WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjective job strain

  1. Job strain and time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, J P

    1998-01-01

    The association between fertility and job strain defined as high job demands and low job control has not previously been studied. A follow-up study was conducted with prospective collection of information on job strain among women, achievement of pregnancy, and potential confounding variables....

  2. Job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T; Batty, G David

    2012-01-01

    Published work assessing psychosocial stress (job strain) as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is inconsistent and subject to publication bias and reverse causation bias. We analysed the relation between job strain and coronary heart disease with a meta-analysis of published and unpublishe...

  3. Job strain and the risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Eleonor I; Nyberg, Solja T; Heikkilä, Katriina

    2015-01-01

    studies to investigate the association between job strain, a measure of work-related stress, and incident stroke. RESULTS: In 1.8 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 9.2 years), 2023 first-time stroke events were recorded. The age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for job strain relative to no job....... CONCLUSION: Job strain may be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, but further research is needed to determine whether interventions targeting job strain would reduce stroke risk beyond existing preventive strategies....

  4. Relation between job strain and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, B; Nielsen, F E; Kristensen, T S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the influence of different job related and socioeconomic factors for development of myocardial infarction (MI). METHOD: The study was a case-control study of 76 male wage earners who had been admitted to hospital with MI. As a control group 176 male wage earners not admitted...... to hospital who were residents of the same county were used. Both groups were interviewed with an extensive questionnaire on job related conditions. Several indices on job related psychosocial factors were established in accordance with Karasek's job strain model as well as the extension of the model......, the isostrain model. RESULTS: The most significant findings were consistent with Karasek's job strain model in that mean with a high degree of demand combined with a low degree of control at work had a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 2.1 (1.2 to 3.8) for MI after...

  5. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...

  6. Job strain and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...

  7. Job strain and ischemic heart disease: a prospective study using a new approach for exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Munch-Hansen, Torsten; Agerbo, Esben

    2009-01-01

    based on the average exposure level in minor work units. METHODS: Cohort study of 18,258 Danish public service workers in 1106 work units; 79% were women; 108 subjects with history of cardiovascular disease were excluded from the follow-up. The outcome was hospitalization due to IHD (angina pectoris...... or myocardial infarction) during the period 2002 to end of 2007. RESULTS: During 87,428 person-years at risk (mean follow-up = 4.82 years), 101 subjects were admitted to a hospital due to IHD. Neither job strain (synergy of job demands and job control) nor general job dissatisfaction were related to IHD risk....... However, compared with others, subjects who were allocated to the low job control category, had an increased risk of IHD, Hazard Ratio (95% CI) = 2.0 (1.1 to 3.6). CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented do not lend support to the hypothesis that high job strain and job dissatisfaction are important...

  8. Better an insecure job than no job at all? Unemployment, job insecurity and subjective wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Knabe; Steffen Rätzel

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of a person’s current employment status and expectations about his or her future labor market status on life satisfaction, using long -run panel data for Germany. Our findings suggest that future expectations (measured by perceived job security for the employed and chances to find a new job for the unemployed) are at least as important for a person ’s subjective well-being as his or her current employment status. This implies that an unemployed person who thinks it will ...

  9. Prolonged job strain and subsequent risk of cancer in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterlund, Gitte K.; Høeg, Beverley L.; Johansen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    across six years and subsequent cancer risk. Methods and materials: We used data from 6571 cancer-free women from the Danish Nurse Cohort aged 45–70 years at inclusion, and self-reported questionnaires on job strain at baseline in 1993 and again in 1999. Prolonged job strain was defined as high job......-related, digestive and lung cancers according to level of prolonged job strain. The women were followed from 1 January 2000 until cancer diagnosis, emigration, death or 31 December 2013 (mean follow-up 13 years) and models were adjusted for potential confounders. Effect modification was examined according to working...

  10. Job strain in relation to body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, S T; Heikkilä, K; Fransson, E I

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of an association between job strain and obesity is inconsistent, mostly limited to small-scale studies, and does not distinguish between categories of underweight or obesity subclasses.......Evidence of an association between job strain and obesity is inconsistent, mostly limited to small-scale studies, and does not distinguish between categories of underweight or obesity subclasses....

  11. Job strain and the risk of depression: is reporting biased?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kærgaard, Anette

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown whether the relation between job strain and depression reflects causal characteristics of the working environment or reporting bias. The authors investigated reporting bias by analyzing individual versus work-unit measures of job strain and the risk of depressive symptoms (n = 287) ...

  12. The subjective determinants of job performance and job involvement in organizational context.

    OpenAIRE

    Koblicová, Leona

    2016-01-01

    The job performance is conditioned by range of objective factors and subjective determinants as well. This thesis dedicates to mapping of job involvement meaning engagement, enthusiasm, commitment and work motivation. Considering to that, oganization can influence future job performance of its employee through employee development, when it tries to grow up the job interest, develops requiered skills and so potencially supports one's performance. The text tries to sum up knowledge background o...

  13. Job strain and the risk of severe asthma exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, K; Madsen, I E H; Nyberg, S T

    2014-01-01

    in working-age European men and women. METHODS: We analysed individual-level data, collected between 1985 and 2010, from 102 175 working-age men and women in 11 prospective European studies. Job strain (a combination of high demands and low control at work) was self-reported at baseline. Incident severe......BACKGROUND: Many patients and healthcare professionals believe that work-related psychosocial stress, such as job strain, can make asthma worse, but this is not corroborated by empirical evidence. We investigated the associations between job strain and the incidence of severe asthma exacerbations...... asthma exacerbations were ascertained from national hospitalization and death registries. Associations between job strain and asthma exacerbations were modelled using Cox regression and the study-specific findings combined using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 10 years...

  14. Psychosocial job strain and risk of adverse birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Hannerz, Harald; Juhl, Mette

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies examined the effects of prenatal stress on birth outcomes with diverging and inconclusive results. We aimed to examine if working with high job strain during pregnancy measured in week 16 was associated with risk of giving birth to a child born preterm or small/large for gesta......A number of studies examined the effects of prenatal stress on birth outcomes with diverging and inconclusive results. We aimed to examine if working with high job strain during pregnancy measured in week 16 was associated with risk of giving birth to a child born preterm or small...

  15. Temporal relationships between job strain and low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Madsen, Ida Eh; Rugulies, Reiner; Peristera, Paraskevi; Westerlund, Hugo; Descatha, Alexis

    2017-09-01

    Objectives Psychosocial working conditions are suggested risk factors for low-back pain, but it is unclear whether these associations are causal. The present study examined whether there are lagged and bidirectional associations between job strain and low-back pain and further controlled for unmeasured time-invariant confounding. Methods The study was based on four biennial waves of data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), including 3084 men and women. Cross-lagged analyses using structural equation modeling (SEM) were conducted on job strain, a combination of high job demands and low control, and any as well as low-back pain severity (how much any problems affected the respondents life). Analogous SEM (dynamic panel) models with fixed effects were also fitted to remove confounding from time-invariant factors (such as non-observed individual and environmental factors, eg, genetics, childhood conditions, personality). Results The SEM models indicated bidirectional associations between job strain and any back pain over a 2-year time lag (β=0.21 and 0.19, Plow-back pain severity and vice versa. However, the SEM models with fixed-effects showed no statistically significant lagged relationships between job strain and any or low-back pain severity (β=-0.05 and β=0.00, respectively). Conclusions This study suggests that associations between job strain and low-back pain with a lag of years may be due to residual confounding by time invariant characteristics. Further studies are, however, needed to elucidate short-term relationships.

  16. Job Strain and Cognitive Decline: A Prospective Study of the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Agbenyikey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Workplace stress is known to be related with many behavioral and disease outcomes. However, little is known about its prospective relationship with measures of cognitive decline. Objective: To investigate the association of job strain, psychological demands and job control on cognitive decline. Methods: Participants from Framingham Offspring cohort (n=1429, were assessed on job strain, and received neuropsychological assessment approximately 15 years and 21 years afterwards. Results: High job strain and low control were associated with decline in verbal learning and memory. Job strain was associated with decline in word recognition skills. Active job and passive job predicted decline in verbal learning and memory relative to low strain jobs in the younger subgroup. Active job and demands were positively associated with abstract reasoning skills. Conclusions: Job strain and job control may influence decline in cognitive performance.

  17. Job strain, job insecurity, and incident cardiovascular disease in the Women's Health Study: results from a 10-year prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Slopen

    Full Text Available Research about work-related stressors and cardiovascular disease (CVD has produced mixed findings. Moreover, a paucity of data exists regarding the long-term associations between job strain and job insecurity and CVD among women.We used Cox proportional hazard models to examine the relationship between job strain, job insecurity, and incident CVD over 10 years of follow-up among 22,086 participants in the Women's Health Study (mean age 57±5 years.During 10 years of follow-up there were 170 myocardial infarctions (MI, 163 ischemic strokes, 440 coronary revascularizations, and 52 CVD deaths. In models adjusted for age, race, education, and income, women with high job strain (high demand, low control were 38% more likely to experience a CVD event than their counterparts who reported low job strain (low demand, high control; Rate Ratio (RR = 1.38, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.08-1.77, and women with active jobs (high demand, high control were 38% more likely to experience a CVD event relative to women who reported low job strain (95% CI = 1.07-1.77. Outcome-specific analyses revealed that high job strain predicted non-fatal myocardial infarction (RR = 1.67, CI = 1.04-2.70, and coronary revascularization (RR = 1.41, CI = 1.05-1.90. No evidence of an association between job insecurity and long-term CVD risk was observed.High strain and active jobs, but not job insecurity, were related to increased CVD risk among women. Both job strain and job insecurity were significantly related to CVD risk factors. With the increase of women in the workforce, these data emphasize the importance of addressing job strain in CVD prevention efforts among working women.

  18. Job Strain and the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Madsen, Ida E H; Nyberg, Solja T

    2014-01-01

    the association between work-related stress and incident Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis using individual-level data from 95,000 European adults. METHODS: We conducted individual-participant data meta-analyses in a set of pooled data from 11 prospective European studies. All studies are a part of the IPD......-Work Consortium. Work-related psychosocial stress was operationalised as job strain (a combination of high demands and low control at work) and was self-reported at baseline. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis were ascertained from national hospitalisation and drug reimbursement registers. The associations...... between job strain and inflammatory bowel disease outcomes were modelled using Cox proportional hazards regression. The study-specific results were combined in random effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Of the 95,379 participants who were free of inflammatory bowel disease at baseline, 111 men and women...

  19. Job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, I. E. H.; Nyberg, S. T.; Magnusson Hanson, L. L.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain...... as a risk factor for clinical depression. METHOD: We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD......-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol. RESULTS: We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From...

  20. Job satisfaction and subjective well-being among Czech nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurková, Elena; Haroková, Sylvie; Džuka, Jozef; Žiaková, Katarína

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between domains of the job satisfaction and components of subjective well-being in nurses. A convenience sample of hospital nurses was recruited from six hospitals in Czech Republic. Data were collected using a set of questionnaires that included the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale, the Positive Affect Scale, the Negative Affect Scale and the Personal Well-being Index. We confirmed low association between job satisfaction and subjective well-being of nurses. Satisfaction with extrinsic rewards, co-workers and family/work balance accounted for only a small percentage of variance in cognitive component of subjective well-being. Positive affect was predicted by interaction opportunities and scheduling. Negative affect was predicted by interaction opportunities and scheduling and intention to leave the actual workplace. Low percentage of the variance suggests that subjective well-being is not strongly influenced by job satisfaction. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Association of arginase I or nitric oxide-related factors with job strain in healthy workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Eri; Nagaoka, Kenjiro

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the associations between job strain and arginase I in 378 healthy Japanese factory workers by a cross-sectional study measuring nitric oxide (NO)-related parameters (arginase I, L-arginine, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and NOx), clinical parameters, and job strain using a Japanese version of the Job Content Questionnaire by Karasek. Arginase I and FEV1% were negatively correlated with job strain and positively correlated with job control and social support. FeNO and hs-CRP were negatively correlated with job strain. Multiple regression analysis showed negative association of arginase I with job strain and positive association with job control and social support in females. It is concluded that serum levels of arginase I may be useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of job stress in healthy female workers, although many factors can be influencing the data. PMID:28403218

  2. Job strain and risk indicators for cardiovascular disease in young female nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riese, H.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Doornen, L.J.P.; Geus, E.J.C. de

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the possible effects of job demands, decision latitude, and job-related social support on risk indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 165 female nurses. Job strain was measured with the Job Content Questionnaire; CVD risk was measured with insulin, total cholesterol,

  3. The demand-control model for job strain: a commentary on different ways to operationalize the exposure variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Guimarães de Mello Alves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand-control has been the most widely used model to study job strain in various countries. However, researchers have used the model differently, thus hindering the comparison of results. Such heterogeneity appears in both the study instrument used and in the definition of the main exposure variable - high strain. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess differences between various ways of operationalizing job strain through association with prevalent hypertension in a cohort of workers (Pro-Health Study. No difference in the association between high job strain and hypertension was found according to the different ways of operationalizing exposure, even though prevalence varied widely, according to the adopted form, from 19.6% for quadrants to 42% for subtraction tertile. The authors recommend further studies to define the cutoff for exposure variables using combined subjective and objective data.

  4. [Influence of affectivity trait on relationships between occupational stress and subjective physical health and job satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shan-fa; Zhou, Wen-hui; Gu, Gui-zhen

    2008-09-01

    To explore the influence of affectivity trait on relationships between occupational stress and subjective physical health and job satisfaction. Self-reports for psychosocial work conditions and health and well-being in a sample of 878 workers from a thermal power plant in China were conducted using the job demand-control model, the effort-reward imbalance model, job satisfaction, depression symptom, and physical health complaints questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis was used by controlling for age, sex, and educational level. Negative and positive affectivity were correlated with occupational stressors or strains (Paffectivity or positive affectivity was controlled; Odds ratios decreased greater when negative affectivity and positive affectivity were controlled simultaneously. Furthermore in some equation no variable entered. Affectivity trait has effect on relationships between occupational stress and subjective physical health and job satisfaction. According to the outcome category of study, the possible confounding role of affectivity should be controlled in the study of the relationships between occupational stress and health self-reports.

  5. Change in Job Strain as A Predictor of Change in Insomnia Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halonen, Jaana I.; Lallukka, Tea; Pentti, Jaana

    2017-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine whether change in job strain lead to change in insomnia symptoms. METHODS: Among 24,873 adults (82% women, mean age 44 years) who participated in a minimum of three consecutive study waves (2000-2012), job strain was assessed at the first and second wave and insomnia...... symptoms at all three waves. We analyzed observational data as a "pseudo-trial" including participants with no job strain in the first wave and no insomnia symptoms in the first and second wave (n=7354) to examine whether the onset of job strain between the first and second waves predicted the onset...... of insomnia symptoms in the third wave. We used a corresponding approach, including those with job strain in the first wave and insomnia symptoms in the first and second wave (n=2332), to examine whether the disappearance of job strain between the first two waves predicted remission of insomnia symptoms...

  6. Job demands and job strain as risk factors for employee wellbeing in elderly care: an instrumental-variables analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Kuusio, Hannamaria; Jokela, Markus; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Pekkarinen, Laura; Noro, Anja; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Kivimäki, Mika; Sinervo, Timo

    2015-02-01

    The association between psychosocial work environment and employee wellbeing has repeatedly been shown. However, as environmental evaluations have typically been self-reported, the observed associations may be attributable to reporting bias. Applying instrumental-variable regression, we used staffing level (the ratio of staff to residents) as an unconfounded instrument for self-reported job demands and job strain to predict various indicators of wellbeing (perceived stress, psychological distress and sleeping problems) among 1525 registered nurses, practical nurses and nursing assistants working in elderly care wards. In ordinary regression, higher self-reported job demands and job strain were associated with increased risk of perceived stress, psychological distress and sleeping problems. The effect estimates for the associations of these psychosocial factors with perceived stress and psychological distress were greater, but less precisely estimated, in an instrumental-variables analysis which took into account only the variation in self-reported job demands and job strain that was explained by staffing level. No association between psychosocial factors and sleeping problems was observed with the instrumental-variable analysis. These results support a causal interpretation of high self-reported job demands and job strain being risk factors for employee wellbeing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Job strain in nursing homes-Exploring the impact of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Annica; Sjögren, Karin; Lövheim, Hugo; Edvardsson, David

    2017-11-17

    To explore the association between nursing home managers' leadership, job strain and social support as perceived by direct care staff in nursing homes. It is well known that aged care staff experience high levels of job strain, and that aged care staff experiencing job strain are exposed to increased risk for adverse health effects. Leadership styles have been associated with job strain in the literature; however, the impact of perceived leadership on staff job strain and social support has not been clarified within nursing home contexts. This study had a cross-sectional design. Participating staff (n = 3,605) completed surveys which included questions about staff characteristics, valid and reliable measures of nursing home managers' leadership, perceived job strain and social support. Statistical analyses of correlations and multiple regression analysis with interaction terms were conducted. Nursing home managers' leadership were significantly associated with lower level of job strain and higher level of social support among direct care staff. A multiple regression analysis including an interaction term indicated individual and joint effects of nursing home managers' leadership and social support on job strain. Nursing home managers' leadership and social support were both individually and in combination associated with staff perception of lesser job strain. Thus, nursing home managers' leadership are beneficial for the working situation and strain of staff. Promoting a supporting work environment through leadership is an important implication for nursing home managers as it can influence staff perception of job strain and social support within the unit. By providing leadership, offering support and strategies towards a healthy work environment, nursing home managers can buffer adverse health effects among staff. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Job characteristics and the subjective oral health of Australian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Anne E; Spencer, A John

    2004-06-01

    The way in which work is structured and organised is associated with the health and well-being of workers. To examine the associations between hours worked, job security, skill maintenance and work and home interference and subjective oral health; and to compare findings for different occupational groups. Data were collected in 1999 from a random stratified sample of households in all Australian States and Territories using a telephone interview and a questionnaire survey. Subjective oral health was evaluated with the short form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), which assesses the adverse impact of oral conditions on quality of life. Data were obtained for 2,347 dentate adults in the workforce. In the 12 months preceding the survey, 51.9% had experienced oral pain and 31.0% reported psychological discomfort from dental problems. Males, young adults, Australian-born workers, and those in upper-white collar occupations reported lower mean OHIP-14 scores (ANOVA p age, country of birth and socioeconomic factors in a linear multiple regression analysis, hours worked, skill maintenance and work and home interference were significantly associated with OHIP-14 scores for all workers. While part-time work was associated with higher OHIP-14 among upper white-collar workers, working >40 hours a week was associated with higher OHIP-14 scores for other workers. Aspects of the work environment are associated with the subjective oral health of workers. Because these contexts are subject to only limited control by individual workers, their influence is a public health issue.

  9. Getting off on the right foot: subjective value versus economic value in predicting longitudinal job outcomes from job offer negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curhan, Jared R; Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Kilduff, Gavin J

    2009-03-01

    Although negotiation experiences can affect a negotiator's ensuing attitudes and behavior, little is known about their long-term consequences. Using a longitudinal survey design, the authors tested the degree to which economic and subjective value achieved in job offer negotiations predicts employees' subsequent job attitudes and intentions concerning turnover. Results indicate that subjective value predicts greater compensation satisfaction and job satisfaction and lower turnover intention measured 1 year later. Surprisingly, the economic outcomes that negotiators achieved had no apparent effects on these factors. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis of 124,808 Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Eleonor I.; Heikkilä, Katriina; Ahola, Kirsi; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Goldberg, Marcel; Hamer, Mark; Jokela, Markus; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Koskinen, Aki; Kouvonen, Anne; Leineweber, Constanze; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Marmot, Michael G.; Nielsen, Martin L.; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H.; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Töres; Väänänen, Ari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Westerholm, Peter J.M.; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Batty, G. David; Brunner, Eric J.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The status of psychosocial stress at work as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes is unclear because existing evidence is based on small studies and is subject to confounding by lifestyle factors, such as obesity and physical inactivity. This collaborative study examined whether stress at work, defined as “job strain,” is associated with incident type 2 diabetes independent of lifestyle factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We extracted individual-level data for 124,808 diabetes-free adults from 13 European cohort studies participating in the IPD-Work Consortium. We measured job strain with baseline questionnaires. Incident type 2 diabetes at follow-up was ascertained using national health registers, clinical screening, and self-reports. We analyzed data for each study using Cox regression and pooled the study-specific estimates in fixed-effect meta-analyses. RESULTS There were 3,703 cases of incident diabetes during a mean follow-up of 10.3 years. After adjustment for age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES), the hazard ratio (HR) for job strain compared with no job strain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.06–1.25) with no difference between men and women (1.19 [1.06–1.34] and 1.13 [1.00–1.28], respectively). In stratified analyses, job strain was associated with an increased risk of diabetes among those with healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, sex, SES, and lifestyle habits, the HR was 1.11 (1.00–1.23). CONCLUSIONS Findings from a large pan-European dataset suggest that job strain is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in men and women independent of lifestyle factors. PMID:25061139

  11. Need Satisfaction at Work, Job Strain, and Performance: A Diary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gieter, Sara; Hofmans, Joeri; Bakker, Arnold B

    2017-08-24

    We performed a daily diary study to examine the mediating role of autonomy need satisfaction and competence need satisfaction in the relationships between job characteristics (i.e., job resources, challenge and hindrance demands) and strain and performance. For 10 consecutive working days, 194 employees reported on their daily job resources, challenge and hindrance demands, task performance, strain level, and satisfaction of the needs for competence and autonomy. Multilevel path modeling demonstrated that the within-person relationships between job resources, challenge and hindrance demands, and strain are mediated by autonomy need satisfaction, but not by competence need satisfaction. However, the relationships between job resources and hindrance demands, and performance are mediated by both competence and autonomy need satisfaction. Our findings show that organizations may benefit from designing jobs that provide employees with the opportunity to satisfy their basic needs for competence and autonomy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. [Job strain and cardiovascular diseases: epidemiologic evidence and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, M M

    2012-01-01

    The present contribution wishes to draw attention to major evidences from more recent studies on the relationship between job strain (JS) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In particular the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance models will be reviewed. Different outcomes are considered: first hypertension, second coronary heart disease (CHD), third atherosclerosis progression, and finally stroke. All these results are in favor of the association between JS and CVD, but with relevant discrepancies in different socio-cultural contest, in different gender groups, indifferent socio-occupational strata. A recent meta-analysis considering prospective cohort studies attribute to people with high JS a 50% increment in risk of CHD in men. Evidences are scares per women. Many limitations in study design contributes to explain some of the discrepancies in the results obtained so far. Promising first results have been reported for studies exploring the interaction between JS and genetic connotes on blood pressure values. More researchers are needed. Based on the actually available evidences, it is time anyhow to start promotion activities at the workplace to improve Individual coping as well as improve the work climate, contrasting major stressor related to work organization and relationships.

  13. Effect of Job Strain on Job Burnout, Mental Fatigue and Chronic Diseases among Civil Servants in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzhen Guan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Job strain is a major concern in view of its effects among civil servants associated with job burnout, mental fatigue and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the job strain level among civil servants and examine the effect of job strain on job burnout, mental fatigue and the resulting chronic diseases. A cross-sectional study with a representative sample consisting of 5000 civil servants was conducted from March to August 2014. Using a structured questionnaire, the job strain level, job burnout and mental fatigue were measured by using the Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20, respectively. Overall, 33.8% of the civil servants were found to be afflicted with high and moderate job strain. The characteristics of most of the civil servants with a higher-job strain level were as follows: female, Uygur, lower educational level and job title rank, shorter working experience, married marital status, and lower income level. Civil servants suffering from chronic disease mainly had hypertension and coronary heart disease, which accounted for 18.5% of the diseases. Civil servants with a high-job strain level exhibited higher rates of burnout, mental fatigue scores and incidence of chronic diseases. There was a multiple linear regression model composed of three predictor variables in job burnout, which accounted for 45.0% of its occurrence: female gender, lower-income level, higher-job strain in civil servants, the greater the rate of job burnout was. Four factors—male gender, lower-job title rank, higher-job strain, shorter-job tenure of civil servants—explained 25.0% of the mental fatigue model. Binary logistic regression showed that intermediate-rank employees (OR = 0.442, 95% CI: 0.028–0.634; p < 0.05, job tenure of 10–20 years (OR = 0.632, 95% CI: 0.359–0.989; p < 0.05, and low-job strain (OR = 0.657, 95% CI: 0.052–0.698; p < 0.05 were all

  14. Effect of Job Strain on Job Burnout, Mental Fatigue and Chronic Diseases among Civil Servants in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Suzhen; Xiaerfuding, Xiadiya; Ning, Li; Lian, Yulong; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Jiwen; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2017-08-03

    Job strain is a major concern in view of its effects among civil servants associated with job burnout, mental fatigue and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the job strain level among civil servants and examine the effect of job strain on job burnout, mental fatigue and the resulting chronic diseases. A cross-sectional study with a representative sample consisting of 5000 civil servants was conducted from March to August 2014. Using a structured questionnaire, the job strain level, job burnout and mental fatigue were measured by using the Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), respectively. Overall, 33.8% of the civil servants were found to be afflicted with high and moderate job strain. The characteristics of most of the civil servants with a higher-job strain level were as follows: female, Uygur, lower educational level and job title rank, shorter working experience, married marital status, and lower income level. Civil servants suffering from chronic disease mainly had hypertension and coronary heart disease, which accounted for 18.5% of the diseases. Civil servants with a high-job strain level exhibited higher rates of burnout, mental fatigue scores and incidence of chronic diseases. There was a multiple linear regression model composed of three predictor variables in job burnout, which accounted for 45.0% of its occurrence: female gender, lower-income level, higher-job strain in civil servants, the greater the rate of job burnout was. Four factors-male gender, lower-job title rank, higher-job strain, shorter-job tenure of civil servants-explained 25.0% of the mental fatigue model. Binary logistic regression showed that intermediate-rank employees (OR = 0.442, 95% CI: 0.028-0.634; p job tenure of 10-20 years (OR = 0.632, 95% CI: 0.359-0.989; p job strain (OR = 0.657, 95% CI: 0.052-0.698; p job burnout scores and mental fatigue scores compared with civil

  15. Association between job strain (high demand-low control and cardiovascular disease risk factors among petrochemical industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Poorabdian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the practical models for assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is "job demand and control" or Karasek's job strain model. This model explains how adverse physical and psychological effects including cardiovascular disease risk factors can be established due to high work demand. The aim was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors including body mass index (BMI, heart rate, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol levels, and cigarette smoking are associated with job demand and control in workers. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, 500 subjects completed "job demand and control" questionnaires. Factor analysis method was used in order to specify the most important "job demand and control" questions. Health check-up records of the workers were applied to extract data about cardiovascular disease risk factors. Ultimately, hypothesis testing, based on Eta, was used to assess the relationship between separated working groups and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension and serum total cholesterol level. Results: A significant relationship was found between the job demand-control model and cardiovascular risk factors. In terms of chisquared test results, the highest value was assessed for heart rate (Chi2 = 145.078. The corresponding results for smoking and BMI were Chi2 = 85.652 and Chi2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, Eta result for total cholesterol was 0.469, followed by hypertension equaling 0.684. Moreover, there was a significant difference between cardiovascular risk factors and job demand-control profiles among different working groups including the operational group, repairing group and servicing group. Conclusion: Job control and demand are significantly related to heart disease risk factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cigarette smoking.

  16. Shift work, job strain and changes in the body mass index among women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Lividoti Hibert, Eileen; Schernhammer, Eva; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2017-06-01

    The effects of job strain and shift work on weight gain have not been studied jointly. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on shift work and weight gain have reported different results. This study examines potential effect modification by job strain on the link between shift work and weight gain, and concurrent and delayed effects of shift work on weight gain. Data came from 52 622 women who participated in the Nurses' Health Study II, a prospective cohort study. Using linear regression, we modelled change in body mass index (BMI) over 4 years as a function of change in job strain, cumulative exposure to rotating night shift previously and during the 4 years (ie, previous and concurrent exposures) and the interaction between job strain and concurrent shift work exposure. Age, race/ethnicity, pregnancy history, baseline BMI, job types and health behaviours at baseline were controlled for. Job strain and rotating shift work, concurrent and previous, all had independent associations with BMI change during the 4-year period. There was no evidence for effect modification by job strain. Concurrent and previous exposures to rotating night shift had different associations with BMI change: an inverted U-shape for concurrent exposure (ranging from 0.01 to 0.14 kg/m 2 increase), a dose-response for previous exposure (-0.02 to 0.09 kg/m 2 ). Job strain and rotating night shift work have independent contributions to weight gain. Reducing job strain and supporting night shift workers are both important intervention goals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Job strain, depressive symptoms, and drinking behavior among older adults: results from the health and retirement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezuk, Briana; Bohnert, Amy S B; Ratliff, Scott; Zivin, Kara

    2011-07-01

    To examine the relationship between job strain and two indicators of mental health, depression and alcohol misuse, among currently employed older adults. Data come from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (N = 2,902). Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to determine the association between job strain, indicated by the imbalance of job stress and job satisfaction, with depression and alcohol misuse. High job strain (indicated by high job stress combined with low job satisfaction) was associated with elevated depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.99-4.45) relative to low job strain after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, labor force status, and occupation. High job stress combined with high job satisfaction (OR = 1.93) and low job stress combined with low job satisfaction (OR = 1.94) were also associated with depressive symptoms to a lesser degree. Job strain was unrelated to either moderate or heavy drinking. These associations did not vary by gender or age. Job strain is associated with elevated depressive symptoms among older workers. In contrast to results from investigations of younger workers, job strain was unrelated to alcohol misuse. These findings can inform the development and implementation of workplace health promotion programs that reflect the mental health needs of the aging workforce.

  18. Job Strain, Workplace Discrimination, and Hypertension among Older Workers: The Health and Retirement Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mezuk, Briana; Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Hudson, Darrell; Lim, Kyuang Ah; Ratliff, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Job strain has been associated with hypertension among younger workers; however, whether this relationship persists among older workers, particularly older racial/ethnic minorities, is unresolved. This study evaluated whether job strain and workplace discrimination are associated with hypertension and poor blood pressure control among older workers and whether these relationships vary by gender and race/ethnicity. Data were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, and analysis was restrict...

  19. Job Strain, Workplace Discrimination, and Hypertension among Older Workers: The Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezuk, Briana; Kershaw, Kiarri N; Hudson, Darrell; Lim, Kyuang Ah; Ratliff, Scott

    2011-03-01

    Job strain has been associated with hypertension among younger workers; however, whether this relationship persists among older workers, particularly older racial/ethnic minorities, is unresolved. This study evaluated whether job strain and workplace discrimination are associated with hypertension and poor blood pressure control among older workers and whether these relationships vary by gender and race/ethnicity. Data were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, and analysis was restricted to employed participants with complete information on job strain and blood pressure (N = 3,794). In adjusted models, high job strain was associated with lower likelihood of hypertension (odds ratio (OR): 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63, 0.89) relative to low job strain. Stratified analyses indicated this association was only significant among white (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.86) and male (OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.47, 0.79) workers. High job strain was not significantly associated with hypertension among African American (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.63, 2.07) or Hispanic (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.29, 1.09) workers. Workplace discrimination was not associated with hypertension among any group. Neither job strain nor discrimination was associated with poor blood pressure control. These findings suggest that persistence in work characterized by high job strain in later life may signal resilience to the influence of work-related stressors on health. Future research efforts should examine the factors that contribute to gender and racial differences in these relationships.

  20. Psychosocial job strain and risk of congenital malformations in offspring--a Danish National cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A D; Hannerz, H; Thulstrup, A M

    2014-01-01

    Cohort. POPULATION: A cohort of 60,386 singleton children with full information on mother's occupational status, exposure to psychosocial job strain and all covariates during pregnancy. METHODS: Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds of congenital malformations as a function of job......OBJECTIVE: To investigate if maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain at work (high demands and low control) measured by questionnaire early in pregnancy (median week 15) is associated with malformations in the offspring. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: The Danish National Birth...... (aOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.85-1.15). Supplementary analyses including restriction to first-borns and a stratified analysis with respect to manual and nonmanual work did not change the results. CONCLUSIONS: Association between exposure to high job strain during pregnancy and elevated risk of circulatory...

  1. On-call work and physicians' turnover intention: the moderating effect of job strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Presseau, Justin; Elovainio, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Physician shortage and turnover are major problems worldwide. On-call duties may be among the risk factors of high turnover rates among physicians. We investigated whether having on-call duties is associated with physicians' turnover intention and whether job strain variables moderate this association. The present study was a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 3324 (61.6% women) Finnish physicians. The analyses were conducted using analyses of covariance adjusted for age, gender, response format, specialization status and employment sector. The results showed that job strain moderated the association between being on-call and turnover intention. The highest levels of turnover intention were among those who had on-call duties and high level of job strain characterized by high demands and low control opportunities. The lowest levels of turnover intention were among those who were not on-call and who had low strain involving low demands and high control. Also, job demands moderated the association between being on-call and turnover intention; turnover intention levels were higher among those with on-call duties and high demands than those being on-call and low demands. To conclude, working on-call was related to physicians' turnover intention particularly in those with high job strain. Health care organizations should focus more attention on working arrangements and scheduling of on-call work, provide a suitable working pace and implement means to increase physicians' participation and control over their job.

  2. Jobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple.......Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple....

  3. Job satisfaction mediates subjective social status and turnover intention among Chinese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Danjun; Su, Shan; Yang, Yang; Xia, Jinghua; Su, Yonggang

    2017-09-01

    Nurse turnover is one of the reasons for the global nurse shortage. Although previous studies have examined the determinants of turnover intention in detail, there is limited knowledge on the effect of subjective social status on nurse turnover intention. Therefore, in this study, we examined this relationship, including job satisfaction as a mediator, among Chinese nurses. This cross-sectional study employed questionnaires to assess subjective social status, job satisfaction, and turnover intention in 581 nurses who were randomly recruited from 10 hospitals in Jinan, China. The results partially supported our model. Although subjective social status exerted no significant direct effect on turnover intention, it exerted a significant indirect effect through job satisfaction. These results provide a new insight into why nurses leave their jobs, and possible new solutions to the nurse turnover problem. Efforts should be made to improve nurses' subjective social status. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Senior management leadership, social support, job design and stressor-to-strain relationships in hospital practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Sandra C; West, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the quality of senior management leadership on social support and job design, whose main effects on strains, and moderating effects on work stressors-to-strains relationships were assessed. A survey involving distribution of questionnaires was carried out on a random sample of health care employees in acute hospital practice in the UK. The sample comprised 65,142 respondents. The work stressors tested were quantitative overload and hostile environment, whereas strains were measured through job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Structural equation modelling and moderated regression analyses were used in the analysis. Quality of senior management leadership explained 75 per cent and 94 per cent of the variance of social support and job design respectively, whereas work stressors explained 51 per cent of the variance of strains. Social support and job design predicted job satisfaction and turnover intentions, as well as moderated significantly the relationships between quantitative workload/hostility and job satisfaction/turnover intentions. The findings are useful to management and to health employees working in acute/specialist hospitals. Further research could be done in other counties to take into account cultural differences and variations in health systems. The limitations included self-reported data and percept-percept bias due to same source data collection. The quality of senior management leaders in hospitals has an impact on the social environment, the support given to health employees, their job design, as well as work stressors and strains perceived. The study argues in favour of effective senior management leadership of hospitals, as well as ensuring adequate support structures and job design. The findings may be useful to health policy makers and human resources managers.

  5. Double exposure. The combined impact of domestic responsibilities and job strain on common symptoms in employed Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, G; Ostergren, P O

    2001-12-01

    This study investigated the influence of domestic responsibility and job strain, and especially simultaneous exposure to these factors (i.e. 'double exposure') on common physical and mental symptoms in Swedish women. A questionnaire containing items on socio-economic factors, domestic responsibilities, and psychosocial working conditions was sent to a random population of women, 40 to 50 years of age, in a rural Swedish community. The response rate was 81.7% (397 women). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to test for potential confounding factors and effect modification. Attributable risks were computed based on prevalence data. Women shouldering great domestic responsibility or who experienced job strain were at risk of a high level of common symptoms (OR 1.76; 1.04-2.97 and OR 3.48; 2.05-5.92, respectively). 'Double exposure' considerably increased the odds for common symptoms (OR 6.91; 2.58-18.48), with support for synergy noted. The population attributable risk (PAR) of great domestic responsibility was 10.0% and of job strain it was 26.7% in producing a high level of common symptoms. The corresponding figure for the population of women subjected to 'double exposure' was 11.8% and for the population of women subjected to either single or 'double exposure' the PAR was 30.3%. Heavy domestic responsibility and/or a job strain situation are factors that seem to make important contributions to the causes of a high level of common symptoms among salaried women 40 to 50 years of age. 'Double exposure' showed a particularly high risk because of synergy.

  6. Micro-mechanics of polycrystals subjected to small strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauzay, M.

    2009-04-01

    The author proposes an overview of the different research works he performed during several years. His aim is the understanding and the modelling of plasticity and damage mechanisms in metal polycrystals subjected to small strains, mainly under long duration creep and fatigue. Three topics are more particularly developed: the distribution of mechanical fields in polycrystals subjected to small strains, the strain localisation at the grain scale, and the softening of martensitic steels under creep or fatigue loadings. For each of these topics, the author reports the investigation of microstructure and of damage and strain mechanisms (mechanical tests, microstructure observations), the modelling of these mechanisms (based on continuum mechanics, crystalline elasto-plasticity, finite elements calculations, theory of dislocations and diffusion), and the validation of these predictions at a microscopic and macroscopic scale by comparison with experimental measurements and observations

  7. A study of job strain and dissatisfaction among lecturers in the School of Medical Sciences Universiti Sains Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, B Z; Rusli, B N; Naing, L; Tengku, M A; Winn, T; Rampal, K G

    2004-03-01

    Job stress has now become one of the most significant health and safety issues in the workplace and one of the least understood areas of organizational cost. A cross-sectional study to assess job strain and dissatisfaction in lecturers of the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) was undertaken between August 2001 and May 2002. The original English version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) version 1.7 (revised 1997) by Robert Karasek was self-administered to 73 (response rate 58.4%) lecturers in School of Medical Sciences USM. The prevalence of job strain (defined by low decision latitude and high psychological demands) in USM was 23.3%. The risk factors of job strain in the lecturers were psychological stressors (adjusted OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0, 1.4), created skill (adjusted OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.8) and working in clinical-based departments (adjusted OR 18.7, 95% CI 1.6, 22.7). The prevalence of job dissatisfaction was 42.6%. Associated factors of job dissatisfaction in USM lecturers were decision authority (p job demand (p job strain in USM lecturers. Clinical-based lecturers experienced higher job strain compared to non-clinical-based lecturers. Psychological job demand was strongly associated with job dissatisfaction, and decision authority was protective against job dissatisfaction.

  8. Validity test of the IPD-Work consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between Job Content Questionnaire and Demand-Control Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongkyoo Choi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to test the validity of the IPD-Work Consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ and the Demand-Control Questionnaire (DCQ. Material and Methods: A random population sample (N = 682 of all middle-aged Malmö males and females was given a questionnaire with the 14-item JCQ and 11-item DCQ for the job control and job demands. The JCQ job control and job demands scores were calculated in 3 different ways: using the 14-item JCQ standard scale formulas (method 1; dropping 3 job control items and using the 11-item JCQ standard scale formulas with additional scale weights (method 2; and the approach of the IPD Group (method 3, dropping 3 job control items, but using the simple 11-item summation-based scale formulas. The high job strain was defined as a combination of high demands and low control. Results: Between the 2 questionnaires, false negatives for the high job strain were much greater than false positives (37–49% vs. 7–13%. When the method 3 was applied, the sensitivity of the JCQ for the high job strain against the DCQ was lowest (0.51 vs. 0.60–0.63 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied, although the specificity was highest (0.93 vs. 0.87–0.89 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied. The prevalence of the high job strain with the JCQ (the method 3 was applied was considerably lower (4–7% than with the JCQ (the methods 1 and 2 were applied and the DCQ. The number of congruent cases for the high job strain between the 2 questionnaires was smallest when the method 3 was applied. Conclusions: The IPD-Work Consortium approach showed 2 major weaknesses to be used for epidemiological studies on the high job strain and health outcomes as compared to the standard JCQ methods: the greater misclassification of the high job strain and lower prevalence of the high job strain.

  9. Validity test of the IPD-Work consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between Job Content Questionnaire and Demand-Control Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bongkyoo; Ko, Sangbaek; Ostergren, Per-Olof

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to test the validity of the IPD-Work Consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and the Demand-Control Questionnaire (DCQ). A random population sample (N = 682) of all middle-aged Malmö males and females was given a questionnaire with the 14-item JCQ and 11-item DCQ for the job control and job demands. The JCQ job control and job demands scores were calculated in 3 different ways: using the 14-item JCQ standard scale formulas (method 1); dropping 3 job control items and using the 11-item JCQ standard scale formulas with additional scale weights (method 2); and the approach of the IPD Group (method 3), dropping 3 job control items, but using the simple 11-item summation-based scale formulas. The high job strain was defined as a combination of high demands and low control. Between the 2 questionnaires, false negatives for the high job strain were much greater than false positives (37-49% vs. 7-13%). When the method 3 was applied, the sensitivity of the JCQ for the high job strain against the DCQ was lowest (0.51 vs. 0.60-0.63 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied), although the specificity was highest (0.93 vs. 0.87-0.89 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied). The prevalence of the high job strain with the JCQ (the method 3 was applied) was considerably lower (4-7%) than with the JCQ (the methods 1 and 2 were applied) and the DCQ. The number of congruent cases for the high job strain between the 2 questionnaires was smallest when the method 3 was applied. The IPD-Work Consortium approach showed 2 major weaknesses to be used for epidemiological studies on the high job strain and health outcomes as compared to the standard JCQ methods: the greater misclassification of the high job strain and lower prevalence of the high job strain. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  10. Directive and nondirective social support in the workplace - is this social support distinction important for subjective health complaints, job satisfaction, and perception of job demands and job control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Tone Langjordet; Eriksen, Hege Randi; Indahl, Aage; Tveito, Torill Helene

    2017-08-01

    Social support is associated with well-being and positive health outcomes. However, positive outcomes of social support might be more dependent on the way support is provided than the amount of support received. A distinction can be made between directive social support, where the provider resumes responsibility, and nondirective social support, where the receiver has the control. This study examined the relationship between directive and nondirective social support, and subjective health complaints, job satisfaction and perception of job demands and job control. A survey was conducted among 957 Norwegian employees, working in 114 private kindergartens (mean age 40.7 years, SD = 10.5, 92.8% female), as part of a randomized controlled trial. This study used only baseline data. A factor analysis of the Norwegian version of the Social Support Inventory was conducted, identifying two factors: nondirective and directive social support. Hierarchical regression analyses were then performed. Nondirective social support was related to fewer musculoskeletal and pseudoneurological complaints, higher job satisfaction, and the perception of lower job demands and higher job control. Directive social support had the opposite relationship, but was not statistically significant for pseudoneurological complaints. It appears that for social support to be positively related with job characteristics and subjective health complaints, it has to be nondirective. Directive social support was not only without any association, but had a significant negative relationship with several of the variables. Nondirective social support may be an important factor to consider when aiming to improve the psychosocial work environment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02396797. Registered 23 March 2015.

  11. Job strain and informal caregiving as predictors of long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jesper; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the individual, joint and interactive effects of job strain and informal caregiving on long-term sickness absence with special attention to gender differences. METHODS: The study comprised a prospective cohort study of 6798 working adults from...... France, 14 727 from Finland, and 5275 from the UK. A total of 26 800 participants, age 52 (interquartile range 47-56) years participated in the study. Job strain was assessed using the demand-control model. Informal caregiving was defined as care for a sick, disabled, or elderly person. Long......-term sickness absence spells defined as absence >14 consecutive days were registered during two years follow-up. We used recurrent-events Cox regression in random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: A total of 12% men and 21% women had ≥1 long-term sickness absence spell. Among women, both high job strain [hazard...

  12. Evaluation of Pressure Pain Threshold as a Measure of Perceived Stress and High Job Strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hven, Lisbeth; Frost, Poul; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether pressure pain threshold (PPT), determined by pressure algometry, can be used as an objective measure of perceived stress and job strain. METHODS: We used cross-sectional base line data collected during 1994 to 1995 within the Project on Research and Intervention...... in Monotonous work (PRIM), which included 3123 employees from a variety of Danish companies. Questionnaire data included 18 items on stress symptoms, 23 items from the Karasek scale on job strain, and information on discomfort in specified anatomical regions was also collected. Clinical examinations included...... pressure pain algometry measurements of PPT on the trapezius and supraspinatus muscles and the tibia. Associations of stress symptoms and job strain with PPT of each site was analyzed for men and women separately with adjustment for age body mass index, and discomfort in the anatomical region closest...

  13. Associations between Job Strain and Arterial Stiffness: A Large Survey among Enterprise Employees from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orawan Kaewboonchoo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As an intermediate endpoint to cardiovascular disease, arterial stiffness has received much attention recently. So far, the research on work stress and arterial stiffness is still sparse and inconsistent, and no investigations on work stress and cardiovascular health among the Thai working population have been reported. Therefore, we conducted an epidemiological study among 2141 Thai enterprise employees (858 men and 1283 women who were free from any diagnosed cardiovascular disease. Work stress was measured using Karasek’s Job Demand–Control model for job strain (a combination of high demand and low control. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by a non-invasive approach using pulse-wave analysis based on a finger photoplethysmogram. Multivariable linear regression was applied to examine associations between job strain and arterial stiffness. In men, job strain was significantly associated with arterial stiffness (β  =  0.078, 95% confidence interval  =  0.026 to 0.130, after accounting for sociodemographic, behavioral, dietary and biomedical factors. However, the association in women was not significant. As the first study in Thailand on work stress and cardiovascular risk, we found that job strain might be an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease among Thai working men. Further studies with longitudinal design are warranted.

  14. Bus operators' responses to job strain: An experimental test of the job demand-control model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendales-Ayala, Boris; Useche, Sergio Alejandro; Gómez-Ortiz, Viviola; Bocarejo, Juan Pablo

    2017-10-01

    The research aim was to test the Job Demand-Control (JDC) Model demands × Control interaction (or buffering) hypothesis in a simulated bus driving experiment. The buffering hypothesis was tested using a 2 (low and high demands) × 2 (low and high decision latitude) design with repeated measures on the second factor. A sample of 80 bus operators were randomly assigned to the low (n = 40) and high demands (n = 40) conditions. Demands were manipulated by increasing or reducing the number of stops to pick up passengers, and decision latitude by imposing or removing restrictions on the Rapid Transit Bus (BRT) operators' pace of work. Outcome variables include physiological markers (heart rate [HR], heart rate variability [HRV], breathing rate [BR], electromyography [EMG], and skin conductance [SC]), objective driving performance and self-report measurements of psychological wellbeing (psychological distress, interest/enjoyment [I/E], perceived competence, effort/importance [E/I], and pressure/tension [P/T]). It was found that job decision latitude moderates the effect of job demands on both physiological arousal (BR: F(1, 74) = 4.680, p = .034, SC: F(1, 75) = 6.769, p = .011, and EMG: F(1, 75) = 6.550, p = .013) and psychological well-being (P/T: F(1, 75) = 4.289, p = .042 and I/E: F(1, 74) = 4.548, p = .036). Consistently with the JDC model buffering hypothesis, the experimental findings suggest that increasing job decision latitude can moderate the negative effect of job demands on different psychophysiological outcomes. This finding is useful for designing organizational and clinical interventions in an occupational group at high risk of work stress-related disease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Job strain and other work conditions: relationships with psychological distress among civil servants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Claudia S; Araya, Ricardo; Werneck, Guilherme L; Chor, Dóra; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2010-03-01

    In developing countries, traditional sources of employment and work practices have changed rapidly and work environment has appeared as an important factor associated with an increased prevalence of mental disorders in these countries. To investigate the association between job strain and other work characteristics with psychological distress, and to estimate the contextual effects of different working environments on psychological distress, using cross-sectional data from an occupational cohort. The subjects were 3,574 non-faculty civil servants working at university campuses in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study). Psychological distress was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Work characteristics were measured by the modified version of the Karasek model and through questions about night shift work and occupational status. After adjusting for age, education, income and other work characteristics, low social support at work and high job strain were associated with psychological distress. For low social support, the association was stronger in men (Prevalence Ratio = 2.02; 95% Confidence Interval 1.6-2.6) than in women (PR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.2-1.4). High job strain was similarly significant in both women (PR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.2-1.7) and men (PR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.0-1.7). Men having a routine non-manual work presented 29% more psychological distress than those undertaking professional roles. Night shift work did not show significant association with psychological distress. In the multilevel analysis, the prevalence of psychological distress did not vary significantly across work units. Job strain and poor support at work seem important psychological stressors in the workplace in Brazil. Our findings are comparable to those found in more developed countries, providing additional evidence of an association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and psychological distress, being thus useful for policymakers in planning and promoting

  16. Testing the association between psychosocial job strain and adverse birth outcomes--design and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann D; Hannerz, Harald; Obel, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have examined the effects of prenatal exposure to stress on birth outcomes but few have specifically focused on psychosocial job strain. In the present protocol, we aim to examine if work characterised by high demands and low control, during pregnancy, is associated with the r......A number of studies have examined the effects of prenatal exposure to stress on birth outcomes but few have specifically focused on psychosocial job strain. In the present protocol, we aim to examine if work characterised by high demands and low control, during pregnancy, is associated...... with the risk of giving birth to a child born preterm or small for gestational age....

  17. Job strain (demands and control model) as a predictor of cardiovascular risk factors among petrochemical personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Poorabdian, Siamak; Shakerian, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the practical models for the assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is job demand and control model, which explains how physical and psychological adverse consequences, including cardiovascular risk factors can be established due to high work demands (the amount of workload, in addition to time limitations to complete that work) and low control of the worker on his/her work (lack of decision making) in the workplace. The aim of this study was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors (including body mass index [BMI], heart rate, blood pressure, cholesterol and smoking) and the job demand and job control are related to each other. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 500 workers of the petrochemical industry in south of Iran, 2009. The study population was selected using simple random statistical method. They completed job demand and control questionnaire. The cardiovascular risk factors data was extracted from the workers hygiene profiles. Chi-square (χ2) test and hypothesis test (η) were used to assess the possible relationship between different quantified variables, individual demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: The results of this study revealed that a significant relationship can be found between job demand control model and cardiovascular risk factors. Chi-square test result for the heart rate showed the highest (χ2 = 145.078) relationship, the corresponding results for smoking and BMI were χ2 = 85.652 and χ2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, hypothesis testing results for cholesterol and hypertension was 0.469 and 0.684, respectively. Discussion: Job strain is likely to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular risk factors among male staff in a petrochemical company in Iran. The parameters illustrated in the Job demands and control model can act as acceptable predictors for the probability of job stress occurrence followed by showing

  18. Influence of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Hotel Employees’ Job Satisfaction and Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülseren YURCU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze the influence of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB of employees working for the accommodation business on their job satisfaction (JS and subjective well-being (SWB. For this purpose, data were collected from 2,051 employees in various five-star accommodation enterprises located in Antalya, the most important tourism destination in Turkey. The analysis of the data showed that organizational citizenship behavior and its subdimensions correlate positively with job satisfaction and subjective well-being and influence them positively. It was also found that job satisfaction mediates the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and subjective well-being. Employees with organizational citizenship behavior were found to have higher levels of job satisfaction and subjective well-being. The results showed that organizational citizenship behavior is a stronger predictor for the job satisfaction of the employees than subjective well-being. The findings offer useful and important implications for business managers when hiring employees.

  19. The effects of job crafting on subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Peral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Job crafting can result in a number of positive outcomes for teachers, such as increased meaningfulness and engagement at work. Increased work engagement and psychological meaningfulness may yield positive benefits for the practice of teaching, thus highlighting the pivotal role of job crafting. Research purpose: The study’s aim was to investigate the relationship between job crafting and subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers. Subjective well-being comprises psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. The potential mediating effect that psychological meaningfulness had on this relationship was further explored. Motivation for the study: Being in a highly stressful occupation, teachers need to continuously find ways to craft their working practices in order to deal effectively with their job demands and to capitalise on their available job resources. Furthermore, South Africa’s current education system calls for serious proactive measures to be taken to improve and rectify the current status, such as job crafting. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was used and administered to a sample of South African high school teachers situated in Gauteng, South Africa (N = 251. Main findings: A positive relationship was found between job crafting (increasing structural resources and challenging job demands and work engagement. Furthermore, psychological meaningfulness mediated the relationship between job crafting and work engagement amongst the sampled high school teachers. Practical/managerial implications: Teachers who craft their work to better suit their preferences and needs will obtain greater meaning in their work and experience increased levels of work engagement. Training programmes and/or group-based interventions targeted around job crafting techniques may be particularly useful in the South African teaching context. Contribution/value-add: This

  20. Testing the association between psychosocial job strain and adverse birth outcomes - design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulstrup Ane M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have examined the effects of prenatal exposure to stress on birth outcomes but few have specifically focused on psychosocial job strain. In the present protocol, we aim to examine if work characterised by high demands and low control, during pregnancy, is associated with the risk of giving birth to a child born preterm or small for gestational age. Methods and design We will use the Danish National Birth Cohort where 100.000 children are included at baseline. In the present study 49,340 pregnancies will be included. Multinomial logistic regression will be applied to estimate odds ratios for the outcomes: preterm; full term but small for gestational age; full term but large for gestational age, as a function of job-strain (high strain, active and passive versus low strain. In the analysis we control for maternal age, Body Mass Index, parity, exercise, smoking, alcohol use, coffee consumption, type of work (manual versus non-manual, maternal serious disease and parents' heights as well as gestational age at interview. Discussion The prospective nature of the design and the high number of participants strengthen the study. The large statistical power allows for interpretable results regardless of whether or not the hypotheses are confirmed. This is, however, not a controlled study since all kinds of 'natural' interventions takes place throughout pregnancy (e.g. work absence, medical treatment and job-redesign. The analysis will be performed from a public health perspective. From this perspective, we are not primarily interested in the effect of job strain per se but if there is residual effect of job strain after naturally occurring preventive measures have been taken.

  1. Job strain in relation to body mass index: Pooled analysis of 160000 adults from 13 cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyberg, S.T.; Heikkilä, K.; Fransson, E.I.; Alfredsson, L.; Bacquer, D.de; Bjorner, J.B.; Bonenfant, S.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Casini, A.; Clays, E.; Dragano, N.; Erbel, R.; Geuskens, G.A.; Goldberg, M.; Hooftman, W.E.; Houtman, I.L.; Jöckel, K.-H.; Kittel, F.; Knutsson, A.; Koskenvuo, M.; Leineweber, C.; Lunau, T.; Madsen, I.E.H.; Hanson, L.L.M.; Marmot, M.G.; Nielsen, M.L.; Nordin, M.; Oksanen, T.; Pentti, J.; Rugulies, R.; Siegrist, J.; Suominen, S.; Vahtera, J.; Virtanen, M.; Westerholm, P.; Westerlund, H.; Zins, M.; Ferrie, J.E.; Theorell, T.; Steptoe, A.; Hamer, M.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Batty, G.D.; Kivimäki, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Evidence of an association between job strain and obesity is inconsistent, mostly limited to small-scale studies, and does not distinguish between categories of underweight or obesity subclasses. Objectives. To examine the association between job strain and body mass index (BMI) in a

  2. Relationship between job stress and subjective oral health symptoms in male financial workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Koichi; Suzuki, Seitaro; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Sugihara, Naoki; Kamijyo, Hideyuki

    2017-04-07

    The aim was to assess subjective oral health symptoms and job stress, as measured by self-assessment of how demanding the job is, in male financial workers. The participants were recruited by applying screening procedures to a pool of Japanese registrants in an online database. For the stress check, 7 items about how demanding the job is were selected from The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ). Participants comprised a total of 950 financial male workers, ages 25 to 64. Participants who answered "I can't complete my work in the required time" had more decayed teeth (p=0.010). Participants who felt that their job is highly demanding (answered affirmatively to 6 or all 7 items) were more likely to report "often get food stuck between teeth" (p=0.030), "there are some foods I can't eat" (p=0.005), "bad breath" (p=0.032), and "jaw makes clicking sound" (p=0.032). The independent variable of total stress score of 24-28 was found to be correlated to at least three oral health symptoms (OR: 3.25; 95%CI: 1.66-6.35). These results indicate that certain job stress factors are associated with certain oral health symptoms, and that oral health symptoms are likely predictors of job stress.

  3. The Composite Strain Index (COSI) and Cumulative Strain Index (CUSI): methodologies for quantifying biomechanical stressors for complex tasks and job rotation using the Revised Strain Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Arun; Moore, J Steven; Kapellusch, Jay M

    2017-08-01

    The Composite Strain Index (COSI) quantifies biomechanical stressors for complex tasks consisting of exertions at different force levels and/or with different exertion times. The Cumulative Strain Index (CUSI) further integrates biomechanical stressors from different tasks to quantify exposure for the entire work shift. The paper provides methodologies to compute COSI and CUSI along with examples. Complex task simulation produced 169,214 distinct tasks. Use of average, time-weighted average (TWA) and peak force and COSI classified 66.9, 28.2, 100 and 38.9% of tasks as hazardous, respectively. For job rotation the simulation produced 10,920 distinct jobs. TWA COSI, peak task COSI and CUSI classified 36.5, 78.1 and 66.6% jobs as hazardous, respectively. The results suggest that the TWA approach systematically underestimates the biomechanical stressors and peak approach overestimates biomechanical stressors, both at the task and job level. It is believed that the COSI and CUSI partially address these underestimations and overestimations of biomechanical stressors. Practitioner Summary: COSI quantifies exposure when applied hand force and/or duration of that force changes during a task cycle. CUSI integrates physical exposures from job rotation. These should be valuable tools for designing and analysing tasks and job rotation to determine risk of musculoskeletal injuries.

  4. Changes in job strain and subsequent weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterlund, Gitte Kingo; Keller, Amélie Cléo; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2018-01-01

    as amount of influence. Setting: Employed nurses in Denmark. Subjects: We included a sub-sample of 6188 female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort, which consisted of the nurses who participated in surveys in 1993, 1999 and 2009. Results: A linear trend in weight gain was seen in nurses who were often busy...

  5. Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The status of psychosocial stress at work as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes is unclear because existing evidence is based on small studies and is subject to confounding by lifestyle factors, such as obesity and physical inactivity. This collaborative study examined whether stress at...

  6. Job strain among blue-collar and white-collar employees as a determinant of total mortality: a 28-year population-based follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitsamo, Jorma; von Bonsdorff, Monika E; Ilmarinen, Juhani; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Rantanen, Taina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of job demand, job control and job strain on total mortality among white-collar and blue-collar employees working in the public sector. Design 28-year prospective population-based follow-up. Setting Several municipals in Finland. Participants 5731 public sector employees from the Finnish Longitudinal Study on Municipal Employees Study aged 44–58 years at baseline. Outcomes Total mortality from 1981 to 2009 among individuals with complete data on job strain in midlife, categorised according to job demand and job control: high job strain (high job demands and low job control), active job (high job demand and high job control), passive job (low job demand and low job control) and low job strain (low job demand and high job control). Results 1836 persons died during the follow-up. Low job control among men increased (age-adjusted HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.42) and high job demand among women decreased the risk for total mortality HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.95). Adjustment for occupational group, lifestyle and health factors attenuated the association for men. In the analyses stratified by occupational group, high job strain increased the risk of mortality among white-collar men (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.13) and passive job among blue-collar men (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.47) compared with men with low job strain. Adjustment for lifestyle and health factors attenuated the risks. Among white-collar women having an active job decreased the risk for mortality (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.00). Conclusion The impact of job strain on mortality was different according to gender and occupational group among middle-aged public sector employees. PMID:22422919

  7. An examination of the long-term impact of job strain on mental health and wellbeing over a 12-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Richard A; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2016-05-01

    Job strain has been implicated in a range of employee health outcomes including psychiatric health. Much of the literature is drawn from studies that utilise cross-sectional designs, whilst the long-term follow-up of participants is limited. We examine the short and long-term risks of job strain for depression and wellbeing over a 12-year period. In particular, we utilise measures of wellbeing to emphasise the importance of discriminating between indices of subjective and psychological wellbeing that complement measures of mental health. Participants (n = 2530) were aged between 40 and 44 years at baseline and were drawn from the Personality and Total Health (PATH) Through Life Project. Participants were observed once every 4 years for 12 years. A high strain job was associated with an increased risk of reporting sub-syndromal [RRR = 1.66 (95 % CI 1.23; 2.25), p wellbeing outcomes. Moving into a high strain job was a risk for developing depression [RRR = 1.81 (95 % CI 1.26; 2.59), p wellbeing outcomes. Effects were not consistent between indices of mental health, subjective or psychological wellbeing, supporting the need to dedifferentiate between wellbeing and mental health.

  8. Big Five personality traits, job satisfaction and subjective wellbeing in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Qingguo; Willis, Mike; O'Shea, Bob; Zhai, Yubo; Yang, Yuwen

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the Big Five personality traits on job satisfaction and subjective wellbeing (SWB). The paper also examines the mediating role of job satisfaction on the Big Five-SWB relationship. Data were collected from a sample of 818 urban employees from five Chinese cities: Harbin, Changchun, Shenyang, Dalian, and Fushun. All the study variables were measured with well-established multi-item scales that have been validated both in English-speaking populations and in China. The study found only extraversion to have an effect on job satisfaction, suggesting that there could be cultural difference in the relationships between the Big Five and job satisfaction in China and in the West. The study found that three factors in the Big Five--extraversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism--have an effect on SWB. This finding is similar to findings in the West, suggesting convergence in the relationship between the Big Five and SWB in different cultural contexts. The research found that only the relationship between extraversion and SWB is partially mediated by job satisfaction, implying that the effect of the Big Five on SWB is mainly direct, rather than indirect via job satisfaction. The study also found that extraversion was the strongest predictor of both job satisfaction and SWB. This finding implies that extraversion could be more important than other factors in the Big Five in predicting job satisfaction and SWB in a "high collectivism" and "high power distance" country such as China. The research findings are discussed in the Chinese cultural context. The study also offers suggestions on the directions for future research.

  9. Preemptive scheduling of independent jobs on identical parallel machines subject to migration delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevastyanov, S. V.; Sitters, R. A.; Fishkin, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    We present hardness and approximation results for the problem of preemptive scheduling of n independent jobs on m identical parallel machines subject to a migration delay d with the objective to minimize the makespan. We give a sharp threshold on the value of d for which the complexity of the

  10. Sustained involvement in youth sports activities predicts reduced chronic job strain in early midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Telama, R; Hirvensalo, M; Hintsanen, M; Hintsa, T; Pulkki-Råback, L; Mansikkaniemi, K; Viikari, J S A; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Raitakari, O T

    2010-12-01

    We examined the long-term effects of youth leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and sports participation on the prevalence of chronic work stress in adulthood. Participants (326 men and 338 women) aged 9 to 18 years were initially enrolled in 1980 and followed until 2007. Data were collected using questionnaires and bicycle ergometry in a subgroup. High youth LTPA and sports participation predicted lower chronic job strain in both sexes. The association was mediated by type A leadership. Participation and persistence in organized youth sports followed a similar pattern. In the subgroup, adult physical fitness only partly accounted for the association. Sustained involvement in youth physical activity and sport lasting at least 3 years is associated with reduced chronic job strain in adulthood. The association was partially explained by type A leadership and physical fitness.

  11. Changes in job strain and subsequent weight gain: a longitudinal study, based on the Danish Nurse Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterlund, Gitte Kingo; Keller, Amélie Cléo; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2018-04-01

    Obesity as well as job strain is increasing, and job strain might contribute to weight gain. The objective of the current study was to examine associations between longitudinal alterations in the components of job strain and subsequent weight gain. The study was designed as a prospective cohort study with three questionnaire surveys enabling measurement of job-strain alterations over 6 years and subsequent measurements of weight gain after further 10 years of follow-up. ANCOVA and trend analyses were conducted. Job demands were measured as job busyness and speed, and control as amount of influence. Employed nurses in Denmark. We included a sub-sample of 6188 female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort, which consisted of the nurses who participated in surveys in 1993, 1999 and 2009. A linear trend in weight gain was seen in nurses who were often busy in 1999 between those who were rarely v. sometimes v. often busy in 1993 (P=0·03), with the largest weight gain in individuals with sustained high busyness in both years. Loss of influence between 1993 and 1999 was associated with larger subsequent weight gain than sustained high influence (P=0·003) or sustained low influence (P=0·02). For speed, no associations were found. Busyness, speed and influence differed in their relationship to subsequent weight gain. A decrease in job influence and a sustained burden of busyness were most strongly related to subsequent weight gain. Focus on job strain reduction and healthy diet is essential for public health.

  12. The level of job satisfaction and its relation to midwives' subjective quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Babiarczyk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the so called Transactional Model of Quality of Life, job satisfaction is a part of subjective well-being. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between professional commitment, expressed as job satisfaction or dissatisfaction, consideration of leaving the profession or/and workplace, and subjective assessment of well-being among midwives working at hospitals. Materials and Methods: The study was a part of the international research project, coordinated by the University of Ostrava. The group of respondents consisted of 176 midwives working at selected hospitals in the Silesian region. The study was conducted using the method of diagnostic survey, questionnaire techniques and standardized research tools, such as McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale (MMSS, Personal Wellbeing Index-Adult (PWI-A and Subjective Emotional Habitual Wellbeing Scale (SEHP. Results: The overall midwives' job satisfaction was found to be at a medium level. Respondents less satisfied with various aspects of work (interaction, co-workers, professional opportunities, praise/recognition, control/responsibility and life (standard of living and achievements in life were significantly more often considering changing their jobs. Dissatisfaction with the extrinsic rewards (salary, vacation, benefits package had additionally influenced the frequency of considering changing the profession. The respondents were characterized by much lower sense of present and future security than that observed in Western countries, as well as by low satisfaction with standard of living and feeling part of the society. Conclusions: Job satisfaction and subjective well-being remain in strong relationship, and although it is difficult to determine the direction of these relationships, they seem to have a significant impact on each other. Med Pr 2014;65(1:99–108

  13. Study of the validity of a job-exposure matrix for the job strain model factors: an update and a study of changes over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; Milner, Allison; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Chastang, Jean-François

    2018-03-08

    The objectives of the study were to construct a job-exposure matrix (JEM) for psychosocial work factors of the job strain model, to evaluate its validity, and to compare the results over time. The study was based on national representative data of the French working population with samples of 46,962 employees (2010 SUMER survey) and 24,486 employees (2003 SUMER survey). Psychosocial work factors included the job strain model factors (Job Content Questionnaire): psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, job strain and iso-strain. Job title was defined by three variables: occupation and economic activity coded using standard classifications, and company size. A JEM was constructed using a segmentation method (Classification and Regression Tree-CART) and cross-validation. The best quality JEM was found using occupation and company size for social support. For decision latitude and psychological demands, there was not much difference using occupation and company size with or without economic activity. The validity of the JEM estimates was higher for decision latitude, job strain and iso-strain, and lower for social support and psychological demands. Differential changes over time were observed for psychosocial work factors according to occupation, economic activity and company size. This study demonstrated that company size in addition to occupation may improve the validity of JEMs for psychosocial work factors. These matrices may be time-dependent and may need to be updated over time. More research is needed to assess the validity of JEMs given that these matrices may be able to provide exposure assessments to study a range of health outcomes.

  14. Organizational factors impacting job strain and mental quality of life in emergency and critical care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthier Bellagamba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study measures the association between hospital staff’s job strain (JS, mental quality of life (MQL and how they are influenced by the organization models within emergency and critical care units. Material and Methods: This study describes workers employed in emergency departments and intensive care units of a French public hospital. A selfadministered questionnaire was used to survey the demographic and organizational characteristics of their work, as well as work-related mental stress, psychosocial and organizational constraints, and their MQL. Results: Among 145 workers participating in the study, 59.3% of them report job strain and 54.5% of them have low MQL scores. The majority of staff with job strain has reported working more than 2 weekends per month, were regularly on-call, worked in dysfunctional environments and did not participate in regular meetings. The staff with low MQL worked more frequently in dysfunctional environments, had significant complaints regarding employer’s efforts to promote communications or provide adequate staffing levels than the workers with a high MQL score. Conclusions: If stress reduction and improved MQL in emergency and intensive care units is to be achieved, hospital management needs to design work schedules that provide a better balance between working and non-working hours. Additionally, ergonomic design, functional environments and improved communications needs to be implemented.

  15. Organizational factors impacting job strain and mental quality of life in emergency and critical care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellagamba, Gauthier; Gionta, Guillaume; Senergue, Julie; Bèque, Christine; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale

    2015-01-01

    This study measures the association between hospital staff's job strain (JS), mental quality of life (MQL) and how they are influenced by the organization models within emergency and critical care units. This study describes workers employed in emergency departments and intensive care units of a French public hospital. A selfadministered questionnaire was used to survey the demographic and organizational characteristics of their work, as well as work-related mental stress, psychosocial and organizational constraints, and their MQL. Among 145 workers participating in the study, 59.3% of them report job strain and 54.5% of them have low MQL scores. The majority of staff with job strain has reported working more than 2 weekends per month, were regularly on-call, worked in dysfunctional environments and did not participate in regular meetings. The staff with low MQL worked more frequently in dysfunctional environments, had significant complaints regarding employer's efforts to promote communications or provide adequate staffing levels than the workers with a high MQL score. If stress reduction and improved MQL in emergency and intensive care units is to be achieved, hospital management needs to design work schedules that provide a better balance between working and non-working hours. Additionally, ergonomic design, functional environments and improved communications needs to be implemented. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Job strain and health-related lifestyle: findings from an individual-participant meta-analysis of 118,000 working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Fransson, Eleonor I; Nyberg, Solja T; Zins, Marie; Westerlund, Hugo; Westerholm, Peter; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Suominen, Sakari; Steptoe, Andrew; Salo, Paula; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Nordin, Maria; Marmot, Michael G; Lunau, Thorsten; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Koskenvuo, Markku; Knutsson, Anders; Kittel, France; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Goldberg, Marcel; Erbel, Raimund; Dragano, Nico; DeBacquer, Dirk; Clays, Els; Casini, Annalisa; Alfredsson, Lars; Ferrie, Jane E; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G David; Kivimäki, Mika

    2013-11-01

    We examined the associations of job strain, an indicator of work-related stress, with overall unhealthy and healthy lifestyles. We conducted a meta-analysis of individual-level data from 11 European studies (cross-sectional data: n = 118,701; longitudinal data: n = 43,971). We analyzed job strain as a set of binary (job strain vs no job strain) and categorical (high job strain, active job, passive job, and low job strain) variables. Factors used to define healthy and unhealthy lifestyles were body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, and leisure-time physical activity. Individuals with job strain were more likely than those with no job strain to have 4 unhealthy lifestyle factors (odds ratio [OR] = 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12, 1.39) and less likely to have 4 healthy lifestyle factors (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.80, 0.99). The odds of adopting a healthy lifestyle during study follow-up were lower among individuals with high job strain than among those with low job strain (OR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.81, 0.96). Work-related stress is associated with unhealthy lifestyles and the absence of stress is associated with healthy lifestyles, but longitudinal analyses suggest no straightforward cause-effect relationship between work-related stress and lifestyle.

  17. A research regarding the relationship among intensive care nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction and subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Liu

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: The study shows that the prevalence of subjective well-being and self-esteem with ICU nurses are at a low level, and job satisfaction is at the median level. Associations among self-esteem, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being in ICUs have been confirmed. Self-esteem and job satisfaction positively correlated with nurse subjective well-being. The higher the self-esteem and job satisfaction levels are, the stronger the subjective well-being is. The working pressure in ICUs cannot be alleviated temporarily; hence, to promote a high subjective well-being, managers and ICU nurses increase their self-esteem and job satisfaction through taking strategies that strengthen psychological construction.

  18. Perceived Control and Psychological Contract Breach as Explanations of the Relationships Between Job Insecurity, Job Strain and Coping Reactions: Towards a Theoretical Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Elst, Tinne; De Cuyper, Nele; Baillien, Elfi; Niesen, Wendy; De Witte, Hans

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to further knowledge on the mechanisms through which job insecurity is related to negative outcomes. Based on appraisal theory, two explanations-perceived control and psychological contract breach-were theoretically integrated in a comprehensive model and simultaneously examined as mediators of the job insecurity-outcome relationship. Different categories of outcomes were considered, namely work-related (i.e. vigour and need for recovery) and general strain (i.e. mental and physical health complaints), as well as psychological (i.e. job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and behavioural coping reactions (i.e. self-rated performance and innovative work behaviour). The hypotheses were tested using data of a heterogeneous sample of 2413 Flemish employees by means of both single and multiple mediator structural equation modelling analyses (bootstrapping method). Particularly, psychological contract breach accounted for the relationship between job insecurity and strain. Both perceived control and psychological contract breach mediated the relationships between job insecurity and psychological coping reactions, although the indirect effects were larger for psychological contract breach. Finally, perceived control was more important than psychological contract breach in mediating the relationships between job insecurity and behavioural coping reactions. This study meets previous calls for a theoretical integration regarding mediators of the job insecurity-outcome relationship. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of subjective thermal strain in different kitchen working environments using subjective judgment scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, Yasuo; Muto, Takashi; Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Ito, Akiyoshi; Tomita, Shigeru; Muto, Shigeki; Haratani, Takashi; Seo, Akihiko; Ayabe, Makoto; Katamoto, Shizuo

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate the subjective thermal strain of workers in kitchen working environments, we performed a cross-sectional study involving 991 workers in 126 kitchen facilities in Japan, using a self-reporting questionnaire survey and subjective judgment scales (SJS). The ambient temperature, mean radiant temperature (MRT), and wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index were measured in 10 kitchen facilities of the 126 kitchens. The association of SJS with the types of kitchen was estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Of the 991 kitchen workers, 809 (81%) responded to the questionnaire survey. Compared with the electric kitchens, the proportion of workers who perceived the room temperature as hot to very hot was significantly higher, and the ambient temperature, MRT, and WBGT were significantly higher in the gas kitchens. Compared with the electric kitchens, workers in gas kitchens had a more than fivefold (males) and tenfold (females) higher SJS adjusted for confounding factors (male odds ratio (OR), 5.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-15.9; and female OR, 10.9; 95%CI, 3.89-30.5). Although SJS was affected by some confounding factors, our results suggest that workers in gas kitchens might be exposed to a higher heat strains than those in electric kitchens.

  20. Job Satisfaction and Subjective Well-Being Among Midwives: Analysis of a Multinational Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosova, Darja; Gurkova, Elena; Ziakova, Katarina; Nedvedova, Daniela; Palese, Alvisa; Godeas, Gloria; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Song, Mi Sook; Lee, Jongwon; Cordeiro, Raul; Babiarczyk, Beata; Fras, Malgorzata

    2017-03-01

    There is a considerable amount of empirical evidence to indicate a positive association between an employee's subjective well-being and workplace performance and job satisfaction. Compared with nursing research, there is a relative lack of consistent scientific evidence concerning midwives' subjective well-being and its determinants related to domains of job satisfaction. The purpose of the study was to examine the association between the domains of job satisfaction and components of subjective well-being in hospital midwives. This cross-sectional descriptive study involved 1190 hospital midwives from 7 countries. Job satisfaction was measured by the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale. Subjective well-being was conceptualized in the study by the 2 components (the affective and the cognitive component). The affective component of subjective well-being (ie, emotional well-being) was assessed by the Positive and the Negative Affect Scale. The cognitive component of subjective well-being (ie, life satisfaction) was measured by the Personal Well-Being Index. Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to determine associations between variables. Findings from correlation and regression analyses indicated an overall weak association between the domains of job satisfaction and components of subjective well-being. Satisfaction with extrinsic rewards, coworkers, and interaction opportunities accounted for only 13% of variance in the cognitive component (life satisfaction). The affective component (emotional well-being) was weakly associated with satisfaction with control and responsibility. The low amount of variance suggests that neither component of subjective well-being is influenced by the domains of job satisfaction. Further studies should focus on identifying other predictors of subjective well-being among midwives. A better understanding of how specific job facets are related to the subjective well-being of midwives might assist employers in the

  1. The Influence of Domestic Overload on the Association between Job Strain and Ambulatory Blood Pressure among Female Nursing Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Fernandes Portela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that the workplace plays an important etiologic role in blood pressure (BP alterations. Associations in female samples are controversial, and the domestic environment is hypothesized to be an important factor in this relationship. This study assessed the association between job strain and BP within a sample of female nursing workers, considering the potential role of domestic overload. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a group of 175 daytime workers who wore an ambulatory BP monitor for 24 h during a working day. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were calculated. Job strain was evaluated using the Demand-Control Model. Domestic overload was based on the level of responsibility in relation to four household tasks and on the number of beneficiaries. After adjustments no significant association between high job strain and BP was detected. Stratified analyses revealed that women exposed to both domestic overload and high job strain had higher systolic BP at home. These results indicate a possible interaction between domestic overload and job strain on BP levels and revealed the importance of domestic work, which is rarely considered in studies of female workers.

  2. The influence of domestic overload on the association between job strain and ambulatory blood pressure among female nursing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Rotenberg, Lucia; Almeida, Ana Luiza Pereira; Landsbergis, Paul; Griep, Rosane Harter

    2013-11-27

    Evidence suggests that the workplace plays an important etiologic role in blood pressure (BP) alterations. Associations in female samples are controversial, and the domestic environment is hypothesized to be an important factor in this relationship. This study assessed the association between job strain and BP within a sample of female nursing workers, considering the potential role of domestic overload. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a group of 175 daytime workers who wore an ambulatory BP monitor for 24 h during a working day. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were calculated. Job strain was evaluated using the Demand-Control Model. Domestic overload was based on the level of responsibility in relation to four household tasks and on the number of beneficiaries. After adjustments no significant association between high job strain and BP was detected. Stratified analyses revealed that women exposed to both domestic overload and high job strain had higher systolic BP at home. These results indicate a possible interaction between domestic overload and job strain on BP levels and revealed the importance of domestic work, which is rarely considered in studies of female workers.

  3. Job strain associated with increases in ambulatory blood and pulse pressure during and after work hours among female hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Matt; Krause, Niklas

    2018-03-22

    Previously documented elevated hypertension rates among Las Vegas hotel room cleaners are hypothesized to be associated with job strain. Job strain was assessed by questionnaire. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was recorded among 419 female cleaners from five hotels during 18 waking hours. Multiple linear regression models assessed associations of job strain with ABP and pulse pressure for 18-h, work hours, and after work hours. Higher job strain was associated with increased 18-h systolic ABP, after work hours systolic ABP, and ambulatory pulse pressure. Dependents at home but not social support at work attenuated effects. Among hypertensive workers, job strain effects were partially buffered by anti-hypertensive medication. High job strain is positively associated with blood pressure among female hotel workers suggesting potential for primary prevention at work. Work organizational changes, stress management, and active ABP surveillance and hypertension management should be considered for integrated intervention programs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Job strain and cardiovascular disease risk factors: meta-analysis of individual-participant data from 47,000 men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solja T Nyberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Job strain is associated with an increased coronary heart disease risk, but few large-scale studies have examined the relationship of this psychosocial characteristic with the biological risk factors that potentially mediate the job strain - heart disease association. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We pooled cross-sectional, individual-level data from eight studies comprising 47,045 participants to investigate the association between job strain and the following cardiovascular disease risk factors: diabetes, blood pressure, pulse pressure, lipid fractions, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, obesity, and overall cardiovascular disease risk as indexed by the Framingham Risk Score. In age-, sex-, and socioeconomic status-adjusted analyses, compared to those without job strain, people with job strain were more likely to have diabetes (odds ratio 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11-1.51, to smoke (1.14; 1.08-1.20, to be physically inactive (1.34; 1.26-1.41, and to be obese (1.12; 1.04-1.20. The association between job strain and elevated Framingham risk score (1.13; 1.03-1.25 was attributable to the higher prevalence of diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity among those reporting job strain. CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis of work-related stress and cardiovascular disease risk factors, job strain was linked to adverse lifestyle and diabetes. No association was observed between job strain, clinic blood pressure or blood lipids.

  5. Associations between psychological demands, decision latitude, and job strain with smoking in female hotel room cleaners in Las Vegas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Scherzer, Teresa; Krause, Niklas

    2008-01-01

    Little is known of the impact of the work environment on smoking among women holding low-paid jobs in the service sector. To study the associations between the components of the demand-control model with smoking in hotel room cleaners. We conducted a survey on work and health among 776 female hotel room cleaners in Las Vegas. Associations between psychosocial work characteristics and smoking were analyzed with multivariate regression analyses. Psychosocial work characteristics were associated with smoking after adjustment for covariates. Effect estimates were substantially reduced by additional adjustment for ethnicity, but remained significant for high psychological demands and smoking prevalence (OR = 1.97, p = 0.02), high job strain and smoking prevalence (OR = 1.87, p = 0.04), and high job strain and smoking intensity (coefficient = 3.52, p = 0.03). When analyses were restricted to Hispanic workers and further adjusted for place of birth, low decision latitude (coefficient = 3.94, p = 0.04) and high job strain (coefficient = 4.57, p = 003) were associated with smoking intensity but not with smoking status. Workplace smoking cessation programs may benefit from a primary prevention component reducing job strain among service workers. More research is needed on perceived and objective differences in psychosocial work characteristics across ethnic, immigrant, and other social groups within the same occupation.

  6. Are job strain and sleep disturbances prognostic factors for low-back pain?A cohort study of a general population of working age in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen-Barr, Eva; Grooten, Wilhelmus J A; Hallqvist, Johan; Holm, Lena W; Skillgate, Eva

    2017-07-07

    The aim of this study was to determine whether job strain, i.e. a combination of job demands and decision latitude (job control), and sleep disturbances among persons with occasional low-back pain are prognostic factors for developing troublesome low-back pain; and to determine whether sleep disturbances modify the potential association between job strain and troublesome low-back pain. A population-based cohort from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort surveys in 2006 and 2010 (= 25,167) included individuals with occasional low-back pain at baseline 2006 (= 6,413). Through logistic regression analyses, potential prognostic effects of job strain and sleep disturbances were studied. Stratified analyses were performed to assess modification of sleep disturbances on the potential association between job strain and troublesome low-back pain. Those exposed to job strain; active job (odds ratio (OR) 1.3, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-1.6), or high strain (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.4) and those exposed to severe sleep disturbances (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.3-4.0), but not those exposed to passive jobs (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.9-1.4) had higher odds of developing troublesome low-back pain. Sleep disturbances did not modify the association between job strain and troublesome low-back pain. These findings indicate that active job, high job strain and sleep disturbances are prognostic factors for troublesome low-back pain. The odds of developing troublesome low-back pain due to job strain were not modified by sleep disturbance.

  7. Association between insomnia symptoms, job strain and burnout syndrome: a cross-sectional survey of 1300 financial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metlaine, Arnaud; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Elbaz, Maxime; Delafosse, Jean Yves; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-01-13

    Professional burnout is closely related to work stress but less frequently associated with disturbed sleep. This study determines whether job strain and sleep disturbances are associated risk factors of burnout among financial workers. Observational study. 1300 employees (725 female) of a financial company. Self-reported questionnaires (Maslach Burnout Inventory, Job Content Questionnaire, Sleep questionnaire based on ICSD-3 classification), the Epworth sleepiness scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The prevalence of burnout was 10.2% (9.0% moderate and 1.2% severe). 23.3% of workers were considered with high job strain, and 93.1% had a high level of job satisfaction. 16.8% of individuals had insomnia and 97% reported non-restorative sleep. The bivariate analyses demonstrate a higher risk of burnout in participants with insomnia (OR=14.7, 95% CI 9.8 to 21.9), non-restorative sleep (OR=9.9, 95% CI 5.1 to 19.5) and anxiety (OR=10.2, 95% CI 6.8 to 15.3). High job strain was associated with burnout (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.6). This association was not maintained after adjustment for sleep parameters. Job satisfaction was another independent risk factor for burnout (OR=124, 95% CI 65 to 237). In our sample of financial workers, job strain represents a burnout risk factor only if associated with insomnia. Insomnia can be considered as a relevant clinical marker that should be targeted in mental health prevention programmes at the workplace. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Change in Job Strain as a Predictor of Change in Insomnia Symptoms: Analyzing Observational Data as a Non-randomized Pseudo-Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Pentti, Jaana; Stenholm, Sari; Rod, Naja H.; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Study objectives: To examine whether change in job strain leads to change in insomnia symptoms. Methods: Among 24873 adults (82% women, mean age 44 years) who participated in a minimum of three consecutive study waves (2000–2012), job strain was assessed at the first and second wave and insomnia symptoms at all three waves. We analyzed observational data as a “pseudo-trial” including participants with no job strain in the first wave and no insomnia symptoms in the first and second wave (n = 7354) to examine whether the onset of job strain between the first and second waves predicted the onset of insomnia symptoms in the third wave. We used a corresponding approach, including those with job strain in the first wave and insomnia symptoms in the first and second wave (n = 2332), to examine whether the disappearance of job strain between the first two waves predicted remission of insomnia symptoms in the third wave. Results: The onset of job strain predicted the onset of subsequent insomnia symptoms after adjustment for sex, age, marital status, education, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and comorbidities (odds ratio compared to no onset of job strain 1.32, 95% CI 1.16–1.51). The disappearance of job strain was associated with lower odds of repeated insomnia symptoms (odds ratio compared to no disappearance of job strain 0.78, 95% CI 0.65–0.94). Further adjustment for shift work or sleep apnea did not change these associations. Conclusions: These results suggest that job strain is a modifiable risk factor for insomnia symptoms. PMID:28364463

  9. Psychological capital, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction amongst educators in the Umlazi region in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Hansen; Johanna H. Buitendach; Herbert Kanengoni

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: Challenges faced by educators in South Africa are increasing due to their working conditions, which in turn affects the educators’ enthusiasm towards their jobs. Change will likely be witnessed when educators are able to attain a positive and rewarding life, develop and flourish as individuals. Research purpose: This study sought to investigate the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap), subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction and to explore whether P...

  10. The indirect association of job strain with long-term sickness absence through bullying: a mediation analysis using structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Janssens

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this longitudinal study the complex interplay between both job strain and bullying in relation to sickness absence was investigated. Following the “work environment hypothesis”, which establishes several work characteristics as antecedents of bullying, we assumed that job strain, conceptualized by the Job-Demand-Control model, has an indirect relation with long-term sickness absence through bullying. Methods The sample consisted of 2983 Belgian workers, aged 30 to 55 years, who participated in the Belstress III study. They completed a survey, including the Job Content Questionnaire and a bullying inventory, at baseline. Their sickness absence figures were registered during 1 year follow-up. Long-term sickness absence was defined as at least 15 consecutive days. A mediation analysis, using structural equation modeling, was performed to examine the indirect association of job strain through bullying with long-term sickness absence. The full structural model was adjusted for several possible confounders: age, gender, occupational group, educational level, company, smoking habits, alcohol use, body mass index, self-rated health, baseline long-term sickness absence and neuroticism. Results The results support the hypothesis: a significant indirect association of job strain with long-term sickness absence through bullying was observed, suggesting that bullying is an intermediate variable between job strain and long-term sickness absence. No evidence for the reversed pathway of an indirect association of bullying through job strain was found. Conclusions Bullying was observed as a mediating variable in the relation between job strain and sickness absence. The results suggest that exposure to job strain may create circumstances in which a worker risks to become a target of bullying. Our findings are generally in line with the work environment hypothesis, which emphasizes the importance of organizational work factors in the

  11. The Relationship between Happiness, Subjective Well-Being, Creativity and Job Performance of Primary School Teachers in Ramhormoz City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Zohreh; Heidari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the relationship between happiness, subjective well-being, creativity and job performance of primary school teachers in Ramhormoz City. Hence, a sample of 330 individuals was selected through random stratified sampling. The research tools included Oxford Happiness Inventory, Subjective Well-being Scale by Keyes…

  12. STRAIN RATE EFFECT ON THE FAILURE STRAIN AND HARDNESS OF METALLIC ARMOR PLATES SUBJECTED TO HIGH VELOCITY PROJECTILE IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QASIM H. SHAH

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Post impact strain measurements of damaged plates were carried out experimentally after launching a spherical steel projectile at varying velocities against a fixed thin plate targets made of copper and steel materials and constrained at their outer periphery. Penetration or partial perforation of the target plates was achieved for projectile velocities of 120 m/s. The strain rates achieved during the experiments varied from 8000s-1 to 15000 s-1 for steel specimens and from 9000 s-1 to 19000 s-1 for copper specimens for the projectile speeds of 68 to 120 m/s. Strain measurements for static and dynamic loading showed that steel deformation is excessive before failure resulting in higher failure strain at high strain rates while the failure strain for copper at high loading rates causes separation of material before reaching very large strains. At the same loading rates the plate thinning of steel was recorded to be severe than copper. Hardness values of materials subjected to high strain rate were measured experimentally showing a strong dependency upon strain rates calculated by using LS-DYNA software. Strain rate effect on the failure strain of metals was investigated.

  13. Do new production concepts and a new management of employment relations, yield higher employee performance and low job strain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, K.; Oeij, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article old versus new production concepts (NPCs) and employment relation instruments, are studied, separately and in combination, to find out which yield high employee performance and low job strain. Therefore, in 2005, TNO conducted coupled surveys among 149 supervisors and employees. In

  14. Psychosocial job strain and productivity in human service workers: A test of the demand-control-support model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dollard, M.F.; Winefield, H.R.; Winefield, A.H.; Jonge, J. de

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the main and interactive effects of the key dimensions of the demand-control-support model in predicting levels of strain (specifically emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and job dissatisfaction) and feelings of productivity and competency (personal

  15. Job strain in relation to ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability among female nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riese, H.; Doornen, L.J.P. van; Houtman, I.L.D.; Geus, E.J.C. de

    2004-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the effects of exposure to job strain on independent predictors of cardiovascular disease (ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability). Methods. The participants comprised a homogeneous group of 159 healthy female nurses [mean age 35.9 (SD 8.5)

  16. Japanese dietary pattern consistently relates to low depressive symptoms and it is modified by job strain and worksite supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoko; Miyaki, Koichi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Kakehashi, Masayuki; Sasaki, Yasuharu; Shimbo, Takuro

    2013-09-05

    This study examined the association between traditional Japanese dietary pattern and depressive symptoms in Japanese workers, employing large-scale samples, considering socioeconomic status (SES) and job stress factors. A cross-sectional study of 2266 Japanese employees aged 21-65 years from all areas of Japan was conducted as part of the Japanese Study of Health, Occupation and Psychosocial factors related Equity (J-HOPE). Habitual diet was assessed by FFQ (BDHQ). The depression degree and job stress factors (job demand, job control, and worksite support) were measured by K6 and Job Content Questionnaire. Participants with high scores for the balanced Japanese dietary pattern were significantly less likely to show probable mood/anxiety disorders (K6≥9) with multivariate adjustment including SES and job stress factors (odds ratio=0.66 [0.51-0.86], trend P=0.002). Other dietary patterns were not associated with depressive symptoms. Even after stratification by job stress factors, the Japanese dietary pattern was consistently protective against depressive symptoms. Furthermore, a highly significant difference between the first and third tertiles of the dietary pattern was observed in participants with active strain (high demand and high control) with low worksite supports (8.5 vs. 5.2, P=0.011). Female participant sample was relatively small. Japanese dietary pattern consistently related to low depressive symptoms in this large-scale cohort of Japanese workers, even after adjusting for SES and job stress factors. The protective impact is especially strong for workers with active strain and low support. Making better use of traditional dietary patterns may facilitate reducing social disparities in mental health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Parental socioeconomic position and parental life satisfaction as predictors of job strain in adulthood: 18-year follow-up of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsa, Taina; Kivimäki, Mika; Elovainio, Marko; Keskivaara, Pertti; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to prospectively examine whether parental socioeconomic position (SEP) and parental life satisfaction predict job strain in adulthood. The cohort comprised 755 participants from the ongoing Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The parents reported their SEP and life satisfaction when the participants were aged 6-21 years. Eighteen years later at ages 24-39 years, the participants responded to a survey on job strain and its components, job control and job demands. According to structural equation modeling, lower parental SEP and higher parental life dissatisfaction independently predicted increased adulthood job strain. Lower parental SEP also predicted lower educational attainment, which in turn was linked with higher job strain and lower job control. We found no gender differences in these predictive relationships. Parental SEP and parental life satisfaction are associated with job strain in adulthood, and the effect is partly mediated by education. These prospective data suggest that preemployment factors should be taken into account as potential confounders in future research on job strain-health associations.

  18. [Association of job burnout with subjective well-being and health status among employees from 29 provinces in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C J; Xiao, Y; Pan, N; Ye, J; Lin, Q X; Jin, Y

    2017-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the influence of job burnout on subjective well-being and health status among employees in China. Methods: The data from the 2014 China Labor-force Dynamic Survey were used to analyze the association of job burnout with subjective well-being and health status among 7289 employees aged 18-64 years from 29 provinces in China.Some items from the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey were used to investigate job burnout; subjective well-being assessment included life happiness and degree of satisfaction with living condition; the questions for self-evaluation of health status were used to analyze health status. Results: Of all employees,30.5% had low subjective well-being and 4.7% had poor health status based on self-evaluation. The logistic regression analysis showed that emotional exhaustion(two items), reduced sense of personal accomplishment,and cynicism were risk factors for low subjective well-being( OR =1.07,1.11,1.10,and 1.06, P factor for poor health status ( OR =1.10 and 1.07, P influence on health status( P >0.05). Conclusion: Emotional exhaustion is a major influencing factor for health status,and reducing job burnout may be an effective method for improving subjective well-being and health status.

  19. Psychological capital, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction amongst educators in the Umlazi region in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hansen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Challenges faced by educators in South Africa are increasing due to their working conditions, which in turn affects the educators’ enthusiasm towards their jobs. Change will likely be witnessed when educators are able to attain a positive and rewarding life, develop and flourish as individuals.Research purpose: This study sought to investigate the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction and to explore whether PsyCap mediates the relationship between subjective well-being and burnout.Motivation for the study: The study is premised on the fact that enhancing the positive attributes and strengths of educators can have a positive impact not only on their performance and commitment, but also on the satisfaction of students.Research approach, design and method: This cross-sectional study used a biographical questionnaire, PsyCap questionnaire, satisfaction with life scale, burnout inventory and Minnesota job satisfaction questionnaire to collect data from 103 educators.Main findings: Findings indicated statistically significant relationships between PsyCap, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction. PsyCap was found to mediate the relationship between subjective well-being and burnout.Managerial implications: PsyCap mediates the relationship between subjective well-being and burnout. Organisations can minimise burnout through the enhancement of positive capacities inherent in PsyCap and the aiding potential of subjective well-being.Contribution/value-add: The findings highlighted the aiding potential of subjective wellbeing as well as the possible resources PsyCap, subjective well-being and job satisfaction can provide in times of distress.

  20. Psychological capital, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction amongst educators in the Umlazi region in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hansen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Challenges faced by educators in South Africa are increasing due to their working conditions, which in turn affects the educators’ enthusiasm towards their jobs. Change will likely be witnessed when educators are able to attain a positive and rewarding life, develop and flourish as individuals. Research purpose: This study sought to investigate the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction and to explore whether PsyCap mediates the relationship between subjective well-being and burnout. Motivation for the study: The study is premised on the fact that enhancing the positive attributes and strengths of educators can have a positive impact not only on their performance and commitment, but also on the satisfaction of students. Research approach, design and method: This cross-sectional study used a biographical questionnaire, PsyCap questionnaire, satisfaction with life scale, burnout inventory and Minnesota job satisfaction questionnaire to collect data from 103 educators. Main findings: Findings indicated statistically significant relationships between PsyCap, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction. PsyCap was found to mediate the relationship between subjective well-being and burnout. Managerial implications: PsyCap mediates the relationship between subjective well-being and burnout. Organisations can minimise burnout through the enhancement of positive capacities inherent in PsyCap and the aiding potential of subjective well-being. Contribution/value-add: The findings highlighted the aiding potential of subjective wellbeing as well as the possible resources PsyCap, subjective well-being and job satisfaction can provide in times of distress.

  1. Exposure to psychosocial job strain during pregnancy and odds of asthma and atopic dermatitis among 7-year old children – a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Schlünssen, Vivi; Christensen, Berit Hvass

    2014-01-01

    during pregnancy and asthma as well as AD among 7-year-old children. METHODS: The study is based on the Danish National Birth Cohort and includes prospective data from 32 104 pregnancies. Job strain was assessed early in pregnancy by use of two questions on demands and control. We categorized......OBJECTIVES: Few epidemiological studies have studied maternal stress exposure during pregnancy and odds of asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD) among offspring, and none have extended the focus to psychosocial job strain. The aim of this study was to assess the association between maternal job strain...... participants into four job strain categories: low strain (low demands, high control), active (high demands, high control), passive (low demands, low control), and high strain (high demands, low control). Information on asthma and AD until age seven was collected using maternal self-report. Multinomial logistic...

  2. Job satisfaction among doctors, a multi-faceted subject studied at a tertiary care hospital in Lahore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Khaula; Khan, Habib Ullah; Maqbool, Shahzad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the level of job satisfaction among doctors serving in a tertiary care hospital in Lahore and ascertain its co-relation with multiple demographic variables which had a profound impact. Methods: This cross sectional study with non-probability purposive sampling was conducted at Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from February 2014 to November 2014. Subjects were doctors serving in that hospital for minimum six months duration. Pre-formed questionnaires were distributed to volunteers (average filling time was 3 ½ to 7 minutes). Multiple demographic features were independent variables. Outcome variable was job satisfaction. Statistical analysis was done via descriptive statistics (SPSS 20), data expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Results: Out of 263 doctors serving in hospital, 203 (77.91%) volunteered to participate; response rate by depositing the filled forms was 47.78% (97 doctors). Amongst the respondents, 10 (10.3%) doctors had below average job satisfaction, 32(33.0%), 21(21.6%), 21(21.6%) and 13(13.3%) had average, above average, well above average and outstanding job satisfaction respectively. There was significant relation between job satisfaction and age group of the doctors (p 0.025), education (p 0.015), service years (p 0.013) income per month (p<0.001). There was no significant impact of gender (p 0.540), marital status (p 0.087), number of children (p 0.153), current employment (p 0.71), nature of job (p 0.204), working hours (p 0.089), additional duties p 0.421) and socioeconomic class (p 0.104) on outcome variable. Conclusion: A significant number of doctors was found discontented with their job, which may consequently impact their yield/performance. The job satisfaction can be substantially improved if these contributory factors are aptly addressed at all tiers. PMID:26150854

  3. Job satisfaction among doctors, a multi-faceted subject studied at a tertiary care hospital in Lahore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Khaula; Khan, Habib Ullah; Maqbool, Shahzad

    2015-01-01

    To study the level of job satisfaction among doctors serving in a tertiary care hospital in Lahore and ascertain its co-relation with multiple demographic variables which had a profound impact. This cross sectional study with non-probability purposive sampling was conducted at Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from February 2014 to November 2014. Subjects were doctors serving in that hospital for minimum six months duration. Pre-formed questionnaires were distributed to volunteers (average filling time was 3 ½ to 7 minutes). Multiple demographic features were independent variables. Outcome variable was job satisfaction. Statistical analysis was done via descriptive statistics (SPSS 20), data expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Out of 263 doctors serving in hospital, 203 (77.91%) volunteered to participate; response rate by depositing the filled forms was 47.78% (97 doctors). Amongst the respondents, 10 (10.3%) doctors had below average job satisfaction, 32(33.0%), 21(21.6%), 21(21.6%) and 13(13.3%) had average, above average, well above average and outstanding job satisfaction respectively. There was significant relation between job satisfaction and age group of the doctors (p 0.025), education (p 0.015), service years (p 0.013) income per month (pstatus (p 0.087), number of children (p 0.153), current employment (p 0.71), nature of job (p 0.204), working hours (p 0.089), additional duties p 0.421) and socioeconomic class (p 0.104) on outcome variable. A significant number of doctors was found discontented with their job, which may consequently impact their yield/performance. The job satisfaction can be substantially improved if these contributory factors are aptly addressed at all tiers.

  4. General health assessment vs. job satisfaction : The relationship of indicators of subjective well-being with self-reported absenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sczesny, S; Thau, S; Scesnzy, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was based on the assumption that people are motivated to gain or maintain their well-being. Being absent from work is conceptualized as a means to this end. We investigated which one of two indicators of subjective well-being - general health assessment versus job satisfaction - is

  5. Variable characteristics of bacteriocin-producing Streptococcus salivarius strains isolated from Malaysian subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelahhad Barbour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salivaricins are bacteriocins produced by Streptococcus salivarius, some strains of which can have significant probiotic effects. S. salivarius strains were isolated from Malaysian subjects showing variable antimicrobial activity, metabolic profile, antibiotic susceptibility and lantibiotic production. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we report new S. salivarius strains isolated from Malaysian subjects with potential as probiotics. Safety assessment of these strains included their antibiotic susceptibility and metabolic profiles. Genome sequencing using Illumina's MiSeq system was performed for both strains NU10 and YU10 and demonstrating the absence of any known streptococcal virulence determinants indicating that these strains are safe for subsequent use as probiotics. Strain NU10 was found to harbour genes encoding salivaricins A and 9 while strain YU10 was shown to harbour genes encoding salivaricins A3, G32, streptin and slnA1 lantibiotic-like protein. Strain GT2 was shown to harbour genes encoding a large non-lantibiotic bacteriocin (salivaricin-MPS. A new medium for maximum biomass production buffered with 2-(N-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid (MES was developed and showed better biomass accumulation compared with other commercial media. Furthermore, we extracted and purified salivaricin 9 (by strain NU10 and salivaricin G32 (by strain YU10 from S. salivarius cells grown aerobically in this medium. In addition to bacteriocin production, S. salivarius strains produced levan-sucrase which was detected by a specific ESI-LC-MS/MS method which indicates additional health benefits from the developed strains. CONCLUSION: The current study established the bacteriocin, levan-sucrase production and basic safety features of S. salivarius strains isolated from healthy Malaysian subjects demonstrating their potential for use as probiotics. A new bacteriocin-production medium was developed with potential scale up application for

  6. A cross-sectional study of factors associated with intentions to leave among newly graduated nurses in eight advanced treatment hospitals: job stressors, job readiness, and subjective health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei-Tominaga, Maki; Miki, Akiko; Fujimura, Kazumi

    2009-05-01

    This study was performed to examine job stressors, job readiness, and subjective health status as factors associated with intentions to leave among newly graduated nurses (NGNs) in advanced treatment hospitals in Japan. From June to August 2007, anonymous self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all NGNs in nine advanced treatment hospitals. The questionnaire items addressed individual attributes, employment characteristics, organizational characteristics, the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire, a novel job readiness scale, and scales for subjective health status (cumulative fatigue and psychological distress) and intentions to leave. The response rate was 73% (n=414), and 377 completed questionnaire data sets from eight hospitals were analyzed. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to investigate the factors associated with intentions to leave and subjective health status. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed 55% of the variance in intentions to leave. "orientation as nurse", subjective health status influenced by psychological job demand, and "supervisor support" were important independent factors of intentions to leave. Psychological job demand and job readiness were also important factors of subjective health status. To intervene in early resignation of NGNs, job stressors should be minimized to improve subjective health status; while simultaneously raising job readiness.

  7. Effect of 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms, Work Stressors, and Social Support on Job Strain among Petroleum Workers in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that work stressors and social support influence job strain. However, few studies have examined the impact of individual differences on job strain. In Xinjiang, there are a large number of petroleum workers in arid deserts. The present study investigated the effects of work stressors, social support, and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A genotype on the etiology of job strain among petroleum workers in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and August 2013. A total of 700 workers were selected by a three-stage stratified sampling method. 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Work stressors and job strain were evaluated with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. Social support was assessed with the Chinese Social Support Rating Scale. Work overload and responsibility were significantly associated with job strain. Low social support was associated with severe vocational and interpersonal strain. High social support was a protective factor against job strain (odds ratio (OR = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.14–0.76. The CC genotype of rs6313 and the AA genotype of rs2070040 were linked to severe vocational strain. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to higher risk of job strain than the TT genotype (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.10–3.23. These data provide evidence that work stressors, low social support, and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of job strain.

  8. Dynamic Evaluation of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Subjected to High-Strain-Rate Compressive Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic Evaluation of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Subjected to High-Strain-Rate Compressive Loads by Alex Peterson, Ed Habtour, Jaret...Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-TN-0648 December 2014 Dynamic Evaluation of Acrylonitrile Butadiene ...Dynamic Evaluation of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Subjected to High-Strain- Rate Compressive Loads 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  9. The Influence of Domestic Overload on the Association between Job Strain and Ambulatory Blood Pressure among Female Nursing Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Portela, Luciana; Rotenberg, Lucia; Almeida, Ana; Landsbergis, Paul; Griep, Rosane

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the workplace plays an important etiologic role in blood pressure (BP) alterations. Associations in female samples are controversial, and the domestic environment is hypothesized to be an important factor in this relationship. This study assessed the association between job strain and BP within a sample of female nursing workers, considering the potential role of domestic overload. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a group of 175 daytime workers who wore an ambul...

  10. [Mental job strain in a university children's hospital--a study on stress experience and the resulting employee health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemisch, A; Kiess, W; Brähler, E

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the following survey was to evaluate the mental job strain at an university hospital and its effect on the health of the employees. Furthermore the trigger factors should have been identified and optimized after the survey. The data were collected by an employee survey during November/December of 2006. All employees of the Hospital for Children and Adolescents of the University Leipzig were included. Overall 174 questionnaires were evaluated (response rate 51.5%). As standardized methods the Irritations-Scale of Mohr et al. and the shortform of the Gießener Beschwerdebogen GBB-24 of Brähler et al. were used. In addition a self designed scale for the measurement of strain-experience was applied. More than half of the physicians/psychologists, a quarter of the nursing staff and every tenth of the remaining employees suffered from work related mental stress disorder. Especially physicians and psychologists were additionally affected by psychosomatic symptoms. The main strain was caused by an excessive amount of documentation, the manpower shortage and the lack of appreciation. The occupational groups differ as well in their ways of coping with the daily job strain as in its effects on the mental health. The health effect of the daily strain on physicians and psychologists seems to be age dependent. An urge for intervention can be derived from our results. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Examining the mediating effect of supervisor conflict on procedural injustice-job strain relations: the function of power distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Yang, Liu-Qin; Nauta, Margaret M

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the associations among procedural injustice, conflict with a supervisor (supervisor conflict), and job strains for employees with different power distance orientations. Using data from 301 university employees, along with corroborative reports from a coworker of each employee, we tested a moderated mediation model in which the indirect effect of procedural injustice on job strains (e.g., anxiety and depression) through supervisor conflict was conditional upon employees' power distance orientation. We found perceived procedural injustice was positively related to supervisor conflict, and this relation was moderated by employees' power distance orientation (as supported by both self- and coworker-reported conflict data). The pattern of the moderating effect indicated the positive relation between procedural injustice and supervisor conflict was only significant among employees with low to moderate power distance orientations. As expected, supervisor conflict served as the underlying mechanism linking perceived procedural injustice and employees' anxiety/depression (as supported by self-reported conflict data). The mediating effect of supervisor conflict was significant for employees with low to moderate power distance orientations but not for employees with high power distance orientation. This study broadens the focus of research on supervisor conflict and presents a more complex model of how perceived injustice influences employees' job strains than is currently available in the literature.

  12. Workplace Bullying as a Risk Factor for Musculoskeletal Disorders: The Mediating Role of Job-Related Psychological Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Vignoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Workplace bullying is considered by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work one of the emerging psychosocial risk factors that could negatively affect workers’ health. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the process that leads from bullying to negative health (such as musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs, testing the mediating role of job-related strain. Data were collected on 512 workers (62.9% female; mean age = 43.6 years of a retail chain who filled in a self-report questionnaire after a one-hour training session on work-related stress. Data analyses were performed controlling for potentially confounding variables (i.e., gender, age, organizational role, type of contract, and perceived physical job demands. Preacher and Hayes analytical approach was used to test the indirect relationship between bullying and MSDs. Results showed that work-related strain mediates the relationship between bullying and MSDs considered (low back, upper back, and neck except for MSDs of the shoulders. Our study confirms the role played by bullying and job-related strain in determining workers’ MSDs.

  13. Change in job stress and job satisfaction over a two-year interval using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Tomoyuki; Otsuka, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between job stress and job satisfaction by the follow-up study should be more evaluated for workers' health support. Job stress is strongly affected by the content of the job and the personality of a worker. This study was focused on determining the changes of the job stress and job satisfaction levels over a two-year interval, using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ). This self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the same 310 employees of a Japanese industrial company in 2009 and 2011. Sixty-one employees were lost from 371 responders in 2009. Data of 16 items from 57 items graded on a four-point Likert-type scale to measure the job stressors, psycho-physical complaints and support for workers, job overload (six items), job control (three items), support (six items) and job satisfaction score (one item) were selected for the analysis. The age-adjusted partial correlation coefficients for job overload, job control and support were 0.684 (pjob overload, job control and support were 0.681 (0.616-0.736), 0.473 (0.382-0.555), and 0.623 (0.549-0.687), respectively. There were no significant differences in the mean score for job overload, job control or support, although significant decline in the job satisfaction level was apparent at the end of the two-year period (pjob satisfaction in 2009 and in 2011 for subjects with keeping low job strain. No significant changes in the scores on the three elements of job stress were observed over the two-year study period, and the job satisfaction level deteriorated significantly during this period. There was a decline in the job satisfaction in the two-year period, although subjects did not suffer from job stress at the same period.

  14. Stressful work, psychological job strain, and turnover: A 2-year prospective cohort study of truck drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, E.M.de; Sluiter, J.K.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Broersen, J.P.J.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a model that combines existing organizational stress theory and job transition theory, this 2-year longitudinal study examined antecedents and consequences of turnover among Dutch truck drivers. For this purpose, self-reported data on stressful work (job demands and control), psychological

  15. Is the effect of job strain on myocardial infarction risk due to interaction between high psychological demands and low decision latitude?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, Finn; Theorell, T

    1998-01-01

    The objectives are to examine if the excess risk of myocardial infarction from exposure to job strain is due to interaction between high demands and low control and to analyse what role such an interaction has regarding socioeconomic differences in risk of myocardial infarction. The material...... referents were included in the analysis. Exposure categories of job strain were formed from self reported questionnaire information. The results show that high demands and low decision latitude interact with a synergy index of 7.5 (95% C.I.: 1.8-30.6) providing empirical support for the core mechanism...... of the job strain model. Manual workers are more susceptible when exposed to job strain and its components and this increased susceptibility explains about 25-50% of the relative excess risk among manual workers. Low decision latitude may also, as a causal link, explain about 30% of the socioeconomic...

  16. Job strain in the public sector and hospital in-patient care use in old age: a 28-year prospective follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela Birgitta; von Bonsdorff, Monika; Kulmala, Jenni; Törmäkangas, Timo; Seitsamo, Jorma; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Ilmarinen, Juhani; Rantanen, Taina

    2014-05-01

    high job strain increases the risk of health decline, but little is known about the specific consequences and long-term effects of job strain on old age health. purpose was to investigate whether physical and mental job strain in midlife was associated with hospital care use in old age. study population included 5,625 Finnish public sector employees aged 44-58 years who worked in blue- and white-collar professions in 1981. The number of in-patient hospital care days was collected from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register for the 28-year follow-up period. rates of hospital care days per 1,000 person-years for men were 7.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.71-7.84) for low, 9.68 (95% CI 9.50-9.74) for intermediate and 12.56 (95% CI 12.47-12.66) for high physical job strain in midlife. The corresponding rates for women were 6.63 (95% CI 6.57-6.68), 7.91 (95% CI 7.87-7.95) and 10.35 (95% CI 10.25-10.42), respectively. Rates were parallel but lower for mental job strain. Reporting high physical job strain in midlife increased the risk of hospital care in old age compared with those who reported low job strain, fully adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.17 (95% CI 1.00-1.38) for men and 1.42 (95% CI 1.25-1.61) for women. These associations were robust in analyses confined to hospital care that took place after the employees had turned 65 years. exposure to high mental and, particularly, high physical job strain in midlife may set employees on a higher healthcare use trajectory which persists into old age.

  17. Job strain and the risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders, depression or coronary heart disease: a prospective cohort study of 69,842 employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntyniemi, Anne; Oksanen, Tuula; Salo, Paula; Virtanen, Marianna; Sjösten, Noora; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2012-08-01

    Observational studies suggest that high job strain is a risk factor for retirement on health grounds, but few studies have analysed specific diagnoses. We examined job strain's association with all-cause and cause-specific disability pensions. Survey responses to questions about job strain from 48,598 (response rate, 68%) public sector employees in Finland from 2000 to 2002 were used to determine work unit- and occupation-based scores. These job strain scores were assigned to all the 69,842 employees in the same work units or occupations. All participants were linked to the disability pension register of the Finnish Centre of Pensions with no loss to follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate HRs and their 95% CIs for disability pensions adjusted by demographic, work unit characteristics and baseline health in analyses stratified by sex and socioeconomic position. During a mean follow-up of 4.6 years, 2572 participants (4%) were granted a disability pension. A one-unit increase in job strain was associated with a 1.3- to 2.4-fold risk of requiring a disability pension due to musculoskeletal diseases in men, women and manual workers, depending on the measure of job strain (work unit or occupation based). The risk of disability pension due to cardiovascular diseases was increased in men with high job strain but not in women nor in any socioeconomic group. No consistent pattern was found for disability pension due to depression. High job strain is a risk factor for disability pension due to musculoskeletal diseases.

  18. Job Strain and Casual Blood Pressure Distribution: Looking beyond the Adjusted Mean and Taking Gender, Age, and Use of Antihypertensives into Account. Results from ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Chor, Dóra; Mill, José Geraldo; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2017-04-22

    Methodological issues are pointed to as the main sources of inconsistencies in studies about the association between job strain and blood pressure (BP)/hypertension. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between job strain and the whole BP distribution, as well as potential differences by gender, age, and use of antihypertensives. Additionally, we addressed issues relating to the operationalization of the exposure and outcome variables that influence the study of their inter-relations. We evaluated the baseline date of 12,038 participants enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) (2008-2010), a multicenter cohort study of 35-74-year-old civil servants. Job strain was assessed by the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. The distribution of casual BP by categories of job strain was compared by a combination of exploratory techniques. Participants were classified into three subgroups (normotensives, medicated hypertensives, and unmedicated hypertensives), and analyses were stratified by gender and age. The relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution. Hypertensive participants had greater differences in casual BP by job strain category, especially medicated hypertensives. Differences in casual BP were also greater for systolic than for diastolic BP and for older participants. No differences were encountered by gender. The exclusion of participants susceptible to misclassification for the exposure and outcome variables increased the differences observed between the categories of low and high job strain. In conclusion, the relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution and by use of antihypertensive drugs, age, and BP parameter evaluated. Misclassification for exposure and outcome variables should be considered in analyses of this topic.

  19. Do New Production Concepts and a new Management of Employment Relations, yield higher Employee Performance and lower Job Strain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolus Kraan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article old versus new production concepts (NPCs and employment relation instruments, are studied, separately and in combination, to find out which yield high employee performance and low job strain. Therefore, in 2005, TNO conducted coupled surveys among 149 supervisors and employees. In the past decades, in reaction to dysfunctions of Tayloristic and professional bureaucratic production concepts and employment relations, several new forms of employment relations and NPCs, appeared. Examples are the Socio-technical NPC and customized employment relations. In this study both this NPC and customized employment relations - i.c. customized performance targets - demonstrate positive associations with employee performance. According to Socio-technical theory the design of employment relations is relatively unimportant, as human resources are mobilised primarily by the production concept. Our results for this NPC show the legitimacy of this assumption, because its high employee performance is irrespective of the employment relation instruments. On the contrary, in the other NPCs and in professional bureaucracies, the (employment relation instruments of respectively an increased period needed for learning the job, and customized performance targets can compensate for the lower employee performance in these production concepts. The results do not show increased job strain, due to new production concepts, or new employment relations. production concepts, employment relations, labour productivity, socio-technical theory

  20. Further Study on Strain Growth in Spherical Containment Vessels Subjected to Internal Blast Loading

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Strain growth is a phenomenon observed in the elastic response of containment vessels subjected to internal blast loading, which is featured by the increased vibration amplitude of the vessel in a later stage. Previous studies attributed the strain growth in spherical containment vessels to the beating between two close vibration modes, the interactions between the vessel vibration and the reflected shock waves and the structural perturbation. In this paper, it is shown th...

  1. Job strain as a risk factor for leisure-time physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T

    2012-01-01

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 Europ...... interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity.......Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14...... European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985-1988 to 2006-2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2-9 years...

  2. Job strain and tobacco smoking: an individual-participant data meta-analysis of 166,130 adults in 15 European studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Heikkilä

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults.We analysed cross-sectional data from 15 European studies comprising 166,130 participants. Longitudinal data from six studies were used. Job strain and smoking were self-reported. Smoking was harmonised into three categories never, ex- and current. We modelled the cross-sectional associations using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine longitudinal associations. Of the 166,130 participants, 17% reported job strain, 42% were never smokers, 33% ex-smokers and 25% current smokers. In the analyses of the cross-sectional data, current smokers had higher odds of job strain than never-smokers (age, sex and socioeconomic position-adjusted odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.18. Current smokers with job strain smoked, on average, three cigarettes per week more than current smokers without job strain. In the analyses of longitudinal data (1 to 9 years of follow-up, there was no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and taking up or quitting smoking.Our findings show that smokers are slightly more likely than non-smokers to report work-related stress. In addition, smokers who reported work stress smoked, on average, slightly more cigarettes than stress-free smokers.

  3. Call centers as lean service environments: job-related strain and the mediating role of work design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigg, Christine A; Jackson, Paul R

    2006-04-01

    Call centers can be considered as lean service systems, with leanness being described in terms of both dialog scripting and performance monitoring. Using data from a sample of 823 call handlers from 36 call centers, these lean characteristics are examined in relation to the prediction of call handler job-related strain. Moreover, the extent to which this relationship can be accounted for by work design characteristics are examined. Findings confirm that employees who experience greater dialog scripting and more intensive performance monitoring show higher levels of strain. These relationships are fully mediated by work design. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the impact of lean working practices on employee health. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Sands subjected to repetitive vertical loading under zero lateral strain: accumulation models, terminal densities, and settlement

    KAUST Repository

    Chong, Song Hun

    2016-08-09

    Geosystems often experience numerous loading cycles. Plastic strain accumulation during repetitive mechanical loads can lead to shear shakedown or continued shear ratcheting; in all cases, volumetric strains diminish as the specimen evolves towards terminal density. Previously suggested models and new functions are identified to fit plastic strain accumulation data. All accumulation models are formulated to capture terminal density (volumetric strain) and either shakedown or ratcheting (shear strain). Repetitive vertical loading tests under zero lateral strain conditions are conducted using three different sands packed at initially low and high densities. Test results show that plastic strain accumulation for all sands and density conditions can be captured in the same dimensionless plot defined in terms of the initial relative density, terminal density, and ratio between the amplitude of the repetitive load and the initial static load. This observation allows us to advance a simple but robust procedure to estimate the maximum one-dimensional settlement that a foundation could experience if subjected to repetitive loads. © 2016, Canadian Science Publishing. All rights reserved.

  5. Job strain and alcohol intake: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual-participant data from 140,000 men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Heikkilä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job strain and alcohol intake. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed cross-sectional data from 12 European studies (n = 142 140 and longitudinal data from four studies (n = 48 646. Job strain and alcohol intake were self-reported. Job strain was analysed as a binary variable (strain vs. no strain. Alcohol intake was harmonised into the following categories: none, moderate (women: 1-14, men: 1-21 drinks/week, intermediate (women: 15-20, men: 22-27 drinks/week and heavy (women: >20, men: >27 drinks/week. Cross-sectional associations were modelled using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Longitudinal associations were examined using mixed effects logistic and modified Poisson regression. Compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and (random effects odds ratio (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.14 and heavy drinkers (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.26 had higher odds of job strain. Intermediate drinkers, on the other hand, had lower odds of job strain (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99. We found no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and alcohol intake. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and heavy drinkers are more likely and intermediate drinkers less likely to report work-related stress.

  6. Prolonged job strain reduces time-domain heart rate variability on both working and resting days among cardiovascular-susceptible nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Borchini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Modifications of hearth rate variability (HRV constitute a marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS deregulation, a promising pathway linking job strain (JS and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The study objective is to assess whether exposures to recent and prolonged JS reduce time-domain HRV parameters on working days (WD among CVD-susceptible nurses and whether the association also persists on resting days (RD. Material and methods 313 healthy nurses were investigated twice with one year interval to assess JS based on the demand-control and the effort-reward models. 36, 9 and 16 CVD-susceptible nurses were classified as low JS in both surveys (stable low strain – SLS, recent high JS (high JS at the second screening only-RHS and prolonged high JS (high strain in both surveys-PHS, respectively. In 9, 7 and 10 of them, free from comorbidities/treatments interfering with HRV, two 24-h ECG recordings were performed on WD and RD. Differences in the time domain HRV metrics among JS categories were assessed using ANCOVA, adjusted for age and smoking. Results In the entire sample (mean age: 39 years, 83% females the prevalence of high job strain was 38.7% in the second survey. SDNN (standard deviation of all normal RR intervals on WD significantly declined among JS categories (p = 0.02, with geometric mean values of 169.1, 145.3 and 128.9 ms in SLS, RHS, PHS, respectively. In the PHS group, SDNN remained lower on RD as compared to the low strain subjects (142.4 vs. 171.1 ms, p = 0.02. Similar findings were found for the SDNN_Index, while SDANN (standard deviation of average RR intervals in all 5 min segments of registration mean values reduced in the PHS group during WD only. Conclusions Our findings suggest that persistent JS lowers HRV time-domain parameters, supporting the hypothesis that the ANS disorders may play an intermediate role in the relationship between work stress and CVD.

  7. Prolonged job strain reduces time-domain heart rate variability on both working and resting days among cardiovascular-susceptible nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchini, Rossana; Bertù, Lorenza; Ferrario, Marco M; Veronesi, Giovanni; Bonzini, Matteo; Dorso, Marco; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Modifications of hearth rate variability (HRV) constitute a marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) deregulation, a promising pathway linking job strain (JS) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The study objective is to assess whether exposures to recent and prolonged JS reduce time-domain HRV parameters on working days (WD) among CVD-susceptible nurses and whether the association also persists on resting days (RD). 313 healthy nurses were investigated twice with one year interval to assess JS based on the demand-control and the effort-reward models. 36, 9 and 16 CVD-susceptible nurses were classified as low JS in both surveys (stable low strain - SLS), recent high JS (high JS at the second screening only-RHS) and prolonged high JS (high strain in both surveys-PHS), respectively. In 9, 7 and 10 of them, free from comorbidities/treatments interfering with HRV, two 24-h ECG recordings were performed on WD and RD. Differences in the time domain HRV metrics among JS categories were assessed using ANCOVA, adjusted for age and smoking. In the entire sample (mean age: 39 years, 83% females) the prevalence of high job strain was 38.7% in the second survey. SDNN (standard deviation of all normal RR intervals) on WD significantly declined among JS categories (p = 0.02), with geometric mean values of 169.1, 145.3 and 128.9 ms in SLS, RHS, PHS, respectively. In the PHS group, SDNN remained lower on RD as compared to the low strain subjects (142.4 vs. 171.1 ms, p = 0.02). Similar findings were found for the SDNN_Index, while SDANN (standard deviation of average RR intervals in all 5 min segments of registration) mean values reduced in the PHS group during WD only. Our findings suggest that persistent JS lowers HRV time-domain parameters, supporting the hypothesis that the ANS disorders may play an intermediate role in the relationship between work stress and CVD. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. [Occupational stress and job insecurity in men working in a university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, A; Di Giampaolo, L; Forcella, L; Grapshi, M; D'Intino, A; Pulini, S; Di Giuseppe, D; Tamellini, L; Qin-Li, Zhang; Turano, A; Di Camillo, C; Boscolo, P

    2007-01-01

    77 men working in a university were investigated. Trait and state anxiety were determined by STAI I and STAI II; job strain (job demand/decision latitude), social support and job insecurity were analysed by a 46 item Karasek's questionnaire and subjective symptoms by a 12 item test. The employees of a library (mean age 49 years), in contact with students, showed significantly higher values of job strain, STAI I, STAI II and subjective symptoms than a control group of employees with similar age. Young employees and sanitary staff with temporary employment showed higher level of job insecurity than control subjects with stable position. Blood cytotoxic activity (reported in another study) was significantly lower in the old employees with job strain or in the young employees with job insecurity (but not in the sanitary staff) than in the controls; this demonstrates that not only occupational stress but also job insecurity may play an important role in affecting the health status.

  9. COUNTRY LIFE QUALITY IN THE OPINION OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN RESPECT OF THEIR FIRST JOB LOCATION DECISION – SUBJECTIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Pieczonka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite advancement, numerous country regions have been observing adverse trends in terms of birth rates, society ageing, and negative migration balance. Such tendencies seem to affect particularly eastern (Podkarpacie, Podlasie and western (Opolszczyzna regions. Therefore, this article is aimed at investigating how young people assess rural life quality and identifying their preferences when choosing where to study, start their first job, or run their first business. The research sample consists of country-based farming school students and young country students of Opole colleges and universities. The level of country life has been presented through material and living conditions, while life quality has been presented through the respondents’ subjective assessment of their satisfaction with basic conditions that country regions can offer to young high school students. Survey results prove that filling gaps in income structure and narrowing distance between social-economic groups in urban and rural environments is importantly related to income from non-agricultural activities and consequently a better way of material life conditions in the country. Therefore, in the future, more effective measures should be dedicated to creating attractive, well-paid (perceived subjectively jobs. This element may determine rural populations’ satisfaction with their life quality to a greater extent than infrastructure. 

  10. Whose Job Is It? Exploring Subject Tutor Roles in Addressing Students' Academic Writing via Essay Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Krista; Johnson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Strong arguments have been forwarded for embedding academic writing development into the UK higher education curriculum and for subject tutors to facilitate this development (Hyland, 2000; Lea & Street, 2006; Monroe, 2003; Wingate, 2006). This small-scale case study explores subject tutors' practices and beliefs with regard to the provision of…

  11. Negative emotionality, activity, and sociability temperaments predicting long-term job strain and effort-reward imbalance: a 15-year prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Widell, Anna; Kivimäki, Mika; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltkangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2011-08-01

    This study examined a longitudinal association between innate temperament and perceptions of long-term work stressors. The sample consisted of 276 men and 345 women (aged 30-45 years in 2007) participating in the prospective population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. In 1992, temperament was self-assessed with the EAS questionnaire that assesses three temperamental traits: negative emotionality, activity, and sociability. Perceived work stressors were measured in 2001 and in 2007 using two models: Karasek's demand/control-model in which a combination of high demands and low control results in job strain, and Siegrist's Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model. The results showed that higher negative emotionality and lower sociability systematically predicted higher perceived job strain and ERI (Ppredicted higher perceived ERI (Ppredict perceived job strain, as it was related to both higher perceived demands and higher control. The results suggest that temperament may be a predisposing factor to the experiences of work stressors in adulthood. Although self-reported job strain and ERI are measures of job characteristics, they are affected by individual temperament. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains in subgingival samples from periodontitis subjects in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, M; Ennibi, O K; Pousa, X; Lakhdar, L; Abdellaoui, L; Sánchez, M; Sanz, M; Herrera, D

    2016-09-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, specially its highly leucotoxic strain (JP2 clone), represents an etiological factor for the onset and progression of aggressive types of periodontitis. The aims of this investigation were to investigate the most relevant periodontal pathogens in the subgingival microbiota of periodontitis patients from Morocco and to describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of subjects positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans, including serotype, leukotoxin gene, and operon of the cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) distribution. In consecutive Moroccan subjects diagnosed of periodontitis, subgingival samples were taken and processed by culture. From the positive samples for A. actinomycetemcomitans, one to three isolates were subcultured and characterized by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), assessing their specific serotype distribution, the variation in the sequences of the leukotoxin gene, and the operon of the cdt. Twenty-one (35.6 %) out of 59 periodontitis patients harbored A. actinomycetemcomitans. These patients demonstrated statistically significant deeper pockets (p = 0.035) and higher proportions of P. micra (p = 0.045) than did the negative group. The 39 studied isolates were serotype "b"; in 16 out of 17 patients, there was mono-colonization with this serotype. Five isolates, from two patients, presented the 530-bp deletion in the leukotoxin's promoter region. Thirty-two isolates (78 % of the strains) were cdt-positive. A. actinomycetemcomitans was frequently found (35.6 %) in our sample. All strains were serotype "b," and most (78 %) were also cdt-positive. The JP2 strain type was only detected in 12.2 % of the strains. A. actinomycetemcomitans can be frequently found in Morocco. This fact can influence the therapeutic approach of this type of patients.

  13. Influence of Job Status on Subjective Well-Being of University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjective well-being (SWB) is increasingly becoming important to individuals in various professions, university lecturers inclusive. Observations show that individuals desire to live fulfilling lives as evaluated by them, most importantly, and by others around them. Therefore, it is believed that the well-being of any individual ...

  14. Do Immigrants Suffer More From Job Loss? Unemployment and Subjective Well-being in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Liliya; Leopold, Thomas; Lechner, Clemens M

    2017-02-01

    This study asks whether immigrants suffer more from unemployment than German natives. Differences between these groups in pre-unemployment characteristics, the type of the transition into unemployment, and the consequences of this transition suggest that factors intensifying the negative impact of unemployment on subjective well-being are more concentrated in immigrants than in natives. Based on longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (1990-2014; N = 34,767 persons aged 20 to 64; N = 210,930 person-years), we used fixed-effects models to trace within-person change in subjective well-being across the transition from employment into unemployment and over several years of continued unemployment. Results showed that immigrants' average declines in subjective well-being exceeded those of natives. Further analyses revealed gender interactions. Among women, declines were smaller and similar among immigrants and natives. Among men, declines were larger and differed between immigrants and natives. Immigrant men showed the largest declines, amounting to one standard deviation of within-person change over time in subjective well-being. Normative, social, and economic factors did not explain these disproportionate declines. We discuss alternative explanations for why immigrant men are most vulnerable to the adverse effects of unemployment in Germany.

  15. SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF CONDITIONS OF TENSION AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH JOBS ROLLING PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нурлан Кемельбекович Смагулов

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion. The survey showed that if the subjective evaluation of working environment factors and labor process corresponds to the results hygiene-ergonomic research, the assessment of the health showed its bias, as evidenced by the results of analysis of morbidity.

  16. Study protocol for examining job strain as a risk factor for severe unipolar depression in an individual participant meta-analysis of 14 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Hannerz, Harald; Nyberg, Solja T

    2013-01-01

    scales that do not necessarily correspond to clinically diagnosed depression. In addition, a meta-analysis from 2008 indicated publication bias in the field. METHODS: This study protocol describes the planned design and analyses of an individual participant data meta-analysis, to examine whether job......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that gainfully employed individuals with high work demands and low control at work (denoted "job strain") are at increased risk of common mental disorders, including depression. Most existing studies have, however, measured depression using self-rated symptom......-reported working conditions data will be merged with national registers on psychiatric hospital treatment, primarily hospital admissions. Study-specific risk estimates for the association between job strain and depression will be calculated using Cox regressions. The study-specific risk estimates will be pooled...

  17. Prediction of thermal and mechanical stress-strain responses of TMC's subjected to complex TMF histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. S.; Mirdamadi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and analytical evaluation of cross-plied laminates of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn (Ti-15-3) matrix reinforced with continuous silicon-carbide fibers (SCS-6) subjected to a complex TMF loading profile. Thermomechanical fatigue test techniques were developed to conduct a simulation of a generic hypersonic flight profile. A micromechanical analysis was used. The analysis predicts the stress-strain response of the laminate and of the constituents in each ply during thermal and mechanical cycling by using only constituent properties as input. The fiber was modeled as elastic with transverse orthotropic and temperature-dependent properties. The matrix was modeled using a thermoviscoplastic constitutive relation. The fiber transverse modulus was reduced in the analysis to simulate the fiber-matrix interface failures. Excellent correlation was found between measured and predicted laminate stress-strain response due to generic hypersonic flight profile when fiber debonding was modeled.

  18. The relation of maternal job strain and cortisol levels during early pregnancy with body composition later in the 5-year-old child: The ABCD study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Aimée E.; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to maternal stress may program the fetal HPA axis, potentially leading to altered metabolism in later life, associated with adiposity and diabetes. Aims: This association is little studied in humans, and thus we explore whether high maternal job strain during early

  19. Topological Insulator State in Thin Bismuth Films Subjected to Plane Tensile Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, E. V.; Grabov, V. M.; Komarov, V. A.; Kablukova, N. S.; Krushel'nitskii, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    The results of experimental examination of galvanomagnetic properties of thin bismuth films subjected to plane tensile strain resulting from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients of the substrate material and bismuth are presented. The resistivity, the magnetoresistance, and the Hall coefficient were studied at temperatures ranging from 5 to 300 K in magnetic fields as strong as 0.65 T. Carrier densities were calculated. A considerable increase in carrier density in films thinner than 30 nm was observed. This suggests that surface states are more prominent in thin bismuth films on mica substrates, while the films themselves may exhibit the properties of a topological insulator.

  20. Information and communication technology demands at work: the association with job strain, effort-reward imbalance and self-rated health in different socio-economic strata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadin, Magdalena; Nordin, Maria; Broström, Anders; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Westerlund, Hugo; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2016-10-01

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is common in modern working life. ICT demands may give rise to experience of work-related stress. Knowledge about ICT demands in relation to other types of work-related stress and to self-rated health is limited. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the association between ICT demands and two types of work-related stress [job strain and effort-reward imbalance (ERI)] and to evaluate the association between these work-related stress measures and self-rated health, in general and in different SES strata. This study is based on cross-sectional data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health collected in 2014, from 14,873 gainfully employed people. ICT demands, job strain, ERI and self-rated health were analysed as the main measures. Sex, age, SES, lifestyle factors and BMI were used as covariates. ICT demands correlated significantly with the dimensions of the job strain and ERI models, especially with the demands (r = 0.42; p < 0.01) and effort (r = 0.51; p < 0.01) dimensions. ICT demands were associated with suboptimal self-rated health, also after adjustment for age, sex, SES, lifestyle and BMI (OR 1.49 [95 % CI 1.36-1.63]), but job strain (OR 1.93 [95 % CI 1.74-2.14) and ERI (OR 2.15 [95 % CI 1.95-2.35]) showed somewhat stronger associations with suboptimal self-rated health. ICT demands are common among people with intermediate and high SES and associated with job strain, ERI and suboptimal self-rated health. ICT demands should thus be acknowledged as a potential stressor of work-related stress in modern working life.

  1. A Comparison of Subjective and Objective Job Demands and Fit with Personal Resources as Predictors of Retirement Timing in a National U.S. Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnega, Amanda; Helppie-McFall, Brooke; Hudomiet, Peter; Willis, Robert J; Fisher, Gwenith G

    2017-12-19

    Population aging and attendant pressures on public budgets have spurred considerable interest in understanding factors that influence retirement timing. A range of sociodemographic and economic characteristics predict both earlier and later retirement. Less is known about the role of job characteristics on the work choices of older workers. Researchers are increasingly using the subjective ratings of job characteristics available in the Health and Retirement Study in conjunction with more objective measures of job characteristics from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database. Employing a theoretically-informed model of job demands-personal resources fit, we constructed mismatch measures between resources and job demands (both subjectively and objectively assessed) in physical, emotional, and cognitive domains. When we matched comparable measures across the two data sources in the domains of physical, emotional, and cognitive job demands, we found that both sources of information held predictive power in relation to retirement timing. Physical and emotional but not cognitive mismatch were associated with earlier retirement. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings and directions for future research.

  2. Correlates of Subjective Caregiver Strain in Caregivers of Youth Evaluated in a Pediatric Psychiatric Emergency Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molteni, Silvia; Carbon, Maren; Lops, Johnny; Soto, Erin C; Cervesi, Chiara; Sheridan, Eva M; Galling, Britta; Saito, Ema; Krakower, Scott; Dicker, Robert; Foley, Carmel; Fornari, Victor; Balottin, Umberto; Correll, Christoph U

    2017-06-01

    Although caregiver burden is relevant to the outcome for psychiatrically ill youth, most studies have focused on caregiver burden in the community or research settings. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the subjective caregiver strain (SCS) at the time of presentation of youth to a pediatric psychiatric emergency room (PPER), assessing potential correlates to provide leads for improvements in formal support systems. In this retrospective cohort study, the internalized, externalized, and total SCS were assessed in caregivers of youth Caregiver Strain Questionnaire. Sociodemographic and a broad range of clinical data were collected during the PPER visit using a 12-page semistructured institutional evaluation form. The Appropriateness of Pediatric Psychiatric Emergency Room Contact scale, incorporating acuity, severity and harm potential, was used to rate appropriateness of the visit. In caregivers of 444 youth, the internalized SCS was significantly higher than the externalized SCS (p caregivers' perceptions into comprehensive psychiatric assessments. The particularly high strain in caregivers of children with externalizing disorders and in families with low-functioning youth may need to prompt PPER staff to provide efficient information on appropriate treatment options for these children and on support facilities for the parents.

  3. Is any job better than no job at all? Studying the relations between employment types, unemployment and subjective health in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aerden, Karen; Gadeyne, Sylvie; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the health impact of the labour market position, since recent research indicates that exposure to both unemployment and precarious employment causes serious harm to people's health and well-being. An overview of general and mental health associations of different labour market positions in Belgium is provided. A distinction is made between employment and unemployment and in addition between different types of jobs among the employed, taking into account the quality of employment. Given the fact that precarious labour market positions tend to coincide with a precarious social environment, the latter is taken into consideration by including the composition and material living conditions of the household and the presence of social support. Belgian data from the 1st Generations and Gender Survey are used. A Latent Class Cluster Analysis is performed to construct a typology of labour market positions that includes four different types of waged employment: standard jobs, instrumental jobs, precarious jobs and portfolio jobs, as well as self-employment and unemployment. Then, binary logistic regression analyses are performed in order to relate this typology to health, controlling for household situation and social support. Two health outcomes are included: self-perceived general health (good versus fair/bad) and self-rated mental health (good versus bad, based on 7 items from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Two labour market positions are consistently related to poor general and mental health in Belgium: unemployment and the precarious job type. The rather small gap in general and mental health between both labour market positions emphasises the importance of employment quality for the health and well-being of individuals in waged employment. Controlling for the household level context and social support illustrates that part of the reported health associations can be explained by the precarious social environment of

  4. Economic Strain and Subjective Well-Being in Married Couples With Children: A Dyadic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialena Kostouli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this dyadic study was to investigate whether the economic strain (i.e., perceived deterioration of the financial situation and difficulty to respond to family obligations experienced by married couples with children relates to their satisfaction with life, and whether marital satisfaction and parental self-efficacy mediate this relationship. To this end, we took both actor (i.e., partners' economic strain was expected to relate to their own life satisfaction via their own marital satisfaction and parental self-agency, as well as partner (i.e., partners' economic strain was expected to relate to their spouses' life satisfaction via their spouse's marital satisfaction and parental self-agency effects into account. A total of 134 married couples with children participated in the study. Dyadic analyses revealed that wives’ perceived difficulty to respond to family obligations related to their husbands’ life satisfaction, via their husbands’ parental self-agency. Moreover, annual family income related negatively to wives’ life satisfaction, via wives’ difficulty to respond to their family obligations. In addition, husbands’ deterioration of their financial situation related negatively to their life satisfaction, via their marital satisfaction. Last but not least, husbands’ deterioration of their financial situation related negatively to their wives’ marital satisfaction and parental self-agency. These findings have important implications for counseling because they suggest that married couples' subjective well-being suffers in times of financial turmoil, while gender differences determine the psychological processes through which economic strain relates to husbands' and wives' life satisfaction.

  5. Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity: An Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis of Up to 170,000 Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Eleonor I.; Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Zins, Marie; Westerlund, Hugo; Westerholm, Peter; Väänänen, Ari; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Theorell, Töres; Suominen, Sakari; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Siegrist, Johannes; Sabia, Séverine; Rugulies, Reiner; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Nordin, Maria; Nielsen, Martin L.; Marmot, Michael G.; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Lunau, Thorsten; Leineweber, Constanze; Kumari, Meena; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Koskenvuo, Markku; Knutsson, Anders; Kittel, France; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Joensuu, Matti; Houtman, Irene L.; Hooftman, Wendela E.; Goldberg, Marcel; Geuskens, Goedele A.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Erbel, Raimund; Dragano, Nico; De Bacquer, Dirk; Clays, Els; Casini, Annalisa; Burr, Hermann; Borritz, Marianne; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Alfredsson, Lars; Hamer, Mark; Batty, G. David; Kivimäki, Mika

    2012-01-01

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985–1988 to 2006–2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2–9 years. In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low control/low demands) compared with employees in low-strain jobs (high control/low demands). In prospective analyses restricted to physically active participants, the odds of becoming physically inactive during follow-up were 21% and 20% higher for those with high-strain (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity. PMID:23144364

  6. The relation of maternal job strain and cortisol levels during early pregnancy with body composition later in the 5-year-old child: the ABCD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Aimée E; Van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J B J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2012-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal stress may program the fetal HPA axis, potentially leading to altered metabolism in later life, associated with adiposity and diabetes. This association is little studied in humans, and thus we explore whether high maternal job strain during early pregnancy, as well as maternal cortisol levels are associated with increased body mass index (BMI), central adiposity or body fat mass in the offspring at age five. Additionally, we explore whether these associations are modified by gender or mediated by gestational age and fetal growth restriction. 2939 pregnant women (ABCD cohort study) completed a questionnaire around gestational week 16 including the Job Content Questionnaire, assessing job strain. Serum total cortisol was assessed in a subsample (n=1320). Gestational age (≥37 weeks), standardized birth weight and information on many covariates were available. At the age five health check, height, weight (BMI, kg/m(2)), waist circumference (waist-to-height ratio, WHtR) and Fat Mass Index (FMI, kg/m(2)) were assessed. Job strain was not associated with higher BMI, WHtR or FMI. Higher maternal cortisol was independently associated with marginally higher FMI in girls, but marginally lower FMI in boys (β 0.09 and β -0.10 per 100 unit increase in serum cortisol, respectively. pcortisol may not program obesity and adiposity in the next generation in humans, but gender differences should always be considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. El malestar por inestabilidad laboral y su relación con tensión y recursos personales Uneasiness due to Job instability and its relationship With psychological strain and personnal resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Leibovich de Figueroa

    2007-12-01

    education level and the tasks performed by the subject. We also confirm that the job instability and the uneasiness produced by it, generate high levels of psychological strain on the worker.

  8. Strain specific variation of outer membrane proteins of wild Yersinia pestis strains subjected to different growth temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Guilherme Coutinho Abath

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Three Yersinia pestis strains isolated from humans and one laboratory strain (EV76 were grown in rich media at 28§C and 37§C and their outer membrane protein composition compared by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-Page. Several proteins with molecular weights ranging from 34 kDa to 7 kDa were observed to change in relative abundance in samples grown at different temperatures. At least seven Y. pestis outer membrane proteins showed a temperature-dependent and strain-specific behaviour. Some differences between the outer membrane proteins of full-pathogenic wild isolates and the EV76 strain could aldso be detected and the relevance of this finding on the use of laboratory strains as a reference to the study of Y. pestis biological properties is discuted.

  9. Path Analysis of Work Family Conflict, Job Salary and Promotion Satisfaction, Work Engagement to Subjective Well-Being of the Primary and Middle School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun-mei; Cui, Shu-jing; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the path analysis of work family conflict, job salary and promotion satisfaction, work engagement to subjective well-being of the primary and middle school principals, and provide advice for enhancing their well-being. Methods: Using convenient sampling, totally 300 primary and middle school principals completed the WFC,…

  10. Social Insurance as a Collective Resource: Unemployment Benefits, Job Insecurity and Subjective Well-Being in a Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, Ola

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that unemployment benefits are providing a crucial but often overlooked function by reducing the insecurity associated with modern labor markets. Because job insecurity is associated with concerns about future financial security, economic support during unemployment may lessen the negative effects of job insecurity on employed…

  11. Analysis of the strain induced martensitic transformation in austenitic steel subjected to dynamic perforation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, J. A.; Rusinek, A.; Pesci, R.; Zaera, R.

    2012-08-01

    An experimental and numerical analysis on the martensitic transformation in AISI 304 steel sheets subjected to perforation by conical and hemispherical projectiles is reported. Two target thicknesses are considered, 0.5 and 1.0 mm, and impact velocities range from 35 to 200 m/s. The perforation mechanisms are identified and the effect of the projectile nose-shape on the ability of the target for energy absorption is evaluated. Martensite has been detected in all the impacted samples and the role played by the projectile nose-shape on the transformation is highlighted. A 3D model implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit allowed to simulate the perforation tests. The material is defined through a constitutive description developed by the authors to describe the strain induced martensitic transformation taking place in metastable austenitic steels at high strain rates. The numerical results are compared with the experimental evidence and satisfactory matching is obtained. The numerical model succeeds in describing the perforation mechanisms associated to each projectile-target configuration analysed.

  12. Analysis of the strain induced martensitic transformation in austenitic steel subjected to dynamic perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaera R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical analysis on the martensitic transformation in AISI 304 steel sheets subjected to perforation by conical and hemispherical projectiles is reported. Two target thicknesses are considered, 0.5 and 1.0 mm, and impact velocities range from 35 to 200 m/s. The perforation mechanisms are identified and the effect of the projectile nose-shape on the ability of the target for energy absorption is evaluated. Martensite has been detected in all the impacted samples and the role played by the projectile nose-shape on the transformation is highlighted. A 3D model implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit allowed to simulate the perforation tests. The material is defined through a constitutive description developed by the authors to describe the strain induced martensitic transformation taking place in metastable austenitic steels at high strain rates. The numerical results are compared with the experimental evidence and satisfactory matching is obtained. The numerical model succeeds in describing the perforation mechanisms associated to each projectile-target configuration analysed.

  13. Simulation of Stress-Strain behavior for one-dimensional aluminum samples subjected to high temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    , financed by the EU in frame work 6 and born in collaboration with the automobile and foundry industries, to fill the mentioned gap. Through a systematic analysis of experimental tests, this study aims to develop a powerful predicting tool capable of capturing stress relaxation effects through an adequate...... in literature several programs capable of simulating the entire casting process, i.e. filling, solidification, as well as developed thermomechanical stresses. However, it is common practice in the foundry industry that the results obtained by the simulation of the cast process are "forgotten" during...... the analysis of the next phases, such as heat treatment and life prediction of the cast parts. Because of the lack of numerical program tools capable of predicting the stress-strain behavior of aluminum parts subjected to high temperature, it is indeed normally assumed that at the end of the thermal treatment...

  14. The moderating effects of work-based and non-work based support on the relation between job insecurity and subsequent strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Näswall

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Job insecurity is a stressor empirically linked to various negative outcomes, such as impaired work attitudes and adverse health symptoms. Less is known about how these negative consequences can be buffered. The present study investigates whether work-based and non-work based social support moderate the relation between job insecurity and subsequent strain. The results, based on Swedish longitudinal questionnaire data, show that job insecurity predicted strain, even after controlling for demographic variables and baseline levels. Non-work based support moderated the negative effect of job insecurity on mental health complaints and somatic complaints after controlling for baseline levels. The results suggest that employees can benefit from their support network during times of turbulence. Opsomming Werksonsekerheid is ’n stressor wat emperies verband hou met verskeie negatiewe uitkomste soos verlaagde werksgesindhede en nadelige gesondheidssimptome. Minder is bekend oor hoe hierdie negatiewe gevolge gebuffer kan word. Die huidige studie ondersoek of werks gebaseerde en nie-werks gebaseerde sosiale ondersteuning die verhouding tussen werksonsekerheid en daaropvolgende spanning modereer. Die resultate, gebaseer op Sweedse longitudinale vraelysdata, toon dat werksonsekerheid spanning voorpsel het, selfs na die kontrolering vir demografiese veranderlikes en basislyn veranderlikes. Nie-werks gebaseerde ondersteuning het die negatiewe effek van werksonsekerheid op psigiese ongesteldhede en somatiese simptome gemodereer nadat gekontroleer vir basislyn veranderlikes is. Die resultate stel voor dat werknemers voordeel kan trek uit hulle ondersteunings netwerk gedurende tye van turbulensie.

  15. Work stress and the long QT syndrome: high job strain and effort-reward imbalance at work associated with arrhythmic risk in the long QT syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsa, Taina; Määttänen, I; Hintsanen, M; Swan, H; Toivonen, L; Kontula, K; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L

    2013-12-01

    To examine whether work stress is associated with a symptomatic status of the long QT syndrome (LQTS). The sample comprised 173 KCNQ1, KCNH2, or SCN5A gene mutation carriers (70 symptomatic) and control groups of 203 relatives without the family mutation, and of 1209 population-based young Finns control subjects. Work stress was assessed using the Job Content Questionnaire and Occupational Stress Questionnaire. We found an association between the occurrence of symptoms in the LQTS and high work stress, higher job demands/effort, lower job control, and lower rewards compared with control subjects. We also found that symptomatic LQTS mutation carriers had higher work stress than asymptomatic LQTS mutation carriers. Higher work stress is related to arrhythmic risk in the LQTS. It may be useful to incorporate assessment of work conditions and stress interventions into management of high-risk patients.

  16. Job strain and the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases: individual-participant meta-analysis of 95,000 men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Heikkilä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Many clinicians, patients and patient advocacy groups believe stress to have a causal role in inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. However, this is not corroborated by clear epidemiological research evidence. We investigated the association between work-related stress and incident Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis using individual-level data from 95,000 European adults. METHODS: We conducted individual-participant data meta-analyses in a set of pooled data from 11 prospective European studies. All studies are a part of the IPD-Work Consortium. Work-related psychosocial stress was operationalised as job strain (a combination of high demands and low control at work and was self-reported at baseline. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis were ascertained from national hospitalisation and drug reimbursement registers. The associations between job strain and inflammatory bowel disease outcomes were modelled using Cox proportional hazards regression. The study-specific results were combined in random effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Of the 95,379 participants who were free of inflammatory bowel disease at baseline, 111 men and women developed Crohn's disease and 414 developed ulcerative colitis during follow-up. Job strain at baseline was not associated with incident Crohn's disease (multivariable-adjusted random effects hazard ratio: 0.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.48, 1.43 or ulcerative colitis (hazard ratio: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.76, 1.48. There was negligible heterogeneity among the study-specific associations. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that job strain, an indicator of work-related stress, is not a major risk factor for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.

  17. The association between right ventricular free wall strain and exercise capacity for health check-up subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Ting; Liu, Yen-Wen; Liu, Ping-Yen; Hsu, Chih-Hsin; Tsai, Wei-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function has been found to be a major factor of exercise capacity in patients with heart failure. However, the role of RV function in exercise capacity in healthy subjects has not been well studied. This study aims to validate the role of RV strain derived from speckle tracking echocardiography for exercise capacity for health check-up subjects. This study prospectively recruited subjects from a routine health examination. All of them were symptom free. RV function represented by RV strain was derived from speckle tracking echocardiography in addition to traditional echocardiography parameters. Functional capacity was determined by a symptom limited treadmill exercise test with the Bruce protocol. Among 164 recruited subjects (age 52.2 ±9.2 years, 66.4% male), 32 subjects represented impaired functional capacity (METexercise capacity for health check-up subjects. RV function is an important factor for functional capacity.

  18. The response of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) subjected to large strains, high strain rates, high pressures, a range in temperatures, and variations in the intermediate principal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, T. J.; Bradley, J.; Dwivedi, A.; Casem, D.

    2016-05-01

    This article presents the response of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) subjected to large strains, high strain rates, high pressures, a range in temperatures, and variations in the intermediate principal stress. Laboratory data from the literature, and new test data provided here, are used in the evaluation. The new data include uniaxial stress compression tests (at various strain rates and temperatures) and uniaxial stress tension tests (at low strain rates and ambient temperatures). The compression tests include experiments at ˙ɛ = 13,000 s-1, significantly extending the range of known strain rate data. The observed behavior of PMMA includes the following: it is brittle in compression at high rates, and brittle in tension at all rates; strength is dependent on the pressure, strain, strain rate, temperature, and the intermediate principal stress; the shear modulus increases as the pressure increases; and it is highly compressible. Also presented are novel, high velocity impact tests (using high-speed imaging) that provide insight into the initiation and evolution of damage. Lastly, computational constitutive models for pressure, strength, and failure are presented that provide responses that are in good agreement with the laboratory data. The models are used to compute several ballistic impact events for which experimental data are available.

  19. Risk assessments using the Strain Index and the TLV for HAL, Part I: Task and multi-task job exposure classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapellusch, Jay M; Bao, Stephen S; Silverstein, Barbara A; Merryweather, Andrew S; Thiese, Mathew S; Hegmann, Kurt T; Garg, Arun

    2017-12-01

    The Strain Index (SI) and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level (TLV for HAL) use different constituent variables to quantify task physical exposures. Similarly, time-weighted-average (TWA), Peak, and Typical exposure techniques to quantify physical exposure from multi-task jobs make different assumptions about each task's contribution to the whole job exposure. Thus, task and job physical exposure classifications differ depending upon which model and technique are used for quantification. This study examines exposure classification agreement, disagreement, correlation, and magnitude of classification differences between these models and techniques. Data from 710 multi-task job workers performing 3,647 tasks were analyzed using the SI and TLV for HAL models, as well as with the TWA, Typical and Peak job exposure techniques. Physical exposures were classified as low, medium, and high using each model's recommended, or a priori limits. Exposure classification agreement and disagreement between models (SI, TLV for HAL) and between job exposure techniques (TWA, Typical, Peak) were described and analyzed. Regardless of technique, the SI classified more tasks as high exposure than the TLV for HAL, and the TLV for HAL classified more tasks as low exposure. The models agreed on 48.5% of task classifications (kappa = 0.28) with 15.5% of disagreement between low and high exposure categories. Between-technique (i.e., TWA, Typical, Peak) agreement ranged from 61-93% (kappa: 0.16-0.92) depending on whether the SI or TLV for HAL was used. There was disagreement between the SI and TLV for HAL and between the TWA, Typical and Peak techniques. Disagreement creates uncertainty for job design, job analysis, risk assessments, and developing interventions. Task exposure classifications from the SI and TLV for HAL might complement each other. However, TWA, Typical, and Peak job exposure techniques all have

  20. Job characteristics as determinants of job satisfaction and labour mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelißen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of detailed job characteristics on job satisfaction, job search and quits using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) in a fixed effects framework. Using a factor analysis, seventeen job characteristics are reduced to seven factors that describe different aspects of a job, which are qualified as status, physical strain, autonomy, advancement opportunities, social relations at the work place, work time and job security. The effects of these facto...

  1. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  2. Linear and non-linear relations between psychosocial job characteristics, subjective outcomes, and sickness absence: baseline results from SMASH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, J. de; Reuvers, M.M.E.N.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the demand-control-support (DCS) model by (a) using a more focused measure of job control, (b) testing for interactive and nonlinear relationships, and (c) further extending the model to the prediction of an objective outcome measure (i.e., company-administrated sickness

  3. Linear and nonlinear relations between psychosocial job characteristics, subjective outcomes, and sickness absence : baseline results from SMASH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, J. de; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.; Reuvers, M.M.E.N.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the demand-control-support (DCS) model by (a) using a more focused measure of job control, (b) testing for interactive and nonlinear relationships, and (c) further extending the model to the prediction of an objective outcome measure (i.e., company-administrated sickness

  4. The association between right ventricular free wall strain and exercise capacity for health check-up subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ting Chang

    Full Text Available Right ventricular (RV function has been found to be a major factor of exercise capacity in patients with heart failure. However, the role of RV function in exercise capacity in healthy subjects has not been well studied. This study aims to validate the role of RV strain derived from speckle tracking echocardiography for exercise capacity for health check-up subjects.This study prospectively recruited subjects from a routine health examination. All of them were symptom free. RV function represented by RV strain was derived from speckle tracking echocardiography in addition to traditional echocardiography parameters. Functional capacity was determined by a symptom limited treadmill exercise test with the Bruce protocol.Among 164 recruited subjects (age 52.2 ±9.2 years, 66.4% male, 32 subjects represented impaired functional capacity (MET<8, which was significantly correlated with age, left ventricular mass index, left ventricular filling pressure (E/e', global longitudinal strain of the left ventricle (LVGLS (-16.0±2.5% vs. -18.9±3.8%, p < 0.001 and RV free wall strain (RVLS_FW (-17.0±4.9% vs. -21.9±3.2%, p <0.001. After multivariate logistic regression, RVS_FW was an independent predictor for impaired functional capacity (OR 1.62, CI 1.32-1.98; p <0.001.In conclusion, RV strain is independently associated with exercise capacity for health check-up subjects. RV function is an important factor for functional capacity.

  5. Strain Behavior of Concrete Panels Subjected to Different Nose Shapes of Projectile Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangkyu; Kim, Gyuyong; Kim, Hongseop; Son, Minjae; Choe, Gyeongcheol; Nam, Jeongsoo

    2018-03-09

    This study evaluates the fracture properties and rear-face strain distribution of nonreinforced and hooked steel fiber-reinforced concrete panels penetrated by projectiles of three different nose shapes: sharp, hemispherical, and flat. The sharp projectile nose resulted in a deeper penetration because of the concentration of the impact force. Conversely, the flat projectile nose resulted in shallower penetrations. The penetration based on different projectile nose shapes is directly related to the impact force transmitted to the rear face. Scabbing can be more accurately predicted by the tensile strain on the rear face of concrete due to the projectile nose shape. The tensile strain on the rear face of the concrete was reduced by the hooked steel fiber reinforcement because the hooked steel fiber absorbed some of the impact stress transmitted to the rear face of the concrete. Consequently, the strain behavior on the rear face of concrete according to the projectile nose shape was confirmed.

  6. Dynamic Evolution of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) Subjected to High Strain Rate Compressive Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    strain rate deformation, there has been extensive work on understanding the effects of high strain rate on metals such as aluminum alloys , steels and...applications, which include medical designs, oil filter assemblies, prototypes, replacement parts and dental crowns [3]. The present research is aimed at...other metals [4-7]. Limited exploratory research has been done in the area of plastics, more specifically ABS. Many experiments have been conducted

  7. Characterization of a New Fully Recycled Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Subjected to High Strain Rate Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, H.; Tamboura, S.; Fitoussi, J.; BenDaly, H.; Tcharkhtchi, A.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is the complete physicochemical characterization and strain rate effect multi-scale analysis of a new fully recycled carbon fiber reinforced composites for automotive crash application. Two composites made of 20% wt short recycled carbon fibers (CF) are obtained by injection molding. The morphology and the degree of dispersion of CF in the matrixes were examined using a new ultrasonic method and SEM. High strain tensile behavior up to 100 s-1 is investigated. In order to avoid perturbation due to inertial effect and wave propagation, the specimen geometry was optimized. The elastic properties appear to be insensitive to the strain rate. However, a high strain rate effect on the local visco-plasticity of the matrix and fiber/matrix interface visco-damageable behavior is emphasized. The predominant damage mechanisms evolve from generalized matrix local ductility at low strain rate regime to fiber/matrix interface debonding and fibers pull-out at high strain rate regime.

  8. Microscale consolidation analysis of relaxation behavior of single living chondrocytes subjected to varying strain-rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Dung; Oloyede, Adekunle; Singh, Sanjleena; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-09-01

    Besides the elastic stiffness, the relaxation behavior of single living cells is also of interest of various researchers when studying cell mechanics. It is hypothesized that the relaxation response of the cells is governed by both intrinsic viscoelasticity of the solid phase and fluid-solid interactions mechanisms. There are a number of mechanical models have been developed to investigate the relaxation behavior of single cells. However, there is lack of model enable to accurately capture both of the mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, the porohyperelastic (PHE) model, which is an extension of the consolidation theory, combined with inverse Finite Element Analysis (FEA) technique was used at the first time to investigate the relaxation response of living chondrocytes. This model was also utilized to study the dependence of relaxation behavior of the cells on strain-rates. The stress-relaxation experiments under the various strain-rates were conducted with the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results have demonstrated that the PHE model could effectively capture the stress-relaxation behavior of the living chondrocytes, especially at intermediate to high strain-rates. Although this model gave some errors at lower strain-rates, its performance was acceptable. Therefore, the PHE model is properly a promising model for single cell mechanics studies. Moreover, it has been found that the hydraulic permeability of living chondrocytes reduced with decreasing of strain-rates. It might be due to the intracellular fluid volume fraction and the fluid pore pressure gradients of chondrocytes were higher when higher strain-rates applied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Overload, and Cutbacks, and Freezes, Oh My! The Relative Effects of the Recession-Related Stressors on Employee Strain and Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Morgan D; Sliter, Michael; Sinclair, Robert R

    2016-12-01

    Across the globe, economic fluctuations have taken their toll on both organizations and employees, particularly during sustained recessions. Surprisingly, little research, however, has directly investigated the effects of recessions on employees. As such, the goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of specific recession-related stressors on employee outcomes (strain and satisfaction). We investigated an archival data set of 7666 individuals collected as part of the Workplace Employment Relations Study for relations among recession-related stressors with strain and job satisfaction variables. We found that recession-related stressors were significantly related to both strain and satisfaction. More specifically, certain recession-related stressors (e.g. increased workload and reorganization of work) were more strongly related to strain and satisfaction than others. These results imply the need for greater attention to stress management strategies aimed at helping both employees and their organizations cope with the human costs of economic recessions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Preferred 11 different job rotation types in automotive company and their effects on productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorders: comparison between subjective and actual scores by workers' age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, In Sik; Jeong, Byung Yong; Jeong, Ji Hyun

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates workers' favoured rotation types by their age and compares means between subjective and actual scores on productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The subjects of research were 422 assembly line units in Hyundai Motor Company. The survey of 422 units focused on the workers' preference for 11 different rotation types and subjective scores for each type's perceived benefits, both by the workers' age. Then, actual scores on production-related indices were traced over a five-year period. The results suggest that different rotation types lead to different results in productivity, product quality and MSDs. Workers tend to perceive job rotation as a helpful method to enhance satisfaction, productivity and product quality more so than the actual production data suggests. Job rotation was especially effective in preventing MSDs for workers aged under 45, while its effects were not clear for the workers aged 45 years or older. Practitioner's Summary: This research presents appropriate rotation type for different age groups. Taking workers' age into account, administrators can use the paper's outcomes to select and implement the suitable rotation type to attain specific goals such as enhancing productivity, improving product quality or reducing MSDs.

  11. High temperature deformation behaviour of Haynes 188 alloy subjected to high strain rate loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woei-Shyan; Kao, Hao-Chien

    2013-12-01

    The impact deformation and fracture behaviour of cobalt-based Haynes 188 superalloy are investigated by means of a split Hopkinson pressure bar. Impact tests are performed at strain rates ranging from 1×103 s-1 to 5×103 s-1 and temperatures between 25°C and 800°C The experimental results indicate that the flow response and fracture characteristics of cobalt-based Haynes 188 superalloy are significantly dependent on the strain rate and temperature. The flow stress, work hardening rate and strain rate sensitivity all increase with increasing strain rate or decreasing temperature. It is shown that the impact response of the Haynes 188 specimens is adequately described by the Zerilli-Armstrong fcc model. The fracture analysis results indicate that the Haynes 188 specimens fail predominantly as the result of intensive localised shearing. Furthermore, it is shown that the flow localisation effect leads to the formation of adiabatic shear bands. The fracture surfaces of the deformed Haynes 188 specimens are characterised by dimple- and / or cleavage-like structure with knobby features. The knobby features are thought to be the result of a rise in the local temperature to a value greater than the melting point.

  12. Handrim configuration: effects on physical strain and technique in unimpaired subjects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L.H.V.; Formanoy, M.A.G.; de Groot, S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Hand rim wheelchair propulsion is inefficient and physically straining. To evaluate the possibly advantageous role in this respect of three different prototype hand rim configurations (a rubber foam-coated cylindrical (II) hand rim and two profiled rubber foam-coated hand rims (wide and

  13. Automation and Job Satisfaction among Reference Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlatch, Jo Bell

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of job satisfaction and the level of job performance focuses on the effect of automation on job satisfaction among reference librarians. The influence of stress is discussed, a job strain model is explained, and examples of how to design a job to reduce the stress caused by automation are given. (12 references) (LRW)

  14. Hybrid Lattice Particle Modelling Approach for Polymeric Materials Subject to High Strain Rate Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Radziszewski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid Lattice Particle modelling (HLPM is an innovative particular dynamics approach that is established based on a combination of the particle modelling (PM technique together with the conventional lattice modelling (LM theory. It is developed for the purpose of simulating the dynamic fragmentation of solids under high strain rate loadings at macroscales with a varying Poisson's ratio. HLPM is conceptually illustrated by fully dynamic particles (or “quasi-particles” placed at the nodes of a lattice network without explicitly considering their geometric size. The interaction potentials among the particles can employ either linear (quadratic or nonlinear (Leonard-Jones or strain rate dependent polynomial type as the axial/angular linkage. The defined spring constants are then mapped into lattice system, which are in turn matched with the material’s continuum-level elastic moduli, strength, Poisson's ratio and mass density. As an accurate dynamic fracture solver of materials, HLPM has its unique advantages over the other numerical techniques which are mainly characterized as easy preparation of inputs, high computation efficiency, ability of post-fracture simulation and a multiscale model, etc., This paper is to review the successful HLPM studies of dynamic fragmentation of polymeric materials with good accuracy. Polymeric materials, including nylon 6-6, vinyl ester and epoxy, are accounted for under the loading conditions of tension, indentation and punctuation. In addition, HLPM of wave propagation and wave induced fracture study is also reviewed.

  15. JOB SATISFACTION OF UNIVERSITY GRADUATES

    OpenAIRE

    ALEKSANDER KUCEL; MONTSERRAT VILALTA-BUFÍ

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of job satisfaction of university graduates in Spain. We base our analysis on Locke’s discrepancy theory [Locke (1969)] and decompose subjective evaluation of job characteristics into surplus and deficit levels. We also study the importance of overeducation and over-skilling on job satisfaction. We use REFLEX data, a survey of university graduates. We conclude that job satisfaction is mostly determined by the subjective evaluation of intrinsic job char...

  16. Risk assessments using the Strain Index and the TLV for HAL, Part II: Multi-task jobs and prevalence of CTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapellusch, Jay M; Silverstein, Barbara A; Bao, Stephen S; Thiese, Mathew S; Merryweather, Andrew S; Hegmann, Kurt T; Garg, Arun

    2018-02-01

    The Strain Index (SI) and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value for hand activity level (TLV for HAL) have been shown to be associated with prevalence of distal upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The SI and TLV for HAL disagree on more than half of task exposure classifications. Similarly, time-weighted average (TWA), peak, and typical exposure techniques used to quantity physical exposure from multi-task jobs have shown between-technique agreement ranging from 61% to 93%, depending upon whether the SI or TLV for HAL model was used. This study compared exposure-response relationships between each model-technique combination and prevalence of CTS. Physical exposure data from 1,834 workers (710 with multi-task jobs) were analyzed using the SI and TLV for HAL and the TWA, typical, and peak multi-task job exposure techniques. Additionally, exposure classifications from the SI and TLV for HAL were combined into a single measure and evaluated. Prevalent CTS cases were identified using symptoms and nerve-conduction studies. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to quantify exposure-response relationships between categorized (i.e., low, medium, and high) physical exposure and CTS prevalence for all model-technique combinations, and for multi-task workers, mono-task workers, and all workers combined. Except for TWA TLV for HAL, all model-technique combinations showed monotonic increases in risk of CTS with increased physical exposure. The combined-models approach showed stronger association than the SI or TLV for HAL for multi-task workers. Despite differences in exposure classifications, nearly all model-technique combinations showed exposure-response relationships with prevalence of CTS for the combined sample of mono-task and multi-task workers. Both the TLV for HAL and the SI, with the TWA or typical techniques, appear useful for epidemiological studies and surveillance

  17. Spatially varying small-strain stiffness in soils subjected to K0 loading

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyun-Ki

    2017-08-08

    Grain-scale characteristics and formation history determine spatial variability in granular masses. We investigate the effect of spatially varying stiffness on the load-deformation response under zero-lateral strain conditions using numerical simulations of correlated random fields, where the granular medium is represented by a non-linear stress-dependent meso-scale model. Results show that stiffness heterogeneity results in higher global compressibility as compared to the homogeneous medium with the same arithmetic mean stiffness. Furthermore, the non-homogeneous stress field that develops inside the granular mass is characterized by focused load transfer along columnar regions, higher stress anisotropy and lower horizontal-to-vertical stress ratio K0 than in a granular medium of homogenous stiffness. As the applied stress increases, the inherent stress-dependent response of the granular material leads to a more homogenous stress field. While greater variance in stiffness causes lower global stiffness, a longer correlation length results in greater variance in global mechanical response among multiple realizations.

  18. Simultaneous strain-volume analysis by three-dimensional echocardiography: validation in normal subjects with tagging cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilli, Alessio; Tessa, Carlo; Diciotti, Stefano; Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick; Del Meglio, Jacopo; Salvatori, Luca; Vignali, Claudio; Casolo, Giancarlo

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to compare three-dimensional echocardiography strain-volume analysis with tagging cardiac magnetic resonance (cMR) measurements. Strain-volume analysis represents a noninvasive method to assess myocardial function and volumes simultaneously. It can be derived from echocardiography and speckle-tracking; however, it shows some variability that can limit clinical utilization. A three-dimensional approach partially overcomes these limitations since full-volume acquisition avoids images being foreshortened and geometrical reconstruction. In the study presented here, 23 healthy subjects were studied by three-dimensional echocardiography and cMR during the same session. Images were stored and the better cardiac cycle was chosen for simultaneous analysis of volumes and longitudinal (Long) and circumferential (Circ) strain. By means of full-volume acquisition all parameters can be calculated for each frame of the cardiac cycle using the speckle-tracking method. With cMR, left ventricle volumes were calculated as recommended; myocardial strains were computed in short-axis and long-axis views using the tagging technique. For each patient, volumes and strain values were plotted in a Cartesian system for strain-volume analysis. Data were compared between the two methods using Bland-Altman analysis based on mean difference and 95% limits of agreement (LoA). The volume as measured by three-dimensional echocardiography and cMR was comparable with the slightly higher end-diastolic volumes measured by cMR (mean difference 15.24 ml; LoA -53.6 to 26.5 ml, end-systolic volume 0.3 ml; LoA -19.9 to 20.5 ml). Long shortening was very similar in the two methods (1.5%; LoA -3.9 to 7%), whereas Circ strain was systematically lower with cMR (-8.5%; LoA -15.5 to -1.5%). Very similar values between three-dimensional echo and cMR both for Slope of strain-volume curves (-0.015; LoA -0.08 to 0.05) and ratio (-0.001; LoA -0.04 to 0.04) were observed in the

  19. Evaluation of knee joint muscle forces and tissue stresses-strains during gait in severe OA versus normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adouni, M; Shirazi-Adl, A

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of pain and disability in the elderly with the knee being the most affected weight bearing joint. We used a musculoskeletal biomechanical model of the lower extremity including a detailed validated knee joint finite element model to compute lower extremity muscle forces and knee joint stresses-strains during the stance phase of gait. The model was driven by gait data on OA patients, and results were compared with those of the same model driven by data on normal controls. Additional analyses were performed with altered cartilage-menisci properties to evaluate the effects of deterioration during OA. In OA patients compared to normal subjects, muscle forces dropped at nearly all stance periods except mid-stance. Force in the anterior cruciate ligament remained overall the same. Total contact forces-stresses deceased by about 25%. Alterations in properties due to OA had negligible effects on muscle forces, but increased contact areas and cartilage strains and reduced contact pressures. Reductions in contact stresses and increases in tissue strains and transfer of load via menisci are partly due to the altered kinetics-kinematics of gait and partly due to deterioration in cartilage-menisci properties in OA patients. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A constitutive model for particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites subjected to high strain rates and high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wei-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-static and dynamic tension tests were conducted to study the mechanical properties of particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites at strain rates ranging from 0.0001/s to 1000/s and at temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 650 °C Based on the experimental results, a constitutive model, which considers the effects of strain rate and temperature on hot deformation behavior, was proposed for particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites subjected to high strain rates and high temperatures by using Zener-Hollomon equations including Arrhenius terms. All the material constants used in the model were identified by fitting Zener-Hollomon equations against the experimental results. By comparison of theoretical predictions presented by the model with experimental results, a good agreement was achieved, which indicates that this constitutive model can give an accurate and precise estimate for high temperature flow stress for the studied titanium matrix composites and can be used for numerical simulations of hot deformation behavior of the composites.

  1. Impact of ghosts on the viscoelastic response of gelatinized corn starch dispersions subjected to small strain deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Navas, H; Avila-de la Rosa, G; Gómez-Luría, D; Meraz, M; Alvarez-Ramirez, J; Vernon-Carter, E J

    2014-09-22

    Corn starch dispersions (5.0% w/w) were gelatinized by heating at 90°C for 20 min using gentle stirring. Under these conditions, ghosts, which are insoluble material with high amylopectin content, were detected by optical microscopy. Strain sweep tests showed that the gelatinized starch dispersions (GSD) exhibited a loss modulus (G″) overshoot at relatively low strains (∼1%). In order to achieve a greater understanding as to the mechanisms giving rise to this uncharacteristic nonlinear response at low strains, very small constant torques (from 0.05 to 0.5 μN m) were applied in the bulk of the GSD with a rotating biconical disc. This resulted in small deformations exhibiting torque-dependent inertio-elastic damped oscillations which were subjected to phenomenological modelling. Inertial effects played an important role in the starch mechanical response. The model parameters varied with the magnitude of constant small applied torque and could be related to microstructural changes of ghosts and to the viscoelastic response of GSD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Strain features and condition assessment of orthotropic steel deck cable-supported bridges subjected to vehicle loads by using dense FBG strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shiyin; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Shunlong; Li, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Strain is a direct indicator of structural safety. Therefore, strain sensors have been used in most structural health monitoring systems for bridges. However, until now, the investigation of strain response has been insufficient. This paper conducts a comprehensive study of the strain features of the U ribs and transverse diaphragm on an orthotropic steel deck and proposes a statistical paradigm for crack detection based on the features of vehicle-induced strain response by using the densely distributed optic fibre Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors. The local feature of strain under vehicle load is highlighted, which enables the use of measurement data to determine the vehicle loading event and to make a decision regarding the health status of a girder near the strain sensors via technical elimination of the load information. Time–frequency analysis shows that the strain contains three features: the long-term trend item, the short-term trend item, and the instantaneous vehicle-induced item (IVII). The IVII is the wheel-induced strain with a remarkable local feature, and the measured wheel-induced strain is only influenced by the vehicle near the FBG sensor, while other vehicles slightly farther away have no effect on the wheel-induced strain. This causes the local strain series, among the FBG strain sensors in the same transverse locations of different cross-sections, to present similarities in shape to some extent and presents a time delay in successive order along the driving direction. Therefore, the strain series induced by an identical vehicle can be easily tracked and compared by extracting the amplitude and calculating the mutual ratio to eliminate vehicle loading information, leaving the girder information alone. The statistical paradigm for crack detection is finally proposed, and the detection accuracy is then validated by using dense FBG strain sensors on a long-span suspension bridge in China.

  3. A study of certain correlates of job satisfaction among judicial personnel, in a district of Western Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kriti A; Rajderkar, Shekhar S; Naik, Jayashree D; Behere, Vivek S

    2014-05-01

    In present scenario, the legal profession has gained utmost importance, which makes the job of a lawyer the most challenging, with lots of mental and physical strain. The rewards can be great, but so are the pressures. High job demands lead to imbalance between what is expected and what is received (job dissatisfaction) which, in turn, leads to job strains. So, the present study focused on the impact of certain variables on job satisfaction of the judiciaries. To study the level of job satisfaction among judicial personnel; to identify the impact of job level (hierarchy) in the experience of job satisfaction; to find the gender difference (if any) for the level of job satisfaction; and to examine the pattern of relationship of certain variables with job satisfaction. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 year duration, in total 965 judicial personnel of different courts in the district of Sangli, which involved data collection using predesigned proforma. A scale, having 15 different independent predictors was used as a validated screening tool, to calculate their job satisfaction score. The most contributing variable and its correlation with job satisfaction was found by stepwise multiple regression and correlation analysis using SPSS Version-16. Out of the total, Class I judiciaries were 692 (71.7%). A majority (71.4%) of the study subjects were male. Overall mean job satisfaction score was 5.38 ± 2.7. Twenty-three percent females, compared with only 9% males, had low job satisfaction (P job satisfaction in males and females was emotional exhaustion (β = 0.191) and conflicts between values and practice (β = 0.252), respectively. Higher is the job satisfaction score, lesser the level of job satisfaction. The findings of the study revealed that job satisfaction was found to be significantly (P < 0.0005) and positively correlated with all the variables in the study.

  4. Is there an agreement among the items of the Korean physical therapist licensing examination, learning objectives of class subjects, and physical therapists' job descriptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Kim, Yong-Wook; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Tae-Ho; Oh, Tae-Young; Weon, Jong-Hyuk; Lee, Tae-Sik; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-01-01

    To determine the agreement among the items of the Korean physical therapist licensing examination, learning objectives of class subjects, and physical therapists' job descriptions. The main tasks of physical therapists were classified, and university courses related to the main tasks were also classified. Frequency analysis was used to determine the proportions of credits for the classified courses out of the total credits of major subjects, exam items related to the classified courses out of the total number of exam items, and universities that offer courses related to the Korean physical therapist licensing examination among the surveyed universities. The proportions of credits for clinical decision making and physical therapy diagnosis-related courses out of the total number credits for major subjects at universities were relatively low (2.06% and 2.58%, respectively). Although the main tasks of physical therapists are related to diagnosis and evaluation, the proportion of physiotherapy intervention-related items (35%) was higher than that of examination and evaluation-related items (25%) on the Korean physical therapist licensing examination. The percentages of universities that offer physical therapy diagnosis and clinical decision making-related courses were 58.62% and 68.97%, respectively. Both the proportion of physiotherapy diagnosis and evaluation-related items on the Korean physical therapist licensing examination, and the number of subjects related to clinical decision making and physical therapy diagnosis in the physical therapy curriculum, should be increased to ensure that the examination items and physical therapy curriculum reflect the practical tasks of physical therapists.

  5. Is there an agreement among the items of the Korean physical therapist licensing examination, learning objectives of class subjects, and physical therapists’ job descriptions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hyeok Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the agreement among the items of the Korean physical therapist licensing examination, learning objectives of class subjects, and physical therapists’ job descriptions. Methods: The main tasks of physical therapists were classified, and university courses related to the main tasks were also classified. Frequency analysis was used to determine the proportions of credits for the classified courses out of the total credits of major subjects, exam items related to the classified courses out of the total number of exam items, and universities that offer courses related to the Korean physical therapist licensing examination among the surveyed universities. Results: The proportions of credits for clinical decision making and physical therapy diagnosis-related courses out of the total number credits for major subjects at universities were relatively low (2.06% and 2.58%, respectively. Although the main tasks of physical therapists are related to diagnosis and evaluation, the proportion of physiotherapy intervention-related items (35% was higher than that of examination and evaluation-related items (25% on the Korean physical therapist licensing examination. The percentages of universities that offer physical therapy diagnosis and clinical decision making-related courses were 58.62% and 68.97%, respectively. Conclusion: Both the proportion of physiotherapy diagnosis and evaluation-related items on the Korean physical therapist licensing examination, and the number of subjects related to clinical decision making and physical therapy diagnosis in the physical therapy curriculum, should be increased to ensure that the examination items and physical therapy curriculum reflect the practical tasks of physical therapists.

  6. [Subjective Workload, Job Satisfaction, and Work-Life-Balance of Physicians and Nurses in a Municipal Hospital in a Rural Area Compared to an Urban University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, Michael; Schmid, Klaus; Drexler, Hans; Kiesel, Johannes

    2017-02-15

    Medical and nursing shortages in rural areas represent a current serious public health problem. The healthcare of the rural population is at risk. This study compares perceived workload, job satisfaction and work-life balance of physicians and nurses at a clinic in a rural area with two clinics of a University hospital. Physicians and nurses were interviewed anonymously with a standardized questionnaire (paper and pencil), including questions on job satisfaction, subjective workload and work-life balance. The response rate was almost 50% in the University hospital as well as in the municipal hospital. 32 physicians and 54 nurses from the University hospital and 18 physicians and 137 nurses from the municipal hospital participated in the survey. Nurses at the University hospital assessed the organization of the daily routine with 94.1% as better than those at the municipal hospital (82.4%, p=0.03). Physicians at the University hospital were able to better implement acquired knowledge at a University clinic with 87.5% than their counterparts at the municipal hospital (55.5%, p=0.02). In contrast to their colleagues at the municipal hospital, only 50% of the physicians at the University hospital subjectively considered their workload as just right (83.3% municipal, p=0.02). 96.9% of the physicians at the University hospital were "daily" or "several times a week" under time pressure (municipal 50%, pwork and family life (62.9% University hospital, 72.8% Municipal hospital). In contrast, only 20% of the physicians at the University Hospital but 42.9% of the physicians of the municipal hospital had sufficient opportunities to balance workload and family (p=0.13). The return rate of almost 50% can be described as good. Due to the small number of physicians, especially from the municipal hospital, it can be assumed that some interesting differences could not be detected. There were only slight differences between the nurses from the two hospitals. In contrast, subjective

  7. Numerical Analysis of Stress and Strain in Specimens with Rectangular Cross-Section Subjected to Torsion and Bending with Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faszynka Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the state of stress and crack tip opening displacement (strain in specimens with rectangular cross-section subjected to torsion and combined bending with torsion. The specimens were made of the EN AW-2017A aluminium alloy. The specimens had an external unilateral notch, which was 2 mm deep and its radius was 22.5 mm. The tests were performed at constant moment amplitude MT = MBT = 15.84 N·m and under stress ratio R = −1. The exemplary results of numerical computations being obtained by using the FRANC3D software were shown in the form of stress and crack tip opening displacement (CTOD maps. The paper presents the differences of fatigue cracks growth under torsion and bending with torsion being derived by using the FRANC3D software.

  8. Anisotropic finite element models for brain injury prediction: the sensitivity of axonal strain to white matter tract inter-subject variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Chiara; Zappalà, Stefano; Kleiven, Svein

    2017-08-01

    Computational models incorporating anisotropic features of brain tissue have become a valuable tool for studying the occurrence of traumatic brain injury. The tissue deformation in the direction of white matter tracts (axonal strain) was repeatedly shown to be an appropriate mechanical parameter to predict injury. However, when assessing the reliability of axonal strain to predict injury in a population, it is important to consider the predictor sensitivity to the biological inter-subject variability of the human brain. The present study investigated the axonal strain response of 485 white matter subject-specific anisotropic finite element models of the head subjected to the same loading conditions. It was observed that the biological variability affected the orientation of the preferential directions (coefficient of variation of 39.41% for the elevation angle-coefficient of variation of 29.31% for the azimuth angle) and the determination of the mechanical fiber alignment parameter in the model (gray matter volume 55.55-70.75%). The magnitude of the maximum axonal strain showed coefficients of variation of 11.91%. On the contrary, the localization of the maximum axonal strain was consistent: the peak of strain was typically located in a 2 cm 3 volume of the brain. For a sport concussive event, the predictor was capable of discerning between non-injurious and concussed populations in several areas of the brain. It was concluded that, despite its sensitivity to biological variability, axonal strain is an appropriate mechanical parameter to predict traumatic brain injury.

  9. Effect of treatment failure on the CagA EPIYA motif in Helicobacter pylori strains from Colombian subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier Andres; Matta, Andres Jenuer; Pazos, Alvaro Jairo; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate effect of treatment failure on cagA and vacA genotypes in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) isolates from Colombia. METHODS One hundred and seventy-six participants infected with H. pylori from Colombia were treated during 14 d with the triple-standard therapy. Six weeks later, eradication was evaluated by 13C-Urea breath test. Patients with treatment failure were subjected to endoscopy control; biopsies obtained were used for histopathology and culture. DNA from H. pylori isolates was amplified using primers specific for cagA and vacA genes. The phylogenetic relationships among isolates obtained before and after treatment were established by conglomerate analysis based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting. RESULTS Treatment effectiveness was at 74.6%. Of the participants with treatment failure, 25 accepted subjected to a second endoscopy. Prevalence of post-treatment infection was 64% (16/25) and 40% (10/25) by histology and culture, respectively. Upon comparing the cagA and vacA genotypes found before and after therapy, multiple cagA genotypes (cagA-positive and cagA-negative) were found before treatment; in contrast, cagA-negative genotypes decreased after treatment. vacA s1m1 genotype was highly prevalent in patients before and after therapy. The 3’cagA region was successfully amplified in 95.5% (21/22) of the isolates obtained before and in 81.8% (18/22) of the isolates obtained after treatment. In the isolates obtained from patients with treatment failure, it was found that 72.7% (16/22) presented alterations in the number of EPIYA motifs, compared to isolates found before treatment. CONCLUSION Unsuccessful treatment limits colonization by low-virulence strains resulting in partial and selective eradication in mixed infections, and acts on the cagA-positive strains inducing genetic rearrangements in cagA variable region that produces a loss or gain of EPIYA repetitions. PMID:28373764

  10. Work-family conflict, lack of time for personal care and leisure, and job strain in migraine: Results of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Rosane Härter; Toivanen, Susanna; Santos, Itamar S; Rotenberg, Lucia; Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Goulart, Alessandra C; Aquino, Estela M; Benseñor, Isabela

    2016-11-01

    Work-family conflict and time scarcity may affect health. We investigated the association between these issues and migraine, taking into account job strain. Baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (6,183 women; 5,664 men) included four indicators of work-family conflict: time- and strain-based interference of work with family (TB-WFC, SB-WFC), interference of family with work (FWC) and lack of time for personal care and leisure (LOT). Migraine was classified according to International Headache Society criteria. Among women, definite migraine was associated with SB-WFC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.55), FWC (OR = 1.32; 1.00-1.75), and LOT (OR = 1.30; 1.08-1.58). Probable migraine was associated with SB-WFC (OR = 1.17; 1.00-1.36). High psychological job demands and low social support interacted with LOT in association with definite migraine. Among men, probable migraine was associated with LOT (OR = 1.34; 1.09-1.64), and there were interactions between job strain and WFC for probable migraine. Balancing the demands of professional and domestic spheres could be highly relevant in the management of migraines. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:987-1000, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Comparison between the risk of mobbing at work and conditions of job strain and effort-reward imbalance in relation to stress-related disorders: a study in the public administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, C; Fraccaroli, E

    2013-01-01

    A limitation of previous research on mobbing at work was that the individual consequences of the phenomenon were often assessed on 'clinical' samples of victims. Studies in organizations are less numerous and those available rarely evaluated the potential effect of mobbing over and above that of other psychosocial factors which provided robust evidence of adverse health effects. The relationship between exposure to mobbing and stress-related psychophysical conditions was investigated taking in consideration the possible concomitant exposure to job strain and effort-reward imbalance. Cross-sectional study on public administration administrative employees (No. = 538, 48% women). The psychosocial factors considered were assessed by means of well known and validated scales. The four health outcomes considered were psychological caseness (as operationalized by means of the general health questionnaire-12-item version), depression, gastritis and colitis/irritable colon syndrome as indicated by having reported a medical diagnosis of such conditions. Covariates: gender, age, body mass index, smoking habits and experience of a traumatic event in the last year. Analysis consisted of a series of logistic regressions. Exposure to mobbing was significantly associated with all the outcomes considered over and above the covariates. The inclusion in the models of job strain and effort-reward imbalance did not substantially alter the results. The relationship between mobbing at work and health outcomes is not confounded by concomitant exposure to job strain and effort-reward imbalance. These results offer further confirmation of the uniqueness of mobbing as a psychosocial risk factor.

  12. High strain fatigue behaviour of a high-temperature, low-alloyed forging steel subject to a servicelike loading history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloos, K.H.; Granacher, J.; Rieth, P.

    1979-01-01

    A test plan was developed for selected cases of service-like long-time high strain load of a heated surface of massive components, which includes service-like anisothermic high strain tests with pressure-strain in the start-up phase and pull-strain in the shutdown phase, comparable isothermal tests at the highest cycle temperature, and finally tests with 'packaged' high strain and creep strain periods, which should enable long-time-tests with only short use of the large-scale high-strain-test-technique. The tests started on the melts of the high-temperature steel 28 Cr Mo NiV 4 9 have reached a longest tests time of nearly 1000 at a maximum temperature of 525 0 C. On the basis of there results, the carrying-out of 'packaged' long-time high strain tests with short creep strain periods seem to be a good way of determining the long-time high-strain behaviour of this steel under service-like strain cycles. (orig./RW) 891 RW/orig.- 892 RKD [de

  13. Does low job satisfaction lead to job mobility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    This paper seeks to analyse the role of job satisfaction and actual job change behaviour. The analysis is based on the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) data for Danish families 1994-2000. The results show that inclusion of job satisfaction, which is a subjective measure, does improve...... the ability to predict actual quit behaviour: Low overall job satisfaction significantly increases the probability of quit. Various job satisfaction domains are ranked according to their ability to predict quits. Satisfaction with Type of Work is found to be the most important job characteristic while...... satisfaction with Job Security is found to be insignificant. These results hold across age, gender and education sub-groups and are opposed to results for UK, where job security is found to be the most important job domain. This discrepancy between UK and Denmark might be due to differences in unemployment...

  14. Circulating Nitrite and Nitrate are Associated with Job-Related Fatigue in Women, but not in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Takaki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A recent study indicated that serum nitrite and nitrate (NOx is inversely associated with general fatigue. The purpose of this study was to confirm the negative association between nitric oxide (NO and fatigue and to examine whether NO can prevent fatigue caused by job strain. The subjects, 570 workers (272 men and 298 women, answered self-administered questionnaires and underwent a medical examination. Job strain was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire. Fatigue was evaluated using the Profile of Mood States. Venous blood samples were collected after overnight fasting. Plasma NOx concentration was determined by the ozone-based chemiluminescence assay. Plasma NOx levels were significantly (p < 0.05 negatively associated with fatigue even after adjustment for job strain and potential confounders in women, but not in men. Significant (p < 0.05 interactions showed that, in women, as the level of the job strain worsened, fatigue was exacerbated, but the plasma NOx seemed to buffer the association, even after adjustment for potential confounders and the interaction between job strain and vegetable intake. In women, NO seemed to be inversely associated with fatigue and to buffer the association between job strain and fatigue, but not in men.

  15. [Proteinase activity in Candida albicans strains isolated from the oral cavity of immunocompromised patients, with oral candidiasis and in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Solís, Sandra E; Rueda-Gordillo, Florencio; Rojas-Herrera, Rafael A

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans has a variety of virulence factors, including secreted aspartyl proteases, which are determinant factors in the pathogenesis of this yeast in immunocompromised patients. Proteinase activity was identified in C. albicans strains isolated from the oral cavity of immunocompromised patients with cancer, diabetes and HIV+, with oral candidiasis and in healthy subjects. Two hundred and fifty C. albicans strains were analyzed, distributed in 5 different groups: patients with cancer, diabetes, HIV+, with oral candidiasis and healthy subjects. Proteolytic activity was identified in 46% of the strains from cancer patients, 54% from HIV+ patients, 60% from diabetics, 70% from oral candidiasis patients, and 42% from healthy subjects. Activity was higher in strains from immunocompromised and oral candidiasis patients than in healthy subjects. Differences were observed between the candidiasis-healthy, candidiasis-HIV+, and diabetic-healthy groups. No differences were observed between the oral candidiasis, diabetes and cancer patients, between the diabetes and HIV+ patients, or between the cancer patients, HIV+ patients and healthy subjects. The present results suggest that although secreted aspartyl proteases are important in the pathogenesis of C. albicans, their activity depends on host conditions. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of Global and Segmental Hypertrophy on Two-Dimensional Strain Derived from Three-Dimensional Echocardiography in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Comparison with Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voilliot, Damien; Huttin, Olivier; Hammache, Néfissa; Filippetti, Laura; Vaugrenard, Thibaud; Aliot, Etienne; Sadoul, Nicolas; Juillière, Yves; Selton-Suty, Christine

    2015-09-01

    Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) present unusual myocardial mechanics. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of hypertrophy on global and regional two-dimensional (2D) strain derived from both tomographic images (2D/2D) and volumetric image acquisition (2D/three-dimensional [3D]) in patients with HCM compared with control subjects. Comprehensive resting 2D and 3D echocardiography was performed in 40 patients with HCM and in 53 control subjects, with comparable distributions of age, gender, and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction. LV global and segmental measurements of all 2D/2D and 2D/3D peak strain components (global and segmental longitudinal strain, global and segmental circumferential strain, global and segmental radial strain, and global and segmental area strain) and 3D indexed LV end-diastolic myocardial mass were obtained from all patients. LV wall thickness was assessed in short-axis views and classified in four quartiles (16.5 mm). The reproducibility of 2D/3D strain was similar or greater and more consistent for all components compared with 2D/2D strain analysis. There was a significant correlation between 3D LV end-diastolic mass and all 2D/3D strain components (P < .05). Two-dimensional/3D global circumferential strain had the strongest association with 3D LV ejection fraction (r = 0.50, P = .001). For segmental deformation, patients with HCM had lower longitudinal deformation whatever the LV wall thickness, whereas circumferential function was increased in nonhypertrophied and poorly hypertrophied segments compared with control subjects. Two-dimensional/3D strain is a reliable technique to assess myocardial deformation. Myocardial mass is related to 2D/3D strain components in patients with HCM. Circumferential deformation, compared with longitudinal deformation, seems to be the main component of the maintenance of systolic function in HCM. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier

  17. Study protocol for examining job strain as a risk factor for severe unipolar depression in an individual participant meta-analysis of 14 European cohorts [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1yz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IPD-Work Consortium

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that gainfully employed individuals with high work demands and low control at work (denoted “job strain” are at increased risk of common mental disorders, including depression. Most existing studies have, however, measured depression using self-rated symptom scales that do not necessarily correspond to clinically diagnosed depression. In addition, a meta-analysis from 2008 indicated publication bias in the field.   Methods: This study protocol describes the planned design and analyses of an individual participant data meta-analysis, to examine whether job strain is associated with an increased risk of clinically diagnosed unipolar depression based on hospital treatment registers.  The study will be based on data from approximately 120,000 individuals who participated in 14 studies on work environment and health in 4 European countries. The self-reported working conditions data will be merged with national registers on psychiatric hospital treatment, primarily hospital admissions. Study-specific risk estimates for the association between job strain and depression will be calculated using Cox regressions. The study-specific risk estimates will be pooled using random effects meta-analysis.   Discussion: The planned analyses will help clarify whether job strain is associated with an increased risk of clinically diagnosed unipolar depression. As the analysis is based on pre-planned study protocols and an individual participant data meta-analysis, the pooled risk estimates will not be influenced by selective reporting and publication bias. However, the results of the planned study may only pertain to severe cases of unipolar depression, because of the outcome measure applied.

  18. Study protocol for examining job strain as a risk factor for severe unipolar depression in an individual participant meta-analysis of 14 European cohorts [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/30q

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida E. H. Madsen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that gainfully employed individuals with high work demands and low control at work (denoted “job strain” are at increased risk of common mental disorders, including depression. Most existing studies have, however, measured depression using self-rated symptom scales that do not necessarily correspond to clinically diagnosed depression. In addition, a meta-analysis from 2008 indicated publication bias in the field.   Methods: This study protocol describes the planned design and analyses of an individual participant data meta-analysis, to examine whether job strain is associated with an increased risk of clinically diagnosed unipolar depression based on hospital treatment registers.  The study will be based on data from approximately 120,000 individuals who participated in 14 studies on work environment and health in 4 European countries. The self-reported working conditions data will be merged with national registers on psychiatric hospital treatment, primarily hospital admissions. Study-specific risk estimates for the association between job strain and depression will be calculated using Cox regressions. The study-specific risk estimates will be pooled using random effects meta-analysis.   Discussion: The planned analyses will help clarify whether job strain is associated with an increased risk of clinically diagnosed unipolar depression. As the analysis is based on pre-planned study protocols and an individual participant data meta-analysis, the pooled risk estimates will not be influenced by selective reporting and publication bias. However, the results of the planned study may only pertain to severe cases of unipolar depression, because of the outcome measure applied.

  19. Job Creation and Job Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups vs. established firms by taking into consideration the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define educationspecific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these to construct...... high-skilled jobs. Moreover, start-ups “only” create around half of the surplus jobs, and even less of the high-skilled surplus jobs. Finally, our approach allows us to characterize and identify differences across industries, educational groups and regions....

  20. Job Creation and Job Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups vs. established firms by taking into consideration the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define educationspecific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these to construct...... a measure of “surplus job creation” defined as jobs created on top of any simultaneous destruction of similar jobs in incumbent firms in the same region and industry. Using Danish employer-employee data from 2002-7, which identify the start-ups and which cover almost the entire private sector......, these measures allow us to provide a more nuanced assessment of the role of entrepreneurial firms in the job-creation process than previous studies. Our findings show that while start-ups are responsible for the entire overall net job creation, incumbents account for more than a third of net job creation within...

  1. Job Creation and Job Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups versus established firms by considering the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define education-specific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these measures to construct...... a measure of “surplus job creation”, defined as jobs created on top of any simultaneous destruction of similar jobs in incumbent firms in the same region and industry. Using Danish employer-employee data from 2002–2007 that identify the start-ups and that cover almost the entire private sector......, these measures allow us to provide a more nuanced assessment of the role of entrepreneurial firms in the job-creation process than in previous studies. Our findings show that although start-ups are responsible for the entire overall net job creation, incumbents account for more than one-third of net job creation...

  2. Behaviour and modelling of aluminium alloy AA6060 subjected to a wide range of strain rates and temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilamosa Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermo-mechanical behaviour in tension of an as-cast and homogenized AA6060 alloy was investigated at a wide range of strains (the entire deformation process up to fracture, strain rates (0.01–750 s−1 and temperatures (20–350 ∘C. The tests at strain rates up to 1 s−1 were performed in a universal testing machine, while a split-Hopkinson tension bar (SHTB system was used for strain rates from 350 to 750 s−1. The samples were heated with an induction-based heating system. A typical feature of aluminium alloys at high temperatures is that necking occurs at a rather early stage of the deformation process. In order to determine the true stress-strain curve also after the onset of necking, all tests were instrumented with a digital camera. The experimental tests reveal that the AA6060 material has negligible strain-rate sensitivity (SRS for temperatures lower than 200 ∘C, while both yielding and work hardening exhibit a strong positive SRS at higher temperatures. The coupled strain-rate and temperature sensitivity is challenging to capture with most existing constitutive models. The paper presents an outline of a new semi-physical model that expresses the flow stress in terms of plastic strain, plastic strain rate and temperature. The parameters of the model were determined from the tests, and the stress-strain curves from the tests were compared with the predictions of the model. Good agreement was obtained over the entire strain rate and temperature range.

  3. Maximum principal strain as a criterion for prediction of orthodontic mini-implants failure in subject-specific finite element models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albogha, Mhd Hassan; Kitahara, Toru; Todo, Mitsugu; Hyakutake, Hiroto; Takahashi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the most reliable stress or strain parameters in subject-specific finite element (FE) models to predict success or failure of orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs). Subject-specific FE analysis was applied to 28 OMIs used for anchorage. Each model was developed using two computed tomography data sets, the first taken before OMI placement and the second taken immediately after placement. Of the 28 OMIs, 6 failed during the first 5 months, and 22 were successful. The bone compartment was divided into four zones in the FE models, and peak stress and strain parameters were calculated for each. Logistic regression of the failure (vs success) of OMIs on the stress and strain parameters in the models was conducted to verify the ability of these parameters to predict OMI failure. Failure was significantly dependent on principal strain parameters rather than stress parameters. Peak maximum principal strain in the bone 0.5 to 1 mm from the OMI surface was the best predictor of failure (R(2) = 0.8151). We propose the use of the maximum principal strain as a criterion for predicting OMI failure in FE models.

  4. Job Satisfaction of Spanish University Graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Kucel, Aleksander; Vilalta-Bufí, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of job satisfaction of university graduates in Spain. We base our analysis on Locke"s discrepancy theory [Locke (1969)] and decompose subjective evaluation of job characteristics into surplus and deficit levels. We also study the importance of overeducation and over-skilling on job satisfaction. We use REFLEX data, a survey of university graduates. We conclude that job satisfaction is mostly determined by the subjective evaluation of intrinsic job char...

  5. The long-term mortality impact of combined job strain and family circumstances: A life course analysis of working American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbath, Erika L; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Noelke, Clemens; Berkman, Lisa F

    2015-12-01

    Work stress and family composition have been separately linked with later-life mortality among working women, but it is not known how combinations of these exposures impact mortality, particularly when exposure is assessed cumulatively over the life course. We tested whether, among US women, lifelong work stress and lifelong family circumstances would jointly predict mortality risk. We studied formerly working mothers in the US Health and Retirement Study (HRS) born 1924-1957 (n = 7352). We used sequence analysis to determine five prototypical trajectories of marriage and parenthood in our sample. Using detailed information on occupation and industry of each woman's longest-held job, we assigned each respondent a score for job control and job demands. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates by combined job demands, job control, and family status, then modeled hazard ratios for death based on family constellation, job control tertiles, and their combination. Married women who had children later in life had the lowest mortality risks (93/1000). The highest-risk family clusters were characterized by spells of single motherhood (132/1000). Generally, we observed linear relationships between job control and mortality hazard within each family trajectory. But while mortality risk was high for all long-term single mothers, we did not observe a job control-mortality gradient in this group. The highest-mortality subgroup was previously married women who became single mothers later in life and had low job control (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.38,2.63). Studies of associations between psychosocial work characteristics and health might consider heterogeneity of effects by family circumstances. Worksite interventions simultaneously considering both work and family characteristics may be most effective in reducing health risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using optical full-field measurement based on digital image correlation to measure strain on a tree subjected to mechanical load

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sebera, V.; Praus, L.; Tippner, J.; Kunecký, Jiří; Čepela, J.; Wimmer, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2014), s. 1173-1184 ISSN 0931-1890 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : digital image correlation * tree biomechanics * strain * pulling test * arboriculture * nondestructive Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 1.651, year: 2014

  7. Jobs API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Jobs API returns job openings across the federal government and includes all current openings posted on USAJobs.gov that are open to the public and located in...

  8. Job Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    MANDELÍČKOVÁ, Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with job satisfaction. It is often given to a context with the attitude to work which is very much connected to job satisfaction. Thesis summarises all the pieces of information about job satisfacion, factors that affect it negatively and positively, interconnection of work satisfaction and work motivation, work behaviour and performance of workers, relationship of a man and work and at last general job satisfaction and its individual aspects. In the thesis I shortly pay...

  9. Prediction of dissolution profiles by non-destructive near infrared spectroscopy in tablets subjected to different levels of strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Eduardo; Pawar, Pallavi; Keyvan, Golshid; Wang, Yifan; Velez, Natasha; Callegari, Gerardo; Cuitino, Alberto; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena; Muzzio, Fernando J; Romañach, Rodolfo J

    2016-01-05

    This study describes how the strain on formulation components affects dissolution and how near infrared spectroscopy can be used to predict dissolution. Strain (exposure to shear stress) applied during powder mixing affects the interaction between formulation components. Particles experience shear strain when they move relative to each other in a process affecting the properties of the final product. This stress affects the dissolution of oral solid dosages forms. However, dissolution testing destroys the entire tablet, making it impossible to further evaluate tablet properties when an out of specification result is obtained. Thus, a nondestructive technique such as near infrared spectroscopy is desirable to predict dissolution. The aim of this study was to predict dissolution on tablets with different levels of strain (shear) using near infrared spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis. Shear was induced using a modified Couette cell on the powder mixture and tablets from these mixtures were produced using a tablet press emulator. Tablets produced with different strain levels were measured using near infrared spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained in diffuse reflectance mode and pretreated with baseline correction to maintain the physical and chemical information of the tablets. Dissolution profiles were obtained using USP Apparatus 2 as a reference method. Principal component analysis was used to study the sources of variation in the spectra obtained. Partial least squares 2 was used to predict dissolution on tablets with different levels of strain.

  10. Job Satisfaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    of congruence between the job and the reward that the job provides.1 Job satisfaction can be viewed in the context of two decisions people make about their work in joining and remaining in the organization (decision to feel belonged) and working hard in pursuit of high levels of task performance (decision to perform).1.

  11. Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of a Polymer Matrix Composite with Different Microstructures Subjected to Off-Axis Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the comprehensive influence of three microstructure parameters (fiber cross-section shape, fiber volume fraction, and fiber off-axis orientation and strain rate on the macroscopic property of a polymer matrix composite. During the analysis, AS4 fibers are considered as elastic solids, while the surrounding PEEK resin matrix exhibiting rate sensitivities are described using the modified Ramaswamy-Stouffer viscoplastic state variable model. The micromechanical method based on generalized model of cells has been used to analyze the representative volume element of composites. An acceptable agreement is observed between the model predictions and experimental results found in the literature. The research results show that the stress-strain curves are sensitive to the strain rate and the microstructure parameters play an important role in the behavior of polymer matrix.

  12. Relationship between job stress, occupational position and job satisfaction using a brief job stress questionnaire (BJSQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Tomoyuki; Otsuka, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Subjects with higher occupational position are speculated to have higher ability to handle with stress, and they were less affected by job stress. This study focused on the relationship between job satisfaction and three sub-scales of a brief job stress questionnaire (BJSQ) related to workload. This self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 371 employees of a company, and all the workers sent back their responses. Among the 57 items graded on a 4-point Likert-type scale to measure job stressors, psycho-physical complaints, and support for workers, the authors studied the influence of quantitative and qualitative job overload (six items), job control (three items), and support port (six items). The job satisfaction score estimated on a 4-point Likert-type scale was also used in relation to job stress determined using a 15-item scale from the BJSQ based on demand-control-support model. Occupational positions were classified into directors, managers, and general workers, and the content of job was classified into clerical workers, skilled technicians, and unskilled manual workers. All the scales on job stress presented acceptable alpha coefficients reflecting high internal consistency (job demand: 0.855, job control: 0.644, and support: 0.878, respectively). Principal axis factor analysis was conducted, and three factors were extracted; support, job demand and job control. There was a significant difference in the mean score among four groups divided by the job satisfaction level as evaluated by Dunnett's multiple comparison, and members who were dissatisfied with their job showed a high job demand, limited job control, and poor support. The mean score of support for managers were significantly higher (lower support) than that for general workers. The logistic regression analysis revealed that job control and support contributed significantly to job satisfaction. In addition, unskilled manual workers showed significantly higher job dissatisfaction compared

  13. Feeling successful as an entrepreneur : A job demands — Resources approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, J.; Gorgievski, M.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.; Schalk, R.

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study among 277 Dutch entrepreneurs investigates how entrepreneurs’ job demands relate to their work-related strain and work engagement, as well as their feelings of subjective success. As such it contributes to the literature firstly by focusing on psychological rather than

  14. Predicting job-seeking intensity and job-seeking intention in the sample of unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study Ajzen' theory (1991 of planned behavior was used to predict job - seek intention and behavior among unemployed people (N = 650. In addition to theory of planned behavior variables (job - seek attitude, subjective norm, self - efficacy and controllability of job seek process we used several other psychological (financial pressure, self - mastery, self - esteem and depression and demographic (gender, age, education, marriage and lent of unemployment variables to build a model of predictors for both criterion variables. Financial pressure, intention to seek employment, job seek - self - efficacy, job - seek controllability, marriage and job - seek attitude predicted job - seeking behavior, while attitude toward job - seeking, subjective norm, job - seek self - efficacy and financial pressure predicted job seek - intention. Results are discussed in light of theory of planned behavior, current research of job - seeking behavior and recommendations are made for practice.

  15. Strain and Thermally Induced Magnetic Dynamics and Spin Current in Magnetic Insulators Subject to Transient Optical Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Guang Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the magnetic dynamics and particularly the spin current in an open-circuit ferromagnetic insulator irradiated by two intense, phase-locked laser pulses. The interference of the laser beams generates a transient optical grating and a transient spatiotemporal temperature distribution. Both effects lead to elastic and heat waves at the surface and into the bulk of the sample. The strain induced spin current as well as the thermally induced magnonic spin current are evaluated numerically on the basis of micromagnetic simulations using solutions of the heat equation. We observe that the thermo-elastically induced magnonic spin current propagates on a distance larger than the characteristic size of thermal profile, an effect useful for applications in remote detection of spin caloritronics phenomena. Our findings point out that exploiting strain adds a new twist to heat-assisted magnetic switching and spin-current generation for spintronic applications.

  16. Effects of a fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the immune system in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, F; Nakayama, M; Muto, T; Okumura, K

    2000-12-01

    Nine healthy volunteers drank fermented milk containing 4 x 10(10) live cells of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota daily for 3 weeks, and their NK activity and other immunological functions were measured. NK activity significantly increased (p<0.01) 3 weeks after the start of intake and remained elevated for the next 3 weeks. The effect was particularly prominent in low-NK-individuals.

  17. Experimental and analytical program to determine strains in 737 LAP splice joints subjected to normal fuselage pressurization loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, D.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeong, D.Y. [Department of Transportation, Cambridge, MA (United States). John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center

    1996-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center (FAATC) has initiated several research projects to assess the structural integrity of the aging commercial aircraft fleet. One area of research involves the understanding of a phenomenon known as ``Widespread Fatigue Damage`` or WFD, which refers to a type of multiple element cracking that degrades the damage tolerance capability of an aircraft structure. Research on WFD has been performed both experimentally and analytically including finite element modeling of fuselage lap splice joints by the Volpe Center. Fuselage pressurization tests have also been conducted at the FAA`s Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to obtain strain gage data from select locations on the FAA/AANC 737 Transport Aircraft Test Bed. One-hundred strain channels were used to monitor five different lap splice bays including the fuselage skin and substructure elements. These test results have been used to evaluate the accuracy of the analytical models and to support general aircraft analysis efforts. This paper documents the strain fields measured during the AANC tests and successfully correlates the results with analytical predictions.

  18. Jobs in Business and Office. Job Family Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The booklet describes business and office occupations related to management (including personnel), records planning and control, clerical and secretarial jobs, owning your own business, and the teaching of business subjects. For each occupation, duties are outlined and working conditions discussed. Techniques used to complete the job descriptions…

  19. Effects of the continuous intake of a milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on abdominal symptoms, fecal microbiota, and metabolites in gastrectomized subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Teruaki; Asahara, Takashi; Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Takada, Toshihiko; Chonan, Osamu; Nakamori, Kazuki; Nonaka, Chiaki; Yamaji, Ichiro; Hisamoto, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Masanori; Matsuda, Tomoko; Nomoto, Koji

    2014-05-01

    This article is based on our previously reported results of irregular bowel movement and disturbances of the intestinal microbiota/environment in gastrectomized patients. A placebo-controlled, double-blind comparative study was carried out to evaluate the effects of a fermented milk beverage containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) in such patients. The major evaluated factors of this article were "bowel movement" and "quality of life." The secondary evaluated factors were "fecal microbiota" and "enteric environment." Of the 190 gastrectomized subjects who participated in our previously reported defecation survey, 134 subjects judged as having abnormal defecation gave consent to participate in this study. These subjects continuously ingested the test beverage containing 40 billion LcS or placebo (one bottle per day, 4 weeks). In the LcS-ingested group, among the 118 subjects who completed the tests, the assessments of the subjects were based on their division into groups based on their symptoms with our scoring system for constipation/diarrhea; although there was no significant ingestion effect in total, in the constipation group, LcS reduced the degree of constipation compared with that in the placebo group. In the diarrhea group, LcS ingestion improved diarrhea compared with that in the preingestion state. Fecal Staphylococcus level was decreased. The results suggest the possibility that the continuous consumption of LcS-fermented milk relieves irregular bowel movement in gastrectomized patients.

  20. Job Attitudes of Workers with Two Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickar, Michael J.; Gibby, Robert E.; Jenny, Tim

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the job attitudes of people who hold more than one job. Satisfaction, stress, and organizational (continuance and affective) commitment were assessed for both primary and secondary jobs for 83 full-time workers who held two jobs concurrently. Consistency between job constructs across jobs was negligible, except for…

  1. Literacy Requirements for Customer Service Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Paul; Ross, Reginald G.

    A study identified the reading and mathematics job requirements for three sales and service jobs. Subjects were 296 employees of a marketing division of a large telecommunication company. The readability of 420 passages from job and training materials was assessed by the Flesch Reading Ease index, which generated a value that was transformed to a…

  2. Job hazards and job security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J C

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the link between occupational health hazards and job security. Consistent with the underlying hypothesis that firms utilizing hazardous technologies tend to employ low-skilled workers who can be discharged easily in case of a downturn in business, the analysis indicates that workers in hazardous positions are more likely to face involuntary job loss than are those in safe positions. These workers may be particularly sensitive to political arguments that efforts to reduce exposure to toxins in the workplace and the general environment are responsible for layoffs and plant closures. The paper discusses policy alternatives that could reduce the impact of health regulations on job security.

  3. Does job strain mediate the effect of socioeconomic group on smoking behaviour? The impact of different health policies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Rasmussen, Niels Kr; Ostergren, P O

    2008-01-01

    . The association between SEG, current smoking, quitting, and influence at work, job demand and jobstrain, respectively, was tested by means of logistic regression. RESULTS: The contextual determinants defined by country had a different effect on smoking prevalence among men and women and among age groups. Low......, but in relative terms were higher in Sweden. The mediating effect of psychosocial working conditions was lacking. The determinants of smoking behaviours must be found somewhere else in the social and cultural context.......AIMS: The aim was to compare the impact of socioeconomic groups (SEG) on the risk of being a daily smoker or quitter, and to investigate whether the potentially mediating effect of psychosocial working conditions was similar in the Danish and the Swedish populations. METHODS: The study populations...

  4. An Unfinished Job? The Effect of Subject Choice and Family Formation Processes on Labour Market Outcomes of Young Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquet, Nils; Glorieux, Ignace; Laurijssen, Ilse; Van Dorsselaer, Yolis

    2010-01-01

    Despite their generally higher educational attainment, young women are characterised by lower labour market positions than men in Belgium. Using regression and decomposition analyses on data from the longitudinal SONAR survey on the transition from school to work, we examine to what extent subject choice and processes of family formation can…

  5. Modeling of the stress-strain relationship for specimens made of S355J0 steel subjected to bending block loading with mean load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pawliczek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of calculation for modelling of the stressstrain relationship in the case of block loads with mean load value. A model, based on the stable hysteresis loops, was assumed and modified to use for block loading analysis. For stress history calculation, the proposed model and two other constitutive models were used. Results of fatigue test of specimens made of S355J0 steel subjected to bending block loading with mean load value are presented and used to verify the proposed model. In the tests, the mean load was increased and decreased in subsequent blocks. The changes of strain recorded during the tests shown in the paper indicate a different behavior of the material. Damage accumulation degree for block sequence was used to compare the results of calculations. It was shown, that stress history parameters (stress amplitude and mean stress value in this case are similar for all investigated models

  6. Campylobacter jejuni strain CG8421: a refined model for the study of Campylobacteriosis and evaluation of Campylobacter vaccines in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, David R; Baqar, Shahida; Carmolli, Marya P; Porter, Chad; Pierce, Kristen K; Sadigh, Katrin; Guerry, Patricia; Larsson, Catherine J; Rockabrand, David; Ventone, Cassandra H; Poly, Frederic; Lyon, Caroline E; Dakdouk, Sandra; Fingar, Ann; Gilliland, Theron; Daunais, Patrick; Jones, Erika; Rymarchyk, Stacia; Huston, Christopher; Darsley, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Beth D

    2009-11-15

    A robust human challenge model for Campylobacter jejuni is an important tool for the evaluation of candidate vaccines. The previously established model conveys a potential risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome attributable to lipooligosaccharide ganglioside mimicry. This work establishes a new C. jejuni human challenge model that uses a strain (CG8421) without ganglioside mimicry and that applies Campylobacter-specific cellular immunity screening to achieve high attack rates at lower inoculum doses. Healthy Campylobacter-naive adults participated in an open-label challenge trial. Participants were dosed with C. jejuni CG8421 and followed as inpatients. Pattern of illness, bacterial shedding, and immunologic responses were determined. Following screening, 23 subjects received 1 X 10(6) or 1 X 10(5) colony-forming units of C. jejuni, with attack rates (percentage of patients who became ill) of 100% (1 X 10(6) colony-forming units) or 93% (1 X 10(5) colony-forming units). Every subject shed CG8421; the median time to diarrhea onset was 72.3 h (interquartile range, 53.9-99.9 h). Symptoms included abdominal cramps (74%), nausea (65%), and fever (39%). No major safety concerns occurred, including bacteremia, hypotension, or postinfectious sequelae. Unexpectedly, recrudescent infection occurred in 2 subjects (1 subject without Campylobacter-specific adaptive immune responses and 1 with azithromycin resistance acquired in vivo); both infections cleared after receipt of additional antibiotics. Cumulative Campylobacter-specific immune responses were as follows: serologic response occurred in 87% (immunoglobulin [Ig] A) and 48% (IgG) of subjects, in vitro interferon-gamma production occurred in 91% of subjects, and 96% of subjects had IgA antibody-secreting cells and fecal IgA detected. The C. jejuni CG8421 challenge model provides a safe and effective tool, without the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The model demonstrates high attack rates after lower doses of challenge

  7. Tomorrow's Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today's Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Synopsis of Department of Labor projections for coming decade shows continuing growth in professional, service, clerical, sales employment, slower growth rate for craftsmen, mechanics, managers and proprietors with relatively same demand for semi-skilled, laborers and farmers. By 1980 labor force and job seekers will increase approximately 17…

  8. Job autonomy and job satisfaction: new evidence

    OpenAIRE

    J Taylor; S Bradley; A N Nguyen

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of perceived job autonomy on job satisfaction. We use the fifth sweep of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (1988-2000), which contains personally reported job satisfaction data for a sample of individuals eight years after the end of compulsory education. After controlling for a wide range of personal and job-related variables, perceived job autonomy is found to be a highly significant determinant of five separate domains of job satisfaction (pay, ...

  9. The effect of job organizational factors on job satisfaction in two automotive industries in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Taha, Zahari

    2007-12-01

    A methodology is developed in diagnosing the effect of job organizational factors on job satisfaction in two automotive industries in Malaysia. One hundred and seventy male subjects of age 18-40 years with the mean age of 26.8 and standard deviation (SD) of 5.3 years and the mean work experience of 6.5 years and SD of 4.9 years took part in the study. Five job organizational factors were tested in the study including job rotation, work method, training, problem solving and goal setting. A job organization questionnaire was designed and was based on respondents' perception in relation to job satisfaction. The results showed that job organization factors were significantly related to job satisfaction. Job rotation, work method, training and goal setting showed strong correlation with job satisfaction while problem solving had intermediate correlation in the first automotive industry. On the other hand, most job organization factors showed intermediate correlation with job satisfaction in the second automotive industry except the training factor which had low correlation with job satisfaction. These results highlight that job rotation, work methods, problem solving and goal setting are outstanding factors in the study of job satisfaction for automotive industries.

  10. A hard day's night: a longitudinal study on the relationships among job demands and job control, sleep quality and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Annet H; Kompier, Michiel A J; Taris, Toon W; Geurts, Sabine A E; Beckers, Debby G J; Houtman, Irene L D; Bongers, Paulien M

    2009-09-01

    This prospective four-wave study examined (i) the causal direction of the longitudinal relations among job demands, job control, sleep quality and fatigue; and (ii) the effects of stability and change in demand-control history on the development of sleep quality and fatigue. Based on results of a four-wave complete panel study among 1163 Dutch employees, we found significant effects of job demands and job control on sleep quality and fatigue across a 1-year time lag, supporting the strain hypothesis (Demand-Control model; Karasek and Theorell, Basic Books, New York, 1990). No reversed or reciprocal causal patterns were detected. Furthermore, our results revealed that cumulative exposure to a high-strain work environment (characterized by high job demands and low job control) was associated with elevated levels of sleep-related complaints. Cumulative exposure to a low-strain work environment (i.e. low job demands and high job control) was associated with the highest sleep quality and lowest level of fatigue. Our results revealed further that changes in exposure history were related to changes in reported sleep quality and fatigue across time. As expected, a transition from a non-high-strain towards a high-strain job was associated with a significant increase in sleep-related complaints; conversely, a transition towards a non-high-strain job was not related to an improvement in sleep-related problems.

  11. Physicians' Job Satisfaction.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AmL

    job satisfaction. The job demand resource model was used to characterize working conditions by two categories: job demands and job resources. Job demands refer to organizational, physical, psychological or social characteristics of work environment, demanding one's time and cognitive or physical efforts.(5) Examples of ...

  12. Finite element analysis of AISI 304 steel sheets subjected to dynamic tension: The effects of martensitic transformation and plastic strain development on flow localization

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Martínez, José Antonio; Rittel, D.; Zaera Polo, Ramón Eulalio; Osovski, S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a finite element study of the dynamic necking formation and energy absorption in AISI 304 steel sheets. The analysis emphasizes the effects of strain induced martensitic transformation (SIMT) and plastic strain development on flow localization and sample ductility. The material behavior is described by a constitutive model proposed by the authors which includes the SIMT at high strain rates. The process of martensitic transformation is alternatively switched on and off in t...

  13. Gender differences in job quality and job satisfaction among doctors in rural western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yang; Li, Lingui; Bian, Ying

    2017-12-28

    Few studies about gender differences in job quality and job satisfaction among medical professionals have been carried out in China. So the objectives of this study were to examine whether and to what extent gender differences existed in job quality and job satisfaction of doctors in rural western China. From 2009 to 2011, a total of 1472 doctors from 103 selected county-level health care facilities in rural western China were recruited into the study. Information about the doctors' demographic characteristics, job quality, and job satisfaction was collected through a designed questionnaire. Besides examining gender differences in single dimensions of job quality and job satisfaction, principal component analysis was used to construct a composite job quality index to measure the differences in the comprehensive job quality, and exploratory factor analysis was applied to evaluate the differences in the overall job satisfaction. Chi-square test was used to calculate differences between proportions, and t-test was used to compare differences between means. Among the doctors, there were 705 males and 767 females (ratio 1:1.09). Male doctors had significantly higher monthly salaries, longer working hours, more times of night shifts per month, longer continuous working hours, and longer years of service at current facilities, and marginally significantly higher hourly wage and longer years of service in current professions. However, female doctors showed greater overall job qualities. Significant and marginally significant gender differences were only found in satisfaction with remuneration compared to workload, the chance of promotion and working environment. But female showed greater satisfaction in the overall job satisfaction and the factor including sub-aspects of working environment, remuneration compared to workload, the chance of promotion, utilization of subjective initiative, and sense of achievement. Gender differences in job quality and job satisfaction did

  14. Second Job Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenert, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    Data from the Current Population Survey reveal characteristics of second-job entrepreneurs, occupations in which these workers hold their second jobs, and the occupational and earnings relationships between their second and primary jobs. (Author)

  15. Job Satisfaction and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, F. William

    1981-01-01

    Sources of job satisfaction and job related stress among public school physical educators are examined. Recommended techniques are offered for physical education administrators to reduce their employees' job-related stress and to improve the quality of worklife. (JN)

  16. Overcoming job stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000884.htm Overcoming job stress To use the sharing features on this page, ... stay healthy and feel better. Causes of Job Stress Although the cause of job stress is different ...

  17. Job burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslach, C; Schaufeli, W B; Leiter, M P

    2001-01-01

    Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job, and is defined by the three dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. The past 25 years of research has established the complexity of the construct, and places the individual stress experience within a larger organizational context of people's relation to their work. Recently, the work on burnout has expanded internationally and has led to new conceptual models. The focus on engagement, the positive antithesis of burnout, promises to yield new perspectives on interventions to alleviate burnout. The social focus of burnout, the solid research basis concerning the syndrome, and its specific ties to the work domain make a distinct and valuable contribution to people's health and well-being.

  18. Job Satisfaction among Women in Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrywczynski, James V.; Crowley, John H.

    A study examined job satisfaction among women in advertising. Subjects were 48 female respondents from a mail survey of membership of a Midwest advertising club. Two types of job satisfaction measures were used: items from the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and the action tendency scales developed by E. Locke. The results showed a high level…

  19. A NOVEL FRAMEWORK BASED ON THE IMPROVED JOB DEMANDS-RESOURCES (JD-R) MODEL TO UNDERSTAND THE IMPACT OF JOB CHARACTERISTICS ON JOB BURNOUT FROM THE VIEW OF EMOTION REGULATION THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Naiding; Lu, Jintao; Ye, Jinfu

    2018-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that individual job characteristics have a significant impact on job burnout, and the process is subject to the regulation of demographic variables. However, the influence path of job characteristics on job burnout is still a "black box". Subjects and methods: On the basis of a systematic literature review by employing Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI and Scopus for required information with the several keywords "Job burnout", ...

  20. Effect of acute and chronic job demands on effective individual teamwork behaviour in medical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Josette; van Erven, Pierre; de Jonge, Jan; Maas, Maaike; de Jong, Jos

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to determine the combined effect of acute and chronic job demands on acute job strains experienced during medical emergencies, and its consequences for individual teamwork behaviour. Medical emergency personnel have to cope with high job demands, which may cause considerable work stress (i.e. job strains), particularly when both acute and chronic job demands are experienced to be high. This may interfere with effective individual teamwork behaviour. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in 2008, involving 48 members (doctors and nurses) of medical emergency teams working in the emergency department of a Dutch general hospital. Data were analyzed by means of hierarchical regression analyses. High acute job demands impeded effective teamwork behaviour, but only when they resulted in acute job strain. Acute emotional demands were more likely to result in acute job strain when chronic emotional job demands were also experienced as high. Although acute cognitive and physical strains were also detrimental, effective teamwork behaviour was particularly impeded by acute emotional strain. Acute job strains impair effective individual teamwork behaviour during medical emergencies, and there is urgent need to prevent or reduce a build-up of job strain from high acute and chronic demands, particularly of the emotional kind.

  1. Phylogenetic, virulence and antibiotic resistance characteristics of commensal strain populations of Escherichia coli from community subjects in the Paris area in 2010 and evolution over 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot, Méril; Daubié, Anne-Sophie; Clermont, Olivier; Jauréguy, Françoise; Couffignal, Camille; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Branger, Catherine; Mentré, France; Eddi, Alain; Picard, Bertrand; Denamur, Erick; The Coliville Group

    2016-04-01

    It is important to study commensal populations of Escherichia coli because they appear to be the reservoir of both extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli and antibiotic resistant strains of E. coli. We studied 279 dominant faecal strains of E. coli from 243 adults living in the community in the Paris area in 2010. The phylogenetic group and subgroup [sequence type complex (STc)] of the isolates and the presence of 20 virulence genes were determined by PCR assays. The O-types and resistance to 18 antibiotics were assessed phenotypically. The B2 group was the most frequently recovered (34.0 %), followed by the A group (28.7 %), and other groups were more rare. The most prevalent B2 subgroups were II (STc73), IV (STc141), IX (STc95) and I (STc131), with 22.1, 21.1, 16.8 and 13.7 %, respectively, of the B2 group strains. Virulence factors (VFs) were more common in B2 group than other strains. One or more resistances were found in 125 strains (44.8 % of the collection) but only six (2.2 % of the collection) were multiresistant; no extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing strain was isolated. The C phylogroup and clonal group A strains were the most resistant. No trade-off between virulence and resistance was evidenced. We compared these strains with collections of strains gathered under the same conditions 30 and 10 years ago. There has been a parallel and linked increase in the frequency of B2 group strains (from 9.4 % in 1980, to 22.7 % in 2000 and 34.0 % in 2010) and of VFs. Antibiotic resistance also increased, from 22.6 % of strains resistant to at least one antibiotic in 1980, to 31.8 % in 2000 and 44.8 % in 2010; resistance to streptomycin, however, remained stable. Commensal human E. coli populations have clearly evolved substantially over time, presumably reflecting changes in human practices, and particularly increasing antibiotic use.

  2. Fracto-mechanoluminescent light emission of EuD4TEA-PDMS composites subjected to high strain-rate compressive loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Donghyeon; Castaño, Nicolas; Bhakta, Raj; Kimberley, Jamie

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to understand light emission characteristics of fracto-mechanoluminescent (FML) europium tetrakis(dibenzoylmethide)-triethylammonium (EuD4TEA) crystals under high strain-rate compressive loading. As a sensing material that can play a pivotal role for the self-powered impact sensor technology, it is important to understand transformative light emission characteristics of the FML EuD4TEA crystals under high strain-rate compressive loading. First, EuD4TEA crystals were synthesized and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer to fabricate EuD4TEA-PDMS composite test specimens. Second, the prepared EuD4TEA-PDMS composites were tested using the modified Kolsky bar setup equipped with a high-speed camera. Third, FML light emission was captured to yield 12 bit grayscale video footage, which was processed to quantify the FML light emission. Finally, quantitative parameters were generated by taking into account pixel values and population of pixels of the 12 bit grayscale images to represent FML light intensity. The FML light intensity was correlated with high strain-rate compressive strain and strain rate to understand the FML light emission characteristics under high strain-rate compressive loading that can result from impact occurrences.

  3. On-the-job-training, job search and job mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Zweimüller; Rudolf Winter-Ebmer

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of formal training on worker mobility. Using data from the Swiss Labor Force Survey, we find that both general and specific training significantly affects on-the-job search activities. The effect of training on actual job mobility differs between searchers and non-searchers. In line with human capital theory, we find that specific (general) training has a negative (positive) impact on job mobility for previous non-searchers. For individuals who have been looking...

  4. Organisational Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Turnover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated organisational commitment, job satisfaction and turnover intentions among records management personnel in Ondo State Civil Service, Akure, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to draw 240 subjects from a population size of 275 records management personnel.

  5. Relationship Of Core Job Characteristics To Job Satisfaction And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to clarify the conceptual and empirical distinction between job satisfaction and job involvement constructs, this study investigates the relationship between construction workers core job characteristics, job satisfaction and job involvement. It also investigates the mediating role of job satisfaction between core job ...

  6. EVALUATION OF DISTAL UPPER EXTREMITY (DUE MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS BY STRAIN INDEX (SI IN AN IRONWORK INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Ali Moussavi-Najarkola

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims:Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDS is one of the mostimportant problems in working populations of Iranian industries; so, in order to evaluate theintegrated roles and effects of various ergonomic risk factors inducing such disorders, the StrainIndex (SI methods was used.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 448 male subjects including 63controls working in administrative jobs and 385 cases working in lathing, welding, melting andfoundry jobs using integrated procedure which includes observations, interview, NordicMusculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ methods and SI model. All workers were questioned.Data were analyzed using SPSS software v. 11 and Excel package.Results: The most prevalent MSDs in upper limbs were found in melting lathing, foundry andwelding respectively. There was a significant relationship between age and job groups (c2=7.33;df=16; p<0.001. One-way analysis of variance showed a significant differences among means ofcalculated Strain Indices of administrative (1.06, lathing (6.52, welding (3.68, melting (7.79and foundry (6.33 jobs (F=5.92; df=16; p=0.005. Also it was revealed that melting job wasattributed as "hazardous job" (4 risk level, lathing and foundry jobs were referred to "moderaterisk level" (3 risk level, welding job was allocated as "uncertain risk level" (2 risk level, andadministrative job was attributed as "safe risk level" (1 risk level. Moreover, there was asignificant relationship between DUE and job groups (c2=11.92; df=12; p=0.004.The paired ttestshowed significant difference with direct and relatively complete correlation between meansof Strain Indices in right (6.53 and left (4.29 hands (r=0.69; t=3.15; p<0.001.Conclusion: The Strain Index (SI model can be referred as an efficient and applicable methodfor the assessment of ergonomics risk factors inducing upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders(UEMSDs, classifying jobs, correcting and modifying work situations

  7. Job Satisfaction and Job Performance at the Work Place

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Berghe, Jae Hyung

    2011-01-01

    The topic of the thesis is job satisfaction and job performance at the work place. The aim is to define the determinants for job satisfaction and to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance and the influence of job satisfaction on job performance. First we look into the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour to account for the relationship between attitudes and behaviour. Job satisfaction is then explained as a function of job feature...

  8. The Construction of Job Families Based on Company Specific PAQ Job Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L. R.; Colbert, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    Research is presented on the construction of job families based on Position Analysis Questionnaire data. The data were subjected to a component analysis. Results were interpreted as sufficiently encouraging to proceed with analyses of validity generalization within the job families. (Editor/RK)

  9. Job adjustments, job satisfaction and health experience in upper and lower limb amputees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Corry K.; Hartman, Paul P.; Schoppen, Tanneke; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To explore job adjustments, job satisfaction, and health experience among employees with an upper limb amputation and to compare the results with those of lower limb amputees and control subjects. Methods: Amputees were recruited from data files of a large European University Medical

  10. Assessment of Job Stress among Clinical Health Workers in Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concluded that the concept of stress or job strain is highly relevant to the clinical workforce in health industry and if not properly understood by the management board, its adverse effect on patient outcomes, patient safety, and quality care will be enormous. Keywords: Job stress, Health-care industry, Employees, ...

  11. Conditions for low stress-risk jobs: Europe's case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Wiezer, N.

    2006-01-01

    The European situation of new forms of work organisation and stress risks in jobs are described against the ‘decentralisationhuman factor orientation model’, which discerns types of work organisation. ‘Flexible firms’ based on lean production have the highest probability of high strain jobs,

  12. Angle dependence on the anisotropic magnetoresistance amplitude of a single-contacted Ni nanowire subjected to a thermo-mechanical strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melilli, G.; Madon, B.; Wegrowe, J.-E., E-mail: jean-eric.wegrowe@polytechnique.edu; Clochard, M.-C., E-mail: clochard@cea.fr

    2015-12-15

    The effects of thermoelastic and piezoelectric strain of an active track-etched β-PVDF polymer matrix on an electrodeposited single-contacted Ni nanowire (NW) are investigated at the nanoscale by measuring the change of magnetization (i.e. using the inverse magnetostriction effect). The magnetization state is measured locally by anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). The ferromagnetic NW plays thus the role of a mechanical probe that allows the effects of mechanical strain to be characterized and described qualitatively and quantitatively. The inverse magnetostriction was found to be responsible for a quasi-disappearance of the AMR signal for a variation of the order of ΔT ≈ 10 K. In other terms, the variation of the magnetization due to the stress compensates the effect of external magnetic field applied on the NW resistance. The induced stress field in a single Ni NW was found 1000 time higher than the bulk stress field (due to thermal expansion measured on the PVDF). This amplification could be attributed to three nanoscopic effects: (1) a stress mismatch between the Ni NW and the membrane, (2) a non-negligible role of the surface tension on Ni NW Young modulus, and (3) the possibility of non-linear stress–strain law. We investigate here the role of these different contributions using track-etched polymer membranes irradiated at various angles (α{sub irrad}) leading to, after electrodeposition, embedded Ni NWs of different orientations.

  13. Angle dependence on the anisotropic magnetoresistance amplitude of a single-contacted Ni nanowire subjected to a thermo-mechanical strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melilli, G.; Madon, B.; Wegrowe, J.-E.; Clochard, M.-C.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of thermoelastic and piezoelectric strain of an active track-etched β-PVDF polymer matrix on an electrodeposited single-contacted Ni nanowire (NW) are investigated at the nanoscale by measuring the change of magnetization (i.e. using the inverse magnetostriction effect). The magnetization state is measured locally by anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). The ferromagnetic NW plays thus the role of a mechanical probe that allows the effects of mechanical strain to be characterized and described qualitatively and quantitatively. The inverse magnetostriction was found to be responsible for a quasi-disappearance of the AMR signal for a variation of the order of ΔT ≈ 10 K. In other terms, the variation of the magnetization due to the stress compensates the effect of external magnetic field applied on the NW resistance. The induced stress field in a single Ni NW was found 1000 time higher than the bulk stress field (due to thermal expansion measured on the PVDF). This amplification could be attributed to three nanoscopic effects: (1) a stress mismatch between the Ni NW and the membrane, (2) a non-negligible role of the surface tension on Ni NW Young modulus, and (3) the possibility of non-linear stress-strain law. We investigate here the role of these different contributions using track-etched polymer membranes irradiated at various angles (αirrad) leading to, after electrodeposition, embedded Ni NWs of different orientations.

  14. Angle dependence on the anisotropic magnetoresistance amplitude of a single-contacted Ni nanowire subjected to a thermo-mechanical strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melilli, G.; Madon, B.; Wegrowe, J.-E.; Clochard, M.-C.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of thermoelastic and piezoelectric strain of an active track-etched β-PVDF polymer matrix on an electrodeposited single-contacted Ni nanowire (NW) are investigated at the nanoscale by measuring the change of magnetization (i.e. using the inverse magnetostriction effect). The magnetization state is measured locally by anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). The ferromagnetic NW plays thus the role of a mechanical probe that allows the effects of mechanical strain to be characterized and described qualitatively and quantitatively. The inverse magnetostriction was found to be responsible for a quasi-disappearance of the AMR signal for a variation of the order of ΔT ≈ 10 K. In other terms, the variation of the magnetization due to the stress compensates the effect of external magnetic field applied on the NW resistance. The induced stress field in a single Ni NW was found 1000 time higher than the bulk stress field (due to thermal expansion measured on the PVDF). This amplification could be attributed to three nanoscopic effects: (1) a stress mismatch between the Ni NW and the membrane, (2) a non-negligible role of the surface tension on Ni NW Young modulus, and (3) the possibility of non-linear stress–strain law. We investigate here the role of these different contributions using track-etched polymer membranes irradiated at various angles (α irrad ) leading to, after electrodeposition, embedded Ni NWs of different orientations.

  15. Job Sharing in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Wilma; Kline, Susan

    1979-01-01

    The author presents the advantages of job sharing for all school personnel, saying that education is particularly adaptable to this new form of employment. Current job sharing programs in Massachusetts, California, and New Jersey schools are briefly discussed. (SJL)

  16. Job Search and Social Cognitive Theory: The Role of Career-Relevant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikic, Jelena; Saks, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Social cognitive theory was used to explain the relationships between career-relevant activities (environmental and self career exploration, career resources, and training), self-regulatory variables (job search self-efficacy and job search clarity), variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (job search attitude, subjective norm, job search…

  17. [Relationships among job rotation perception and intention, job satisfaction and job performance: a study of Tainan area nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yueh-Chiu; Huang, Pei-Wen; Lee, Jin-Chuan; Chang, Ching-Lu

    2012-04-01

    There have been major changes to the medical care system and heightened standards for quality in the nursing profession in recent decades. Multifunctional capabilities are closely related to individual working attitudes, and work satisfaction directly affects group performance. Hospital administrators increasingly expect to utilize nursing staffs flexibly in terms of working hours and shift rotation assignments. This study addresses the need to provide appropriate educational training to nurses and effectively delegate and utilize human resources in order to help nurses adapt to the rapidly changing medical environment. This study on nursing staff in Tainan area explored the relationships between job rotation, work performance and satisfaction. We used a questionnaire sampling method to survey nurses working in the Tainan area of southern Taiwan. Subjects were volunteers and a total 228 valid questionnaires (99.13%) were returned out of a total 230 sent. Both job satisfaction and performance correlated positively with job rotation perception and intention; Job satisfaction and job performance were positively related; Job satisfaction was found to affect work performance via job rotation perception and intention. This study found the hospital nursing staff rotation plan to be an effective management method that facilitates social evolution to increase positive perceptions of work rotation. Nursing staffs thus become more accepting of new positions that may enhance job satisfaction.

  18. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  19. Bangladesh Jobs Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    Farole, Thomas; Cho, Yoonyoung

    2017-01-01

    This Jobs Diagnostic presents the characteristics and constraints of the labor market in Bangladesh, identifies the objectives of the jobs agenda, and proposes a policy framework to progress toward them. This multisectoral diagnostic assesses the relationships between supply- and demand-side factors that interact to determine job creation, quality, and inclusion outcomes. Understanding the...

  20. Practical job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Shifting Bottleneck procedure is an intuitive and reasonably good approximation algorithm for the notoriously difficult classical job shop scheduling problem. The principle of decomposing a classical job shop problem into a series of single-machine problems can also easily be applied to job shop

  1. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...

  2. Hubungan antara Efektivitas Kepemimpinan Dengan Job Insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Rizky, Khairani

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of leadership is one of the most important factors in the development and progress of a company, one of the effects that can be caused when a lack of effective leadership within the company then this will cause unsafe conditions for employees in performing their job or also called Job Insecurity. This study aims to determine the relationship between leadership effectiveness with job insecurity on employee PT.X. The subjects used in this study were employees PT.X totaling 50 ...

  3. Steve Jobs And Modern Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-George Toma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available During the time, especially in the last fifty years, leadership has increasingly become a major subject in the management literature, a subject of much thought, writing and teaching. While the importance of leadership is generally accepted all over the world, there are as many definitions of it as there are organizations. In spite of the fact that the business literature on leadership is so voluminous, there is not an agreed-upon definition of the concept of leadership. Leadership is not only intensely studied, but also practiced in different organizations. How to lead effectively an organization depends on many factors such as the organizational culture, the behavior of the followers, and the personal traits of the leader. The vast majority of successful leaders are multi-dimensional individuals. The aims of our paper are to present a short biography of Steve Jobs and to highlight his contribution to modern leadership. Our research is based on a literature review. The S. Jobs example illustrates how a transformational leader as him can be a key factor in successfully turning round the fortunes of a company as Apple. The paper facilitates a better understanding of modern leadership, emphasizing the case of S. Jobs, and provides a platform on which to build further studies on the same subject.

  4. [Exercise electrocardiography in the sanitary surveillance of workers with physical strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafa, F; Calsamiglia, G; Pala, G; Perotti, M R; Colombi, R; Candura, S M

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the opportunity of exercise electrocardiography (ECG) in the sanitary surveillance of workers with physical strain, we estimated the energy consumption of the duties of 22 electrical workers (males; age: 35-56 years). They subsequently underwent Treadmill exercise ECG, determining for each worker the maximal METs (multiples of basal metabolism) and the critical potency (P(CRIT)). In one subject, myocardial ischemia arose 9 minutes after the beginning of the test. The others interrupted the test after 7-13 minutes for tiring; 5 of them showed ventricular extra systoles, paired or isolated. Twelve subjects presented arterial hypertension, at rest and/or during exercise. Ergonomic analysis revealed that the occupational duties were between 1.5 and 8.0 METs. The energy consumption of the job on the whole was 4-6 METs (medium intensity). The maximal METs reached by the examined subjects were between 8.8 and 15.6; however, only 11 workers went reassuringly over the 4 METs required by duty analysis at P(CRIT). One subject was declared unfit for the job, and a judgement of partial idoneity was expressed for 3 workers. Preventive and therapeutic indications were given to 12 subjects. Aerobic training was suggested to 10 workers. The study indicates that an ergonomic evaluation is advisable for the most energy consuming occupational duties. In such cases, the sanitary surveillance should include a cardiologic assessment with exercise ECG, reproducing the physical strain of the specific job.

  5. Estimating job runtime for CMS analysis jobs

    CERN Document Server

    Sfiligoi, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The basic premise of pilot systems is to create an overlay scheduling system on top of leased resources. And by definition, leases have a limited lifetime, so any job that is scheduled on such resources must finish before the lease is over, or it will be killed and all the computation wasted. In order to effectively schedule jobs to resources, the pilot system thus requires the expected runtime of the users jobs. Past studies have shown that relying on user provided estimates is not a valid strategy, so the system should try to make an estimate by itself. This paper provides a study of the historical data obtained from the CMS Analysis Operations submission system. Clear patterns are observed, suggesting that making prediction of an expected job lifetime range is achievable with high confidence level in this environment.

  6. Are healthcare middle management jobs extreme jobs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, David A; Parry, Emma; Gascoigne, Charlotte; Moore, Cíara

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the incidence of "extreme jobs" among middle managers in acute hospitals, and to identify individual and organizational implications. The paper is based on interviews and focus groups with managers at six hospitals, a "proof of concept" pilot with an operations management team, and a survey administered at five hospitals. Six of the original dimensions of extreme jobs, identified in commercial settings, apply to hospital management: long hours, unpredictable work patterns, tight deadlines with fast pace, broad responsibility, "24/7 availability", mentoring and coaching. Six healthcare-specific dimensions were identified: making life or death decisions, conflicting priorities, being required to do more with fewer resources, responding to regulatory bodies, the need to involve many people before introducing improvements, fighting a negative climate. Around 75 per cent of hospital middle managers have extreme jobs. This extreme healthcare management job model was derived inductively from a qualitative study involving a small number of respondents. While the evidence suggests that extreme jobs are common, further research is required to assess the antecedents, incidence, and implications of these working practices. A varied, intense, fast-paced role with responsibility and long hours can be rewarding, for some. However, multi-tasking across complex roles can lead to fatigue, burnout, and mistakes, patient care may be compromised, and family life may be adversely affected. As far as the authors can ascertain, there are no other studies exploring acute sector management roles through an extreme jobs lens.

  7. Motivation and job satisfaction as a key element of successful business management.

    OpenAIRE

    Kazachok, Alina

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is motivation and job satisfaction of employees. The theoretical part deals with basic terms in the field of motivation and job satisfaction, motivation principles, factors that influence motivation and job satisfaction. Also the theoretical part gives consideration to the methods of measuring job satisfaction, manager's role in the sphere of motivation and job satisfaction. The part contains the description of the major motivational theories. The second part is dev...

  8. The health effects of jobs: status, working conditions, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Rennie M; Strazdins, Lyndall; Clements, Mark S; Broom, Dorothy H; Parslow, Ruth; Rodgers, Bryan

    2005-06-01

    This study investigates whether the association of job strain and insecurity with health differs by status. A cross-sectional study of 2,249 employed workers aged 40-44 years conducted in two regions in south-east Australia in 2000 used a self-completed questionnaire to collect data. Multivariate analyses were used to compare depression, anxiety, physical health and general practitioner (GP) visits over 12 months across categories of job strain and insecurity for three status groups (high, middle and low). High job strain and job insecurity were independently associated with poor mental health, poor physical health and visits to the GP for all status groups when adjusted for confounders. High job strain was associated with depression (OR = 2.46, 95% CI 1.96-3.07), anxiety (OR = 2.56, 95% Cl 2.05-3.20), lower mean physical health scores (-1.11, 95% CI -1.98 - -0.23), and more visits to the GP (IRR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.05-1.37). High job insecurity also showed significant associations with depression (OR = 3.03, 95% Cl 2.03-4.53), anxiety (OR = 2.66, 95% CI 1.81-3.91), and GP visits (IRR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.60). There were no significant differences by status in the associations of job strain and insecurity with outcomes. High-status workers were just as likely as low-status workers to be exposed to adverse work conditions and both status groups showed similar health effects. Exposure to insecure and high-strain jobs is likely to rise as economies and labour markets respond to globalisation and political change. High status may not protect employees from either exposure or impact, thus widening the population health consequences of adverse work conditions.

  9. Wedded to the job: moderating effects of job involvement on the consequences of job insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, T M

    2000-01-01

    Two hundred eighty-three public-sector employees experiencing a workplace reorganization completed surveys assessing the relationships between job involvement and job insecurity on self-report measures of psychological, behavioral, and physical outcomes. Using C. L. Hulin's (1991) job adaptation theory, differential predictions were made regarding the specific outcomes of job insecurity for high job involvement versus low job involvement employees. Results indicate that employees who were highly invested in their jobs were most adversely affected by job insecurity. Specifically, they reported more negative job attitudes, more health problems, and a higher level of psychological distress than their less involved counterparts when they perceived their jobs to be threatened.

  10. Do Job Security Guarantees Work?

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson; Lorenzo Cappellari; Claudio Lucifora

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the effect of employer job security guarantees on employee perceptions of job security. Using linked employer-employee data from the 1998 British Workplace Employee Relations Survey, we find job security guarantees reduce employee perceptions of job insecurity. This finding is robust to endogenous selection of job security guarantees by employers engaging in organisational change and workforce reductions. Furthermore, there is no evidence that increased job security through job...

  11. Job security and job satisfaction among Greek fitness instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koustelios, Athanasios; Kouli, Olga; Theodorakis, Nicholas

    2003-08-01

    In analyzing the relation between job satisfaction and job security, a sample of 97 Greek fitness instructors, 18 to 42 years of age, showed statistically significant positive correlations between job security and job satisfaction (pjob security was correlated with pay .54, promotion .43, job itself .41, and the organization as a whole .43.

  12. Job stress and job involvement of professionals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Job stress and job involvement of professionals and paraprofessionals in academic libraries: A case study of University of Ibadan, Nigeria and Obafemi Awolowo ... between job stress and job involvement of library professionals and Para profe ssionals, no significant difference in job involvement of professionals and Para ...

  13. Relationship between cynicism and job satisfaction: exploration of mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abhishek; Adams, John W

    2011-02-01

    Personality traits related to evaluation of other people and the world are important to study in relation to job satisfaction, which itself is an evaluation of various facets of a job, including the social dimensions. Accordingly, the relationship between cynicism and job satisfaction was studied. Cynicism was expected to be negatively related to job satisfaction, employees' perceptions of job enrichment, quality of leader-member exchange, and support from coworkers. Survey data from 105 employees in a diverse set of organizations (M age = 48 yr.; 50% women; M work experience = 28 yr.; 73% had >16 yr. education) were subjected to hierarchical regression. Individuals high in Cynicism were likely to have lower job satisfaction, job enrichment, quality of leader-member exchange, and perceptions of co-worker support.

  14. Molecular typing and virulence analysis of serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from liver abscess patients and stool samples from noninfectious subjects in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, L Kristopher; Fung, Chang-Phone; Chang, Feng-Yee; Lee, Nelson; Yeh, Kuo-Ming; Koh, Tse Hsien; Ip, Margaret

    2011-11-01

    Serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae with multilocus sequence type 23 (ST23) has been strongly associated with liver abscess in Taiwan. Few data regarding the strain types and virulence of this serotype from other Asian countries are available. Serotype K1 K. pneumoniae strains isolated from liver abscess and stool samples from subjects hospitalized in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan hospitals were examined. Forty-seven serotype K1 isolates were identified: 26 from liver abscess samples and 21 from stool samples. MLST revealed 7 sequence types: 85.1% (40 of 47 isolates) belonged to ST23, 1 isolate belonged to ST163 (a single-locus variant of ST23), and 2 isolates were ST249 (a 3-locus variant of ST23). New STs, namely, ST367, ST425, and ST426, were allocated to 3 of 4 isolates from stool samples. The virulence of these strains was determined by neutrophil phagocytosis and mouse infection models. Except for two ST23 isolates, all Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were resistant to phagocytosis. Resistance to serum killing varied in isolates of ST23, while all non-ST23 strains were susceptible to serum killing except one with ST249 from a liver abscess. All hypervirulent isolates with a 50% lethal dose of serum killing, and also carried both virulence-associated genes, rmpA and aerobactin. Multilocus sequence typing genotype 23 was the most prevalent sequence type among serotype K1 K. pneumoniae isolates from both liver abscess and stool samples in the Asia Pacific region. Serotype K1 K. pneumoniae isolates with capsule expression leading to phagocytic resistance and with the aerobactin gene were associated with hypervirulence.

  15. Does Technology Create Jobs?

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, David R.; Krugman, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Two leading economists, MIT's Paul Krugman and the Hoover Institution's David R. Henderson, debate whether jobs lost to technology are met by a net increase in jobs elsewhere in a more productive economy. Krugman, a noted liberal, says maybe in the long run, but for now ordinary workers see their wages falling. Henderson, a conservative, says that the problem is not the elimination of jobs through technology but a workforce with inadequate skills.

  16. Declining job security

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Valletta

    1998-01-01

    Although common belief and recent evidence point to a decline in "job security," the academic literature to date has been noticeably silent regarding the behavioral underpinnings of declining job security. In this paper, I define job security in the context of implicit contracts designed to overcome incentive problems in the employment relationship. Contracts of this nature imply the possibility of inefficient separations in response to adverse shocks, and they generate predictions concerning...

  17. Applying the revised Chinese Job Content Questionnaire to assess psychosocial work conditions among Taiwan's hospital workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Roberto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For hospital accreditation and health promotion reasons, we examined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ could be applied to evaluate job strain of individual hospital employees and to determine the number of factors extracted from JCQ. Additionally, we developed an Excel module of self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation with experts. Methods To develop an Excel-based self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation to experts to make job strain assessment easier and quicker than ever, Rasch rating scale model was used to analyze data from 1,644 hospital employees who enrolled in 2008 for a job strain survey. We determined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ could evaluate job strain of individual employees in work sites. The respective item responding to specific groups' occupational hazards causing job stress was investigated by using skewness coefficient with its 95% CI through item-by-item analyses. Results Each of those 22 items on the questionnaire was examined to have five factors. The prevalence rate of Chinese hospital workers with high job strain was 16.5%. Conclusions Graphical representations of four quadrants, item-by-item bar chart plots and skewness 95% CI comparison generated in Excel can help employers and consultants of an organization focusing on a small number of key areas of concern for each worker in job strain.

  18. Job satisfaction in the European union: the role of macroeconomic, personal, and job-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Job satisfaction is influenced by many factors. Most of them are attributed to personality or company features. Little research has been conducted identifying the relationship of job satisfaction with macroeconomic parameters. We used data collected by European Commission (Eurostat, Eurofound) and World Health Organization (WHO) for personal (eg, subjective health, physical activity), company (eg, career advancement perspectives, negative health effects of work), or macroeconomic parameters (eg, Gross Domestic Product, unemployment rate) on state level. Correlation analysis and a stepwise linear regression model were obtained. Gross domestic product (GDP) was the best predictor for job satisfaction across the European Union member states ahead of good career perspectives, and WHO-5 score (depressive symptoms). Beside personal, job-related, and organizational factors that influence job satisfaction, the macroeconomic perspective has to be considered, too.

  19. A Novel Framework Based on the Improved Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Model to Understand the Impact of Job Characteristics on Job Burnout from the View of Emotion Regulation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Naiding; Lu, Jintao; Ye, Jinfu

    2018-03-01

    It has been suggested that individual job characteristics have a significant impact on job burnout, and the process is subject to the regulation of demographic variables. However, the influence path of job characteristics on job burnout is still a "black box". On the basis of a systematic literature review by employing Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI and Scopus for required information with the several keywords "Job burnout", "Emotion regulation", "Personality traits", and "Psychological stress", in this study, an improved mine rescue workers-oriented job demands-resources (JD-R) model was put forward. Then, a novel analysis framework, to explore the impact of job characteristics on job burnout from the view of emotion regulation theory, was proposed combining the personality trait theory. This study argues that job burnout is influenced by job demands through expressive suppression and by job resources through cognitive reappraisal respectively. Further more, job demands and job resources have the opposite effects on job burnout through the "loss-path" caused by job pressure and the "gain-path" arised from job motivation, respectively. Extrovert personality traits can affect the way the individual processes the information of work environment and then how individual further adopts emotion regulation strategies, finally resulting in indirectly affecting the influence path of mine rescue workers' job characteristics on job burnout. This present study can help managers to realize the importance of employees' psychological stress and job burnout problems. The obtained conclusions provide significant decision-making references for managers in intervening job burnout, managing emotional stress and mental health of employees.

  20. Pengaruh Job Characteristic Terhadap Cyberloafing pada Karyawan Telekomunikasi

    OpenAIRE

    Pane, Efrianty Shaila

    2015-01-01

    Cyberloafing is abehavior of employees that using the internet to do work unrelated to the job during working hours which uses both company‟s facility or personal equipment. The emergence of cyberloafing can influence the productivity and performance of the employees. There are several factors that influence cyberloafing, one of them is the job characteristic. This study aimed to determine the influence of job characteristic toward cyberloafing. The subjects were 82 employees in the Telecommu...

  1. The Relationship between Job Involvement, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, A. Ben

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between job involvement and satisfaction in white collar employees of an industrial organization in Israel was studied. Job involvement was related significantly to job satisfaction; however, the relationship was mediated by organizational factors. (Author/BEF)

  2. Life and Job Satisfaction: Is the Job Central?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Neal; Mellon, Phyllis M.

    1980-01-01

    The nature of the causal relationship between life and job satisfaction in males and females working in a variety of jobs was investigated. Results suggest that the life satisfaction causes job satisfaction hypothesis is more tenable than the reverse. (Author)

  3. Supplementation with two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032, reduces fasting triglycerides and enhances apolipoprotein A-V levels in non-diabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyeon Yeong; Kim, Minjoo; Chae, Jey Sook; Ahn, Young-Tae; Sim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Il-Dong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have indicated that supplementation with probiotics might improve lipid metabolism. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with probiotic strains Lactobacillus curvatus (L. curvatus) HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) KY1032 on triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein A-V (apo A-V) levels. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 128 non-diabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Over a 12-week test period, the probiotic group consumed 2 g/day of a powdered supplement containing L. curvatus HY7601 and L. plantarum KY1032, whereas the placebo group consumed a powder lacking probiotics. After the treatment, the probiotic group showed an 18.3% (P probiotic group had a significant reduction in TGs (P = 0.040) and increases in the plasma apo A-V (P = 0.003) and LDL particle size (P probiotic group, the reduction in the TG levels was negatively correlated with changes in the apo A-V and baseline TGs, regardless of the APOA5 -1131T > C genotype. The consumption of two probiotic strains for 12 weeks reduced TGs and increased the apo A-V and LDL particle size in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. This effect was more pronounced in subjects with higher levels of fasting TGs regardless of their APOA5 -1131T > C genotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on defecation frequency in healthy subjects with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskesen, Dorte; Jespersen, Lillian; Michelsen, Birgit; Whorwell, Peter J; Müller-Lissner, Stefan; Morberg, Cathrine M

    2015-11-28

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on two primary end points - defecation frequency and gastrointestinal (GI) well-being - in healthy adults with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort. A total of 1248 subjects were included in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomised to 1 or 10 billion colony-forming units/d of the probiotic strain BB-12® or a matching placebo capsule once daily for 4 weeks. Subjects completed a diary on bowel habits, relief of abdominal discomfort and symptoms. GI well-being, defined as global relief of abdominal discomfort, did not show significant differences. The OR for having a defecation frequency above baseline for ≥50% of the time was 1·31 (95% CI 0·98, 1·75), P=0·071, for probiotic treatment overall. Tightening the criteria for being a responder to an increase of ≥1 d/week for ≥50 % of the time resulted in an OR of 1·55 (95% CI 1·22, 1·96), P=0·0003, for treatment overall. A treatment effect on average defecation frequency was found (P=0·0065), with the frequency being significantly higher compared with placebo at all weeks for probiotic treatment overall (all Pprobiotic strain BB-12® resulted in a clinically relevant benefit on defecation frequency. The results suggest that consumption of BB-12® improves the GI health of individuals whose symptoms are not sufficiently severe to consult a doctor (ISRCTN18128385).

  5. Job characteristics: their relationship to job satisfaction, stress and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Steyn, Renier; Vawda, Naseema

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influences of job characteristics on job satisfaction, stress and depression among South African white collar workers. Participants were managers in full-time employment with large organisations. They completed the Job Diagnostic Survey, the Perceived Stress Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. A regression approach was used to predict job satisfaction, stress and depression from job characteristics. Job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task signi...

  6. Job Instruction Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Richard H.

    Job Instruction Training (JIT) is a step-by-step, relatively simple technique used to train employees on the job. It is especially suitable for teaching manual skills or procedures; the trainer is usually an employee's supervisor but can be a co-worker. The JIT technique consists of a series of steps that a supervisor or other instructor follows…

  7. Stress Management: Job Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and know when ... effects of stress at work. Effectively coping with job stress can benefit both your professional and personal ...

  8. Branding McJobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noppeney, Claus; Endrissat, Nada; Kärreman, Dan

    Traditionally, employer branding has been considered relevant for knowledge intensive firms that compete in a ‘war for talent’. However, the continuous rise in service sector jobs and the negative image of these so-called McJobs has motivated a trend in rebranding service work. Building on critical...

  9. Anger in young black and white workers: effects of job control, dissatisfaction, and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Sheila T; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Suchday, Sonia; Ewart, Craig K

    2003-08-01

    This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that characteristics of work that contribute to job strain also increase anger in young service-sector workers. A new measure of anger directed at coworkers, supervisors, and customers was regressed on job strain indices (job control, coworker and supervisor support, dissatisfaction) in models that controlled for dispositional negative affect and work status. Results in a sample of 230 young Black and White men and women revealed that low levels of job control and social support, and high levels of job dissatisfaction, were independently associated with increased work-related anger. Moreover, social support moderated the impact of low job control on anger directed at coworkers. Findings indicate that anger experienced at work may be an early marker of job stress, which has been prospectively related to cardiovascular disease.

  10. Job demands-resources model

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Arnold; Demerouti, Eva

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001) and is inspired by job design and job stress theories. JD-R theory explains how job demands and resources have unique and multiplicative e...

  11. Job Security as an Endogenous Job Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    This paper develops a hedonic model of job security (JS). Workers with hetero-geneous JS-preferences pay the hedonic price for JS to employers, who incur labor-hoarding costs from supplying JS. In contrast to the Wage-Bill Argument, equilibrium unemployment is strictly positive, as workers with w...

  12. Job Security as an Endogenous Job Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    This paper develops a hedonic model of job security (JS). Workers with heterogeneous JS-preferences pay the hedonic price for JS to employers, who incur labor-hoarding costs from supplying JS. In contrast to the Wage-Bill Argument, equilibrium unemployment is strictly positive, as workers with we...

  13. Job Security as an Endogenous Job Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a hedonic model of job security (JS). Workers with heterogeneous JSpreferences pay the hedonic price for JS to employers, who incur labor-hoarding costs from supplying JS. In contrast to the Wage-Bill Argument, equilibrium unemployment is strictly positive, as workers with wea...

  14. Jobs: women's double burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Whereas international conventions and national laws provide equal opportunities for women in employment, the reality of women's lives keeps a disproportionate number of women unemployed, underemployed, and living in poverty. The UN itself, which officially is working toward equity among its employees, has a staff composed of just 32.6% women, and women comprise only 10.5% of the top end of the hierarchy. In areas where women's labor force participation has increased dramatically, women typically earn 30-40% less than men doing the same job or else their employment is limited to "traditional female" service positions. The fact that women and girls have received an inadequate education makes it extremely difficult to break the barriers of discrimination in developing countries. The empowerment of women will break the education barrier, and, when that falls, many other barriers will follow suit. Efforts are already underway to break structural barriers caused by economic and social policies. For example, a more flexible pattern of work has been proposed which will include the voluntary assumption of flexible hours, job-sharing, and part-time work. The concept of work is also being broadened to include the important human services that women traditionally provide on a volunteer basis. This will lead to a valuation of women's contribution to society which can be added to calculations of gross domestic product. Women also need protection as they attempt to eke out a living in the informal sector which has been the traditional avenue for women to earn money. This sector is not protected by law and is subject to extortion by officials and by male competitors. A variety of measures is under consideration to increase the protection of informal sector workers. Women also need protection in the conventional work place, especially as they enter fields traditionally reserved for men. These questions are important even in the context of global unemployment because these issues

  15. Job Satisfaction in Public and Private Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Foged, Søren Kjær

    2017-01-01

    is that dissimilar functional areas are studied which makes it difficult to isolate effects of privatization as such. We respond to these challenges by carrying out an empirical analysis of job satisfaction among teachers who teach Danish to immigrants. The teachers work in comparable schools, carry out the same...... task, and are subject to the same performance management system, but some of the schools are public, some are private, and some have been subject to competitive tendering. We demonstrate that competition has a greater impact than ownership upon job satisfaction. We also show that one of the key...... mechanisms which translate competition into reduced job satisfaction relates to changing relations between managers and employees. Advocates and opponents of privatization alike should pay more attention to specific aspects and mechanisms related to privatization, in particular the element of competition....

  16. Job satisfaction across Europe: differences between and within regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mysíková, Martina; Večerník, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2013), s. 539-556 ISSN 1463-1377 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/11/1521 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : job aspects * job satisfaction * ordered probit Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.393, year: 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14631377.2013.844934

  17. A Study of Job Satisfaction of Secondary School Administrators in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper was concerned with studying the job satisfaction of secondary school administrators in Kano state, Nigeria. Survey design was used and a random sampling was used to select the study sample of 421 subjects used for the study. The Job Descriptive Index was used to collect data. Five hypotheses were raised in ...

  18. Perceived job demands relate to self-reported health complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Schreuder, K.J.; Koopmans, P.C.; Groothoff, J.W.

    Background Illness and illness behaviour are important problems in the Dutch workforce. Illness has been associated with job demands, with high demands relating to poorer health. It has not been reported whether subjective health complaints relate to job demands. Aims To investigate whether

  19. [Job satisfaction and its influential factors in oil production workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ya-hui; Meng, Xian-hai; Yu, Shan-fa; Qi, Xiu-ying

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the job satisfaction and its influential factors in oil production workers. 423 oil production workers were investigated using the Occupational Stress Instrument. The job satisfaction, job organization satisfaction, job itself satisfaction in the workers aged or = 30 years old (49.34 +/- 10.12, 24.60 +/- 5.40, 24.74 +/- 5.36 respectively) (P job satisfaction in the groups of different service length was significantly different. The job satisfaction in the workers of service length 5-10 years was the lowest compared with those of service length 10 years (P job satisfaction. The relationship between psychological health, work locus of control, coping strategies, affective balance and social support showed a statistical significance difference (P job satisfaction as strain and personal characters, occupational stress factors, coping as independent variables. Five variables entered regression equation. They were work locus of control, affective balance, social support, psychological health and coping strategies. The job satisfaction of oil production workers is affected by multiple factors such as the age, work length and social support.

  20. Job stress and its related factors in Tehran firefighters in year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdi SM

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Job stress results from a mismatch between job requirements and capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. Physiological, psychological and behavioral outcomes caused by job stress not only hurt the person but also impose expensive costs on organizations. Firefighting is a job that exposes workers to job stress. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of job stress and some related factors in firefighters of Tehran safety services and firefighters organization. This cross sectional study includes 155 male firefighters whom had selected randomly. In this research we used Leiden University Questionnaire. Also Karasek Questionnaire is used for classification of workers according to karasek’s model. Collected data were analyzed by spss9 software. The final grade of firefighter’s job stress shows a significant positive relationship with second job and a significant negative relationship with age. The level of job satisfaction have a significant negative relationship with job insecurity and lack of meaningfulness, and a significant positive relationship with skill discretion, social support supervisor and social support co-workers. According to karasek classification this job is grouped in active not in high strain grup. The highest level of job stress was seen in physical exertion and hazardous exposure factors. Also in work and time pressure factor, job stress level is high. But job stress is in a moderate or low level in other factors. The level of job stress in younger firefighters and in individuals with a second job indicate a significant increase. However, in western country’s studies, this job is classified as high-strain but in this research it is classified as active group.

  1. The God of Job

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Mare

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available God is often portrayed extremely negatively in the Old Testament. For example, in the Book of Nahum God is pictured as being responsible for the most horrifying violence imaginable. This negative portrayal of God is also found in the Book of Job. God is responsible for the suffering that his righteous servant Job, has to endure. He is even manipulated by the satan to allow him free reign in attacking Job. God even acknowledges that the misery and pain inflicted on Job, was for no reason. Job�s children are killed in order for God to prove a point, and in his response to Job�s suffering, he doesn�t even address the issue of Job�s suffering. This is a picture of a very cruel, vicious God. This article investigates the negative, disturbing images of God in the Book of Job. Are these images of God who God really is, or is the God of Job a literary construct of the author? The focus of this study is on the prologue and epilogue to the book, as well as the speeches of God in Job 38�41.

  2. How Changes in Psychosocial Job Characteristics Impact Burnout in Nurses: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, Renato; van der Doef, Margot; Maes, Stan; Meier, Laurenz Linus; Lazzari, David; Violani, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The main aim of this longitudinal study was to test the Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model and to analyze whether changes in psychosocial job characteristics are related to (changes in) burnout. Background: Previous studies on the effects of JDCS variables on burnout dimensions have indicated that the iso-strain hypothesis (i.e., high job demands, low control, and low support additively predict high stress reactions) and the buffer hypotheses (i.e., high job control and/or social support is expected to moderate the negative impact of high demands on stress reactions) have hardly been examined concurrently in a longitudinal design; and that the effects of changes of psychosocial job variables on burnout dimensions have hardly been analyzed. Design: This two wave study was carried out over a period of 14 months in a sample of 217 Italian nurses. Method: Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the cross lagged main and interactive effects of JDCS variables, and to analyse the across-time effects of changes in JDCS dimensions on burnout variables. Results: The Time 1 job characteristics explained 2–8% of the variance in the Time 2 burnout dimensions, but no support for the additive, or the buffer hypothesis of the JDCS model was found. Changes in job characteristics explained an additional 3–20% of variance in the Time 2 burnout dimensions. Specifically, high levels of emotional exhaustion at Time 2 were explained by high levels of social support at Time 1, and unfavorable changes in demands, control, and support over time; high depersonalization at Time 2 was explained by high social support at time 1 and by an increase in demands over time; and high personal accomplishment at Time 2 was predicted by high demands, high control, interactive effect demands × control × social support, at Time 1, and by a decrease in demands over time. No reversed effects of burnout on work characteristics have been found. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that

  3. Nurses' Job satisfaction: an Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansoni, J; De Caro, W; Marucci, A R; Sorrentino, M; Mayner, L; Lancia, L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the work presented was to assess job satisfaction of a number of nurses from different departments working in public hospitals in Italy. The assessment was carried out through the combined use of questionnaires, which measured different aspects of job satisfaction, such as coping abilities, stress level and optimism/pessimism. The literature supports the fact that nurses' job dissatisfaction is closely connected with high levels of stress, burnout and physical and mental exhaustion, together with high workload levels and the complexity of care. The growing interest in measuring the levels of nurses' job satisfaction is attributable to a number of problems that have been raised worldwide, two of which are becoming ever so important: turnover and shortage of nurses. The research question is: Which are the main motivating factors of Italian nurses' job satisfaction/dissatisfaction? The study used a convenience (non probability) sample of 1,304 nurses from 15 different wards working in Italian public hospitals from a number of cities in northern, central and southern Italy. The survey instrument was a questionnaire consisting of 205 items which included 5 different questionnaires combined together. The results show a low level of job satisfaction (IWS= 11.5, JSS=126.4). However, the participants were overall happy about their job and considered autonomy and salary important factors for job satisfaction. Research has shown that the nurses' level of satisfaction in Italian hospitals is low. The results revealed dissatisfaction with task requirements, organizational policies and advance in career. Nurses interviewed did not feel stressed and showed to be optimistic overall. New research on the subject should be conducted by focusing on ward differences, North and South of Italy and on gender differences.

  4. Job Satisfaction and Co-worker Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Andrew E.; Kristensen, Nicolai; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    This paper uses matched employer-employee panel data to show that individual job satisfaction is higher when other workers in the same establishment are better-paid. This runs contrary to a large literature which has found evidence of income comparisons in subjective well-being. We argue...

  5. The Job Training and Job Satisfaction Survey Technical Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Job training has become an important aspect of an employee's overall job experience. However, it is not often called out specifically on instruments measuring job satisfaction. This technical manual details the processes used in the development and validation of a survey instrument to measure job training satisfaction and overall job…

  6. Job anxiety, organizational commitment and job satisfaction: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Job anxiety, organizational commitment and job satisfaction: An empirical assessment of supervisors in the state of Eritrea. ... The findings of the present research revealed that (i) recognition and self-esteem facets of job anxiety were found to be significantly related to job satisfaction, (ii) facets of organizational commitment ...

  7. Reciprocal relationships between job demands, job resources, and recovery opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Rodríguez-Muñoz (Alfredo); A.I. Sanz-Vergel (Ana Isabel); E. Demerouti (Eva); A.B. Bakker (Arnold)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to explore longitudinal relationships between job demands, job resources, and recovery opportunities. On the basis of the Job Demands-Resources model and Conservation of Resources theory we hypothesized that we would find reciprocal relations between job

  8. The Relationship of Job Involvement, Motivation and Job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    North–West geo–political zone of Nigeria should implement work motivational strategies such as good salary package, regular staff training and development, job security and provision of adequate working materials to enhance job involvement of the respondents. KEYWORDS: Job Involvement; Job Satisfaction; Motivation; ...

  9. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The relationship that exists between job stress and job satisfaction has been investigated across several professional groups. Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological morbidity among journalists in a state in the Southern part of Nigeria. Methods: The ...

  10. Job stressors and smoking cessation among Malaysian male employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, S M; Retneswari, M; Moy, F-M; Darus, A; Koh, D

    2012-04-01

    Job stressors may reduce the likelihood of quitting smoking. To assess the association between job strain, smoking behaviour and smoking cessation among Malaysian male employees involved in a smoking cessation programme. The study was conducted among employees in two major public universities in Malaysia. All staff from both universities received an invitation to participate in this study. At the start of treatment, participants completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic variables, smoking habits and the Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The JCQ consists of scales of job control, job demand, supervisor support, co-worker support, job insecurity, job decision latitude and job skill discretion. Behaviour therapy with free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was given as treatment for two months. Participants were contacted at 1 week, 3 months and 6 months to determine their smoking status. One hundred and eighty five staff from both universities responded and voluntarily showed interest in quitting. At three months (OR = 8.96; 95% CI: 1.14-70.76) and six months (OR = 8.9; 95% CI: 1.15-68.65), men with higher co-workers' support demonstrated a higher likelihood of quitting. Smokers in a 'passive job' also demonstrated higher likelihood of quitting compared with those working in the 'low strain' category at six months (OR = 9.92; 95% CI: 1.20-82.68). No meaningful associations were found between other psychosocial job variables and smoking cessation. A positive relationship with and support from co-workers are important factors for workplace smoking cessation.

  11. Job stressors and job stress among teachers engaged in nursing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Shigeki; Muto, Takashi; Seo, Akihiko; Yoshida, Tsutomu; Taoda, Kazushi; Watanabe, Misuzu

    2007-01-01

    Teachers and staff members engaged in nursing activity experience more stress than other workers. However, it is unknown whether teachers engaged in nursing activity in schools for handicapped children experience even greater stress. This study evaluated job stressors and job stress among such teachers using a cross-sectional study design. The subjects were all 1,461 teachers from all 19 prefectural schools for handicapped children in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. We used a brief job stress questionnaire for the survey and 831 teachers completed the questionnaire. Job stressors among teachers engaged in nursing activity were compared with those among teachers not engaged in nursing activity. Job stress among such teachers was estimated by the score for total health risk, and was compared with the score in the Japanese general population. Male and female teachers engaged in nursing activity had a significantly higher level of job stressors for physical work load and job control compared with those not engaged in nursing activity. The scores for total health risk among male and female teachers engaged in nursing activity were 102 points and 98 points, respectively. These scores were not markedly above 100 points which is the mean score in the Japanese general population.

  12. Decommissioning and jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    One aspect of the decommissioning web is its effect on socioeconomics, particularly jobs. What will reactor retirement mean to jobs, especially in rural communities where power plant operations may be the most reliable and dominant source of direct and indirect employment in the area? The problems which any plant closure produces for job security are generally understood, but the decommissioning of nuclear power plants is different because of the residual radioactivity and because of the greater isolation of the power plant sites. For example, what will be the specific employment effects of several possible decommissioning scenarios such as immediate dismantlement and delayed dismantlement? The varying effects of decommissioning on jobs is discussed. It is concluded that the decommissioning of nuclear power plants in some areas such as Wales could bring benefits to the surrounding communities. (author)

  13. Learning about Job Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Jäger, Simon

    We conduct a large-scale field experiment in the German labor market to investigate how information provision affects job seekers’ employment prospects and labor market outcomes. Individuals assigned to the treatment group of our experiment received a brochure that informed them about job search...... strategies and the consequences of unemployment, and motivated them to actively look for new employment. We study the causal impact of the brochure by comparing labor market outcomes of treated and untreated job seekers in administrative data containing comprehensive information on individuals’ employment...... status and earnings. While our treatment yields overall positive effects, these tend to be concentrated among job seekers who are at risk of being unemployed for an extended period of time. Specifically, the treatment effects in our overall sample are moderately positive but mostly insignificant...

  14. Management job ads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2014-01-01

    The article asks whether it is not the responsibility of corporations to address the issue of women being underrepresented in Danish management jobs. In other words, it is argued that corporations should be encouraged to engage more actively in the recruitment of both men and women for management...... jobs by discursively constructing job ads that appeal to both sexes. This argument is part of the broader field of corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship, and stakeholder management, which involves discussions of the obligations of corporations to acknowledge and mitigate...... the increasingly widespread impact that their activities have on communities and social structures. The article emphasises the need for more active engagement on the part of corporations by analysing the discursive construction of preferred candidates in a small sample of Danish management job ads. By means...

  15. Rural nurse job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, D L; Monserud, M A

    2008-01-01

    The lack of rural nursing studies makes it impossible to know whether rural and urban nurses perceive personal and organizational factors of job satisfaction similarly. Few reports of rural nurse job satisfaction are available. Since the unprecedented shortage of qualified rural nurses requires a greater understanding of what factors are important to retention, studies are needed. An analysis of the literature indicates job satisfaction is studied as both an independent and dependent variable. In this study, the concept is used to examine the intention to remain employed by measuring individual and organizational characteristics; thus, job satisfaction is used as a dependent variable. One hundred and three rural hospital nurses, from hospitals throughout the Northwest region of the United States were recruited for the study. Only nurses employed for more than one year were accepted. The sample completed surveys online. The McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale, the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale, and two open-ended job satisfaction questions were completed. The qualitative analysis of the open-ended questions identified themes which were then used to support the quantitative findings. Overall alphas were 0.89 for the McCloskey/Mueller Scale and 0.96 for the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale. Rural nurses indicate a preference for rural lifestyles and the incorporation of rural values in organizational practices. Nurses preferred the generalist role with its job variability, and patient variety. Most participants intended to remain employed. The majority of nurses planning to leave employment were unmarried, without children at home, and stated no preference for a rural lifestyle. The least overall satisfied nurses in the sample were employed from 1 to 3 years. Several new findings inform the literature while others support previous workforce studies. Data suggest some job satisfaction elements can be altered by addressing organizational characteristics and by

  16. Jobs and welfare in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam; Tarp, Finn

    , this study focuses on labour market trends. We ask: (a) what has happened to jobs in Mozambique over the past 15 years; (b) what has been the link between jobs and development outcomes; and (c) where should policymakers focus to create more good jobs? We conclude that jobs policy must seek to raise...

  17. Job satisfaction of older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Using data for The Netherlands, this paper analyzes the relation between allocation, wages and job satisfaction. Five conclusions emerge from the empirical analysis: satisfaction with the job content is the main factor explaining overall job satisfaction; the effects of individual and job

  18. Informal eldercare and work-related strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trukeschitz, Birgit; Schneider, Ulrike; Mühlmann, Richard; Ponocny, Ivo

    2013-03-01

    In light of an aging workforce, reconciling informal eldercare and paid work becomes increasingly pertinent. This article investigates the association between informal eldercare and work-related strain and tests for both the "competing demands" and "expansion" hypotheses. The sample of 938 Austrian employees consisted of employees caring for older relatives and a control group of employees without eldercare obligations. We ran a Tobit regression model on work-related strain with different measures of informal eldercare as explanatory variables and controls for both personal and workplace characteristics. Accounting for different characteristics of eldercare within one estimation model revealed that informal eldercare was associated with work-related strain in 2 ways, that is, it increased with both care hours and subjective care burden. However, after controlling for these burdensome attributes of eldercare, the carer status as such was found to be negatively associated with work-related strain. In addition and independently of care commitments, work-related factors, such as advanced skills and job motivation, reduced work-related strain. This article lends support to both the "competing demands" and the "expansion" hypotheses. Commitment to eldercare can enhance work-related outcomes but entails work-related problems if care burden and time demands of eldercare are substantial. Thus, workers with eldercare responsibilities cannot be considered less productive from the outset. An individual assessment of their situation, considering the care and work setting, is required. Findings from this study support the design of workplace initiatives to uphold workers' productivity in general and bring specific attention to policies alleviating workers' eldercare burden.

  19. Exploring Supervisor-Related Job Resources as Mediators between Supervisor Conflict and Job Attitudes in Hospital Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Gerhardt, Christin; Grebner, Simone; Müller, Urs

    2017-03-01

    Conservation of resources theory assumes loss of resources as a cause of job strain. In hospital work, conflicts with supervisors are tested to predict lower resources, that is, supervisory social support, participation possibilities, and appreciation. All three resources are expected to predict, in turn, experienced stress (job strain) and lower job satisfaction, lower affective commitment, and a higher resigned attitude towards the job (job attitudes). The sample included 1,073 employees from 14 Swiss hospitals ( n  = 604 nurses, n  = 81 physicians, n  = 135 medical therapists, and n  = 253 technical and administrative staff). Of the total sample, 83.1% were female and 38.9% worked full-time. The median tenure was between 7 years and 10 years. Constructs were assessed by online questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation. Structural equation modeling confirmed the negative association of conflict with supervisors and job resources. Tests of indirect paths to resources as a link between conflicts with supervisors and job attitudes were significant. For nurses, social support, participation and appreciation showed a significant indirect path, while among medical technicians the indirect paths included social support and appreciation, and among physicians only appreciation showed a significant indirect path. In medical therapists no indirect path was significant. Job resources did not mediate the link between conflict with supervisors and stress in any occupational group. Conflicts with supervisors are likely to reduce job resources and in turn to lower job attitudes. Work design in hospitals should, therefore, address interpersonal working conditions and conflict management in leadership development.

  20. Job crafting: Towards a new model of individual job redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tims

    2010-12-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to fit job crafting in job design theory. Motivation for the study: The study was an attempt to shed more light on the types of proactive behaviours of individual employees at work. Moreover, we explored the concept of job crafting and its antecedents and consequences. Research design, approach and method: A literature study was conducted in which the focus was first on proactive behaviour of the employee and then on job crafting. Main findings: Job crafting can be seen as a specific form of proactive behaviour in which the employee initiates changes in the level of job demands and job resources. Job crafting may be facilitated by job and individual characteristics and may enable employees to fit their jobs to their personal knowledge, skills and abilities on the one hand and to their preferences and needs on the other hand. Practical/managerial implications: Job crafting may be a good way for employees to improve their work motivation and other positive work outcomes. Employees could be encouraged to exert more influence on their job characteristics. Contribution/value-add: This article describes a relatively new perspective on active job redesign by the individual, called job crafting, which has important implications for job design theories.

  1. The Impact of Job Characteristics on Burnout Among Chinese Correctional Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaohong; Sun, Ivan Y; Jiang, Shanhe; Wang, Yongchun; Wen, Shufang

    2018-02-01

    Job burnout has long been recognized as a common occupational hazard among correctional workers. Although past studies have investigated the effects of job-related characteristics on correctional staff burnout in Western societies, this line of research has largely been absent from the literature on community corrections in China. Using data collected from 225 community correction workers in a Chinese province, this study assessed the effects of positive and negative job characteristics on occupational burnout. Positive job characteristics included job autonomy, procedural justice, and role clarity. Negative characteristics included role conflict, job stress, and job dangerousness. As expected, role clarity tended to reduce burnout, whereas role conflict, job stress, and job dangerousness were likely to produce greater burnout among Chinese community correction workers. Male correctional officers were also subjected to a higher level of burnout than their female coworkers. Implications for future research and policy were discussed.

  2. Job Satisfaction of Nursing Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Petrosova, Liana; Pokhilenko, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to research levels of job satisfaction, factors affecting job satisfaction/dissatisfaction, and ways to improve job satisfaction among nursing managers. The purposes of the study were to extend knowledge in the field of healthcare management, to raise awareness about factors that affect job satisfaction in nursing management career, and to provide suggestions regarding how to increase job satisfaction among nursing managers. The method of this study is literature r...

  3. How Can Managers Promote Salespeople's Person-Job Fit? The Effects of Cooperative Learning and Perceived Organizational Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Lu-Ming; Yu, Tsu-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the impact of salespeople's subjective person-job fit on the salespeople's intention to quit. Moreover, this study further investigates how the subjective person -job fit could be influenced by the cooperative learning and support in the organization. Person-job fit is an important issue for salespeople's career…

  4. The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tims, M.; Bakker, A.B.; Derks, D.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether employees can impact their own well-being by crafting their job demands and resources. Based on the Job Demands-Resources model, we hypothesized that employee job crafting would have an impact on work engagement, job satisfaction, and burnout through changes

  5. Prevalence of R5 strains in multi-treated HIV subjects and impact of new regimens including maraviroc in a selected group of patients with CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, Isabella; Clò, Alberto; Borderi, Marco; Colangeli, Vincenzo; Calza, Leonardo; Morini, Silvia; Miserocchi, Anna; Cricca, Monica; Gibellini, Davide; Re, Maria Carla

    2013-10-01

    Maraviroc currently represents an important antiretroviral drug for multi-experienced and viremic HIV patients. This study focused on two main points: (1) determining the prevalence of R5 and X4 HIV strains in antiretroviral-experienced patients using two main tests currently in use to determine viral tropism, and (2) the follow-up to 3 years of a limited number of patients who started a new antiretroviral protocol including maraviroc. A group of 56 HIV patients, previously multi-treated, were first analyzed by genotyping assay and Trofile™ to establish their eligibility for maraviroc treatment. In addition, 25 subjects selected to follow a new therapeutic protocol including a CCR5 antagonist were monitored by HIV RNA viral load and CD4+ cell count. The determination of viral tropism showed a large percentage of patients with an R5 profile (72% by genotyping assay and 74% by Trofile). The follow-up of most (21 out 25) patients who started the new antiretroviral protocol showed an undetectable viral load throughout the observation period, accompanied by a major improvement in CD4 cell count (cells/mm(3)) (baseline: median CD4 cell count 365, interquartile range (IQR) 204-511; 12 months: median value 501, IQR 349-677, p=0.042; 24 months: median value 503, IQR 386-678, p=0.026; 36 months: median value 601, IQR 517-717, p=0.001). Among the four non-responder subjects, two showed a lack of drug compliance and two switched from R5 to X4. Although our patient cohort was small, the results showed a high prevalence of R5 viral strains in multi-experienced patients. As well as showing the advantages of genotyping, which can be performed in plasma samples with low viral load replication, the follow-up of HIV patients selected for an alternative drug protocol, including a CCR5 antagonist, showed a persistent undetectable viral replication and a good recovery of CD4 cell count in most treated HIV patients. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases

  6. Influence of type D personality on job stress and job satisfaction in clinical nurses: the mediating effects of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Hee; Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Yeo Ok; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Hye Young

    2017-04-01

    To test a hypothetical path model evaluating the influence of type D personality on job stress and job satisfaction and to identify the mediating effects of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among clinical nurses in South Korea. Personalities susceptible to stress, compassion fatigue, and burnout in clinical nurses have negative effects on the job stress and job satisfaction. A correlational, cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 875 clinical nurses was recruited between December 2014 - February 2015. The structured questionnaires included the Type D personality scale-14, Professional Quality of Life, job stress, job satisfaction, and general characteristics. To test the hypothetical path model, we performed a path analysis by using the AMOS 18·0 program. Based on the path model, type D personality was significantly associated with compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in our study subjects. Type D personality was significantly associated with job stress and job satisfaction via the effect of burnout, compassion satisfaction, and job stress. Since type D personality is associated with job stress and job satisfaction, identifying personalities vulnerable to stress would help to address job stress and to enhance job satisfaction when nurses have a high level of compassion fatigue and burnout and a low level of compassion satisfaction. The development of interventions that can reduce negative affect and social inhibition of nurses with type D personality and investigation of methods to decrease their compassion fatigue and burnout and to increase compassion satisfaction should be encouraged. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Job Hunting, Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Ed; Stringer, Susan

    1998-05-01

    The AAS is again sponsoring a career workshop for Astronomers seeking employment. The workshop will cover a wide range of tools needed by a job seeker with a background in astronomy. There are increasingly fewer job opportunities in the academic areas. Today, astronomers need placement skills and career information to compete strongly in a more diversified jobs arena. The workshop will offer practical training on preparing to enter the job market. Topics covered include resume and letter writing as well as how to prepare for an interview. Advice is given on resources for jobs in astronomy, statistics of employment and education, and networking strategies. Workshop training also deals with a diverse range of career paths for astronomers. The workshop will consist of an two approximately three-hour sessions. The first (1-4pm) will be on the placement tools and job-search skills described above. The second session will be for those who would like to stay and receive personalized information on individual resumes, job search problems, and interview questions and practice. The individual appointments with Ed Goldin and Susan Stringer that will take place during the second session (6-9pm) will be arranged on-site during the first session. A career development and job preparation manual "Preparing Physicists for Work" will be on sale at the workshop for \\9.00. TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION: How to prepare an effective resume How to research prospective employers Interviewing skills Networking to uncover employment Job prospects present and future Traditional and non-traditional positions for astronomers This workshop will be presented by Ed Goldin and Susan Stringer of the American Institute of Physics. The cost of the workshop is \\15.00 which includes a packet of resource materials supporting the workshop presentation. Please send your request for attendance by 8 May 1998 to the Executive Office along with a check, payable to the AAS, for the fee. Credit cards will not be

  8. Job insecurity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, P

    2000-01-01

    As employers respond to new competitive pressures of global capitalism through layoffs and the casualization of labor, job insecurity affects a growing number of workers. It appears to harm mental health, but less is known about its effects on physical health and health behaviors and the mechanisms through which it may act. The prevailing individual-centered conceptualization of job insecurity as the perception of a threat to job continuity precludes systematic investigation of the social patterning of its health effects. Analysis of data from a 1994 Canadian national probability sample of adults determined that high levels of job insecurity lowered self-rated health and increased distress and the use of medications, but had no impact on heavy drinking. The findings support one possible mechanism of action whereby job insecurity reduces feelings of control over one's environment and opportunities for positive self-evaluation; these psychological experiences, in turn, have deleterious health consequences. There is little evidence of social patterning of this relationship by gender, education, household income, age, marital status, and social support at work.

  9. Can a cognitive-behavioral group-therapy training program for the treatment of child sexual abuse reduce levels of burnout and job-strain in trainees? initial evidence of a brazilian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Figueiredo Damásio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the extent to which a professional training program of an evidence-based intervention for the treatment of child and adolescent victims of sexual abuse could reduce strain and burnout levels in trainees. Participants were 30 psychologists, 19 of whom composed the experimental group (G1 and 11 the comparison group (G2. Data collection occurred before and after the training. The results showed that the ‘work demand’ increased for G1 and remained stable for G2, whereas the ‘control at work’ remained stable for G1 while decreasing for G2. Regarding burnout levels, there was a decrease in depersonalization and stabilization in the levels of emotional exhaustion and reduced professional efficacy for G1, whereas for G2, all the burnout indicators significantly increased. These results partially support the perspective that the training program would have an indirect protective effect on the occupational psychopathology levels of the trainees.

  10. Job Satisfaction and Affecting Factors in Primary Health Care Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferit Kaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the job sat­isfaction of the primary health care providers and the fac­tors affecting it. Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out among the staff in The Public Health Care Centers (PHCC by performing a questionnaire under di­rect observation. Results: Out of 310 people consisting of the study uni­verse, 282 participants (94% were reached. The par­ticipants were 104 doctors, 132 assistant health care providers and 46 others (janitors, drivers The mean age of the participants was 37.21±7.70; 60.6% of them were women, 80.1% married, 96.5% graduated from at least High school. The mean of the general job satisfac­tion point of the participants in the study is 63.24±13.63. While the mean of the general job satisfaction point of the physicians and the nurses is found higher, the mean of the general job satisfaction point of janitors and other staff was found lower. The mean of the general job sat­isfaction point was found higher among the permanent and contract employee, women, health care staff, those whose wife/husband works, who chose his job willingly, more educated; who has longer working hours, high in­come, has 3 or less children and finds his job suitable for his skills; however the marital status, having children and age do not affect the mean job satisfaction point. Conclusion: Subjects having high income, found his job suitable for his skills, chose his job willingly had higher job satisfaction scores. This implies that there should be a wage balance among the staff with the same status. The lower job satisfaction score in PHCC indicates the neces­sity of improving the conditions of these centers.

  11. Talking about the job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte; Strunck, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Talking about the job: The influence of management on leadership discourses Over the past decades, much research has been carried out to detail and analyse the uneven distribution of men and women in management positions (Acker 1990; Billing and Alvesson 2000; Österlind and Haake 2010). In Denmark......, this has been visible in banks and building societies where men would occupy the vast majority of senior positions, and women would be predominant in lower-ranking jobs, making it extremely difficult to climb the career ladder (Ellehave and Søndergaard 2006; Holmgreen 2009; Strunck 2013). One...... of the organisation, embedded social structures of inequality may pose a significant threat to the realisation of this goal. References Acker, J. 1990. Hierarchies, jobs, bodies: A theory of gendered organizations. Gender and Society 4(2): 139-58. Benschop, Y. and Dooreward, H. 1998. Covered by equality: The gender...

  12. [Relationship of job stress with job burnout and quality of work life in workers for offshore oil platforms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Liu, X L; Wei, T D; Lan, Y J

    2017-03-20

    Objective: To evaluate the current status of job burnout and qual ity of work life (QWL) in workers for offshore oil platforms, and to analyze the relationship of job stress with job burnout and QWL and the direct and indirect effects of job stress on QWL. Methods: Cluster random sampling was used to select 382 work-ers for 8 oil platforms of China National Offshore Oil Corporation in October 2015. A self - designed questionnaire was used to collect the individual characteristics of subjects. The Quality of Work Life Scale (QWL7 - 32) , Occupa-tional Stress Inventory - Revised Edition (OSI - R) , and Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey (MBI - GS) were used to investigate the QWL, job stress, and job burnout of subjects. Results: Among all the workers for offshore oil platforms, 87.2% had mild job burnout. The total QWL score was 116.01 ± 16.73; 8.3% of the workers had poor QWL, and 68.5% had moderate QWL. QWL was reduced with heavier task, vaguer task, and increasing mental stress and physical stress ( P <0.05) , and increased with more social support ( P <0.05) . Job stress had di-rect and indirect effects on QWL; stress reaction had the most effect on QWL (total effect size - 0.509) , followed by social support (total effect size 0.444) . Conclusion: Most workers for offshore oil platforms have mild job burn-out and moderate QWL. Job stress is associated with job burnout and QWL, and stress reaction and social support have relatively high influence on QWL.

  13. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The article consists of a literary reading of three Old Testament wisdom books, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Book of Job. The reading strategies employed are analysis of imagery and intertextual reading. The articles concludes in a presenatation of images of God in wisdom literature.......The article consists of a literary reading of three Old Testament wisdom books, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Book of Job. The reading strategies employed are analysis of imagery and intertextual reading. The articles concludes in a presenatation of images of God in wisdom literature....

  14. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    This paper matches a comprehensive Danish employer-employee data set with individual crime information (timing of offenses, charges, convictions, and prison terms by crime type) to estimate the impact of job displacement on an individual’s propensity to commit crime. We focus on displaced...... no significantly increasing trend prior to displacement; and the crime rate of workers who will be displaced is not significantly higher than the crime rate of workers who will not be displaced. In contrast, displaced workers’ probability to commit any crime increases by 0.52 percentage points in the year of job...

  15. Branding McJobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noppeney, Claus; Endrissat, Nada; Kärreman, Dan

    Traditionally, employer branding has been considered relevant for knowledge intensive firms that compete in a ‘war for talent’. However, the continuous rise in service sector jobs and the negative image of these so-called McJobs has motivated a trend in rebranding service work. Building on critical...... oriented branding literature, our contribution to this stream of research is twofold: We provide an empirical account of employer branding of a grocery chain, which has repeatedly been voted among the ‘100 best companies to work for’. Second, we outline the role of symbolic compensation that employees...... of employer branding....

  16. Job satisfaction and intention to quit the job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Bonde, J P; Olesen, K

    2013-01-01

    Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job.......Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job....

  17. Associations between Distal Upper Extremity Job Physical Factors and Psychosocial Measures in a Pooled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew S. Thiese; Kurt T. Hegmann; Jay Kapellusch; Andrew Merryweather; Stephen Bao; Barbara Silverstein; Arun Garg

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. There is an increasing body of literature relating musculoskeletal diseases to both job physical exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between job physical exposure measures and psychosocial factors have not been well examined or quantified. These exploratory analyses evaluate relationships between quantified exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Methods. Individualized quantification of duration, repetition, and force and composite scores of the Strain Index (SI) an...

  18. The relationship between job stress and body mass index using longitudinal data from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Sharaf, Mesbah F

    2012-10-01

    This paper examines the effect of job stress, as measured by the job strain model (high job demands and low job control) on an individual's body mass index (BMI) using data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey. We use panel data estimation methods to account for unobserved individual-level heterogeneity to better examine the relationship between job-related stress and BMI. Results from the fixed effects and random effects models show no statistically significant difference in BMI levels between individuals in jobs with high/medium strain compared to jobs with low strain. However, in the cross-sectional OLS model, job stress has a positive and significant effect on BMI. These analyses control for socio-demographic factors, lifestyle behavior, workplace social support, occupational and provincial fixed effects. The results suggest that the mixed findings in the previous studies may in part be due to unobserved characteristics that cannot be controlled for using standard cross-sectional analysis. This study results suggest the need for further longitudinal evidence in order to have a better understanding of the relationship between job stress and body weight.

  19. Learning Climate and Job Performance among Health Workers. A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortini, Michela; Pivetti, Monica; Cervai, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This paper will explore if and how psychological strain plays a mediator role between the learning climate and job performance in a group of health workers. Although the relationship between learning climate and job performance has already been explored in the international literature, the role of psychological strain, which may hamper or deepen this relationship, has yet to be investigated. The research hypothesis is that psychological strain mediates the relationship between the climate toward learning (including also the error avoidance climate) and job performance. Data were gathered in a Public hospital in Italy. Participants (N = 61) were health professionals (nurses and obstetricians). Considering the relatively small sample size, a mediation analysis with the aid of the SPSS macro PROCESS was performed. The results show that the relationship between the learning climate (specifically its dimension of organizational appreciation toward learning) and job performance is mediated by psychological strain. The future research agenda and practical implications are discussed in the paper. PMID:27826274

  20. Are Generation Y Nurses Satisfied on the Job? Understanding Their Lived Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo-Witzel, Sonia; Orshan, Susan A; Heitner, Keri L; Bachand, Jeanie

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of job satisfaction among Generation Y nurses in the workplace. Job satisfaction in nursing is at an all-time low. With an increasing shortage of nurses, there is a need for more awareness and understanding of job satisfaction and intent to stay among Generation Y nurses who are the future generation of nurses. Descriptive phenomenology-guided, in-depth semistructured interviews were conducted to explore the lived experiences of job satisfaction among 10 Generation Y nurses. Four main themes and 6 subthemes that emerged brought meaning to the nurses' experiences. The 4 main themes were experiences of feeling good, relationships, job strain, and having choices. Findings indicated Generation Y nurses want to fulfill inner feelings of job satisfaction. If these inner feelings are not met, they will seek other opportunities to fulfill job satisfaction.

  1. Physician job satisfaction related to actual and preferred job size

    OpenAIRE

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Job satisfaction is essential for physicians' well-being and patient care. The work ethic of long days and hard work that has been advocated for decades is acknowledged as a threat for physicians' job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and preferred job size of physicians and to investigate how these and the differences between them influence physicians' job satisfaction. Method: Data were retrieved from a larger, longitudinal study a...

  2. Mental health, job satisfaction, and job stress among general practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, C. L.; Rout, U.; Faragher, B.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify sources of job stress associated with high levels of job dissatisfaction and negative mental wellbeing among general practitioners in England. DESIGN--Multivariate analysis of large database of general practitioners compiled from results of confidential questionnaire survey. Data obtained on independent variables of job stress, demographic factors, and personality. Dependent variables were mental health, job satisfaction, alcohol consumption, and smoking. SETTING--Natio...

  3. Physician job satisfaction related to actual and preferred job size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Borleffs, Jan C C; Stewart, Roy E; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna

    2017-05-11

    Job satisfaction is essential for physicians' well-being and patient care. The work ethic of long days and hard work that has been advocated for decades is acknowledged as a threat for physicians' job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and preferred job size of physicians and to investigate how these and the differences between them influence physicians' job satisfaction. Data were retrieved from a larger, longitudinal study among physicians starting medical training at Groningen University in 1982/83/92/93 (N = 597). Data from 506 participants (85%) were available for this study. We used regression analysis to investigate the influence of job size on physicians' job satisfaction (13 aspects) and ANOVA to examine differences in job satisfaction between physicians wishing to retain, reduce or increase job size. The majority of the respondents (57%) had an actual job size less than 1.0 FTE. More than 80% of all respondents preferred not to work full-time in the future. Respondents' average actual and preferred job sizes were .85 FTE and .81 FTE, respectively. On average, respondents who wished to work less (35% of respondents) preferred a job size reduction of 0.18 FTE and those who wished to work more (12%) preferred an increase in job size of 0.16 FTE. Job size influenced satisfaction with balance work-private hours most (β = -.351). Physicians who preferred larger job sizes were - compared to the other groups of physicians - least satisfied with professional accomplishments. A considerable group of physicians reported a gap between actual and preferred job size. Realizing physicians' preferences as to job size will hardly affect total workforce, but may greatly benefit individual physicians as well as their patients and society. Therefore, it seems time for a shift in work ethic.

  4. Job flexibility and job insecurity : the Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, D.J.; Vuuren, T. van

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1970s the flexible workforce in the Netherlands has been an important factor of labour force growth. The question raised in this article is whether job flexibility gives rise to feelings of job security. It appears that flexiworkers experience more job insecurity than workers with

  5. Job Characteristics, Work Involvement, and Job Performance of Public Servants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Johanim; Yahya, Khulida Kirana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to assess the predicting role of job characteristics on job performance. Dimensions in the job characteristics construct are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Further, work involvement is tested as a mediator in the hypothesized link. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  6. Relationship Between Job Characteristics And Job Performance Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agricultural extension agent is a key stakeholder in extension systems. The nature of their work is so important that it has overriding effect on their job performance. This study investigates the relationship between job characteristics and job performance of agricultural extension agents in Imo and Rivers States, Nigeria.

  7. Youth job market specific features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Yu. Zhuravleva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers youth job market peculiarities, its specific features and regulation means, determines theoretical and application tasks of qualitative and quantitative comparison of vocations, which are highly in demand at the job market.

  8. Better jobs for Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    are coming up, in all the billing counters. The new jobs […] need basic competencies, some basic level of education, maybe graduation and even beyond. ... pool of workers have helped Cambodia,. Laos, Vietnam, and more recently Burma connect with global value chains in fash- ion, electronics, food processing, and.

  9. Historians' Rocky Job Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, Anthony; Townsend, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how the historians' job market is perennially rocky. The history profession had its "golden age" in the 1950s and early 1960s when a generation born in the demographic trench of the Depression entered the market just as the first of the baby boomers began to swell college enrollments. But that moment was…

  10. Job Involvement of Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Robert

    This study investigated the relationship between job involvement and three sets of variables: nine personal (age, sex, marital status, education, overall experience, nonteaching experience, present school experience, income, and locus of control), three structural (size of school, location of school, and hierarchical position), and eight job…

  11. Job prioritization in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Castellani, G

    2007-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four high-energy experiments running in the near future at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. LHCb will try to answer some fundamental questions about the asymmetry between matter and anti-matter. The experiment is expected to produce about 2PB of data per year. Those will be distributed to several laboratories all over Europe and then analyzed by the Physics community. To achieve this target LHCb fully uses the Grid to reprocess, replicate and analyze data. The access to the Grid happens through LHCb's own distributed production and analysis system, DIRAC (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control). Dirac implements the ‘pull’ job scheduling paradigm, where all the jobs are stored in a central task queues and then pulled via generic grid jobs called Pilot Agents. The whole LHCb community (about 600 people) is divided in sets of physicists, developers, production and software managers that have different needs about their jobs on the Grid. While a Monte Carlo simulation...

  12. Exports and Job Training

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Paulo; Silva, Joana; Proenca, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether export participation matters for job training. The paper draws on longitudinal worker-firm data for Brazilian manufacturing, linked with detailed records on training activity from the main provider. The analysis uses industry-specific exchange rate movements to generate exogenous variation in export status at the firm-level. The findings indicate that export par...

  13. [Relationship between job satisfaction and occupational stress in the workers of a thermal power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Gui-zhen; Yu, Shan-fa; Zhou, Wen-hui

    2011-12-01

    To explore the relationship between job satisfaction and occupational stress in the workers of a thermal power plant. The cluster sampling method was used to investigate 875 workers in a thermal power plant. The job satisfaction, occupational stressors, strains, personalities, meeting strategy and social support were measured using occupational stress instruments, job content questionnaire and effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. There were no significant differences of job satisfaction scores between different groups according to sex, educational level, marriage status, smoking and drinking (P > 0.05). But there were significant differences of job satisfaction scores between different age groups or between different service length groups (P responsibility for persons and things, promotion opportunity, job control, job stabilization, rewards, mental health, positive affectivity, self-esteem, superior support and coworker support scores (P responsibility for persons and things, promotion opportunity, job control, job stabilization, reward, mental health, positive affectivity, self-esteem and buffer scores of the workers with high job satisfaction scores were significantly higher than those of workers with moderate and lower job satisfaction scores (P four times as high as that for workers with high reward (OR = 3.773), the risks of job dissatisfaction for workers with low social support and mental locus of external work control were about two times as high as that for workers with high social support or mental locus of internal work control (OR = 2.419 and 2.219, respectively). The daily life stress, low control strategy, low support strategy, low job control and negative affectivity were risk factors of job dissatisfaction (OR = 1.125 approximately 1.790), but the self-esteem and positive affectivity could reduce the risk of job dissatisfaction. Increasing the decision level, social support, meeting strategy and reward or decreasing the role conflict and

  14. The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, Maria; Bakker, Arnold B; Derks, Daantje

    2013-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether employees can impact their own well-being by crafting their job demands and resources. Based on the job demands-resources model, we hypothesized that employee job crafting would have an impact on work engagement, job satisfaction, and burnout through changes in job demands and job resources. Data was collected in a chemical plant at three time points with one month in between the measurement waves (N = 288). The results of structural equation modeling showed that employees who crafted their job resources in the first month of the study showed an increase in their structural and social resources over the course of the study (2 months). This increase in job resources was positively related to employee well-being (increased engagement and job satisfaction, and decreased burnout). Crafting job demands did not result in a change in job demands, but results revealed direct effects of crafting challenging demands on increases in well-being. We conclude that employee job crafting has a positive impact on well-being and that employees therefore should be offered opportunities to craft their own jobs.

  15. A Survey of Job Satisfaction among Midwives Working in Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Khavayet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Job satisfaction is one of the important factors enhancing organizational efficiency and employees' performance. This study aimed to evaluate job satisfaction among midwives working in hospitals. Methods: This cross-sectional study included all midwives (N=100 working in hospitals affiliated to Abadan School of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran in 2016. To obtain data, we used a demographic as well as Herzberg's Job Satisfaction Questionnaire with α=0.96 in Iran. To analyze the data, independent t-test, Chi-square test, and Pearson correlation coefficient were run in SPSS, version 22. Results: The mean age and work experience of the subjects were 35.37±7.3 and 11.23±7.8 years, respectively. The mean job satisfaction score of the midwives was 302.41±19. The results showed that the subjects had moderate job satisfaction in the eight domains of occupational nature and position (48%, job security (46%, salary and benefits (61%, occupational and environmental conditions (90%, relationship with colleagues (87%, supervision (91%, management policy-making (80%, and personal relationships (85%. There was a significant correlation between work experience and job satisfaction, while there was no significant relationship between job satisfaction and other demographic variables. Conclusion: Considering the moderate level of job satisfaction among the midwives working in the hospitals affiliated to Abadan School of Medical Sciences, authorities should take effective steps to address job dissatisfaction by promoting occupational security, creating professional standards, and using midwives’ capabilities in building appropriate relationships with colleagues.

  16. Job Satisfaction: An International Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    An international comparison of job satisfaction levels strongly suggests that the idea of job satisfaction as a gauge of well-being at the workplace should be rejected, but that workers' reactions to aspects of their jobs may be meaningful. The article presents data from national surveys of managers, workers, and trade unions to explain this…

  17. Job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker &

  18. Job scheduling, cooperation and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calleja, P.; Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Borm, P.; Hamers, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies one machine job scheduling situations where clients can have more than one job to be processed and where a job can be of interest for different players. Corresponding cooperative games are introduced and a result on balancedness is provided. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. [Job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw

    2010-05-20

    Doctors' job satisfaction has been discussed internationally in recent years based on reports of increasing professional dissatisfaction. We have studied Norwegian doctors' job satisfaction and their general satisfaction with life. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of practicing Norwegian doctors in 2008. The validated 10-item Job Satisfaction Scale was used to assess job satisfaction. 1,072 (65 %) doctors responded. They reported a mean job satisfaction of 5.3 on a scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction increased with increasing age. Private practice specialists reported the highest level of job satisfaction (5.8), and general practitioners reported higher job satisfaction (5.5) than hospital doctors (5.1). Among specialty groups, community doctors scored highest (5.6) and doctors in surgical disciplines lowest (5.0). While long working hours was negatively correlated with job satisfaction, the perception of being professionally updated and having part-time affiliation(s) in addition to a regular job were positively correlated with job satisfaction. 52.9 % of doctors reported a very high general satisfaction. Norwegian doctors have a high level of job satisfaction. Satisfaction with life in general is also high and at least in line with that in the Norwegian population.

  20. Job satisfaction among recreation practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Parks; Andrew Holdnak

    2002-01-01

    Job satisfaction among recreation professionals can be affected by many working conditions. This study has investigated the impact fourteen variables had on the job satisfaction of recreation practitioners. The sample consisted of 106 responses from members of the Resort and Commercial Recreation Association (RCRA). The results of the regression analysis for job...

  1. Job Migration: A Collaborative Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    Music teachers often change jobs several times during their careers. Reasons for job changes vary, but regardless, these changes bring a different set of challenges. Sharing knowledge and learning are part and parcel of collaboration. So what if, as education professionals, music teachers decided to collaborate during job migrations? For all music…

  2. Whose Job Goes Abroad? International Outsourcing and Individual Job Separations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the adjustment costs of globalisation by studying the effects of international outsourcing on individual transitions out of jobs in the Danish manufacturing sector for the period 1990-2003. A competing risks duration model that distinguishes between job-to-job and job......-to-unemployment transitions is estimated. Outsourcing is found to increase the unemployment risk of low-skilled workers, but the quantitative impact is modest. Outsourcing is also found to reduce the job change hazard rate for all education groups. Thus, the paper provides evidence for small adjustment costs of globalisation....

  3. Job insecurity and health: a study of 16 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Krisztina D; Pikhart, Hynek; Kopp, Mária S; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Marmot, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Although the number of insecure jobs has increased considerably over the recent decades, relatively little is known about the health consequences of job insecurity, their international pattern, and factors that may modify them. In this paper, we investigated the association between job insecurity and self-rated health, and whether the relationship differs by country or individual-level characteristics. Cross-sectional data from 3 population-based studies on job insecurity, self-rated health, demographic, socioeconomic, work-related and behavioural factors and lifetime chronic diseases in 23,245 working subjects aged 45-70 years from 16 European countries were analysed using logistic regression and meta-analysis. In fully adjusted models, job insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor health in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia, with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 2.0. Similar, but not significant, associations were observed in Austria, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. We found no effect of job insecurity in Belgium and Sweden. In the pooled data, the odds ratio of poor health by job insecurity was 1.39. The association between job insecurity and health did not differ significantly by age, sex, education, and marital status. Persons with insecure jobs were at an increased risk of poor health in most of the countries included in the analysis. Given these results and trends towards increasing frequency of insecure jobs, attention needs to be paid to the public health consequences of job insecurity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of musculoskeletal pain of care workers on job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, DeokJu

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the musculoskeletal pain of care workers and investigate its effect on their job satisfaction. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 87 care workers working at C elderly care service center in P region. The average age of men was 62.5 ± 3.4 years and that of women was 57.3 ± 2.7 years. The 'Guidelines for Risk Factor Survey on Tasks with Musculoskeletal Burden' of the KOSHA CODE (H-30-2003) of the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) was used for measurement of musculoskeletal pain. This survey tool for job satisfaction consisted of 12 questions including the areas of wage satisfaction, professional satisfaction, job performance satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction. [Results] Study results showed that musculoskeletal pain varied depending on professional satisfaction, job performance satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction. The correlation between the areas of musculoskeletal pain and job satisfaction was examined and the following was revealed. Professional satisfaction was correlated with arm/elbow pain and lower back pain, job performance satisfaction with lower back pain, and relationship satisfaction with shoulder pain and lower back pain. [Conclusion] In this study, subjects were older and could have been easily exposed to diseases because of their age. To improve job efficiency among care workers, continuing education related to the job should take precedence. In addition, social support is required that can alleviate the heavy workload related to physical activity support, which is among the responsibilities of care workers. Moreover, application standards and coverage of industrial insurance for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders of care workers should be extended further to relieve the burden of medical costs. A series of such measures will have a positive effect on improving the job satisfaction of care workers.

  5. Personality and Education Mining based Job Advisory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra S. Choudhary

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Every job demands an employee with some specific qualities in addition to the basic educational qualification. For example, an introvert person cannot be a good leader despite of a very good academic qualification. Thinking and logical ability is required for a person to be a successful software engineer. So, the aim of this paper is to present a novel approach for advising an ideal job to the job seeker while considering his personality trait and educational qualification both. Very well-known theories of personality like MBTI indicator and OCEAN theory, are used for personality mining. For education mining, score based system is used. The score based system captures the information from attributes like most scoring subject, dream job etc. After personality mining, the resultant values are coalesced with the information extracted from education mining. And finally, the most suited jobs, in terms of personality and educational qualification are recommended to the job seekers. The experiment is conducted on the students who have earned an engineering degree in the field of computer science, information technology and electronics. Nevertheless, the same architecture can easily be extended to other educational degrees also. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is a first e-job advisory system that recommends the job best suited as per one’s personality using MBTI and OCEAN theory both.

  6. Table-top job analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to establish general training program guidelines for training personnel in developing training for operation, maintenance, and technical support personnel at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. TTJA is not the only method of job analysis; however, when conducted properly TTJA can be cost effective, efficient, and self-validating, and represents an effective method of defining job requirements. The table-top job analysis is suggested in the DOE Training Accreditation Program manuals as an acceptable alternative to traditional methods of analyzing job requirements. DOE 5480-20A strongly endorses and recommends it as the preferred method for analyzing jobs for positions addressed by the Order.

  7. Impact of financial pressure on unemployed job search, job find success and job quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Ruud; Welters, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that financial pressure – implied as a consequence of benefit sanctions or exhaustion – prompts the unemployed to intensify their job search. However, there is less agreement about whether that intensified job search produces better quality job outcomes. Building on Self-Determination

  8. An Investigation of attitudinal factors in Job Satisfaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Priyanka.A

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative research method is used for identification of factors of job satisfaction, in this paper, that’s marking out a persistent study. This papers specific focus is on the roles played by job satisfaction, the aspects that form the basis of a certain attitude creation, effect of these attitudes on the behavior that is conducted at work. The subjects that are studied are beliefs, affect and cognition, perceptions, culture, disposition and situational factors, relationship between attit...

  9. THE IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE TO THE TEACHERS' JOB SATICFACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Karabina

    2016-01-01

    Leadership style, transformational leadership has a positive impact on teachers' job satisfaction. The principal leads by organizing all work at school. Satisfaction from work is determined by internal and external factors. Leadership, the behavior that allows principals to create positive school cultures and increase teachers’ job satisfaction has often been the subject of much study. This review focuses on some of the theory and recent studies that are related to the impact of leadership st...

  10. Analysis of job opportunities in the tourism industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kudláčková, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to define and describe in detail job opportunities in the tourism industry and to research current employer needs. The first part of the thesis focuses on defining of job opportunities in the tourism industry and on determination of factors and subjects which influence the labour market in the tourism industry. One of the chapters explains the meaning of the education in the tourism and compares the education system with labour market needs. The second par...

  11. Perceived Job Discrimination in Australia: Its Correlates and Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Hahn; Roger Wilkins

    2013-01-01

    We use data from a nationally representative Australian household panel survey to examine the extent and nature of self-reported job discrimination, its correlates, and its associations with various employment outcomes and measures of subjective wellbeing. We find that approximately 8.5% of job applicants and 7.5% of employees report being discriminated against in the preceding two years, most commonly on the basis of their age. Gender is found to be a common factor predicting perceived discr...

  12. Effect of physical exercise on work ability and daily strain in symptomatic menopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutanen, Reetta; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Moilanen, Jaana; Mikkola, Tomi; Raitanen, Jani; Tomas, Eija; Luoto, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Menopause related symptoms modify quality of life and may also have an impact on work ability. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of physical exercise on work ability and daily strain among women with menopausal symptoms. Occupationally active symptomatic menopausal women (n=123) were randomized into 24-week aerobic exercise intervention and control groups. Mobile phone questionnaires were used to collect daily data on perceived physical and mental strain in a randomised and controlled setting. Work ability was measured with the Work Ability Index (WAI) and with questions about work strain. In all 123 women aged 44-62 (mean age 53.8 ± 3.4) years who worked full- or part-time participated in the study. Women were randomized into a control (n=60) and intervention group (n=63). The subjects were mostly working in mentally demanding jobs (e.g., office worker), but also in physical (e.g., cleaner) and mixed (physical and mental) jobs (e.g., nurse). The increase in mental resources and decrease in physical strain from baseline to end were statistically significantly greater among the intervention group than among the control group. Between-group differences in the change in WAI were, however, statistically non-significant. A 6-month physical exercise intervention among symptomatic menopausal women seems not to be enough to increase perceived work ability but the physical exercise may increase perceived mental resources and decrease perceived daily physical strain.}

  13. Zambia Jobs Diagnostic : Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Merotto, Dino

    2017-01-01

    One of the world’s most youthful countries, Zambia’s economy has been booming since the early 2000s on the back of record high copper prices and private sector investment response to the better business environment. But poverty rose from 2010 to 2015 and remains very high in rural areas. Economic transformation is underway with workers moving to off-farm jobs, but these are heavily skewed ...

  14. Dimensions of Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Chicago: Rand McNally. Sutermeister , R. A. (1976). People and productivity . New... productivity undefined (cf., Sutermeister , 1976), (2) to admit that the concept is ill-defined and propose a vague definition (cf., Muckler, 1982), or (3...performance, job performance, and productivity ; in all three areas, there is little agreement concerning the variables that underlie and define the meaning of

  15. Job satisfaction and intention to quit the job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suadicani, P; Bonde, J P; Olesen, K; Gyntelberg, F

    2013-03-01

    Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job. To elucidate the perception of psychosocial work conditions among Danish hospital employees who would quit their job if economically possible and those who would not. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees. The questionnaire gave information on elements of the psychosocial work environment (job demands, job influence, job support, management quality, exposure to bullying), general health status, sick-leave during the preceding year, life style (leisure time physical activity, alcohol intake and smoking habits), age, sex and profession. There were 1809 participants with a response rate of 65%. About a quarter (26%) reported that they would quit their job if economically possible; this rose to 40% among the 17% who considered their health mediocre or bad. In a final logistic regression model, six factors were identified as independently associated with the wish to quit or not: self-assessed health status, meaningfulness of the job, quality of collaboration among colleagues, age, trustworthiness of closest superior(s) and exposure to bullying. Based on these factors it was possible to identify groups with fewer than 15% wishing to quit, and similarly, groups where 50% or more would quit if this was economically possible. Psychosocial work conditions, in particular meaningfulness of the job, were independently associated with intention to quit the job if economically possible and relevant within different job categories.

  16. Job satisfaction in a chemical factory | van Schalkwyk | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjective well-being is regarded as an important goal given the positive outcomes thereof for individuals. Job satisfaction is an important indicator of the subjective well-being of individuals. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) for diff erent language groups

  17. A communication competence approach to healthcare worker conflict, job stress, job burnout, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin B

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of communication competence in terms of predicting conflict style, job satisfaction, job stress, and job burnout among 221 healthcare workers. The results indicated that higher communication competence scores were predictive of integrating and obliging conflict styles among healthcare workers although lower communication competence scores were predictive of dominating and avoiding conflict styles. In addition, an integrating conflict style was predictive of reduced stress and increased job satisfaction whereas dominating and avoiding conflict styles were predictive of increased job burnout among the participants. The implications of these findings as well as study limitations are discussed. © 2010 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  18. Job longevity as a situational factor in job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R

    1978-06-01

    This study investigates the relationships between overall job satisfaction and the five task dimensions of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback-from-job for employees at different stages of their careers, as measured by their length of employment on their current jobs, as well as in their current organizations. Basically, the analysis shows that the strength of the relationships between job satisfaction and each of the task dimensions depends on both the job longevity and organizational longevity of the sampled individuals. For employees new to an organization, for example, only task significance is related positively to job satisfaction, while autonomy has a strongly negative correlation. The study presents other significant correlational differences and discusses the implications of its findings for task design, as well as for managing new employees. Approximately 3500 respondents from four different governments--two metropolitan, one county, and one state--participated in the collection of survey data.

  19. The triglyceride-lowering effect of supplementation with dual probiotic strains, Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032: Reduction of fasting plasma lysophosphatidylcholines in nondiabetic and hypertriglyceridemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H Y; Kim, M; Ahn, Y-T; Sim, J-H; Choi, I-D; Lee, S-H; Lee, J H

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the triglyceride (TG)-lowering effects of consuming dual probiotic strains of Lactobacillus curvatus (L. curvatus) HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) KY1032 on the fasting plasma metabolome. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 92 participants with hypertriglyceridemia but without diabetes. Over a 12-week testing period, the probiotic group consumed 2 g of powder containing 5 × 10(9) colony-forming units (cfu) of L. curvatus HY7601 and 5 × 10(9) cfu of L. plantarum KY1032 each day, whereas the placebo group consumed the same product without probiotics. Fasting plasma metabolomes were profiled using UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS. After 12 weeks of treatment, the probiotic group displayed a 20% reduction (p = 0.001) in serum TGs and 25% increases (p=0.001) in apolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V). At the 12-week follow-up assessment, the following 11 plasma metabolites were significantly reduced in the probiotic group than the placebo group: palmitoleamide, palmitic amide, oleamide, and lysophosphatidyl choline (lysoPC) containing C14:0, C16:1, C16:0, C17:0, C18:3, C18:2, C18:1, and C20:3. In the probiotic group, changes (▵) in TG were negatively correlated with ▵ apoA-V, which was positively correlated with ▵ FFA. In addition, ▵ FFA was strongly and positively correlated with ▵ lysoPCs in the probiotic group but not the placebo group. The triglyceride-lowering effects of probiotic supplementation, partly through elevated apoA-V, in borderline to moderate hypertriglyceridemic subjects showed reductions in plasma metabolites, fatty acid primary amides and lysoPCs (NCT02215694; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). Clinical trials: NCT02215694; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Providing Structural Model Variables Related to Job Satisfaction of Faculty Members of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Jamali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Understanding the factors that create job satisfaction can increase it and motivate faculty to engage in research. This study aims to research into these factors. Materials and Methods:214 faculty members working at SUMS were selected randomly. Data was collected and analyzed. Results: A meaningful relationship between the predictor variables (management support, subjective norm and job security and job satisfaction was found. The mediator (self efficacy also showed a significant correlation with the criterion variable (job satisfaction. The results showed that the predictive path analysis (management support, subjective norm and job security and significant indirect effect through the mediator (self efficacy with job satisfaction. Conclusion: Too many variables affect job satisfaction of faculty members, some of which were examined. The results of the analysis show that occupational safety and efficacy to the most effective use of the criterion variable of job satisfaction are significant.

  1. The anatomy of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Praag, B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-layer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the

  2. Job Matching and On-the-Job Training.

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, John M; Black, Dan A; Loewenstein, Mark A

    1989-01-01

    Conventional analysis predicts that workers pay part of their on-the-job training costs by accepting a lower starting wage and subsequently realize a return to this investment in the form of greater wage growth. Missing from the conventional treatment of on-the-job training is a discussion of the process by which heterogeneous worker s are matched to jobs requiring varying amounts of training. This matching process constitutes a key feature of the on-the-job training model that is presented i...

  3. Job demands, job resources, and behavior in times of sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Daniel; Winter, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    of investigation. PURPOSE: The aim of our study is to analyze the effect of job demands and job resources on absenteeism, presenteeism, and the tendency to choose one behavior (being absent or being present in times of sickness) rather than the other over the last 12 months. To do so, we identify the determinants...... of absenteeism and/or presenteeism behavior based on theory and existing research about absenteeism, presenteeism, and job demands and job resources. After our empirical analysis, we provide explanations for our findings and offer practical suggestions for how to decrease the frequencies of absenteeism...

  4. Nursing home work practices and nursing assistants' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Christine E; Squillace, Marie R; Meagher, Jennifer; Anderson, Wayne L; Wiener, Joshua M

    2009-10-01

    To estimate the impact of nursing home work practices, specifically compensation and working conditions, on job satisfaction of nursing assistants employed in nursing homes. Data are from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey, responses by the nursing assistants' employers to the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey, and county-level data from the Area Resource File. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate effects of compensation and working conditions on nursing assistants' overall job satisfaction, controlling for personal characteristics and local labor market characteristics. Wages, benefits, and job demands, measured by the ratio of nursing assistant hours per resident day, were associated with job satisfaction. Consistent with previous studies, job satisfaction was greater when nursing assistants felt respected and valued by their employers and had good relationships with supervisors. Nursing assistants were more satisfied when they had enough time to complete their work, when their work was challenging, when they were not subject to mandatory overtime, and where food was not delivered to residents on trays. This is the first investigation of nursing assistant job satisfaction using a nationally representative sample of nursing assistants matched to information about their employing nursing homes. The findings corroborate results of previous studies in showing that compensation and working conditions that provide respect, good relationships with supervisors, and better staffing levels are important to nursing assistant job satisfaction.

  5. [Application of job demands-resources model in research on relationships between job satisfaction, job resources, individual resources and job demands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocka, Adrianna; Waszkowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in the explanation of these phenomena. The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. The results showed that job satisfaction increased with increasing job accessibility and personal resources (r = 0.44; r = 0.31; p job resources and job demands [F(1.474) = 4.004; F(1.474) = 4.166; p job satisfaction. Moreover, interactions between job demands and job resources [F(3,474) = 2.748; p job demands and personal resources [F(3.474) = 3.021; p job satisfaction. The post hoc tests showed that 1) in low job demands, but high job resources employees declared higher job satisfaction, than those who perceived them as medium (p = 0.0001) or low (p = 0.0157); 2) when the level of job demands was perceived as medium, employees with high personal resources declared significantly higher job satisfaction than those with low personal resources (p = 0.0001). The JD-R model can be used to investigate job satisfaction. Taking into account fundamental factors of this model, in organizational management there are possibilities of shaping job satisfaction among employees.

  6. The double meaning of control: three-way interactions between internal resources, job control, and stressors at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Laurenz L; Semmer, Norbert K; Elfering, Achim; Jacobshagen, Nicola

    2008-07-01

    The Job Demand-Control model postulates that job control attenuates the effects of job demands on health and well-being. Support for this interactive effect is rather weak. Conceivably, it holds only when there is a match between job control and individual characteristics that relate to exercising control options, such as locus of control, or self-efficacy. This three-way interaction was tested in a sample of 96 service employees, with affective strain and musculoskeletal pain as dependent variables. As hypothesized, job control attenuated the effects of stressors only for people with an internal locus of control. For people with an external locus of control, job control actually predicted poorer well-being and health as stressors increased. For self-efficacy, the corresponding three-way interaction was significant with regard to affective strain. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. An ideal job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Kurt J

    2012-01-01

    A brief personal history illustrates how fortunate I was to have stumbled into a career in plant pathology, which turned out to be the ideal job for me. Several of the people who steered me or facilitated my development in research on plant diseases are mentioned. Starting with my PhD research, I have had the good fortune to indulge a career-long fascination with epidemiology and genetics of disease resistance in plants, particularly coevolution of gene-for-gene host-pathogen systems. I hope that my example may inspire others of like minds to consider a research career in plant pathology.

  8. Job stress and depressive symptoms among Japanese fire fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Yasuaki; Ueno, Takeji; Hashimoto, Yoshihiro

    2007-06-01

    Associations between job stresses, as assessed by theoretical job stress model and depressive symptoms among fire fighters have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study is to clarify the factors of job stress that influence the depressive symptoms in Japanese fire fighters. The subjects involved 1,672 fire fighters from a local government. The questionnaire comprised age, gender, job type, job class, martial status, smoking, and drinking habit, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) generic job questionnaire. A group showing depressive symptoms (CES-D > or = 16) included 373 subjects (22.3%). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, high variance in workload, high intergroup conflict, high role conflict, and low self-esteem had significantly higher odds ratio for depressive symptoms. High variance in workload, high intergroup conflict, high role conflict, and low self-esteem were significantly related to depressive symptoms among Japanese fire fighters. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify the influence of these stress factors on other health outcomes, and to elucidate whether alleviation of these stress factors improve the mental health among fire fighters.

  9. Job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, I. E. H.; Nyberg, S. T.; Magnusson Hanson, L. L.

    2017-01-01

    -Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol. RESULTS: We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From...

  10. Steve Jobs: Nobel Laureate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable achievements of one of the world's greatest entrepreneurs offer profound insights into the fundamental nature of economy and essential missing links in prevailing economic theory. The career of Steve Jobs dramatically illustrates the central importance of human capital in modern economy and the almost incalculable contribution that a single individual can make to technological advancement, social innovation and wealth creation, while enhancing the lifestyle of hundreds of millions of people. Jobs demonstrated that the real basis of economic value is providing valuable products and services that fulfill human needs and aspirations, not unregulated markets and financial speculation. His apparent failures point to the dual nature of uncertainty that presides over all human activity - both the ever present threat of error and the untold opportunities hidden behind the veil. Widely regarded as a genius for inventing better products, his greatest commercial achievement has been in recognizing the central importance of services in modern society and fashioning integrated social service systems within which products act as an enabling technology.

  11. Job Stress, Job Dissatisfaction and Stress Related Illnesses Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between self-reported job stress and job dissatisfaction and the prevalence of stress related illnesses and risk factors amongst educators. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative sample of 21,307 educators from public schools in South Africa.

  12. Job satisfaction and job performance – impacts on human capital

    OpenAIRE

    Gotvassli, Kjell-Åge; Haugset, Anne Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    Within macroeconomics it is a well established point of view that investments in human capital is important for the economic growth of a region. In this paper we will look at the connection between job satisfaction and job performance and its impact on the “use” of human capital.

  13. The relationship between job satisfaction and job loyalty among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and job loyalty among municipal sports officers in South Africa. With the rise in the popularity of sport in South Africa, municipalities throughout the country face the challenge of providing improved sports services. To meet this challenge, ...

  14. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Job satisfaction therefore is theoretically capable of boosting or harming the journalism industry, where product quality is largely dependent on the individual talents and motivations of key personnel.[3]. Reports have it that journalists experience a higher level of job stress compared to workers in other fields ...

  15. Jobs masonry in LHCb with elastic Grid Jobs

    CERN Document Server

    Stagni, F

    2015-01-01

    In any distributed computing infrastructure, a job is normally forbidden to run for an indefinite amount of time. This limitation is implemented using different technologies, the most common one being the CPU time limit implemented by batch queues. It is therefore important to have a good estimate of how much CPU work a job will require: otherwise, it might be killed by the batch system, or by whatever system is controlling the jobs' execution. In many modern interwares, the jobs are actually executed by pilot jobs, that can use the whole available time in running multiple consecutive jobs. If at some point the available time in a pilot is too short for the execution of any job, it should be released, while it could have been used efficiently by a shorter job. Within LHCbDIRAC, the LHCb extension of the DIRAC interware, we developed a simple way to fully exploit computing capabilities available to a pilot, even for resources with limited time capabilities, by adding elasticity to production MonteCarlo (MC) si...

  16. Good Jobs, Bad Jobs: Workers' Evaluations in Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Joseph A.; Anker, Richard

    2002-01-01

    A study of workers from Argentina (n=2,920), Brazil (n=4,000), Chile (n=1,188), Hungary (1,000), and the Ukraine (n=8,099) examined relationships between job satisfaction and employee and employer characteristics. Satisfaction was related to job security, perceptions of workplace safety, higher education, and employer attitudes. (Contains 17…

  17. Physician job satisfaction related to actual and preferred job size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Job satisfaction is essential for physicians' well-being and patient care. The work ethic of long days and hard work that has been advocated for decades is acknowledged as a threat for physicians' job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and

  18. Perceived Job Insecurity, Job Satisfaction And Intention To Quit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the relationships between perceived job insecurity, job satisfaction and intention to quit among employees of selected banks in Nigeria. A total of two hundred and nine (n = 209) randomly selected employees of Guaranty Trust Bank, Oceanic International Bank, Zenith Bank, First Bank of Nigeria, Union ...

  19. Job Searchers, Job Matches and the Elasticity of Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, L.; van Ours, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper stresses the importance of a specification of the matching function in which the measure of job matches corresponds to the measure of job searchers. In many empirical studies on the matching function this requirement has not been fulfilled because it is difficult to find information about

  20. Job satisfaction amongst agricultural extension personnel in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    something about organization and some psychological factors as well as job satisfaction. Job satisfaction broadly is considered to be as attitude of a person reflecting the degree to which his/her important needs are satisfied by this job. To study the job satisfaction level and factors associated with job satisfaction of ...

  1. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labour market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  2. Job Attitudes of Agricultural Middle Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Bitsch, Vera

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyzes middle managers' job attitudes, in particular job satisfaction, based on case studies. Employees' job satisfaction is expected to reduce human resource management risks, leading to higher loyalty, organizational commitment and motivation and resulting in less turnover. Components of job satisfaction include achievement, recognition, work itself, job security, supervision, interpersonal relationships, compensation, organization, personal life and working conditions. They cau...

  3. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool...... to understanding, especially but not exclusively in observational and interview-based studies. Psychodynamic or psychoanalytic approaches to research add an emphasis on unconscious motivational processes in both researchers and research participants that impact research experience and data. Building upon Anglo......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  4. The Effect Working Environment, Job Characteristic and Job Motivation to Job Satisfaction at Lecture Jambi Universitas

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmiati, Rosmiati; Ekawarna, Ekawarna; Haryanto, Eddy

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research is to obtain information on the effect of working environment, job Characteristic and job motivation to job satisfaction. The population of this research is the Lecture Jambi University. The total number of the research sample was 273 Official Member of Lecture Jambi University and they were taken randomly. Data analysis technique was used path analisys with SPSS and LISREL program.The formulation of this research are: 1) Is the work environment (X1) directly in...

  5. Job disamenities, job satisfaction, and on-the-job search: is there a nexus?

    OpenAIRE

    Petri Böckerman; Pekka Ilmakunnas

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the potential role of adverse working conditions at the workplace in the determination of on-the-job search in the Finnish labour market. The results reveal that workers currently facing adverse working conditions have greater intentions to switch jobs and they are also more willing to stop working completely. In addition, those workers search new matches more frequently. There is evidence that adverse working conditions consistently increase the level of job dissatisfacti...

  6. Job Satisfaction in the Hospitality Industry Focus: Greece Case Study: Porto Carras Grand Resort

    OpenAIRE

    Salpisti, Elisavet

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the notion of Job Satisfaction in the Hospitality Industry. The organisational single-case study has been chosen as a research method, with research taking place in Porto Carras Grand Resort in Northern Greece. The purpose of this research has been to demonstrate the importance of employee job satisfaction in the hospitality industry in particular, since the quality of its services is greatly subject to the 'human chemistry' between employees and customers. Job...

  7. Pengaruh Karyawan Job Embeddedness terhadap Intensi Turnover Karyawan Caroline Officer PT.INFOMEDIA NUSANTARA

    OpenAIRE

    PSIKOLOGI, NOFRAN; Qalbi, Sitti Nur; Jufri, Muhammad; Indahari, Nur Afni

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTIONEmployee’s turnover is caused by intention to leave the job voluntarily based on their decision. Job embeddedness is one factor of turnover intention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of job embededness to turnover intention of Caroline Officer’s employee in PT. Infomedia Nusantara. METHODThe study subjects were 60 employees of Caroline Officer in PT. Infomedia Nusantara. The research design used quantitative design. The data was collected by usi...

  8. A Comparison of Female and Male Professors on Participation in Decision Making, Job Related Tension, Job Involvement, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollon, Charles J.; Gemmill, Gary R.

    1976-01-01

    Female teaching professionals report experiencing less perceived participation in decision-making, less job involvement, less overall job satisfaction, and more job-related tension than do their male counterparts. (Author)

  9. The Role of Leadership Practices on Job Stress among Malay Academic Staff: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaria, Triantoro; bin Othman, Ahmad; Wahab, Muhammad Nubli Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Globalization brings change in all aspect of human life, including in how job and organizations operate. These changes create strain and stress not only among employee at business organization, but also among academic staff. The dean of faculty or department at university has important role in prevent the effects of job stress among the academic…

  10. A Web Survey Analysis of Subjective Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzi, M.; de Pedraza García, P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - This paper explores the role of work conditions and job characteristics with respect to three subjective well-being indicators: life satisfaction, job satisfaction and satisfaction with work-life balance. From a methodological point of view, the paper shows how social sciences can benefit

  11. The Effects of Heat Stress on Job Satisfaction, Job Performance and Occupational Stress in Casting Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan; Mobinyzadeh; Habibi

    2016-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction, job performance, job stress and heat stress affect the productivity of workers. Objectives This research aimed to study the relationship between heat stress indices with job satisfaction, job performance and job stress in casting workers. Patients and Methods This descriptive-analytical cross sectional survey was performed during summer 2013 on one hund...

  12. Job Satisfaction of People with Intellectual Disability: Associations with Job Characteristics and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P.

    2018-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of factors associated with job satisfaction of people with intellectual disability (ID), this study investigates the associations of job satisfaction with job characteristics (i.e., job demands, job resources) and personality, using the job demands-resources model. Data were gathered from 117 people and their employment…

  13. Academics Job Satisfaction and Job Stress across Countries in the Changing Academic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Jung, Jisun

    2014-01-01

    This study examined job satisfaction and job stress across 19 higher education systems. We classified the 19 countries according to their job satisfaction and job stress and applied regression analysis to test whether new public management has impacts on either or both job satisfaction and job stress. According to this study, strong market driven…

  14. Job Satisfaction in Fisheries Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollnac, Richard; Bavinck, Maarten; Monnereau, Iris

    2012-01-01

    This article draws comparative lessons from seven job satisfaction studies on marine capture fishing that were recently carried out in nine countries and three geographical regions--Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean. The seven studies made use of an identical job satisfaction assessment tool and present information on a selection of metiers mainly…

  15. Experience with Remote Job Execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Vickie E.; Cobb, John W; Green, Mark L.; Kohl, James Arthur; Miller, Stephen D.; Ren, Shelly; Smith, Bradford C.; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S.

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron Science Portal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory submits jobs to the TeraGrid for remote job execution. The TeraGrid is a network of high performance computers supported by the US National Science Foundation. There are eleven partner facilities with over a petaflop of peak computing performance and sixty petabytes of long-term storage. Globus is installed on a local machine and used for job submission. The graphical user interface is produced by java coding that reads an XML file. After submission, the status of the job is displayed in a Job Information Service window which queries globus for the status. The output folder produced in the scratch directory of the TeraGrid machine is returned to the portal with globus-url-copy command that uses the gridftp servers on the TeraGrid machines. This folder is copied from the stage-in directory of the community account to the user's results directory where the output can be plotted using the portal's visualization services. The primary problem with remote job execution is diagnosing execution problems. We have daily tests of submitting multiple remote jobs from the portal. When these jobs fail on a computer, it is difficult to diagnose the problem from the globus output. Successes and problems will be presented

  16. Mistral Supercomputer Job History Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zasadziński, Michał; Muntés-Mulero, Victor; Solé, Marc; Ludwig, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In this technical report, we show insights and results of operational data analysis from petascale supercomputer Mistral, which is ranked as 42nd most powerful in the world as of January 2018. Data sources include hardware monitoring data, job scheduler history, topology, and hardware information. We explore job state sequences, spatial distribution, and electric power patterns.

  17. Job search and academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, B.; van Vuuren, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The paper develops a structural model for the labor market behavior of students entering the labor market. We explicitly model the trade-off between devoting effort to studying and to job search. Furthermore, we allow for on-the-job search. The model is estimated using a unique data set of

  18. Job satisfaction in fisheries compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnac, R.; Bavinck, M.; Monnereau, I.

    2012-01-01

    This article draws comparative lessons from seven job satisfaction studies on marine capture fishing that were recently carried out in nine countries and three geographical regions—Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean. The seven studies made use of an identical job satisfaction assessment tool and

  19. Job stress and productivity increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramola, Samson Sunday

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines mental and physical pressures that workers bear at work. The authors discuss how on the-job stress affects a person's capabilities and productivity, and how such pressures lend to higher incidences of accidents at work. The paper also discuss methods of reducing job-related stress and increasing productivity. An intervention was conducted amongst workers in a private firm. It shows mental and emotional pressure can affect performance and productivity of a worker on the job. One of the biggest influences of today's worker is on the-job stress. Job stress occurs when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. This consequently affects how a person would normally deal with customer service problems, grievances, violence, conflict, and decisions on the job. Stress is an inevitable part of everyday life, and is therefore a distinct part of a person's job. To properly control the outcome of stress, there are certain precautions and methods that should be taken that will boost productivity.

  20. Benchmark job – Watch out!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    On 12 December 2016, in Echo No. 259, we already discussed at length the MERIT and benchmark jobs. Still, we find that a couple of issues warrant further discussion. Benchmark job – administrative decision on 1 July 2017 On 12 January 2017, the HR Department informed all staff members of a change to the effective date of the administrative decision regarding benchmark jobs. The benchmark job title of each staff member will be confirmed on 1 July 2017, instead of 1 May 2017 as originally announced in HR’s letter on 18 August 2016. Postponing the administrative decision by two months will leave a little more time to address the issues related to incorrect placement in a benchmark job. Benchmark job – discuss with your supervisor, at the latest during the MERIT interview In order to rectify an incorrect placement in a benchmark job, it is essential that the supervisor and the supervisee go over the assigned benchmark job together. In most cases, this placement has been done autom...

  1. Job Prospects for Industrial Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Discusses 1987 statistics from the College Placement Council regarding new job offers to graduating industrial engineers. Identifies trends in hiring in the field. Describes several issues that will face industrial engineers. States that the industrial engineers most likely to win jobs are those with good basic mathematics and communications…

  2. Active Job Monitoring in Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in high energy physics (HEP) including multi-core jobs and multi-core pilots require data centres to gain a deep understanding of the system to monitor, design, and upgrade computing clusters. Networking is a critical component. Especially the increased usage of data federations, for example in diskless computing centres or as a fallback solution, relies on WAN connectivity and availability. The specific demands of different experiments and communities, but also the need for identification of misbehaving batch jobs, requires an active monitoring. Existing monitoring tools are not capable of measuring fine-grained information at batch job level. This complicates network-aware scheduling and optimisations. In addition, pilots add another layer of abstraction. They behave like batch systems themselves by managing and executing payloads of jobs internally. The number of real jobs being executed is unknown, as the original batch system has no access to internal information about the scheduling process inside the pilots. Therefore, the comparability of jobs and pilots for predicting run-time behaviour or network performance cannot be ensured. Hence, identifying the actual payload is important. At the GridKa Tier 1 centre a specific tool is in use that allows the monitoring of network traffic information at batch job level. This contribution presents the current monitoring approach and discusses recent efforts and importance to identify pilots and their substructures inside the batch system. It will also show how to determine monitoring data of specific jobs from identified pilots. Finally, the approach is evaluated.

  3. BUSINESS ETIQUETTE IN JOB INTERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGEEVA JULIA VICTOROVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of job interview transcripts from the perspective of dominant communicant’s (HR manager communicative behavior. The interviewer uses various etiquette forms that facilitate a more productive dialogue and stipulate cooperative strategies and tactics in order to achieve the main goal - to determine whether the job applicant meets the requirements of the employer.

  4. Psychosocial risks and job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, J.; Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we concentrate on explaining job performance from the perspective of psychosocial risks in the work environment. Many risks may hinder good job performance. The article does not concentrate on physical (such as, carrying heavy loads) or environmental risks (such as, extreme heat or

  5. Gender, job authority, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Karraker, Amelia

    2014-12-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we explore the effect of job authority in 1993 (at age 54) on the change in depressive symptoms between 1993 and 2004 (age 65) among white men and women. Within-gender comparisons indicate that women with job authority (defined as control over others' work) exhibit more depressive symptoms than women without job authority, whereas men in authority positions are overall less depressed than men without job authority. Between-gender comparisons reveal that although women have higher depression than men, women's disadvantage in depression is significantly greater among individuals with job authority than without job authority. We argue that macro- and meso-processes of gender stratification create a workplace in which exercising job authority exposes women to interpersonal stressors that undermine health benefits of job authority. Our study highlights how the cultural meanings of masculinities and femininities attenuate or amplify health-promoting resources of socioeconomic advantage. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  6. Job satisfaction of nursing assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Nancy; Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth; Flynn, Linda

    2011-11-01

    This secondary data analysis explored factors influencing job satisfaction in a sample of nursing assistants employed in Maryland skilled nursing facilities. Multiple factors have been shown to affect job satisfaction and turnover in nursing assistants (NAs), but the problem of turnover persists in skilled nursing facility environments affecting quality of care. An existing data set of 556 nursing assistants from 12 Maryland skilled nursing facilities was used. To explore factors found to influence job satisfaction from other studies, a multiple regression analysis was performed. Nine dependent variables previously shown to affect job satisfaction were used. Of these variables, only years of experience (β = .230) and performance of restorative care (β = .095) were found to be positively associated with job satisfaction. Self-esteem (β = -.094) was found to be negatively associated with job satisfaction. Only length of experience and exemplary care as evidenced by the performance of restorative care were associated with job satisfaction. These results mirror results found in other studies. Self-esteem was negatively associated with job satisfaction in this population, a finding needing further study. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  7. Job satisfaction and contingent employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf-Zijl, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses job satisfaction as an aggregate of satisfaction with several job aspects, with special focus on the influence of contingent-employment contracts. Fixed-effect analysis is applied on a longitudinal sample of Dutch employees in four work arrangements: regular, fixed-term, on-call

  8. Job satisfaction and preference drift.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Most empirical studies do not find that higher wages lead to more job satisfaction. In this paper we argue that the insignificant effect of wages on job satisfaction is due to preference drift. We adapt the standard ordered response model to allow for preference shifts. The empirical results support

  9. Job Heterogeneity and Coordination Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Daniel

    the job ladder, how the identification of assortative matching is fundamentally different in directed and undirected search models, how our theory accounts for business cycle facts related to inter-temporal changes in job offer distributions, and how our model could also be used to identify...

  10. School Nurses Share a Job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwin, Elizabeth G.; Voss, Sondra

    1981-01-01

    Job sharing is a relatively new idea in which two or more people share the hours, the work, and the responsibilities of one job. Advantages and disadvantages to this situation are discussed in relation to the experiences of two nurses who shared a position as district nurse. (JN)

  11. Coordination Frictions and Job Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    This paper develops and extends a dynamic, discrete time, job to worker matching model in which jobs are heterogeneous in equilibrium. The key assumptions of this economic environment are (i) matching is directed and (ii) coordination frictions lead to heterogeneous local labor markets. We de- rive...... a number of new theoretical results, which are essential for the empirical application of this type of model to matched employer-employee microdata. First, we o¤er a robust equilibrium concept in which there is a continu- ous dispersion of job productivities and wages. Second, we show that our model can...... be readily solved with continuous exogenous worker heterogene- ity, where high type workers (high outside options and productivity) earn higher wages in high type jobs and are hired at least as frequently to the better job types as low type workers (low outside options and productivity). Third, we...

  12. Measuring green jobs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Martinsen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    the initiatives. An alternative framework is suggested, as it appears fundamentally impossible to make consistent frameworks for a division of the economy into “green” and “non-green” activities. The analysis has been carried out during the period September 2011 – March 2012 by Vista Analysis AS, Gaia Consulting......The report reviews the different initiatives aiming to measure aspects of “green” sectors, jobs and technologies. The report discusses whether the statistics collected under the present initiatives aimed at measuring these aspects increase insights into the fundamental questions motivating...... Oy and University of Aarhus. The project was commissioned by the Working Group on Environment and Economy under the Nordic Council of Ministers....

  13. Reclaim your job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Sumantra; Bruch, Heike

    2004-03-01

    Ask most managers what gets in the way of their success, and you'll hear the familiar litany of complaints: Not enough time. Limited resources. No clear sense of how their work fits into the grand corporate scheme. These are, for the most part, excuses. What really gets in the way of managers' success is fear of making their own decisions and acting accordingly. Managers must overcome the psychological desire to be indispensable. In this article, the authors demonstrate how managers can become more productive by learning to manage demands, generate resources, and recognize and exploit alternatives. To win the support they want, managers must develop a long-term strategy and pursue their goals slowly, steadily, and strategically. To expand the range of opportunities, for their companies and themselves, managers must scan the environment for possible obstacles and search for ways around them. Fully 90% of the executives the authors have studied over the past few years wasted their time and frittered away their productivity, despite having well-defined projects, goals, and the necessary knowledge to get their jobs done. Such managers remain trapped in inefficiency because they assume they do not have enough personal discretion or control. They forget how to take initiative--the most essential quality of any truly successful manager. Effective managers, by contrast, are purposeful corporate entrepreneurs who take charge of their jobs by developing trust in their own judgment and adopting long-term, big-picture views to fulfill personal goals that match those of the organization.

  14. Application of Job Demands-Resources model in research on relationships between job satisfaction, job resources, individual resources and job demands

    OpenAIRE

    Adrianna Potocka; Małgorzata Waszkowska

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in the explanation of these phenomena. Materials and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. Results: The results showed that job satisfaction increased with...

  15. 77 FR 38833 - Job Accommodation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... assistance center that facilitates the employment and retention of workers with disabilities. Created in 1983... job accommodations and workplace strategies for job applicants and employees with disabilities is...

  16. Job reallocation in two cases of massive adjustment in Eastern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Terrell, K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 11 (2008), s. 2144-2169 ISSN 0305-750X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : job creation * job destruction * Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.392, year: 2008

  17. Job characteristics and voluntary mobility in The Netherlands: Differential education and gender patterns?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, M.J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to address the impact of the subjective evaluation of job characteristics on voluntary mobility, the impact of voluntary mobility on changes in these job characteristics, and differential education and gender patterns. Design/methodology/approach - Ordered and

  18. Women Principals' Conceptions of Job Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction: An Alternative View?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar; Mimon, Rivka

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to unearth subjective interpretations of women principals concerning job satisfaction and dissatisfaction in their career and to examine whether their interpretations differ from common, "androgynous" constructions of job satisfaction developed outside the field of education but that constitute the…

  19. Job characteristics and voluntary mobility in the Netherlands : differential education and gender patterns?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the impact of the subjective evaluation of job characteristics on voluntary mobility, the impact of voluntary mobility on changes in these job characteristics, and differential education and gender patterns. Design/methodology/approach – Ordered and

  20. Effect of Time Management Program on Job Satisfaction for Head Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabahy, Hanan ELsayed; Sleem, Wafaa Fathi; El Atroush, Hala Gaber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Time management and job satisfaction all related to each other and greatly affect success of organization. Subjects and Methods: The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a designed program of time management on job satisfaction for head nurses. A Quasi-experimental design was used for a total number of head nurses participated. Two…

  1. The effect of personality traits of managers/supervisor on job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Todays people are spending most of their time life in their workplace therefore investigation for job satisfaction related factors is necessities of researches. Aim: The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of manager's personality traits on employee job satisfaction. Subjects and Methods: The present ...

  2. Job-to-job Transitions, Sorting, and Wage Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinkins, David; Morin, Annaïg

    We measure the contribution of match quality to the wage growth experienced by job movers. We reject the exogenous mobility assumption needed to estimate a standard fixed-effects wage regression in the Danish matched employer-employee data. We exploit the sub-sample of workers hired from...... unemployment, for whom the exogenous mobility assumption is not rejected, to estimate firm fixed effects. We then decompose the variance of wage growth of all job movers. We find that 66% of the variance of wage growth experienced by job movers can be attributed to variance in match quality. Expected match...

  3. Fragmentation analysis of alumina-nickel cermets subjected to Hopkinson bar tests at high strain rates; Analisis de la fragmentacion de cermets de alumina-niquel ensayados en Barra Hopkinson a altas velocidades de deformacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgaz, F.; Lecue, E.; Sanchez Herencia, A. J.; Gomez del Rio, T.

    2014-07-01

    A comparative study of the influence of the strain rate on the dynamic mechanical behaviour of an alumina matrix with 15 and 50 % of dispersed nickel is presented. The fragmentation under high speed impact compression loads have been studied using a compression split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). Dense alumina and alumina-nickel composites were processed by slip casting of water based slurries on porous moulds. Samples with the metallic phase dispersed were pre-oxidized to achieve an effective joining interface and sintered under flowing inert atmosphere. The strain rate was determined from the impact experiments. The statistics of the SHPB recovered fragments have been determined and analysed according to the exponential models of Weibull and Rosin y Rammler and the effects of the strain rate on the average fragment size are described according to the existing energy models. Finally the rupture mechanisms of the samples and the sources of fracture have been explored and compared to the quasi static mechanical behaviour of these materials. (Author)

  4. Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Job Involvement: The Mediating Role of Job Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćulibrk, Jelena; Delić, Milan; Mitrović, Slavica; Ćulibrk, Dubravko

    2018-01-01

    We conducted an empirical study aimed at identifying and quantifying the relationship between work characteristics, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational policies and procedures in the transition economy of Serbia, South Eastern Europe. The study, which included 566 persons, employed by 8 companies, revealed that existing models of work motivation need to be adapted to fit the empirical data, resulting in a revised research model elaborated in the paper. In the proposed model, job involvement partially mediates the effect of job satisfaction on organizational commitment. Job satisfaction in Serbia is affected by work characteristics but, contrary to many studies conducted in developed economies, organizational policies and procedures do not seem significantly affect employee satisfaction. PMID:29503623

  5. Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Job Involvement: The Mediating Role of Job Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćulibrk, Jelena; Delić, Milan; Mitrović, Slavica; Ćulibrk, Dubravko

    2018-01-01

    We conducted an empirical study aimed at identifying and quantifying the relationship between work characteristics, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational policies and procedures in the transition economy of Serbia, South Eastern Europe. The study, which included 566 persons, employed by 8 companies, revealed that existing models of work motivation need to be adapted to fit the empirical data, resulting in a revised research model elaborated in the paper. In the proposed model, job involvement partially mediates the effect of job satisfaction on organizational commitment. Job satisfaction in Serbia is affected by work characteristics but, contrary to many studies conducted in developed economies, organizational policies and procedures do not seem significantly affect employee satisfaction.

  6. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Croon, E M; Blonk, R W B; de Zwart, B C H; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Broersen, J P J

    2002-06-01

    Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands (physical demands and supervisor demands) on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers. From 1181 lorry drivers (adjusted response 63%) self reported information was gathered by questionnaire on the independent variables (job control, quantitative workload, physical demands, and supervisor demands) and the dependent variables (fatigue and job dissatisfaction). Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the main effects of job demands and job control and the interaction effect between job control and job demands on fatigue and job dissatisfaction. The inclusion of physical and supervisor demands in the JD-C model explained a significant amount of variance in fatigue (3%) and job dissatisfaction (7%) over and above job control and quantitative workload. Moreover, in accordance with Karasek's interaction hypothesis, job control buffered the positive relation between quantitative workload and job dissatisfaction. Despite methodological limitations, the results suggest that the inclusion of (occupation) specific job control and job demand measures is a fruitful elaboration of the JD-C model. The occupation specific JD-C model gives occupational stress researchers better insight into the relation between the psychosocial work environment and wellbeing. Moreover, the occupation specific JD-C model may give practitioners more concrete and useful information about risk factors in the psychosocial work environment. Therefore, this model may provide points of departure for effective stress reducing interventions at work.

  7. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    SUBJECT INDEX. Absorption. Effect of NaCl on the spectral and kinetic properties of cresyl violet (CV)-sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) complex. 299. Acid catalysts. Temperature-programmed desorption of water and ammonia on sulphated zirconia catalysts for measuring their strong acidity and acidity distribution. 281.

  8. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    SUBJECT INDEX. Ab initio calculations. Basis set effects on energy and hardness profiles of the hydrogen fluoride dimer. 549. Activation by calcinations. Highly active and reusable catalyst from Fe-Mg- hydrotalcite anionic clay for Friedel–Crafts type benzyla- tion reactions. 635. Adsorption. Adsorption studies of iron(III) on ...

  9. Subject Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2006) 27, 469–472. Subject Index. Astrophysical Processes. Spatial Damping of Linear Compressional Magnetoacoustic Waves in Quiescent. Prominences (K. A. P. Singh), 321. Report on the Dynamical Evolution of an Axially Symmetric Quasar Model. (N. J. Papadopoulos & N. D. Caranicolas), 389.

  10. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    SUBJECT INDEX. 1D inversion. A direct inversion scheme for deep resistivity sound- ing data using artificial neural networks. 49. 40. Ar-. 39. Ar thermochronology. Tectono-thermal evolution of the India-Asia colli- sion zone based on. 40. Ar-. 39. Ar thermochronology in. Ladakh, India. 737. ANN. Artificial neural network ...

  11. [Effects of job content on psychological stress in young recruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J J; Tao, N; Jia, J M; Qin, X; Tian, H; Qiu, E C; Liu, J W

    2016-04-20

    To explore the effects of job content on psychological stress in young recruits. In October 2014, 625 young recruits enrolled in one troop of Xinjiang Military Command in 2014 were chosen as subjects by multi-stage stratified random sampling. The Chinese version of the job content questionnaire (JCQ)and the psychological stress self evaluation test (PEST)were used to investigate the subjects. The subjects were divided into two groups with scores higher and lower than the mean score of three subscales (job requirement, degree of autonomy, and social support)of JCQ to explore the effects of job content on psychological stress in young recruits. The correlation of psychological stress with three subscales of job content was evaluated using the Pearson' s correlation analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors for psychological stress. The PEST score of young recruits was 49.98±9.98. Forty-five (7.68%)out of them had scores of ≥70 points and were diagnosed with high levels of psychological stress. When the subjects were grouped based on socio-demographic characteristics, a high level of psychological stress was significantly more frequent in subjects less than 20 years of age than in those not less than 20 years of age, in smoking subjects than in non-smoking subjects, and in urban residents than in rural residents (10.42% vs 5.03%, Ppsychological stress (P>0.05). In various job content domains that had impacts on psychological stress, subjects with a low score of social support had significantly higher PEST scores than those with a high score of social support (50.96±10.35 vs 48.49±9.22, Ppsychological stress (OR=0.718, 95% CI= 0.718 (0.607~0.851), PPsychological stress of young recruits in army is not optimistic. Psychological stress is weakly negatively correlated with social support. The low scores on job requirement subscale and social support subscale may be potential protective factor and risk factor for

  12. Job Quality in the Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Watt, Andrew; Finn, Mairéad

    This paper is an update of the synthetic job quality index (JQI) for the EU27 countries which has been created in 2008 (see ETUI Working paper 2008.03 and 2008.07) in an attempt to shed light on the question of how European countries compare with each other and how they are developing over time...... in terms of job quality. The results point out that the crisis seems to have affected different dimensions of job quality in different ways. Overall, there is a decline in measured job quality and job quality levels in Europe remain highly diverse. There is a clear increase in the use of part......-time and fixed-term contracts and/or in the extent to which workers reported that they were working in such jobs involuntarily. Moreover, the numbers of workers who are afraid to lose their job have increased markedly which are clear signs of the declining bargaining power of labour brought on by the crisis....

  13. Are peer specialists happy on the job?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sarah; Chenneville, Tiffany; Salnaitis, Christina

    2018-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of role clarity and job training on job satisfaction among peer specialists. A 3-part survey assessing job training, job satisfaction, and role clarity was administered online to 195 peer specialists who are members of the International Association of Peer Specialists. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlational analyses to include multiple linear regressions and analysis of variance. Self-study and online training methods were negatively correlated with job satisfaction while job shadowing was positively correlated with job satisfaction. Role clarity was positively correlated with job satisfaction and job training satisfaction as well as job shadowing and one-on-one training. The use of self-study and online training for peer specialists is contraindicated by current findings, which suggest the need to utilize job shadowing or training methods that allow for personal interaction between peer specialists and their colleagues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The Impact of Occupational Stress on Job Satisfaction and Counterproductive Work Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Horia D. Pitariu; Andrea Budean

    2009-01-01

    The present economical challenges increase the level of demand and pressure on people in their workplaces, eventually affecting the efficiency of organizations. Given the relationship between job strain and individual and organizational outcomes (Robertson, 2009), the present context places an even higher importance on understanding and dealing correctly with these issues. The research at hand examines the predictive value of different occupational sources of pressure on job satisfaction and ...

  15. Determining Composite Validity Coefficients for Army Jobs and Job Families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeidner, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    ...) is to compute composite validity coefficients. using criterion data derived from the 1987 - 1989 Skill Qualifications Test program, for the 7-test ASVAB for 150, 17, and 9 job family structures...

  16. Job-to-Job Transitions, Sorting, and Wage Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinkins, David; Morin, Annaïg

    In this paper, we measure the contribution of match quality to the wage growth experienced by job movers. Using the Danish matched employer-employee data, we reject the exogenous mobility assumption needed to estimate a standard fixedeffects wage regression. To estimate firm fixed effects, we...... exploit the sub-sample of workers hired from unemployment, for whom the exogenous mobility assumption is not rejected. Then we decompose the mean and the variance of wage growth of jobto-job movers. We find that most of the wage growth experienced by job movers is attributable to an improvement...... in the quality of the worker-firm match rather than transitions to better firms. Also, 66% of the variance of wage growth experienced by job movers can be attributed to variance in match quality. Expected match quality growth is higher for higher-skilled occupations and high-educated workers....

  17. Evaluation of Automatically Assigned Job-Specific Interview Modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesen, Melissa C; Lan, Qing; Ge, Calvin; Locke, Sarah J; Hosgood, Dean; Fritschi, Lin; Sadkowsky, Troy; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Wei, Hu; Xu, Jun; Lam, Tai Hing; Kwong, Yok Lam; Chen, Kexin; Xu, Caigang; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chiu, Brian C H; Ip, Kai Ming Dennis; Purdue, Mark P; Bassig, Bryan A; Rothman, Nat; Vermeulen, Roel

    OBJECTIVE: In community-based epidemiological studies, job- and industry-specific 'modules' are often used to systematically obtain details about the subject's work tasks. The module assignment is often made by the interviewer, who may have insufficient occupational hygiene knowledge to assign the

  18. Remedies for Discrimination in Supervisorial and Managerial Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Robert

    1978-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that court reliance on objective job criteria as a basis for decisions in discrimination suits involving supervisorial or managerial employees is misplaced. Alternative remedies to the discriminatory use of subjective criteria in the selection and promotion of supervisorial and managerial employees are suggested.…

  19. 41 CFR 60-20.3 - Job policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF LABOR 20-SEX DISCRIMINATION GUIDELINES § 60-20.3 Job policies and practices. (a) Written personnel policies relating to this subject area must expressly indicate that there shall be no discrimination against employees on account of sex. If the employer deals with a bargaining representative for his...

  20. Job Satisfaction and Co-worker Wages: Status or Signal?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Andrew; Kristensen, Nicolai; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2009-01-01

    We use matched employer-employee panel data to show that individual job satisfaction is higher when other workers in the same establishment are better-paid. This runs counter to substantial existing evidence of income comparisons in subjective well-being. We argue that the difference hinges...

  1. Unions, Within-Workplace Job Cuts and Job Security Guarantees

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson; Michael White

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the Workplace Employment Relations Survey 1998, this paper shows that unionisation increased the probability of within-workplace job cuts and the incidence of job security guarantees. As theory predicts, both are more prevalent among market-sector workplaces with higher union density and multi-unionism. Expectations that these effects would be more muted in the public sector were also confirmed.

  2. The job involvement and job satisfaction of traffic officers and bus drivers

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between job involvement and job satisfaction between the traffic officers and bus drivers of the Germiston Transitional Local Council. The following research questions were addressed: What are the levels of job involvement and job satisfaction that traffic officers and bus drivers experience? How does job involvement and job satisfaction of traffic officers and bus drivers compare? What is the relationship between job involv...

  3. Age-Differential Effects of Job Characteristics on Job Attraction: A Policy-Capturing Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zacher, Hannes; Dirkers, Bodil T.; Korek, Sabine; Hughes, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Based on an integration of job design and lifespan developmental theories, Truxillo et al. (2012) proposed that job characteristics interact with employee age in predicting important work outcomes. Using an experimental policy-capturing design, we investigated age-differential effects of four core job characteristics (i.e., job autonomy, task variety, task significance, and feedback from the job) on job attraction (i.e., individuals' rating of job attractiveness). Eighty-two employees between...

  4. Employed and unemployed job search methods: Australian evidence on search duration, wages and job stability

    OpenAIRE

    Colin Green

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the use and impact of job search methods of both unemployed and employed job seekers. Informal job search methods are associated with relativel high level of job exit and shorter search duration. Job exists through the public employment agency (PEA) display positive duration dependence for the unemployed. This may suggest that the PEA is used as a job search method of last resort. Informal job search methods have lower associated duration in search and higher wages than th...

  5. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, E.M. de; Blonk, R.W.B.; Zwart, B.C.H. de; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Broersen, J.P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers. From 1181 lorry drivers self reported information was

  6. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Croon, E. M.; Blonk, R. W. B.; de Zwart, B. C. H.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Broersen, J. P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands (physical demands and supervisor demands) on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers.

  7. The impact of change in a doctor's job position: a five-year cohort study of job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Ingunn Bjarnadottir; Rø, Karin Isaksson; Aasland, Olaf; Gude, Tore; Moum, Torbjørn; Vaglum, Per; Tyssen, Reidar

    2012-02-16

    Job satisfaction among physicians may be of importance to their individual careers and their work with patients. We lack prospective studies on whether a change in a doctor's job position influences their job satisfaction over a five-year period if we control for other workload factors. A longitudinal national cohort of all physicians who graduated in Norway in 1993 and 1994 was surveyed by postal questionnaire in 2003 (T1) and 2008 (T2). Outcomes were measured with a 10-item job satisfaction scale. Predictor variables in a multiple regression model were: change in job position, reduction in work-home interface stress, reduction in work hours, age, and gender. A total of 59% of subjects (306/522) responded at both time points. The mean value of job satisfaction in the total sample increased from 51.6 (SD = 9.0) at T1 to 53.4 (SD = 8.2) at T2 (paired t test, t = 3.8, p job satisfaction. Physicians who changed position during the period (n = 176) experienced an increase in job satisfaction from 49.5 (SD = 8.4) in 2003 to 52.9 (SD = 7.5) in 2008 (paired t test, t = 5.2, p Job satisfaction remained unchanged for physicians who stayed in the same position. There was also an increase in satisfaction among those who changed from positions other than senior house officer at T1 (p job position (from any position except SHO at T1) (β = 4.18, p job satisfaction over a five-year period, which was predicted by a change in job position and a reduction in work-home stress. This study has implications with respect to career advice for young doctors.

  8. Assessment of job-related educational qualifications for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, L.M.; Melber, B.D.; White, A.S.

    1985-04-01

    This report identifies job-related educational qualifications for the nuclear power plant licensed operator positions of reactor operator (RO), senior reactor operator (SRO), and shift supervisor (SS). The extent to which college engineering curriculum covers job-related academic knowledge was assessed. The approach used was to have subject matter experts in the field of general and nuclear engineering curriculum systematically compare college engineering program content to specific academic knowledge identified by a job analysis as necessary for licensed operators. In addition, these experts made judgments concerning levels of formal engineering education necessary for application of knowledge on the job, based on job samples from a job analysis of activities under selected normal and emergency operating sequences

  9. JOB SATISFACTION AND PREFERENCES REGARDING JOB CHARACTEREISTICS OF VOCATIONALS AND MASTER CRAFTSMAN SCHOLARS AND HORTICULTURE STUDENTS IN GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan G.H. MEYERDING

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Labour costs account for 40 % of all the costs in German horticulture. Employee satisfaction has a significant impact on the economic and social sustainability of horticultural companies. Traditional linear relationships between environmental characteristics and subjective job satisfaction have been assumed in psychological research. Warr (2007 challenged this conception with the non-linear vitamin model. The present study examines the possibility of non-linear relationships between job characteristics and job satisfaction. For this purpose, a survey was carried out using an online and a paper-and-pencil questionnaire from August 2013 to February 2015. In addition, the preferences of employees (N=229, vocational and master craftsman scholars (N=205 and students of horticulture science (N=204 regarding job characteristics were examined. This article focuses on the later two. The relationships between characteristic values and work and life satisfaction are analysed and the results of the three groups are compared. The strongest relationships with job satisfaction can be observed for vocational and master craftsman scholars for the job features emotional dissonance and considerate leadership. Additionally, employers' fair treatment of the society as a whole has a strong impact on job satisfaction. The salary can be found only in the lower middle range. The data support the assumption of non-linear relationships between job characteristic values and satisfaction. Furthermore, the personal characteristics of the study participants are included in the analysis. The study indicates a change in the preference structure of employees, who in the future would prefer a good work–life balance in particular as well as other "soft" factors.

  10. Supporting SMEs in creating jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PASNICU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available SMEs are the most dynamic sector of the economy, representing a key factor in employment growth. Although SMEs have been severely affected by the economic crisis from 2008, they continue to be a more and more important source of generating jobs, regardless of size class. Given the differentiated contribution of SMEs to job creation as a result of their heterogeneity, the article analyses the dynamics of staff in enterprises by size classes and activities of the national economy. The statistical analysis is followed by a SWOT analysis of policies and tools to support SMEs in creating jobs both with direct action - management, recruitment, training and indirectly action by addressing general business issues. Measures that support the economic growth of SMEs through internationalization, innovation and improved access to finance foster competitiveness and, implicitly, the creation of new jobs.

  11. Job Orders (Ordres de mission)

    CERN Multimedia

    Organisation & Procedures, FI Department, Tel. 73905

    2005-01-01

    Please note that individual job orders and continuous job orders (valid for one calendar year, i.e. from 1st January to 31st December) must henceforth be completed via EDH and approved by the Department Leader concerned (or the person appointed by him via EDHAdmin). Once approved, the form must be printed and kept for the duration of the mission by the driver to whom the job order is issued. You will find the icon for this document on the EDH Desktop, as well as on-line help on how to use it. In emergencies, paper copies of individual job orders (SCEM 54.50.20.168.5) may be issued outside normal working hours by the Fire Brigade (Meyrin Site, Building 65). Organisation & Procedures, FI Department, Tel. 73905 Relations with the Host States Service, Tel. 72848

  12. Job Quality by Entrepreneurial Spinoffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    We study whether entrepreneurial spinoffs are important drivers of industry dynamics. More precisely, we investigate whether the quality of jobs in spinoff entrepreneurs are higher than for other entrepreneurs. We distinguish spinoff firms by different types and distinguish between growing...

  13. Job Assignments under Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    Inefficient job assignments are usually explained with incomplete information about employees' abilities or contractual imperfections. We show that inefficient assignments arise even without uncertainty about the employee's ability and with complete contracts. Building on this result we provide...

  14. Planning for the Job Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Elizabeth, Ed.; Ramsey, Katherine, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Offers advice from middle school educators (a principal, a supervisor, and a teacher) on job interviews for teaching positions: how applicants are selected from the stack of applications, what happens during an interview, and what truly makes a difference. (SR)

  15. The Effect of Gender Identity on Job Satisfaction of Employers

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Ghasemi; Fereshteh Ghaysarieh Najafabady

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The importance and the role of gender identity in constituting the mental and personal structure of people within the society has caused this variable to be analyzed as one of the key elements in subjects and researches of the social and cultural sciences. This variable implicates as an index for evaluation of the femininity and masculinity on learned social roles and formed gender priorities. In recent years, job satisfaction and its related subjects have been introduced as ...

  16. Application of Job Demands-Resources model in research on relationships between job satisfaction, job resources, individual resources and job demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Potocka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model in the explanation of these phenomena. Materials and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. Results: The results showed that job satisfaction increased with increasing job accessibility and personal resources (r = 0.44; r = 0.31; p < 0.05. The analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated that job resources and job demands [F(1.474 = 4.004; F(1.474 = 4.166; p < 0.05] were statistically significant sources of variation in job satisfaction. Moreover, interactions between job demands and job resources [F(3,474 = 2.748; p < 0.05], as well as between job demands and personal resources [F(3.474 = 3.021; p < 0.05] had a significant impact on job satisfaction. The post hoc tests showed that 1 in low job demands, but high job resources employees declared higher job satisfaction, than those who perceived them as medium (p = 0.0001 or low (p = 0.0157; 2 when the level of job demands was perceived as medium, employees with high personal resources declared significantly higher job satisfaction than those with low personal resources (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: The JD-R model can be used to investigate job satisfaction. Taking into account fundamental factors of this model, in organizational management there are possibilities of shaping job satisfaction among employees. Med Pr 2013;64(2:217–225

  17. Employee motivation and job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ionova, Daria

    2016-01-01

    One of the purposes of this research was to explore the topics of employee motivation and job satisfaction along with finding out key motivational factors for employees in two case companies. The idea behind the thesis was to check whether Frederick Herzberg’s opinion regarding money not being the most important motivating factor at work is applicable to the two case companies. The author attempted to answer the following questions: - Which motivators affect job performance and employe...

  18. Transformational leadership and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, F; Larochelle, D R

    1995-09-01

    The relationship of head nurse leadership style to staff nurse job satisfaction was investigated using the leadership paradigm of transformational and transactional leadership. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and the Index of Work Satisfaction were completed by 122 staff nurses employed throughout acute care community hospitals in many patient care areas. Correlations showed a significant positive relationship between those head nurses exhibiting a transformational leadership style and the job satisfaction of their staff nurses.

  19. Women, Men, and Job Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl J Carleton; Suzanne Heller Clain

    2012-01-01

    We examine job satisfaction to determine whether gender differences found by previous researchers could be explained by constraints imposed by the specifications used. Applying those specifications to recent US data yields results similar to those previously found. However, clarification comes from applying specifications that allow for gender differences in sample selectivity and in the relative weights (\\[betacrc]′s) of personal/job characteristics in evaluating satisfaction. We find that g...

  20. Motivators of teacher job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Juozaitienė, Agnė; Simonaitienė, Berita

    2011-01-01

    Article is seeking to answer these questions: what factors function as motivators and enhance teacher job satisfaction and which of the motivators are manifested at school? These questions are significant from a theoretical as well as practical point of view. The research problem addressed in the article encompasses three fields and is revealed in three parts of the article. The first part analyzes the notion of teacher job satisfaction and influencing factors. The second part is dedicated to...

  1. Job loss and broken partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the accumulated number of job losses and broken partnerships (defined as the end of cohabitation) on the risk of fatal and nonfatal events of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the accumulated number of job losses and broken partnerships (defined as the end of cohabitation) on the risk of fatal and nonfatal events of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  2. 32 CFR 1656.10 - Job placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... will be reassigned in accordance with § 1656.12. (c) In making job interview referrals and in making... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job placement. 1656.10 Section 1656.10 National....10 Job placement. (a) Selective Service will maintain a job bank for the exclusive purpose of placing...

  3. Factors related to successful job reintegration of people with a lower limb amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoppen, Tanneke; Boonstra, Antje; Groothoff, JW; van Sonderen, E; Goeken, LN; Eisma, Willem

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study demographically, amputation-, and employment-related factors that show a relationship to successful job reintegration of patients after lower limb amputation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University hospital. Patients: Subjects had an acquired unilateral major

  4. Education, underemployment and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujaat Farooq

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Education is an effective vehicle for producing the required skills to maintain economic growth. The benefits of education range from human to economic, social and cultural. In Pakistan, there is significant rise in the average level of education, but over time, more and more workers incapable to use their educational background on the job. Supply of labor may have outstripped the demand of labor in some professions, and high qualified peoples taking job on low positions. Such underemployment/overeducation has not been fully explored in Pakistan. The theme of paper is “underemployment symbolizes an inefficient usage of human resources and lost output for society”.The research is based on case study on clerical workers of SNGPL. By comparing their educational backgrounds with their nature of job, this paper examines the impact of overeducation on job satisfaction. Our results show that underemployment/overeducation is correlated with higher level of job dissatisfaction, reduced job involvement, impaired co-worker relationship, and more emphasis on future aspirations.

  5. Job creation potential of solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMonagle, R.

    2005-01-01

    This document defines the size of the job market within Canada's solar industry and presents a preliminary forecast of the employment opportunities through to 2025. The issue of job potential within Canada's solar technologies is complicated by the wide range of different fields and technologies within the solar industry. The largest energy generator of the solar technologies is passive solar, but the jobs in this sector are generally in the construction trades and window manufacturers. The Canadian Solar Industries Association estimates that there are about 360 to 500 firms in Canada with the primary business of solar technologies, employing between 900 to 1,200 employees. However, most solar manufacturing jobs in Canada are for products exports as demonstrated by the 5 main solar manufacturers in Canada who estimate that 50 to 95 per cent of their products are exported. The main reason for their high export ratio is the lack of a Canadian market for their products. The 3 categories of job classifications within the solar industry include manufacturing, installation, and operations and maintenance. The indirect jobs include photovoltaic system hardware, solar hot water heating, solar air ventilation, and glass/metal framing. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Job Satisfaction of People With Intellectual Disability: Associations With Job Characteristics and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P

    2018-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of factors associated with job satisfaction of people with intellectual disability (ID), this study investigates the associations of job satisfaction with job characteristics (i.e., job demands, job resources) and personality, using the job demands-resources model. Data were gathered from 117 people and their employment support workers, using structured questionnaires adapted from well-established instruments. Job resources and age were positively associated with job satisfaction. Job demands and personality showed no significant direct associations with job satisfaction. Moderation analyses showed that for people with ID with high conscientiousness, enhanced job demands were associated with reduced job satisfaction, which was not the case for those with low conscientiousness. This study emphasizes the importance of job design.

  7. Use of both qualitative and quantitative approaches to study job stress in different gender and occupational groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Spector, Paul E; Shi, Lin

    2008-10-01

    Gender differences in job stress were investigated, collecting both qualitative (stressful incidents at work) and quantitative (rating scales of commonly experienced job stressors and strains) data from a sample of university employees. Content analyses of the qualitative data revealed 5 major job stressors, 5 major psychological strains, and 4 major physical strains experienced by both genders. When comparisons are made between men and women on their job stress experiences, a potential confounder is occupation, for which the authors controlled. While the authors controlled for occupation, women reported more overall psychological strains (as indicated by the qualitative data) and depression (as indicated by the quantitative data) than did men. Conversely, while the authors controlled for gender, faculty reported more anger and less frustration (as indicated by the qualitative data) and less turnover intentions (as indicated by the quantitative data) than did support staff. In this study, both qualitative and quantitative data indicated interaction effects between gender and occupation in predicting job stressors and strains. Finally, there was a stronger relation between interpersonal conflicts and negative emotions/job satisfaction were stronger for faculty than for staff.

  8. The Relationship between Job Training and Job Satisfaction: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    As stand-alone concepts, job satisfaction and job training have each been researched extensively. However, encouraged by researchers who have found a myriad of effects of job training on employee behavior in the workplace, the concepts of job training and job satisfaction are being examined together. Results of many studies indicate that the…

  9. The Experience of Emotions during the Job Search and Choice Process among Novice Job Seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Gauvin, Natalie; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate the role of emotions in the job search and choice process of novice job seekers. Results of qualitative analyses of the first-person accounts of 41 job seekers indicate that participants whose recollections of their job search contained emotional language were more likely to display a haphazard job search strategy than…

  10. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobilityboth in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labourmarket. In addition, there is a clear negative...... effect of home ownership on the unemployment risk and a positive impact on wages. These results are robust to differentstrategies for correcting for the possible endogeneity of the home owner variable....

  11. ATLAS job monitoring in the Dashboard Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sargsyan, L; Andreeva, J; Campana, S; Karavakis, E; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Saiz, P; Schovancova, J; Tuckett, D

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of the large-scale data processing of the ATLAS experiment includes monitoring of production and user analysis jobs. The Experiment Dashboard provides a common job monitoring solution, which is shared by ATLAS and CMS experiments. This includes an accounting portal as well as real-time monitoring. Dashboard job monitoring for ATLAS combines information from PanDA job processing database, Production system database and monitoring information from jobs submitted through GANGA to Work...

  12. Analyzing data flows of WLCG jobs at batch job level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    With the introduction of federated data access to the workflows of WLCG, it is becoming increasingly important for data centers to understand specific data flows regarding storage element accesses, firewall configurations, as well as the scheduling of batch jobs themselves. As existing batch system monitoring and related system monitoring tools do not support measurements at batch job level, a new tool has been developed and put into operation at the GridKa Tier 1 center for monitoring continuous data streams and characteristics of WLCG jobs and pilots. Long term measurements and data collection are in progress. These measurements already have been proven to be useful analyzing misbehaviors and various issues. Therefore we aim for an automated, realtime approach for anomaly detection. As a requirement, prototypes for standard workflows have to be examined. Based on measurements of several months, different features of HEP jobs are evaluated regarding their effectiveness for data mining approaches to identify these common workflows. The paper will introduce the actual measurement approach and statistics as well as the general concept and first results classifying different HEP job workflows derived from the measurements at GridKa.

  13. Family nursing hospital training and the outcome on job demands, control and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Anna Olafia; Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun; Juliusdottir, Sigrun

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a family systems nursing hospital training educational program (ETI program) on nurses' and midwives' perception of job demands, control, and/or support. Of the nurses and midwives who were working in the Women's and Children's Services Division at The National University Hospital in Iceland, 479 participated in the study on three time periods from 2009 to 2011. Scores for the characteristics of job demands and job control were created to categorize participants into four job types (Karasek and Theorell, 1990). These four job types are high strain (high demand, low control), passive (low demand, low control), low strain (low demand, high control), and active (high demand, high control). However, when the data were evaluated based on the proportion of job characteristics as reported by the nurses and the midwives, no significant difference was found over time (2009 to 2011) (χ(2)=5.203, p=.518). However, based on the results from the independent t-tests at time 1, a significant difference was found amongst the high strain job group regarding perceived support from administrators and colleagues among the nurses and midwives who had taken the ETI program compared to those who had not taken the program (χ(2)=2.218, p=.034). This indicates that the health care professionals who characterized their job to be of high demand but with low control evaluated the support from their administrators and colleagues to be significantly higher if they had taken the ETI program than did the nurses and midwives who did not take the ETI program. These findings are promising because they might, in the long run, increase the nurses' and midwives' autonomy and control over their own work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Job satisfaction in psychiatric nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M; Cowman, S

    2007-08-01

    In recent years, mental health services across Europe have undergone major organizational change with a move from institutional to community care. In such a context, the impact of change on the job satisfaction of psychiatric nurses has received little attention in the literature. This paper reports on the job satisfaction of psychiatric nurses and data were collected in 2003. The population of qualified psychiatric nurses (n = 800) working in a defined geographical health board area was surveyed. Methodological triangulation with a between-methods approach was used in the study. Data were collected on job satisfaction using a questionnaire adopted from the Occupational Stress Indicator. A response rate of 346 (43%) was obtained. Focus groups were used to collect qualitative data. Factors influencing levels of job satisfaction predominantly related to the nurses work location. Other factors influencing job satisfaction included choice of work location, work routine, off duty/staff allocation arrangements, teamwork and working environment. The results of the study highlight to employers of psychiatric nurses the importance of work location, including the value of facilitating staff with choices in their working environment, which may influence the recruitment and retention of nurses in mental health services.

  15. Influence of higher order need strenght and job characteristics on job performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. H. Blignaut

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary theories of work motivation are classified according to (1 those based on the underlying assumption that all individuals posses higher level need, are capable of satisfying and will indeed satisfy such needs provided the job situation incorporates the conditions or characteristics that make satisfaction possible and (2 those theories suggesting that an individual may or may not be motivated by certain job characteristics depending on whether he in fact has specific (higher level needs to be fulfilled and whether he views the job situation as conductive to need satisfaction. 126 Subjects employed by a chemical industry took part in an experiment designed to test the basic assumptions underlying the aforementioned theories. Data relating to higher order need satisfaction, the psychological value of job content and job performance served as input to a 2X2 factorial analysis. Results indicate that only the psychological value of job content represented a significant source of variation (p is smaller as ,01 - a finding which favours category (1 theories to a large extent. No significant interaction between the latter source of variation and higher order need satisfaction could be found. Opsomming Kontemporêre motiveringsteorieë in die Bedryfsielkunde word geklassifiseer in twee groepe naamlik (1 dié wat berus op die basiese aanname dat alle werknemers hoëvlak behoeftes het en die bevrediging daarvan sal nastreef solank die inhoud van die werk dit moontlik maak en (2 dié wat op die aanname berus dat sielkundig gunstige werksinhoud waarskynlik hoëvlak behoeftebevrediging tot gevolg sal hê, afhangende van hoe die individu die werksituasie waarneem. 126 Werknemers in 'n Suid-Afrikaanse chemiese nywerheid is by 'n eksperiment betrek waarin bogenoemde basiese aannames teenoor mekaar gestel is. Data ten opsigte van die sielkundige waarde van werksinhoud, hoëvlak behoeftebevrediging en werksprestasie dien as inset tot 'n 2x2 faktoriale

  16. The vanishing middle: job polarization and workers’ response to the decline in middle-skill jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Didem Tüzemen; Jonathan L. Willis

    2013-01-01

    The share of middle-skill jobs in the United States has fallen sharply in the wake of advancing technology, the rise in outsourcing jobs overseas, and contractions in manufacturing. This shift of employment toward high- and low-skill jobs, known as "job polarization," is not well understood ; Tuzemen and Willis analyze thirty years of data from the Current Population Survey and show that changes in job composition within industries have been the primary driver of job polarization, not shifts ...

  17. The Impact of Job Stress and Job Satisfaction on Workforce Productivity in an Iranian Petrochemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Hoboubi; Alireza Choobineh; Fatemeh Kamari Ghanavati; Sareh Keshavarzi; Ali Akbar Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Background: Job stress and job satisfaction are important factors affecting workforce productivity. This study was carried out to investigate the job stress, job satisfaction, and workforce productivity levels, to examine the effects of job stress and job satisfaction on workforce productivity, and to identify factors associated with productivity decrement among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry. Methods: In this study, 125 randomly selected employees of an Iranian petrochemic...

  18. Employee Job Satisfaction and Job Performance: A Case Study in a Franchised Retail-Chain Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Yvonne; Rabeatul Husna Abdull Rahman; Choi Sang Long

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance among the employees. Job satisfaction is being discussed in term of its nine facets: pay, promotion, supervision, fringe benefits, contingent rewards, operating procedures, co-workers, nature of works and communication. On the other hand, job performance is being viewed in the aspects of contextual performance and task performance. The result of the study found that the two variables (job satisfaction and job pe...

  19. Determinants of job stress in chemical process industry: A factor analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Balagopal G; Praveensal, C J; Madhu, G

    2015-01-01

    Job stress is one of the active research domains in industrial safety research. The job stress can result in accidents and health related issues in workers in chemical process industries. Hence it is important to measure the level of job stress in workers so as to mitigate the same to avoid the worker's safety related problems in the industries. The objective of this study is to determine the job stress factors in the chemical process industry in Kerala state, India. This study also aims to propose a comprehensive model and an instrument framework for measuring job stress levels in the chemical process industries in Kerala, India. The data is collected through a questionnaire survey conducted in chemical process industries in Kerala. The collected data out of 1197 surveys is subjected to principal component and confirmatory factor analysis to develop the job stress factor structure. The factor analysis revealed 8 factors that influence the job stress in process industries. It is also found that the job stress in employees is most influenced by role ambiguity and the least by work environment. The study has developed an instrument framework towards measuring job stress utilizing exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

  20. Job Search, Networks, and Labor Market Performance of Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Arceo-Gómez, Eva Olimpia

    2012-01-01

    We develop an on-the-job search model in which immigrants search for jobs through formal channels or networks, and the quality of job offers differs across search methods. The model predicts networks unambiguously lead to a larger share of network jobs in job-to-job transitions, whereas the effect is ambiguous in unemployment-to-job transitions.