental health indicates that the macrosystem should be taken into account as relevant context for mental health problems, too.

  18. Recurrence analysis of the EEG during sleep accurately identifies subjects with mental health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, David E; Punjabi, Naresh M; Kim, Paul Y; Frilot, Clifton; Marino, Andrew A

    2014-12-30

    Analysis of brain recurrence (ABR) is a novel computational method that uses two variables for sleep depth and two for sleep fragmentation to quantify temporal changes in non-random brain electrical activity. We postulated that ABR of the sleep-staged EEG could identify an EEG signature specific for the presence of mental health symptoms. Using the Mental Health Inventory Questionnaire (MHI-5) as ground truth, psychological distress was assessed in a study cohort obtained from the Sleep Heart Health Study. Subjects with MHI-5 50. Sixteen ABR markers derived from the EEG were analyzed using linear discriminant analysis to identify marker combinations that reliably classified individual subjects. A biomarker function computed from 12 of the markers accurately classified the subjects based on their MHI-5 scores (AUROC=82%). Use of additional markers did not improve classification accuracy. Subgroup analysis (20 highest and 20 lowest MHI-5 scores) improved classification accuracy (AUROC=89%). Biomarker values for individual subjects were significantly correlated with MHI-5 score (r=0.36, 0.54 for N=68, 40, respectively). ABR of EEGs obtained during sleep successfully classified subjects with regard to the severity of mental health symptoms, indicating that mood systems were reflected in brain electrical activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Subjective relative deprivation is associated with poorer physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sandeep; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Substantial epidemiological evidence has shown that income inequality and objective measures of relative deprivation are associated with poorer health outcomes. However, surprisingly little research has examined whether subjective feelings of relative deprivation are similarly linked with poorer health outcomes. The relative deprivation hypothesis suggests that inequality affects health at the individual level through negative consequences of social comparison. We directly examined the relationship between subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation and self-reported physical and mental health in a diverse community sample (n = 328). Results demonstrated that subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation are associated with significantly poorer physical and mental health. These relationships held even when accounting for covariates that have been previously associated with both relative deprivation and health. These results further support the link between relative deprivation and health outcomes and suggest that addressing root causes of relative deprivation may lead to greater individual health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous Physical and Mental Effort Alters Visual Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; García, José Antonio; Cárdenas, David

    2017-08-01

    Perceptual processing is sensitive to physiological changes. Thus, the homeostatic disturbances during and after exercise may alter the visual function. Here, we investigated the effect of simultaneous physical effort and two levels of cognitive demand on skills related to the visuoperceptual and motor processing. Eighteen male regular exercisers performed 60 minutes of simultaneous physical exercise (cycling at 60 ± 5% of reserve heart rate) and cognitive effort (mental workload). The same protocol was performed with a mental workload and an oddball condition of this task on different days in a counterbalanced manner. We assessed the near point of convergence, near stereoacuity, accommodative facility (Hart Charts), and eye-hand coordination before and after the two dual-tasking sessions. Also, we calculated cognitive-performance scores and subjective measures of mental load. We found that the near point of convergence (break and recovery) is significantly (P ≤ .05) reduced after physical and mental effort independently of the mental level administered. Only the condition of mental workload with simultaneous constant-intensity cycling promoted a significant impairment in the near stereoacuity and the eye-hand coordination (P = .006 and P = .018, respectively); however, these two parameters did not significantly change under the oddball condition. The accommodative facility showed an improvement in the oddball and mental workload conditions (P manipulation, participants experienced higher mental demand and arousal and achieved lower scores on cognitive performance during the mental workload task (both P mental effort, the manipulation of mental-task complexity being an important modulator of this effect. Both dual tasks, physical with or without mental workload demands, may enhance or impair visual and motor processing depending on the visual parameter tested, and those changes could be related to the activation state of the nervous system.

  1. Entropy Analysis of RR and QT Interval Variability during Orthostatic and Mental Stress in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Baumert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic activity affects beat-to-beat variability of heart rate and QT interval. The aim of this study was to explore whether entropy measures are suitable to detect changes in neural outflow to the heart elicited by two different stress paradigms. We recorded short-term ECG in 11 normal subjects during an experimental protocol that involved head-up tilt and mental arithmetic stress and computed sample entropy, cross-sample entropy and causal interactions based on conditional entropy from RR and QT interval time series. Head-up tilt resulted in a significant reduction in sample entropy of RR intervals and cross-sample entropy, while mental arithmetic stress resulted in a significant reduction in coupling directed from RR to QT. In conclusion, measures of entropy are suitable to detect changes in neural outflow to the heart and decoupling of repolarisation variability from heart rate variability elicited by orthostatic or mental arithmetic stress.

  2. Hopper Workload Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, Brian; Butler, Tina; Gerber, Richard; Whitney, Cary; Wright, Nicholas; Yang, Woo-Sun; Zhao, Zhengji

    2014-05-02

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center is the primary computing facility for the United States Department of Energy, Office of Science. With over 5,000 users and over 600 different applications utilizing NERSC systems, it is critically important to examine the workload running on NERSCs large supercomputers in order to procure systems that perform well for a broad workload. In this paper we show the breakdown of the NERSC workload by science area, algorithm, memory, thread usage and more. We also describe the methods used to collect data from NERSCs Hopper (Cray XE6) system.

  3. Using the NASA Task Load Index to Assess Workload in Electronic Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darren; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) has been expected to decrease health professional workload. The NASA Task Load Index has become an important tool for assessing workload in many domains. However, its application in assessing the impact of an EMR on nurse's workload has remained to be explored. In this paper we report the results of a study of workload and we explore the utility of applying the NASA Task Load Index to assess impact of an EMR at the end of its lifecycle on nurses' workload. It was found that mental and temporal demands were the most responsible for the workload. Further work along these lines is recommended.

  4. Chronological and subjective age differences in flourishing mental health and major depressive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Corey L M; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2012-01-01

    Mental health is more than the absence of psychopathology, but few studies use positive mental health along with a measure of past year major depressive episode (MDE). This study addresses this gap by investigating the association of MDE and flourishing mental health (FMH) with chronological age and subjective (felt and ideal) age. Data are from the Midlife in the United States random digit dialing sample of adults ages 25 to 74, collected in 1995 (n = 3032). Rates of MDE were lowest, and FMH highest, among the three oldest age cohorts (45-54, 55-64, 65-74 years). Subjective age was linked with chronological age; with age, adults tend to feel younger, and want to be an age that is younger, than their actual age. As predicted by the model of subjective age as an adaptive strategy, feeling younger was related to a lower risk of MDE and a higher risk of FMH. However, wanting to be younger was related to a lower risk of FMH and unrelated to MDE.

  5. [Logic of delusional person misidentification. "Mental illness" as disorder of subjective time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterauer, B

    1983-01-01

    The two types of delusional misinterpretation of persons described by Pauleikhoff (1954) are here examined under the hypothesis that the so-called mental illnesses are disruptions of the subjective conceptions of time. It is assumed that concrete subjective time normally develops from the dialectic relationship between predictive-emanative and retrospective-evolutive time structures. The delusional misinterpretation of an unknown person as a familiar person arises from the exclusively emanative interpretation of the perception of another individual (who is developing evolutively). In the delusional misinterpretation of a known person as an unknown person, on the other hand, other persons cannot be perceived as independent subjects developing evolutively. In addition the sick person produces a purely emanative interpretation by experiencing the person perceived as his own physical area of reality. Such considerations, especially when applied to endogenous psychoses, open new avenues for the study of subjective time-pathologies.

  6. Adaptation of the Rating Scale Mental Effort (RSME) for use in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyanti, Ari; Johnson, Addie; de Waard, Dick

    The Rating Scale Mental Effort (RSME) is a unidimensional instrument used to measure subjective mental workload. The RSME consists of a line with a length of 150 mm marked with nine anchor points, each accompanied by a descriptive label indicating a degree of effort. The RSME has been widely used in

  7. The workload of fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Helle; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    the work environment of Danish fishermen with regard to their physical workload and ergonomic factors. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was performed on a random sample of active Danish commercial fishermen (response rate: 28%) by means of a questionnaire on demographic and self...... on Danish seiners had higher workload scores than fishermen in other vessel types. Conclusions: Despite improved work environment in the Danish fishing industry, fishermen still experience high levels of workload and suboptimal ergonomic conditions, which are known to cause pain and impair musculoskeletal......Background: Fishery has always been perceived as a physically demanding industry of a manual character. In recent years the physical work environment has developed positively and consequently the current situation in not fully described in the existing literature. This study aims to describe...

  8. Altered Striatal Functional Connectivity in Subjects With an At-Risk Mental State for Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandash, Orwa; Fornito, Alex; Lee, Jimmy; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Chee, Michael W. L.; Adcock, R. Alison; Pantelis, Christos; Wood, Stephen J.; Harrison, Ben J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent functional imaging work in individuals experiencing an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis has implicated dorsal striatal abnormalities in the emergence of psychotic symptoms, contrasting with earlier findings implicating the ventral striatum. Our aims here were to characterize putative dorsal and ventral striatal circuit-level abnormalities in ARMS individuals using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and to investigate their relationship to positive psychotic symptoms. Resting-state fMRI was acquired in 74 ARMS subjects and 35 matched healthy controls. An established method for mapping ventral and dorsal striatal functional connectivity was used to examine corticostriatal functional integrity. Positive psychotic symptoms were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental State and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Compared with healthy controls, ARMS subjects showed reductions in functional connectivity between the dorsal caudate and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left rostral medial prefrontal cortex, and thalamus, and between the dorsal putamen and left thalamic and lenticular nuclei. ARMS subjects also showed increased functional connectivity between the ventral putamen and the insula, frontal operculum, and superior temporal gyrus bilaterally. No differences in ventral striatal (ie, nucleus accumbens) functional connectivity were found. Altered functional connectivity in corticostriatal circuits were significantly correlated with positive psychotic symptoms. Together, these results suggest that risk for psychosis is mediated by a complex interplay of alterations in both dorsal and ventral corticostriatal systems. PMID:23861539

  9. EEG-Based Affect and Workload Recognition in a Virtual Driving Environment for ASD Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Wade, Joshua W; Key, Alexandra P; Warren, Zachary E; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2018-01-01

    To build group-level classification models capable of recognizing affective states and mental workload of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during driving skill training. Twenty adolescents with ASD participated in a six-session virtual reality driving simulator-based experiment, during which their electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded alongside driving events and a therapist's rating of their affective states and mental workload. Five feature generation approaches including statistical features, fractal dimension features, higher order crossings (HOC)-based features, power features from frequency bands, and power features from bins () were applied to extract relevant features. Individual differences were removed with a two-step feature calibration method. Finally, binary classification results based on the k-nearest neighbors algorithm and univariate feature selection method were evaluated by leave-one-subject-out nested cross-validation to compare feature types and identify discriminative features. The best classification results were achieved using power features from bins for engagement (0.95) and boredom (0.78), and HOC-based features for enjoyment (0.90), frustration (0.88), and workload (0.86). Offline EEG-based group-level classification models are feasible for recognizing binary low and high intensity of affect and workload of individuals with ASD in the context of driving. However, while promising the applicability of the models in an online adaptive driving task requires further development. The developed models provide a basis for an EEG-based passive brain computer interface system that has the potential to benefit individuals with ASD with an affect- and workload-based individualized driving skill training intervention.

  10. Full-time employed and a family caregiver: a profile of women's workload, effort, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juratovac, Evanne; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2014-01-01

    Women provide care for elderly family members while managing their other responsibilities, including full-time employment. This descriptive study used an inductively derived workload-effort-health theoretical model to examine workload, effort, and health among 46 full-time employed family caregivers [CG] of community-dwelling older adults from a larger, nonprobability, cross-sectional sample of 110 CGs. The women's caregiving workload (time, difficulty, care recipient's [CR] function), effort (perceived exertion of energy experienced in doing a workload), self-assessed health [SAH], depressive symptoms, and sources of help were richly described, and several associations were found, including higher physical and mental effort, were significantly correlated with higher workload time and difficulty and lower CR function, but not SAH. Higher mental effort and workload, and poorer SAH were significantly correlated with high depressive symptoms. Worse effort, workload, and health experiences were reported by daughters and by women who lived with their CR; those who did not have family or formal caregiving help had higher mental effort and were more depressed, suggesting an area for further study. Suggestions are offered for richer measurement of employment status, caregiving workload, and effort. Findings provide a unique profile of full-time employed women CGs' workload, effort (that is, how they do the work), and health, toward a stronger understanding of how women manage multiple workloads. Workplace policies are needed to address workload, effort and health in this informal caregiving workforce. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of stigma on subjective well-being in people with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgades-Bamba, Clara I; Fuster-Ruizdeapodaca, María José; Molero, Fernando

    2017-08-04

    People diagnosed with a mental disorder are highly discriminated against, and when they internalize the social stigma they suffer severe consequences which have been associated with greater symptomatology and reduced recovery. This research was carried out in order to develop a predictive model about how discrimination contributes to subjective well-being (positive and negative affects experienced) by means of internalization of stigma (alienation, stereotype endorsement and social withdrawal) and deterioration of positive self-concept (self-esteem and self-efficacy). We conducted a cross-sectional research design. We used Partial Least Squares (PLS) modelling to analyze the data from 94 Spanish participants diagnosed with a mental disorder. A differential effect of blatant and subtle discrimination is found. Both internalized stigma and positive self-concept play a central role in the effects of discrimination on subjective well-being. Internalized stigma contributes to the explained variance of negative and positive affect, while positive self-concept contributes mainly to explain changes in positive affect. Positive self-concept protects the person from the harm that stigma may cause on his well-being. It especially protects positive affect, which we propose is an important resource in the recovery process. These findings have clinical and research implications.

  12. Workload of Team Leaders and Team Members During a Simulated Sepsis Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofil, Nancy M; Lin, Yiqun; Zhong, John; Peterson, Dawn Taylor; White, Marjorie Lee; Grant, Vincent; Grant, David J; Gottesman, Ronald; Sudikoff, Stephanie N; Adler, Mark; Marohn, Kimberly; Davidson, Jennifer; Cheng, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Crisis resource management principles dictate appropriate distribution of mental and/or physical workload so as not to overwhelm any one team member. Workload during pediatric emergencies is not well studied. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index is a multidimensional tool designed to assess workload validated in multiple settings. Low workload is defined as less than 40, moderate 40-60, and greater than 60 signify high workloads. Our hypothesis is that workload among both team leaders and team members is moderate to high during a simulated pediatric sepsis scenario and that team leaders would have a higher workload than team members. Multicenter observational study. Nine pediatric simulation centers (five United States, three Canada, and one United Kingdom). Team leaders and team members during a 12-minute pediatric sepsis scenario. National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index. One hundred twenty-seven teams were recruited from nine sites. One hundred twenty-seven team leaders and 253 team members completed the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index. Team leader had significantly higher overall workload than team member (51 ± 11 vs 44 ± 13; p leader had higher workloads in all subcategories except in performance where the values were equal and in physical demand where team members were higher than team leaders (29 ± 22 vs 18 ± 16; p leader and 60 ± 20 for team member. For team leader, two categories, mental (73 ± 17) and effort (66 ± 16), were high workload, most domains for team member were moderate workload levels. Team leader and team member are under moderate workloads during a pediatric sepsis scenario with team leader under high workloads (> 60) in the mental demand and effort subscales. Team leader average significantly higher workloads. Consideration of decreasing team leader responsibilities may improve team workload distribution.

  13. Wealth, justice and freedom: Objective and subjective measures predicting poor mental health in a study across eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Saskia; Velten, Julia; Neher, Torsten; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Macro-level factors (MF) such as wealth, justice and freedom measured with objective country-level indicators (objective MF), for instance the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), have been investigated in relation to health and well-being, but rarely in connection with depression, anxiety and stress subsumed as poor mental health. Also, a combination of different objective MF and of how individuals perceive those MF (subjective MF) has not been taken into consideration. In the present study, we combined subjective and objective measures of wealth, justice and freedom and examined their relationship with poor mental health. Population-based interviews were conducted in France, Germany, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, U.K. and U.S.A. (n ≈ 1000 per country). GDP, GINI coefficient, Justice Index and Freedom Index were used as objective MF, whereas subjective MF were perceived wealth, justice and freedom measured at the individual level. Poor mental health was assessed as a combination of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. In a random-intercept-model, GINI coefficient and Freedom Index were significant positive country-level, and perceived wealth, justice, and freedom significant negative individual-level predictors of symptoms of poor mental health. Multiple subjective and objective MF should be combined to assess the macrosystem's relationship with poor mental health more precisely. The relationship between MF and poor mental health indicates that the macrosystem should be taken into account as relevant context for mental health problems, too.

  14. Remaining visual field and preserved subjective visual functioning prevent mental distress in patients with visual field defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin eGall

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with visual field defects after visual pathway lesion may experience reduced vision-related quality of life (vrQoL. It has not been clarified how vrQoL impairments contribute to vision-related mental distress.Methods: 108 subjects with visual field defects caused by optic neuropathies (age M=57.6; SD=13.7 years answered the National Eye Institute Visual-Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ for vrQoL and the SF-12 Short Form Health Survey for health-related quality of life (hrQoL. A ten item composite of NEI-VFQ visual functioning and five items of mental health symptoms due to vision problems were subjected to Rasch analysis. The test battery comprised static and High Resolution Perimetry (HRP. Regression and path analysis were used to investigate associations between QoL, mental distress and perimetry results.Results: A higher level of visual functioning was associated with monocular impairment and a larger remaining visual field compared to binocular impairment. Subjective visual functioning but not visual field parameters predicted mental health symptoms due to vision problems which was the only variable associated with the SF-12 mental component score. The SF-12 physical component score was less strongly associated with mental health symptoms due to vision problems. Here, reaction time in HRP and mean threshold in perimetry were additional significant variables. Path analysis revealed a significant path of remaining visual field via visual functioning on mental health. Conclusions: Subjective consequences of visual impairments in everyday life impact mental health rather than objective visual function loss as measured by perimetry. Since a higher extent of vrQoL was related to lower levels of mental distress, the maintenance of vrQoL could reduce and prevent mental distress due to vision problems. Patients with persisting visual field defects may benefit from neuropsychological rehabilitation and supportive therapies.

  15. Predictors of Criminal Justice Outcomes Among Mental Health Courts Participants: The Role of Perceived Coercion and Subjective Mental Health Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Christina; Yanos, Philip T; Kopelovich, Sarah L; Koerner, Joshua; Alexander, Mary Jane

    2013-04-01

    Internationally, one effort to reduce the number of people with serious mental illness (SMI) in jails and prisons is the development of Mental Health Courts (MHC). Research on MHCs to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and re-incarceration over the potential of these problem-solving courts to facilitate mental health recovery and affect the slope or gradient of opportunity for recovery. Despite the strong conceptual links between the MHC approach and the recovery-orientation in mental health, the capacity for MHCs to facilitate recovery has not been explored. This user-informed mental health and criminal justice (MH/CJ) community based participatory (CBPR) study assesses the extent to which MHC practices align with recovery-oriented principles and may subsequently affect criminal justice outcomes. We report on the experiences and perceptions of 51 MHC participants across four metropolitan Mental Health Courts. Specifically, the current study assesses: 1) how defendants' perceptions of court practices, particularly with regard to procedural justice and coercion, relate to perceptions of mental health recovery and psychiatric symptoms, and, 2) how perceptions of procedural justice and mental health recovery relate to subsequent criminal justice outcomes. The authors hypothesized that perceived coercion and mental health recovery would be inversely related, that perceived coercion would be associated with worse criminal justice outcomes, and perceptions of mental health recovery would be associated with better criminal justice outcomes. Results suggest that perceived coercion in the MHC experience was negatively associated with perceptions of recovery among MHC participants. Perceptions of "negative pressures," a component of coercion, were important predictors of criminal justice involvement in the 12 month period following MHC admission, even when controlling for other factors that were related to criminal justice outcomes, and that

  16. Measurement of Workload: Physics, Psychophysics, and Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopher, D.

    1984-01-01

    The present paper reviews the results of two experiments in which workload analysis was conducted based upon performance measures, brain evoked potentials and magnitude estimations of subjective load. The three types of measures were jointly applied to the description of the behavior of subjects in a wide battery of experimental tasks. Data analysis shows both instances of association and dissociation between types of measures. A general conceptual framework and methodological guidelines are proposed to account for these findings.

  17. A Revision of Preventive Web-based Psychotherapies in Subjects at Risk of Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Sánchez-Gutiérrez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available For the last years, the impulse of new technologies has overcome the traditional pathways of face-to-face clinical intervention and web-based psychological methodologies for intervention have started to gain success. This study aims to review the state-of-art about the effectiveness studies on preventive web- based interventions accomplished in samples of subjects at high risk for depressive, anxiety, eating behavior, problematic substance use symptoms and promotion of psychological well-being. Results showed that web-based psychological interventions for the prevention of mental disorders seemed to be effective for at risk individuals. Online health promotion in the general population was also effective to avoid the onset of clinical psychological circumstances. Future research should focus on personalized online intervention and on the evaluation of web-based engagement.

  18. Strategic workload management and decision biases in aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Mireille; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty pilots flew three simulated landing approaches under conditions of low, medium, and high workload. Workload conditions were created by varying time pressure and external communications requirements. Our interest was in how the pilots strategically managed or adapted to the increasing workload. We independently assessed the pilot's ranking of the priority of different discrete tasks during the approach and landing. Pilots were found to sacrifice some aspects of primary flight control as workload increased. For discrete tasks, increasing workload increased the amount of time in performing the high priority tasks, decreased the time in performing those of lowest priority, and did not affect duration of performance episodes or optimality of scheduling of tasks of any priority level. Individual differences analysis revealed that high-performing subjects scheduled discrete tasks earlier in the flight and shifted more often between different activities.

  19. Influence of cognitive strategies on the pattern of cortical activation during mental subtraction. A functional imaging study in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbaud, P; Camus, O; Guehl, D; Bioulac, B; Caillé, J; Allard, M

    2000-06-16

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 1.5 T was used to investigate the influence of cognitive strategies on cortical activation during mental calculation. Twenty-nine right-handed subjects performed a serial subtraction of prime numbers. Even though a common corpus of brain areas was activated during this mental calculation, differences appeared between subjects in function of their spontaneous cognitive strategy. In subjects using a so called verbal strategy (n=15), the main activation was located in the whole left dorsolateral frontal cortex with a little activation of the inferior parietal cortex. In subjects using a so called visual strategy (n=14), a bilateral activation in the prefrontal cortex and a high activation in the left inferior parietal cortex were observed. These results demonstrate that numbers are processed through a distributed network of cortical areas, the lateralization of which is clearly influenced by subject strategy.

  20. Chronological and subjective age differences in flourishing mental health and major depressive episode.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyes, C.L.M.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan

    2012-01-01

    Mental health is more than the absence of psychopathology, but few studies use positive mental health along with a measure of past year major depressive episode (MDE). This study addresses this gap by investigating the association of MDE and flourishing mental health (FMH) with chronological age and

  1. Measuring Mentalizing Ability: A Within-Subject Comparison between an Explicit and Implicit Version of a Ball Detection Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel D Nijhof

    Full Text Available The concept of mentalizing has been widely studied, but almost exclusively through tasks with explicit instructions. Recent studies suggest that people also mentalize on a more implicit level. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has directly contrasted the effects of implicit and explicit mentalizing processes on an implicit dependent measure within-subjects. We implemented this by using two versions of an object detection task, differing only on secondary catch questions. We hypothesized that if explicit mentalizing relies on complementary processes beyond those underlying implicit mentalizing, this would be reflected in enhanced belief effects in the explicit version. Twenty-eight healthy adults watched movies in which, during the first phase, both they themselves and another agent formed a belief about the location of a ball, and although irrelevant, these beliefs could influence their ball detection reaction times in the second phase. After this response phase, there were occasional catch questions that were different for the explicit and implicit task version. Finally, self-report measures of autism spectrum disorder (ASD symptomatology were included, as the literature suggests that ASD is related to a specific deficit in implicit mentalizing. Both in the explicit and implicit version, belief conditions had a significant effect on reaction times, with responses being slower when neither the participant nor the other agent expected the ball to be present compared to all other conditions. Importantly, after the implicit version, participants reported no explicit mentalizing awareness. In our neurotypical sample, ASD symptoms were not found to correlate with either explicit or implicit mentalizing. In conclusion, the reaction time patterns in the explicit and implicit version of the task show strikingly similar effects of mentalizing, indicating that participants processed beliefs to the same extent regardless of whether they

  2. Measuring Mentalizing Ability: A Within-Subject Comparison between an Explicit and Implicit Version of a Ball Detection Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Annabel D; Brass, Marcel; Bardi, Lara; Wiersema, Jan R

    2016-01-01

    The concept of mentalizing has been widely studied, but almost exclusively through tasks with explicit instructions. Recent studies suggest that people also mentalize on a more implicit level. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has directly contrasted the effects of implicit and explicit mentalizing processes on an implicit dependent measure within-subjects. We implemented this by using two versions of an object detection task, differing only on secondary catch questions. We hypothesized that if explicit mentalizing relies on complementary processes beyond those underlying implicit mentalizing, this would be reflected in enhanced belief effects in the explicit version. Twenty-eight healthy adults watched movies in which, during the first phase, both they themselves and another agent formed a belief about the location of a ball, and although irrelevant, these beliefs could influence their ball detection reaction times in the second phase. After this response phase, there were occasional catch questions that were different for the explicit and implicit task version. Finally, self-report measures of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology were included, as the literature suggests that ASD is related to a specific deficit in implicit mentalizing. Both in the explicit and implicit version, belief conditions had a significant effect on reaction times, with responses being slower when neither the participant nor the other agent expected the ball to be present compared to all other conditions. Importantly, after the implicit version, participants reported no explicit mentalizing awareness. In our neurotypical sample, ASD symptoms were not found to correlate with either explicit or implicit mentalizing. In conclusion, the reaction time patterns in the explicit and implicit version of the task show strikingly similar effects of mentalizing, indicating that participants processed beliefs to the same extent regardless of whether they mentalized explicitly or

  3. WBDOC Weekly Workload Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Weekly reports of workloads processed in the Wilkes Barre Data Operation Center. Reports on quantities of work received, processed, pending and average processing...

  4. Subjective well-being of mental health nurses in the United Kingdom: Results of an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Jennifer; Jones, Julia; Drey, Nicholas

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure the subjective well-being of a group of 225 UK registered mental health nurses (MHN) using three survey measures, and to identify whether certain demographic and workplace factors correlated with subjective well-being measure scores. An online survey incorporating the subjective well-being questions used by the Office for National Statistics, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale was administered to members of two professional bodies for MHN. There was good consistency between the three subjective well-being measures, each demonstrating that UK MHN had a relatively low subjective well-being. Apart from the Office for National Statistics question, 'Overall, to what extent do you feel the things you do in your life are worthwhile?', demographic and workplace factors did not correlate with subjective well-being measure scores, although the characteristics of being male, living alone, and being aged 40-49 years were associated with lower mean scores on all three measures. The findings of the exploratory study suggest that a similar study should be undertaken with a larger representative population of MHN, and that qualitative research should explore why and how UK MHN have relatively low subjective well-being. The limitations of this study, namely the response rate and sample representativeness, mean that the results of the present study must be tested in further research on the MHN population. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  5. Workload Control with Continuous Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, B. S. Nguyen; Land, M. J.; Gaalman, G. J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Workload Control (WLC) is a production planning and control concept which is suitable for the needs of make-to-order job shops. Release decisions based on the workload norms form the core of the concept. This paper develops continuous time WLC release variants and investigates their due date

  6. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  7. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, F; Heitmann, B L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...

  8. Physiological workload reactions to increasing levels of task difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Gaillard, A.W.K.

    1998-01-01

    The sensitivity of physiological measures to mental workload has been investigated in a flight simulator. Twelve pilots had to fly through a tunnel with different levels of difficulty. Additionally, they had to perform a memory task with four levels of difficulty. The easiest memory task was

  9. Shifts in attention during mental fatigue: Evidence from subjective, behavioral, physiological, and eye-tracking data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopstaken, J.; Linden, D. van der; Bakker, A.B.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Leung, Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing amount of evidence that during mental fatigue, shifts in motivation drive performance rather than reductions in finite mental energy. So far, studies that investigated such an approach have mainly focused on cognitive indicators of task engagement that were measured during

  10. Values and Subjective Mental Health in America: A Social Adaptation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Lynn R.; And Others

    Although surveys of mental health involve some controversy, a significant relationship between values and mental health appears to exist. To study the adaption of individuals with alternative values to their psychological worlds, over 2,000 adults identified their most important values. Alcohol abuse, drug abuse, dizziness, anxiety, and general…

  11. VA National Mental Health Statistics - 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VAMC-level statistics on the prevalence, mental health utilization, non-mental health utilization, mental health workload, and psychological testing of Veterans with...

  12. Subject, biopolitic and body: reflextions about care practices in the field of mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Silvina Bru

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We have done this paper in the context of a qualitative research. The objective is to explore the subjetivation ́s process in the field of mental health, starting from narratives of diferent social actors and laws in the context of the city of Mar del Plata. In this way it was possible carry out ten interviews with people with chronic mental illness. In the text we are going to try show some subjetivation ́s process in the field of mental health. In the first place, we are going to analyce the topics of our thesis. Then we are going to explain our theory perspective. And finally, we are going to think about the care practices built in the narratives. We think the practices are fundamental because they allow us to watch the subjetivation ́s process in the field of mental health.

  13. Faculty Perceptions of Workload: A Human Factor's Approach to Instrument Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Denise

    2017-04-01

    Research revealed nursing faculty members' perceived workload measures do not adequately capture the complexity of their workload. Using a human factors approach to address the multiple complex dimensions from the subjective perception of the worker, the Nurse Faculty Workload Assessment (NFWA) was developed. Survey data from 565 faculty members were used to establish the instrument's psychometric properties. NWFA Sections 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated reliability and internal consistency. Findings supported interrelationships between activity complexity, performance circumstances, and individual characteristics described in human factors workload literature. The NFWA provides a tool for administrators to evaluate faculty perception of workload expectations. Further study is needed to refine the NFWA and to compare the perception of faculty regarding workload using various workload formula calculations in various nursing programs.

  14. Adolescents with mental disorders while serving time and being subjected to socio-educative measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Pereira Gonçalves Vilarins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how adolescent offenders with mental disorders are treated by socio-educative internment treatment. These adolescents come under the aegis of medicine and justice in a contradictory relationship between full protection, vulnerability of a developing person with a mental disorder and a juvenile delinquency offense. In this respect, the legal punishment prevails to the detriment of health care. After approval of the research project by an Ethics Research Committee, field research was conducted in the Youth Detention Unit of the Pilot Plan of the Brazilian Federal District. Data were collected through research of documents involving 35 medical records of adolescent users of psychotropic drugs in 2010, as well as participant observation and semi-structured interviews with professionals from the Youth Detention Unit and adolescent judiciary. In the review of the care provided to adolescent offenders with mental disorders under the childhood and youth policy and the mental health policy, it was revealed that the mental health care provided in the Youth Detention Unit or in the external mental health care services involved the prescription of medication.

  15. Wealth, justice and freedom: Objective and subjective measures predicting poor mental health in a study across eight countries

    OpenAIRE

    Saskia Scholten; Julia Velten; Torsten Neher; Jürgen Margraf

    2017-01-01

    Background: Macro-level factors (MF) such as wealth, justice and freedom measured with objective country-level indicators (objective MF), for instance the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), have been investigated in relation to health and well-being, but rarely in connection with depression, anxiety and stress subsumed as poor mental health. Also, a combination of different objective MF and of how individuals perceive those MF (subjective MF) has not been taken into consideration. In the present s...

  16. Wealth, justice and freedom: Objective and subjective measures predicting poor mental health in a study across eight countries

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, Saskia; Velten, Julia; Neher, Torsten; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Background Macro-level factors (MF) such as wealth, justice and freedom measured with objective country-level indicators (objective MF), for instance the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), have been investigated in relation to health and well-being, but rarely in connection with depression, anxiety and stress subsumed as poor mental health. Also, a combination of different objective MF and of how individuals perceive those MF (subjective MF) has not been taken into consideration. In the present st...

  17. Psychological distress and subjective burden of caregivers of people with mental illness: the role of affiliate stigma and face concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie W S; Cheung, Rebecca Y M

    2012-06-01

    The present study tested the mediating role of affiliate stigma on the relationships between face concern with psychological distress and subjective burden among caregivers of people with severe mental illnesses. One hundred and eight Chinese caregivers in Hong Kong were surveyed. Based on Baron and Kenny's (J Pers Soc Psychol 51:1173-1182, 1986) approach, affiliate stigma was found to serve as a partial mediator between face concern and caregiver distress and a full mediator between face concern and subjective burden. Cultural linkage of stigma and caregiver outcomes was identified, suggesting that researchers and practitioners should use a culturally sensitive approach to understand caregivers' experience and alleviate their stigma.

  18. Medical students' subjective ratings of stress levels and awareness of student support services about mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa Li-Wey; Norgren Jaconelli, Sanna; Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S; Hunt, Glenn

    2013-06-01

    To descriptively assess medical students' concerns for their mental and emotional state, perceived need to conceal mental problems, perceived level of support at university, knowledge and use of student support services, and experience of stresses of daily life. From March to September 2011, medical students at an Australian university were invited to complete an anonymous online survey. 475 responses were received. Students rated study and examinations (48.9%), financial concerns (38.1%), isolation (19.4%) and relationship concerns (19.2%) as very or extremely stressful issues. Knowledge of available support services was high, with 90.8% indicating they were aware of the university's medical centre. Treatment rates were modest (31.7%). Students' concerns about their mental state were generally low, but one in five strongly felt they needed to conceal their emotional problems. Despite widespread awareness of appropriate support services, a large proportion of students felt they needed to conceal mental and emotional problems. Overall treatment rates for students who were greatly concerned about their mental and emotional state appeared modest, and, although comparable with those of similarly aged community populations, may reflect undertreatment. It would be appropriate for universities to address stressors identified by students. Strategies for encouraging distressed students to obtain appropriate assessment and treatment should also be explored. Those students who do seek healthcare are most likely to see a primary care physician, suggesting an important screening role for these health professionals.

  19. Workload assessment of surgeons: correlation between NASA TLX and blinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Jiang, Xianta; Tien, Geoffrey; Meneghetti, Adam; Panton, O Neely M; Atkins, M Stella

    2012-10-01

    Blinks are known as an indicator of visual attention and mental stress. In this study, surgeons' mental workload was evaluated utilizing a paper assessment instrument (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index, NASA TLX) and by examining their eye blinks. Correlation between these two assessments was reported. Surgeons' eye motions were video-recorded using a head-mounted eye-tracker while the surgeons performed a laparoscopic procedure on a virtual reality trainer. Blink frequency and duration were computed using computer vision technology. The level of workload experienced during the procedure was reported by surgeons using the NASA TLX. A total of 42 valid videos were recorded from 23 surgeons. After blinks were computed, videos were divided into two groups based on the blink frequency: infrequent group (≤ 6 blinks/min) and frequent group (more than 6 blinks/min). Surgical performance (measured by task time and trajectories of tool tips) was not significantly different between these two groups, but NASA TLX scores were significantly different. Surgeons who blinked infrequently reported a higher level of frustration (46 vs. 34, P = 0.047) and higher overall level of workload (57 vs. 47, P = 0.045) than those who blinked more frequently. The correlation coefficients (Pearson test) between NASA TLX and the blink frequency and duration were -0.17 and 0.446. Reduction of blink frequency and shorter blink duration matched the increasing level of mental workload reported by surgeons. The value of using eye-tracking technology for assessment of surgeon mental workload was shown.

  20. Cognitive workload modulation through degraded visual stimuli: a single-trial EEG study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; Prasad, I.; Mir, H.; Thakor, N.; Al-Nashash, H.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Our experiments explored the effect of visual stimuli degradation on cognitive workload. Approach. We investigated the subjective assessment, event-related potentials (ERPs) as well as electroencephalogram (EEG) as measures of cognitive workload. Main results. These experiments confirm that degradation of visual stimuli increases cognitive workload as assessed by subjective NASA task load index and confirmed by the observed P300 amplitude attenuation. Furthermore, the single-trial multi-level classification using features extracted from ERPs and EEG is found to be promising. Specifically, the adopted single-trial oscillatory EEG/ERP detection method achieved an average accuracy of 85% for discriminating 4 workload levels. Additionally, we found from the spatial patterns obtained from EEG signals that the frontal parts carry information that can be used for differentiating workload levels. Significance. Our results show that visual stimuli can modulate cognitive workload, and the modulation can be measured by the single trial EEG/ERP detection method.

  1. The influence of perceived discrimination, sense of control, self-esteem and multiple discrepancies on the mental health and subjective well-being in Serbian immigrants in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the mental health and subjective well-being (SWB of Serbian immigrants of the first generation in Canada. We wanted to examine if perceived discrimination, sense of control, self-esteem and perceived multiple discrepancy affect their mental health and SWB. Our results indicate that self-esteem and sense of control have a positive effect on mental health and all aspects of the SWB, while the perceived discrimination and perceived multiple discrepancy negatively affect SWB and mental health. Self-esteem was the most salient predictor of mental health, while the perceived multiple discrepancy was the most salient predictor of life satisfaction of Serbian immigrants.

  2. Effect of yoga on mental health: Comparative study between young and senior subjects in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derebail Gururaja

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Decrease in Salivary amylase activity may be due to reduction in sympathetic response. Reduction in State and Trait anxiety score signifies that yoga has both immediate as well as long-term effect on anxiety reduction. Thus yoga helps to improve the mental health in both the groups.

  3. Mental Models and Creative Problem-Solving: The Relationship of Objective and Subjective Model Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Michael D.; Hester, Kimberly S.; Robledo, Issac C.; Peterson, David R.; Day, Eric A.; Hougen, Dean F.; Barrett, Jamie D.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge, or expertise, has been held to contribute to creative problem-solving. In this effort, the relationship of one form of knowledge, mental models, to creative problem-solving was assessed. Undergraduates were asked to solve either a marketing or an education problem calling for creative thought. Prior to generating solutions to these…

  4. Mismatch negativity and P3a/reorienting complex in subjects with schizophrenia or at-risk mental state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko eHiguchi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Shorter duration of untreated psychosis has been associated with better prognosis in patients with schizophrenia. In Introduction: In this study, we measured duration mismatch negativity (dMMN, P3a and reorienting negativity (RON in subjects with at-risk mental state (ARMS, patients with first-episode or chronic schizophrenia, and healthy volunteers. The main interest was to determine if these event-related potentials provide a biomarker associated with progression to overt schizophrenia in ARMS subjects.Methods: Seventeen ARMS subjects meeting the criteria of the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental State, 38 patients with schizophrenia (19 first-episode and 19 chronic, and 19 healthy controls participated in the study. dMMN, P3a and RON were measured with an auditory odd-ball paradigm at baseline. Results: During the follow-up period (2.2 years, 4 out of the 19 ARMS subjects transitioned to schizophrenia (Converters while 15 did not (non-Converters. dMMN amplitudes of Converters were significantly smaller than those of non-Converters at frontal and central electrodes before onset of illness. dMMN amplitudes of non-Converters did not differ from those of healthy controls, while Converters showed significantly smaller dMMN amplitudes compared to control subjects. RON amplitudes were also reduced at frontal and central electrodes in subjects with schizophrenia, but not ARMS. Converter subjects tended to show smaller RON amplitudes compared to non-Converters. Conclusions: Our data confirm that diminished dMMN amplitudes provide a biomarker which is present before and after the development of psychosis. In this respect, RON amplitudes may also be useful, as suggested for the first time in this study.

  5. Predicting self-rated mental and physical health: the contributions of subjective socioeconomic status and personal relative deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Mitchell J; Kim, Hyunji; Matthews, William J

    2015-01-01

    Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD) relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people's perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others) and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints). Across six studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES), with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4-6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability) or response biases between the measures.

  6. Subjective Social Status, Mental and Psychosocial Health, and Birth Weight Differences in Mexican-American and Mexican Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-12-01

    Recent Mexican immigrant women on average have an unexpectedly low incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weights decline and LBW incidence increases in post-immigrant generations. This pilot project tested the hypothesis that subjective social status (SSS) of pregnant women predicts variation in birth weight between Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women. 300 low-income pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in South Texas were surveyed for SSS, depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress and self-esteem and subsequent birth weight. No significant difference in SSS levels between pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women were found. However, SSS better predicted variation in birth weight across both groups than mental and psychosocial health variables. Results suggest distinct relationships among SSS, mental and psychosocial health that could impact birth weight. They underscore the relevance of a multilevel, biopsychosocial analytical framework to studying LBW.

  7. Jacques Lacan's theory of the subject as real, symbolic and imaginary: how can Lacanian theory be of help to mental health nursing practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, A

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an outline of Lacan's theory of the human subject, in particular focusing on Lacan's concepts of the real, symbolic and imaginary registers, and how an understanding of these can inform change and practice in mental health nursing. Mental health nursing is under pressure to define itself as a practice distinct from other professions in the field, and to respond in new ways to promoting mental health to the individual and a wider public. Lacan's theory of the subject is of particular relevance to mental health nurses working with mental distress but has received little attention in mental health nursing literature. Six implications for practice are outlined in terms of: against normalization, the importance of the function of the symptom, what cannot be known, meaning as ever-changing, against empathy and against holistic ideas of the self. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Change in subjective social status following HIV diagnosis and associated effects on mental and physical health among HIV-positive gay men in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Wendy; Lyons, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the impact of HIV diagnosis on subjective social status and if changes are linked to health outcomes. Two measures of subjective social status, socio-economic and standing in the community were examined in 342 Australian HIV-positive gay men in 2014. Participants recalled ratings at diagnosis were compared with current ratings. Self-reported mental (psychological distress, self-esteem, positive mental health and satisfaction with life) and physical health (self-rated health, CD4 count, viral load). Half of the participants reported improvements in subjective socio-economic status (59%) or standing in the community (52%) since diagnosis, yet one quarter reported socio-economic status (25%) or standing in the community had decreased (23%). Increases in either measure of subjective social status were linked to higher self-esteem, positive mental health, satisfaction with life and better self-rated health. Decreases in subjective social status, however, were strongly linked to poorer outcomes on all mental health measures. Decreases in standing in the community were also associated with poorer physical self-rated health. Most participants reported their subjective social status were the same or better since diagnosis. Changes in subjective social status following diagnosis were strongly linked to mental health outcomes. Those who reported a decrease in subjective social status were particularly vulnerable to mental health problems.

  9. Electronic Health Record Alert-Related Workload as a Predictor of Burnout in Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Megan E; Russo, Elise; Singh, Hardeep

    2017-07-05

    Electronic health records (EHRs) have been shown to increase physician workload. One EHR feature that contributes to increased workload is asynchronous alerts (also known as inbox notifications) related to test results, referral responses, medication refill requests, and messages from physicians and other health care professionals. This alert-related workload results in negative cognitive outcomes, but its effect on affective outcomes, such as burnout, has been understudied. To examine EHR alert-related workload (both objective and subjective) as a predictor of burnout in primary care providers (PCPs), in order to ultimately inform interventions aimed at reducing burnout due to alert workload. A cross-sectional questionnaire and focus group of 16 PCPs at a large medical center in the southern United States. Subjective, but not objective, alert workload was related to two of the three dimensions of burnout, including physical fatigue (p = 0.02) and cognitive weariness (p = 0.04), when controlling for organizational tenure. To reduce alert workload and subsequent burnout, participants indicated a desire to have protected time for alert management, fewer unnecessary alerts, and improvements to the EHR system. Burnout associated with alert workload may be in part due to subjective differences at an individual level, and not solely a function of the objective work environment. This suggests the need for both individual and organizational-level interventions to improve alert workload and subsequent burnout. Additional research should confirm these findings in larger, more representative samples.

  10. Racial/ethnic identity and subjective physical and mental health of Latino Americans: an asset within?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L; Aisenberg, Eugene; Weiss, Saskia I; Salazar, Dulny

    2014-03-01

    Social Identity Theory indicates that ethnic identity could benefit minority members in a society because of its promotion of a sense of belonging, or of its buffering of the damage of discrimination. Despite growing investigation about Latinos' overall health, few studies have simultaneously examined the influence of multiple cultural strength factors, especially racial/ethnic identity, social support, and religious attendance, on these outcomes. Using the National Latino and Asian American Study, we examine the potential predictive value of these cultural strength factors on Latinos' Self-Rated Mental and Physical Health (SRMH and SRPH). Two separate two-step regression models revealed significant positive effects of racial/ethnic identity on both mental and physical health of Latinos, above and beyond the effect of known demographic and acculturation factors, such as discrimination. Religious attendance had a positive effect on SRMH but not on SRPH. The deteriorating roles of discrimination, in mental health only, and that of Length in the US in both outcomes, however, was primarily not altered by entry of these cultural strength factors. The independent direct effect of racial/ethnic identity among Latinos nationwide may suggest that this cultural strength is an internalized protective asset. Longitudinal data is needed to explore its underlying mechanism and long-term impact.

  11. Effect of mild mental stress on solid phase gastric emptying in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, J; Dobbeleir, A; Vandevivere, J; Ham, H R

    1990-04-01

    Radionuclide gastric emptying studies are performed in clinical routine but the possible influence of the mental state of the patient is never taken into account. We wanted to evaluate the effect of a mild psychological stress on solid phase gastric emptying in healthy young male volunteers. The standard meal consisted of a pancake (500 kJ) without additional liquid. Simultaneous dynamic acquisitions of gastric activity in anterior and posterior projection were taken during 90 min starting from the onset of the meal. Gastric emptying was evaluated three times in basal conditions and once under mental stress. Stress was induced by means of a dichotomous listening test, lasting for 30 min, starting at the end of the meal. The results of rest and stress studies were compared. Mild mental stress has a significant influence on gastric emptying. The lag phase increased from 11 +/- 3 min to 36 +/- 10 min (mean +/- S.D.) (p less than 0.005) and the gastric emptying rate from 79 +/- 13%/hour to 100 +/- 31%/hour (mean +/- S.D.) (not significant). During a stress period gastric emptying as a whole is delayed but this is mainly due to the prolongation of the lag phase. Our data also suggest that during the stress period gastric emptying is interrupted and reactivated once the stress period has ended.

  12. HEW Proposed Policy on the Protection of Human Subjects: Experimentation and the Institutionalized Mentally Disabled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington University Law Quarterly, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Underlying bases for federal interest in experimentation on human subjects, including abuses of investigative processes and efforts at regulation, are explored. Focus is on recent HEW rules on the protection of human subjects, which will have a significant impact on many research institutions. (LBH)

  13. Subjective Mental Health, Peer Relations, Family, and School Environment in Adolescents with Intellectual Developmental Disorder: A First Report of a New Questionnaire Administered on Tablet PCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Petra; Johnels, Jakob Åsberg; Thorson, Maria; Broberg, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the subjective mental health of adolescents with intellectual disabilities, while proxy ratings indicate an overrepresentation of mental health problems. The present study reports on the design and an initial empirical evaluation of the Well-being in Special Education Questionnaire (WellSEQ). Questions, response scales,…

  14. Brief Report: Conveying Subjective Experience in Conversation: Production of Mental State Terms and Personal Narratives in Individuals with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Janet; Burns, Jesse; Nadig, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    Mental state terms and personal narratives are conversational devices used to communicate subjective experience in conversation. Pre-adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA, n = 20) were compared with language-matched typically-developing peers (TYP, n = 17) on production of mental state terms (i.e., perception, physiology, desire, emotion,…

  15. Mismatch negativity and cognitive performance for the prediction of psychosis in subjects with at-risk mental state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Higuchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A shorter duration of untreated psychosis has been associated with better prognosis in schizophrenia. In this study, we measured the duration mismatch negativity (dMMN, an event-related potential, and cognitive performance in subjects with at-risk mental state (ARMS, patients with first-episode or chronic schizophrenia, and healthy volunteers. The main interest was to determine if these neurocognitive measures predict progression to overt schizophrenia in ARMS subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventeen ARMS subjects, meeting the criteria of the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental State, 31 schizophrenia patients (20 first-episode and 11 chronic and healthy controls (N=20 participated in the study. dMMN was measured by an auditory odd-ball paradigm at baseline. Neuropsychological performance was evaluated by the Japanese version of the Brief assessment of cognitive function of schizophrenia (BACS-J. The first-episode schizophrenia group showed significantly smaller amplitudes at frontal electrodes than did control subjects whereas chronic patients elicited smaller amplitudes at frontal and central electrodes, consistent with previous reports. During the follow-up period, 4 out of the 17 ARMS subjects transitioned to schizophrenia (converters while 13 did not (non-converters. Specifically, dMMN amplitudes of non-converters did not differ from those of healthy controls, while converters showed significantly smaller dMMN amplitudes at some electrodes compared to control subjects. Converters performed significantly worse on tests of working memory, verbal fluency, and attention/information processing than did non-converters. There was a significant positive correlation between dMMN amplitudes at the frontal electrodes and verbal fluency, as measured by the BACS, in the AMRS subjects as a whole. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ARMS subjects who later developed schizophrenia elicited smaller dMMN amplitudes to begin with, compared

  16. The Interaction of Same-Sex Marriage Access With Sexual Minority Identity on Mental Health and Subjective Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Alexander K

    2017-01-01

    Previous psychological and public health research has highlighted the impact of legal recognition of same-sex relationships on individual identity and mental health. Using a sample of U.S. sexual minority (N = 313) and heterosexual (N = 214) adults, participants completed a battery of mental health inventories prior to the nationwide legalization of same-sex marriage. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) examining identity revealed sexual minority participants living in states where same-sex marriage was banned experienced significantly higher levels of internalized homonegativity than sexual minority participants living in states where same-sex marriage was legal, even after controlling for state-level political climate. Mental health ANCOVAs revealed sexual minority participants residing in states without same-sex marriage experienced greater anxiety and lower subjective wellbeing compared to sexual minority participants residing in states with same-sex marriage and heterosexual participants residing in states with or without same-sex marriage. Implications for public policy and future research directions are discussed.

  17. Impact of Conflict Avoidance Responsibility Allocation on Pilot Workload in a Distributed Air Traffic Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligda, Sarah V.; Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Vu, Kim-Phuong; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot workload was examined during simulated flights requiring flight deck-based merging and spacing while avoiding weather. Pilots used flight deck tools to avoid convective weather and space behind a lead aircraft during an arrival into Louisville International airport. Three conflict avoidance management concepts were studied: pilot, controller or automation primarily responsible. A modified Air Traffic Workload Input Technique (ATWIT) metric showed highest workload during the approach phase of flight and lowest during the en-route phase of flight (before deviating for weather). In general, the modified ATWIT was shown to be a valid and reliable workload measure, providing more detailed information than post-run subjective workload metrics. The trend across multiple workload metrics revealed lowest workload when pilots had both conflict alerting and responsibility of the three concepts, while all objective and subjective measures showed highest workload when pilots had no conflict alerting or responsibility. This suggests that pilot workload was not tied primarily to responsibility for resolving conflicts, but to gaining and/or maintaining situation awareness when conflict alerting is unavailable.

  18. Subjective stress, role perceptions and coping strategies among mental health nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridoula Doupi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lack of nursing personnel, the consequent nurses’ work pressure within health care units and the particularities of nursing services provision in mental health institutions, render the examination of stress at work a necessity. Aim: The current study aims in presenting the stress levels among nurses in mental health institutions, their perceptions of the nursing role and the coping strategies they use. Methodology: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the population of 85 nurses in mental health open and closed units of two public hospitals of Attica, one psychiatric and one general. Participants filled in questionnaires on demographic characteristics, perceived stress, role conflict and ambiguity and ways of coping with stressful situations. Results: 57 women (67,1% and 28 men (32,9%, aged (mean 41,08 years, mostly married (74,1% and graduates of Technological institutions (29,4% participated in the study. Most were working 16-20 years (32,9%, were nurses (71,8% and were being occupied in a psychiatric structure for more than 21 years (27,1%. Female nurses had a greater amount of role ambiguity (p=0.048 and higher levels of stress (p=0.007. The same pattern was observed to those who worked for more years (p=0.038. Those who were not satisfied with their job suffered from greater role ambiguity (p<0.001 and conflict (p<0.001, while the graduates of secondary education and specialised nurses had higher levels of stress (p=0.004. Nurses with most working years in a psychiatric facility, experienced greater role conflict (p=0.034. Role ambiguity was positively associated with role conflict (p<0.001, perceived stress (p=0.006, positive approach strategy (negatively; p=0.003, self-rated health (negatively; p=0.003 and age (negatively; p=0.006. Perceived stress was negatively associated with positive approach (p=0.019 and self-rated health (p<0.001. Finally, positive approach was positively associated with social

  19. Curriculum Change Management and Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Aishah

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which Saudi teachers have responded or are responding to the challenges posed by a new curriculum. It also deals with issues relating to workload demands which affect teachers' performance when they apply a new curriculum in a Saudi Arabian secondary school. In addition, problems such as scheduling and sharing space…

  20. Effect of mental practice using inverse video of the unaffected upper limb in a subject with chronic hemiparesis after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Naoki; Ooso, Shirou; Yamamoto, Noboru; Moriuchi, Takefumi; Sagari, Akira; Iso, Fumiko; Tanaka, Koji; Tabira, Takayuki; Higashi, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this case study was to investigate whether a method of mental practice (MP) using an inverse video of a subject’s unaffected limb to complement the vividness of motor imagery (MI) would be effective for improving affected upper limb function. [Subjects and Methods] The participant was 60-year-old male in the chronic stage of stroke recovery with left sided hemiparesis. The design of the study was AB method of Single-System-Design. He performed the MP as a home program with DVD. The intervention lasted 30 minutes a session, twice a day, 5 times a week, over 6 weeks. The DVD was created using inverse video of his unaffected upper limb. Primary outcome measures were used the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper limb (FMA) and the Motor Activity Log (MAL) 3 times each baseline, intervention and follow-up. The subjective vividness of MI was assessed by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). [Results] FMA and MAL score during intervention was improved significantly comparing to baseline, and maintained in withdrawal. VAS score was improved in withdrawal comparing to baseline. [Conclusion] Results suggested that effect of mental practice for stroke patients increased by vividness of motor imagery was improved by the inverse video. PMID:27821974

  1. Relation between musical aptitude and intelligence among mentally retarded, advantaged, and disadvantaged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, C; Decuir, A; Hoskins, C; Kvet, E; Oubre, G

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in scores of 59 mentally retarded adults (mild, moderate, severe, or profound), 133 advantaged, and 130 disadvantaged (low income) children in Grades 1, 2, 3 on the Primary Measures of Music Audiation. Test-retest reliabilities for the Tonal and Rhythm subtests were .81 and .86, respectively, for the retarded group. Analysis of variance indicated that the mildly retarded children performed significantly better than other groups of retarded children on these two tests. 2 x 3 analyses of variance indicated that third graders from both advantaged and disadvantaged groups performed significantly better than the first or second graders on both subtests and that advantaged children performed significantly better than the disadvantaged. However, disadvantaged children made greater gains, especially for third graders, than the advantaged.

  2. Mismatch negativity and p3a/reorienting complex in subjects with schizophrenia or at-risk mental state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yuko; Seo, Tomonori; Miyanishi, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Michio; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki

    2014-01-01

    We measured duration mismatch negativity (dMMN), P3a, and reorienting negativity (RON) in subjects with at-risk mental state (ARMS), patients with first-episode or chronic schizophrenia, and healthy volunteers. The main interest was to determine if these event-related potentials provide a biomarker associated with progression to overt schizophrenia in ARMS subjects. Nineteen ARMS subjects meeting the criteria of the Comprehensive Assessment of ARMS, 38 patients with schizophrenia (19 first-episode and 19 chronic), and 19 healthy controls participated in the study. dMMN, P3a, and RON were measured with an auditory odd-ball paradigm at baseline. During the follow-up period (2.2 years), 4 out of the 19 ARMS subjects transitioned to schizophrenia (Converters) while 15 did not (non-Converters). dMMN amplitudes of Converters were significantly smaller than those of non-Converters at frontal and central electrodes before onset of illness. dMMN amplitudes of non-Converters did not differ from those of healthy controls, while Converters showed significantly smaller dMMN amplitudes compared to control subjects. RON amplitudes were also reduced at frontal and central electrodes in subjects with schizophrenia, but not ARMS. Converter subjects tended to show smaller RON amplitudes compared to non-Converters. Our data confirm that diminished dMMN amplitudes provide a biomarker, which is present before and after the development of psychosis. In this respect, RON amplitudes may also be useful, as suggested for the first time based on longitudinal observations.

  3. Workload and cortisol levels in helicopter combat pilots during simulated flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. García-Mas

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Cortisol levels in saliva and workload are the usual in stress situations, and change inversely: workload increases at the end of the task, whereas the cortisol levels decrease after the simulated flight. The somatic anxiety decreases as the task is done. In contrast, when the pilots are faced with new and demanding tasks, even if they fly this type of helicopter in different conditions, the workload increases toward the end of the task. From an applied point of view, these findings should impact the tactical, physical and mental training of such pilots.

  4. EEG-based Workload Estimation Across Affective Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eMühl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Workload estimation from electroencephalographic signals (EEG offers a highly sensitive tool to adapt the human-computer interaction to the user state. To create systems that reliably work in the complexity of the real world, a robustness against contextual changes (e.g., mood, has to be achieved. To study the resilience of state-of-the-art EEG-based workload classification against stress we devise a novel experimental protocol, in which we manipulated the affective context (stressful/non-stressful while the participant solved a task with 2 workload levels. We recorded self-ratings, behavior, and physiology from 24 participants to validate the protocol. We test the capability of different, subject-specific workload classifiers using either frequency-domain, time-domain, or both feature varieties to generalize across contexts. We show that the classifiers are able to transfer between affective contexts, though performance suffers independent of the used feature domain. However, cross-context training is a simple and powerful remedy allowing the extraction of features in all studied feature varieties that are more resilient to task-unrelated variations in signal characteristics. Especially for frequency-domain features, across-context training is leading to a performance comparable to within-context training and testing. We discuss the significance of the result for neurophysiology-based workload detection in particular and for the construction of reliable passive brain-computer interfaces in general.

  5. MEASURING WORKLOAD OF ICU NURSES WITH A QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY: THE NASA TASK LOAD INDEX (TLX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonakker, Peter; Carayon, Pascale; Gurses, Ayse; Brown, Roger; McGuire, Kerry; Khunlertkit, Adjhaporn; Walker, James M.

    2012-01-01

    High workload of nurses in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) has been identified as a major patient safety and worker stress problem. However, relative little attention has been dedicated to the measurement of workload in healthcare. The objectives of this study are to describe and examine several methods to measure workload of ICU nurses. We then focus on the measurement of ICU nurses’ workload using a subjective rating instrument: the NASA TLX. We conducted secondary data analysis on data from two, multi-side, cross-sectional questionnaire studies to examine several instruments to measure ICU nurses’ workload. The combined database contains the data from 757 ICU nurses in 8 hospitals and 21 ICUs. Results show that the different methods to measure workload of ICU nurses, such as patient-based and operator-based workload, are only moderately correlated, or not correlated at all. Results show further that among the operator-based instruments, the NASA TLX is the most reliable and valid questionnaire to measure workload and that NASA TLX can be used in a healthcare setting. Managers of hospitals and ICUs can benefit from the results of this research as it provides benchmark data on workload experienced by nurses in a variety of ICUs. PMID:22773941

  6. Predicting Self-Rated Mental and Physical Health: The Contributions of Subjective Socioeconomic Status and Personal Relative Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell J. Callan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people’s perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints. Across 6 studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES, with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4 to 6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability or response biases between the measures.

  7. Mental representation of subjective pleasure of partnered experiences in women's brain conveyed through event-related fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Ortigue, Stephanie

    2009-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging demonstrates a combined role of central and peripheral mechanisms in human sexual response. Nevertheless, inter-individual subjective differences remain unresolved. Since Freud, controversy remains regarding the similarity of each type of partnered sexual pleasure experience. The authors hypothesized that the neural networks sustaining the memory of all types of subjective partnered sexual pleasure experiences might interact with the insula, a key brain area for integrating somatic experiences. Using a 3T Phillips MRI scanner, brain activity elicited when 29 healthy female volunteers were exposed to subliminal presentation of their sexual partner's names, an approach to investigating the brain network sustaining the mental representation of their partner, was assessed. This brain activity was compared with scores from the Female Sexual Functioning Index on satisfaction and the typologies of their partnered orgasmic experiences. No orgasmic responses were recorded during fMRI. This approach allowed the investigation of the memory of the different types of stored partnered orgasmic experiences. The memory of partnered pleasure obtained by clitoral stimulation correlated with brain responses in the left insula only, while that of partnered pleasure by sexual intercourse correlated with the left insula and also with the right superior temporal gyrus, thalamus, and right inferior prefrontal gyrus. The results suggest that the memory of sexual experiences is integrated a posteriori at different levels (i.e. by different neural networks) in a woman's brain. The authors believe these findings will open a new avenue towards understanding inter- and intra-individual differences in woman's sexual mind.

  8. Internalized mental illness stigma and subjective well-being: The mediating role of psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-08-30

    This study examines the relationships between internalized stigma, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being in a sample of people with mental illness. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 213 outpatients from the Spanish public social care network. The results showed that (a) internalized stigma was significantly negatively correlated with psychological well-being and subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) (all correlations are significant with at least pstigma on affect balance and life satisfaction was mediated by psychological well-being. The component of internalized stigma most consistently associated with both types of well-being was alienation (life satisfaction: B=-0.35, p=0.001; affect balance: B=-0.38, p=0.001). These findings should be confirmed in future longitudinal or experimental research. On the basis of these results we recommend that interventions to combat self-stigma aim to reduce feelings of alienation and improve self-acceptance and other aspects of positive psychological functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The feasibility of vocational rehabilitation in subjects with severe mental illness Factibilidad de la rehabilitación vocacional en personas con enfermedades mentales graves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Watzke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocational rehabilitation represents an important element within the mental health care system. To ensure the success of rehabilitation, programs of varying degrees of complexity are needed in order to meet patients’ abilities and needs. Rehabilitation success must be examined multidimensionally and not be reduced to the mere integration into competitive employment. Success is also represented by progress in the level of vocational integration, strengthening of work capabilities, the improvement of the functional level, and in a better quality of life. The patient’s need for rehabilitation has to be recognized as early as possible to shorten the duration of the patient’s disintegration and to avoid stagnation periods. Rehabilitation needs to start in the clinic; with psychiatric help sustained during the rehabilitation process to prevent illness exacerbation and premature program termination. The patient’s development regarding his or her functional level, work capability, and subjective wellbeing needs to be evaluated throughout the program to consistently monitor the patient’s individual needs and abilities and to ensure appropriate support. Training for cognition and social skills should be integrated into rehabilitation programs to compensate individual deficits.La rehabilitación vocacional representa un importante elemento dentro del sistema del cuidado de la salud mental. Con el fin de asegurar el éxito de la rehabilitación y para satisfacer las necesidades y habilidades de los pacientes hacen falta programas de diversos grados de complejidad. El resultado de la rehabilitación debe examinarse de manera multidimensional y no reducirse tan sólo a la integración al empleo competitivo, pues el éxito se ve reflejado asimismo por el avance en el nivel de integración vocacional, el fortalecimiento de las capacidades para el trabajo, la mejora del nivel de funcionamiento y una mejor calidad de vida. Las necesidades de

  10. The CMS workload management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinquilli, M. [CERN; Evans, D. [Fermilab; Foulkes, S. [Fermilab; Hufnagel, D. [Fermilab; Mascheroni, M. [CERN; Norman, M. [UC, San Diego; Maxa, Z. [Caltech; Melo, A. [Vanderbilt U.; Metson, S. [Bristol U.; Riahi, H. [INFN, Perugia; Ryu, S. [Fermilab; Spiga, D. [CERN; Vaandering, E. [Fermilab; Wakefield, Stuart [Imperial Coll., London; Wilkinson, R. [Caltech

    2012-01-01

    CMS has started the process of rolling out a new workload management system. This system is currently used for reprocessing and Monte Carlo production with tests under way using it for user analysis. It was decided to combine, as much as possible, the production/processing, analysis and T0 codebases so as to reduce duplicated functionality and make best use of limited developer and testing resources. This system now includes central request submission and management (Request Manager), a task queue for parcelling up and distributing work (WorkQueue) and agents which process requests by interfacing with disparate batch and storage resources (WMAgent).

  11. Cognitive workload and sleep restriction interact to influence sleep homeostatic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Namni; Abe, Takashi; Braun, Marcia E; Dinges, David F

    2014-11-01

    Determine the effects of high versus moderate workload on sleep physiology and neurobehavioral measures, during sleep restriction (SR) and no sleep restriction (NSR) conditions. Ten-night experiment involving cognitive workload and SR manipulations. Controlled laboratory environment. Sixty-three healthy adults (mean ± standard deviation: 33.2 ± 8.7 y; 29 females), age 22-50 y. Following three baseline 8 h time in bed (TIB) nights, subjects were randomized to one of four conditions: high cognitive workload (HW) + SR; moderate cognitive workload (MW) + SR; HW + NSR; or MW + NSR. SR entailed 5 consecutive nights at 4 h TIB; NSR entailed 5 consecutive nights at 8 h TIB. Subjects received three workload test sessions/day consisting of 15-min preworkload assessments, followed by a 60-min (MW) or 120-min (HW) workload manipulation comprised of visually based cognitive tasks, and concluding with 15-min of postworkload assessments. Experimental nights were followed by two 8-h TIB recovery sleep nights. Polysomnography was collected on baseline night 3, experimental nights 1, 4, and 5, and recovery night 1 using three channels (central, frontal, occipital [C3, Fz, O2]). High workload, regardless of sleep duration, increased subjective fatigue and sleepiness (all P sleep restriction produced cumulative increases in Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) lapses, fatigue, and sleepiness and decreases in PVT response speed and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) sleep onset latencies (all P sleep onset latencies (P sleep onset (P sleep homeostasis-was higher at O2 than C3 only in the HW + SR condition (P sleep onset, but it also promoted sleep homeostatic responses by increasing subjective fatigue and sleepiness, and producing a global sleep homeostatic response by reducing wake after sleep onset. When combined with sleep restriction, high workload increased local (occipital) sleep homeostasis, suggesting a use-dependent sleep response to visual work. We conclude that sleep

  12. Investigating workload and its relationship with fatigue among train drivers in Keshesh section of Iranian Railway Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Train driving is a high responsibility job in railway industry. Train drivers need different cognitive functions such as vigilance, object detection, memory, planning, decision-making. High level of fatigue is one of the caused factor of accidents among train drivers. Numerous factors can impact train drivers’ fatigue but high level of workload is a key factor. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate workload and its relationship with fatigue among train drivers in Keshesh section of Iranian Railway Company. .Material and Method: This descriptive analytical study was done among 100 train drivers in Keshesh section of Iranian Railway industry. They were selected by simple random sampling. The NASA-TLX workload scale and Samn-Perelli fatigue scale were respectively used to investigate workload and fatigue. Data were analyzed by Paired t-test and Spearman correlation coefficient. . Result: According to the NASA-TLX results, effort and mental workload with the mean score of 74/22 and 73/31 were respectively the most important attributes of workload among train drivers. No significant relationship was observed between workload and level of fatigue before departure and half an hour before reaching the destination station (P>0.05. However, the relationship between of workload and level of fatigue half an hour before the end of shift (on the way back to the origin station was statistically significant (P=0.048 among the sample population. . Conclusion: Effort and mental workload were the most important attributes of workload among train drivers. By focusing on these two variables and adopting fatigue management programs, fatigue and workload can be controlled and the efficiency of the whole system can be enhanced accordingly.

  13. OEO SRB Weekly Workload Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Weekly reports of workloads processed in the Security Records Branch in Boyers, PA. Reports on quantities of work received, processed, pending and average processing...

  14. Increased Serum PAI-1 Levels in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome and Long-Term Adverse Mental Symptoms: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Huotari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, an inhibitor of tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators, are associated with MetS. To clarify the role of PAI-1 in subjects with long-term adverse mental symptomatology (LMS; including depression and MetS, we measured circulating PAI-1 levels in controls (n=111, in subjects with MetS and free of mental symptoms (n=42, and in subjects with both MetS and long-term mental symptoms (n=70. PAI-1 increased linearly across the three groups in men. In logistic regression analysis, men with PAI-1 levels above the median had a 3.4-fold increased likelihood of suffering from the comorbidity of long-term adverse mental symptoms and MetS, while no such associations were detected in women. In conclusion, our results suggest that in men high PAI-1 levels are independently associated with long-term mental symptomatology.

  15. An outcome in need of clarity: building a predictive model of subjective quality of life for persons with severe mental illness living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Peiying Sarah; Krupa, Terry; Lawson, J Stuart; Eastabrook, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    The study purpose was to construct a predictive model of subjective quality of life for persons with severe mental illness living in the community with particular attention to participation in occupations. Persons with severe mental illness (N=154) rated their subjective quality of life. Several measures for each of the following categories of variables were completed: demographics, clinical, social participation, and self-measured well-being. Regression analysis was used to determine the significant predictors for each category and then to build the predictive model from these significant variables. Symptom distress accounted for the most variance (33%) in subjective quality of life, followed by psychological integration (3%) and physical integration (2%). The study suggests that occupational therapists should attend to subjective experience of symptoms to influence quality of life. Therapists are also in a good position to address their clients' sense of belonging to their communities and to enable community participation.

  16. Norms of the Mini-Mental state Examination for Japanese subjects that underwent comprehensive brain examinations: the Kashima Scan Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushiji, Yusuke; Horikawa, Etsuo; Eriguchi, Makoto; Nanri, Yusuke; Nishihara, Masashi; Hirotsu, Tatsumi; Hara, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores by age and educational level was investigated in subjects that underwent comprehensive brain examinations. This cross-sectional study included 1,414 adults without neurological disorders who underwent health-screening tests of the brain, referred to as the "Brain Dock," in our center. The MMSE scores were compared between age groups (40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, or ≥70 years) and educational levels [the low education level group (6-12 years) and the high education level group (≥13 years)]. The median age was 59 years, and 763 (54%) were women. There was no significant difference in the MMSE total score between women and men. The stepwise method of the multiple linear regression analysis confirmed that a higher age [β value, -0.129; standard error (S.E.), 0.020; p<0.001], low education level (6-12 years) (β value, -0.226; S.E., 0.075; p=0.003), and women (β values, 0.148; S.E., 0.066; p=0.024) was significantly associated with decreased MMSE score. In general, both the percentile scores and mean scores decreased with aging and were lower in the low education level group than in the high education level group. The degree of decrement in scores with age was stronger in the low education level group than in the high education level group. The provided data for age- and education-specific reference norms will be useful for both clinicians and investigators who perform comprehensive brain examinations to assess the cognitive function of subjects.

  17. Reduction of auditory event-related P300 amplitude in subjects with at-risk mental state for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgürdal, Seza; Gudlowski, Yehonala; Witthaus, Henning; Kawohl, Wolfram; Uhl, Idun; Hauser, Marta; Gorynia, Inge; Gallinat, Jürgen; Heinze, Martin; Heinz, Andreas; Juckel, Georg

    2008-10-01

    Neurophysiological methods allow the examination of cognitive-cortical functioning in patients with schizophrenia in its prodromal states. As revealed by previous studies, event-related potential components such as auditory evoked P300 associated with cognitive processes, such as attention and orientation, are known to be reduced in amplitude in acute and chronic as well as in medicated and unmedicated patients. It is, however, unclear whether a P300 amplitude reduction occurs before the schizophrenic psychosis is fully manifested. We studied patients in the prodromal phase of the schizophrenic disorder (i.e. subjects with an at-risk mental state showing attenuated psychotic symptoms or brief limited intermittent symptoms) as well as first-episode patients and chronic patients with schizophrenia and compared these groups to healthy subjects. The event-related P300 was recorded during an auditory oddball paradigm. Groups differed significantly from each other in the P300 amplitude at Pz (F(3/149)=2.532, p=0.02). Post-hoc tests revealed significantly lower P300 amplitudes of non-medicated prodromal (p=.03), first-episode (p=.01) and chronic patients (p=.001) compared to the healthy controls. The study revealed that there are neurophysiological changes as the reduction in P300 amplitudes begins early in schizophrenia at the prodromal phase, i.e. before a manifestation of full-blown psychosis, and that these changes seem to have a progressive course from prodromal to chronic state of schizophrenia as assumed in this cross-sectional study.

  18. Differences in self-reported importance of elements of health and subjectively experienced health among outpatients in community mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jormfeldt, Henrika; Hansson, Lars; Svensson, Bengt

    2011-10-01

    Positive dimensions of mental health are strong protective factors against physical and mental illness in general population. A cross-sectional study including a randomly selected sample of 141 outpatients was performed to explore differences in patients' self-reported importance of elements of health and subjective experiences of health related to sociodemographic background variables. The examination of differences in self-reported importance of elements of health showed differences regarding gender, and the analyses of subjectively experienced health showed differences regarding age and diagnosis. Clinical interventions aiming at strengthening positive dimensions of health are required in community mental health services to meet the patients' individual needs of enhanced health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Educational innovation on the practices for the subjects of community nursing, mental health nursing and geriatric nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heierle Valero, Cristina; Cano-Caballero Gálvez, María Dolores; Guillamet Lloveras, Ana; Celma Vicente, Matilde; Garach Mirasol, José Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    The new European space for higher education requires changes in education manners as well as execution. One of the main challenges is for the students to acquire competence in their professional life. For that purpose they require knowledge, but also skills and a proactive attitude towards learning. In this paper we tell the experience of the Virgen de las Nieves School of Nursing in Granada, with regards to the integration of the practices for the subjects of Community Nursing III, Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, and Geriatric Nursing, which are taken in the third year of the Diplomatura en Enfermería degree. Said practices, which were previously being offered separately within different contexts, will be merged in the same program whose scope will be Primary Care. We believe that the experience has been very positive by looking both at the results and the satisfaction of the students and the professional lecturers. It has been achieved an increase in the number of community care practice hours, and students have managed to acquire more autonomy in their learning and to incorporate critical reasoning in their education. In the methodology used, they have been the main evaluators and protagonists in their learning process, seeking the implication of professionals and teaching tutors in this change. The consensus on the objectives and methods, along with the obstacles which had to be overcome, constitutes one of the most interesting aspects of this experience.

  20. Online EEG-Based Workload Adaptation of an Arithmetic Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Carina; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Bogdan, Martin; Gerjets, Peter; Spüler, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a closed-loop EEG-based learning environment, that adapts instructional learning material online, to improve learning success in students during arithmetic learning. The amount of cognitive workload during learning is crucial for successful learning and should be held in the optimal range for each learner. Based on EEG data from 10 subjects, we created a prediction model that estimates the learner's workload to obtain an unobtrusive workload measure. Furthermore, we developed an interactive learning environment that uses the prediction model to estimate the learner's workload online based on the EEG data and adapt the difficulty of the learning material to keep the learner's workload in an optimal range. The EEG-based learning environment was used by 13 subjects to learn arithmetic addition in the octal number system, leading to a significant learning effect. The results suggest that it is feasible to use EEG as an unobtrusive measure of cognitive workload to adapt the learning content. Further it demonstrates that a promptly workload prediction is possible using a generalized prediction model without the need for a user-specific calibration.

  1. Online EEG-Based Workload Adaptation of an Arithmetic Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Carina; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Bogdan, Martin; Gerjets, Peter; Spüler, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a closed-loop EEG-based learning environment, that adapts instructional learning material online, to improve learning success in students during arithmetic learning. The amount of cognitive workload during learning is crucial for successful learning and should be held in the optimal range for each learner. Based on EEG data from 10 subjects, we created a prediction model that estimates the learner's workload to obtain an unobtrusive workload measure. Furthermore, we developed an interactive learning environment that uses the prediction model to estimate the learner's workload online based on the EEG data and adapt the difficulty of the learning material to keep the learner's workload in an optimal range. The EEG-based learning environment was used by 13 subjects to learn arithmetic addition in the octal number system, leading to a significant learning effect. The results suggest that it is feasible to use EEG as an unobtrusive measure of cognitive workload to adapt the learning content. Further it demonstrates that a promptly workload prediction is possible using a generalized prediction model without the need for a user-specific calibration. PMID:28611615

  2. Analysis of the workload of bank tellers of a Brazilian public institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikawa, Simoni S; Albieri, Ana Carolina S; Bonugli, Gustavo P; Greghi, Marina F

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades there have been many changes in the banking sector organization. It has been also observed the mutual growing of musculoskeletal and mental disorders. This study investigated the workload of bank tellers at a Brazilian public institution. It was performed the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). Three employees participated in this study. During the analysis process, three research instruments were applied: Inventory of Work and Risk of Illness, Yoshitake Fatigue Questionnaire and Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, beyond the realization of footage recordings and the self-confrontation. The results indicated the existence of an excess of workload on the evaluated workstations, mainly in relation to mental order constraints, that overlaps the physical aspects. Thereby it was found that the employees tend to adopt strategies trying to reduce the impacts of the excess of workload, in order to regulate it.

  3. EEG BASED COGNITIVE WORKLOAD CLASSIFICATION DURING NASA MATB-II MULTITASKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Chandra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to determine the best possible input EEG feature for classification of the workload while designing load balancing logic for an automated operator. The input features compared in this study consisted of spectral features of Electroencephalography, objective scoring and subjective scoring. Method utilizes to identify best EEG feature as an input in Neural Network Classifiers for workload classification, to identify channels which could provide classification with the highest accuracy and for identification of EEG feature which could give discrimination among workload level without adding any classifiers. The result had shown Engagement Index is the best feature for neural network classification.

  4. Efficient workload classification based on ignored auditory probes: A proof of concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle N. Roy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mental workload is a mental state that is currently one of the main research focuses in neuroergonomics. It can notably be estimated using measurements in electroencephalography (EEG, a method that allows for direct mental state assessment. Auditory probes can be used to elicit event-related potentials (ERPs that are modulated by workload. Although some papers do report ERP modulations due to workload using attended or ignored probes, to our knowledge there is no literature regarding effective workload classification based on ignored auditory probes. In this paper, in order to efficiently estimate workload, we advocate for the use of such ignored auditory probes in a single-stimulus paradigm and a signal processing chain that includes a spatial filtering step. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated on data acquired from participants that performed the Multi-Attribute Task Battery – II. They carried out this task during two ten-minute blocks. Each block corresponded to a workload condition that was pseudorandomly assigned. The easy condition consisted of two monitoring tasks performed in parallel, and the difficult one consisted of those two tasks with an additional plane driving task. Infrequent auditory probes were presented during the tasks and the participants were asked to ignore them. The EEG data were denoised and the probes’ ERPs were extracted and spatially filtered using a Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA. Next, binary classification was performed using a Fisher LDA and a 5-fold cross-validation procedure. Our method allowed for a very high estimation performance with a classification accuracy above 80% for every participant, and minimal intrusiveness thanks to the use of a single-stimulus paradigm. Therefore, this study paves the way to the efficient use of ERPs for mental state monitoring in close to real-life settings and contributes towards the development of adaptive user interfaces.

  5. Grouping machines for effective workload control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrich, P.; Land, M.J.; Gaalman, G.J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Workload control (WLC) allows the release of new orders to the shop floor as long as workload norms for capacity groups, generally a number of functionally similar machines, are not exceeded. Effective WLC requires a profound decision on the grouping of machines as well as on the norm levels for the

  6. Workload dynamics on clusters and grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of a variety of workloads collected on production clusters and Grids. The applications are mostly computational-intensive and each task requires single CPU for processing data, which dominate the workloads on current production Grid systems.

  7. Robust Models for Operator Workload Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    into distinct cognitive channels (visual, auditory, spatial, etc.) based on our ability to multitask effectively as long as no one channel is...between workload levels. For example, recalling two numbers from working memory may be associated with “low” workload, four numbers with “medium...

  8. Workload modelling for data-intensive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study built upon the requirements of a global data-intensive system, built for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. First, a scalable method is described to capture distributed data management operations in a non-intrusive way. These operations are collected into a globally synchronised sequence of events, the workload. A comparative analysis of this new data-intensive workload against existing computational workloads is conducted, leading to the discovery of the importance of descriptive attributes in the operations. Existing computational workload models only consider the arrival rates of operations, however, in data-intensive systems the correlations between attributes play a central role. Furthermore, the detrimental effect of rapid correlated arrivals, so called bursts, is assessed. A model is proposed that can learn burst behaviour from captured workload, and in turn forecast potential future bursts. To help with the creation of a full representative...

  9. Hemodynamic mechanisms of the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Neves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the hemodynamic mechanisms responsible for the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after exercise, 26 healthy sedentary individuals (age 29 ± 8 years underwent the Stroop color-word test before and 60 min after a bout of maximal dynamic exercise on a treadmill. A subgroup (N = 11 underwent a time-control experiment without exercise. Blood pressure was continuously and noninvasively recorded by infrared finger photoplethysmography. Stroke volume was derived from pressure signals, and cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance were calculated. Perceived mental stress scores were comparable between mental stress tests both in the exercise (P = 0.96 and control (P = 0.24 experiments. After exercise, the blood pressure response to mental stress was attenuated (pre: 10 ± 13 vs post: 6 ± 7 mmHg; P 0.05. In conclusion, a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise attenuates the blood pressure response to mental stress in healthy subjects, along with lower stroke volume and cardiac output, denoting an acute modulatory action of exercise on the central hemodynamic response to mental stress.

  10. Implications for Academic Workload of the Changing Role of Distance Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidenhout, Adéle

    2015-01-01

    The changing work roles and resulting workloads of distance educators hold significant implications for the wellbeing and mental health of academics. New work roles include redesigning curricula for online delivery, increasing staff-student ratios and demands for student-support, management of part-time staff, and 24-h availability. This research…

  11. Lack of relationship between occupational workload and microscopic alterations in lumbar intervertebral disc disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huschak, Gerald; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Beier, Andre; Meisel, Hans Jörg; Hoell, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of occupational workloads on disc surgery specimens. We report the relationship between workload and histological features. Specimens were collected prospectively from patients suffering from lumbar disc prolapse (n=90) or spinal osteochondrosis (n=19). Histomorphology and occupational workload data and histomorphological features were evaluated. Occupational data were collected in a structured, standardized patient interview assessing lifting and carrying loads. In this way the exposure was assessed for each test subject's entire working life up to surgery. There was no association between cumulative workload and histological patterns. In a subgroup of patients with a workload period of 12 months prior to surgery a relevant formation of chondrocyte clusters (p=0.055) was apparent. Chondrocyte cluster formation was found in 83% (n=74) of the prolapse patients and in 58% (n=11) of the osteochondrosis patients (p=0.02). Fibrocyte mediated scar formation was found in 55% of the prolapse patients and in 45% of the spinal stenosis patients. Chondrocyte clusters and their de novo collagen matrix did not integrate biomechanically sufficient with collagen fibers of the disc. Disintegration of clusters from disc matrix and formation of intra-discal sequesters were observed. Matrix degeneration was common but displayed no relationship to occupational workload or other histological features. Scar formation was observed in every second specimen. Regenerative chondrocyte cluster proliferation was a common feature in disc specimens and tended to be associated in patients with a workload one year before surgery.

  12. Patient Safety Incidents and Nursing Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Cuadros Carlesi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the relationship between the workload of the nursing team and the occurrence of patient safety incidents linked to nursing care in a public hospital in Chile. Method: quantitative, analytical, cross-sectional research through review of medical records. The estimation of workload in Intensive Care Units (ICUs was performed using the Therapeutic Interventions Scoring System (TISS-28 and for the other services, we used the nurse/patient and nursing assistant/patient ratios. Descriptive univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. For the multivariate analysis we used principal component analysis and Pearson correlation. Results: 879 post-discharge clinical records and the workload of 85 nurses and 157 nursing assistants were analyzed. The overall incident rate was 71.1%. It was found a high positive correlation between variables workload (r = 0.9611 to r = 0.9919 and rate of falls (r = 0.8770. The medication error rates, mechanical containment incidents and self-removal of invasive devices were not correlated with the workload. Conclusions: the workload was high in all units except the intermediate care unit. Only the rate of falls was associated with the workload.

  13. Modeling Parallel System Workloads with Temporal Locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Tran Ngoc; Wolters, Lex

    In parallel systems, similar jobs tend to arrive within bursty periods. This fact leads to the existence of the locality phenomenon, a persistent similarity between nearby jobs, in real parallel computer workloads. This important phenomenon deserves to be taken into account and used as a characteristic of any workload model. Regrettably, this property has received little if any attention of researchers and synthetic workloads used for performance evaluation to date often do not have locality. With respect to this research trend, Feitelson has suggested a general repetition approach to model locality in synthetic workloads [6]. Using this approach, Li et al. recently introduced a new method for modeling temporal locality in workload attributes such as run time and memory [14]. However, with the assumption that each job in the synthetic workload requires a single processor, the parallelism has not been taken into account in their study. In this paper, we propose a new model for parallel computer workloads based on their result. In our research, we firstly improve their model to control locality of a run time process better and then model the parallelism. The key idea for modeling the parallelism is to control the cross-correlation between the run time and the number of processors. Experimental results show that not only the cross-correlation is controlled well by our model, but also the marginal distribution can be fitted nicely. Furthermore, the locality feature is also obtained in our model.

  14. Behavioral Treatment of Challenging Behaviors in Individuals With Mild Mental Retardation: Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Oorsouw, W.M.W.J. van; Sturmey, P.

    2006-01-01

    A meta-analytic study on effectiveness of behavioral and psychotherapeutic treatments for challenging behaviors in individuals with mild mental retardation is reported. Eighty articles were examined. For each comparison, several study variables and two effect sizes (percentage of nonoverlapping

  15. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cluster analysis for computer workload evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, K

    1976-01-01

    An introduction to computer workload analysis is given, showing its range of application in computer centre management, system and application programming. Cluster methods are discussed which can be used in conjunction with workload data and cluster algorithms are adapted to the specific set problem. Several samples of CDC 7600- accounting-data-collected at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research-underwent a cluster analysis to determine job groups. The conclusions from resource usage of typical job groups in relation to computer workload analysis are discussed. (17 refs).

  17. Workload composition of the organic horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, R F; Ribeiro, I A V; Tereso, M J A

    2012-01-01

    This project aimed the characterization of the physical workload of the organic horticulture by determining the frequency of exposure of operators to some activity categories. To do this, an adaptation of the PATH method (Posture, Activities, Tools and Handling) was done to be used in the context of agriculture work. The approach included an evaluation of physical effort demanded to perform the tasks in the work systems from an systematic sampling of work situations from a synchronized monitoring of the heart rate; a characterization of posture repertoire adopted by workers by adapting the OWAS method; an identification of pain body areas using the Corlett diagram; and a subjective evaluation of perceived effort using the RPE Borg scale. The results of the individual assessments were cross correlated and explained from an observation of the work activity. Postural demands were more significant than cardiovascular demands for the studied tasks, and correlated positively with the expressions of bodily discomfort. It is expected that, besides the knowledge obtained of the physical effort demanded by organic horticulture, this project will be useful for the development of new technologies directed to minimize the difficulties of the human work and to raise the work productivity.

  18. Coping with mental health issues: subjective experiences of self-help and helpful contextual factors at the start of mental health treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biringer, Eva; Davidson, Larry; Sundfør, Bengt; Lier, Haldis Ø; Borg, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Self-help strategies and various contextual factors support recovery. However, more in-depth knowledge is needed about how self-help strategies and supportive environments facilitate the recovery process. To explore what individuals who have recently been referred to a specialist Community Mental Health Center experience as helpful and what they do to help themselves. Ten service users participated in in-depth interviews within a collaborative-reflexive framework. A hermeneutic-phenomenological approach was used. Participants described a variety of helpful strategies and environmental supports. Four relevant main themes were identified: helpful activities, helpful people and places, self-instruction and learning about mental problems and medication and self-medication. The process of recovery is initiated before people become users of mental health services. This study confirms that recovery takes place within the person's daily life context and involves the interplay of contextual factors, such as family, friends, good places, work and other meaningful activities. The coping strategies reported may represent an important focus for attention and clinical intervention.

  19. [Mental Health and Political Violence. Care of Psychiatric Patient or Acknowledge of the Micropolitics of the Subject].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias López, Beatriz Elena

    2013-09-01

    Political violence is a global phenomenon, especially in low- to middle-income countries. This phenomenon increasingly involves civilians. This situation is a priority in collective health, as it produces multiple and complex effects on physical and mental health, and human and social ecosystems. The objective of this article is to present the main tendencies that coexist in research and practice on the understanding of the effects of political violence on mental health. The biomedical approach of psychiatric trauma and the wider perspective of social sciences, which incorporate the collective dimension of these effects, are also taken into account. Review of research determines the relationship with political violence / collective violence and mental health in international databases and national documentation centers, academics and NGOs within the last decade of the twentieth century, and the first of this century under the headings of trauma, war, armed conflict and political violence. The limitations of general explanations of psychiatric trauma in understanding the complex effects of political violence on mental health are shown. The constructs that incorporate social and collective dimensions increase this comprehension of these effects and knowledge of mental health, both conceptually as methodologically. In a political violence context it urgent to change attitudes about mental health. It is a way to overcome the biomedical, individualistic, and short term epidemiology, and to remove medication from mental health. This means acknowledging that people who experience the effects of political violence effects are not sick. They are powerful people who can transform and produce the life they dream of. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Alcohol Levels Do Not Accurately Predict Physical or Mental Impairment in Ethanol-Tolerant Subjects: Relevance to Emergency Medicine and Dram Shop Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, James R.; Dollard, Denis

    2010-01-01

    The human body and the central nervous system can develop tremendous tolerance to ethanol. Mental and physical dysfunctions from ethanol, in an alcohol-tolerant individual, do not consistently correlate with ethanol levels traditionally used to define intoxication, or even lethality, in a nontolerant subject. Attempting to relate observed signs of alcohol intoxication or impairment, or to evaluate sobriety, by quantifying blood alcohol levels can be misleading, if not impossible. We report a ...

  1. Working memory’s workload capacity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heathcote, Andrew; Coleman, James R; Eidels, Ami; Watson, Jason M; Houpt, Joseph; Strayer, David L

    2015-01-01

    ... (Journal of Mathematical Psychology 39: 321–359, 1995) workload capacity measure, which revealed that the decrement in dual two-back performance was mediated by the sharing of a limited amount of processing capacity...

  2. [Nursing workloads and working conditions: integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoeller, Roseli; Trindade, Letícia de Lima; Neis, Márcia Binder; Gelbcke, Francine Lima; de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires

    2011-06-01

    This study reviews theoretical production concerning workloads and working conditions for nurses. For that, an integrative review was carried out using scientific articles, theses and dissertations indexed in two Brazilian databases, Virtual Health Care Library (Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde) and Digital Database of Dissertations (Banco Digital de Teses), over the last ten years. From 132 identified studies, 27 were selected. Results indicate workloads as responsible for professional weariness, affecting the occurrence of work accidents and health problems. In order to adequate workloads studies indicate some strategies, such as having an adequate numbers of employees, continuing education, and better working conditions. The challenge is to continue research that reveal more precisely the relationships between workloads, working conditions, and health of the nursing team.

  3. Efeitos da prática mental na aquisição de habilidades motoras em sujeitos novatos Efectos de la práctica mental en la adquisición de habilidades motoras en novatos Effects of mental practice in motor skills acquisition in novice subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thábata Viviane Brandão Gomes

    2012-09-01

    muestra utilizada fue pequeña, los resultados sugieren que la práctica mental en sujetos novatos depende de la práctica física para ser efectiva, independiente de su posicionamiento (antes o después.Studies of mental practice with novices pointed out its superiority when compared to no practice at all. However, pre-test as well as familiarization using physical practice can influence the effect from mental practice. This study investigated the effects of mental practice in novice in the practiced task, as well as the location of physical practice in relation to mental practice. Twenty five undergraduate volunteers performed a serial positioning task and they were distributed in five groups in accordance to the type of practice: Physical (GPF, mental (GPM, physical-mental (GPFM, mental-physical (GPMF, and control group (GC which took part only in tests. A non parametrical Anova applied in tests showed superiority of groups with physical practice (GPF, GPFM, and GPMF to control and mental practice groups. In considering the small sample, the results suggest that mental practice in novice subjects depends on physical practice to be effective, regardless its location (before or after.

  4. Development and psychometric testing of the Attitudes, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavioural Control, and Intention to Pursue a Career in Mental Health Nursing scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbourn, Mark; Salamonson, Yenna; Ramjan, Lucie; Chang, Sungwon

    2017-01-19

    The aim of the present study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Attitudes, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavioural Control, and Intention to Pursue a Career in Mental Health Nursing (ASPIRE) scale, an instrument to assess nursing students' intention to work in mental health nursing. Understanding the factors influencing undergraduate nursing students' career intentions might lead to improved recruitment strategies. However, there are no standardized tools to measure and assess students' intention to pursue a career in mental health nursing. The present study used a cross-sectional survey design undertaken at a large tertiary institution in Western Sydney (Australia) between May and August 2013. It comprised three distinct and sequential phases: (i) items were generated representing the four dimensions of the theory of planned behaviour; (ii) face and content validity were tested by a representative reference group and panel of experts; and (iii) survey data from 1109 first- and second-year and 619 third-year students were used in exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to test the factorial validity of the scale. Internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's alpha. Items generated for the ASPIRE scale were subject to face and content validity testing. Results showed good factorial validity and reliability for the final 14-item scale. Principal axis factoring revealed a one-factor solution, the hypothesized model being supported by confirmatory factor analysis. The ASPIRE scale is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring intention to pursue a career in mental health nursing among Bachelor of Nursing students. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  5. Analysis of Subjects' Vulnerability in a Touch Screen Game Using Behavioral Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsinejad, Payam; Sipahi, Rifat

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we report results on an experimental study conducted with volunteer subjects playing a touch-screen game with two unique difficulty levels. Subjects have knowledge about the rules of both game levels, but only sufficient playing experience with the easy level of the game, making them vulnerable with the difficult level. Several behavioral metrics associated with subjects' playing the game are studied in order to assess subjects' mental-workload changes induced by their vulnerability. Specifically, these metrics are calculated based on subjects' finger kinematics and decision making times, which are then compared with baseline metrics, namely, performance metrics pertaining to how well the game is played and a physiological metric called pnn50 extracted from heart rate measurements. In balanced experiments and supported by comparisons with baseline metrics, it is found that some of the studied behavioral metrics have the potential to be used to infer subjects' mental workload changes through different levels of the game. These metrics, which are decoupled from task specifics, relate to subjects' ability to develop strategies to play the game, and hence have the advantage of offering insight into subjects' task-load and vulnerability assessment across various experimental settings.

  6. Cognitive Workload and Sleep Restriction Interact to Influence Sleep Homeostatic Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Namni; Abe, Takashi; Braun, Marcia E.; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Determine the effects of high versus moderate workload on sleep physiology and neurobehavioral measures, during sleep restriction (SR) and no sleep restriction (NSR) conditions. Design: Ten-night experiment involving cognitive workload and SR manipulations. Setting: Controlled laboratory environment. Participants: Sixty-three healthy adults (mean ± standard deviation: 33.2 ± 8.7 y; 29 females), age 22–50 y. Interventions: Following three baseline 8 h time in bed (TIB) nights, subjects were randomized to one of four conditions: high cognitive workload (HW) + SR; moderate cognitive workload (MW) + SR; HW + NSR; or MW + NSR. SR entailed 5 consecutive nights at 4 h TIB; NSR entailed 5 consecutive nights at 8 h TIB. Subjects received three workload test sessions/day consisting of 15-min preworkload assessments, followed by a 60-min (MW) or 120-min (HW) workload manipulation comprised of visually based cognitive tasks, and concluding with 15-min of postworkload assessments. Experimental nights were followed by two 8-h TIB recovery sleep nights. Polysomnography was collected on baseline night 3, experimental nights 1, 4, and 5, and recovery night 1 using three channels (central, frontal, occipital [C3, Fz, O2]). Measurements and Results: High workload, regardless of sleep duration, increased subjective fatigue and sleepiness (all P sleep restriction produced cumulative increases in Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) lapses, fatigue, and sleepiness and decreases in PVT response speed and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) sleep onset latencies (all P sleep onset latencies (P sleep onset (P sleep homeostasis—was higher at O2 than C3 only in the HW + SR condition (P sleep onset, but it also promoted sleep homeostatic responses by increasing subjective fatigue and sleepiness, and producing a global sleep homeostatic response by reducing wake after sleep onset. When combined with sleep restriction, high workload increased local (occipital) sleep

  7. Treatment of hemispatial neglect in patients with post-hemiparesis: a single-subject experimental design study using a whole-body tilt exercise plus mental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae-Woo; Oh, Duck-Won

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of whole-body tilt exercise for treating hemispatial neglect and to identify the effects of incorporating mental practice into the exercise. We used a single-subject experimental design alternating with multiple baselines. Three stroke patients with hemispatial neglect participated in this study. The severity of hemispatial neglect and balance function were measured during baseline and intervention sessions. The whole-body tilt exercise was performed by using a device that allows the body to tilt 20° from the neutral upright position. Mental practice consisted of 5 min of relaxation, main whole-body tilt imagination, and normalization phases. When the whole-body tilt exercise alone was performed, the average severity score of hemispatial neglect in subjects 1, 2, and 3 decreased by 7.54, 10.02, and 8.24, respectively; their respective average balance function score increased by 35.95%, 28.13%, and 15.33% under the open-eye condition and 34.66%, 20.33%, and 13.77% under the closed-eye condition. For subjects 1, 2, and 3, the respective average hemispatial neglect score decreased by 9.07, 11.35, and 10.13 after the whole-body tilt exercise with mental practice; their average balance function scores increased by 40.15%, 33.38%, and 24.22% under the open-eye condition and by 38.93%, 27.08%, and 11.88% under the closed-eye condition, respectively. These findings suggest that a whole-body tilt exercise alone may be beneficial in enhancing hemispatial neglect symptoms but the addition of mental practice produces a greater positive effect.

  8. Interaction between workload and training - Converging evidence from psychophysiology and performance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Arthur F.

    1986-01-01

    Traditionally, the domains of mental workload and training have been studied in isolation even though they share many common characteristics. The present paper integrates findings from psychophysiological and performance-based studies which address both of these issues. By augmenting traditional indices of skill acquisition such as RMS error scores, reaction times, and accuracy measures with psychophysiological measures such as the event-related brain potential, it is shown that workload effects can be assessed throughout the training process. More specifically, it is argued that the development of skill and the effects of workload on the human operator can be modeled within the framework of resource theories of attentional allocation. Also described is how converging evidence from psychophysiological and behavioral studies can be used to examine subtle changes in operator strategies during training.

  9. "We Are the Ones that Talk about Difficult Subjects": Nurses in Schools Working to Support Young People's Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Jennifer; Philip, Kate; Shucksmith, Janet; Kiger, Alice; Gair, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    As health professionals in an educational setting, nurses in schools occupy a unique place in the spectrum of children's services. Yet the service is often overlooked and has been described as invisible. This paper draws on findings from a study, funded by the Scottish Government's National Programme for Improving Mental Health and Well-being,…

  10. Investigating the relationship between cognitive failures and workload among nurses of Imam Khomeini and Vali-e-Asr hospitals in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan Yousef Zade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High level of workload and its consequent cognitive failures are among factors which impact nurses’ behavior, performance, and efficiency. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between nurses’ cognitive failures and perceived workload. Material and Method: This cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study was carried out among 150 male and female nurses, working in different units of Emam Khomeini and Vali-e-Asr hospitals in Tehran in 2013. NASA task load index (NASA-TlX and Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ were used to assess workload and cognitive failures, respectively. Data were analyzed using Pearson Correlation, Independent sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA statistical tests with SPSS software version 20. Result: Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients test results showed a significant relationship between nurses’ mental workload and their memory for names (P-value<0.001. Moreover, there was significant association between physical workload and memory, attention and total cognitive failures (CFQ total (P-value<0.05. Perceived frustration mong nurses was significantly correlated with memory, attention, motor functions and total cognitive failures (P-value<0.05. Conclusion: The results showed a high level of workload among study nurses. Furthermore, the relationships between some dimensions of mental workload and cognitive failures were confirmed, so that an increase in workload dimension can lead to more cognitive failures while doing task.

  11. Estimating workload using EEG spectral power and ERPs in the n-back task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; van Erp, Jan B. F.; Heffelaar, Tobias; Zimmerman, Patrick H.; Oostenveld, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies indicate that both electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power (in particular the alpha and theta band) and event-related potentials (ERPs) (in particular the P300) can be used as a measure of mental work or memory load. We compare their ability to estimate workload level in a well-controlled task. In addition, we combine both types of measures in a single classification model to examine whether this results in higher classification accuracy than either one alone. Participants watched a sequence of visually presented letters and indicated whether or not the current letter was the same as the one (n instances) before. Workload was varied by varying n. We developed different classification models using ERP features, frequency power features or a combination (fusion). Training and testing of the models simulated an online workload estimation situation. All our ERP, power and fusion models provide classification accuracies between 80% and 90% when distinguishing between the highest and the lowest workload condition after 2 min. For 32 out of 35 participants, classification was significantly higher than chance level after 2.5 s (or one letter) as estimated by the fusion model. Differences between the models are rather small, though the fusion model performs better than the other models when only short data segments are available for estimating workload.

  12. Decreasing workload among community health workers using interactive, structured, rich-media guidelines on smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, M Sriram; Florez-Arango, Jose F

    2013-01-01

    Currently, in developing countries, there is considerable interest in using mobile phones as job-aids for community health workers (CHWs) to improve the care they provide. However, acceptance of new technologies can be inhibited if the workload imposed is perceived as excessive compared to existing methods. To compare perceived workload of CHWs using clinical care guidelines presented on mobile phones versus using conventional paper-based guidelines. Validated clinical practice guidelines were developed as Interactive Structured Rich-Medical guidelines (ISRMGs) on Windows Mobile 6.5 mobile phones. A prospective randomized controlled study was performed in Colombia in which 50 CHWs used the ISRMGs, and paper-based materials with the same information, in a cross-over design to diagnose and treat 15 matched pairs of medical cases presented on Human Patient simulators. The NASA Task Load Index, a validated measure of perceived workload, was administered and results compared by means of a mixed model analysis. When using the ISRMGs on mobile phones the health workers reported statistically significant decreases in mental demand, frustration, and overall workload as compared to using paper-based job-aids. Use of ISRMGs on mobile phones by community health workers in developing countries has the potential to decrease their perceived workload, fatigue, and enhance their ability to provide better care for more patients.

  13. Information Seeking Behavior & Information Resources Management:Mental Process Selecting Subjects & Identifying Information Needs Case study: Graduate Students in Women seminaries of Shiraz of Academic year 1393- 1394(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Eftekhar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is Information Resources Management: Mental Process Selecting Subjects &  Identifying Information Needs. The research method used in this study is a Quantitative method. Sampling is purposeful. This means that it includes graduate Students in Women seminaries of Shiraz who have information-seeking experience and are able to express their views and information needs. The sample was selected according to the random sampling method with Cochran formula from 710 students. According to this sampling method there is 241 Graduate Students included in 1392-1393 seminaries year of  Women seminaries of Shiraz. This is a survey research Which has been carried out by employing a questionnaire and SPSS for windows to analyze data. The results showed that students for selecting subjects,  identifying information needs used methods and media such as Prying Mind, reviewing of information resources, Consulting with subject specialists.

  14. The Long-Run Consequences of Chernobyl: Evidence on Subjective Well-Being, Mental Health and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Danzer, Alexander M.; Danzer, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the long-run toll taken by a large-scale technological disaster on welfare, well-being and mental health. We estimate the causal effect of the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe after 20 years by linking geographic variation in radioactive fallout to respondents of a nationally representative survey in Ukraine according to their place of residence in 1986. The psychological effects of this nuclear disaster are large and persistent. More affected individuals exhibit poorer subjecti...

  15. Inverse Effects of Oxytocin on Attributing Mental Activity to Others in Depressed and Healthy Subjects: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pincus

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytocin is a stress-attenuating and pro-social neuropeptide. To date, no study has looked at the effects of oxytocin in modulating brain activity in depressed individuals nor attempted to correlate this activity with attribution of mental activity in others. Method: We enrolled 10 unmedicated depressed adults and 10 matched healthy controls in a crossover, double blind placebo controlled fmri 40 i.u. intra-nasal oxytocin study (20 i.u. per nostril. Each subject performed Reading the Mind in the Eyes task (RMET before and after inhalation of oxytocin or placebo control for a total of 80 scans. Results: Before oxytocin administration, RMET engaged medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, insula and associative areas. Depressed subjects showed increased anterior ventral activation for the RMET minus gender identification contrast whereas matched controls showed increased dorsal and frontal activity. Compared to placebo, oxytocin in depressed subjects showed increased activity in the superior middle frontal gyrus and insula, while controls exhibited more activity in ventral regions. Oxytocin also led to inverse effects in reaction times on attribution task between groups, with controls getting faster and depressed individuals slower to respond. Conclusion: Depression is associated with increased paralimbic activity during emotional mental attribution of others, appearing to be distinctly modulated by oxytocin when compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to explore long-term exposure to pro-social neuropeptides on mood in depressed populations and assess their clinical relevance.

  16. The COFU3 Study. Improvement in cognitive function, attention, mental performance with Pycnogenol® in healthy subjects (55-70) with high oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Ippolito, E; Hu, S; Saggino, A; Feragalli, B

    2015-12-01

    This 12-month product registry study evaluated the effects of supplementation with French pine bark extract (Pycnogenol(®)) on cognitive function, attention, and mental performance in healthy subjects with high oxidative stress. Healthy subjects (age range 55-70) were screened - within a cardiovascular screening program - for oxidative stress. Out of 150 subjects, high oxidative stress was present in 44; the use of the supplement Pycnogenol(®) was suggested (100 mg/day). These subjects decided to use Pycnogenol(®) and accepted to be evaluated by assessing cognitive functions. A group of subjects with comparable oxidative stress was followed as a reference. IQ Code (Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly), daily tasks, cognitive function, oxidative stress and the short Blessed tests (SBT) were used (in defined scales) to evaluate cognitive functions (COFU). As for the IQ Code, at 12 months there was a significantlty total lower score in Pycnogenol(®) patients and also a lower value (PPycnogenol(®) (-28.07%; PPycnogenol(®) group (PPycnogenol(®) were optimal with >97% of the doses of the supplement correctly used. No side effects were observed, recorded or described. Pycnogenol(®) supplementation for 12 months appears to improve cognitive function and oxidative stress in normal subjects between 55 and 70 years of age.

  17. Digital Workload In A Large Radiology Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M.; Bauman, Roger A.; Lodwick, Gwilym S.

    1986-06-01

    As Radiology becomes more invested in direct digital imaging techniques, the potential for moving these images throughout the department, interpreting them directly in digital mode and archiving them in computer form is a topic of high current interest. A fundamental consideration is the amount of digital data to be handled. Even the low and medium resolution images now handled in digital mode require immense amounts of digital storage space. The first quantification of the amount of digital data was by Dwyer, et al, in a report concerning the workload in a 614-bed hospital. Their assumptions and calculations are reviewed and applied to the workload data from a 1082-bed hospital. Storage requirements for PET and MRI workload are calculated, and an estimate of digital radiography data is presented. The digitization of plain film radiographs will virtually increase the storage requirements by a factor of 10.

  18. Driving with a congestion assistant : mental workload and acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; Driel, C. J.G. van; Hof, T.; Arem, B. van; Hoedemaeker, M.

    2009-01-01

    New driver support systems are developed and introduced to the market at increasing speed. In conditions of traffic congestion drivers may be supported by a" Congestion Assistant", a system that combines the features of a Congestion Warning System (acoustic warning and gas pedal counterforce) and a

  19. An Annotated Bibliography on Operator Mental Workload Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-26

    Missouri: McDonnell Aircraft Company, MDC A0058,_1 1 September, 1969. The Pilot Simulacion Model (P.FSM) was developed by McDonnell Douglas to evaluate...differences in information procesoing in a complex decision task have been reported to depend on the training instructiuns. Group differences in the

  20. Psychosocial job quality, mental health, and subjective wellbeing: a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMontagne, Anthony D; Milner, Allison; Krnjacki, Lauren; Schlichthorst, Marisa; Kavanagh, Anne; Page, Kathryn; Pirkis, Jane

    2016-10-31

    Employment status and working conditions are strong determinants of male health, and are therefore an important focus in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men). In this paper, we describe key work variables included in Ten to Men, and present analyses relating psychosocial job quality to mental health and subjective wellbeing at baseline. A national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings was drawn using a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design. Data were collected between October 2013 and July 2014 for a cohort of 15,988 males, representing a response fraction of 35 %. This analysis was restricted to 18-55 year old working age participants (n = 13,456). Work-related measures included employment status, and, for those who were employed, a number of working conditions including an ordinal scale of psychosocial job quality (presence of low job control, high demand and complexity, high job insecurity, and low fairness of pay), and working time-related stressors such as long working hours and night shift work. Associations between psychosocial job quality and two outcome measures, mental ill-health and subjective wellbeing, were assessed using multiple linear regression. The majority of participants aged 18-55 years were employed at baseline (85.6 %), with 8.4 % unemployed and looking for work, and 6.1 % not in the labour force. Among employed participants, there was a high prevalence of long working hours (49.9 % reported working more than 40 h/week) and night shift work (23.4 %). Psychosocial job quality (exposure to 0/1/2/3+ job stressors) prevalence was 36 %/ 37 %/ 20 %/ and 7 % of the working respondents. There was a dose-response relationship between psychosocial job quality and each of the two outcome measures of mental health and subjective wellbeing after adjusting for potential confounders, with higher magnitude associations between psychosocial job quality and subjective wellbeing

  1. Association between a synaptosomal protein (SNAP-25) gene polymorphism and verbal memory and attention in patients with endogenous psychoses and mentally healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golimbet, V E; Alfimova, M V; Gritsenko, I K; Lezheiko, T V; Lavrushina, O M; Abramova, L I; Kaleda, V G; Barkhatova, A N; Sokolov, A V; Ebstein, R P

    2010-05-01

    Synaptosomal protein SNAP-25 is involved in the process of transmitting nerve spikes in the CNS and in the consolidation of memory traces in the hippocampus. Two independent studies have demonstrated associations between SNAP-25 gene polymorphisms and intellectual functions in a group of mentally healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. The aim of the present work was to perform a comparative study of the association between the MnlI polymorphism of SNAP-25 and cognitive functions (verbal memory, attention/executive functions) in 66 patients with endogenous psychoses, 75 of their mentally healthy relatives, and 136 healthy control subjects. Statistical analysis showed that the effectiveness of performing cognitive tests was significantly affected by group assignment (p = 0.00001) and genotype (p = 0.012). The interaction between genotype and group assignment also had an influence (p = 0.02). In all groups, carriers of the TT genotype had worse measures than carriers of other genotypes. The similar nature of the influences of the MnlI polymorphism on variations in measures in all groups indicates that this gene is related to overall intellect.

  2. The effects of cyclists present at rural intersections on speed behaviour and workload of car drivers : a driving simulator study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, C.W.A.E. Hogema, J.H. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to gain insight in how the number of cyclists, the cyclist's approach direction and the cyclist's action affect speed and mental workload of drivers approaching rural intersections. Also, the effects of a speed-reducing measure on the interaction between cyclists and motorised

  3. Workload Management Strategies for Online Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Tena B.; Wilkinson, Kelly; Hemby, K. Virginia; McCannon, Melinda; Wiedmaier, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    With increased use of online education, both students and instructors are adapting to the online environment. Online educators must adjust to the change in responsibilities required to teach online, as it is quite intensive during the designing, teaching, and revising stages. The purpose of this study is to examine and update workload management…

  4. Parameters and sensitivity in workload control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Land, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Both practitioners and scientists have recognized the importance of workload control (WLC) for job shop practices. WLC principles have been integrated into a comprehensive concept, which receives a lot of attention in scientific literature in recent years. Though meant as a robust concept for

  5. Dynamic workload peak detection for slack management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milutinovic, A.; Goossens, Kees; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kuper, Jan; Kuper, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an analytical study on dynamism and possibilities on slack exploitation by dynamic power management is presented. We introduce a specific workload decomposition method for work required for (streaming) application processing data tokens (e.g. video frames) with work behaviour patterns

  6. Subjectivity in Education and Health: Research Notes on School Learning Area and Physical Education in Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Marilia; da Costa, Jonatas Maia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two studies researching the theory of subjectivity from a cultural-historical perspective. The studies are situated in the fields of education and health and are conducted using Qualitative Epistemology. The first study discusses the pathological movement problems of learning disabilities in Brazilian schools and…

  7. Mental models

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Moreira

    1996-01-01

    The mental models subject is presented particularly in the light of Johnson-Laird’s theory. Views from different authors are also presented but the emphasis lies in Johson-Laird’s approach, proposing mental models as a third path in the images x propositions debate. In this perspective, the nature, content, and typology of mental models are discussed, as well as the issue of conciousness and computability. In addition, the methodology of research studies are provided. Essentially, the aim of ...

  8. Physical Workload and Work Capacity across Occupational Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Brighenti-Zogg

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine physical performance criteria of different occupational groups by investigating physical activity and energy expenditure in healthy Swiss employees in real-life workplaces on workdays and non-working days in relation to their aerobic capacity (VO2max. In this cross-sectional study, 337 healthy and full-time employed adults were recruited. Participants were classified (nine categories according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 and merged into three groups with low-, moderate- and high-intensity occupational activity. Daily steps, energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents and activity at different intensities were measured using the SenseWear Mini armband on seven consecutive days (23 hours/day. VO2max was determined by the 20-meter shuttle run test. Data of 303 subjects were considered for analysis (63% male, mean age: 33 yrs, SD 12, 101 from the low-, 102 from the moderate- and 100 from the high-intensity group. At work, the high-intensity group showed higher energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents, steps and activity at all intensities than the other groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in physical activity between the occupational groups on non-working days. VO2max did not differ across groups when stratified for gender. The upper workload limit was 21%, 29% and 44% of VO2max in the low-, moderate- and high-intensity group, respectively. Men had a lower limit than women due to their higher VO2max (26% vs. 37%, when all groups were combined. While this study did confirm that the average workload limit is one third of VO2max, it showed that the average is misrepresenting the actual physical work demands of specific occupational groups, and that it does not account for gender-related differences in relative workload. Therefore, clinical practice needs to consider these differences with regard to a safe return to work, particularly for the high-intensity group.

  9. How do training and competition workloads relate to injury? The workload-injury aetiology model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Johann; Gabbett, Tim J

    2017-03-01

    Injury aetiology models that have evolved over the previous two decades highlight a number of factors which contribute to the causal mechanisms for athletic injuries. These models highlight the pathway to injury, including (1) internal risk factors (eg, age, neuromuscular control) which predispose athletes to injury, (2) exposure to external risk factors (eg, playing surface, equipment), and finally (3) an inciting event, wherein biomechanical breakdown and injury occurs. The most recent aetiological model proposed in 2007 was the first to detail the dynamic nature of injury risk, whereby participation may or may not result in injury, and participation itself alters injury risk through adaptation. However, although training and competition workloads are strongly associated with injury, existing aetiology models neither include them nor provide an explanation for how workloads alter injury risk. Therefore, we propose an updated injury aetiology model which includes the effects of workloads. Within this model, internal risk factors are differentiated into modifiable and non-modifiable factors, and workloads contribute to injury in three ways: (1) exposure to external risk factors and potential inciting events, (2) fatigue, or negative physiological effects, and (3) fitness, or positive physiological adaptations. Exposure is determined solely by total load, while positive and negative adaptations are controlled both by total workloads, as well as changes in load (eg, the acute:chronic workload ratio). Finally, we describe how this model explains the load-injury relationships for total workloads, acute:chronic workload ratios and the training load-injury paradox. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. The effects of display and autopilot functions on pilot workload for Single Pilot Instrument Flight Rule (SPIFR) operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, Roger H.; Smith, James C.; Hinton, David A.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical and experimental research program was conducted to develop criteria for pilot interaction with advanced controls and displays in single pilot instrument flight rules (SPIFR) operations. The analytic phase reviewed fundamental considerations for pilot workload taking into account existing data, and using that data to develop a divided attention SPIFR pilot workload model. The pilot model was utilized to interpret the two experimental phases. The first experimental phase was a flight test program that evaluated pilot workload in the presence of current and near-term displays and autopilot functions. The second experiment was conducted on a King Air simulator, investigating the effects of co-pilot functions in the presence of very high SPIFR workload. The results indicate that the simplest displays tested were marginal for SPIFR operations. A moving map display aided the most in mental orientation, but had inherent deficiencies as a stand alone replacement for an HSI. Autopilot functions were highly effective for reducing pilot workload. The simulator tests showed that extremely high workload situations can be adequately handled when co-pilot functions are provided.

  11. Brain-wave measures of workload in advanced cockpits: The transition of technology from laboratory to cockpit simulator, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Richard L.; Mahaffey, David L.; Munson, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    The present Phase 2 small business innovation research study was designed to address issues related to scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP) indices of mental workload and to transition this technology from the laboratory to cockpit simulator environments for use as a systems engineering tool. The project involved five main tasks: (1) Two laboratory studies confirmed the generality of the ERP indices of workload obtained in the Phase 1 study and revealed two additional ERP components related to workload. (2) A task analysis' of flight scenarios and pilot tasks in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS) defined cockpit events (i.e., displays, messages, alarms) that would be expected to elicit ERPs related to workload. (3) Software was developed to support ERP data analysis. An existing ARD-proprietary package of ERP data analysis routines was upgraded, new graphics routines were developed to enhance interactive data analysis, and routines were developed to compare alternative single-trial analysis techniques using simulated ERP data. (4) Working in conjunction with NASA Langley research scientists and simulator engineers, preparations were made for an ACFS validation study of ERP measures of workload. (5) A design specification was developed for a general purpose, computerized, workload assessment system that can function in simulators such as the ACFS.

  12. An investigation of correlation between pilot scanning behavior and workload using stepwise regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    An electro-optical device called an oculometer which tracks a subject's lookpoint as a time function has been used to collect data in a real-time simulation study of instrument landing system (ILS) approaches. The data describing the scanning behavior of a pilot during the instrument approaches have been analyzed by use of a stepwise regression analysis technique. A statistically significant correlation between pilot workload, as indicated by pilot ratings, and scanning behavior has been established. In addition, it was demonstrated that parameters derived from the scanning behavior data can be combined in a mathematical equation to provide a good representation of pilot workload.

  13. Workload based order acceptance in job shop environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Mark; Hans, Elias W.; Olde Weghuis, F.M.; Olde Weghuis, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    In practice, order acceptance and production planning are often functionally separated. As a result, order acceptance decisions are made without considering the actual workload in the production system, or by only regarding the aggregate workload. We investigate the importance of a good workload

  14. Workload characterization, modeling, and prediction in grid Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Workloads play an important role in experimental performance studies of computer systems. This thesis presents a comprehensive characterization of real workloads on production clusters and Grids. A variety of correlation structures and rich scaling behavior are identified in workload attributes such

  15. Workload Measurement in Human Autonomy Teaming: How and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This is an invited talk on autonomy and workload for an AFRL Blue Sky workshop sponsored by the Florida Institute for Human Machine Studies. The presentation reviews various metrics of workload and how to move forward with measuring workload in a human-autonomy teaming environment.

  16. Comparing capacity coefficient and dual task assessment of visual multitasking workload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaha, Leslie M.

    2017-07-14

    Capacity coefficient analysis could offer a theoretically grounded alternative approach to subjective measures and dual task assessment of cognitive workload. Workload capacity or workload efficiency is a human information processing modeling construct defined as the amount of information that can be processed by the visual cognitive system given a specified of amount of time. In this paper, I explore the relationship between capacity coefficient analysis of workload efficiency and dual task response time measures. To capture multitasking performance, I examine how the relatively simple assumptions underlying the capacity construct generalize beyond the single visual decision making tasks. The fundamental tools for measuring workload efficiency are the integrated hazard and reverse hazard functions of response times, which are defined by log transforms of the response time distribution. These functions are used in the capacity coefficient analysis to provide a functional assessment of the amount of work completed by the cognitive system over the entire range of response times. For the study of visual multitasking, capacity coefficient analysis enables a comparison of visual information throughput as the number of tasks increases from one to two to any number of simultaneous tasks. I illustrate the use of capacity coefficients for visual multitasking on sample data from dynamic multitasking in the modified Multi-attribute Task Battery.

  17. Using theta and alpha band power to assess cognitive workload in multitasking environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, Sébastien; Matton, Nadine; Paubel, Pierre-V; Raufaste, Éric; El-Yagoubi, Radouane

    2017-10-07

    Cognitive workload is of central importance in the fields of human factors and ergonomics. A reliable measurement of cognitive workload could allow for improvements in human machine interface designs and increase safety in several domains. At present, numerous studies have used electroencephalography (EEG) to assess cognitive workload, reporting the rise in cognitive workload to be associated with increases in theta band power and decreases in alpha band power. However, results have been inconsistent with some failing to reach the required level of significance. We hypothesized that the lack of consistency could be related to individual differences in task performance and/or to the small sample sizes in most EEG studies. In the present study we used EEG to assess the increase in cognitive workload occurring in a multitasking environment while taking into account differences in performance. Twenty participants completed a task commonly used in airline pilot recruitment, which included an increasing number of concurrent sub-tasks to be processed from one to four. Subjective ratings, performances scores, pupil size and EEG signals were recorded. Results showed that increases in EEG alpha and theta band power reflected increases in the involvement of cognitive resources for the completion of one to three subtasks in a multitasking environment. These values reached a ceiling when performances dropped. Consistent differences in levels of alpha and theta band power were associated to levels of task performance: highest performance was related to lowest band power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantifying the impact of cross coverage on physician's workload and performance in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaly, Prithima R; Mazur, Lukasz M; Jones, Ellen L; Hoyle, Lesley; Zagar, Timothy; Chera, Bhishamjit S; Marks, Lawrence B

    2013-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the difference in workload and performance of radiation oncology physicians during radiation therapy treatment planning tasks under the conditions of "cross coverage" versus planning a patient with whom they were familiar. Eight physicians (3 experienced faculty physicians and 5 physician residents) performed 2 cases. The first case represented a "cross-coverage" scenario where the physicians had no prior information about the case to be planned. The second exposure represented a "regular-coverage" scenario where the physicians were familiar with the patient case to be planned. Each case involved 3 tasks to be completed systematically. Workload was assessed both subjectively (perceived) using National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), and objectively (physiological) throughout the task using eye data (via monitoring pupil size and blink rate). Performance of each task and the case was measured using completion time. Subjective willingness to approve or disapprove the generated plan was obtained after completion of the case only. Forty-eight perceived and 48 physiological workload assessments were obtained. Overall, results revealed a significant increase in perceived workload (high NASA-TLX score) and decrease in performance (longer completion time and reduced approval rate) during cross coverage. There were nonsignificant increases in pupil diameter and decreases in the blink rate during cross-coverage versus regular-coverage scenario. In both cross-coverage and regular-coverage scenarios the level of experience did not affect workload and performance. The cross-coverage scenario significantly increases perceived workload and degrades performance versus regular coverage. Hence, to improve patient safety, efforts must be made to develop policies, standard operating procedures, and usability improvements to electronic medical record and treatment planning systems for "easier" information processing to deal with

  19. Cusp catastrophe models for cognitive workload and fatigue: a comparison of seven task types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J; Boeh, Henry; Gorin, Hillary; Huschen, Samuel; Peters, Natalie E; Fabisch, Megan; Poston, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    The study introduces a nonlinear paradigm that addresses several unresolved problems concerning cognitive workload and fatigue: (a) how to separate the effects of workload versus fatigue, (b) whether the upper boundaries of cognitive channel capacity are fixed or variable, and how multitasking produces a bottleneck phenomenon, (c) that prolonged time on task can produce performance decrements but also produce improvements in task performance associated with practice and automaticity, and that (d) task switching can alleviate fatigue but could be mentally costly. This study describes two cusp catastrophe models that have become useful for separating the workload and fatigue performance phenomena and explores the role of task switching and multitasking in both performance phenomena. In the experiment, 105 undergraduates completed seven computer-based tasks seven times under one of four experimental conditions: tasks fully alternated, tasks aggregated with the multitask module performed first, aggregated with the multitask module performed last, and where the participants chose the task order themselves. Results supported both the cusp models such that fatigue effects were stronger for tasks with higher memory or attentional demand, and were often counteracted by practice effects; spelling ability acted as a compensation variable in most cases, and the intervening amount of work done acted as the bifurcation variable. For cognitive workload, catastrophic shifts in performance were noted between the single tasks and the multitask, with relative difficulty of the single task acting as the load (asymmetry) variable and the flexible task ordering condition as the bifurcation variable.

  20. Reasons for adopting technological innovations reducing physical workload in bricklaying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, A M; Vink, P; de Kroon, J C A

    2003-09-15

    In this paper the adoption of technological innovations to improve the work of bricklayers and bricklayers' assistants is evaluated. Two studies were performed among 323 subjects to determine the adoption of the working methods, the perceived workload, experiences with the working methods, and the reasons for adopting the working methods. Furthermore, a comparison of the results of the studies was made with those of two similar studies in the literature. The results show that more than half of the sector adopted the innovations. The perceived workload was reduced. The employees and employers are satisfied with the working methods and important reasons for adoption were cost/benefit advantages, improvement of work and health, and increase in productivity. Problems preventing the adoption were the use of the working methods at specific sites, for instance in renovation work. The adoption of the new working methods could perhaps have been higher or faster if more attention had been paid to the active participation of bricklayers and bricklayers' assistants during the development of the new working methods and to the use of modern media techniques, such as the Internet and CD/DVD.

  1. Mental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Moreira

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The mental models subject is presented particularly in the light of Johnson-Laird’s theory. Views from different authors are also presented but the emphasis lies in Johson-Laird’s approach, proposing mental models as a third path in the images x propositions debate. In this perspective, the nature, content, and typology of mental models are discussed, as well as the issue of conciousness and computability. In addition, the methodology of research studies are provided. Essentially, the aim of the paper is to provide an introduction to the mental models topic, having science education research in mind.

  2. The relationship of music preferences and the selected risk-taking and autodestructive behaviour among teenage girls subject to inpatient stay due to mental condition – pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Krajewska; Antoni Florkowski; Agnieszka Gmitrowicz

    2017-01-01

    During adolescence, related to the crisis of identity, attempts to separate from the family and rebellion against the reality result in the youth to be particularly susceptible to the impact of peers. Identification with the group is most often based on common interests, one of which being music. The aim of the pilot study was to assess the relationship of autodestructive and  antisocial behaviour and  music preferences of  girls subject to  inpatient stay due to  mental problems. Ma...

  3. Independent effect of physical workload and childhood socioeconomic status on low back pain among health care workers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Clausen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the independent effect of physical workload and childhood socioeconomic status (CSES) on low back pain (LBP) and LBP-related sickness absence among female health care workers. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The role of physical workload...... on LBP independently from CSES is still subject to controversy. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 1661 female social and health care workers responding to a questionnaire in 2004, 2005, and 2006. We collected information on CSES (parental occupation), physical workload, and LBP-prevalence (no LBP......, subchronic LBP, and frequent LBP), and LBP-related sickness absence. The participants were categorized into 5 groups according to CSES (I = highest, V = lowest). Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Irrespective of CSES, high physical workload increased the odds ratio (OR...

  4. Workload, flow, and telepresence during teleoperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Blair, L.M. [Human Machine Interfaces, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    There is much speculation about the relations among workload, flow, telepresence, and performance during teleoperation, but few data that provide evidence concerning them. This paper presents results an investigation conducted during completion of a pipe cutting task using a teleoperator at ORNL. Results show support for the hypothesis that telepresence is related to expenditure of attentional resources, and some support for the hypothesis that telepresence is related to flow. The discussion examines the results from an attentional resources perspective on teleoperation.

  5. Prior Mental Fatigue Impairs Marksmanship Decision Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James; Tenan, Matthew S.; Tweedell, Andrew J.; LaFiandra, Michael E.; Morelli, Frank; Wilson, Kyle M.; Ortega, Samson V.; Helton, William S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Mental fatigue has been shown to impair subsequent physical performance in continuous and discontinuous exercise. However, its influence on subsequent fine-motor performance in an applied setting (e.g., marksmanship for trained soldiers) is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether prior mental fatigue influences subsequent marksmanship performance as measured by shooting accuracy and judgment of soldiers in a live-fire scenario. Methods: Twenty trained infantry soldiers engaged targets after completing either a mental fatigue or control intervention in a repeated measure design. Heart rate variability and the NASA-TLX were used to gauge physiological and subjective effects of the interventions. Target hit proportion, projectile group accuracy, and precision were used to measure marksmanship accuracy. Marksmanship accuracy was assessed by measuring bullet group accuracy (i.e., how close a group of shots are relative to center of mass) and bullet group precision (i.e., how close are each individual shot to each other). Additionally, marksmanship decision accuracy (correctly shooting vs. correctly withholding shot) when engaging targets was used to examine marksmanship performance. Results: Soldiers rated the mentally fatiguing task (59.88 ± 23.7) as having greater mental workload relative to the control intervention [31.29 ± 12.3, t(19) = 1.72, p < 0.001]. Additionally, soldiers completing the mental fatigue intervention (96.04 ± = 37.1) also had lower time-domain (standard deviation of normal to normal R-R intervals) heart rate variability relative to the control [134.39 ± 47.4, t(18) = 3.59, p < 0.001]. Projectile group accuracy and group precision failed to show differences between interventions [t(19) = 0.98, p = 0.34, t(19) = 0.18, p = 0.87, respectively]. Marksmanship decision errors significantly increased after soldiers completed the mental fatigue intervention (48% ± 22.4) relative to the control intervention [M

  6. The effect of personal and group discrimination on the subjective well-being of people with mental illness: the role of internalized stigma and collective action intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study is to test a model in which personal discrimination predicts internalized stigma, while group discrimination predicts a greater willingness to engage in collective action. Internalized stigma and collective action, in turn, are associated to positive and negative affect. A cross-sectional study with 213 people with mental illness was conducted. The model was tested using path analysis. Although the data supported the model, its fit was not sufficiently good. A respecified model, in which a direct path from collective action to internalized stigma was added, showed a good fit. Personal and group discrimination appear to impact subjective well-being through two different paths: the internalization of stigma and collective action intentions, respectively. These two paths, however, are not completely independent, as collective action predicts a lower internalization of stigma. Thus, collective action appears as an important tool to reduce internalized stigma and improve subjective well-being. Future interventions to reduce the impact of stigma should fight the internalization of stigma and promote collective action are suggested.

  7. The relationship of music preferences and the selected risk-taking and autodestructive behaviour among teenage girls subject to inpatient stay due to mental condition – pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Krajewska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence, related to the crisis of identity, attempts to separate from the family and rebellion against the reality result in the youth to be particularly susceptible to the impact of peers. Identification with the group is most often based on common interests, one of which being music. The aim of the pilot study was to assess the relationship of autodestructive and  antisocial behaviour and  music preferences of  girls subject to  inpatient stay due to  mental problems. Material and methods: Own questionnaire was used concerning music preferences, consisting of the following genres: metal, rock, pop, jazz, hip-hop, reggae, film music, sung poetry, electronic music. The studied group comprised of 26 girls diagnosed with mood disorders, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, eating disorders and behavioural and emotional disorders according to ICD-10. Exclusion criteria were the remaining diagnostic categories, especially active psychotic process and mental retardation as well as lack of understanding of the questionnaire questions or not being familiar with basic types of music. Among the patients aged 13–18 subject to inpatient stay at the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry in Łódź in the period 2013–2014 and consented to the study, the incidence of attempted suicide, inflicting self-harm, alcohol abuse, taking psychoactive substances and the presence of antisocial disorders were assessed. Questionnaire verification was carried out in a group of 30 people tested with a test–retest method with a two-week break; reliability was obtained: 0.89–1. Analysis was carried out with the use of Statistica 9.1 programme. Results: Among the teenage girls subject to inpatient stay, music preferences were not related in a statistically significant manner (p > 0.05 with a greater incidence of attempted suicide, inflicting self-harm, alcohol abuse and contact with psychoactive

  8. Relative workload determines exercise-induced increases in PGC-1alpha mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lundby, Carsten; Leick, Lotte

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:: The hypothesis that brief intermittent exercise induced increases in human skeletal muscle metabolic mRNA is dependent on relative workload was investigated. METHODS:: Trained (n=10) and untrained (n=8) subjects performed exhaustive intermittent cycling exercise (4x4 min @ 85% of VO2...... peak, interspersed by 3 min). Trained subjects also performed the intermittent exercise at the same absolute workload as untrained, corresponding to 70% of VO2 peak (n=6). RESULTS:: Exercise at 85% of VO2 peak elevated (Ptrained...... after exercise at 85% of VO2 peak. Likewise, PDK4 and HKII mRNA expression were only increased (Ptrained subjects. HIF2alpha mRNA only increased (Ptrained, with no difference between the 70% and 85% of VO2 peak...

  9. Evaluation of the workload and drowsiness during car driving by using high resolution EEG activity and neurophysiologic indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, A; Borghini, G; Aricò, P; Borgia, F; Graziani, I; Colosimo, A; Kong, W; Vecchiato, G; Babiloni, F

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation and/or a high workload situation can adversely affect driving performance, decreasing a driver's capacity to respond effectively in dangerous situations. In this context, to provide useful feedback and alert signals in real time to the drivers physiological and brain activities have been increasingly investigated in literature. In this study, we analyze the increase of cerebral workload and the insurgence of drowsiness during car driving in a simulated environment by using high resolution electroencephalographic techniques (EEG) as well as neurophysiologic variables such as heart rate (HR) and eye blinks rate (EBR). The simulated drive tasks were modulated with five levels of increasing difficulty. A workload index was then generated by using the EEG signals and the related HR and EBR signals. Results suggest that the derived workload index is sensitive to the mental efforts of the driver during the different drive tasks performed. Such workload index was based on the estimation the variation of EEG power spectra in the theta band over prefrontal cortical areas and the variation of the EEG power spectra over the parietal cortical areas in alpha band. In addition, results suggested as HR increases during the execution of the difficult driving tasks while instead it decreases at the insurgence of the drowsiness. Finally, the results obtained showed as the EBR variable increases of its values when the insurgence of drowsiness in the driver occurs. The proposed workload index could be then used in a near future to assess on-line the mental state of the driver during a drive task.

  10. Assessing effect of meditation on cognitive workload using EEG signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Narendra; Manthalkar, Ramchandra; Joshi, Yashwant

    2017-06-01

    Recent research suggests that meditation affects the structure and function of the brain. Cognitive load can be handled in effective way by the meditators. EEG signals are used to quantify cognitive load. The research of investigating effect of meditation on cognitive workload using EEG signals in pre and post-meditation is an open problem. The subjects for this study are young healthy 11 engineering students from our institute. The focused attention meditation practice is used for this study. EEG signals are recorded at the beginning of meditation and after four weeks of regular meditation using EMOTIV device. The subjects practiced meditation daily 20 minutes for 4 weeks. The 7 level arithmetic additions of single digit (low level) to three digits with carry (high level) are presented as cognitive load. The cognitive load indices such as arousal index, performance enhancement, neural activity, load index, engagement, and alertness are evaluated in pre and post meditation. The cognitive indices are improved in post meditation data. Power Spectral Density (PSD) feature is compared between pre and post-meditation across all subjects. The result hints that the subjects were handling cognitive load without stress (ease of cognitive functioning increased for the same load) after 4 weeks of meditation.

  11. Workload-Aware Indexing of Continuously Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzoumas, Kostas; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    indexing and achieves workload-awareness by controlling the underlying index’s filtering quality. QU-Trade safely drops index updates, increasing the overlap in the index when the workload is update-intensive, and it restores the filtering capabilities of the index when the workload becomes query-intensive......The increased deployment of sensors and data communication networks yields data management workloads with update loads that are intense, skewed, and highly bursty. Query loads resulting from location-based services are expected to exhibit similar characteristics. In such environments, index...... structures can easily become performance bottlenecks. We address the need for indexing that is adaptive to the workload characteristics, called workload-aware, in order to cover the space in between maintaining an accurate index, and having no index at all. Our proposal, QU-Trade, extends R-tree type...

  12. Health impairment of system engineers working on projects with heavy workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizui, Hayato; Ooshima, Kirika; Miki, Akiko; Matsushita, Yoshie; Hattori, Youji; Sugita, Minoru

    2011-03-01

    It has been reported that many system engineers must work hard to produce computer systems, and some of them suffer from health impairment due to their hard work. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the situation of impaired health status of system engineers in projects with high job strain. Countermeasures against health impairment of the subjects in the projects with high job strain in practices of occupational health fields are discussed. The study subjects were five superiors and their 35 subordinates working on computer system projects with high job strain at a large computer systems corporation in the Tokyo area. The control group was comprised of three superiors and their 18 subordinates in the same corporation. From July to November, 2006, the above were interviewed by six occupational health nurses, who evaluated their health and recorded their health evaluation scores. The problems involved in producing the computer systems were sometimes very difficult to solve, even if they spent long hours working on them. The present study detected a tendency showing that healthy superiors' subordinates were unhealthy and unhealthy superiors' subordinates were healthy in the overload projects with high job strain, while this was not detected in the control groups. A few employees whose health deteriorated were faced with very hard jobs in the overload projects. This means that heavy workloads were unevenly distributed in the overload projects among superiors, and their subordinates, and the health of a few members with heavy workloads deteriorated due to the heavy workload. In order to improve such a situation, it may be important not only to commit the necessary number of employees whose working ability is high to the section but also to even the workload in the overload project by informing all members of the project the health impairment of a few members due to heavy workload, from the viewpoint of the practice of occupational health

  13. Respuesta hemodinámica al estrés mental y físico en sujetos normotensos hiperreactivos: Efectos del Betabloqueo Cardiovascular response to mental and physical stress in hyper-reactive normotensive subjects: Beta blockade effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Przybylski

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue estudiar la reactividad cardiovascular en personas sanas normotensas sin medicación, mediante la técnica, de Stroop de conflicto entre el color y la palabra (SCWCT, la respuesta anticipatoria de la presión arterial con el ejercicio (RA y la prueba ergométrica graduada (PEG. Se analizó el efecto de un betabloqueante beta1 selectivo: bisoprolol (B sobre la reactividad cardiovascular al estrés mental (EM y físico en personas hiperreactivas. Se estudiaron 42 personas, de los cuales fueron incluidas sólo 30 (21 mujeres y 9 varones que resultaron hiperreactivas, con una edad media de 42.5 años. Los mayores valores de la presión arterial sistólica (PAS y diastólica (PAD durante el EM fueron tomados como medida de reactividad, considerándose como respuesta hiperreactiva un aumento de 30 mm de Hg o mayor y/o 15 mm de Hg o mayor respectivamente. El efecto de una dosis diaria oral de 5 mg de B vs placebo (P fue estudiado en forma prospectiva, randomizada y doble ciego. Se analizaron los datos acerca de la reactividad en el SCWCT mediante el test exacto de Fisher. En los resultados, se observó una menor sensibilidad de RA y PEG vs SCWCT. Las 15 personas que recibieron P continuaron hiperreactivas en tanto que 6 de las 15 personas tratadas con B dejaron de ser reactivas (pThe aim of our study was to evaluate the cardiovascular reactivity in healthy normotensive subjects without medication, using mental and physical stress techniques: Stroop color word conflict test (SCWCT, anticipatory blood pressure response to exercise (ARE and stress testing (ST. We analized the effects of a selective beta 1 betablocker: bisoprolol (B on cardiovascular reactivity in our subjects (s. We studied 42 s, but only 30 (21 females and 9 males were included who were hyperreactives. The mean age was 42,5 years. The higher values of systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP during the mental stress (MS were taken as a measure of

  14. Cognitive workload assessment based on the tensorial treatment of EEG estimates of cross-frequency phase interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Stavros I; Sun, Yu; Kwok, Kenneth; Laskaris, Nikolaos A; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2015-04-01

    The decoding of conscious experience, based on non-invasive measurements, has become feasible by tailoring machine learning techniques to analyse neuroimaging data. Recently, functional connectivity graphs (FCGs) have entered into the picture. In the related decoding scheme, FCGs are treated as unstructured data and, hence, their inherent format is overlooked. To alleviate this, tensor subspace analysis (TSA) is incorporated for the parsimonious representation of connectivity data. In addition to the particular methodological innovation, this work also makes a contribution at a conceptual level by encoding in FCGs cross-frequency coupling apart from the conventional frequency-specific interactions. Working memory related tasks, supported by networks oscillating at different frequencies, are good candidates for assessing the novel approach. We employed surface EEG recordings when the subjects were repeatedly performing a mental arithmetic task of five cognitive workload levels. For each trial, an FCG was constructed based on phase interactions within and between Frontal (θ) and Parieto-Occipital (α2) neural activities, which are considered to reflect the function of two distinct working memory subsystems. Based on the TSA representation, a remarkably high correct-recognition-rate (96%) of the task difficulties was achieved using a standard classifier. The overall scheme is computational efficient and therefore potentially useful for real-time and personalized applications.

  15. Patient Safety Incidents and Nursing Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, Katya Cuadros; Padilha, Kátia Grillo; Toffoletto, Maria Cecília; Henriquez-Roldán, Carlos; Juan, Monica Andrea Canales

    2017-04-06

    to identify the relationship between the workload of the nursing team and the occurrence of patient safety incidents linked to nursing care in a public hospital in Chile. quantitative, analytical, cross-sectional research through review of medical records. The estimation of workload in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) was performed using the Therapeutic Interventions Scoring System (TISS-28) and for the other services, we used the nurse/patient and nursing assistant/patient ratios. Descriptive univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. For the multivariate analysis we used principal component analysis and Pearson correlation. 879 post-discharge clinical records and the workload of 85 nurses and 157 nursing assistants were analyzed. The overall incident rate was 71.1%. It was found a high positive correlation between variables workload (r = 0.9611 to r = 0.9919) and rate of falls (r = 0.8770). The medication error rates, mechanical containment incidents and self-removal of invasive devices were not correlated with the workload. the workload was high in all units except the intermediate care unit. Only the rate of falls was associated with the workload. identificar a relação entre a carga de trabalho da equipe de enfermagem e a ocorrência de incidentes de segurança dos pacientes ligados aos cuidados de enfermagem de um hospital público no Chile. pesquisa transversal analítica quantitativa através de revisão de prontuários médicos. A estimativa da carga de trabalho em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) foi realizada utilizando o Índice de Intervenções Terapêuticas-TISS-28 e para os outros serviços, foram utilizados os cocientes enfermeira/paciente e auxiliar de enfermagem/ paciente. Foram feitas análises univariada descritiva e multivariada. Para a análise multivariada utilizou-se análise de componentes principais e correlação de Pearson. foram analisados 879 prontuáriosclínicos de pós-alta e a carga de trabalho de 85 enfermeiros e 157

  16. Predicting screening sensitivity from workload in gynecologic cytology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Andrew A; Elsheikh, Tarik M

    2011-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that it is possible to correlate workload or epithelial cell abnormality (ECA) adjusted workload with screening sensitivity. The results show that for manual screening of conventional smears or SurePath slides, screening sensitivity begins to fall with workloads as low as 30 slides/day. For review of slides with the ThinPrep Imaging System, screening sensitivity appears to be better correlated with ECA adjusted workload (workload × ECA rate) than workload alone. Screening sensitivity with the ThinPrep imager appears to fall at ECA adjusted workloads of 7 slides/day at a threshold of ASCUS and above and LSIL, and slightly lower for HSIL. This corresponds to 70 slides/day at an ECA rate of 10%. The variance in these models is likely high reflecting a wide range of individual cytotechnologist performance. Strategies to most effectively incorporate this data in the management of workload in the laboratory are reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Effects of motorway lighting on workload and driving behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogema, J.H.; Veltman, J.A.; Hof, A. van 't

    2004-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management needs knowledge in the area of workload in car driving. This paper describes a study in which the effects of traffic volume, road lighting, and a cognitively loading secondary task on driving behaviour and workload were investigated.

  18. Effects of motorway lighting on workload and driving behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogema, J.H.; Veltman, J.A.; Hof, A. van 't

    2005-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management needs knowledge in the area of workload in car driving. This paper describes a study in which the effects of traffic volume, road lighting, and a cognitively loading secondary task on driving behaviour and workload were investigated.

  19. Measuring the nursing workload per shift in the ICU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debergh, Dieter P.; Myny, Dries; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; Van Maele, Georges; Miranda, Dinis Reis; Colardyn, Francis

    In the intensive care unit (ICU) different strategies and workload measurement tools exist to indicate the number of nurses needed. The gathered information is always focused on manpower needed per 24 h. However, a day consists of several shifts, which may be unequal in nursing workload. The aim of

  20. The influence of shop characteristics on workload control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, B.J.; Land, M.J.; Gaalman, G.J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Several order release methods have been developed for workload control in job shop production. The release methods of the traditional workload control concerts differ in how they deal with the flow of work to each station. Previous research has pointed at strengths and weaknesses of each method.

  1. Remuneration, workload, and allocation of time in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.J. van den; Westert, G.P.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Bakker, D.H. de; Zee, J. van der

    2006-01-01

    Background: General Practitioners (GPs) can cope with workload by, among others, spending more hours in patient care or by spending less time per patient. The way GPs are paid might affect the way they cope with workload. From an economical point of view, capitation payment is an incentive to

  2. Workload demand in police officers during mountain bike patrols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, T.; Ribbink, A.; Heneweer, H.; Moolenaar, H.; Wittink, H.

    2009-01-01

    To the authors' knowledge this is the first paper that has used the training impulse (TRIMP) 'methodology' to calculate workload demand. It is believed that this is a promising method to calculate workload in a range of professions in order to understand the relationship between work demands and

  3. The Preservation of Cued Recall in the Acute Mentally Fatigued State: A Randomised Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flindall, Ian Richard; Leff, Daniel Richard; Pucks, Neysan; Sugden, Colin; Darzi, Ara

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of acute mental fatigue on the recall of clinical information in the non-sleep-deprived state. Acute mental fatigue in the non-sleep-deprived subject is rarely studied in the medical workforce. Patient handover has been highlighted as an area of high risk especially in fatigued subjects. This study evaluates the deterioration in recall of clinical information over 2 h with cognitively demanding work in non-sleep-deprived subjects. A randomised crossover study involving twenty medical students assessed free (presentation) and cued (MCQ) recall of clinical case histories at 0 and 2 h under low and high cognitive load using the N-Back task. Acute mental fatigue was assessed through the Visual Analogue Scale, Stanford Scale and NASA-TLX Mental Workload Rating Scale. Free recall is significantly impaired by increased cognitive load (p recall under high and low cognitive load conditions (p = 1). This study demonstrates the loss of clinical information over a short time period involving a mentally fatiguing, high cognitive load task. Free recall for the handover of clinical information is unreliable. Memory cues maintain recall of clinical information. This study provides evidence towards the requirement for standardisation of a structured patient handover. The use of memory cues (involving recognition memory and cued recall methodology) would be beneficial in a handover checklist to aid recall of clinical information and supports evidence for their adoption into clinical practice.

  4. Labour intensity of guidelines may have a greater effect on adherence than GPs' workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westert Gert P

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians' heavy workload is often thought to jeopardise the quality of care and to be a barrier to improving quality. The relationship between these has, however, rarely been investigated. In this study quality of care is defined as care 'in accordance with professional guidelines'. In this study we investigated whether GPs with a higher workload adhere less to guidelines than those with a lower workload and whether guideline recommendations that require a greater time investment are less adhered to than those that can save time. Methods Data were used from the Second Dutch National survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2. This nationwide study was carried out between April 2000 and January 2002. A multilevel logistic-regression analysis was conducted of 170,677 decisions made by GPs, referring to 41 Guideline Adherence Indicators (GAIs, which were derived from 32 different guidelines. Data were used from 130 GPs, working in 83 practices with 98,577 patients. GP-characteristics as well as guideline characteristics were used as independent variables. Measures include workload (number of contacts, hours spent on continuing medical education, satisfaction with available time, practice characteristics and patient characteristics. Outcome measure is an indicator score, which is 1 when a decision is in accordance with professional guidelines or 0 when the decision deviates from guidelines. Results On average, 66% of the decisions GPs made were in accordance with guidelines. No relationship was found between the objective workload of GPs and their adherence to guidelines. Subjective workload (measured on a five point scale was negatively related to guideline adherence (OR = 0.95. After controlling for all other variables, the variation between GPs in adherence to guideline recommendations showed a range of less than 10%. 84% of the variation in guideline adherence was located at the GAI-level. Which means that the differences in

  5. Psychosocial factors and mental work load: a reality perceived by nurses in intensive care units1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos-Vásquez, Paula; Rolo-González, Gladys; Hérnandez-Fernaud, Estefanía; Díaz-Cabrera, Dolores; Paravic-Klijn, Tatiana; Burgos-Moreno, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the perception of psychosocial factors and mental workload of nurses who work in intensive care units. It is hypothesised that nurses in these units could perceive psychosocial risks, manifesting in a high mental work load. The psychosocial dimension related to the position's cognitive demands is hypothesised to mostly explain mental work load. METHOD: Quantitative study, with a descriptive, cross-sectional, and comparative design. A total of 91% of the intensive care unit populations of three Chilean hospitals was surveyed, corresponding to 111 nurses. The instruments utilised included (A) a biosociodemographic history questionnaire; (b) the SUSESO-ISTAS 21 questionnaire; and (c) the Mental Work Load Subjective Scale (ESCAM, in Spanish). RESULTS: In total, 64% and 57% of participants perceived high levels of exposure to the psychosocial risks Psychosocial demands and Double shift, respectively. In addition, a medium-high level of overall mental load was observed. Positive and significant correlations between some of the SUSESO-ISTAS 21 and ESCAM dimensions were obtained. Using a regression analysis, it was determined that three dimensions of the psychosocial risk questionnaire helped to explain 38% of the overall mental load. CONCLUSION: Intensive care unit nurses felt that inadequate psychosocial factors and mental work overload existed in several of the tested dimensions. PMID:26039303

  6. How we can measure the non-driving-task engagement in automated driving: Comparing flow experience and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sang Min; Ji, Yong Gu

    2018-02-01

    In automated driving, a driver can completely concentrate on non-driving-related tasks (NDRTs). This study investigated the flow experience of a driver who concentrated on NDRTs and tasks that induce mental workload under conditional automation. Participants performed NDRTs under different demand levels: a balanced demand-skill level (fit condition) to induce flow, low-demand level to induce boredom, and high-demand level to induce anxiety. In addition, they performed the additional N-Back task, which artificially induces mental workload. The results showed participants had the longest reaction time when they indicated the highest flow score, and had the longest gaze-on time, road-fixation time, hands-on time, and take-over time under the fit condition. Significant differences were not observed in the driver reaction times in the fit condition and the additional N-Back task, indicating that performing NDRTs that induce a high flow experience could influence driver reaction time similar to performing tasks with a high mental workload. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Assessment of Crew Workload for the RAH-66 Comanche Force Development Experiment 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durbin, David

    2001-01-01

    ...) workload levels contribute to a need to 'battle roster' Comanche pilots. Workload data were collected via the Bedford Workload Rating Scale and a cockpit controls and displays usability questionnaire...

  8. Evaluation of Physiologically-Based Artificial Neural Network Models to Detect Operator Workload in Remotely Piloted Aircraft Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-13

    Secondary Score 181.625 5.250 181.031 5.076 Total Score 631.458 20.787 491.113 26.085 Subjective Workload (TLX) 37.404 4.134 42.934 4.025 Heart Rate (Beats...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0075 Evaluation of Physiologically – Based Artificial Neural Network Models to Detect Operator Workload in Remotely...16 Interim Report 1 August 2015 – 8 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Physiologically – Based Artificial Neural Network Models to

  9. Emotional Exhaustion and Workload Predict Clinician-Rated and Objective Patient Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalena eWelp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate the role of clinician burnout, demographic and organizational characteristics in predicting subjective and objective indicators of patient safety. Background: Maintaining clinician health and ensuring safe patient care are important goals for hospitals. While these goals are not independent from each other, the interplay between clinician psychological health, demographic and organizational variables and objective patient safety indicators is poorly understood. The present study addresses this gap. Method: Participants were 1425 physicians and nurses working in intensive care. (Multilevel regression analysis was used to investigate the effect of burnout as an indicator of psychological health, demographic (e.g., professional role and experience and organizational (e.g., workload, predictability characteristics on standardized mortality ratios, length of stay and clinician-rated patient safety. Results: Clinician-rated patient safety were associated with burnout, trainee status, and professional role. Mortality was predicted by emotional exhaustion. Length of stay was predicted by workload. Contrary to our expectations, burnout did not predict length of stay, and workload and predictability did not predict standardized mortality ratios.Conclusion: At least in the short-term, clinicians seem to be able to maintain safety despite high workload and low predictability. Nevertheless, burnout poses a safety risk. Subjectively, burnt-out clinicians rated safety lower, and objectively, units with high emotional exhaustion had higher standardized mortality ratios. In summary, our results indicate that clinician psychological health and patient safety could be managed simultaneously. Further research needs to establish causal relationships between these variables or and support the development of managerial guidelines to ensure clinicians’ psychological health and patients’ safety.

  10. Emotional exhaustion and workload predict clinician-rated and objective patient safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welp, Annalena; Meier, Laurenz L.; Manser, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the role of clinician burnout, demographic, and organizational characteristics in predicting subjective and objective indicators of patient safety. Background: Maintaining clinician health and ensuring safe patient care are important goals for hospitals. While these goals are not independent from each other, the interplay between clinician psychological health, demographic and organizational variables, and objective patient safety indicators is poorly understood. The present study addresses this gap. Method: Participants were 1425 physicians and nurses working in intensive care. Regression analysis (multilevel) was used to investigate the effect of burnout as an indicator of psychological health, demographic (e.g., professional role and experience) and organizational (e.g., workload, predictability) characteristics on standardized mortality ratios, length of stay and clinician-rated patient safety. Results: Clinician-rated patient safety was associated with burnout, trainee status, and professional role. Mortality was predicted by emotional exhaustion. Length of stay was predicted by workload. Contrary to our expectations, burnout did not predict length of stay, and workload and predictability did not predict standardized mortality ratios. Conclusion: At least in the short-term, clinicians seem to be able to maintain safety despite high workload and low predictability. Nevertheless, burnout poses a safety risk. Subjectively, burnt-out clinicians rated safety lower, and objectively, units with high emotional exhaustion had higher standardized mortality ratios. In summary, our results indicate that clinician psychological health and patient safety could be managed simultaneously. Further research needs to establish causal relationships between these variables and support to the development of managerial guidelines to ensure clinicians’ psychological health and patients’ safety. PMID:25657627

  11. Influence of obesity and physical workload on disability benefits among construction workers followed up for 37 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robroek, Suzan J W; Järvholm, Bengt; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I; Wahlström, Jens; Burdorf, Alex

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the relation between obesity and labour force exit via diagnosis-specific disability benefits, and whether physical workload modifies this association. A longitudinal analysis was performed among 3 28 743 Swedish construction workers in the age of 15-65 years. Body weight and height were measured at a health examination and enriched with register information on disability benefits up to 37 years later. Diagnoses of disability benefits were categorised into cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs), mental disorders and others. A job exposure matrix, based on self-reported lifting of heavy loads and working in bent forward or twisted position, was applied as a measure of physical workload. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed, and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) between obesity and physical workload was calculated. Obese construction workers were at increased risk of receiving disability benefits (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.65 to 2.76), mainly through CVD (HR 2.30) and MSD (HR 1.71). Construction workers with a high physical workload were also more likely to receive a disability benefit (HR 2.28, 95% CI 2.21 to 2.34), particularly via MSD (HR 3.02). Obesity in combination with a higher physical workload increased the risk of disability benefits (RERI 0.28) more than the sum of the risks of obesity and higher physical workload, particularly for MSD (RERI 0.44). Obesity and a high physical workload are risk factors for disability benefit. Furthermore, these factors are synergistic risk factors for labour force exit via disability benefit through MSD. Comprehensive programmes that target health promotion to prevent obesity and ergonomic interventions to reduce physical workload are important to facilitate sustained employment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  12. Impact of social prescribing on general practice workload and polypharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, A M; McCauley, F; McCarron, M O

    2017-07-01

    Social prescribing has emerged as a useful tool for helping patients overcome some of the social and behavioural determinants of poor health. There has been little research on the impact of social prescribing on use of primary healthcare resources. This study sought to determine whether social prescribing activities influenced patient-general practitioner (GP) contacts and polypharmacy. Quality-improvement design with social prescribing activity interventions from an urban general practice in Northern Ireland. Patients over 65 years of age with a chronic condition who attended their GP frequently or had multiple medications were offered a social prescribing activity. Participants' contacts with GP and the new repeat prescriptions before and during the social prescribing activity were measured. The total number of repeat prescriptions per patient was compared at the time of referral and 6-12 months later. Indications for referral, primary diagnoses and reasons for declining participation in a social prescribing activity after referral were prospectively recorded. Sixty-eight patients agreed to participate but only 28 (41%) engaged in a prescribed social activity. There was no statistically significant difference in GP contacts (visits to GP, home visits or telephone calls) or number of new repeat prescriptions between referral and completion of 12 weeks of social prescribing activity. Similarly there was no statistically significant difference in the total number of repeat prescriptions between referral and 6-12 months after social prescribing activity in either intention to treat or per protocol analyses. Social prescribing participants had similar demographic factors. Mental health issues (anxiety and/or depression) were more common among participants than those who were referred but declined participation in a social prescribing activity (P = 0.022). While social prescribing may help patients' self-esteem and well-being, it may not decrease GP workload. Further

  13. Blinking and driving: the influence of saccades and cognitive workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Genís; Quevedo, Noa

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the joint influence of cognitive demands and large amplitude saccades on spontaneous blink rate. Twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study and instructed to follow a 60-minute real-life driving circuit while a video camera recorded ocular movements and blinking. Five different complexity levels were predefined in terms of driving difficulty and traffic intensity, that is, cognitive workload. Five one-minute segments were selected for each complexity level in each driving trial, whereupon spontaneous blink rate and horizontal saccades were monitored. Saccades were classified according to their amplitude and blink-saccade pairs were recorded. Albeit showing a high inter-subject variability, spontaneous blink rate and saccades were consistent within the same complexity level. At different complexity levels, no statistically significant difference in spontaneous blink rate was encountered, with an average of 20.3 ± 1.6 blinks/minute (mean ± SD). The number of large amplitude gaze shifts increased with the level of complexity (F = 15.403; p blink, and this percentage was similar for all complexity levels, that is, the number of blink-saccade pairs increased at higher complexity levels (F = 20.597; p blinking accompanying large amplitude saccades may help in counteracting the reduction in blink rate associated with high cognitive demands.

  14. Evaluation of the Position of Mental Foramen for Clinical and Forensic Significance in terms of Gender in Dentate Subjects by Digital Panoramic Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Shweta; Mhapuskar, Amit; Hiremutt, Darshan; Giroh, Versha R; Kalyanpur, Kedarnath; Alpana, K R

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of the position of mental foramen aids in forensic, surgical, endodontic, as well as diagnostic procedures. Thus, in view of this, the present study was conducted among the population of Pune, a central part of India, to determine the most regular location of the mental foramen and to estimate difference in position of mental foramen based on gender. The present retrospective study was commenced on 200 digital panoramic radiographs of dentate patients. The location of the representation of the mental foramen was traced. Measurements for evaluating distance of superior and inferior borders of the foramen in relation to the lower border of the mandible were made using the reference lines drawn from anatomical landmarks. The data so obtained were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. The most common position of mental foramen among Pune population in horizontal plane in both male and female patients was in line with second premolar followed by position in between first and second premolar, whereas in the vertical plane, most common position was at or in line with apex of second premolar followed by in between apex of first and second premolar. The variation in length of superior and inferior border of the foramen in relation to lower border of the mandible with respect to gender was found to be significant, with p-value forensic identification of gender.

  15. Synthesis of workload reduction strategies for construction inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    State departments of transportation (DOTs) have seen significant funding increases throughout the past decade. The : additional funding has also brought about an increase in the construction inspection and testing workload, but the : DOTs have not se...

  16. Eye Tracking Metrics for Workload Estimation in Flight Deck Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kyle; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Flight decks of the future are being enhanced through improved avionics that adapt to both aircraft and operator state. Eye tracking allows for non-invasive analysis of pilot eye movements, from which a set of metrics can be derived to effectively and reliably characterize workload. This research identifies eye tracking metrics that correlate to aircraft automation conditions, and identifies the correlation of pilot workload to the same automation conditions. Saccade length was used as an indirect index of pilot workload: Pilots in the fully automated condition were observed to have on average, larger saccadic movements in contrast to the guidance and manual flight conditions. The data set itself also provides a general model of human eye movement behavior and so ostensibly visual attention distribution in the cockpit for approach to land tasks with various levels of automation, by means of the same metrics used for workload algorithm development.

  17. Monitoring Workload in Throwing-Dominant Sports: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia M; Gabbett, Tim J; Cole, Michael H; Naughton, Geraldine

    2016-10-01

    The ability to monitor training load accurately in professional sports is proving vital for athlete preparedness and injury prevention. While numerous monitoring techniques have been developed to assess the running demands of many team sports, these methods are not well suited to throwing-dominant sports that are infrequently linked to high running volumes. Therefore, other techniques are required to monitor the differing demands of these sports to ensure athletes are adequately prepared for competition. To investigate the different methodologies used to quantitatively monitor training load in throwing-dominant sports. A systematic review of the methods used to monitor training load in throwing-dominant sports was conducted using variations of terms that described different load-monitoring techniques and different sports. Studies included in this review were published prior to June 2015 and were identified through a systematic search of four electronic databases including Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline and SPORTDiscus. Only full-length peer-reviewed articles investigating workload monitoring in throwing-dominant sports were selected for review. A total of 8098 studies were initially retrieved from the four databases and 7334 results were removed as they were either duplicates, review articles, non-peer-reviewed articles, conference abstracts or articles written in languages other than English. After screening the titles and abstracts of the remaining papers, 28 full-text papers were reviewed, resulting in the identification of 20 articles meeting the inclusion criteria for monitoring workloads in throwing-dominant sports. Reference lists of selected articles were then scanned to identify other potential articles, which yielded one additional article. Ten articles investigated workload monitoring in cricket, while baseball provided eight results, and handball, softball and water polo each contributed one article. Results demonstrated varying techniques

  18. [Technological innovation and healthcare professionals' workloads: an ambiguous relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires; Bertoncini, Judite Hennemann; Trindade, Letícia de Lima; Matos, Eliane; Azambuja, Eliana; Borges, Ana Maria Fernandes

    2012-03-01

    This is an integrative review with the aim of tracing the scientific production concerning the influence of technological innovation in health care professionals' workloads. Fifty-seven (57) publications presented from 2004 to 2009 were selected from the LILACS and PubMed databases. In the selected studies field research using qualitative approaches and carried out in hospitals predominated. No study had the purpose to analyze the relationship between technological innovation and workloads. In studies involving technological innovation, publications concerning information and communication technologies and new forms of work organizations were highlighted studies concerning conditions which promote stress and Burnout predominated in the workloads theme. Results show an ambiguous relationship between technological innovation and workloads, which are either increased or diminished by innovations.

  19. GPs' perceptions of workload in England: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxson, Caroline Hd; Ashdown, Helen F; Hobbs, Fd Richard

    2017-02-01

    GPs report the lowest levels of morale among doctors, job satisfaction is low, and the GP workforce is diminishing. Workload is frequently cited as negatively impacting on commitment to a career in general practice, and many GPs report that their workload is unmanageable. To gather an in-depth understanding of GPs' perceptions and attitudes towards workload. All GPs working within NHS England were eligible. Advertisements were circulated via regional GP e-mail lists and national social media networks in June 2015. Of those GPs who responded, a maximum-variation sample was selected until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analysed thematically. In total, 171 GPs responded, and 34 were included in this study. GPs described an increase in workload over recent years, with current working days being long and intense, raising concerns over the wellbeing of GPs and patients. Full-time partnership was generally not considered to be possible, and many participants felt workload was unsustainable, particularly given the diminishing workforce. Four major themes emerged to explain increased workload: increased patient needs and expectations; a changing relationship between primary and secondary care; bureaucracy and resources; and the balance of workload within a practice. Continuity of care was perceived as being eroded by changes in contracts and working patterns to deal with workload. This study highlights the urgent need to address perceived lack of investment and clinical capacity in general practice, and suggests that managing patient expectations around what primary care can deliver, and reducing bureaucracy, have become key issues, at least until capacity issues are resolved. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  20. Impact of automation: Measurement of performance, workload and behaviour in a complex control environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfe, Nora; Sharples, Sarah; Wilson, John R

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes an experiment that was undertaken to compare three levels of automation in rail signalling; a high level in which an automated agent set routes for trains using timetable information, a medium level in which trains were routed along pre-defined paths, and a low level where the operator (signaller) was responsible for the movement of all trains. These levels are described in terms of a Rail Automation Model based on previous automation theory (Parasuraman et al., 2000). Performance, subjective workload, and signaller activity were measured for each level of automation running under both normal operating conditions and abnormal, or disrupted, conditions. The results indicate that perceived workload, during both normal and disrupted phases of the experiment, decreased as the level of automation increased and performance was most consistent (i.e. showed the least variation between participants) with the highest level of automation. The results give a strong case in favour of automation, particularly in terms of demonstrating the potential for automation to reduce workload, but also suggest much benefit can achieved from a mid-level of automation potentially at a lower cost and complexity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting workload profiles of brain-robot interface and electromygraphic neurofeedback with cortical resting-state networks: personal trait or task-specific challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, Meike; Bauer, Robert; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Novel rehabilitation strategies apply robot-assisted exercises and neurofeedback tasks to facilitate intensive motor training. We aimed to disentangle task-specific and subject-related contributions to the perceived workload of these interventions and the related cortical activation patterns. Approach. We assessed the perceived workload with the NASA Task Load Index in twenty-one subjects who were exposed to two different feedback tasks in a cross-over design: (i) brain-robot interface (BRI) with haptic/proprioceptive feedback of sensorimotor oscillations related to motor imagery, and (ii) control of neuromuscular activity with feedback of the electromyography (EMG) of the same hand. We also used electroencephalography to examine the cortical activation patterns beforehand in resting state and during the training session of each task. Main results. The workload profile of BRI feedback differed from EMG feedback and was particularly characterized by the experience of frustration. The frustration level was highly correlated across tasks, suggesting subject-related relevance of this workload component. Those subjects who were specifically challenged by the respective tasks could be detected by an interhemispheric alpha-band network in resting state before the training and by their sensorimotor theta-band activation pattern during the exercise. Significance. Neurophysiological profiles in resting state and during the exercise may provide task-independent workload markers for monitoring and matching participants’ ability and task difficulty of neurofeedback interventions.

  2. Effect of different training workload on overhead throwing performance with different weighted balls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Marques, Mário C

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single and a double training workload with 3-kg medicine ball on the throwing speed in 2-handed overhead throwing movement. Second, what the effect of training with 3-kg medicine balls had on throwing speed with other ball weights. Forty high school students (age 15.9 ± 1.0 year, mass 60.9 ± 9 kg, height 1.68 ± 0.08 m), divided into 3 speed-matched groups, participated in the study. The first group was a control group and did not train any throwing program regimen, whereas the other 2 groups trained overhead throwing with a single (3 series of 6 throws with a 3-kg medicine ball) or double training workload (6 series of 6 throws with a 3-kg medicine ball) for 6 weeks. Throwing speed with 0.35-, 0.45-, 1-, and 3-kg medicine balls was tested before and after a training period of 6 weeks with 2 sessions per week. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in throwing speed was found after the 6-week training period with the 0.35- (5.1%), 1- (3.5%), and 3-kg medicine balls (5.2%) for both training groups, but not with the 0.45-kg ball (0.6%). This increase was mainly caused by the increase of the double workload group. This indicates that training workload is of importance in these subjects for enhancement of ball throwing performance and in designing training programs. Furthermore, that throwing with high enough training volume of throws with a 3-kg medicine ball also can increase ball speed with lighter balls.

  3. Corpus callosum atrophy is associated with mental slowing and executive deficits in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities. The LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanne; Ryberg, Charlotte; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2007-01-01

    of the total corpus callosum area and its subregions with cognitive performance were analysed using multiple linear regression, controlling for volume of WMH and other confounding factors. Results: Atrophy of the total corpus callosum area was associated with poor performance in tests assessing speed of mental...

  4. Accumulated workloads and the acute:chronic workload ratio relate to injury risk in elite youth football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Laura; Gross, Aleksander Stefan; Gimpel, Mo; Li, François-Xavier

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical workload and injury risk in elite youth football players. The workload data and injury incidence of 32 players were monitored throughout 2 seasons. Multiple regression was used to compare cumulative (1, 2, 3 and 4-weekly) loads and acute:chronic (A:C) workload ratios (acute workload divided by chronic workload) between injured and non-injured players for specific GPS and accelerometer-derived variables:total distance (TD), high-speed distance (HSD), accelerations (ACC) and total load. Workloads were classified into discrete ranges by z-scores and the relative risk was determined. A very high number of ACC (≥9254) over 3 weeks was associated with the highest significant overall (relative risk (RR)=3.84) and non-contact injury risk (RR=5.11). Non-contact injury risk was significantly increased when a high acute HSD was combined with low chronic HSD (RR=2.55), but not with high chronic HSD (RR=0.47). Contact injury risk was greatest when A:C TD and ACC ratios were very high (1.76 and 1.77, respectively) (RR=4.98). In general, higher accumulated and acute workloads were associated with a greater injury risk. However, progressive increases in chronic workload may develop the players' physical tolerance to higher acute loads and resilience to injury risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Subjective Experiences of the Benefits and Key Elements of a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention Focused on Community Work Outcomes in Persons With Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Strasburger, Amy M; Salyers, Michelle P; Rattray, Nicholas A; Lysaker, Paul H

    2017-01-01

    New research suggests that group-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may help improve employment outcomes in persons with mental illness, yet the effects and potential key elements facilitating change in such interventions are unclear. Using a mixed methods approach, this study examined the perspectives of persons with mental illness after participating in a pilot study of the "CBT for Work Success" intervention. Findings demonstrate that participants valued the intervention and perceived that it assisted them in achieving work goals. Therapeutic effects included improved self-efficacy, work motivation, enhanced sense of self as workers, and increased beliefs that work success is attainable. CBT for Work Success elements perceived to be important in facilitating work goals included cognitive restructuring, behavioral coping strategies, problem solving work barriers, meaningful reflection on oneself as a worker, and important factors associated with the group process. The authors discuss the implications of these findings and future research directions.

  6. Subjective perceived impact of Tai Chi training on physical and mental health among community older adults at risk for ischemic stroke: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guohua; Xiong, Zhenyu; Zheng, Xin; Li, Junzhe; Duan, Tingjin; Qi, Dalu; Ling, Kun; Chen, Lidian

    2017-04-20

    Evidence from quantitative studies suggest that Tai Chi produces a variety of health-related benefits, but few qualitative studies have investigated how older adults perceive the benefit of Tai Chi. The objective of the current study was to qualitatively evaluate the perceived benefits of Tai Chi practice among community older population. This study was conducted with participants from a trial examining the effects of a 12-week Tai Chi training on ischemic stroke risk in community older adults (n = 170). A total of 20 participants were randomly selected from a convenience sample of participants who had completed 12-week Tai Chi training (n = 68) were interviewed regarding their perceived benefit on physical and mental health and whether Tai Chi exercise was suitable for the elderly. All participants agreed that Tai Chi training could relax their body and make them comfortable. Most of them thought Tai Chi training could promote physical health, including relieving pain, enhancing digestion, strengthening immunity, enhancing energy and improving sleep quality, enhancing their mental and emotional state (e.g. improving mood and reducing anxiety, improving concentration and promoting interpersonal relationship). Most of participants also agreed that Tai Chi exercise was appropriate for community older people. Three primary themes emerged from content analysis: Improving physical health; Enhancing mental and emotional state; Conforming with the request of the elderly. The findings indicate that regular Tai Chi exercise may have positive benefits in terms of improved physical health and mental state among community elderly population, and may be useful and feasible body-mind exercise to community elderly population for its positive effects and advantages. ChiCTR ChiCTR-TRC-13003601 . Registered 23 July 2014.

  7. Linear and non-linear heart rate metrics for the assessment of anaesthetists' workload during general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Schneider, F; Kowalewskij, A; Jordan, D; Hapfelmeier, A; Kochs, E F; Wagner, K J; Schulz, C M

    2016-12-01

    Excessive workload may impact the anaesthetists' ability to adequately process information during clinical practice in the operation room and may result in inaccurate situational awareness and performance. This exploratory study investigated heart rate (HR), linear and non-linear heart rate variability (HRV) metrics and subjective ratings scales for the assessment of workload associated with the anaesthesia stages induction, maintenance and emergence. HR and HRV metrics were calculated based on five min segments from each of the three anaesthesia stages. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of the investigated metrics was calculated to assess their ability to discriminate between the stages of anaesthesia. Additionally, a multiparametric approach based on logistic regression models was performed to further evaluate whether linear or non-linear heart rate metrics are suitable for the assessment of workload. Mean HR and several linear and non-linear HRV metrics including subjective workload ratings differed significantly between stages of anaesthesia. Permutation Entropy (PeEn, AUC=0.828) and mean HR (AUC=0.826) discriminated best between the anaesthesia stages induction and maintenance. In the multiparametric approach using logistic regression models, the model based on non-linear heart rate metrics provided a higher AUC compared with the models based on linear metrics. In this exploratory study based on short ECG segment analysis, PeEn and HR seem to be promising to separate workload levels between different stages of anaesthesia. The multiparametric analysis of the regression models favours non-linear heart rate metrics over linear metrics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Human interaction with robotic systems: performance and workload evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinerman-Jones, L; Barber, D J; Szalma, J L; Hancock, P A

    2017-10-01

    We first tested the effect of differing tactile informational forms (i.e. directional cues vs. static cues vs. dynamic cues) on objective performance and perceived workload in a collaborative human-robot task. A second experiment evaluated the influence of task load and informational message type (i.e. single words vs. grouped phrases) on that same collaborative task. In both experiments, the relationship of personal characteristics (attentional control and spatial ability) to performance and workload was also measured. In addition to objective performance and self-report of cognitive load, we evaluated different physiological responses in each experiment. Results showed a performance-workload association for directional cues, message type and task load. EEG measures however, proved generally insensitive to such task load manipulations. Where significant EEG effects were observed, right hemisphere amplitude differences predominated, although unexpectedly these latter relationships were negative. Although EEG measures were partially associated with performance, they appear to possess limited utility as measures of workload in association with tactile displays. Practitioner Summary: As practitioners look to take advantage of innovative tactile displays in complex operational realms like human-robotic interaction, associated performance effects are mediated by cognitive workload. Despite some patterns of association, reliable reflections of operator state can be difficult to discern and employ as the number, complexity and sophistication of these respective measures themselves increase.

  9. Workload induced spatio-temporal distortions and safety of flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C.L.; Weisgerber, S.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, CA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the relationship between cognitive complexity and the perception of time and distance is presented and experimentally verified. Complex tasks produce high rates of mental representation which affect the subjective sense of duration and, through the subjective time scale, the percept of distance derived from dynamic visual cues (i.e., visual cues requiring rate integration). The analysis of the interrelationship of subjective time and subjective distance yields the prediction that, as a function of cognitive complexity, distance estimates derived from dynamic visual cues will be longer than the actual distance whereas estimates based on perceived temporal duration will be shorter than the actual distance. This prediction was confirmed in an experiment in which subjects (both pilots and non-pilots) estimated distances using either temporal cues or dynamic visual cues. The distance estimation task was also combined with secondary loading tasks in order to vary the overall task complexity. The results indicated that distance estimates based on temporal cues were underestimated while estimates based on visual cues were overestimated. This spatio-temporal distortion effect increased with increases in overall task complexity. 30 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Musculoskeletal symptoms and associated risk factors among office workers with high workload computer use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chiung-Yu; Hwang, Yea-Shwu; Cherng, Rong-Ju

    2012-09-01

    Although the prevalence of reported discomfort by computer workers is high, the impact of high computer workload on musculoskeletal symptoms remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms for office workers with high computer workload. The association between risk factors and musculoskeletal symptoms was also assessed. Two questionnaires were posted on the Web sites of 3 companies and 1 university to recruit computer users in Tainan, Taiwan, during May to July 2009. The 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire and Musculoskeletal Symptom Questionnaire were chosen as the evaluation tools for musculoskeletal symptoms and its associated risk factors. Chinese Health Questionnaire greater than 5 and computer usage greater than 7 h/d were used to as the cutoff line to divide groups. Descriptive statistics were computed for mean values and frequencies. χ(2) Analysis was used to determine significant differences between groups. A 0.05 level of significance of was used for statistical comparisons. A total of 254 subjects returned the questionnaire, of which 203 met the inclusion criteria. The 3 leading regions of musculoskeletal symptoms among the computer users were the shoulder (73%), neck (71%), and upper back (60%) areas. Similarly, the 3 leading regions of musculoskeletal symptoms among the computer users with high workload were shoulder (77.3%), neck (75.6%), and upper back (63.9%) regions. High psychologic distress was significantly associated with shoulder and upper back complaints (odds ratio [OR], 3.46; OR, 2.24), whereas a high workload was significantly associated with lower back complaints (OR, 1.89). Females were more likely to report shoulder complaints (OR, 2.25). This study found that high psychologic distress was significantly associated with shoulder and upper back pain, whereas high workload was associated with lower back pain. Women tended to have a greater risk of shoulder complaints than men

  11. Effects of a psychophysiological system for adaptive automation on performance, workload, and the event-related potential P300 component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J 3rd; Freeman, Frederick G.; Scerbo, Mark W.; Mikulka, Peter J.; Pope, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of an electroencephalographic- (EEG-) based system for adaptive automation on tracking performance and workload. In addition, event-related potentials (ERPs) to a secondary task were derived to determine whether they would provide an additional degree of workload specificity. Participants were run in an adaptive automation condition, in which the system switched between manual and automatic task modes based on the value of each individual's own EEG engagement index; a yoked control condition; or another control group, in which task mode switches followed a random pattern. Adaptive automation improved performance and resulted in lower levels of workload. Further, the P300 component of the ERP paralleled the sensitivity to task demands of the performance and subjective measures across conditions. These results indicate that it is possible to improve performance with a psychophysiological adaptive automation system and that ERPs may provide an alternative means for distinguishing among levels of cognitive task demand in such systems. Actual or potential applications of this research include improved methods for assessing operator workload and performance.

  12. Articular saúde mental e relações de gênero: dar voz aos sujeitos silenciados Articulate mental health and social gender relations: giving voice to silenced subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Corbi Caldas dos Santos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se a experiência do sofrimento psíquico a partir de relatos de homens e mulheres usuários de serviço público de saúde do município de Araraquara (SP. Considera-se a construção social do sofrimento psíquico e, portanto, a conformação dos valores e normas de determinada sociedade e época histórica. Utilizaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas com usuários do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS, homens e mulheres, analisadas sob a ótica das relações sociais de gênero e do contexto das mudanças no sistema psiquiátrico brasileiro a partir da luta antimanicomial. Conclui-se que o desafio a ser enfrentado pela sociedade brasileira contemporânea na construção de políticas públicas para saúde mental deve levar em conta questões postas pela perspectiva das relações sociais de gênero. Portanto, significa, ao incorporar o tema gênero no âmbito da saúde mental, questionar uma concepção reducionista e biologizante da saúde mental das mulheres. Verificou-se que o adoecimento psíquico feminino mantém estreita correlação com a violência contra as mulheres e a repressão sexual ainda vigente na sociedade. No que tange à vivência do adoecimento psíquico masculino, requer enfrentar a questão do estigma. Estes, ao adoecerem, são excluídos do espaço público e enfrentam maiores dificuldades de reinserção social e de reconstrução da identidade anterior.The experience of the psychological suffering based on testimonies of male and female users of a public health service in the municipality of Araraquara (SP. It is considered the social construction of the psychological suffering and, therefore, the arrangement of values and norms of a certain society and historical period. Semi-structured interviews were applied in male and female users of the Center of Psychosocial Attention (CAPS. These interviews were analyzed through the perspective of social gender relations and under the context of changes at the

  13. NERSC-6 Workload Analysis and Benchmark Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antypas, Katie; Shalf, John; Wasserman, Harvey

    2008-08-29

    This report describes efforts carried out during early 2008 to determine some of the science drivers for the"NERSC-6" next-generation high-performance computing system acquisition. Although the starting point was existing Greenbooks from DOE and the NERSC User Group, the main contribution of this work is an analysis of the current NERSC computational workload combined with requirements information elicited from key users and other scientists about expected needs in the 2009-2011 timeframe. The NERSC workload is described in terms of science areas, computer codes supporting research within those areas, and description of key algorithms that comprise the codes. This work was carried out in large part to help select a small set of benchmark programs that accurately capture the science and algorithmic characteristics of the workload. The report concludes with a description of the codes selected and some preliminary performance data for them on several important systems.

  14. Air-to-ground training missions: a psychophysiological workload analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G F

    1993-09-01

    Psychophysiological measures are used to assess the workload of F4 Phantom aircraft pilots and weapon systems officers (WSOs) during air-to-ground training missions and during the performance of two levels of difficulty of a laboratory tracking task. The bombing range portion of the missions was associated with the highest pilot workload, while the WSO flying the aircraft was the highest workload segment for the WSOs. The pilots' data were found to have a wider range of values for the physiological measures than were found in the WSO data. The different levels of tracking task difficulty produced significant physiological effects but the range of values found for most of the flight segments were much greater. These data demonstrate that extrapolating laboratory data to the flight environment is risky at best. The various physiological measures were differentially sensitive to the different demands of the various flight segments.

  15. [Evaluation of nurse workload in patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argibay-Lago, Ana; Fernández-Rodríguez, Diego; Ferrer-Sala, Nuria; Prieto-Robles, Cristina; Hernanz-del Río, Alexandre; Castro-Rebollo, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is recommended to minimize neurological damage in patients surviving sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). There is scarcity of data evaluating the nursing workload in these patients. The objective of the study is to assess the workload of nurses whilst treating patients undergoing TH after SCA. A 43-month prospective-retrospective comparative cohort study was designed. Patients admitted to intensive care unit, for recovered SCA and persistent coma, were included. A comparison was made using the baseline characteristics, medical management, in-hospital mortality, and nursing workload during the first 96hours using the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28); Nursing Activities Score (NAS); and Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score (NEMS) scales among patients who received TH and those who did not. A total 46 patients were included: 26 in the TH group and 20 in the Non-TH group. Regarding baseline characteristics and management, the TH group presented higher prevalence of smoking habit (69 vs. 25%, p=0.012), out-of-hospital SCA (96 vs. 55%, p<0.001), and the performance of coronary angiography (96 vs. 65%, p=0.014) compared with the non-TH group. No differences were observed in the nursing workload, assessed by TISS 28, NAS or NEMS scales, or in-hospital mortality. In this study performance of TH in SCA survivors is not associated with an increase in nursing workload. The installation of a TH program does not require the use of more nursing resources in terms of workload. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. A Cross-Lingual Mobile Medical Communication System Prototype for Foreigners and Subjects with Speech, Hearing, and Mental Disabilities Based on Pictograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wołk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available People with speech, hearing, or mental impairment require special communication assistance, especially for medical purposes. Automatic solutions for speech recognition and voice synthesis from text are poor fits for communication in the medical domain because they are dependent on error-prone statistical models. Systems dependent on manual text input are insufficient. Recently introduced systems for automatic sign language recognition are dependent on statistical models as well as on image and gesture quality. Such systems remain in early development and are based mostly on minimal hand gestures unsuitable for medical purposes. Furthermore, solutions that rely on the Internet cannot be used after disasters that require humanitarian aid. We propose a high-speed, intuitive, Internet-free, voice-free, and text-free tool suited for emergency medical communication. Our solution is a pictogram-based application that provides easy communication for individuals who have speech or hearing impairment or mental health issues that impair communication, as well as foreigners who do not speak the local language. It provides support and clarification in communication by using intuitive icons and interactive symbols that are easy to use on a mobile device. Such pictogram-based communication can be quite effective and ultimately make people’s lives happier, easier, and safer.

  17. Recherche d’indicateurs électrodermaux pour l’analyse de la charge mentale en conduite automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Clarion, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    As an assessment tool for individual’s functional state, autonomic indices can help improving our knowledge of drivers’ behaviour, which is a central road safety causal factor. This work is focused on driver’s mental workload assessment, relying on electrodermal activity analysis. This is an attempt to highlight the most reliable electrodermal indices with the aim to distinguish accurately mental workload elicited by actual driving situations. The analysis of about thirty phasic indices, led ...

  18. Effect of preceding exercise on cerebral and splanchnic vascular responses to mental task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Someya Nami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the effect of preceding acute exercise on the peripheral vascular response to a mental task, we measured splanchnic and cerebral blood flow responses to performing a mental task after exercise and resting. Methods In the exercise trial, 11 males exercised for 30 min on a cycle ergometer with a workload set at 70% of the age-predicted maximal heart rate for each individual. After a 15-min recovery period, the subjects rested for 5 min for pre-task baseline measurement and then performed mental arithmetic for 5 min followed by 5 min of post-task measurement. In the resting trial, they rested for 45 min and pre-task baseline data was obtained for 5 min. Then mental arithmetic was performed for 5 min followed by post-task measurement. We measured the mean blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery and superior mesenteric artery and the mean arterial pressure. Results Mean arterial pressure and mean blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery were significantly higher than the baseline during mental arithmetic in both exercise and resting trials. Mean blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery during mental arithmetic was greater in the control trial than the exercise trial. Mean blood velocity in the superior mesenteric artery showed no significant change during mental arithmetic from baseline in both trials. Conclusion These results suggest that acute exercise can moderate the increase in cerebral blood flow induced by a mental task.

  19. Perceptual Factors in Workload: A Neuromagnetic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-13

    progress, advancing methods of modeling field sources and enhacing techniques of data analysis, and conducting research designed to identify regions of the...the occipital and parietal regions. The subject lay prone on a bed and looked through an aperture down into a mirror which reflected the image on the...of the grating matched the background luminance of the screen. The gratings were generated using an Inisfree Picasso Image Generator driven by a PDP

  20. Antecedents of basic psychological need satisfaction of pharmacy students: The role of peers, family, lecturers and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, Mariëtta J; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2017-04-27

    important role family and peers play in the emotional and mental wellbeing of students and utilise those factors in their teaching. The mechanism of basic psychological need satisfaction as described in Self-determination theory provide insight into pharmacy students' optimal functioning. Hence the influence of contextual factors, (lecturers, peers, family and workload) on the need satisfaction was investigated by means of a survey. The structural model explained 46%, 25% and 30% of the variances in autonomy, competence and relatedness satisfaction and 26% of the variance in psychological need frustration. Family and Peer support contributed the most to the variance explained of the variables. Lecturers should acknowledge this important role of family and peers and utilise this premise when they design learning encounters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Subjective experiences of compulsory treatment from a qualitative study of early implementation of the Mental Health (Care & Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Julie; Hunter, Susan

    2013-09-01

    Compulsory psychiatric treatment is highly contested, and little research has focused specifically on direct experiences. The Mental Health (Care & Treatment) (Scotland) Act, 2003 introduced new roles and provisions including community treatment orders, and was designed to increase participation, ensure treatment was beneficial and was the 'least restrictive' alternative. This article draws on findings from semi-structured interviews with 49 individuals, who had experienced compulsion under this new legislation during 2007-2008, that were part of a broader cohort study. Interviews with service users were conducted at two stages with 80% agreeing to be interviewed twice. The sample included people on a variety of compulsory orders from four Health Board areas, some of whom had been detained for the first time, while others reported 'revolving door' experiences. Peer researchers who were mental health service users carried out the interviews in partnership with professional researchers. The findings suggest that legislation had a limited impact on participation in the process of compulsion. Consensus was that although service users felt there was increased opportunity for their voices to be heard, this was not matched by having increased influence over professional decision-making, especially in relation to drug treatments. According to people's direct experiences, the passing of the legislation in itself had done little to change the dominant psychiatric paradigm. While providing a foundation for improving the process of compulsion, the findings suggest that as well as legislative reform, fundamental shifts in practice are needed both in terms of the nature of therapeutic relationships, and in embracing more holistic and recovery perspectives. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Single-Pilot Workload Management in Entry-Level Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    under Instrument Flight Rules ( IFR ) in a Cessna Citation Mustang ELJ level 5 flight training device at CAMI. Eight of the pilots were Mustang owner...Instrument Landing System IFR ............Instrument Flight Rules IMC ...........Instrument Meteorological Conditions ISA...pilots flew an experimental flight with two legs involving high workload management under Instrument Flight Rules ( IFR ) in a Cessna Citation Mustang

  3. Simple grain mill boosts production and eases women's workload ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-01-11

    powered mill that significantly reduces this workload, while virtually eliminating post-harvest losses. Manual dehulling methods often result in one-third to half of all seeds breaking. This is key, as clean seed sells for three to four times ...

  4. Telomeres, workload and life-history in great tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atema, Els

    2017-01-01

    Ageing and the effects of increased workload in great tits A new measurement to quantify variation in quality and rate of ageing between individuals is telomere length. Telomeres are a piece of DNA at the end of chromosomes, and they protect the other DNA. In many species shortening of telomere

  5. Effects of life event stress, exercise workload, hardiness and coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of life event stress, exercise workload, hardiness and coping style on susceptibility to the common cold. GA Struwig, M Papaikonomou, P Kruger. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and DanceVol. 12(4) 2006: pp. 369-383. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  6. Neonatal nursing workload – can it be measured?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. van den Heever

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuing pressure an tertiary hospitals 10 reduce expenses has inevitably meant a demand to reduce nursing staff. This intensified the need to ensure that staffing allocation is appropriate. A method to calculate staffing needs based measurement of neonatal workload is explored.

  7. Development of a nursing workload measurement instrument in burn care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.E.; Leeman, J.; Middelkoop, E.

    2009-01-01

    Existing workload measurement instruments fail to represent specific nursing activities in a setting where patients are characterized by a diversity of cause, location, extent and depth of burns, of age and of history. They also do not include educational levels and appropriate time standards. The

  8. Faculty Acceptance of a Workload Survey in One Major University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.

    1978-01-01

    Faculty at a state university were asked how they felt about the workload survey administered on campus and whether the NCHEMS' factors were related to their acceptance of the survey. Results upheld one NCHEMS relationship: that a positive attitude toward a survey is related to perceived value of the data for allocating faculty resources and…

  9. HIV infection, tuberculosis and workload in a general paediatric ward

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To describe the impact of HIV infection and tuberculosis on the workload of a general paediatric ward at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in 2007. Methods. Prospective descriptive surveillance of the patient composition of a general paediatric ward over a 1-year period. Results. Median bed occupancy was ...

  10. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy, virologic failure and workload at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-14

    Oct 14, 2009 ... greater proximity of services encourages retention in care.38. However, a rapid transfer of large numbers of patients can overwhelm minimally staffed clinics if appropriate steps are not taken. In addition to the additional workload,. Table III: Self-reported adherence and virologic failure among study.

  11. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among workers with high levels of occupational physical activity. The increased risk may be due to a high relative aerobic workload, possibly leading to increased blood pressure. However, studies investigating the relation between relative aerobic work...

  12. Commissioning the CERN IT Agile Infrastructure with experiment workloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Harald Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Kamil Denis, Marek; Cinquilli, Mattia

    2014-06-01

    In order to ease the management of their infrastructure, most of the WLCG sites are adopting cloud based strategies. In the case of CERN, the Tier 0 of the WLCG, is completely restructuring the resource and configuration management of their computing center under the codename Agile Infrastructure. Its goal is to manage 15,000 Virtual Machines by means of an OpenStack middleware in order to unify all the resources in CERN's two datacenters: the one placed in Meyrin and the new on in Wigner, Hungary. During the commissioning of this infrastructure, CERN IT is offering an attractive amount of computing resources to the experiments (800 cores for ATLAS and CMS) through a private cloud interface. ATLAS and CMS have joined forces to exploit them by running stress tests and simulation workloads since November 2012. This work will describe the experience of the first deployments of the current experiment workloads on the CERN private cloud testbed. The paper is organized as follows: the first section will explain the integration of the experiment workload management systems (WMS) with the cloud resources. The second section will revisit the performance and stress testing performed with HammerCloud in order to evaluate and compare the suitability for the experiment workloads. The third section will go deeper into the dynamic provisioning techniques, such as the use of the cloud APIs directly by the WMS. The paper finishes with a review of the conclusions and the challenges ahead.

  13. gLite Workload Management System Performance Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Svraka, N; Belic, A; Bogojevic, A R

    2006-01-01

    In this paper an introduction to the gLite Grid middleware and one of its most important components, Workload Management System (WMS), responsible for management of user jobs is given.Useful performance metrics of gLite WMS are defined from a Grid application point of view, and preliminary results of performance measurements are presented and briefly analyzed.

  14. Workload Characterization of a Leadership Class Storage Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Gunasekaran, Raghul [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL; Zhang, Zhe [ORNL; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Understanding workload characteristics is critical for optimizing and improving the performance of current systems and software, and architecting new storage systems based on observed workload patterns. In this paper, we characterize the scientific workloads of the world s fastest HPC (High Performance Computing) storage cluster, Spider, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Spider provides an aggregate bandwidth of over 240 GB/s with over 10 petabytes of RAID 6 formatted capacity. OLCFs flagship petascale simulation platform, Jaguar, and other large HPC clusters, in total over 250 thousands compute cores, depend on Spider for their I/O needs. We characterize the system utilization, the demands of reads and writes, idle time, and the distribution of read requests to write requests for the storage system observed over a period of 6 months. From this study we develop synthesized workloads and we show that the read and write I/O bandwidth usage as well as the inter-arrival time of requests can be modeled as a Pareto distribution.

  15. Activity-based differentiation of pathologists' workload in surgical pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.A.; Oudejans, J.J.; Koevoets, J.J.M.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Adequate budget control in pathology practice requires accurate allocation of resources. Any changes in types and numbers of specimens handled or protocols used will directly affect the pathologists' workload and consequently the allocation of resources. The aim of the present study was to develop a

  16. Towards resource disaggregation - Memory scavenging for scientific workloads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uta, Alexandru; Oprescu, Ana Maria; Kielmann, T.

    2016-01-01

    Compute clusters, consisting of many, uniformly built nodes, are used to run a large spectrum of different workloads, like tightly coupled (MPI) jobs, MapReduce, or graph-processing data-analytics applications, each of which with their own resource requirements. Many studies consistently highlight

  17. Cross-Validation of Indicators of Cognitive Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    INVESTIGATOR: SANDRA P. MARSHALL INSTITUTION: EYETRACKING , INC. ADDRESS: 6475 Alvarado Rd., Suite 132, San Diego, CA 92120 TELEPHONE: 619-594-2695 EMAIL...WORKLOAD Sandra P. Marshall Mike Bartels EyeTracking , Inc. 6475 Alvarado Road, Suite 132 San Diego, CA 92120 www.eyetracking.com Final Report Contract No

  18. Comparison of physical workload in four Gari -frying working ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All physical labour requires physical exertion which indicates the level of physical workload involved. This paper examines the energy expenditure in four working postures of gari-frying (garification) workers in southwestern Nigeria. The postures include sitting-beside (SB), sitting-in-front (SF), ...

  19. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  20. The effect of inclement weather on trauma orthopaedic workload.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, J P

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Climate change models predict increasing frequency of extreme weather. One of the challenges hospitals face is how to make sure they have adequate staffing at various times of the year. AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of this severe inclement weather on hospital admissions, operative workload and cost in the Irish setting. We hypothesised that there is a direct relationship between cold weather and workload in a regional orthopaedic trauma unit. METHODS: Trauma orthopaedic workload in a regional trauma unit was examined over 2 months between December 2009 and January 2010. This corresponded with a period of severe inclement weather. RESULTS: We identified a direct correlation between the drop in temperature and increase in workload, with a corresponding increase in demand on resources. CONCLUSIONS: Significant cost savings could be made if these injuries were prevented. While the information contained in this study is important in the context of resource planning and staffing of hospital trauma units, it also highlights the vulnerability of the Irish population to wintery weather.

  1. Workload Indicators Of Staffing Need Method in determining optimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... available working hours, category and individual allowances, annual workloads from the previous year\\'s statistics and optimal departmental establishment of workers. Results: There was initial resentment to the exercise because of the notion that it was aimed at retrenching workers. The team was given autonomy by the ...

  2. Factors affecting GPs workload in the period 1987-2001.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolthof, E.D.; Berg, M.J. van den; Bakker, D.H. de

    2003-01-01

    Background: Like in other countries, Dutch general practitioners (GPs) perceive an increase in workload. Too much work pressure will affect the quality of care and threats the accessibility of health care provided by GPs. Factors on organisational-level, patient-level as well as on GP-level may

  3. HIV infection, tuberculosis and workload in a general paediatric ward

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-TB co-infection prevalence rates in hospitalised children; to determine the proportion of hospitalised HIV-infected children who required high care; to describe the proportion of deaths associated with HIV and/or TB; and to relate workload to the level of nursing cover in a general paediatric ward over a 1-year period in a ...

  4. Empirical Methods for Estimating Workload Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    on excercising a model of the service systetii 1 TIlE GENERAL SERVICE SYSTEM M.IODEL 2 by subjecting it to a stream of input traffic and estimating or...join different radio nets as they move around or attempt to rerolih NEOt., The antijamming radio fails less frequently and is harder to jam than the old ...radio. ltowevter, it is much more time consuming to enter a net with the new radio than with the old one. Finally, if an old radio tries to contact a

  5. Benchmarking transaction and analytical processing systems the creation of a mixed workload benchmark and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Bog, Anja

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces a new benchmark for hybrid database systems, gauging the effect of adding OLAP to an OLTP workload and analyzing the impact of commonly used optimizations in historically separate OLTP and OLAP domains in mixed-workload scenarios.

  6. [Pathology laboratories staff workload evaluation in Turkey: a survey study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usubütün, Alp; Uner, Sarp; Harorlu, Fevzi; Ozer, Erdener; Tuzlali, Sıtkı; Ruacan, Arzu; Koç, Orhan; Yörükoğlu, Kutsal

    2011-05-01

    The workload affects the quality of the pathology report. The aim of this study was to investigate the territorial distribution and productivity of pathology laboratories around Turkey and to estimate the staff workload. A survey questioning the workload was sent to all Ministry of Health and university hospitals. Staff workload was questioned according to the hospital classification and educational activity to evaluate the productivity. Data were entered using SPSS 16.0 statistical software package program and the distribution criteria, t-test and one-way anova were used in the analysis to evaluate the differences between the averages. An average of 2.8 pathologists worked at the pathology laboratories. A total of 5.500 biopsies and 3.750 cytology specimens were received and 20.000 blocks prepared per year. Pathologists evaluated 1.935 biopsies and 1.400 cytology specimens on average and this is equivalent to 2.718 biopsies per year. Gynecology and general surgery department materials constituted 57 percent of all biopsies. Each technician prepared 6.200 blocks, 11.500 slides and 1.000 immunohistochemistry preparations on average. An average of 3.4 paraffin blocks was prepared for each biopsy. The efficiency was low in 17% of teaching hospitals and 77.8% of non-teaching hospitals. In contrast 62.5% of teaching hospitals had work overload. The majority (70.5%) of the respondents mentioned staff shortage. There is no pathologist shortage in Turkey and the problem is workload distribution. Pathology residents' overwork would be reduced by using pathology assistants. There is no shortage of technicians or secretaries, but uneven distribution. Pathology staff planning must be tailored taking into account the features of each hospital. Standard planning for all hospitals is not suitable.

  7. Corpus callosum atrophy is associated with mental slowing and executive deficits in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities: the LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Ryberg, Charlotte; Kalska, Hely

    2007-01-01

    , attention and executive functions in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities (WMH). METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study, 567 subjects with age-related WMH were examined with a detailed neuropsychological assessment and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. The relationships...... processing--namely, trail making A and Stroop test parts I and II. Anterior, but not posterior, corpus callosum atrophy was associated with deficits of attention and executive functions as reflected by the symbol digit modalities and digit cancellation tests, as well as by the subtraction scores in the trail...... is related to the frontal-lobe-mediated executive functions and attention, whereas overall corpus callosum atrophy is associated with the slowing of processing speed. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May...

  8. [Nursing workload indices TISS-10, TISS-28, and NEMS : Higher workload with agitation and delirium is not reflected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, U; Koegl, F; Theuerkauf, N; Maylahn, J; Andorfer, U; Weykam, J; Muders, T; Putensen, C

    2016-02-01

    Financial resources for the treatment of ICU patients requiring high nursing workload are allocated within the German diagnostic-related groups (DRG) system in part through the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-10 (TISS-10). TISS-10, however, has never been validated. This study evaluated whether delirium and agitation in ICU were reflected by TISS-10, and also by the established workload indices TISS-28 and Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower (NEMS). Secondary aims were if indices correlated, and what effects delirium and agitation had on financial balances. Analyses were performed retrospectively in 521 datasets from 152 patients. Nursing workload was assessed with TISS-28, TISS-10, and NEMS, delirium with the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Units (CAM-ICU), and vigilance with the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS). Revenues were retrieved from the institution's patient data management system, and costs calculated with the Budget Calculation Tool 2007 provided by the German Society of Anaesthesiologists. Delirium was found in 36.2 % of patients (n = 55). TISS-28, TISS-10, and NEMS were not higher in patients with delirium, if corrected for mechanical ventilation. TISS-28, TISS-10, and NEMS were significantly higher in deeply sedated and comatose patients (RASS ≤ - 3, p NEMS) do not reflect higher daily workload associated with patients with delirium and agitation.

  9. Application of Avatars in Display Design to Support Spatial Awareness under Varying Workload Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    AVATARS IN DISPLAY DESIGN TO SUPPORT SPATIAL AWARENESS UNDER VARYING WORKLOAD CONDITIONS by Dimitrios Myttas September 2006 Thesis Advisor...Avatars in Display Design to Support Spatial Awareness under Varying Workload Conditions 6. AUTHOR(S) Dimitrios Myttas 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7...24 5. Human Performance – Workload Measurement ................. 24 III. PROPOSED DISPLAY DESIGN ................................................................... 27

  10. Nursing Workload and the Changing Health Care Environment: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the health care environment have impacted nursing workload, quality of care, and patient safety. Traditional nursing workload measures do not guarantee efficiency, nor do they adequately capture the complexity of nursing workload. Review of the literature indicates nurses perceive the quality of their work has diminished. Research has…

  11. Role of Academic Managers in Workload and Performance Management of Academic Staff: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    This small-scale case study focused on academic managers to explore the ways in which they control the workload of academic staff and the extent to which they use the workload model in performance management of academic staff. The links that exist between the workload and performance management were explored to confirm or refute the conceptual…

  12. Workload and job satisfaction among general practitioners: a review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.; Hutten, J.B.F.

    1991-01-01

    The workload of general practitioners (GPs) is an important issue in health care systems with capitation payment for GPs services. This article reviews the literature on determinants and consequences of workload and job satisfaction of GPs. Determinants of workload are located on the demand side

  13. Do Overweight and Obese Individuals Select a “Moderate Intensity” Workload When Asked to Do So?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron W. Hall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was (1 to determine if overweight/obese individuals (age 26–50 y would self-select moderate exercise intensity when asked to do so and (2 to determine how this self-selected workload compared to exercising at a workload (60% peak aerobic capacity that is known to provide cardioprotective health benefits. Oxygen consumption (VO2 and energy expenditure were measured in 33 men/women (BMI≥27 kg/m2 who completed two 30 min walking bouts: (1 self-selected walking pace on an indoor track and (2 prescribed exercise pace (60% VO2 peak on a treadmill. The data revealed that (1 the prescribed intensity was 6% higher than the self-selected pace and elicited a higher energy expenditure (<0.05 than the self-selected pace (+83 kJ; (2 overweight subjects walked at a slightly lower percentage of VO2 peak than the obese subjects (<0.05; (3 men walked at a lower percentage of VO2 peak than the women (<0.05. In conclusion when asked to walk at a moderate intensity, overweight/obese individuals tended to select a lower workload in the “moderate intensity” range which could be maintained for 30 min; however, a higher intensity which would be more cardioprotective could not be maintained for 30 min by most individuals.

  14. Assessment of physical workload in boiler operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; Braga, Camila Soares; Campos, Julio César Costa; Souza, Amaury Paulo de; Minette, Luciano José; Sensato, Guilherme Luciano; Moraes, Angelo Casali de; Silva, Emília Pio da

    2012-01-01

    The use of boiler wood-fired is fairly common equipment utilized in steam generation for energy production in small industries. The boiler activities are considered dangerous and heavy, mainly due to risks of explosions and the lack of mechanization of the process. This study assessed the burden of physical labor that operators of boilers are subjected during the workday. Assessment of these conditions was carried out through quantitative and qualitative measurements. A heart rate monitor, a wet-bulb globe thermometer (WBGT), a tape-measure and a digital infrared camera were the instruments used to collect the quantitative data. The Nordic Questionnaire and the Painful Areas Diagram were used to relate the health problems of the boiler operator with activity. With study, was concluded that the boiler activity may cause pains in the body of intensity different, muscle fatigue and diseases due to excessive weight and the exposure to heat. The research contributed to improve the boiler operator's workplace and working conditions.

  15. Teachers' and Parents' Perspectives on a Curricular Subject of "Religion and Spirituality" for Indian Schools: A Pilot Study Toward School Mental Health Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Parameshwaran; Baccari, Andrew; Ramachandran, Uma; Ahmed, Syed Faiz; Koenig, Harold G

    2017-08-17

    Religious-spiritual (R/S) education helps medical students cope with caregiving stress and gain skills in interpersonal empathy needed for clinical care. Such R/S education has been introduced into K-12 and college curricula in some developed nations and has been found to positively impact student's mental health. Such a move has not yet been seen in the Indian education system. This paper aimed to examine perspectives of teachers and parents in India on appropriateness, benefits, and challenges of including R/S education into the school curriculum and also to gather their impressions on how a R/S curriculum might promote students' health. A cross-sectional study of religiously stratified sample of teachers and parents was initiated in three preselected schools in India and the required sample size (N = 300) was reached through snowballing technique. A semi-structured questionnaire, with questions crafted from "Religion and Spirituality in Medicine, Physicians Perspective" (RSMPP) and "American Academy of Religion's (AAR) Guidelines for Religious Literacy," was used to determine participants' perspectives. Findings revealed that teachers' and parents' "comfort in integrating R/S into school curriculum" was associated with their gender (OR 1.68), education status (OR 1.05), and intrinsic religiosity (OR 1.05). Intrinsic religiosity was significantly (p = 0.025) high among parents while "intrinsic spirituality" was high (p = 0.020) among teachers. How participants' R/S characteristics influence their support of R/S education in school is discussed. In conclusion, participants believe R/S education will fosters students' emotional health and interpersonal skills needed for social leadership. A curriculum that incorporates R/S education, which is based on AAR guidelines and clinically validated interpersonal spiritual care tools would be acceptable to both teachers and parents.

  16. Effects of caffeine ingestion on endurance performance in mentally fatigued individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Rafael; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos David; Gualano, Bruno; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Bertuzzi, Romulo

    2016-12-01

    To examine the effects of caffeine ingestion on physiological and perceptual responses in mentally fatigued individuals. Eight male physically active subjects completed four cycling constant-workload tests in four experimental conditions at 80 % of maximal power output: control (C), mental fatigue (MF), mental fatigue plus caffeine ingestion (5 mg/kg) (MF-CAF), and mental fatigue plus placebo (MF-PLA). The mental fatigue was induced by a continuous performance task A-X version (AX-CPT). Before and after the AX-CPT, the profile of mood state (POMS) and blood samples for lactate measurement were collected. Oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and electromyography (EMG) activity were measured during the cycling test. The time to exhaustion in C, MF, MF-PLA, and MF-CAF were 251 ± 30, 222 ± 23, 248 ± 28, and 285 ± 42 s, respectively. Delta values (corrected by C condition) were higher in MF-CAF than MF (P = 0.031). MF-CAF reported higher Vigor scores when compared with C (P = 0.046) and MF (P = 0.020). RPE at the first minute was significantly higher in MF-PLA than in C (P = 0.050); at the second minute, RPE was higher in MF-PLA than in C (P = 0.049) and MF-CAF (P = 0.048). EMG activity was not different between the conditions. Caffeine ingestion increased approximately 14 % endurance performance after the induction of mental fatigue. This effect was accompanied by a tendency to improvement in mood state (i.e., vigor). Therefore, caffeine ingestion can promote a beneficial effect on endurance performance in mentally fatigued individuals.

  17. Predictors of subjective age in people aged 40-79 years: a five-year follow-up study. The impact of mastery, mental and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergland, Astrid; Nicolaisen, Magnhild; Thorsen, Kirsten

    2014-07-01

    Assessing subjective age perception (SAP) and changes in SAP as well as exploring which variables of socio-demographic, health and personal mastery independently predicted SAP. The panel data are from two waves of the Norwegian Study on the Life Course, Ageing and Generations (NorLAG). Our sample consists of 2471 people aged 40-79 years at baseline who were surveyed in 2002/2003 (T1) and 2007/2008 (T2). Univariate and multiple regressions were performed; multivariate analyses assessing the relative importance of the independent variables (at T1) for the SAP at T2. Older chronological age, good physical health, good mental health, a high level of personal mastery and having lower education significantly predicted a youthful SAP. For the whole sample, older age and a high level of personal mastery were the most important predictors. For those aged 40-49 being a man, having lower education, good physical health and high personal mastery predicted a younger SAP, whereas in the group aged 50-59 years being married/cohabiting and having a high level of education were predictors of an older SAP. For those aged 60-69, high personal mastery was the only independent predictor of a younger SAP. For those aged 70-79 years, only health - good mental and physical health - independently predicted a younger SAP. Most respondents feel younger than their chronological age, the more the older they are. Self-rated physical and mental health and personal mastery are associated with SAP and vary in different age groups.

  18. Can a virtual reality surgical simulation training provide a self-driven and mentor-free skills learning? Investigation of the practical influence of the performance metrics from the virtual reality robotic surgery simulator on the skill learning and associated cognitive workloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyusung I; Lee, Mija R

    2018-01-01

    While it is often claimed that virtual reality (VR) training system can offer self-directed and mentor-free skill learning using the system's performance metrics (PM), no studies have yet provided evidence-based confirmation. This experimental study investigated what extent to which trainees achieved their self-learning with a current VR simulator and whether additional mentoring improved skill learning, skill transfer and cognitive workloads in robotic surgery simulation training. Thirty-two surgical trainees were randomly assigned to either the Control-Group (CG) or Experiment-Group (EG). While the CG participants reviewed the PM at their discretion, the EG participants had explanations about PM and instructions on how to improve scores. Each subject completed a 5-week training using four simulation tasks. Pre- and post-training data were collected using both a simulator and robot. Peri-training data were collected after each session. Skill learning, time spent on PM (TPM), and cognitive workloads were compared between groups. After the simulation training, CG showed substantially lower simulation task scores (82.9 ± 6.0) compared with EG (93.2 ± 4.8). Both groups demonstrated improved physical model tasks performance with the actual robot, but the EG had a greater improvement in two tasks. The EG exhibited lower global mental workload/distress, higher engagement, and a better understanding regarding using PM to improve performance. The EG's TPM was initially long but substantially shortened as the group became familiar with PM. Our study demonstrated that the current VR simulator offered limited self-skill learning and additional mentoring still played an important role in improving the robotic surgery simulation training.

  19. FY17 CSSE L2 Milestone Report: Analyzing Power Usage Characteristics of Workloads Running on Trinity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedretti, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report summarizes the work performed as part of a FY17 CSSE L2 milestone to in- vestigate the power usage behavior of ASC workloads running on the ATS-1 Trinity plat- form. Techniques were developed to instrument application code regions of interest using the Power API together with the Kokkos profiling interface and Caliper annotation library. Experiments were performed to understand the power usage behavior of mini-applications and the SNL/ATDM SPARC application running on ATS-1 Trinity Haswell and Knights Landing compute nodes. A taxonomy of power measurement approaches was identified and presented, providing a guide for application developers to follow. Controlled scaling study experiments were performed on up to 2048 nodes of Trinity along with smaller scale ex- periments on Trinity testbed systems. Additionally, power and energy system monitoring information from Trinity was collected and archived for post analysis of "in-the-wild" work- loads. Results were analyzed to assess the sensitivity of the workloads to ATS-1 compute node type (Haswell vs. Knights Landing), CPU frequency control, node-level power capping control, OpenMP configuration, Knights Landing on-package memory configuration, and algorithm/solver configuration. Overall, this milestone lays groundwork for addressing the long-term goal of determining how to best use and operate future ASC platforms to achieve the greatest benefit subject to a constrained power budget.

  20. Tetherless ergonomics workstation to assess nurses' physical workload in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Warren D; Nave, Michael E; Hreljac, Alan P

    2011-01-01

    Nurses are at risk of physical injury when moving immobile patients. This paper describes the development and testing of a tetherless ergonomics workstation that is suitable for studying nurses' physical workload in a clinical setting. The workstation uses wearable sensors to record multiple channels of body orientation and muscle activity and wirelessly transmits them to a base station laptop computer for display, storage, and analysis. In preparation for use in a clinical setting, the workstation was tested in a laboratory equipped for multi-camera video motion analysis. The testing included a pilot study of the effect of bed height on student nurses' physical workload while they repositioned a volunteer posing as a bedridden patient toward the head of the bed. Each nurse subject chose a preferred bed height, and data were recorded, in randomized order, with the bed at this height, at 0.1 m below this height, and at 0.1 m above this height. The testing showed that the body orientation recordings made by the wearable sensors agreed closely with those obtained from the video motion analysis system. The pilot study showed the following trends: As the bed height was raised, the nurses' trunk flexion at both thoracic and lumbar sites and lumbar muscle effort decreased, whereas trapezius and deltoid muscle effort increased. These trends will be evaluated by further studies of practicing nurses in the clinical setting.

  1. Evaluation of team lifting on work demands, workload and workers' evaluation: an observational field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Steven; van der Molen, Henk F; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess differences in work demands, energetic workload and workers' discomfort and physical effort in two regularly observable workdays in ironwork; one where loads up to 50kg were handled with two persons manually (T50) and one where loads up to 100kg were handled manually with four persons (T100). Differences between these typical workdays were assessed with an observational within-subject field study of 10 ironworkers. No significant differences were found for work demands, energetic workload or discomfort between T50 and T100 workdays. During team lifts, load mass exceeded 25kg per person in 57% (T50 workday) and 68% (T100 workday) of the lifts. Seven ironworkers rated team lifting with two persons as less physically demanding compared with lifting with four persons. When loads heavier than 25kg are lifted manually with a team, regulations of the maximum mass weight are frequently violated. Loads heavier than 25kg are frequently lifted during concrete reinforcement work and should be lifted by a team of persons. However, the field study showed that loads above 25kg are most of the time not lifted with the appropriate number of workers. Therefore, loads heavier than 25kg should be lifted mechanically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Crew workload-management strategies - A critical factor in system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the philosophy and goals of the NASA/USAF Strategic Behavior/Workload Management Program. The philosophical foundation of the program is based on the assumption that an improved understanding of pilot strategies will clarify the complex and inconsistent relationships observed among objective task demands and measures of system performance and pilot workload. The goals are to: (1) develop operationally relevant figures of merit for performance, (2) quantify the effects of strategic behaviors on system performance and pilot workload, (3) identify evaluation criteria for workload measures, and (4) develop methods of improving pilots' abilities to manage workload extremes.

  3. TideWatch: Fingerprinting the cyclicality of big data workloads

    KAUST Repository

    Williams, Daniel W.

    2014-04-01

    Intrinsic to \\'big data\\' processing workloads (e.g., iterative MapReduce, Pregel, etc.) are cyclical resource utilization patterns that are highly synchronized across different resource types as well as the workers in a cluster. In Infrastructure as a Service settings, cloud providers do not exploit this characteristic to better manage VMs because they view VMs as \\'black boxes.\\' We present TideWatch, a system that automatically identifies cyclicality and similarity in running VMs. TideWatch predicts period lengths of most VMs in Hadoop workloads within 9% of actual iteration boundaries and successfully classifies up to 95% of running VMs as participating in the appropriate Hadoop cluster. Furthermore, we show how TideWatch can be used to improve the timing of VM migrations, reducing both migration time and network impact by over 50% when compared to a random approach. © 2014 IEEE.

  4. Measurement of nurses' workload in an oncology outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Alves de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand and the degree of patient care in oncological outpatient services, as well as the complexity of treatment have had an impact on the workload of nurses. This study aimed at measuring the workload and productivity of nurses in an oncological outpatient service. An observational study using a work sampling technique was conducted and included seven nurses working in an oncological outpatient service in the south-eastern region of Brazil. A total of 1,487 intervention or activity samples were obtained. Nurses used 43.2% of their time on indirect care, 33.2% on direct care, 11.6% on associated activities, and 12% on personal activities. Their mean productivity was 88.0%. The findings showed that nurses in this service spend most of their time in indirect care activities. Moreover, the productivity index in this study was above that recommended in the literature.

  5. POPCORN: a Supervisory Control Simulation for Workload and Performance Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S. G.; Battiste, V.; Lester, P. T.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-task simulation of a semi-automatic supervisory control system was developed to provide an environment in which training, operator strategy development, failure detection and resolution, levels of automation, and operator workload can be investigated. The goal was to develop a well-defined, but realistically complex, task that would lend itself to model-based analysis. The name of the task (POPCORN) reflects the visual display that depicts different task elements milling around waiting to be released and pop out to be performed. The operator's task was to complete each of 100 task elements that ere represented by different symbols, by selecting a target task and entering the desired a command. The simulated automatic system then completed the selected function automatically. Highly significant differences in performance, strategy, and rated workload were found as a function of all experimental manipulations (except reward/penalty).

  6. Reducing Concurrency Bottlenecks in Parallel I/O Workloads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares, Adam C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bent, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wingate, Meghan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    To enable high performance parallel checkpointing we introduced the Parallel Log Structured File System (PLFS). PLFS is middleware interposed on the file system stack to transform concurrent writing of one application file into many non-concurrently written component files. The promising effectiveness of PLFS makes it important to examine its performance for workloads other than checkpoint capture, notably the different ways that state snapshots may be later read, to make the case for using PLFS in the Exascale I/O stack. Reading a PLFS file involved reading each of its component files. In this paper we identify performance limitations on broader workloads in an early version of PLFS, specifically the need to build and distribute an index for the overall file, and the pressure on the underlying parallel file system's metadata server, and show how PLFS's decomposed components architecture can be exploited to alleviate bottlenecks in the underlying parallel file system.

  7. A framework for database optimization and workload control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALVES JR., A. C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, database optimizers take advantage of indexes and materialized views (MVs to produce query execution plans. While indexes and MVs can speed up the execution of queries, there are costs to store and manage them. This paper presents a mathematical model and a greedy implementation to recommend a set of indexes and MVs in order to optimize the database, given a database workload and a disk space constraint. Our approach is generic, so it can be used to any relational database system that takes advantage of MVs in plan selection. While it was developed for frequently updated databases, it also produced interesting results in read only databases and to estimate the behavior of new databases (with predefined workloads.

  8. Telomeres, workload and life-history in great tits

    OpenAIRE

    Atema, Els

    2017-01-01

    Ageing and the effects of increased workload in great tits A new measurement to quantify variation in quality and rate of ageing between individuals is telomere length. Telomeres are a piece of DNA at the end of chromosomes, and they protect the other DNA. In many species shortening of telomere length with increasing age was demonstrated. This shortening is accelerated by processes that also decrease life expectancy. In this project we discovered that telomeres of great tits differ from telom...

  9. The Effects of Workload Transitions in a Multitasking Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-13

    stimulation on sustained attention. Perception & Psychophysics, 18, 245-249. Matthews, M. L. (1986). The influence of visual workload history on visual ...Battlespace Visualization Branch Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433 711 HPW/RHCPA 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY...contrast, exhibited consistently rapid settling which may indicate rapid changes in working memory utilization and conflict resolution (Gevins, et al

  10. Physiological Indicators of Workload in a Remotely Piloted Aircraft Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    situations. That is, performance decrements will have to occur before high workload can be recognized. It would not benefit commanders to recognize, for... caffeine and tobacco), by pain and discomfort, and by diurnal variations. It is worth noting that, there are limitations with all physiological measures...multiple semi-autonomous RPA. The benefits of such automated systems include: reducing manpower requirements, lower life-cycle costs, and decreased

  11. Development and validation of a surgical workload measure: the surgery task load index (SURG-TLX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark R; Poolton, Jamie M; Malhotra, Neha; Ngo, Karen; Bright, Elizabeth; Masters, Rich S W

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a multidimensional, surgery-specific workload measure (the SURG-TLX), and to determine its utility in providing diagnostic information about the impact of various sources of stress on the perceived demands of trained surgical operators. As a wide range of stressors have been identified for surgeons in the operating room, the current approach of considering stress as a unidimensional construct may not only limit the degree to which underlying mechanisms may be understood but also the degree to which training interventions may be successfully matched to particular sources of stress. The dimensions of the SURG-TLX were based on two current multidimensional workload measures and developed via focus group discussion. The six dimensions were defined as mental demands, physical demands, temporal demands, task complexity, situational stress, and distractions. Thirty novices were trained on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) peg transfer task and then completed the task under various conditions designed to manipulate the degree and source of stress experienced: task novelty, physical fatigue, time pressure, evaluation apprehension, multitasking, and distraction. The results were supportive of the discriminant sensitivity of the SURG-TLX to different sources of stress. The sub-factors loaded on the relevant stressors as hypothesized, although the evaluation pressure manipulation was not strong enough to cause a significant rise in situational stress. The present study provides support for the validity of the SURG-TLX instrument and also highlights the importance of considering how different stressors may load surgeons. Implications for categorizing the difficulty of certain procedures, the implementation of new technology in the operating room (man-machine interface issues), and the targeting of stress training strategies to the sources of demand are discussed. Modifications to the scale to enhance

  12. Development of a workplace intervention for sick-listed employees with stress-related mental disorders: Intervention Mapping as a useful tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, S.H. van; Anema, J.R.; Terluin, B.; Venema, A.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Mechelen, W. van

    2007-01-01

    Background. To date, mental health problems and mental workload have been increasingly related to long-term sick leave and disability. However, there is, as yet, no structured protocol available for the identification and application of an intervention for stress-related mental health problems at

  13. Cricket fast bowling workload patterns as risk factors for tendon, muscle, bone and joint injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, John W; Blanch, Peter; Paoloni, Justin; Kountouris, Alex; Sims, Kevin; Orchard, Jessica J; Brukner, Peter

    2015-08-01

    To assess workload-related risk factors for injuries to particular tissue types in cricket fast bowlers. 235 fast bowlers who bowled in 14600 player innings over a period of 15 years were followed in a prospective cohort risk factor study to compare overs bowled in each match (including preceding workload patterns) and injury risk in the 3-4 weeks subsequent to the match. Injuries were categorised according to the affected tissue type as either: bone stress, tendon injuries, muscle strain or joint injuries. Workload risk factors were examined using binomial logistic regression multivariate analysis, with a forward stepwise procedure requiring a significance of injuries, but high medium term (3-month workload) was protective. For bone stress injuries, high medium term workload and low career workload were risk factors. For joint injuries, high previous season and career workload were risk factors. There was little relationship between muscle injury and workload although high previous season workload was slightly protective. The level of injury risk for some tissue types varies in response to preceding fast bowling workload, with tendon injuries most affected by workload patterns. Workload planning may need to be individualised, depending on individual susceptibility to various injury types. This study supports the theory that tendons are at lowest risk with consistent workloads and susceptible to injury with sudden upgrades in workload. Gradual upgrades are recommended, particularly at the start of a bowler's career to reduce the risk of bone stress injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Sense of coherence modifies the effect of overtime work on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Masanori; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Yamato, Hiroshi; Kumashiro, Masaharu; Sugimura, Hisamichi

    2015-01-01

    In the occupational health field, it is important to know how workload influences mental health. Overtime work and job strain appear to affect the mental health status of workers. Sense of coherence (SOC) may mediate the relationship between work stress and mental health. Since SOC represents a personal ability to manage psychological stressors, we hypothesized that a strong SOC would modify the adverse effect of an objective measure of overtime work on mental health. A total of 1,558 Japanese workers employed in an information technology company were asked to complete a 3-item SOC Questionnaire and 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) to assess mental health status. Workload was assessed by the actual amount of overtime work hours recorded by the company. Multiple regression analysis revealed a main effect of overtime work (β=0.08, p=0.0003) and SOC scores (β=0.41, p work and SOC scores (β=0.05, p=0.051). Simple slope analysis supported this association (-1 SD below the mean, simple slope=0.04, SE=0.01, p mental health impacts of workload as measured by an objective index of overtime work, and should be considered when assessing the effects of workload on mental health.

  15. The workload of riding-school horses during jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Spierenburg, A J; van den Broek, E T W

    2006-08-01

    As there are no reports on the real workload of horses that jump fences, this study was undertaken in riding-school horses. To compare the workload of horses jumping a course of fences with that of horses cantering over the same course at the same average speed without jumping fences. The workload variables included heart rate (HR), packed cell volume (PCV), acid-base balance (venous pH, pCO2, HCO3-) and blood lactate (LA), glucose, total protein and electrolyte concentrations. Eight healthy riding-school horses performed test A (a course of approximately 700 m with 12 jumps from 0.8-1.0 m high at an average speed of approximately 350 m/min) and test B (same course at the same speed, but without the rails) in a crossover study with at least 4 h between the 2 tests. Before each test the horses were fitted with a heart rate meter (Polar Electro). Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein at rest prior to the test, after warm-up before starting the course, immediately after the course and after recovery. All samples were analysed immediately. The mean +/- s.d maximal HR (beats/min) during the course (184 +/- 17 and 156 +/- 21, respectively) and the mean HR after recovery (75 +/- 6 and 63 +/- 7, respectively) were significantly higher in test A compared to test B (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007 respectively). The mean LA concentrations after the course and after recovery (mmol/l) were significantly higher in test A (3.6 +/- 2.7 and 1.0 +/- 0.9, respectively) compared to test B (0.9 +/- 0.5 and 0.3 +/- 0.1, respectively), (P = 0.016 and P = 0.048 respectively). The mean PCV (I/l) after the course and after recovery was also significantly different between tests A (0.48 +/- 0.04 and 0.39 +/- 0.03, respectively) and B (0.42 +/- 0.04 and 0.36 +/- 0.03, respectively) (PPspeed without fences. This study makes it clear that the extra workload of jumping fences should be taken into account in the training programmes of jumping horses. Further research with more experienced

  16. Impact of simulated three-dimensional perception on precision of depth judgements, technical performance and perceived workload in laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, S; Grove, P M; Hill, A; Watson, M O; Stevenson, A R L

    2017-07-01

    This study compared precision of depth judgements, technical performance and workload using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) laparoscopic displays across different viewing distances. It also compared the accuracy of 3D displays with natural viewing, along with the relationship between stereoacuity and 3D laparoscopic performance. A counterbalanced within-subjects design with random assignment to testing sequences was used. The system could display 2D or 3D images with the same set-up. A Howard-Dolman apparatus assessed precision of depth judgements, and three laparoscopic tasks (peg transfer, navigation in space and suturing) assessed performance (time to completion). Participants completed tasks in all combinations of two viewing modes (2D, 3D) and two viewing distances (1 m, 3 m). Other measures administered included the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (perceived workload) and the Randot(®) Stereotest (stereoacuity). Depth judgements were 6·2 times as precise at 1 m and 3·0 times as precise at 3 m using 3D versus 2D displays (P large improvements over 2D displays in precision of depth judgements, technical performance and perceived workload. © 2017 The Authors. BJS published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of BJS Society Ltd.

  17. Classifying visuomotor workload in a driving simulator using subject specific spatial brain patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Chris; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel; Mulder, Ben L. J. M.; de Jong, Ritske

    2013-01-01

    A passive Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is a system that responds to the spontaneously produced brain activity of its user and could be used to develop interactive task support. A human-machine system that could benefit from brain-based task support is the driver-car interaction system. To

  18. Subjective versus objective: an exploratory analysis of latino primary care patients with self-perceived depression who do not fulfill primary care evaluation of mental disorders patient health questionnaire criteria for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Susan; Alvidrez, Jennifer; Paris, Manuel; Escobar, Javier I; Dixon, Jane K; Desai, Mayur M; Whittemore, Robin; Scahill, Lawrence D

    2010-01-01

    Identification and treatment of depression may be difficult for primary care providers when there is a mismatch between the patient's subjective experiences of illness and objective criteria. Cultural differences in presentation of symptoms among Latino immigrants may hinder access to care for treatment of depression. This article seeks to describe the self-perceptions and symptoms of Latino primary care patients who identify themselves as depressed but do not meet screening criteria for depression. A convenience sample of Latino immigrants (N = 177) in Corona, Queens, New York, was obtained from a primary care practice from August 2008 to December 2008. The sample was divided into 3 groups according to whether participants met Patient Health Questionnaire diagnostic criteria for depression and whether or not participants had a self-perceived mental health problem and self-identified their problem as "depression" from a checklist of cultural idioms of distress. Psychosocial, demographic, and treatment variables were compared between the 3 groups. Participants' descriptions of symptoms had a predominantly somatic component. The most common complaints were ánimo bajo (low energy) and decaimiento (weakness). Participants with "subjective" depression had mean scores of somatic symptoms and depression severity that were significantly lower than the participants with "objective" depression and significantly higher than the group with no depression (P expressions of distress and the meaning of illness for the individual.

  19. Nursing workload and adherence to non-pharmacological measures in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jam, R; Hernández, O; Mesquida, J; Turégano, C; Carrillo, E; Pedragosa, R; Gómez, V; Martí, L; Vallés, J; Delgado-Hito, P

    To analyse whether adherence to non-pharmacological measures in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is associated with nursing workload. A prospective observational study performed in a single medical-surgical ICU. Nurses in charge of patients under ventilator support were assessed. knowledge questionnaire, application of non-pharmacological VAP prevention measures, and workload (Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score). Phases: 1) the nurses carried out a educational programme, consisting of 60-minute lectures on non-pharmacological measures for VAP prevention, and at the end completed a questionnaire knowledge; 2) observation period; 3) knowledge questionnaire. Among 67 ICU-staff nurses, 54 completed the educational programme and were observed. A total of 160 observations of 49 nurses were made. Adequate knowledge was confirmed in both the initial and final questionnaires. Application of preventive measures ranged from 11% for hand washing pre-aspiration to 97% for the use of a sterile aspiration probe. The Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score was 50±13. No significant differences were observed between the association of the nurses' knowledge and the application of preventive measures or between workload and the application of preventive measures. Nurses' knowledge of VAP prevention measures is not necessarily applied in daily practice. Failure to follow these measures is not subject to lack of knowledge or to increased workload, but presumably to contextual factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Time estimation as a secondary task to measure workload. [attention sharing effect on operator performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S. G.

    1975-01-01

    Variation in the length of time productions and verbal estimates of duration was investigated to determine the influence of concurrent activity on operator time perception. The length of 10-, 20-, and 30-sec intervals produced while performing six different compensatory tracking tasks was significantly longer, 23% on the average, than those produced while performing no other task. Verbal estimates of session duration, taken at the end of each of 27 experimental sessions, reflected a parallel increase in subjective underestimation of the passage of time as the difficulty of the task performed increased. These data suggest that estimates of duration made while performing a manual control task provide stable and sensitive measures of the workload imposed by the primary task, with minimal interference.

  1. [Work-related stress and mental health - can work lead to mental disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptáček, Radek; Vňuková, Martina; Raboch, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    In the past two decades, special attention was paid to mental health issues. The available literature suggests, for example, the relationship between the workload and mental discomfort and the occurrence of myocardial infarction. This article focuses mainly on the issue of work-related stress and its impact on mental health. In this context, it must be acknowledged that possible psychological problems due to work are not only employees problem. These difficulties can significantly affect performance - and thus they should be the concern of the employer, but also of customers, clients and patients who come into contact with the worker who might develop some mental problems, due to the nature of his work and working conditions. This article provides an overview of the various factors affecting the mental health of employees. These are, for example, work demands, working hours and workplace relations. In conclusion, it brings results of Czech study examining job stress among working population.

  2. The Association of Team-Specific Workload and Staffing with Odds of Burnout Among VA Primary Care Team Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Christian D; Simonetti, Joseph A; Clinton, Walter L; Wood, Gordon B; Taylor, Leslie; Schectman, Gordon; Stark, Richard; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Fihn, Stephan D; Nelson, Karin M

    2017-07-01

    Work-related burnout is common in primary care and is associated with worse patient safety, patient satisfaction, and employee mental health. Workload, staffing stability, and team completeness may be drivers of burnout. However, few studies have assessed these associations at the team level, and fewer still include members of the team beyond physicians. To study the associations of burnout among primary care providers (PCPs), nurse care managers, clinical associates (MAs, LPNs), and administrative clerks with the staffing and workload on their teams. We conducted an individual-level cross-sectional analysis of survey and administrative data in 2014. Primary care personnel at VA clinics responding to a national survey. Burnout was measured with a validated single-item survey measure dichotomized to indicate the presence of burnout. The independent variables were survey measures of team staffing (having a fully staffed team, serving on multiple teams, and turnover on the team), and workload both from survey items (working extended hours), and administrative data (patient panel overcapacity and average panel comorbidity). There were 4610 respondents (estimated response rate of 20.9%). The overall prevalence of burnout was 41%. In adjusted analyses, the strongest associations with burnout were having a fully staffed team (odds ratio [OR] = 0.55, 95% CI 0.47-0.65), having turnover on the team (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.43-1.94), and having patient panel overcapacity (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40). The observed burnout prevalence was 30.1% lower (28.5% vs. 58.6%) for respondents working on fully staffed teams with no turnover and caring for a panel within capacity, relative to respondents in the inverse condition. Complete team staffing, turnover among team members, and panel overcapacity had strong, cumulative associations with burnout. Further research is needed to understand whether improvements in these factors would lower burnout.

  3. Impact of promoting self-care in nursing workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trettene, Armando Dos Santos; Fontes, Cassiana Mendes Bertoncelo; Razera, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Gomide, Marcia Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    To assess the impact of promoting self-care in nursing workload and associate it to the variables: age, gender, socioeconomic status, education, marital status and number of children of caregivers. Prospective study with 31 children and their caregivers. Participants were assessed at two moments, 1st and 2nd hospitalization, the nursing workload was measured by the Nursing Activities Score (NAS). The mean NAS in the 1st hospitalization was 60.9% and in the 2nd hospitalization was 41.6%, that is, 14.6 and 9.9 hours of nursing, respectively. The nursing workload on the first day of hospitalization was higher compared to the last day, both for the 1st (pautocuidado na carga de trabalho de enfermagem e associá-la às variáveis: idade, gênero, classificação socioeconômica, escolaridade, estado civil e número de filhos dos cuidadores. Estudo prospectivo, onde participaram 31 crianças e seus respectivos cuidadores. Os participantes foram avaliados em dois momentos, 1ª e 2ª internação, quanto à carga de trabalho de enfermagem mensurada por meio do Nursing Activities Score (NAS). A média NAS na 1ª internação foi de 60,9%, e na 2ª internação foi de 41,6%, ou seja, 14,6 e 9,9 horas de enfermagem, respectivamente. A carga de trabalho de enfermagem no primeiro dia de internação foi maior quando comparada ao último dia, tanto na 1ª (pautocuidado a influenciaram (pautocuidado correspondeu a 14,6 horas e foi superior ao determinado pela legislação existente.

  4. Evaluating and optimizing the NERSC workload on Knights Landing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T; Cook, B; Deslippe, J; Doerfler, D; Friesen, B; He, Y; Kurth, T; Koskela, T; Lobet, M; Malas, T; Oliker, L; Ovsyannikov, A; Sarje, A; Vay, JL; Vincenti, H; Williams, S; Carrier, P; Wichmann, N; Wagner, M; Kent, P; Kerr, C; Dennis, J

    2017-01-30

    NERSC has partnered with 20 representative application teams to evaluate performance on the Xeon-Phi Knights Landing architecture and develop an application-optimization strategy for the greater NERSC workload on the recently installed Cori system. In this article, we present early case studies and summarized results from a subset of the 20 applications highlighting the impact of important architecture differences between the Xeon-Phi and traditional Xeon processors. We summarize the status of the applications and describe the greater optimization strategy that has formed.

  5. Psychological workload is associated with weight gain between 1993 and 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gamborg, M; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To examine associations between psychological workload and subsequent 6-y weight changes. METHODS: In total, 6704 Danish nurses, aged 45-65 y and employed both in 1993 and 1999, answered questionnaires about psychological workload, including busyness in job, job speed and job influence...... who attained influence in job over the 6-y period. CONCLUSION: : Psychological workload, particularly both low and high busyness in job and low influence in job, was associated with higher 6-y weight gain among female Danish nurses....

  6. Task-Diaries: A Valuable Qualitative Tool for Occupational Health Research on Teacher Workloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Temple Newhook PhD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the usefulness of a qualitative tool called a “task-diary,” in combination with individual in-depth interviews, for occupational health research on teacher workloads. I describe my use of task-diaries to examine primary and elementary teachers' workloads in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, discuss the most useful aspects of task-diaries for this research, and suggest further applications of this tool in the workload research field.

  7. How to reduce workload--augmented reality to ease the work of air traffic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Thomas; König, Christina; Bruder, Ralph; Bergner, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    In the future the air traffic will rise--the workload of the controllers will do the same. In the BMWi research project, one of the tasks is, how to ensure safe air traffic, and a reasonable workload for the air traffic controllers. In this project it was the goal to find ways how to reduce the workload (and stress) for the controllers to allow safe air traffic, esp. at huge hub-airports by implementing augmented reality visualization and interaction.

  8. Individual estimated sensitivity and workload for manual screening of SurePath gynecologic cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kay; Renshaw, Andrew A; Dudding, Nick

    2012-02-01

    Data correlating individual screening sensitivity in gynecologic cytology and workload is limited. We compared the estimated sensitivity of manual screening of SurePath slides with individual workload. Estimated sensitivity determined by rapid prescreening was correlated with total workload in a laboratory performing manual screening of SurePath preparations for a 1 year period. There were 12 CTs with a total daily workload ranging from 8-35 slides. The mean estimated sensitivity for SurePath was 97.0% (range 91-100%). The mean estimated sensitivity for the lowest half workload (8-23 slides/day) was significantly higher than that for the highest half workload (23-35 slides/day) (98.3 versus 95.7%, P ≤ 0.001). The highest workload that achieved 100% estimated sensitivity was 30 slides/day. For manual screening of SurePath slides, individual estimated sensitivity is correlated with workload even at relatively low daily workloads. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Neutron beam irradiation study of workload dependence of SER in a microprocessor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graves, Todd L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hong, Ted [STANFORD; Ackaret, Jerry [IBM; Sonny, Rao [IBM; Subhasish, Mitra [STANFORD; Pia, Sanda [IBM

    2009-01-01

    It is known that workloads are an important factor in soft error rates (SER), but it is proving difficult to find differentiating workloads for microprocessors. We have performed neutron beam irradiation studies of a commercial microprocessor under a wide variety of workload conditions from idle, performing no operations, to very busy workloads resembling real HPC, graphics, and business applications. There is evidence that the mean times to first indication of failure, MTFIF defined in Section II, may be different for some of the applications.

  10. Effects of in-car support on mental workload and driving performance of older drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidse, R.J. Hagenzieker, M.P. Wolffelaar, P.C. van & Brouwer, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which driving performance of 10 older (70—88 years old) and 30 younger participants (30—50 years old) improves as a result of support by a driver assistance system. Various studies have indicated that advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) may provide tailored

  11. Effects of in-car support on mental workload and driving performance of older drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidse, R.J.; Hagenzieker, M.; van Wolffelaar, P.C.; Brouwer, W.H.

    Objective: This study examined the extent to which driving performance of 10 older (70-88 years old) and 30 younger participants (30-50 years old) improves as a result of support by a driver assistance system. Background: Various studies have indicated that advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS)

  12. Collective workload organization in confined excavation of granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaenkova, Daria; Linevich, Vadim; Goodisman, Michael A.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-03-01

    Many social insects collectively construct large nests in complex substrates; such structures are often composed of narrow tunnels. The benefits of collective construction, including reduced construction costs per worker come with challenges of navigation in crowded, confined spaces. Here we study the workforce organization of groups of S. invicta fire ants creating tunnels in wet granular media. We monitor the activity levels of marked (painted) workers-defined as a number of tunnel visits over 12 hours- during initiation of tunnels. The activity levels are described by a Lorenz curve with a Gini coefficient of ~ 0 . 7 indicating that a majority of the excavation is performed by a minority of workers. We hypothesize that this workload distribution is beneficial for excavation in crowded conditions, and use a 2D cellular automata (CA) model to reproduce behaviors of the excavating ants. CA simulations reveal that tunnel construction rates decrease in groups of equally active animals compared to groups with the natural workload distribution. We use predictions of the CA model to organize collective excavation of granular material by teams of digging robots, and use the robots to test hypotheses of crowded excavation in the physical world. We acknowledge support of National Science Foundation, Physics of Living Systems division.

  13. Generating Shifting Workloads to Benchmark Adaptability in Relational Database Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabl, Tilmann; Lang, Andreas; Hackl, Thomas; Sick, Bernhard; Kosch, Harald

    A large body of research concerns the adaptability of database systems. Many commercial systems already contain autonomic processes that adapt configurations as well as data structures and data organization. Yet there is virtually no possibility for a just measurement of the quality of such optimizations. While standard benchmarks have been developed that simulate real-world database applications very precisely, none of them considers variations in workloads produced by human factors. Today’s benchmarks test the performance of database systems by measuring peak performance on homogeneous request streams. Nevertheless, in systems with user interaction access patterns are constantly shifting. We present a benchmark that simulates a web information system with interaction of large user groups. It is based on the analysis of a real online eLearning management system with 15,000 users. The benchmark considers the temporal dependency of user interaction. Main focus is to measure the adaptability of a database management system according to shifting workloads. We will give details on our design approach that uses sophisticated pattern analysis and data mining techniques.

  14. Commissioning the CERN IT Agile Infrastructure with experiment workloads

    CERN Document Server

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Denis, Marek Kamil; Cinquilli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    In order to ease the management of their infrastructure, most of the WLCG sites are adopting cloud based strategies. In the case of CERN, the Tier 0 of the WLCG, is completely restructuring the resource and configuration management of their computing center under the codename Agile Infrastructure. Its goal is to manage 15,000 Virtual Machines by means of an OpenStack middleware in order to unify all the resources in CERN's two datacenters: the one placed in Meyrin and the new on in Wigner, Hungary. During the commissioning of this infrastructure, CERN IT is offering an attractive amount of computing resources to the experiments (800 cores for ATLAS and CMS) through a private cloud interface. ATLAS and CMS have joined forces to exploit them by running stress tests and simulation workloads since November 2012. This work will describe the experience of the first deployments of the current experiment workloads on the CERN private cloud testbed. The paper is organized as follows: the first section will explain th...

  15. Use of iPads to Decrease Faculty Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Sarah; Hess, Kari; Peek, Gina

    2016-10-01

    Multiple faculty were present during a simulation for competency assessments of students, thus creating an increased workload and fatigue. Faculty used technology to reduce the workload and maintain interrater reliability, at little to no cost. The use of high-fidelity simulators, tablet computers, and a university video platform were used to record student competency assessments. One faculty member could perform the assessment, but other course faculty could review the results. Seventy-four competency assessments were recorded, and faculty determined that the tablet provided a viable and inexpensive method to record the competency assessments. The ability for faculty to review the recordings helped in maintaining rater and interrater reliability and a method for student remediation. Time spent in the competency assessment, especially during evening hours, was decreased. A tablet computer and video platform provided an inexpensive method to reduce faculty contact hours and maintain interrater reliability. It also provided a valuable method to allow students to review their own performance for remediation. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(10):590-591.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Workloads, strain processes and sickness absenteeism in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Aline Mininel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the workloads, strain processes and sickness absenteeism among nursing workers from a teaching hospital in the Brazilian Central-West. METHOD: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was developed with a quantitative approach, based on the theoretical framework of the social determination of the health-disease process. Data were collected between January and December 2009, based on records of complaints related to occupational exposure among nursing professionals, filed in the software Monitoring System of Nursing Workers' Health. For the sake of statistical analysis, relative and absolute frequencies of the variables and the risk coefficient were considered. RESULTS: 144 notifications of occupational exposure were registered across the analysis period, which represented 25% of the total nursing population at the hospital. The physiological and psychic workloads were the most representative, corresponding to 37% and 36%, respectively. These notifications culminated in 1567 days of absenteeism for disease treatment. CONCLUSIONS: the findings evidence the impact of occupational illnesses on the absenteeism of nursing workers, and can be used to demonstrate the importance of institutional investments in occupational health surveillance.

  17. Unplanned extubation in the ICU: Impact on outcome and nursing workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krayem Ayman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and factors associated with unplanned extubation (UE in the intensive care unit (ICU and its relationship with nursing workload. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was carried out within a cohort of ventilated patients in two teaching hospital medical-surgical ICUs. A total of 50 adult patients with UE were studied. Controls were subjects without UE who were matched to the cases on the following Five factors: age, gender, admission diagnostic category, admission date (within 3 months and duration of mechanical ventilation. Other data including patient demographics, comorbid conditions, APACHE III score, ventilation parameters, use of sedation, re-intubation, mortality rate and ICU/hospital length of stay were collected. Nine equivalents of nursing manpower use score (NEMS and multiple organ dysfunction score (MODS were calculated in both, cases and controls, 24 h before and after the event. RESULTS: Sixty-eight episodes of UE occurred in 66 patients during the 24-month study period (1.1%. Patients with UE were more agitated ( P P =0.023 than their controls. UE was associated with a higher rate of re-intubation compared to the control group ( P P >0.05. The mean NEMS were not significantly different between the two groups 24 h before ( P =0.69 and after ( P =0.99 the extubation event. Also, the mean MODS were similar between both groups 24 h before ( P =0.69 and after ( P =0.74 extubation. CONCLUSION: In this study, agitation and greater use of benzodiazepines were frequently associated with UE and potentially can be used as risk factors for UE. We have found no significant impact of UE on increasing mortality and, in a manner not shown before, nursing workload.

  18. Étude de corrélats électrophysiologiques pour la discrimination d'états de fatigue et de charge mentale : apports pour les interfaces cerveaumachine passives

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Raphaëlle

    2015-01-01

    Mental state estimation on the basis of cerebral activity and its resulting physiological activities has become a challenge for passive Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI), in particular to address a need in neuroergonomics. This thesis work focuses on mental fatigue and workload estimation. Its purpose is to provide efficient and realistic processing chains. Thus, one issue was the modulation of workload markers as well as classification performance robustness depending on time-on-task (TOT). Th...

  19. Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leading cause of disability. Untreated mental illness can cause severe emotional, behavioral and physical health problems. Complications sometimes linked to mental illness include: Unhappiness and decreased enjoyment of life ...

  20. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  1. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play ...

  2. Total Student Workload: Implications of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System for an Integrated, Problem-Based Medical Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Nosair

    2017-12-01

    Discussion: Measuring student total workload in a problem-based program is important for evading the associated overload, and improving the quality of teaching and learning. Calculating student workload in an integrated problem-based curriculum is a challenge. Total student workload is the foundation for determination of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System units. Measuring unstructured student workload (or “out-of-class” learning time is an important component of total student workload. Assigning the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System to problem-based programs improves its quality assurance, and has educational, curricular, and organizational impact. Therefore, student workload in such programs should be regularity monitored and evaluated.

  3. A equipe de saúde mental numa aproximação sociopoética: das relações interpessoais à produção de subjetividade El equipo de salud mental en un acercamiento sociopoético: de las relaciones interpersonales a la producción de subjetividad The mental health staff in an sociopoetic approach: from the inter-personal relationships to the production of subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Carneiro Silveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivamos perceber como se dá a produção de subjetividade dentro dos novos serviços de saúde mental, utilizando como referencial teórico-metodológico uma abordagem inovadora chamada Sociopoética. A produção dos dados deu-se por meio de oficinas com a equipe de trabalhadores de saúde mental de um hospital-dia. Como resultados percebemos aspectos institucionais, sociais, econômicos e pessoais referenciados pela equipe como sendo aqueles mais relevantes na composição do quadro de sua prática dentro dos novos serviços. Concluímos que o processo de pesquisa mostrou-se um importante instrumento de auto-análise, permitindo ao grupo repensar sua prática e multiplicar as possibilidades de produção de sentido para suas experiências.Tuvimos como objetivo percibir cómo se dan las posibilidades de producción de subjetividad dentro de la nueva estructura de salud mental usando como referencial teórico-metodológico una aproximación innovadora llamada Sociopoética. La producción de los datos se hizo a través de talleres con los trabajadores de salud mental de un hospital de día. Como resultados percibimos los aspectos institucionales, sociales, económicos y personales referidos por el grupo como los más importantes en la composición del cuadro de su práctica dentro de los nuevos servicios. Concluimos que el proceso de investigación se mostró como un importante instrumento de auto-análisis, permitiendo al grupo volver a pensar su práctica y multiplicar las posibilidades de producción del sentido para sus experiencias.We aim to notice how the possibilities of subjectivity production are being given inside of the new mental health services using as theoretical-methodological referential an innovative approach called "Sociopoética". The production of the data was made through workshops with the mental health workers of a Day Unit staff. As a result we noticed the institutional, social, economical and personal aspects

  4. Integration of Panda Workload Management System with supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, K.; Jha, S.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Nilsson, P.; Novikov, A.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Poyda, A.; Read, K. F.; Ryabinkin, E.; Teslyuk, A.; Velikhov, V.; Wells, J. C.; Wenaus, T.

    2016-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 140 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3+ petaFLOPS, next LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, Europe and Russia (in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), Supercomputer at the National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", IT4 in Ostrava, and others). The current approach utilizes a modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run singlethreaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multi-core worker nodes. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads

  5. Comparing mental model assessment technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Göğüş, Aytaç; Gogus, Aytac

    2010-01-01

    Practical measurement and assessment of mental models is not a simple task. There is a lack of assessment tools that can directly and accurately evaluate mental models. This proposed research study on evaluation of mental models uses a set of Web-based assessment tools called HIMATT (Highly Integrated Model Assessment Technology and Tools) developed by an international researcher group to address the need for automated tools. Subjects in this study uses DEEP (Dynamic Evaluation of Enhanced Pr...

  6. Clínica ampliada em saúde mental: cuidar e suposição de saber no acompanhamento terapêutico Wide-spectrum clinical interventions in mental health: " care" and " subject supposed to know" in therapeutic assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estellita-Lins

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investiga o acompanhamento terapêutico, entendido como intervenção em saúde mental baseada em cuidados domiciliares. Destacamos a importância de intervenções comunitárias privilegiando formas de lidar com o sofrimento, seja através de uma concepção médica dos sintomas, fundada na visibilidade, seja valorizando uma leitura psicanalítica que recorre à escuta. Carecendo de teorização independente que fundamente sua prática, o AT (acompanhamento terapêutico apropria-se de teorias provenientes de outros campos do saber que guardam afinidades. Neste sentido, abordamos a influência da psicanálise e sua participação na clínica ampliada em saúde mental através da prática clínica do AT, utilizando dois conceitos operatórios de amplo alcance, que são: sujeito suposto saber, proveniente da obra de Lacan, e cuidado, derivado de Winnicott. Ambos respondem a questões do campo teórico e orientam a atuação clínica. Concluímos que o AT realiza exigências do manejo transferencial sob a forma do cuidar exercido no cotidiano do sujeito, no qual desejo e subjetividade são necessariamente reconhecidos, sem que se configure como tecnologia psicoterápica, situando-se mais propriamente como sentinela clínica no campo da psiquiatria comunitária e saúde coletiva.This paper discusses the theme therapeutic assistance (TA, understood as homecare-based mental health intervention. We emphasize the importance of community interventions for dealing with psychic suffering, either through reading the symptoms based on visibility, or through a psychoanalytic approach mainly concerned with listening. Lacking an independent theoretical background to support this practice, therapeutic assistance makes use of theories coming from other related fields of knowledge. Therefore, we discuss the influence of psychoanalysis and its role among broad spectrum mental health practice through clinical interventions belonging to the field of TA

  7. Workload and associated factors: a study in maritime port in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde de; Sant'Anna, Cynthia Fontella; Cardoso, Leticia Silveira

    2016-11-28

    to identify the effect of the mental, physical, temporal, performance, total effort and frustration demands in the overall workload, and in the same way analyze the global burden of port labor and associated factors that contribute most to their decrease or increase. a cross-sectional, quantitative study, developed with 232 dock workers. For data collection, a structured questionnaire with descriptive, occupational, smoking and illicit drug use variables was applied, as well as variables on the load on the tasks undertaken at work, based on the questionnaire NASA Task Load Index. For data analysis, we used the analysis of the Poisson regression model. the demands physical demand and total effort showed greater effect on the overall workload, indicating high overall load on port work (134 employees - 58.8%). The following remained associated statistically with high levels of workload: age (p = 0.044), to be employee of the wharfage (p = 0.006), work only at night (p = 0.025), smoking (p = 0.037) and use of illegal drugs (p = 0.029). the workload in this type of activity was high, and the professional category and work shift the factors that contributed to the increase, while the age proved to be a factor associated with a decrease. identificar o efeito das demandas mental, física, temporal, de desempenho, esforço total e frustração na carga global de trabalho, da mesma maneira que analisar a carga global de trabalho portuário e fatores associados que mais contribuem para sua diminuição ou aumento. estudo transversal, quantitativo, desenvolvido com 232 trabalhadores portuários. Para a coleta de dados, foi aplicado um questionário estruturado com variáveis de caracterização, ocupacional, tabagismo e uso de drogas ilícitas, além de variáveis sobre a carga nas tarefas desenvolvidas no trabalho, com base no questionário NASA Task Load Index. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se a análise do modelo de regressão de Poisson. as demandas exigência f

  8. Comparison of real-time relative workload measurements in rail signallers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Broekhoven, Rob; Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Milius, Birgit; Naumann, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory field study investigated the weak resilience signals of workload in a rail traffic control room. The goals of this research are to see whether real-time system information of a rail control post can be used to predict workload of a rail signaller in real-time (Siegel & Schraagen,

  9. Nurse-patient assignment models considering patient acuity metrics and nurses' perceived workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sir, Mustafa Y; Dundar, Bayram; Barker Steege, Linsey M; Pasupathy, Kalyan S

    2015-06-01

    Patient classification systems (PCSs) are commonly used in nursing units to assess how many nursing care hours are needed to care for patients. These systems then provide staffing and nurse-patient assignment recommendations for a given patient census based on these acuity scores. Our hypothesis is that such systems do not accurately capture workload and we conduct an experiment to test this hypothesis. Specifically, we conducted a survey study to capture nurses' perception of workload in an inpatient unit. Forty five nurses from oncology and surgery units completed the survey and rated the impact of patient acuity indicators on their perceived workload using a six-point Likert scale. These ratings were used to calculate a workload score for an individual nurse given a set of patient acuity indicators. The approach offers optimization models (prescriptive analytics), which use patient acuity indicators from a commercial PCS as well as a survey-based nurse workload score. The models assign patients to nurses in a balanced manner by distributing acuity scores from the PCS and survey-based perceived workload. Numerical results suggest that the proposed nurse-patient assignment models achieve a balanced assignment and lower overall survey-based perceived workload compared to the assignment based solely on acuity scores from the PCS. This results in an improvement of perceived workload that is upwards of five percent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nonparametric estimation of the stationary M/G/1 workload distribution function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    In this paper it is demonstrated how a nonparametric estimator of the stationary workload distribution function of the M/G/1-queue can be obtained by systematic sampling the workload process. Weak convergence results and bootstrap methods for empirical distribution functions for stationary...

  11. Nonparametric estimation of the stationary M/G/1 workload distribution function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2005-01-01

    In this paper it is demonstrated how a nonparametric estimator of the stationary workload distribution function of the M/G/1-queue can be obtained by systematic sampling the workload process. Weak convergence results and bootstrap methods for empirical distribution functions for stationary...

  12. The Influence of Nursing Faculty Workloads on Faculty Retention: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    Nursing faculty workloads have come to the forefront of discussion in nursing education. The National League of Nursing (NLN) has made nursing faculty workloads a high priority in nursing education. Included in the priorities are areas of creating reform through innovations in nursing education, evaluating reform through evaluation research, and…

  13. EEG Estimates of Cognitive Workload and Engagement Predict Math Problem Solving Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Carole R.; Galan, Federico Cirett

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors focused on the use of electroencephalography (EEG) data about cognitive workload and sustained attention to predict math problem solving outcomes. EEG data were recorded as students solved a series of easy and difficult math problems. Sequences of attention and cognitive workload estimates derived from the EEG…

  14. Is This Work Sustainable? Teacher Turnover and Perceptions of Workload in Charter Management Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A. Chris

    2016-01-01

    An unsustainable workload is considered the primary cause of teacher turnover at Charter Management Organizations (CMOs), yet most reports provide anecdotal evidence to support this claim. This study uses 2010-2011 survey data from one large CMO and finds that teachers' perceptions of workload are significantly associated with decisions to leave…

  15. The Peripheral Detection Task (PDT) : On-line measurement of driver cognitive workload and selective attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Martens, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Peaks in workload while driving might have immediate safety implications. The Peripheral Detection Task (PDT) has shown to be a sensitive objective workload measure. Drivers have to respond to the onset of a peripherally presented simple visual stimulus (red square or LED) by pressing a finger

  16. Dynamics of Perceived Exertion in Constant-Power Cycling: Time- and Workload-Dependent Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagué, Natàlia; Hristovski, Robert; García, Sergi; Aguirre, Cecilia; Vázquez, Pablo; Razon, Selen; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the dynamics of perceived exertion shifts (PES) as a function of time and workload during constant-power cycling. Method: Fifty-two participants assigned to 4 groups performed a cycling task at 4 different constant workloads corresponding to their individual rates of perceived exertion (RPEs = 13, 15,…

  17. Housestaff Experience, Workload, and Test Ordering in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Charles H., III; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of the workload of nine medical interns and seven residents in a neonatal intensive care nursery investigated the number of X-rays, arterial blood gas analyses (ABGs), and electrolyte determinations ordered for 321 infants over 5 months. Results show that as the workload increased, interns ordered ABGs more often than residents, especially…

  18. A Virtual Machine Migration Strategy Based on Time Series Workload Prediction Using Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at resolving the issues of the imbalance of resources and workloads at data centers and the overhead together with the high cost of virtual machine (VM migrations, this paper proposes a new VM migration strategy which is based on the cloud model time series workload prediction algorithm. By setting the upper and lower workload bounds for host machines, forecasting the tendency of their subsequent workloads by creating a workload time series using the cloud model, and stipulating a general VM migration criterion workload-aware migration (WAM, the proposed strategy selects a source host machine, a destination host machine, and a VM on the source host machine carrying out the task of the VM migration. Experimental results and analyses show, through comparison with other peer research works, that the proposed method can effectively avoid VM migrations caused by momentary peak workload values, significantly lower the number of VM migrations, and dynamically reach and maintain a resource and workload balance for virtual machines promoting an improved utilization of resources in the entire data center.

  19. Effects of speech versus tactile driver support messages on driving behaviour and workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.H.; Winsum, W. van

    2001-01-01

    In a driving simulator experiment, effects were tested of an integrated support system on driving behaviour, user acceptance and workload. An alternative workload measure was used based upon peripheral vision. Two modes of support (tactile and speech messages) were compared to a control condition

  20. Workload Manageability among Novice Special and General Educators: Relationships with Emotional Exhaustion and Career Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Elizabeth; Jones, Nathan; Brownell, Mary; Conroy, Maureen; Park, Yujeong; Leite, Walter; Crockett, Jean; Benedict, Amber

    2017-01-01

    Novice special educators (those in their first 3 years) consistently report their workloads are unmanageable. Yet, it is not clear whether their perceptions of workload manageability contribute to outcomes of concern such as emotional exhaustion (a component of burnout) or intentions to continue teaching in their schools and districts. This pilot…

  1. Individual differences in working memory capacity and workload capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chi eYu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC and workload capacity (WLC. Each participant performed an operation span (OSPAN task to measure his/her WMC and three redundant-target detection tasks to measure his/her WLC. WLC was computed non-parametrically (Experiments 1 and 2 and parametrically (Experiment 2. Both levels of analyses showed that participants high in WMC had larger WLC than those low in WMC only when redundant information came from visual and auditory modalities, suggesting that high-WMC participants had superior processing capacity in dealing with redundant visual and auditory information. This difference was eliminated when multiple processes required processing for only a single working memory subsystem in a color-shape detection task and a double-dot detection task. These results highlighted the role of executive control in integrating and binding information from the two working memory subsystems for perceptual decision making.

  2. Decision Tree Rating Scales for Workload Estimation: Theme and Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietwille, W. W.; Skipper, J. H.; Rieger, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of workload in several different types of aircrew tasks. The MCH scale was examined to determine if certain variations of the scale might provide even greater sensitivity and to determine the reasons for the sensitivity of the scale. The MCH scale and five newly devised scales were studied in two different aircraft simulator experiments in which pilot loading was treated as an independent variable. Results indicate that while one of the new scales may be more sensitive in a given experiment, task dependency is a problem. The MCH scale exhibits consistent sensitivity and remains the scale recommended for general use. The results of the rating scale experiments are presented and the questionnaire results which were directed at obtaining a better understanding of the reasons for the relative sensitivity of the MCH scale and its variations are described.

  3. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers

    CERN Document Server

    Klimentov, Alexei; The ATLAS collaboration; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Read, Kenneth; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 140 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 100,000 co...

  4. DIRAC pilot framework and the DIRAC Workload Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casajus, Adrian; Graciani, Ricardo; Paterson, Stuart; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; LHCb DIRAC Team

    2010-04-01

    DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, has pioneered the use of pilot jobs in the Grid. Pilot Jobs provide a homogeneous interface to an heterogeneous set of computing resources. At the same time, Pilot Jobs allow to delay the scheduling decision to the last moment, thus taking into account the precise running conditions at the resource and last moment requests to the system. The DIRAC Workload Management System provides one single scheduling mechanism for jobs with very different profiles. To achieve an overall optimisation, it organizes pending jobs in task queues, both for individual users and production activities. Task queues are created with jobs having similar requirements. Following the VO policy a priority is assigned to each task queue. Pilot submission and subsequent job matching are based on these priorities following a statistical approach.

  5. Modification of working conditions based on ergo THK reducing workload, muscle tension, and fatigue of rice milling workers in J village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruliati, L. P.; Adiputra, N.; Sutjana, I. D. P.; Sutajaya, I. M.

    2017-11-01

    Rice mill is one of the businesses in informal sector. From the rice milling process, ergonomic problems arise when employees work with bent position that done repeatedly to lift grain sacks to be transferred to peeler machine. This situation will affect the comfort of work, thus increasing the workload, muscle tension, and fatigue. The consequence will certainly affect the health and productivity of workers. In this study introduces ergo Tri Hita Karana (ergo THK) as an ergonomics intervention model which solves ergonomics problems of the cultural aspects of THK. The study aim is to determine the modification of working conditions based Ergo THK to reduce workload, muscle tension and fatigue. This research uses Randomized Pretest and Posttest Control Group Design experimental design. The subjects were 30 male rice mill workers with an age range of 16 until 56 years, and then divided into 15 subjects in the control group and 15 subjects in the treatment group. The results showed that the average posttest workloads in the control group are 136.950 more less 0.297 and in the treatment group are 107.60 more less 0.396. Significance analysis showed that after the two groups done their activities, the average workload significantly different p less than 0.005. The amount of reduction in the workload between the two groups was 21.43 percent. In muscle tension posttest showed that the mean score of the muscle tension in the control group was 62.67 more less 7.31 and the treatment group was 20.96 more less 2.96. Significance analysis showed that both groups mean muscle-tension results were significantly different p less than 0.005. The amount of reduction in tension between the control group and the treatment group while working was 66.55 percent. At fatigue posttest showed that the mean score of fatigue in the control group was 76.40 more less 13.51 and the treatment group was 55.53 more less 9.51. Significant analysis showed that the mean fatigue of both groups

  6. Severity and workload related to adverse events in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, Clarita Terra Rodrigues; Dell'Acqua, Magda Cristina Queiroz; Castro, Meire Cristina Novelli E; Spiri, Wilza Carla; Nunes, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    To analyze whether an increase in patient severity and nursing workload are correlated to a greater incidence of adverse events (AEs) in critical patients. A prospective single cohort study was performed on a sample of 138 patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 166 AEs, occurred, affecting 50.7% of the patients. Increased patient severity presented a direct relationship to the probability of AEs occurring. However, nursing workload did not present a statistically significant relationship with the occurrence of AEs. The results cast light on the importance of using evaluation tools by the nursing personnel in order to optimize their daily activities and focus on patient safety. Analisar se o aumento da gravidade do paciente e a carga de trabalho de enfermagem está relacionado à maior incidência de Eventos Adversos (EAs) em pacientes críticos. Estudo de coorte única, prospectivo, com amostra de 138 pacientes internados em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Ao todo, foram evidenciados 166 EAs, que acometeram 50,7% dos pacientes. O aumento da gravidade do paciente apresentou relação direta com a chance de ocorrência de EAs. Entretanto, a carga de trabalho de enfermagem não apresentou relação estatisticamente significativa, na ocorrência de EAs. Os resultados permitem refletir acerca da importância da equipe de enfermagem, em utilizar instrumentos de avaliação, com o objetivo de melhorar e planejar suas ações diárias, com foco na segurança do paciente.

  7. Nursing workload for cancer patients under palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuly, Patrícia Dos Santos Claro; Pires, Livia Márcia Vidal; Souza, Claudia Quinto Santos de; Oliveira, Beatriz Guitton Renaud Baptista de; Padilha, Katia Grillo

    2016-01-01

    To verify the nursing workload required by cancer patients undergoing palliative care and possible associations between the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients and the nursing workload. This is a quantitative, cross-sectional, prospective study developed in the Connective Bone Tissue (TOC) clinics of Unit II of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute José Alencar Gomes da Silva with patients undergoing palliative care. Analysis of 197 measures of the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) revealed a mean score of 43.09% and an association between the performance status of patients undergoing palliative care and the mean NAS scores. The results of the study point to the need to resize the team of the unit. The NAS has proven to be a useful tool in oncologic clinical units for patients undergoing palliative care. Verificar a carga de trabalho de enfermagem requerida por pacientes com câncer sob cuidados paliativos e possíveis associações entre as características demográficas e clínicas dos pacientes e a carga de trabalho de enfermagem. Trata-se de um estudo de abordagem quantitativa, transversal, prospectivo, desenvolvido na clínica de Tecido Ósseo Conectivo (TOC) da Unidade II do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva, com pacientes em cuidados paliativos. A análise de 197 medidas do Nursing Activities Score (NAS) revelou um escore médio de 43,09% e uma associação entre a performance status de pacientes em cuidados paliativos com os valores médios do NAS. Os resultados do estudo apontam para a necessidade de redimensionamento da equipe da Unidade. O NAS mostrou-se um instrumento passível de utilização em unidades clínicas oncológicas, com pacientes em cuidados paliativos.

  8. On-call emergency workload of a general surgical team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawaid Masood

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine the on-call emergency workload of a general surgical team at a tertiary care teaching hospital to guide planning and provision of better surgical services. Patients and Methods: During six months period from August to January 2007; all emergency calls attended by general surgical team of Surgical Unit II in Accident and Emergency department (A and E and in other units of Civil, Hospital Karachi, Pakistan were prospectively recorded. Data recorded includes timing of call, diagnosis, operation performed and outcome apart from demography. Results: Total 456 patients (326 males and 130 females were attended by on-call general surgery team during 30 emergency days. Most of the calls, 191 (41.9% were received from 8 am to 5 pm. 224 (49.1% calls were of abdominal pain, with acute appendicitis being the most common specific pathology in 41 (9.0% patients. Total 73 (16.0% calls were received for trauma. Total 131 (28.7% patients were admitted in the surgical unit for urgent operation or observation while 212 (46.5% patients were discharged from A and E. 92 (20.1% patients were referred to other units with medical referral accounts for 45 (9.8% patients. Total 104 (22.8% emergency surgeries were done and the most common procedure performed was appendicectomy in 34 (32.7% patients. Conclusion: Major workload of on-call surgical emergency team is dealing with the acute conditions of abdomen. However, significant proportion of patients are suffering from other conditions including trauma that require a holistic approach to care and a wide range of skills and experience. These results have important implications in future healthcare planning and for the better training of general surgical residents.

  9. Nursing workload in public and private intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lilia de Souza; Koike, Karina Mitie; Sardinha, Débora Souza; Padilha, Katia Grillo; de Sousa, Regina Marcia Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to compare patients at public and private intensive care units according to the nursing workload and interventions provided. This retrospective, comparative cohort study included 600 patients admitted to 4 intensive care units in São Paulo. The nursing workload and interventions were assessed using the Nursing Activities Score during the first and last 24 hours of the patient's stay at the intensive care unit. Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, the Mann-Whitney test, and Student's t test were used to compare the patient groups. The average Nursing Activities Score upon admission to the intensive care unit was 61.9, with a score of 52.8 upon discharge. Significant differences were found among the patients at public and private intensive care units relative to the average Nursing Activities Score upon admission, as well as for 12 out of 23 nursing interventions performed during the first 24 hours of stay at the intensive care units. The patients at the public intensive care units exhibited a higher average score and overall more frequent nursing interventions, with the exception of those involved in the "care of drains", "mobilization and positioning", and "intravenous hyperalimentation". The groups also differed with regard to the evolution of the Nursing Activities Score among the total case series as well as the groups of survivors from the time of admission to discharge from the intensive care unit. Patients admitted to public and private intensive care units exhibit differences in their nursing care demands, which may help managers with nursing manpower planning.

  10. A systematic review of the effect of different models of after-hours primary medical care services on clinical outcome, medical workload, and patient and GP satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Ruth; Day, Susan; Dunt, David

    2003-06-01

    The organization of after-hours primary medical care services is changing in many countries. Increasing demand, economic considerations and changes in doctors' attitudes are fueling these changes. Information for policy makers in this field is needed. However, a comprehensive review of the international literature that compares the effects of one model of after-hours care with another is lacking. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of the international literature to determine what evidence exists about the effect of different models of out-of-hours primary medical care service on outcome. Original studies and systematic reviews written since 1976 on the subject of 'after-hours primary medical care services' were identified. Databases searched were Medline/Premedline, CINAHL, HealthSTAR, Current Contents, Cochrane Reviews, DARE, EBM Reviews and EconLit. For each paper where the optimal design would have been an interventional study, the 'level' of evidence was assessed as described in the National Health and Medical Research Council Handbook. 'Comparative' studies (levels I, II, III and IV pre-/post-test studies) were included in this review. Six main models of after-hours primary care services (not mutually exclusive) were identified: practice-based services, deputizing services, emergency departments, co-operatives, primary care centres, and telephone triage and advice services. Outcomes were divided into the following categories: clinical outcomes, medical workload, and patient and GP satisfaction. The results indicate that the introduction of a telephone triage and advice service for after-hours primary medical care may reduce the immediate medical workload. Deputizing services increase immediate medical workload because of the low use of telephone advice and the high home visiting rate. Co-operatives, which use telephone triage and primary care centres and have a low home visiting rate, reduce immediate medical workload. There is little

  11. Mapa Mental

    OpenAIRE

    do Couto, Hildo Honório

    2017-01-01

    O objetivo principal deste artigo é mostrar que no interior do ecossistema mental da língua, e do nosso ecossistema cognitivo geral, existe uma parte que se pode chamar de mapa mental, intimamente associado ao mapa cognitivo. Após caracterizar o conceito de mapa mental e de associá-lo a conceitos assemelhados, comento o mapa mental que eu tinha de Brasília, por ter vivido lá por mais de 30 anos. Como me mudei para Goiânia, comecei a perder partes do mapa mental de Brasília. Por outro lado, es...

  12. Identifying and Describing Nurse Faculty Workload Issues: A Looming Faculty Shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Nancy Phoenix; Bechtel, Cynthia Francis

    The purpose of this project was to address factors contributing to the nurse faculty shortage. There is a demonstrated need to sustain and stabilize faculty currently in the workforce to avoid exacerbating the current and future faculty shortage in nursing. Recommendations of previous studies focus on strategies for recruitment, retention, and ongoing faculty development. A survey was employed to identify and describe the workload of nurse faculty and identify the impact of retirement and other retention issues. Findings showed an aging and nondiverse nursing faculty with increased and variable workload. There was no standard means of calculating workload. With identification of increased workload, faculty are considering retirement at a higher than projected rate. Four primary areas to address the nursing faculty shortage include focus on diversity balance, development of collaborative positions (joint appointments), and clear identification of nursing faculty workload.

  13. Effects of Workloads and Cadences on Frontal Plane Knee Biomechanics in Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ying; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Crouter, Scott E; Gardner, Jacob K; Zhang, Songning

    2016-02-01

    Although effects of workload and cadence on sagittal plane knee biomechanics in cycling have been widely studied, few studies have examined their impact on the frontal plane. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different workloads and cadences on knee sagittal and frontal plane biomechanics. Eighteen healthy participants (age, 55.7 ± 11.0 yr) volunteered for this study. A motion analysis system and a custom instrumented pedal were used to collect five cycles of three-dimensional kinematics (240 Hz) and pedal reaction force (PRF, 1200 Hz) during 2 min of cycling in each of eight testing conditions, including five workload conditions of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 kg at 60 rpm, and three cadence conditions of 70, 80, and 90 rpm with 1-kg workload. Two one-way repeated measures analyses of variance were used to examine the influence of cadence and workload on selected variables (P < 0.05). Increased workloads with constant rpm caused an increased peak knee abduction moment from 5.82 to 14.36 N · m and peak knee extension moment from 11.61 to 37.16 N · m. Increased workloads also significantly increased peak medial and vertical PRF. Increased cadences at the constant workload had no effects on peak knee abduction moment but caused increased peak anterior and vertical PRF and peak knee flexion moment. The findings of this study indicate that increasing workload at constant cadence significantly increased peak knee abduction moment. Further study may be needed to demonstrate the efficacy of appropriate levels of workload and cadence in knee osteoarthritis and other populations with knee problems.

  14. Physician workload in primary care: what is the optimal size of practices? A cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, M.J.P.; Hombergh, P. van den; Akkermans, R.P.; Doremalen, J.H.M. van; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of practice size and scope of services on average physician workload in primary care practices in The Netherlands, and to examine the associations between average physician workload, average assistant volume and organisational practice characteristics. METHODS:

  15. A closed-loop causal model of workload based on a comparison of fuzzy and crisp measurements techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, Neville; King, Barbara; Turksen, Burhan; Waterton, Keith

    1987-01-01

    Fuzzy and crisp measurements of workload are compared for a tracking task that varied in bandwidth and order of control. Fuzzy measures are as powerful as crisp measures, and can under certain conditions give extra insights into workload causality. Both methods suggest that workload arises in a system in which effort, performance, difficulty, and task variables are linked in a closed loop. Marked individual differences were found. Future work on the fuzzy measurement of workload is justified.

  16. Allocation of Academic Workloads in the Faculty of Human and Social Sciences at a South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, P. A.; Swanepoel, S.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a statistical analysis of the weekly working hours of academics in a Faculty of Human and Social Sciences at a South African university. The aim was to quantify, analyse and compare the workload of academic staff. Seventy-five academics self-reported on their workload by completing the workload measuring…

  17. Learn About Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Learn About Mental Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental Health Basics Types of Mental Illness Fast Facts Mental Health Basics What is mental illness? Mental illnesses are ...

  18. [Workload, burnout and need to recover among female residents in internal medicine and family medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilan, Ayelet; Haimov, Tal; Doplet, Keren; Matnick, Stephen; Vinker, Shlomo; Kitai, Eliezer

    2011-08-01

    The Israeli medical residents' workload in hospitals is enormous, especially in the internaL wards, due to a severe lack of manpower and the demand to carry out many shifts. The workload of residents who practice in the community is rising as well: family physicians are required to achieve quality objectives in treating chronic diseases while the time dedicated to each patient is shortening. Creating a family usually parallels to this phase, causing home-work conflict among the residents. Consequently, the residents are Liable to develop burnout during their internship. Quantification and characterization of the need to recover from workload among internal ward resident mothers with young children, compared to family medicine resident mothers with young children, and to investigate the relation between workload and the development of burnout in those groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted comparing 30 female internal ward residents with young children to 38 female family medicine residents with young children, by using workload, burnout, sleep quality and need to recover questions. Although the workload reported by female internal ward residents was higher than that reported by family medicine residents [p burnout. Positive correlations were found between the workload and the burnout (p burnout and the need for recovery (p < 0.001, r = 0.67]. It seems that both groups are equally burned-out and need to recover after work. Our article calls for improvement of working conditions in both residencies.

  19. Coping Style, Job Burnout and Mental Health of University Teachers of the Millennial Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Xiao-Rong; Du, Juan-Juan; Dong, Rui-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    At present, in social transition period of China, reform of higher education is in full swing, with workload, job difficulty of university teachers greatly increased than before. Plus unique values and personality characteristics of the Millennial Generation, mental health of university teachers of the Millennial Generation has aroused more and…

  20. CMS Readiness for Multi-Core Workload Scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, A. [Madrid, CIEMAT; Balcas, J. [Caltech; Hernandez, J. [Madrid, CIEMAT; Aftab Khan, F. [NCP, Islamabad; Letts, J. [UC, San Diego; Mason, D. [Fermilab; Verguilov, V. [CLMI, Sofia

    2017-11-22

    In the present run of the LHC, CMS data reconstruction and simulation algorithms benefit greatly from being executed as multiple threads running on several processor cores. The complexity of the Run 2 events requires parallelization of the code to reduce the memory-per- core footprint constraining serial execution programs, thus optimizing the exploitation of present multi-core processor architectures. The allocation of computing resources for multi-core tasks, however, becomes a complex problem in itself. The CMS workload submission infrastructure employs multi-slot partitionable pilots, built on HTCondor and GlideinWMS native features, to enable scheduling of single and multi-core jobs simultaneously. This provides a solution for the scheduling problem in a uniform way across grid sites running a diversity of gateways to compute resources and batch system technologies. This paper presents this strategy and the tools on which it has been implemented. The experience of managing multi-core resources at the Tier-0 and Tier-1 sites during 2015, along with the deployment phase to Tier-2 sites during early 2016 is reported. The process of performance monitoring and optimization to achieve efficient and flexible use of the resources is also described.

  1. CMS readiness for multi-core workload scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Balcas, J.; Hernandez, J.; Aftab Khan, F.; Letts, J.; Mason, D.; Verguilov, V.

    2017-10-01

    In the present run of the LHC, CMS data reconstruction and simulation algorithms benefit greatly from being executed as multiple threads running on several processor cores. The complexity of the Run 2 events requires parallelization of the code to reduce the memory-per- core footprint constraining serial execution programs, thus optimizing the exploitation of present multi-core processor architectures. The allocation of computing resources for multi-core tasks, however, becomes a complex problem in itself. The CMS workload submission infrastructure employs multi-slot partitionable pilots, built on HTCondor and GlideinWMS native features, to enable scheduling of single and multi-core jobs simultaneously. This provides a solution for the scheduling problem in a uniform way across grid sites running a diversity of gateways to compute resources and batch system technologies. This paper presents this strategy and the tools on which it has been implemented. The experience of managing multi-core resources at the Tier-0 and Tier-1 sites during 2015, along with the deployment phase to Tier-2 sites during early 2016 is reported. The process of performance monitoring and optimization to achieve efficient and flexible use of the resources is also described.

  2. Workload Model Based Dynamic Adaptation of Social Internet of Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Kazi Masudul; Saini, Mukesh; El Saddik, Abdulmotaleb

    2015-09-15

    Social Internet of Things (SIoT) has gained much interest among different research groups in recent times. As a key member of a smart city, the vehicular domain of SIoT (SIoV) is also undergoing steep development. In the SIoV, vehicles work as sensor-hub to capture surrounding information using the in-vehicle and Smartphone sensors and later publish them for the consumers. A cloud centric cyber-physical system better describes the SIoV model where physical sensing-actuation process affects the cloud based service sharing or computation in a feedback loop or vice versa. The cyber based social relationship abstraction enables distributed, easily navigable and scalable peer-to-peer communication among the SIoV subsystems. These cyber-physical interactions involve a huge amount of data and it is difficult to form a real instance of the system to test the feasibility of SIoV applications. In this paper, we propose an analytical model to measure the workloads of various subsystems involved in the SIoV process. We present the basic model which is further extended to incorporate complex scenarios. We provide extensive simulation results for different parameter settings of the SIoV system. The findings of the analyses are further used to design example adaptation strategies for the SIoV subsystems which would foster deployment of intelligent transport systems.

  3. Workload Model Based Dynamic Adaptation of Social Internet of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Masudul Alam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social Internet of Things (SIoT has gained much interest among different research groups in recent times. As a key member of a smart city, the vehicular domain of SIoT (SIoV is also undergoing steep development. In the SIoV, vehicles work as sensor-hub to capture surrounding information using the in-vehicle and Smartphone sensors and later publish them for the consumers. A cloud centric cyber-physical system better describes the SIoV model where physical sensing-actuation process affects the cloud based service sharing or computation in a feedback loop or vice versa. The cyber based social relationship abstraction enables distributed, easily navigable and scalable peer-to-peer communication among the SIoV subsystems. These cyber-physical interactions involve a huge amount of data and it is difficult to form a real instance of the system to test the feasibility of SIoV applications. In this paper, we propose an analytical model to measure the workloads of various subsystems involved in the SIoV process. We present the basic model which is further extended to incorporate complex scenarios. We provide extensive simulation results for different parameter settings of the SIoV system. The findings of the analyses are further used to design example adaptation strategies for the SIoV subsystems which would foster deployment of intelligent transport systems.

  4. Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Kaushik [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)

    2017-04-24

    We report on the activities and accomplishments of a four-year project (a three-year grant followed by a one-year no cost extension) to develop a next generation workload management system for Big Data. The new system is based on the highly successful PanDA software developed for High Energy Physics (HEP) in 2005. PanDA is used by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and the AMS experiment at the space station. The program of work described here was carried out by two teams of developers working collaboratively at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA). These teams worked closely with the original PanDA team – for the sake of clarity the work of the next generation team will be referred to as the BigPanDA project. Their work has led to the adoption of BigPanDA by the COMPASS experiment at CERN, and many other experiments and science projects worldwide.

  5. The evolving role of the radiologist: the Vancouver workload utilization evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanoa, Deljit; Dhesi, Tajinder S; Burton, Kirsteen R; Nicolaou, Savvas; Liang, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    The role of the present-day on-site hospital radiologist surpasses image interpretation-related duties. This study characterizes these workload activities, as well as quantifies the type of value-based interactions radiologists experience on a daily basis with allied health personnel. A prospective, observational, randomized study was performed across 3 hospitals in the fall of 2012. One month of observation of 14 staff radiologists was performed by a trained observer. The observer followed the subject radiologists throughout the workday, recording activities using a time and motion methodology. Radiologists spent 36.4% of their time on image interpretation. The proportion of noninterpretative tasks was 43.8%, which includes activities such as protocolling requisitions, supervising and monitoring studies, performing image-guided procedures, consulting with physicians, and directly caring for patients. Total clinical productivity was 87.7%, and radiologists experienced, on average, 6 interactions per hour with other health personnel, of which over 81.2% directly influenced patient care in real time. This study demonstrates a new framework of characterizing the type of work radiologists perform on a daily basis, which helps further define the evolving role of the present-day radiologist to other physicians, administrators, and policy makers. Furthermore, the on-site added value that radiologists deliver suggests that radiologists are central figures in the medical imaging department who are difficult to replace by off-site or nonradiologist image interpreters. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Total workload, work stress and perceived symptoms in Swedish male and female white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Gunilla; Berntsson, Leeni; Lundberg, Ulf

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse how paid work, unpaid household tasks, child care, work-child care interactions and perceived work stress are associated with reported symptoms in male and female white-collar employees. A questionnaire was mailed to 1300 men and 1300 women belonging to the white-collar sector, with at least 35 hours of regular employment a week and a participant age of between 32 and 58 years. It contained items relating to total workload (hours spent on paid work, unpaid household tasks and childcare), subjective indices for work stress and symptoms. The response rate was 65% (743 women; 595 men). Gender difference in symptom prevalence was tested by analyses of variance. Odds ratios were used to estimate the bivariate associations between work-related variables and symptom prevalence. A multivariate analysis estimated the effect of paid and unpaid work interaction, work-childcare interplay and possible synergy. The frequency and severity of symptoms was higher in women than in men (P work and household duties (OR 2.09; 1.06-4.14), whereas men responded more selectively to long working hours, i.e. >50 h/week (OR 1.61; 1.02-2.54). However, childcare (working long hours. Working life and private circumstances and the interplay between them need to be taken into account to curb stress-related ill health in both men and women.

  7. Doing Mental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Sandy; And Others

    1980-01-01

    "Mental work" recorded in primary mathematics classes as part of the Classroom Interaction Process is not a simple, single activity of drill or quiz but a set of overlapping activities with different functions. A more analytical approach to mental work is advocated to enhance its usefulness as a classroom activity. (Author/SJL)

  8. Urology residents experience comparable workload profiles when performing live porcine nephrectomies and robotic surgery virtual reality training modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouraviev, Vladimir; Klein, Martina; Schommer, Eric; Thiel, David D; Samavedi, Srinivas; Kumar, Anup; Leveillee, Raymond J; Thomas, Raju; Pow-Sang, Julio M; Su, Li-Ming; Mui, Engy; Smith, Roger; Patel, Vipul

    2016-03-01

    substantial mental workload while performing tasks on both the simulator and the live animal model during the robotics course. The NASA-TLX profiles demonstrated that the live animal model and the MdVT were similar in difficulty, as indicated by their comparable workload profiles.

  9. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  10. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  11. Mental health services for parents affected by mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Silvia; Becker, Thomas; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke

    2013-07-01

    Despite an increasing awareness of support needs of families affected by parental mental illness, there is a lack of adequate mental healthcare provision for parents. As contemporary mental health services are both user-focused and evidence based, the present review focuses on knowledge regarding the subjective perspective on parenting issues among affected parents and the evidence base for parenting programs. There has been a shift in the research focus from adverse effects of parental mental illness on children toward inclusion and the subjective perspective in affected mothers and, more recently, fathers with mental health problems. Parents report on role conflicts, parenting difficulties, and stigma. Despite a broad spectrum of parental needs, many parents are reluctant to use services. There is an increasing evidence base for intervention programs. Adequate care for parents affected by mental illness requires sensitivity for parents' subjective perspective, interagency collaboration, standard intake practice, high level of professional knowledge and skills, provision of family-friendly environments, evidence-based parenting programs comprising both individual and group approaches and peer support. There is a lack of research on other parenting needs such as desire for children, coping with custody loss, and childlessness related to mental illness.

  12. Improving Error Resilience Analysis Methodology of Iterative Workloads for Approximate Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillani, G.A.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.

    2017-01-01

    Assessing error resilience inherent to the digital processing workloads provides application-specific insights towards approximate computing strategies for improving power efficiency and/or performance. With the case study of radio astronomy calibration, our contributions for improving the error

  13. 'POPCORN' as a Tool for Future Cognitive Workload Assessment: A Conceptual Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wen, Shih-sung

    1997-01-01

    .... This project further developed a prototype cognitive workload assessment tool, POPCORN. Starting with a single laboratory, single computer model, a PC based tool that is more widely usable was developed...

  14. Novel method for quantitative assessment of physical workload of healthcare workers by a tetherless ergonomics workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Warren D; Alharbi, Kamal A; Dixon, Jeremy B; Reggad, Hind

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare workers are at risk of physical injury. Our laboratory has developed a tetherless ergonomics workstation that is suitable for studying physicians' and nurses' physical workloads in clinical settings. The workstation uses wearable sensors to record multiple channels of body orientation and muscle activity and wirelessly transmits them to a base station laptop computer for display, storage, and analysis. The ergonomics workstation generates long records of multi-channel data, so it is desired that the workstation automatically process these records and provide graphical and quantitative summaries of the physical workloads experienced by the healthcare workers. This paper describes a novel method of automated quantitative assessment of physical workload, termed joint cumulative amplitude-duration (JCAD) analysis, that has advantages over previous methods and illustrates its use in a comparison of the physical workloads of robotically-assisted surgery versus manual video-endoscopic surgery.

  15. Evaluating Faculty Workload: An Application of Process Control Charts with Supplementary Run Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, R. S. M.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a method for evaluating faculty workload (measured by time spent in teaching, research, and service) by using process control charts with supplementary run rules that can identify potential overload or underload. (SK)

  16. A psychometric evaluation of the Taiwan version of the Individual Workload Perception Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Yuan; Lin, Chung-Hui; Yeh, Mei Chang; Lin, Shu-Ying; Hwang, Yueh-Jiau

    2011-02-01

    The aim was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale on staff nurses in southern Taiwan. Most psychometric measures of the nursing work environment were developed in North America and reflect nursing practice in Western health care environments. As these instruments are used most often in translation, it is important to inquire whether they appropriately capture the characteristics of nursing work in environments outside of the original contexts. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted between 1 June-30 September 2009, with a convenience sample of 344 nurses providing direct patient care at a regional teaching hospital in southern Taiwan. The Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale was created by translating the original English language Individual Workload Perception Scale-Revised, which is used to measure the staff nurses' perceptions of their work environment. The Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale is a 24-item five-point Likert scale measuring manager support, peer support, unit support, workload and intent to stay. Content validity, construct validity and reliability of the Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale were evaluated. The content validity index of the Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale was 0.93. Cronbach's alpha for the total Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale was 0.88, with a range of 0.61-0.85 for the subscales. Factorial validity was supported using a five-factor model solution that accounted for 55.47% of the total variance for nursing work environment. Manager support had the highest explained variance (28.38%). Acceptable reliability and content validity were found; the Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale is recommended for measuring nurses' perceptions of their work environment

  17. Mindfulness og mental sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness is a way to practice 'healthy mindedness' – a form of self help that has been the subject for research and development of a number of new significant self-technologies, therapy and meditation treatment methods. To be mindful can help people to feel more relaxed (serenity) and fully...... alive. The article aims at describing realistic expectations to the contribution of mindfulness to health education work in the field of mental health. The article discuss ways in which mindfulnesss is connected with established health education in the mental health promotion field, and ways in which...... mindfulness breaks with established health education. Interest in utilising mindfulness and mindfulness-inspired methods in health-education intervention has increased in recent years. Mindfulness is seen here as an answer to how to achieve more accepting presence, and thereby a healthier mental life...

  18. Uniprocessor Performance Analysis of a Representative Workload of Sandia National Laboratories' Scientific Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Laverty

    2005-10-01

    UNIPROCESSOR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A REPRESENTATIVE WORKLOAD OF SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES' SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS Master of Science in Electrical Engineering New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico, 2005 Dr. Jeanine Cook, Chair Throughout the last decade computer performance analysis has become absolutely necessary to maximum performance of some workloads. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) located in Albuquerque, New Mexico is no different in that to achieve maximum performance of large scientific, parallel workloads performance analysis is needed at the uni-processor level. A representative workload has been chosen as the basis of a computer performance study to determine optimal processor characteristics in order to better specify the next generation of supercomputers. Cube3, a finite element test problem developed at SNL is a representative workload of their scientific workloads. This workload has been studied at the uni-processor level to understand characteristics in the microarchitecture that will lead to the overall performance improvement at the multi-processor level. The goal of studying vthis workload at the uni-processor level is to build a performance prediction model that will be integrated into a multi-processor performance model which is currently being developed at SNL. Through the use of performance counters on the Itanium 2 microarchitecture, performance statistics are studied to determine bottlenecks in the microarchitecture and/or changes in the application code that will maximize performance. From source code analysis a performance degrading loop kernel was identified and through the use of compiler optimizations a performance gain of around 20% was achieved.

  19. Three-dimensional kinematics of competitive and recreational cyclists across different workloads during cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Rodrigo R; Dagnese, Frederico; Rocha, Emmanuel; Silveira, Mateus C; Carpes, Felipe P; Mota, Carlos B

    2016-08-01

    Although the link between sagittal plane motion and exercise intensity has been highlighted, no study assessed if different workloads lead to changes in three-dimensional cycling kinematics. This study compared three-dimensional joint and segment kinematics between competitive and recreational road cyclists across different workloads. Twenty-four road male cyclists (12 competitive and 12 recreational) underwent an incremental workload test to determine aerobic peak power output. In a following session, cyclists performed four trials at sub-maximal workloads (65, 75, 85 and 95% of their aerobic peak power output) at 90 rpm of pedalling cadence. Mean hip adduction, thigh rotation, shank rotation, pelvis inclination (latero-lateral and anterior-posterior), spine inclination and rotation were computed at the power section of the crank cycle (12 o'clock to 6 o'clock crank positions) using three-dimensional kinematics. Greater lateral spine inclination (p < .01, 5-16%, effect sizes = 0.09-0.25) and larger spine rotation (p < .01, 16-29%, effect sizes = 0.31-0.70) were observed for recreational cyclists than competitive cyclists across workload trials. No differences in segment and joint angles were observed from changes in workload with significant individual effects on spine inclination (p < .01). No workload effects were found in segment angles but differences, although small, existed when comparing competitive road to recreational cyclists. When conducting assessment of joint and segment motions, workload between 65 and 95% of individual cyclists' peak power output could be used.

  20. Asymptotics of the area under the graph of a Lévy-driven workload process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchet, J.; Mandjes, M.

    2013-01-01

    Let (Qt)t∈R be the stationary workload process of a Lévy-driven queue, where the driving Lévy process is light-tailed. For various functions T(u), we analyze P(∫T(u)0Qsds>u) for u large. For T(u)=o(u√) the asymptotics resemble those of the steady-state workload being larger than u/T(u). If T(u) is

  1. Heart Rate Variability as a Measure of Airport Ramp-Traffic Controllers Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria Lee

    2016-01-01

    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been reported to reflect the person's cognitive and emotional stress levels, and may offer an objective measure of human-operator's workload levels, which are recorded continuously and unobtrusively to the task performance. The present paper compares the HRV data collected during a human-in-the-loop simulation of airport ramp-traffic control operations with the controller participants' own verbal self-reporting ratings of their workload.

  2. Relationship of community integration of persons with severe mental illness and mental health service intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Rohini; Bromley, Elizabeth; Brekke, Benjamin; Gabrielian, Sonya; Braslow, Joel T; Brekke, John S

    2014-06-01

    Community integration is integral to recovery for individuals with severe mental illness. This study explored the integration of individuals with severe mental illness into mental health and non-mental health communities and associations with mental health service intensity. Thirty-three ethnically diverse participants with severe mental illness were categorized in high-intensity (N=18) or low-intensity (N=15) mental health service groups. Community integration was assessed with measures of involvement in community activities, social capital resources, social support, social network maps, and subjective integration. Although participants rated themselves as being more integrated into the mental health community, their social networks and social capital were primarily derived from the non-mental health community. The high-intensity group had a higher proportion of members from the mental health community in their networks and had less overall social capital resources than the low-intensity group. The findings suggest opportunities and possible incongruities in the experience of community integration.

  3. Workload-Aware and CPU Frequency Scaling for Optimal Energy Consumption in VM Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the problem of VMs consolidation for cloud energy saving, different workloads will ask for different resources. Thus, considering workload characteristic, the VM placement solution will be more reasonable. In the real world, different workload works in a varied CPU utilization during its work time according to its task characteristics. That means energy consumption related to both the CPU utilization and CPU frequency. Therefore, only using the model of CPU frequency to evaluate energy consumption is insufficient. This paper theoretically verified that there will be a CPU frequency best suit for a certain CPU utilization in order to obtain the minimum energy consumption. According to this deduction, we put forward a heuristic CPU frequency scaling algorithm VP-FS (virtual machine placement with frequency scaling. In order to carry the experiments, we realized three typical greedy algorithms for VMs placement and simulate three groups of VM tasks. Our efforts show that different workloads will affect VMs allocation results. Each group of workload has its most suitable algorithm when considering the minimum used physical machines. And because of the CPU frequency scaling, VP-FS has the best results on the total energy consumption compared with the other three algorithms under any of the three groups of workloads.

  4. Cognitive workload across the spectrum of cognitive impairments: A systematic review of physiological measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchet, Maud; Morgan, John C; Akinwuntan, Abiodun E; Devos, Hannes

    2017-09-01

    Our objective was to identify the physiological measures that are sensitive to assessing cognitive workload across the spectrum of cognitive impairments. Three database searches were conducted: PubMed, PsychINFO, and Web of Science. Studies from the last decade that used physiological measures of cognitive workload in older adults (mean age >65 years-old) were reviewed. The cognitive workload of healthy older individuals was compared with the cognitive workload of younger adults, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with Alzheimer's diseases (AD). The most common measures of cognitive workload included: electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, pupillometry, and heart rate variability. These physiological measures consistently showed greater cognitive workload in healthy older adults compared to younger adults when performing the same task. The same was observed in patients with MCI compared to healthy older adults. Behavioral performance declined when the available cognitive resources became insufficient to cope with the cognitive demands of a task, such as in AD. These findings may have implications for clinical practice and future cognitive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Survey of Workload and Job Satisfaction Relationship in a Productive Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maghsoudipour

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Promotion of workers’ health and safety is one of the main tasks of managers and planners. One of the important sciences that can assist managers to achieve this gool is ergonomics. This article presents results of workload and job satisfaction survey in a heavy metal components manufacturing company in Tehran, in 2010. Methods: This cross sectional study conducted by survey of all operational workers. Workload is survived by NASA-TLX questionnaire that contained six dimensions and job satisfaction evaluated by short version of Minnesota questionnaire . Results: Job satisfaction questionnaire ’s reliability which assessed by Cronbach’s Alpha was 0.91. In addition, data analysis results declare that the average job satisfaction scale was 65 and at medium level and workload with 85.11 as average scale was at the high level. Effort and physical loads were two dimensions which have high amount in the workload In addition, no statistical significant relation was observed between the total job satisfaction score and workload score. (p<0.05. While the performance dimension showed a positive relationshipwith job satisfaction, frustration demonstrated a negative relationship with job satisfaction. Conclusion: In order to improve the work conditions the administrative and technological controls should be implemented and actions need to be taken to modify workload dimensions specially, two dimensions with the high amount and dimensions that have relationship with job satisfaction.

  6. The multitasking framework: the effects of increasing workload on acute psychobiological stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Mark A; Carter, Kirsty

    2014-04-01

    A variety of techniques exist for eliciting acute psychological stress in the laboratory; however, they vary in terms of their ease of use, reliability to elicit consistent responses and the extent to which they represent the stressors encountered in everyday life. There is, therefore, a need to develop simple laboratory techniques that reliably elicit psychobiological stress reactivity that are representative of the types of stressors encountered in everyday life. The multitasking framework is a performance-based, cognitively demanding stressor, representative of environments where individuals are required to attend and respond to several different stimuli simultaneously with varying levels of workload. Psychological (mood and perceived workload) and physiological (heart rate and blood pressure) stress reactivity was observed in response to a 15-min period of multitasking at different levels of workload intensity in a sample of 20 healthy participants. Multitasking stress elicited increases in heart rate and blood pressure, and increased workload intensity elicited dose-response increases in levels of perceived workload and mood. As individuals rarely attend to single tasks in real life, the multitasking framework provides an alternative technique for modelling acute stress and workload in the laboratory. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Promoting mental health versus reducing mental illness in art therapy with patients with personality disorders: A quantitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeyen, S.W.; Hooren, S. van; Veld, W.M. van der; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    The distinction between mental health and mental illness has long been the subject of debate, especially in the last decade where there has been a shift in focus in mental health care from symptom reduction to the improvement of positive mental health. Art therapists have been influenced by this

  8. What Is Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myths and Facts Recovery Is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...

  9. Assessing Student Workload in Problem Based Learning: Relationships among Teaching Method, Student Workload and Achievement. A Case Study in Natural Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gallardo, Jose-Reyes; Castano, Santiago; Gomez-Alday, Juan J.; Valdes, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    This study examines student workload after a change in teaching style from lecture to Problem Based Learning and Cooperative Learning, and its relationship with student outcomes. Results show that the change clearly overloads students if it is not adequately planned and monitored. Marks, drop-outs and attendance were markedly better with the new…

  10. THE STRUCTURE OF MENTAL STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshat Tavkil’evna Shavalieva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the peculiarities of structural and functional organization of mental states of three age groups’ respondents. Depending on the degree of exposure in primary school children, adolescents, and adults similar in nature mental states, but different in their stability and structure are observed. It was found that children with different levels of mental development of a completely different operating parameters of the states – mental proces-ses, physiological reactivity, feelings and behavior. The specifics of the states and the reliefs showed different levels of mental activity of children of three age groups. The structural and functional organization of mental states to identify the different structures of blocks, their interconnectivity, and they differ in the degree of involvement of the parameters of mental states to each other. Each group revealed a different level of mental activity. The differences in the mechanisms of perception of children of three age groups depending on the level of mental development.The aim is to study the features of mental conditions of «school age» children, their structural and functional organization of the perception of the artistic image «Before the Wedding» picture of the famous Russian artist F.S. Zhuravlev’s «Before the Wedding». Identification of the mechanisms of perception of the image and the features state structures of subjects.Method and methodology of work. Research carried out on the basis of a systematic methodology and the theory of activity developed by Vygotsky, Leontiev, Luria and A. Brushlinskii subject approach, SL Rubinstein and also theoretical principles and provisions of the concept of mental conditions of the person (A.O. Prohorov and concepts of color (J.W. Go-ethe, P.V. Yanshin et al.. The material of the study served as a theoretical analysis of the general and special literature on the perception of color and artistic images

  11. Acquiring tennis skills in novice players: Role of mental rehearsal

    OpenAIRE

    Lejeune, M.; Cloes, Marc; Hanon, H.; Piéron, Maurice

    1997-01-01

    Effects of mental rehearsal were assessed on the acquisition of tennis skills. Two groups of novice players (n=18) were compared: (1) subjects who received only a physical training, and (2) subjects who benefited from a mental training. All subjects came to benefited from a mental training. All subjects came to the sport centre once a week during seven weeks. During the first and last sessions, forehand performances were registered. The difference between pre-test and post-test session for th...

  12. Cognitive Workload and Psychophysiological Parameters During Multitask Activity in Helicopter Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetan, Sophie; Dousset, Erick; Marqueste, Tanguy; Bringoux, Lionel; Bourdin, Christophe; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Besson, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Helicopter pilots are involved in a complex multitask activity, implying overuse of cognitive resources, which may result in piloting task impairment or in decision-making failure. Studies usually investigate this phenomenon in well-controlled, poorly ecological situations by focusing on the correlation between physiological values and either cognitive workload or emotional state. This study aimed at jointly exploring workload induced by a realistic simulated helicopter flight mission and emotional state, as well as physiological markers. The experiment took place in the helicopter full flight dynamic simulator. Six participants had to fly on two missions. Workload level, skin conductance, RMS-EMG, and emotional state were assessed. Joint analysis of psychological and physiological parameters associated with workload estimation revealed particular dynamics in each of three profiles. 1) Expert pilots showed a slight increase of measured physiological parameters associated with the increase in difficulty level. Workload estimates never reached the highest level and the emotional state for this profile only referred to positive emotions with low emotional intensity. 2) Non-Expert pilots showed increasing physiological values as the perceived workload increased. However, their emotional state referred to either positive or negative emotions, with a greater variability in emotional intensity. 3) Intermediate pilots were similar to Expert pilots regarding emotional states and similar to Non-Expert pilots regarding physiological patterns. Overall, high interindividual variability of these results highlight the complex link between physiological and psychological parameters with workload, and question whether physiology alone could predict a pilot's inability to make the right decision at the right time.

  13. The impact of automation on workload and dispensing errors in a hospital pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, K Lynette; Barlow, Dave; Bithell, Anne; Hiom, Sarah; Lord, Sue; Pollard, Mike; Roberts, Dave; Way, Cheryl; Whittlesea, Cate

    2013-04-01

    To determine the effect of installing an original-pack automated dispensing system (ADS) on dispensary workload and prevented dispensing incidents in a hospital pharmacy. Data on dispensary workload and prevented dispensing incidents, defined as dispensing errors detected and reported before medication had left the pharmacy, were collected over 6 weeks at a National Health Service hospital in Wales before and after the installation of an ADS. Workload was measured by non-participant observation using the event recording technique. Prevented dispensing incidents were self-reported by pharmacy staff on standardised forms. Median workloads (measured as items dispensed/person/hour) were compared using Mann-Whitney U tests and rate of prevented dispensing incidents were compared using Chi-square test. Spearman's rank correlation was used to examine the association between workload and prevented dispensing incidents. A P value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Median dispensary workload was significantly lower pre-automation (9.20 items/person/h) compared to post-automation (13.17 items/person/h, P automation (0.28%) than pre-automation (0.64%, P automation (ρ = 0.23, P automation improves dispensing efficiency and reduces the rate of prevented dispensing incidents. It is proposed that prevented dispensing incidents frequently occurred during periods of high workload due to involuntary automaticity. Prevented dispensing incidents occurring after a busy period were attributed to staff experiencing fatigue after-effects. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Service and Education: The Association Between Workload, Patient Complexity, and Teaching on Internal Medicine Inpatient Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Temple A; Crabtree, Meghan A; Palmer, Raymond F; Pugh, Jacqueline A; Lanham, Holly J; Leykum, Luci K

    2018-02-01

    Attending rounds remain the primary venue for formal teaching and learning at academic medical centers. Little is known about the effect of increasing clinical demands on teaching during attending rounds. To explore the relationships among teaching time, teaching topics, clinical workload, and patient complexity variables. Observational study of medicine teaching teams from September 2008 through August 2014. Teams at two large teaching hospitals associated with a single medical school were observed for periods of 2 to 4 weeks. Twelve medicine teaching teams consisting of one attending, one second- or third-year resident, two to three interns, and two to three medical students. The study examined relationships between patient complexity (comorbidities, complications) and clinical workload variables (census, turnover) with educational measures. Teams were clustered based on clinical workload and patient complexity. Educational measures of interest were time spent teaching and number of teaching topics. Data were analyzed both at the daily observation level and across a given patient's admission. We observed 12 teams, 1994 discussions (approximately 373 h of rounds) of 563 patients over 244 observation days. Teams clustered into three groups: low patient complexity/high clinical workload, average patient complexity/low clinical workload, and high patient complexity/high clinical workload. Modest associations for team, patient complexity, and clinical workload variables were noted with total time spent teaching (9.1% of the variance in time spent teaching during a patient's admission; F[8,549] = 6.90, p complexity characteristics among teams were only modestly associated with total teaching time and teaching topics.

  15. Effect of Dynamic Meditation on Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Naved; Singh, Archana; Aleem, Sheema

    2016-02-01

    Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on mental health of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in experimental group were given 21-day training in dynamic meditation. Mental health of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre- and post-condition with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava (Mental Health inventory, Manovaigyanik Parikshan Sansthan, Varanasi, 1983). Obtained data were analyzed with the help of ANCOVA. In post-condition, experimental group scored better than control group on integration of personality, autonomy and environmental mastery. Effect sizes of dynamic meditation on these dimensions of mental health were large. However, experimental group and control group did not differ significantly on positive self-evaluation, perception of reality and group-oriented attitude dimensions of mental health in post-condition. Overall, dynamic meditation training was effective in improving mental health of the subjects.

  16. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  17. Mental Byomdannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tina Vestermann; Boye, Anne Mette; Borchmann, Inger Haarup

    Formålet med publikationen er at præsentere metoden "Mental byomdannelse". Metoden viser, hvordan man via midlertidig brug af grunde kan undersøge et steds potentialer, tage et område i brug tidligt i en byomdannelsesproces og derved bidrage til at opbygge en ny identitet for området. Mental...... byomdannelse går ud på at skabe bevidsthed om et byudviklingsområde overfor byens borgere, kommende beboere og fremtidige brugere af området allerede mens den fysiske omdannelse er i gang. I publikationen præsenteres en værktøjskasse, som giver redskaber og ideer til, hvordan man kan sætte en mental...... byomdannelsesproces i gang i byens rum. Publikationen udgør en afrapportering fra et støttet forsøgsprojekt hvor metoden ”Mental byomdannelse” er udviklet ved at afprøve ideerne om mental byomdannelse i to cases i Ålborg Kommune, hhv. i Østre Havn og Nibe by. Formålet med at anvende metoden i de to cases har været...

  18. The relationship between workloads, physical performance, injury and illness in adolescent male football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Whyte, Douglas G; Hartwig, Timothy B; Wescombe, Holly; Naughton, Geraldine A

    2014-07-01

    The expectation that training enhances performance is well explored in professional sport. However, the additional challenges of physical and cognitive maturation may require careful consideration when determining workloads to enhance performance in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the state of knowledge on the relationship between workloads, physical performance, injury and/or illness in adolescent male football players. A systematic review of workloads, physical performance, injury and illness in male adolescent football players was conducted. Studies for this review were identified through a systematic search of six electronic databases (Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science). For the purpose of this review, load was defined as the cumulative amount of stress placed on an individual from multiple training sessions and games over a period of time, expressed in terms of either the external workloads performed (e.g., resistance lifted, kilometres run) or the internal response (e.g., heart rate, rating of perceived exertion) to that workload. A total of 2,081 studies were initially retrieved from the six databases, of which 892 were duplicates. After screening the titles, abstracts and full texts, we identified 23 articles meeting our criteria around adolescent football players, workloads, physical performance, injury and/or illness. Seventeen articles addressed the relationship between load and physical performance, four articles addressed the relationship between load and injury and two articles addressed both. A wide range of training modalities were employed to improve the physical performance of adolescent football players, with strength training, high-intensity interval training, dribbling and small-sided games training, and a combination of these modalities in addition to normal football training, resulting in improved performances on a wide range of physiological and skill assessments

  19. Scaling Deep Learning Workloads: NVIDIA DGX-1/Pascal and Intel Knights Landing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawande, Nitin A.; Landwehr, Joshua B.; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2017-07-03

    Deep Learning (DL) algorithms have become ubiquitous in data analytics. As a result, major computing vendors --- including NVIDIA, Intel, AMD and IBM --- have architectural road-maps influenced by DL workloads. Furthermore, several vendors have recently advertised new computing products as accelerating DL workloads. Unfortunately, it is difficult for data scientists to quantify the potential of these different products. This paper provides a performance and power analysis of important DL workloads on two major parallel architectures: NVIDIA DGX-1 (eight Pascal P100 GPUs interconnected with NVLink) and Intel Knights Landing (KNL) CPUs interconnected with Intel Omni-Path. Our evaluation consists of a cross section of convolutional neural net workloads: CifarNet, CaffeNet, AlexNet and GoogleNet topologies using the Cifar10 and ImageNet datasets. The workloads are vendor optimized for each architecture. GPUs provide the highest overall raw performance. Our analysis indicates that although GPUs provide the highest overall performance, the gap can close for some convolutional networks; and KNL can be competitive when considering performance/watt. Furthermore, NVLink is critical to GPU scaling.

  20. Measuring educational workload: a pilot study of paper-based and PDA tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallett, Susan; Lingard, Lorelei; Leslie, Karen; Pirie, Jonathan; Jefferies, Ann; Spero, Lawrence; Schneider, Rayfel; Hilliard, Robert; Rosenfield, Jay; Hellmann, Jonathan; Mian, Marcellina; Hurley, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Teaching is an important professional role for most faculty members in academic health sciences centres. Careful delineation of educational workload is needed to foster and reward teaching efforts, and to facilitate equitable allocation of resources. To promote recognition in teaching and facilitate equitable resource allocation, we developed, piloted, and qualitatively assessed a tool for delineating the educational workload of pediatric faculty in an academic health sciences centre. A prototype educational workload measurement tool was developed. Between 2002 and 2004, three successive phases of pilot implementation were conducted to (1) assess the face validity of the tool, (2) assess its feasibility, and (3) develop and assess the feasibility of a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) version. Participants were interviewed regarding strengths, weaknesses, and barriers to completion. Data were analyzed for recurrent themes. Faculty found that the tool was usable and represented a broad range of educational activities. The PDA format was easier to use and better received. Technical support would be imperative for long-term implementation. The greatest barriers to implementation were skepticism about the purpose of the tool and concerns that it would promote quantity over quality of teaching. We developed a usable tool to capture data on the diverse educational workload of pediatric faculty. PDA technology can be used to facilitate collection of workload data. Faculty skepticism is an important barrier that should be addressed in future work.