WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjective in-group status

  1. Status in Groups: The Importance of Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, Cecilia L.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment with mixed and same sex groups provided evidence that perceived motivation towards the group determines members' attained influence and status in task-oriented groups. While group-oriented members are generally more influential than self-oriented ones, the degree of motivation's effect depends on the member's external status…

  2. On the effects of changes in group status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Prišlin

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Change is very frequent sociopsychological phenomena, that we notice when transformations from minority to majority, high to low social status, weak to strong social position and vice versa are being conducted. Causes of change are described in literature that deals with attitudes and persuasion, group dynamics, conformity and group development. But we lack the information concerned with consequences of change. This article describes three subjects related to this problem: (i assessment and evaluation of personal change, (ii assessment and evaluation of social change and (iii reactions to change-related agents in a group context. The author introduces a series of experiments based on loss-gain asymmetry (Tversky & Kahneman, 1991. The results implicate that assessment and evaluation of change is influenced by different agents like the direction of comparison (comparing past to present or vice versa, desirability of stability or change of attitudes, maintaining the positive views about the self or the group, gain or loss of group status or power. The change of group status leads to change in the perception of group-self similarity and group attraction, expectancies about future group interactions and group self-evaluation. Change of group status and power is a central determinant of intergroup relations.

  3. SUBJECTIVE SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND HEALTH: RELATIONSHIPS RECONSIDERED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda; Adler, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Subjective status, an individual’s perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8,430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general health. These relationships persist in the presence of controls for unobserved traits, such as difficult-to-measure aspects of family background and persistent aspects of personality. However, we find evidence that these links likely represent bi-directional effects. Declines in health that accompany aging are robust predictors of declines in perceived socioeconomic status, net of observed changes to the economic profile of respondents. The results thus underscore the social value afforded good health status. PMID:23453318

  4. Developmental Trajectories of Subjective Social Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Sarah; Malspeis, Susan; Adler, Nancy

    2015-09-01

    Subjective social status (SSS), a person's sense of their (or for youth, abstract their family's) position in the socioeconomic hierarchy, is strongly related to health in adults but not health in adolescence. Understanding this developmental discrepancy requires first understanding the developmental trajectory of SSS. The objective of this study was to identify the number and shape of SSS trajectories as adolescents transition to adulthood and explore if trajectory membership affects health. Using data from 7436 assessments from the Princeton School District Study, a decade long cohort study of non-Hispanic black and white youth, latent class growth models with 3 to 7 SSS trajectories were developed. Model fit, trajectory structure, and shape were used to guide optimal model selection. Using this optimal model, the associations of trajectory membership with BMI and depressive symptoms in young adulthood were explored. The 5-class model was optimal. In this model, trajectories were persistent high (7.8%),mid–high (32.2%), middle (43.4%), low–lower (7.4%), and high–low (9.1%). Non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, lower household income, and low parent education were associated with membership in this high–low trajectory. High–low trajectory membership was associated with higher BMI and depressive symptoms in non-Hispanic white subjects but was not associated with depressive symptoms. It was associated with lower BMI only after adjustment for BMI in adolescence in non-Hispanic black subjects. SSS is relatively stable in adolescence and the transition to adulthood, and it generally reflects objective markers of social advantage. However, socially disadvantaged youth with high SSS in early adolescence may be at increased health risk.

  5. Smoking status and subjective well-being.

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    Weinhold, Diana; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2017-03-01

    A debate is currently underway about the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) methods for evaluating antitobacco regulation. In particular, the US government requires a cost-benefit analysis for significant new regulations, which has led the FDA to consider potential lost subjective well-being (SWB) of ex-smokers as a cost of any proposed antitobacco policy. This practice, which significantly limits regulatory capacity, is premised on the assumption that there is in fact a loss in SWB among ex-smokers. We analyse the relationship between SWB and smoking status using a longitudinal internet survey of over 5000 Dutch adults across 5 years. We control for socioeconomic, demographic and health characteristics, and in a contribution to the literature, we additionally control for two potential confounding personality characteristics, habitual use of external substances and sensitivity to stress. In another contribution, we estimate panel fixed effects models that additionally control for unobservable time-invariant characteristics. We find strong suggestive evidence that ex-smokers do not suffer a net loss in SWB. We also find no evidence that the change in SWB of those who quit smoking under stricter tobacco control policies is different from those who quit under a more relaxed regulatory environment. Furthermore, our cross-sectional estimates suggest that the increase in SWB from quitting smoking is statistically significant and also of a meaningful magnitude. In sum, we find no empirical support for the proposition that ex-smokers suffer lower net SWB compared to when they were smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Charisma, status, and gender in groups with and without gurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John Levi; Van Gunten, Tod; Zablocki, Benjamin D

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have noted that small religious groups with charismatic leaders seem to have different gender dynamics than do groups without. We argue that the presence of such a leader changes what charisma “means” in such a group. Without such a leader, strong personalities may appear charismatic and lead to positions of high status—and such dynamics historically have tended to be associated with a positional advantage to males. With such a leader, however, charisma is more likely to be compatible with receptivity and decoupled from gender characteristics that tend to disadvantage women, leading charismatic women to have greater status than they would otherwise have.

  7. Variation in Subjective Aging by Sexual Minority Status.

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    Barrett, Anne; Barbee, Harry

    2017-06-01

    The past few decades have seen increased scholarly attention to gay and lesbian individuals' aging experiences; however, few studies examine differences in subjective aging by sexual minority status. We identify four perspectives on the association between sexual minority status and subjective aging-double jeopardy, crisis competence, gender interactive, and limited salience perspectives. We examine each perspective's predictions using data from the first wave of Midlife in the United States (1995-1996; MIDUS). Ordinary least square regression models reveal strongest support for the limited salience perspective, suggesting that sexual minority status has weaker effects on subjective aging than do other social factors, such as age, health, and gender. However, some results provide support for the gender interactive perspective, positing that the effect of sexual minority status on subjective aging varies by gender. Our study provides an organizational framework of theoretical perspectives that can guide further examinations of variation in aging experiences by sexual minority status.

  8. Subjective socioeconomic status and health in cross-national comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praeg, Patrick; Mills, Melinda C.; Wittek, Rafael

    Research has established a robust association between subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and health outcomes, which holds over and above the associations between objective markers of SES and health. Furthermore, comparative research on health inequalities has shown considerable variation in the

  9. Association of subjective social status and sociodemographic indicators in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyla Thais Dias de Freitas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n5p591   Subjective social status comprises the perception of individuals about their social status. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective social status and sociodemographic indicators (age, educational level, marital status and economic level in athletes from Santa Catharina. A total of 593 athletes of both sexes and mean age of 21.18 (± 5.58 years, 371 men, randomly selected, practitioners of individual and collective sport modalities, federated in clubs in the western region of Santa Catarina participated in the study. Social status perception was assessed using the MacArthur scale version for young people adapted to the sports context. For the association between perceived status and sociodemographic indicators, the Chi-square and Multinomial Logistic Regression tests were used, stratified by gender and adjusted for age variables, educational level, marital status and socioeconomic status. Dissatisfaction with status was found in 85% of the sample. Moreover, 46.9% of participants perceived themselves with low family status and 46% perceived themselves with intermediate status in their clubs. The association between groups showed statistically significant differences according to sex, age, educational level and marital status. The association between sociodemographic variables and status according to sex indicated that younger men, with less education, and single were more likely to be dissatisfied with their status. There is need for greater attention by health professionals regarding younger male athletes, with lower education and single regarding their status perception.

  10. Status inconsistency in groups : How discrepancies between instrumental and expressive status result in symptoms of stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Brake, Hendrik; Grow, André; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis

    This study examines whether a mismatch between the positions that individuals hold in different status hierarchies results in symptoms of stress. Prior research has focused on inconsistencies between socioeconomic status dimensions (e.g., education and income) and did not find a significant relation

  11. Evaluation of perioperative nutritional status with subjective global assessment method in patients undergoing gastrointestinal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdim, Aylin; Aktan, Ahmet Özdemir

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the perioperative nutritional status of patients undergoing surgery for gastrointestinal cancer using Subjective Global Assessment and surgeon behavior on nutritional support. We recruited 100 patients undergoing surgery for gastrointestinal cancer in one university and two state teaching hospitals. Subjective Global Assessment was administered to evaluate preoperative and postoperative nutritional status. Fifty-two patients in the state hospitals (Group 1) and 48 in the university hospital were assessed. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed. Changes in preoperative Subjective Global Assessment scores and scores at the time of discharge and types of nutritional support were compared. Subjective Global Assessment-B was regarded as moderate and Subjective Global Assessment-C as heavy malnutrition. Ten patients had Subjective Global Assessment-B and 29 had Subjective Global Assessment-C malnutrition in Group 1 and nine had Subjective Global Assessment-B and 31 had Subjective Global Assessment-C malnutrition in Group 2 during preoperative assessment. Respective numbers in postoperative assessment were 12 for Subjective Global Assessment-B and 30 for Subjective Global Assessment-C in Group 1 and 14 for Subjective Global Assessment-B and 26 for Subjective Global Assessment-C in Group 2. There was no difference between two groups. Nutritional methods according to Subjective Global Assessment evaluation in pre- and postoperative periods were not different between the groups. This study demonstrated that the malnutrition rate is high among patients scheduled for gastrointestinal cancer surgery and the number of surgeons were inadequate to provide perioperative nutritional support. Both university and state hospitals had similar shortcomings. Subjective Global Assessment is an easy and reliable test and if utilized will be helpful to detect patients requiring nutritional support.

  12. Subjective social status moderates cortisol responses to social threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenewald, Tara L; Kemeny, Margaret E; Aziz, Najib

    2006-07-01

    Research has demonstrated a robust relationship between social status, physiology and health in humans and animals. However, perceptions of social status within a specific social group have rarely been studied in this area and may provide additional relevant information. The current investigation examines subjective perceptions of social status as a moderator of cognitive, emotional and cortisol responses to stressor tasks characterized by social-evaluative threat or its absence. As part of a larger study, 81 college students living in a residential dormitory completed a measure of their subjective perceptions of their social status within their dormitory floor. They were randomly assigned to undergo a standard performance stressor task either with or without social evaluation. It was hypothesized that individuals who perceived that they were of low status within their dorm group would show greater increases in negative self-evaluative emotions (i.e., shame) and cognitions (low social self-esteem) and greater cortisol responses to the stressor under conditions of social-evaluative threat. Subjective social status moderated cortisol responses to the social-evaluative stressor, but in a direction opposite that hypothesized. Individuals who perceived themselves to be of high status showed sizable and significant cortisol increases (both peak and recovery), while those who perceived themselves to be of low status did not mount a significant cortisol response to the stressor. Both groups showed increased negative self-evaluative responses to the tasks. A discussion of the possible health implications of the robust cortisol responses of high status individuals and the hyporesponsive cortisol reactions of low status individuals is provided.

  13. Employment status and job insecurity: On the subjective appraisal of an objective status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klandermans, B.; Klein Hesselink, J.; Vuuren, T. van

    2010-01-01

    The article argues that job insecurity has subjective aspects that are not determined by the objective levels of security of someone's employment status. These subjective aspects can be divided into two elements: the perceived probability and the perceived severity of job loss. The psychological

  14. Association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Koen; van der Velde, Kelly; Joosten, Pieter; Rutten, Hans; Hulst, Jessie; Dulfer, Karolijn

    2016-04-01

    In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools. Overall, 642 children, median age 9.8 years (IQR 7.7-11.5), 60 % male, 72 % Caucasian, were included in this prospective study in nine special schools for chronically ill children in the Netherlands. Overall malnutrition was assessed as: acute malnutrition (nutritional risk-screening tool STRONGkids. Subjective health status was assessed with EQ-5D. Overall, 16 % of the children had overall malnutrition: 3 % acute and 13 % chronic malnutrition. Nurses reported 'some/severe problems' on the health status dimensions mobility (15 %), self-care (17 %), usual activities (19 %), pain/discomfort (22 %), and anxiety/depression (22 %) in chronically ill children. Their mean visual analogue scale score (VAS) was 73.0 (SD 11.1). Malnutrition, medication usage, and younger age explained 38 % of the variance of the VAS score. The presence of overall malnutrition in chronically ill children attending special schools was associated with lower subjective health status, especially in younger children and in those with chronic medication usage. Therefore, it is important to develop and use profile-screening tools to identify these children.

  15. Validity of subjective smoking status in orthopedic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Bender,* Patrick Haubruck,* Sonja Boxriker, Sebastian Korff, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Arash Moghaddam Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Center for Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: In this level 1 diagnostic study, we analyzed the validity of subjective smoking status and, as secondary research question, the smoking cessation adherence in orthopedic patients during a routine hospital stay of nonunion patients by measuring serum cotinine.  Methods: We included patients undergoing revision surgery due to nonunion of long bones. Patients were interviewed about their smoking status. Blood samples were taken from all the patients prior to surgery and for an additional 6 weeks following surgery. Serum levels of cotinine were measured, and coherence between subjective smoking status and objective cotinine analysis was evaluated.  Results: Between March 2012 and August 2014, we enrolled 136 patients. Six of the 26 “previous smokers” (23% and four of the 65 “nonsmokers” (6% had serum cotinine above cutoff levels. In self-labeled smokers, serum cotinine levels averaged at 2,367.4±14,885.9 ng/mL (with a median of 100 ng/mL, whereas in previous smokers the levels averaged at 4,270±19,619.4 ng/mL (with a median of 0 ng/mL and in the nonsmokers group the levels averaged at 12±53.9 ng/mL (with a median of 0.03 ng/mL. Overall, the subjective smoking status matched serum cotinine testing in 88% of the cases. Sensitivity was 79.6% and specificity was 93.1%. Ninety-one percent of the patients with preoperative positive serum values were still positive at follow-up.  Conclusion: In this study, we could show that subjective smoking status in orthopedic patients is predominantly reliable as validated by objective cotinine measurements; however, patients who declare themselves as “previous smokers” are at elevated risk

  16. Association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.F.M. Joosten (Koen); K. van der Velde (Kelly); P. Joosten (Pieter); H. Rutten (Hans); J.M. Hulst (Jessie); K. Dulfer (Karolijn)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the

  17. Do Facebook Status Updates Reflect Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Tov, William; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Qiu, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, millions of people around the world use social networking sites to express everyday thoughts and feelings. Many researchers have tried to make use of social media to study users' online behaviors and psychological states. However, previous studies show mixed results about whether self-generated contents on Facebook reflect users' subjective well-being (SWB). This study analyzed Facebook status updates to determine the extent to which users' emotional expression predicted their SWB-specifically their self-reported satisfaction with life. It was found that positive emotional expressions on Facebook did not correlate with life satisfaction, whereas negative emotional expressions within the past 9-10 months (but not beyond) were significantly related to life satisfaction. These findings suggest that both the type of emotional expressions and the time frame of status updates determine whether emotional expressions in Facebook status updates can effectively reflect users' SWB. The findings shed light on the characteristics of online social media and improve the understanding of how user-generated contents reflect users' psychological states.

  18. Clues of subjective social status among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M

    2015-07-01

    We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Subjective Social Status and Self-Reported Health Among US-born and Immigrant Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Jeremiah R; Glenn, Beth A; Mistry, Rashmita S; Ponce, Ninez A; Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2017-02-01

    Subjective social status is associated with a range of health outcomes. Few studies have tested the relevance of subjective social status among Latinos in the U.S.; those that have yielded mixed results. Data come from the Latino subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2554). Regression models adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic factors. Stratified analyses tested whether nativity status modifies the effect of subjective social status on health. Subjective social status was associated with better health. Income and education mattered more for health than subjective social status among U.S.-born Latinos. However, the picture was mixed among immigrant Latinos, with subjective social status more strongly predictive than income but less so than education. Subjective social status may tap into stressful immigrant experiences that affect one's perceived self-worth and capture psychosocial consequences and social disadvantage left out by conventional socioeconomic measures.

  20. Predictors of subjective health status 10 years post-PCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. van den Berge

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: SF-36 scores at baseline, age, and previous PCI were significant predictors of subjective health status 10 years post-PCI. Specifically, the SF-36 score at baseline was an important predictor. Thus assessment of subjective health status at baseline is useful as an indicator to predict long-term subjective health status. Subjective health status becomes better by optimal medical treatment, cardiac rehabilitation and psychosocial support. This is the first study determining predictors of subjective health status 10 years post-PCI.

  1. Preserving Subject Variability in Group fMRI Analysis: Performance Evaluation of GICA versus IVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eMichael

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA is a widely applied technique to derive functionally connected brain networks from fMRI data. Group ICA (GICA and Independent Vector Analysis (IVA are extensions of ICA that enable users to perform group fMRI analyses; however a full comparison of the performance limits of GICA and IVA has not been investigated. Recent interest in resting state fMRI data with potentially higher degree of subject variability makes the evaluation of the above techniques important. In this paper we compare component estimation accuracies of GICA and an improved version of IVA using simulated fMRI datasets. We systematically change the degree of component spatial variability and evaluate estimation accuracy over all spatial maps (SMs and time courses (TCs of the decomposition. Our results indicate the following: (1 at low levels of SM variability or when just one SM is varied, both GICA and IVA perform well, (2 at higher levels of SM variability or when more than one SMs are varied, IVA continues to perform well but GICA yields SM estimates that are composites of other SMs with errors in TCs, (3 both GICA and IVA remove spatial correlations of overlapping SMs and introduce artificial correlations in their TCs, (4 if number of SMs is over estimated, IVA continues to perform well but GICA introduces artifacts in the varying and extra SMs with artificial correlations in the TCs of extra components, and (5 in the absence or presence of SMs unique to one subject, GICA produces errors in TCs and IVA estimates are accurate. In summary, our simulation experiments (both simplistic and realistic and our holistic analyses approach indicate that IVA produces results that are closer to ground truth and thereby better preserves subject variability. The improved version of IVA is now packaged into the GIFT toolbox (http://mialab.mrn.org/software/gift.

  2. Community, family, and subjective socioeconomic status: Relative status and adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, Elizabeth C; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2015-06-01

    Relative socioeconomic status (SES) may be an important social determinant of health. The current study aimed to examine how relative SES, as measured by subjective SES, income inequality, and individual SES relative to others in the community, is associated with a wide range of adolescent health outcomes, after controlling for objective family SES. Adolescents (13-16 years; N = 2,199) from the Quebec Child and Adolescent Health and Social Survey were included. Socioeconomic measures included adolescents' subjective SES; parental education and household income; community education/employment, income, and poverty rate; and community income inequality. Health outcomes included self-rated health, mental health problems, dietary and exercise health behaviors, substance-related health behaviors, reported physical health, and biomarkers of health. Best-fitting multilevel regression models (participants nested within schools) were used to test associations. Findings indicated that lower subjective SES was associated with poorer health outcomes. After accounting for family SES, lower community education/employment had an additional negative effect on health, while lower community income had a protective effect for certain health outcomes. There was less evidence for an independent effect of income inequality. Findings highlight the importance of measures of relative SES that span across a number of levels and contexts, and provide further understanding into the socioeconomic gradient in adolescence. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The Latina Birth Weight Paradox: the Role of Subjective Social Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, Jill; Sunil, Thankam

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of this project was to quantitatively test differences in subjective social status scores between non-pregnant and pregnant women to determine the role of subjective social status in birth weight variation between Mexico-born and US-born Mexican-American women. Six hundred low-income pregnant and non-pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in south Texas were surveyed for subjective social status, depression, perceived social stress, parity, and pregnancy intendedness. Psychosocial health variables, parity, and pregnancy intendedness were included due to their significant associations with low birth weight. Pregnant women had higher subjective social status scores than non-pregnant women. The difference in scores between non-pregnant and pregnant women was smaller in Mexican immigrant women than Mexican-American women. Pregnancy intendedness did not influence subjective social status in pregnant women of either sample, but having children (parity) in both samples was associated with higher subjective social status scores. Among Mexican-American women, community subjective social status was correlated with levels of depressive symptoms and perceived social stress. Subjective social status, depression, and perceived social stress were not correlated among Mexican immigrant women. Our results suggest that incorporation into the USA influences maternal mental health vis-à-vis changes in how women of reproductive age think about themselves and their gender roles in relation to others. Theoretically, our work supports mixed-method approaches to document how culture change as a result of immigration may impact maternal and infant health. Future research should test whether the effect of subjective social status on birth weight occurs when subjective social status does not correlate with depression or stress.

  4. The Effects of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status on Subjective Well-Being among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China: The Moderating Role of Subjective Social Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Silin; Hou, Jiawei; Sun, Ling; Dou, Donghui; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Hongchuan

    2017-01-01

    Although previous investigations have agreed that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants' socioeconomic status (SES) increases with their migration, the association between SES and subjective well-being is uncertain. To address this research gap, the present study proposed that the association between objective SES and subjective well-being is mediated by subjective SES. This model was tested with a sample of 432 Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. The results indicate a significant association between objective SES and subjective well-being and a partial mediating effect of subjective SES. Furthermore, subjective social mobility, which is one's expectation about the possibility to move upward in the social hierarchy, was found to moderate both the direct path from objective SES to subjective well-being and the indirect path from subjective SES to subjective well-being. These findings suggest that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants gained in subjective well-being not only because of direct financial achievement but also because of their perceptions and beliefs about their relative social status.

  5. Legal status, emotional well-being and subjective health status of Latino immigrants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Zayas, Luis H; Spitznagel, Edward L

    2007-01-01

    Among the many stresses that undocumented Latino immigrants experience, worries about their legal status and preoccupation with disclosure and deportation can heighten the risk for emotional distress...

  6. Interactive Effects of Anxiety Sensitivity and Subjective Social Status on Psychological Symptomatology in Black Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Childress, Sarah D; Obasi, Ezemenari M; Garey, Lorra; Vidrine, Damon J; McNeill, Lorna H; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity is the fear of anxiety-related sensations and subjective social status is a self-perception of social standing relative to others: both constructs have been linked to psychological symptomatology. This study investigated the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptomatology expression among 124 black adults. Participants provided sociodemographics and completed self-report questionnaires. The interactive associations between anxiety sensitivity and social status on anxiety symptomatology and depressive symptomatology were examined with hierarchical linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographics and negative affectivity. Significant interactions between anxiety sensitivity and social status were evident only for anxiety symptoms: specifically, the association between anxiety sensitivity and anxiety symptoms was much stronger for individuals with lower (versus higher) subjective social status. Black adults with this higher anxiety sensitivity/lower social status phenotype may be at heightened risk for the expression of anxiety symptomatology, and may benefit from interventions to reduce anxiety sensitivity.

  7. Trajectory of Life Satisfaction and Its Relationship with Subjective Economic Status and Successful Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between subjective economic status and indicators of successful aging to life satisfaction trajectories among the elderly in Taiwan. Data were from the four waves of "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan". Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted. Subjective…

  8. Gender Differences in Marital Status Moderation of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Subjective Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Deborah; Franz, Carol E; Horwitz, Briana; Christensen, Kaare; Gatz, Margaret; Johnson, Wendy; Kaprio, Jaako; Korhonen, Tellervo; Niederheiser, Jenae; Petersen, Inge; Rose, Richard J; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-10-14

    From the IGEMS Consortium, data were available from 26,579 individuals aged 23 to 102 years on 3 subjective health items: self-rated health (SRH), health compared to others (COMP), and impact of health on activities (ACT). Marital status was a marker of environmental resources that may moderate genetic and environmental influences on subjective health. Results differed for the 3 subjective health items, indicating that they do not tap the same construct. Although there was little impact of marital status on variance components for women, marital status was a significant modifier of variance in all 3 subjective health measures for men. For both SRH and ACT, single men demonstrated greater shared and nonshared environmental variance than married men. For the COMP variable, genetic variance was greater for single men vs. married men. Results suggest gender differences in the role of marriage as a source of resources that are associated with subjective health.

  9. Gender Differences in Marital Status Moderation of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Subjective Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Deborah; Franz, Carol E.; Horwitz, Briana; Christensen, Kaare; Gatz, Margaret; Johnson, Wendy; Kaprio, Jaako; Korhonen, Tellervo; Niederheiser, Jenae; Petersen, Inge; Rose, Richard J.; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-01-01

    From the IGEMS Consortium, data were available from 26,579 individuals aged 23 to 102 years on 3 subjective health items: self-rated health (SRH), health compared to others (COMP), and impact of health on activities (ACT). Marital status was a marker of environmental resources that may moderate genetic and environmental influences on subjective health. Results differed for the 3 subjective health items, indicating that they do not tap the same construct. Although there was little impact of marital status on variance components for women, marital status was a significant modifier of variance in all 3 subjective health measures for men. For both SRH and ACT, single men demonstrated greater shared and nonshared environmental variance than married men. For the COMP variable, genetic variance was greater for single men vs. married men. Results suggest gender differences in the role of marriage as a source of resources that are associated with subjective health. PMID:26468112

  10. Employment status and subjective well-being: The role of the social norm to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; Graaf, P.M. de

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct

  11. Employment status and subjective well-being : The role of the social norm to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; de Graaf, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct

  12. Gender Differences in Marital Status Moderation of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Subjective Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkel, Deborah; Franz, Carol E; Horwitz, Briana

    2016-01-01

    genetic and environmental influences on subjective health. Results differed for the 3 subjective health items, indicating that they do not tap the same construct. Although there was little impact of marital status on variance components for women, marital status was a significant modifier of variance...... in all 3 subjective health measures for men. For both SRH and ACT, single men demonstrated greater shared and nonshared environmental variance than married men. For the COMP variable, genetic variance was greater for single men vs. married men. Results suggest gender differences in the role of marriage...

  13. Subjective social status and shaming experiences in relation to adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslund, Cecilia; Leppert, Jerzy; Starrin, Bengt; Nilsson, Kent W

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the associations among social status, shaming experiences, and adolescent depression using a status-shaming model. Population-based, self-report cohort study. Västmanland, Sweden. A cohort of 5396 students in grade 9 (age 15-16 years) and the second year of high school (age 17-18 years). Intervention Participants completed the anonymous questionnaire Survey of Adolescent Life in Västmanland-2006 during class hours. We investigated the prevalence of depression according to the Depression Self-Rating Scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision), A-criterion, regarding subjective social status, shaming experiences, and social background. Social status was measured as (1) attributed status of a family's socioeconomic and social standing and (2) acquired status of peer group and school. Binary logistic regressions were used for the analyses. Shaming experiences and low social status interacted with depression. If shaming experiences were present, participants with both high and low attributed status were at increased risk for depression (odds ratio [low and high groups, respectively], 5.4-6.9), whereas medium status seemed to have a protective function. For acquired status, the highest elevated risk was found in participants with low status (odds ratio [girls and boys, respectively], 6.7-8.6). Social status may influence the risk for depression when an individual is subjected to shaming experiences. The present study contributes to the mapping of the influence of social status on health and may have essential implications for understanding, preventing, and treating adolescent depression.

  14. Gender Differences in Marital Status Moderation of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Subjective Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkel, Deborah; Franz, Carol E; Horwitz, Briana

    2016-01-01

    genetic and environmental influences on subjective health. Results differed for the 3 subjective health items, indicating that they do not tap the same construct. Although there was little impact of marital status on variance components for women, marital status was a significant modifier of variance...... in all 3 subjective health measures for men. For both SRH and ACT, single men demonstrated greater shared and nonshared environmental variance than married men. For the COMP variable, genetic variance was greater for single men vs. married men. Results suggest gender differences in the role of marriage......From the IGEMS Consortium, data were available from 26,579 individuals aged 23 to 102 years on 3 subjective health items: self-rated health (SRH), health compared to others (COMP), and impact of health on activities (ACT). Marital status was a marker of environmental resources that may moderate...

  15. Assessment of periodontal status among dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep R; John, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    To determine the periodontal status and treatment needs among dental fluorosis subjects residing in Ennore, Chennai, using Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). All the subjects with dental fluorosis above 15 years of age, permanent residents of Ennore, were included in the study. Subjects with known systemic diseases and subjects with other intrinsic dental stains were excluded from the study. Periodontal status was estimated using CPITN and Dental fluorosis was recorded using Dean's Dental Fluorosis Index. The total number of study subjects was 1075, of which 489 were males and 586 were females. Males were predominantly affected with periodontal disease than females. This was found to be statistically significant (P=0.000). The association between Degree of Fluorosis and Periodontal Status is statistically significant (P=0.000). There was statistically significant difference in mean number of sextants between the degree of fluorosis in each of the periodontal status (P=0.000). The finding that the lower prevalence of shallow pockets in the study area, where the fluoride level in the drinking water ranges from 1.83 to 2.01 ppm, indicates that the use of fluoride in water is beneficial to the periodontal tissues.

  16. Reliability of the 7-point subjective global assessment scale in assessing nutritional status of dialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R.; Dekker, F. W.; Boeschoten, E. W.; Stevens, P.; Krediet, R. T.

    1999-01-01

    Subjective global assessment (SGA) is a method to score nutritional status in a standardized way. The original 3-point scale has been replaced by a 7-point scale. The reliability of the latter scale has never been tested. We therefore assessed inter-observer and intra-observer reliability.

  17. Predicting employment status and subjective quality of life in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Fujino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although impaired social functioning, particularly poor employment status, is a cardinal feature of patients with schizophrenia and leads to decreased quality of life (QOL, few studies have addressed the relationship between these two clinical issues. The aim of this study was to determine whether employment status predicts subjective QOL and to evaluate a model in which functional capacity mediates the relationship between general cognitive performance and employment status. Ninety-three patients with schizophrenia were administered a comprehensive battery of cognitive tests, the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment-Brief version (UPSA-B, the Social Functioning Scale (SFS, and the Subjective Quality of Life Scale (SQLS. First, we evaluated a model for predicting the employment/occupation subscale score of the SFS using path analysis, and the model fitted well (χ2 (4 = 3.6, p = 0.46; CFI = 1.0; RMSEA < 0.001, with 90% CIs: 0–0.152. Employment status was predicted by negative symptoms and functional capacity, which was in turn predicted by general cognitive performance. Second, we added subjective QOL to this model. In a final path model, QOL was predicted by negative symptoms and employment status. This model also satisfied good fit criteria (χ2 (7 = 10.3, p = 0.17; CFI = 0.987; RMSEA = 0.072, with 90% CIs: 0–0.159. The UPSA-B and SFS scores were moderately correlated with most measures of cognitive performance. These results support the notion that better employment status enhances subjective QOL in patients with schizophrenia.

  18. The effect of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) consumption on postprandial serum antioxidant status in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Colin D; Holub, Bruce J

    2002-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the consumption of wild blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium), a concentrated source of non-nutritive antioxidant phytochemicals, would enhance postprandial serum antioxidant status in healthy human subjects. A single-blinded crossover study was performed in a group of eight middle-aged male subjects (38-54 years). Subjects consumed a high-fat meal and a control supplement followed 1 week later by the same high-fat meal supplemented with 100.0 g freeze-dried wild blueberry powder. Upon brachial vein catheterization, fasting and postprandial serum samples were taken sequentially and analysed for lipids and glucose and for serum antioxidant status. Serum antioxidant status was determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay and the total antioxidant status (TAS) assay. The wild-blueberry treatment was associated with a significant treatment effect as determined by the ORAC assay (water-soluble fraction ORAC(perchloric acid (PCA)), P=0.04). Significant increases in serum antioxidant status above the controls were observed at 1 h (ORAC(PCA) (8.5 % greater), P=0.02; TAS (4.5 % greater), P=0.05), and 4 h (ORAC(total) (15.0 % greater), P=0.009; ORAC(acetone) (16.0 % greater), P=0.007) post-consumption of the high-fat meal. In conclusion, the consumption of wild blueberries, a food source with high in vitro antioxidant properties, is associated with a diet-induced increase in ex vivo serum antioxidant status. It has been suggested that increasing the antioxidant status of serum may result in the reduced risk of many chronic degenerative diseases.

  19. Is Subjective Social Status a Unique Correlate of Physical Health? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jenny M; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-07-20

    Both social stratification (e.g., social rank) as well as economic resources (e.g., income) are thought to contribute to socioeconomic health disparities. It has been proposed that subjective socioeconomic status (an individual's perception of his or her hierarchical rank) provides increased predictive utility for physical health over and above more traditional, well-researched socioeconomic constructs such as education, occupation, and income. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were systematically searched for studies examining the association of subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health adjusting for at least 1 measure of objective SES. The final sample included 31 studies and 99 unique effects. Meta-analyses were performed to: (a) estimate the overlap among subjective and objective indicators of SES and (b) estimate the cumulative association of subjective SES with physical health adjusting for objective SES. Potential moderators such as race and type of health indicator assessed (global self-reports vs. more specific and biologically based indicators) were also examined. Across samples, subjective SES shows moderate overlap with objective indicators of SES, but associations are much stronger in Whites than Blacks. Subjective SES evidenced a unique cumulative association with physical health in adults, above and beyond traditional objective indicators of SES (Z = .07, SE = .01, p Subjective SES may provide unique information relevant to understanding disparities in health, especially self-rated health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Inflammatory cytokines and plasma redox status responses in hypertensive subjects after heat exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Fonseca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is characterized by a pro-inflammatory status, including redox imbalance and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may be exacerbated after heat exposure. However, the effects of heat exposure, specifically in individuals with inflammatory chronic diseases such as hypertension, are complex and not well understood. This study compared the effects of heat exposure on plasma cytokine levels and redox status parameters in 8 hypertensive (H and 8 normotensive (N subjects (age: 46.5±1.3 and 45.6±1.4 years old, body mass index: 25.8±0.8 and 25.6±0.6 kg/m2, mean arterial pressure: 98.0±2.8 and 86.0±2.3 mmHg, respectively. They remained at rest in a sitting position for 10 min in a thermoneutral environment (22°C followed by 30 min in a heated environmental chamber (38°C and 60% relative humidity. Blood samples were collected before and after heat exposure. Plasma cytokine levels were measured using sandwich ELISA kits. Plasma redox status was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP. Hypertensive subjects showed higher plasma levels of IL-10 at baseline (P<0.05, although levels of this cytokine were similar between groups after heat exposure. Moreover, after heat exposure, hypertensive individuals showed higher plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR1 and lower TBARS (P<0.01 and FRAP (P<0.05 levels. Controlled hypertensive subjects, who use angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitors, present an anti-inflammatory status and balanced redox status. Nevertheless, exposure to a heat stress condition seems to cause an imbalance in the redox status and an unregulated inflammatory response.

  1. Status and subjects of thermal-hydraulic analysis for next-generation LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The status and subjects on thermal-hydraulic analysis for next-generation light water reactors (LWRs) with passive safety systems were surveyed through about 5 years until March 1999 by subcommittee on improvement of reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis codes under the nuclear code committee in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Based on the survey results and discussion, the status and subjects on system analysis for various types of proposed reactor were summarized in 1998 and those on multidimensional two-phase flow analysis were also reviewed, since the multidimensional analysis was recognized as one of the most important subjects through the investigation on system analysis. In this report, the status and subjects for the following were summarized from the survey results and discussion in 1998 and 1999; (1) BWR neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled analysis, (2) Evaluation of passive safety system performance and (3) Gas-liquid two-phase flow analysis. The contents in this report are the forefront of thermal-hydraulic analysis for LWRs including test results from several large-scale facilities. We expect that the contents can offer a guideline to improve reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis codes in future. (author)

  2. Peculiarities of Subjectively Evaluated Giftedness of University Students with Different Statuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kursov S.O.,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the interconnection of subjective evaluation of giftedness with status position of university students in the study group. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of approaches to the study giftedness and proves necessity of the study of giftedness subjective assessments. The empirical study included 231 full-time students of the first, third and fifth year of Moscow higher education institute. The paper confirmed the hypothesis that student’s giftedness subjectively evaluated by his (her classmates positively correlated with its position in the study group. To test the hypothesis we used sociometry, referentometry, methodological procedure to define the informal power structure in a group, as well as the author's questionnaire to identify giftedness subjective assessments. The paper analyzes the features of the giftedness subjective assessments of student by his (her groupmates studying the engineering and natural science. Giftedness estimation in the groups of students studying engineering is more associated with the status position of students than in the groups studying natural science

  3. Subjective Social Status in select Ukrainians, Vietnamese, and Mongolians living in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacková, Jitka; Veleminsky, Milos; Brabcová, Iva; Záleská, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses methods of examining subjective social status (SSS), which is based on the concept of social determinants of health described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 1998. SSS research was conducted with Cooperation from the Scientific and Technical Research (COST) program, with financial support from the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. This study is part of a project entitled the "Health and Social Status of Immigrants and Asylum Seekers in the Czech Republic" (registration number OC 10031), which was started in 2010 and concluded in May 2011. The study included 246 respondents of which: 69 (28.1%) had emigrated from Vietnam; 93 (37.8%) from the Ukraine; and 84 (34.1%) from Mongolia. In terms of qualitative strategies, 13 individual immigrants and asylum seekers were personally interviewed. This research was thus conceived as being both quantitative-qualitative, which included the use of the appropriate technical tools (i.e., questionnaires and interviews with select immigrants and asylum seekers). SSS was determined using the Pearson's chi-square test, as well as through correspondence and cluster analyzes. Sign schemes were used to detect select significant relationships in contingency tables. The minimum significance level chosen was α ≤ 0.05. When examining the SSS of select nationalities, differences were observed in the perception of subjective social status. The correspondence analysis results clearly show that Ukrainians best perceived their social status (within the selected parameters). One measure of subjectively perceived social status related to Czech language proficiency (i.e., one criterion was the comprehension of spoken Czech; e.g., whether the respondent could read or speak Czech, or how they assessed their own Czech proficiency). The SSS study clearly revealed typical links among select nationalities living in the Czech Republic, and highlighted risks related to the degree of integration (and its relationship to

  4. Objective and subjective socioeconomic status and susceptibility to the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sheldon; Alper, Cuneyt M; Doyle, William J; Adler, Nancy; Treanor, John J; Turner, Ronald B

    2008-03-01

    We ask whether subjective socioeconomic status (SES) predicts who develops a common cold when exposed to a cold virus. 193 healthy men and women ages 21-55 years were assessed for subjective (perceived rank) and objective SES, cognitive, affective and social dispositions, and health practices. Subsequently, they were exposed by nasal drops to a rhinovirus or influenza virus and monitored in quarantine for objective signs of illness and self-reported symptoms. Infection, signs and symptoms of the common cold, and clinical illness (infection and significant objective signs of illness). Increased subjective SES was associated with decreased risk for developing a cold for both viruses. This association was independent of objective SES and of cognitive, affective and social disposition that might provide alternative spurious (third factor) explanations for the association. Poorer sleep among those with lesser subjective SES may partly mediate the association between subjective SES and colds. Increased Subjective SES is associated with less susceptibility to upper respiratory infection, and this association is independent of objective SES, suggesting the importance of perceived relative rank to health. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  6. Ethnicity moderates the influence of perceived social status on subjective sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Burel R; McGuire, Lynanne; Smith, Michael T

    2010-01-01

    It has long been recognized that socioeconomic status (SES) influences health and health-related behaviors, and it has been suggested that the adverse impact of low SES on health may be partly mediated by poor sleep quality. The relation between sleep and objective and subjective measures of SES has only been explored in a preliminary manner, providing indirect evidence that associations between SES and health might be explained, in part, by disrupted sleep. However, it remains unclear whether low SES directly affects sleep quality or whether the SES-sleep quality relation varies as a function of ethnicity given robust ethnic disparities across SES-related factors. This study examined the relation between perceived social status (i.e., individuals' perception of their socioeconomic standing) and subjective sleep quality among 149 college students, and examined the moderating effect of ethnicity to determine whether the magnitude or direction of association differed among Caucasian, Asian, and African Americans. Using hierarchical regressions and a dummy-coded ethnicity variable, results demonstrated significant moderation (ΔR₂ = 0.04, p = .02), such that both Asian (p = .04) and African Americans (p = .02) were significantly different from Caucasian Americans. Lower perceived social status was related to greater impairment in sleep quality for Asian Americans (β = -.37, p sleep quality for specific subgroups of ethnic minorities.

  7. Sleep Habits and Susceptibility to Upper Respiratory Illness: the Moderating Role of Subjective Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Adler, Nancy E; Hall, Martica; Cohen, Sheldon

    2017-02-01

    Sleep is a predictor of infectious illness that may depend on one's socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to investigate the moderating effects of objective and subjective SES on sleep-clinical cold risk link and test whether nasal inflammation serves as a plausible biological pathway. This study combined data (n = 732) from three viral challenge studies. Measures of self-reported sleep and objective and subjective measures of SES were obtained. Participants were quarantined and administrated rhinovirus (RV) or influenza virus and monitored over 5 (RV) or 6 (influenza) days for the development of a cold. Symptom severity, including mucus production and nasal clearance time, and levels of nasal cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β) were measured prior to administration and each day during the quarantined period. Subjective SES, but not objective SES, moderated associations between shorter sleep duration and increased likelihood of a clinical cold. Compared to ≥8-hour sleepers, ≤6-hour sleepers with low subjective SES were at increased risk for developing a cold (OR = 2.57, 95% CI 1.10-6.02). There was no association between sleep duration and colds in high subjective SES participants. Among infected individuals who reported low subjective SES, shorter sleep duration was associated with greater mucus production. There was no evidence that markers of nasal inflammation mediated the link between sleep duration and cold susceptibility among those reporting low subjective SES. Subjective SES may reflect an important social factor for understanding vulnerability to and protection against infectious illness among short sleepers.

  8. Nutritional status of patients treated with radiotherapy as determined by subjective global assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koom, Woong Sub; Keum, Ki Chang [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seung Do [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this prospective multi-institutional study was to evaluate the nutritional status of patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for treatment of head and neck, lung, or gastrointestinal cancer. A total of 1,000 patients were enrolled in this study at seven different hospitals in Seoul, Korea between October 2009 and May 2010. The nutritional status of patients after receiving 3 weeks of RT was evaluated using subjective global assessment (SGA). The nutritional status of each patient was rated as well nourished (A), moderately malnourished (B), or severely malnourished (C). The mean age of patients in this study was 59.4 {+-} 11.9 years, and the male to female ratio was 7:3. According to the SGA results, 60.8%, 34.5%, and 4.7% of patients were classified as A, B, or C, respectively. The following criteria were significantly associated with malnutrition (SGA B or C; p < 0.001): loss of subcutaneous fat or muscle wasting (odds ratio [OR], 11.473); increased metabolic demand/stress (OR, 8.688); ankle, sacral edema, or ascites (OR, 3.234); and weight loss 5% (OR, 2.299). SGA was applied successfully to assess the nutritional status of most patients. The prevalence of malnutrition in a radiation oncology department was 39.2%. The results of this study serve as a basis for implementation of nutrition intervention to patients being treated at radiation oncology departments.

  9. Nutritional status of patients treated with radiotherapy as determined by subjective global assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koom, Woong Sub; Ahn, Seung Do; Song, Si Yeol; Lee, Chang Geol; Moon, Sung Ho; Chie, Eui Kyu; Jang, Hong Seok; Oh, Young-Taek; Lee, Ho Sun

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this prospective multi-institutional study was to evaluate the nutritional status of patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for treatment of head and neck, lung, or gastrointestinal cancer. Materials and Methods A total of 1,000 patients were enrolled in this study at seven different hospitals in Seoul, Korea between October 2009 and May 2010. The nutritional status of patients after receiving 3 weeks of RT was evaluated using subjective global assessment (SGA). The nutritional status of each patient was rated as well nourished (A), moderately malnourished (B), or severely malnourished (C). Results The mean age of patients in this study was 59.4 ± 11.9 years, and the male to female ratio was 7:3. According to the SGA results, 60.8%, 34.5%, and 4.7% of patients were classified as A, B, or C, respectively. The following criteria were significantly associated with malnutrition (SGA B or C; p < 0.001): loss of subcutaneous fat or muscle wasting (odds ratio [OR], 11.473); increased metabolic demand/stress (OR, 8.688); ankle, sacral edema, or ascites (OR, 3.234); and weight loss ≥5% (OR, 2.299). Conclusion SGA was applied successfully to assess the nutritional status of most patients. The prevalence of malnutrition in a radiation oncology department was 39.2%. The results of this study serve as a basis for implementation of nutrition intervention to patients being treated at radiation oncology departments. PMID:23170292

  10. Cultural and community determinants of subjective social status among Cherokee and White youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A; Adler, Nancy E; Worthman, Carol M; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2008-09-01

    . Subjective social status (SSS) is associated with physical and mental health in diverse samples. However, community, cultural, and ethnic influences on SSS are poorly understood, especially among rural and American Indian populations. We aimed to examine similarities and differences in how community poverty, family context, and life course attainment predict SSS among Cherokee and White youth in Appalachia. We assessed culturally and developmentally appropriate aspects of life course attainment among 344 Cherokee and White youth (age 19-24) using the Life Trajectory Interview for Youth (Brown et al. 2006. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 15, 192-206). Combined with information regarding community context and family history, these data were used to examine common patterns and ethnic differences in community, family, and cultural influences on SSS. Overall, both Cherokee and White youth rank their families lower in SSS than previously studied US youth. Family poverty during childhood and low parental education negatively influence family SSS, Cherokee youth rank higher on subjective socioeconomic status (SES) than Whites, as do participants in high poverty areas. However, White youth rank higher on peer SSS. Ethnographically generated items perform better than standard demographic markers in predicting SSS. Educational attainment is associated with peer SSS among Cherokee (but not White) youths. Cultural identity, community context, and local reference groups are crucial determinants of SSS. Both White and Cherokee youth in Appalachia exhibit SSS rankings consistent with socioeconomic and cultural marginalization. On a local scale, however, living in high poverty areas or minority communities may buffer individuals from some negative social comparisons regarding subjectively perceived SES. Meanwhile, social monitoring in small minority communities may constrain optimistic bias in assessments of peer popularity and status. Social ecology

  11. Vitamin E Deficiency and Oxidative Status are Associated with Prediabetes in Apparently Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Gabriela; Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Carrera-Gracia, Manuela de la A; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angélica

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated that vitamin E deficiency and oxidative stress affect the beta cell function. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the association between vitamin E deficiency and oxidative status with prediabetes in apparently healthy subjects. Apparently healthy men and women aged 18-65 years were enrolled in a case-control study. Individuals with new diagnosis of prediabetes were considered as cases and compared with a control group of individuals with normal glucose tolerance. Smoking, alcohol intake, pregnancy, diabetes, kidney disease, liver disease, cardiovascular disease, malignancy, glucocorticoid treatment and consumption of lipid-lowering drugs, antioxidants and vitamin supplements were exclusion criteria. Vitamin E deficiency was defined by serum levels of α-tocopherol <11.6 μmol/L, oxidative status was assessed by total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation, and prediabetes was considered by the presence of impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. A total of 148 subjects were allocated into the case (n = 74) and control (n = 74) groups. The frequency of vitamin E deficiency was higher in the case group (41.8%) compared with the control group (35.1%), p = 0.03. The logistic regression analysis adjusted by age, waist circumference and body mass index, revealed a significant association between vitamin E deficiency (OR 3.23; 95% CI: 1.34-7.79, p = 0.009), lipoperoxidation (OR 2.82; CI 95%: 1.42-5.59, p = 0.003) and total antioxidant capacity (OR 0.93; CI 95%: 0.90-0.96, p <0.001) with prediabetes. Results of the present study suggest that both vitamin E deficiency and oxidative status are associated with prediabetes in apparently healthy subjects. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hyposalivation, xerostomia and oral health status of HIV-infected subjects in Thailand before HAART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittayananta, Wipawee; Chanowanna, Nilnara; Jealae, Sureerath; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Stoltze, Kaj

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine hyposalivation, xerostomia, and oral health status of HIV-subjects in Thailand before highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Oral examination and measurement of saliva flow rate of both unstimulated and wax-stimulated whole saliva were performed in 135 subjects (56 HIV-subjects, mean age: 34.5 years, and 79 non-HIV controls, mean age: 29.5 years). Presence of oral candidiasis, cervical root caries, and number of existing teeth were recorded. Microbiological investigation of oral Candida was conducted using oral rinse technique. Risk factors associated with hyposalivation and xerostomia were analysed. The unstimulated flow rates in HIV-subjects and non-HIV controls were 0.19 and 0.33 ml/min (P = 0.0024). For stimulated flow rates, the corresponding figures were 1.45 and 1.62 ml/min (P = 0.31). The unstimulated flow rate was significantly higher in the asymptomatic HIV-subjects: 0.17 ml/min, when compared with the symptomatic/AIDS group 0.11 ml/min (P = 0.003). No significant difference between the groups could be found with respect to stimulated flow rate. Hyposalivation was significantly associated with the colony forming unit of Candida. Smoking and alcohol consumption were significantly associated with hyposalivation, but not xerostomia. The following factors were significantly associated with both hyposalivation and xerostomia; sex, stage of HIV infection, risk group of HIV infection, systemic disease, and medication use. Salivary flow rate of HIV-subjects in Thailand was affected by HIV infection. The rate was significantly decreased with advanced stage of the disease. Various factors including medication use were associated with hyposalivation and xerostomia among the subjects.

  13. Nonparametric and Semiparametric Analysis of Current Status Data Subject to Outcome Misclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sal Y Rosas, Victor G; Hughes, James P

    2010-04-21

    In this article, we present nonparametric and semiparametric methods to analyze current status data subject to outcome misclassification. Our methods use nonparametric maximum likelihood estimation (NPMLE) to estimate the distribution function of the failure time when sensitivity and specificity are known and may vary among subgroups. A nonparametric test is proposed for the two sample hypothesis testing. In regression analysis, we apply the Cox proportional hazard model and likelihood ratio based confidence intervals for the regression coefficients are proposed. Our methods are motivated and demonstrated by data collected from an infectious disease study in Seattle, WA.

  14. The relationship between vitamin D status, physical activity and insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavadar, Gülis; Demircioğlu, Demet Tekdöş; Özgönenel, Levent; Emre, Tuluhan Yunus

    2015-05-20

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence has been increasing worldwide along with the rise of obesity and sedantery lifestyle. Decreased physical activity (PA) and obesity have also been associated with the low vitamin D levels. We aimed to determine the association between PA, vitamin D status and insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects. A total of 294 (186 female, 108 male) overweight or obese subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), insulin, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c levels were measured in blood samples. Body mass index (BMI), HOMA-index and total score of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form (IPAQ) were calculated. Insulin resistant subjects were compared with the non-resistant group. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12.25 and 41.39 ± 10.32; 25(OH)D levels were 8.91 ± 4.30 and 17.62 ± 10.47 ng/dL; BMIs were 31.29 ± 4.48 and 28.2 ± 3.16 kg/m², IPAQ total scores were 548.71 ± 382.81 and 998 ± 486.21 in the insulin resistant and nonresistant subjects, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in terms of 25(OH)D, FPG, insulin levels, IPAQ total score and BMI between the two groups (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001).Significantly low 25(OH)D levels, high BMI and low PA in insulin resistant subjects confirm the importance of active lifestyle and the maintenance of normal vitamin D levels in overweight and obese subjects in prevention of T2DM.

  15. The relationship between vitamin D status, physical activity and insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülis Kavadar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM incidence has been increasing worldwide along with the rise of obesity and sedantery lifestyle. Decreased physical activity (PA and obesity have also been associated with the low vitamin D levels. We aimed to determine the association between PA, vitamin D status and insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects. A total of 294 (186 female, 108 male overweight or obese subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD, insulin, fasting plasma glucose (FPG and HbA1c levels were measured in blood samples. Body mass index (BMI, HOMA-index and total score of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form (IPAQ were calculated. Insulin resistant subjects were compared with the non-resistant group. The mean age of the participants was 45±12.25 and 41.39±10.32; 25(OHD levels were 8.91 ± 4.30 and 17.62 ± 10.47 ng/dL; BMIs were 31.29 ± 4.48  and 28.2 ± 3.16 kg/m², IPAQ total scores were 548.71±382.81 and 998±486.21 in the insulin resistant and nonresistant subjects, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in terms of 25(OHD, FPG, insulin levels, IPAQ  total score and BMI between the two groups (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001.Significantly low 25(OHD levels, high BMI and low PA in insulin resistant subjects confirm the importance of active lifestyle and the maintenance of normal vitamin D levels in overweight and obese subjects in prevention of T2DM.

  16. Subject: Construct or Acting Being? The Status of the Subject and the Problem of Solipsism in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus

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    Włodzimierz HEFLIK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In his Tractatus and Notebooks 1914-1916, Wittgenstein develops some themes concerning the nature of the subject, transcendentalism, solipsism and mysticism. Though Wittgenstein rejects a naive, psychological understanding of the subject, he preserves the idea of the metaphysical subject, so-called “philosophical I”. The present investigations exhibit two ways of grasping the subject: (1 subject as a boundary (of the world; (2 subject (I as the world. The author of the paper aims to analyze different methods of conceiving the subject, both logical and transcendental. Then he discusses the naturalistic or reductionist consequences of solipsism which were derived by Wittgenstein. Moreover, he refers to the concept of ‘subject of will’ introduced in the Tractatus. Finally, the author puts a question whether the metaphysical subject is a boundary of the world identified with the subject of will. While trying to answer this question one can point to the essential difficulties of Wittgenstein’s standpoint. These difficulties become especially evident if we examine Wittgenstein’s statements concerning mysticism. The category of subject seems to gain a new dimension when reconsidered in this context. In the conclusion, the author offers an interpretation inspired by Schopenhauer’s conception of the double aspect of the subject that is to overstep these difficulties.

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Health Insurance, Social Connectedness, and Subjective Social Status among Residents of O'ahu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa M; Murray, Kate A; Jarvis, Sarah; Scarr, Ellen

    2016-11-01

    Relative position in a social hierarchy, or subjective social status, has been associated with indicators of socioeconomic status and may be influenced by social connectedness. The primary purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between health insurance status and subjective social status, using the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS, community version), in the state of Hawai'i with its highly insured population. The secondary purpose is to examine other social determinants that influence social status, including social connectedness. Data were drawn from a convenience sample of 728 O'ahu residents in 2011-12. Social connectedness was measured if participants stated that family, friends, or community were strengths that could address their social and health concerns. In the final adjusted linear regression model, those with Medicaid/Quest insurance (β -0.40; Pstrong community and family ties as one of Hawai'i's greatest strengths. However, these strengths were not found to be statistically associated with subjective social status in our sample. Future studies should assess whether reinforcing social connectedness through public health and educational interventions improves subjective social status among low-income and ethnically diverse communities in Hawai'i.

  18. Subjective global assessment of nutritional status – A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fink, Jaqueline; Daniel de Mello, Paula; Daniel de Mello, Elza

    2015-10-01

    Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) is a nutritional assessment tool widely used in hospital clinical practice, even though it is not exempted of limitations in relation to its use. This systematic review intended to update knowledge on the performance of SGA as a method for the assessment of the nutritional status of hospitalized adults. PubMed data base was consulted, using the search term "subjective global assessment". Studies published in English, Portuguese or Spanish, between 2002 and 2012 were selected, excluding those not found in full, letters to the editor, pilot studies, narrative reviews, studies with n research with non-hospitalized populations or those which used a modified version of the SGA. Of 454 eligible studies, 110 presented eligibility criteria. After applying the exclusion criteria, 21 studies were selected, 6 with surgical patients, 7 with clinical patients, and 8 with both. Most studies demonstrated SGA performance similar or better than the usual assessment methods for nutritional status, such as anthropometry and laboratory data, but the same result was not found when comparing SGA and nutritional screening methods. Recently published literature demonstrates SGA as a valid tool for the nutritional diagnosis of hospitalized clinical and surgical patients, and point to a potential superiority of nutritional screening methods in the early detection of malnutrition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Antioxidant Status and Vitamin D Levels between Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Healthy Matched Subjects

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    Ehsan Hejazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to compare the serum levels of total antioxidant status (TAS and 25(OH D3 and dietary intake of multiple sclerosis (MS patients with those of normal subjects. Method. Thirty-seven MS patients (31 women and the same number of healthy matched controls were compared for their serum levels and dietary intake of 25(OH D3 and TAS. Sun exposure and the intake of antioxidants and vitamin D rich foods were estimated through face-to-face interview and food frequency questionnaire. Results. Dietary intake of antioxidants and vitamin D rich foods, vitamin C, vitamin A, and folate was not significantly different between the two groups. There were also no significant differences in the mean levels of 25(OH D3 and TAS between the study groups. Both groups had low serum levels of 25(OH D3 and total antioxidants. Conclusion. No significant differences were detected in serum levels and dietary intake of vitamin D and antioxidants between MS patients and healthy controls. All subjects had low antioxidant status and vitamin D levels.

  20. Low childhood subjective social status and telomere length in adulthood: The role of attachment orientations.

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    Murdock, Kyle W; Seiler, Annina; Chirinos, Diana A; Garcini, Luz M; Acebo, Sally L; Cohen, Sheldon; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2018-02-16

    Low subjective social status (SSS) in childhood places one at greater risk of a number of health problems in adulthood. Theoretical and empirical evidence indicates that exposure to supportive parenting may buffer the negative effects of low childhood SSS on adult health. Given the importance of supportive caregivers and close others for the development of attachment orientations throughout the lifespan, attachment theory may be important for understanding why some individuals are resilient to the negative effects of low childhood SSS on adult health while others are not. We examined if attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance altered the association between childhood subjective social status (SSS) and length of telomeres in white blood cells in adulthood. Shorter telomere length is associated with increased risk of age-related diseases including cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Participants (N = 128) completed self-report measures of childhood SSS and attachment orientations, as well as a blood draw. We found that among those with low childhood SSS, low attachment anxiety was associated with longer telomere length in white blood cells in comparison to high attachment anxiety controlling for participant age, sex, race, body mass index, and adult SSS. Among those with high childhood SSS, low attachment anxiety was associated with a slight decrease in telomere length. Attachment avoidance was unrelated to length of telomeres. Such findings provide further evidence for the role that close relationships may have on buffering SSS related health disparities. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Associations of Subjective Social Status with Physical Activity and Body Mass Index across Four Asian Countries

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    Leah Frerichs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study were to (1 assess physical activity and weight status differences and (2 explore the direction and shape of subjective social status (SSS association with physical activity and weight status within four Asian countries. Methods. Cross section data of adult respondents from the nationally representative East Asian Social Survey were used for analyses. Logistic regression stratified by gender was conducted for the first aim, and simple and quadratic logistic regression models were used for the second. Results. SSS was significantly associated with odds of weekly or daily physical activity across all countries and genders, except for South Korean and Japanese females. Quadratic models provided significantly better fit for Chinese males (LR (d.f. = 1 = 6.51, P value <.05 and females (LR (d.f. = 1 = 7.36, P value <.01, South Korean males (LR (d.f. = 1 = 4.40, P value <.05, and Taiwanese females (LR (d.f. = 1 = 4.87, P value <.05. Conclusions. This study provides a comparable cross Asian country measure of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and new findings that a connection exists between SSS and physical activity. Differences of class distinction help explain the different shaped SSS relationships.

  2. Examining parents' assessments of objective and subjective social status in families of children with cancer.

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    Elizabeth A Gage-Bouchard

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding the social determinants of child health is a prominent area of research. This paper examines the measurement of socioeconomic position in a sample of families of children with cancer. Socioeconomic position is difficult to measure in pediatric health research due to sensitivity of asking about finances when research is conducted in health care delivery settings, financial volatility associated with periods of pediatric illness, and difficulty recruiting fathers to research. METHODS: Caregivers of children with cancer (n=76 completed a questionnaire that included the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS. SSS was measured using two 10-rung ladders with differing referent groups: the US and respondents' communities. Respondents placed themselves on each ladder by placing an X on the rung that represented their social position in relation to the two referent groups. Individuals' SSS ratings and discrepancies in SSS ratings within couples were examined, and associations with objective social status measures were evaluated using Pearson correlations or t-tests. RESULTS: Parents' placement on the US and community ladders was positively associated with their income, education, wealth, household savings, and household savings minus debt. On average, respondents placed themselves higher on the US ladder compared to the community ladder. There was an average intra-couple discrepancy of 1.25 rungs in partner's placements on the US ladder and a 1.56 rung difference for the community ladder. This intra-couple discrepancy was not associated with gender. DISCUSSION: Results offer insight into the use of subjective social status measures to capture a more holistic assessment of socioeconomic position and the measurement of socioeconomic position in two-parent families.

  3. Subjective social status, social network and health disparities: empirical evidence from Greece.

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    Charonis, Antonios; Kyriopoulos, Ilias-Ioannis; Spanakis, Manos; Zavras, Dimitris; Athanasakis, Kostas; Pavi, Elpida; Kyriopoulos, John

    2017-02-27

    Several studies suggest that socioeconomic status affects (SES) affects self-rated health (SRH), both in Greece and internationally. However, prior research mainly uses objective measures of SES, instead of subjective evaluations of individuals' social status. Based on this, this paper aims to examine (a) the impact of the economic dowturn on SRH in Greece and (b) the relationship between subjective social status (SSS), social network and SRH. The descriptive analysis is based on four cross-sectional surveys conducted by the National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece (2002, 2006, 2011, 2015), while the data for the empirical investigation were derived from the 2015 survey (Health + Welfare Survey GR). The empirical strategy is based on an ordinal logistic regression model, aiming to examine how several variables affect SRH. Size of social network and SSS are among the independent variables employed for the empirical analysis RESULTS: According to our findings, average SRH has deteriorated, and the percentage of the population that reports very good/good SRH has also decreased. Moreover, our empirical analysis suggests that age, existence of a chronic disease, size of social network and SSS affect SRH in Greece. Our findings are consistent with the existing literature and confirm a social gradient in health. According to our analysis, health disparities can be largely attributed to socioeconomic inequalities. The adverse economic climate has impact on socioeconomic differences which in turn affect health disparities. Based on these, policy initiatives are necessasy in order to mitigate the negative impact on health and the disparities caused by economic dowturn and the occuring socioeconomic inequalities.

  4. Examining Parents’ Assessments of Objective and Subjective Social Status in Families of Children with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A.; Devine, Katie A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the social determinants of child health is a prominent area of research. This paper examines the measurement of socioeconomic position in a sample of families of children with cancer. Socioeconomic position is difficult to measure in pediatric health research due to sensitivity of asking about finances when research is conducted in health care delivery settings, financial volatility associated with periods of pediatric illness, and difficulty recruiting fathers to research. Methods Caregivers of children with cancer (n = 76) completed a questionnaire that included the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS). SSS was measured using two 10-rung ladders with differing referent groups: the US and respondents’ communities. Respondents placed themselves on each ladder by placing an X on the rung that represented their social position in relation to the two referent groups. Individuals’ SSS ratings and discrepancies in SSS ratings within couples were examined, and associations with objective social status measures were evaluated using Pearson correlations or t-tests. Results Parents’ placement on the US and community ladders was positively associated with their income, education, wealth, household savings, and household savings minus debt. On average, respondents placed themselves higher on the US ladder compared to the community ladder. There was an average intra-couple discrepancy of 1.25 rungs in partner’s placements on the US ladder and a 1.56 rung difference for the community ladder. This intra-couple discrepancy was not associated with gender. Discussion Results offer insight into the use of subjective social status measures to capture a more holistic assessment of socioeconomic position and the measurement of socioeconomic position in two-parent families. PMID:24599006

  5. Examining parents' assessments of objective and subjective social status in families of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; Devine, Katie A

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the social determinants of child health is a prominent area of research. This paper examines the measurement of socioeconomic position in a sample of families of children with cancer. Socioeconomic position is difficult to measure in pediatric health research due to sensitivity of asking about finances when research is conducted in health care delivery settings, financial volatility associated with periods of pediatric illness, and difficulty recruiting fathers to research. Caregivers of children with cancer (n=76) completed a questionnaire that included the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS). SSS was measured using two 10-rung ladders with differing referent groups: the US and respondents' communities. Respondents placed themselves on each ladder by placing an X on the rung that represented their social position in relation to the two referent groups. Individuals' SSS ratings and discrepancies in SSS ratings within couples were examined, and associations with objective social status measures were evaluated using Pearson correlations or t-tests. Parents' placement on the US and community ladders was positively associated with their income, education, wealth, household savings, and household savings minus debt. On average, respondents placed themselves higher on the US ladder compared to the community ladder. There was an average intra-couple discrepancy of 1.25 rungs in partner's placements on the US ladder and a 1.56 rung difference for the community ladder. This intra-couple discrepancy was not associated with gender. Results offer insight into the use of subjective social status measures to capture a more holistic assessment of socioeconomic position and the measurement of socioeconomic position in two-parent families.

  6. Anxiety Sensitivity and Age: Roles in Understanding Subjective Social Status among Low Income Adult Latinos in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Manning, Kara; Lemaire, Chad; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Smith, Lia J; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa

    2017-07-05

    One social determinant of health construct that is reliably related to health disparities among the Latino population is subjective social status, reflecting subjective ratings of social standing. Yet, little research has explored factors that may undergird variability in subjective social status among this population or in general. Accordingly, the present investigation examined one possible etiological model wherein age moderates the relation between individual differences in anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of stress sensations) and subjective social status among a Latino primary care sample. Participants included Spanish-speaking Latino adults (n = 394; 86.5% female; average age = 39.0 years). Results demonstrated an interaction between the anxiety sensitivity and age for subjective social status among the Latino sample. Inspection of the form of the significant interaction indicated that the association between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was evident among older, but not younger, persons. The current findings suggest that decreasing anxiety sensitivity, especially among older Latinos, may be one possible viable therapeutic approach to change subjective social status in order to help offset health disparities among this group.

  7. Social Inequalities and Depressive Symptoms in Adults: The Role of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)—as measured by education, occupation, and income—is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Methods Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung ‘social ladder’. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). Results After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. Conclusions The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms

  8. Clinical interpretation of a masticatory normative indicator analysis of masticatory function in subjects with different occlusal and prosthodontic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Woda, A.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the masticatory function of subjects characterised by different occlusal and prosthodontic status. Using Optosil((R)) as a test food, the masticatory normative indicator (MNIOPT) was used to differentiate between sufficient ('normal') and impaired masticatory function.

  9. Subjective socioeconomic status as a predictor of long-term care staff burnout and positive caregiving experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat

    2008-06-01

    The potentially negative consequences associated with providing care to older adults are well documented. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the positive aspects associated with caregiving. Both aspects are believed to represent a continuum of caregiving experiences. Long-term care (LTC) staff members often report high levels of burnout associated with their work. Whereas several job characteristics and objective indicators of socioeconomic status have been identified as potential predictors of LTC staff caregiving experiences, the role of subjective socioeconomic status (i.e. one's view of one's place in society) has not yet been evaluated. A cross-sectional design of 122 LTC staff members. LTC staff completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Positive Aspects of Caregiving questionnaire. They also completed questions about job characteristics (i.e. staff-to-resident ratio, number of hours worked per day, and years of experience working with older adults), objective sociodemographic variables (i.e. level of education, professional affiliation), and subjective socioeconomic indicator (i.e. MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status). Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to identify the unique contribution of job characteristics, objective socioeconomic status, and subjective socioeconomic status to LTC staff caregiving experiences. Subjective socioeconomic status remained a significant predictor of LTC staff experience even once job characteristics and objective indicators of socioeconomic status were entered into the model. Those who placed themselves higher on the subjective social ladder reported higher levels of positive caregiving experiences and lower levels of burnout. Building a sense of community identity and improving one's status within the community might result in lower levels of burnout and better caregiving experiences among LTC staff.

  10. Subjective well-being in the new China: religion, social capital, and social status.

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    Chen, Yunsong; Williams, Mark

    2016-12-01

    We present the first nationally representative evidence on the relationship between religion and subjective well-being for the case of China. Research on Western societies tends to find a positive association between being religious and level of well-being. China provides an interesting critical case as the religious population is growing rapidly and the religious and socioeconomic environments are profoundly different from Western societies, implying different mechanisms might be at work. We hypothesize to find a positive association between religion and well-being in China too, but argue social capital, for which strong evidence is often found in Western societies, is unlikely to be an important mechanism because religion in China is generally non-congregational. Instead, we argue that the private and subjective dimension of religion matters for well-being in China by helping adherents have an improved sense of social status relative to the non-religious in the context of rapid social change and growing inequality. Our results generally support these predictions. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  11. Effects of acute physical exercise on oxidative stress and inflammatory status in young, sedentary obese subjects.

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    Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Pullano, Salvatore A; Carè, Ilaria; Fiorillo, Antonino S; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana; Foti, Daniela P; Brunetti, Antonio; Gulletta, Elio

    2017-01-01

    Circulating oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory markers change after regular physical exercise; however, how a short session of acute physical activity affects the inflammatory status and redox balance in sedentary individuals is still unclear. Aim of this study is to assess antioxidant and inflammatory parameters, both at rest and after acute exercise, in sedentary young men with or without obesity. Thirty sedentary male volunteers, aged 20-45 (mean age 32 ± 7 years), were recruited, divided into 3 groups (normal weight: BMI group comparisons demonstrated significantly higher Glutathione Reductase activity in severely obese subjects in the post-exercise period (P = 0.036), and higher EGF levels in normal weight individuals, either before (P = 0.003) and after exercise (P = 0.05). Intra-group comparisons showed that the acute exercise stress induced a significant increase in Glutathione Reductase activity in severely obese subjects only (P = 0.007), a significant decrease in MCP-1 in the normal weight group (P = 0.02), and a decrease in EGF levels in all groups (normal weight: P = 0.025, overweight/moderate obesity: P = 0.04, severe obesity: P = 0.018). Altogether, these findings suggest that in sedentary individuals with different ranges of BMI, Glutathione Reductase and distinct cytokines are differentially involved into the adaptive metabolic changes and redox responses induced by physical exercise. Therefore, these biomarkers may have the potential to identify individuals at higher risk for developing diseases pathophysiologically linked to oxidative stress.

  12. Happiness, subjective and objective oral health status, and oral health behaviors among Korean elders.

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    Yoon, Hyun-Seo; Kim, Hae-Young; Patton, Lauren L; Chun, Jin-Ho; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Lee, Mi-Ok

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to comprehensively assess the association of subjective and objective oral health status and oral health behaviors with happiness, under consideration of demographic, socioeconomic, and general health-related factors. This study also aims to test whether subjective oral health outcomes are better predictors of happiness compared with objective oral health outcomes. The data were collected from 479 community-dwelling elders aged 65 years or over selected by a cluster sampling method. A questionnaire and an oral examination were implemented. A multiple regression method was conducted to assess associations with happiness index (HI). The mean age of the elders was 74.6 years. Mean (standard deviation, SD) HI, EuroQol-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) and 14-item oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) index were 5.7 (SD 2.3), 59.8 (SD 21.1), and 16.3 (SD 13.1). In the final model, a significant association with HI of the OHIP-14 index (P = 0.091) among all the participants and significant associations of oral symptoms (P = 0.038), wearing a removable denture (P = 0.039), and of the oral health behavior of daily toothbrushing (P = 0.007) among poorer oral health QoL group were confirmed under consideration of other related factors. While correlations of HI to subjective measures of health, EQ-VAS and OHIP-14 score were moderate to weak, those to objective measures of health were only weak or insignificant. Oral impacts which might persistently affect one's daily life need to be considered in designing and delivering public services aimed to promote people's happiness. With oral health impacts and behaviors accounting for 10% of happiness among elders, public and community services for the elderly that support oral health and daily toothbrushing for the dentate are critical for the well-being of our elders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Subjective Social Status and Psychological Distress in Mothers of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Nicole; Riis, Jenna L; Johnson, Sara B

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Perceptions of social standing have increasingly well-documented relationships with health. Higher subjective social status (SSS) is associated with better psychological well-being among women, and mothers of newborns. The relationship between SSS and psychological distress among mothers of young children, however, is largely unknown. SSS may provide insight into aspects of maternal functioning that are relevant to parenting capacity, as well as insight into future health; in addition, SSS is brief, and may be perceived as less intrusive than other measures of socioeconomic status or mental health. We evaluated the relationship between SSS and psychological distress among mothers of 5-year-old children from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods One hundred and sixty-two mothers of 5-year old children, who participated in a study of child self-regulation, completed surveys that assessed sociodemographics, mental health, and perceived social support. The MacArthur Scale of SSS used pictures of ten-rung ladders to assess respondents' social position in relation to the US (SES ladder) and their community (community ladder). Quantile regression models were used to assess the relationship between maternal psychological distress (perceived social support, depressive symptoms, anxiety) and the ladders (individually and together), adjusting for maternal age, race, education, and number of children. To examine whether the SSS-health relationships differed by race, the models were also stratified by race. Results Community ladder ranking was positively associated with social support (β = 1.34, SE = 0.33, p support (β = 1.17, SE = 0.52, p maternal psychological well-being. Community SSS may be particularly influential for Black/African-American mothers' well-being.

  14. The influence of normative and subjective oral health status on schoolchildren's happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchtenhagen, Simone; Bresolin, Carmela Rampazzo; Tomazoni, Fernanda; da Rosa, Guilherme Nascimento; Del Fabro, Joana Possamai; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2015-01-23

    Traditional methods to measure oral health based on clinical standards are limited because they do not consider psychosocial and functional aspects of oral health. It has been recommended that these measures need to be supplemented by data obtained from patients regarding their individual perceptions on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Happiness is a multidimensional construct comprising both emotional and cognitive domains, and has been defined as "the degree to which an individual judges the overall quality of his or her life as a whole favorably". It has been associated with several health outcomes, including oral health. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of oral health conditions, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and socioeconomic factors on the subjective happiness of Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 on a representative sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren in Santa Maria-RS, Brazil. The data were collected through dental examinations and structured interviews. The participants underwent an evaluation aimed at detecting dental caries, traumatic dental injuries, malocclusion, and gingival bleeding. They also completed the Brazilian versions of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire-short form (CPQ11-14-ISF: 16) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), which was our outcome variable. Socioeconomic conditions were evaluated through a questionnaire that was completed by the participants' parents. Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the association between the explanatory variables and the outcome. Moreover, a correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the SHS scores and the overall and domain scores of the CPQ11-14-ISF: 16. A total of 1,134 children were evaluated. Unadjusted analyses showed that happiness was associated with socioeconomic indicators, the use of dental services, clinical status, and scores on the OHRQoL measure. After adjustment

  15. Can subjective global assessment of nutritional status predict survival in ovarian cancer?

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    Gupta Digant

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is a significant problem in patients with ovarian cancer. The goal of this study was to investigate the prognostic role of Subjective Global Assessment (SGA in patients with ovarian cancer treated in an integrative cancer treatment setting. Methods We evaluated a case series of 132 ovarian cancer patients treated at Cancer Treatment Centers of America® from Jan 2001 to May 2006. SGA was used to assess nutritional status at baseline. Using SGA, patients were classified as well nourished (SGA A, moderately malnourished (SGA B or severely malnourished (SGA C. Kaplan Meier method was used to calculate survival. Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to evaluate the prognostic effect of SGA independent of other factors. Results Of 132 patients, 24 were newly diagnosed while 108 had received prior treatment. 15 had stage I disease at diagnosis, 8 stage II, 85 stage III and 17 stage IV. The median age at presentation was 54.4 years (range 25.5 – 82.5 years. 66 patients were well-nourished (SGA A, 35 moderately malnourished (SGA B and 31 severely malnourished (SGA C. Well nourished patients had a median survival of 19.3 months (95% CI: 14.1 to 24.5, moderately malnourished 15.5 months (95% CI: 5.8 to 25.1, and severely malnourished 6.7 months (95% CI: 4.1 to 9.3; the difference being statistically significant (p = 0.0003. Multivariate Cox modeling, after adjusting for stage at diagnosis and prior treatment history found that moderately malnourished and severely malnourished status were associated with a relative risk of 2.1 (95% CI: 1.2 to 3.6, p = 0.008 and 3.4 (95% CI: 1.9 to 5.8, p Conclusion Univariate and multivariate survival analyses found that low SGA scores (i.e. well-nourished status are associated with better survival outcomes. This study lends support to the role of aggressive nutritional intervention in improving patient outcomes in cancer care.

  16. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Leptin Levels and Nutritional Status of Indigenous Tepehuán and Mestizo Subjects in Durango, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo Guzmán, Dealmy; Marchat Marchau, Laurence Annie; Reyes, José L.; Loera Castañeda, Verónica; Sosa Macías, Martha; García Vivas, Jessica; Asseff, Ismael Lares

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in nutritional status and their association with circulating leptin levels in the indigenous Tepehuán people of Mezquital Durango and Mestizo populations of Durango City, Mexico. A group of 128 volunteers aged 18 through 59 years were recruited for the study: 60 indigenous Tepehuán from Mezquital and 68 Mestizo individuals from Durango City. The classification of nutritional status was through body mass index (BMI). Clinical evaluations, including anthropometry and lipid profiles, were performed to ascertain the health of the participants. Circulating leptin levels were determined in blood samples after at 08 hours of fasting. The healthy subjects were classified according to BMI: 32 Tepehuán and 30 Mestizo subjects were of normal weight (NW), and 28 Tepehuán and 38 Mestizo subjects were overweight or obese (OW/O). Both NW and OW/O Tepehuán subjects showed lower leptin concentrations than the comparable Mestizo subjects. Statistical analysis showed a negative Pearson's correlation (r = −0.5; P < 0.05) between BMI and leptin levels in NW Tepehuán subjects, but no significant correlation was found in other groups. The differences found in Tepehuán compared with Mestizo subjects might be explained by poor nutritional status, which leads to scarce adipose tissue and low levels of leptin synthesis. Leptin concentration and its relationship to BMI are associated with ethnicity. PMID:24825928

  18. The association between subjective socioeconomic status and health inequity in victims of occupational accidents in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Lee, Wanhyung; Rhie, Jeongbae; Won, Jong-Uk

    2017-01-24

    We aimed to investigate the health inequity of victims of occupational accidents through the association between socioeconomic status and unmet healthcare need. Data from the first and second Panel Study of Workers' Compensation Insurance were used, which included 1,803 participants. The odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals for the unmet healthcare needs of participants with a lower socioeconomic status and other socioeconomic statuses were investigated using multivariate regression analysis. Among all participants, 103 had unmet healthcare needs, whereas 1,700 did not. After adjusting for sex, age, smoking, alcohol, chronic disease, recuperation duration, accident type, disability, and economic participation, the odds ratio of unmet healthcare needs in participants with a lower socioeconomic status was 2.04 (95% confidence interval 1.32-3.15) compared to participants with other socioeconomic statuses. The victims of occupational accidents who have a lower socioeconomic status are more likely to have unmet healthcare needs in comparison to those with other socioeconomic statuses.

  19. Baseline glycemic status and mortality in 241,499 Korean metropolitan subjects: A Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Park, Se Eun; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Lee, Won-Young

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes and prediabetes subjects have increased risk for mortality. We analyzed the mortality risk due to all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer in Korean subjects participating in a health-screening program according to baseline glycemic status and HbA1c levels. Among 241,499 participants of a health-screening program between 2005 and 2012, the risk of death from all causes, CVD, and cancer was calculated based on the baseline glycemic status (normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes) and HbA1c levels. Uncontrolled diabetes was defined as HbA1c≥7.0%. Vital status and confirmation of the cause of death were based on the analysis of death certificate records from the National Death Index. During 923,343.1 person-years of follow-up, 877 participants died. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of subjects with controlled and uncontrolled diabetes to normoglycemic subjects for all-cause mortality were 1.58 (95% CI 1.24-2.03) and 2.26 (95% CI 1.78-2.86), respectively. The HRs of subjects with controlled and uncontrolled diabetes to normoglycemic subjects for mortality due to cancer were 1.75 (95% CI 1.23-2.48) and 1.67 (95% CI 1.13-2.45). However, glycemic status was not significantly associated with the risk of mortality due to CVD. The subjects with HbA1c higher than 6.5% showed more than 2-fold increased risk for all-cause mortality and the subjects with HbA1c lower than 5.2% showed increased HR (1.45, 95% CI 1.06-1.97) compared with those with HbA1c of 5.5% in subjects not taking anti-diabetic medications. Mortality risk from all causes and cancer significantly increased in diabetes subjects regardless of the glucose control status. In subjects not taking anti-diabetic medications, both high and low HbA1c resulted in increased risk for all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proinflammatory and Prothrombotic State in Subjects with Different Glucose Tolerance Status before Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Isordia-Salas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and atherothrombosis. Aim. To determine differences in levels of proinflammatory and prothrombotic markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and fibrinogen in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, prediabetes, and T2DM and to establish their relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors before clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease. Methods. We conducted a nonrandomized, cross-sectional assay in a hospital at México City. The levels of hs-CRP and fibrinogen were measured and compared according to glucose tolerance status. Results. We enrolled 1047 individuals and they were distributed into NGT n=473, pre-DM n=250, and T2DM n=216. There was a statistical difference between NGT and T2DM groups for fibrinogen (P=0.01 and hs-CRP (P=0.05. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP showed a significant positive correlation coefficient (r=0.53, P<0.0001. In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, the variability in fibrinogen levels was explained by age, HbA1c, and hs-CRP (adjusted R2=0.31, P<0.0001, and for hs-CRP it was explained by BMI and fibrinogen (adjusted R2=0.33, P<0.0001. Conclusion. Inflammation and prothrombotic state are present in people with T2DM lacking cardiovascular disease. Fibrinogen and Hs-CRP are positively correlated. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP concentrations are predominantly determined by BMI rather than glucose levels.

  1. Proinflammatory and Prothrombotic State in Subjects with Different Glucose Tolerance Status before Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isordia-Salas, Irma; Galván-Plata, María Eugenia; Leaños-Miranda, Alfredo; Aguilar-Sosa, Eberth; Anaya-Gómez, Francisco; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Santiago-Germán, David

    2014-01-01

    Background. Inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and atherothrombosis. Aim. To determine differences in levels of proinflammatory and prothrombotic markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and fibrinogen in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), prediabetes, and T2DM and to establish their relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors before clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease. Methods. We conducted a nonrandomized, cross-sectional assay in a hospital at México City. The levels of hs-CRP and fibrinogen were measured and compared according to glucose tolerance status. Results. We enrolled 1047 individuals and they were distributed into NGT n = 473, pre-DM n = 250, and T2DM n = 216. There was a statistical difference between NGT and T2DM groups for fibrinogen (P = 0.01) and hs-CRP (P = 0.05). Fibrinogen and hs-CRP showed a significant positive correlation coefficient (r = 0.53, P<0.0001). In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, the variability in fibrinogen levels was explained by age, HbA1c, and hs-CRP (adjusted R 2 = 0.31, P<0.0001), and for hs-CRP it was explained by BMI and fibrinogen (adjusted R 2 = 0.33, P<0.0001). Conclusion. Inflammation and prothrombotic state are present in people with T2DM lacking cardiovascular disease. Fibrinogen and Hs-CRP are positively correlated. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP concentrations are predominantly determined by BMI rather than glucose levels. PMID:24772446

  2. Kajian metode Subjective Global Assessment (SGA dan Nutrition Services Screening Assesment (NSSA sebagai status gizi awal pasien dewasa sebagai prediktor lama rawat inap dan status pulang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus I Wayan Harimawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of nutrition status of newly hospitalized patients is an initial stage of nutrition intervention which will bring effects to the duration of stay and the history of patients' diseases during hospitalization. Appropriate nutrition intervention as part of  patients' care can be used as an indicator of the quality of hospital service. Objective: The study aimed to identify preliminary nutrition status of newly hospitalized adult patients using SGA method, its effects to length of stay and status of discharge and compare the capacity of SGA and NSSA indicators in predicting length of stay and status of discharge of adult patients. Method: This observational study used prospective cohort study design. It was carried out at Anuntaloko Hospital of Parigi, District of Parigi Moutong, Sulawesi Tengah from July to September 2008. Subject consisted of 162 people comprising 82 undernourished people and 80 people with good nutrition status based on assessment using SGA method. Data analysis used bivariable and multivariable, receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve and diagnostic methods using computer program. Result: The majority of newly hospitalized patients were undernourished (50.6%; preliminary status of patients assessed using SGA method could affect length of stay, relative risk (RR=3.67 but not status of discharge (RR=0.97. The capacity of SGA indicator, area under the curve (AUC=0.81 and maximum sum of sensitivity and specifcity (MSS =1.57 was better than NSSA indicator (AUC=0.76 and MSS 1.43 in predicting length of stay. The capacity of SGA indicator (AUC=0.50 and MSS=1.01 was better than NSSA indicator (AUC=0.49 and MSS=0.98 in predicting discharge status of the patient. Conclusion: SGA and NSSA indicators could be implemented in assessing preliminary nutrition status of newly hospitalized adult patients; SGA indicator had better capacity than NSSA indicator.

  3. Pengukuran status gizi pasien anak menggunakan metode subjective global nutrition assessment (SGNA sebagai prediktor lama rawat inap, status pulang dan kejadian malnutrisi di rumah sakit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuni

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is associated with longer stay, higher risk of complication and mortality. Subjective Global Nutrition Assessment (SGNA is a recently discovered method to assess nutritional status. Objective: To assess the association between nutritional statuses of under-fi ve year old patients measured with SGNA and length of inpatient stay, discharge status and occurrence of malnutrition. Methods: Under-fi ve year old patients hospitalized in Pediatric Ward of Pekanbaru Hospital had their nutritional status measured with SGNA on admission. Three groups were identifi ed: exposed to bad nutritional status, i.e. SGNA C (worst and B (moderate, and not exposed to bad nutritional status (SGNA A. Length of hospital stay, discharge status and occurrence of malnutrition in exposed groups (SGNA B and C were independently compared to non-exposed group (SGNA A as the reference. Other variables measured were types of disease and intake of energy and protein. Results: Children with SGNA C and B had higher risk to stay longer in hospital, i.e. RR (95%CI of 3.2 (1.7-6.0 and 2.5 (1.3 – 4.9, respectively. They had also higher risk for discharged without complete recovery, i.e. RR (95%CI of 3.3 (1.8-6.2 and 2.2 (1.1 – 4.3, respectively. Children with SGNA C had higher risk for hospital malnutrition, i.e. RR (95%CI of 2.8 (1.5-5.2, but not children with SGNA B. Types of disease, energy and protein intake were not important effect modifi ers for this association. Conclusion: Nutritional status on admission was signifi cantly associated with length of hospital stay, discharge status and occurrence of hospital malnutrition.

  4. The association between subjective socioeconomic status and health inequity in victims of occupational accidents in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Lee, Wanhyung; Rhie, Jeongbae; Won, Jong-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to investigate the health inequity of victims of occupational accidents through the association between socioeconomic status and unmet healthcare need. Methods: Data from the first and second Panel Study of Workers' Compensation Insurance were used, which included 1,803 participants. The odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals for the unmet healthcare needs of participants with a lower socioeconomic status and other socioeconomic statuses were investigated using multivari...

  5. Anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders among Latinos in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Ortiz, Mayra; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Vujanovic, Anka

    2015-05-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 143 Latinos (85.7% female; Mage=39.0, SD=10.9; 97.2% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. Results indicated that the interaction between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was significantly associated with number of mood and anxiety disorders, panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The form of the significant interactions indicated that individuals reporting co-occurring higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and lower levels of subjective social status evidenced the greatest levels of psychopathology and panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that there is merit in focusing further scientific attention on the interplay between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in regard to understanding, and thus, better intervening to reduce anxiety/depressive vulnerability among Latinos in primary care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability of scored patient generated subjective global assessment for nutritional status among HIV infected adults in TASO, Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokori, A; Kabehenda, M K; Nabiryo, C; Wamuyu, M G

    2011-08-01

    Establish the reliability of the scored Patient Generated-Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) in determining nutritional status among Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) naive HIV-infected adults. A descriptive, cross sectional study among outpatient medical clinics, in The AIDS Support Organization (TASO), Mulago Centre, Kampala, Uganda. The study group (n=217) consisted of male (n=60) and female (n=157) HIV patients (18-67 years). Purposive sampling was used. Anthropometry (weight, height, BMI), nutritional history (body weight, dietary intake, gastrointestinal symptoms, functional capacity and infections), and clinical status were assessed. Sensitivity and specificity of PG-SGA were determined using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Data collection was done from April-May 2008. Only 12% of the subjects were underweight and over half (58.2%) had normal weight. The PG-SGA had low sensitivity (69.2%) and specificity (57.1%) at categorizing the risk for malnutrition indicated by BMInutritional status in this population.

  7. Sex Stereotypes of Secondary School Teaching Subjects: Male and Female Status Gains and Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard L.

    1974-01-01

    A survey reveals that teachers considered different subjects appropriately taught by men or by women and that higher prestige was attributed to whatever sex conformed to the subjects' sex stereotypes. (Author/KM)

  8. Status and subjects of thermal-hydraulic analysis for next-generation LWRs with passive safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The present status and subjects on thermal-hydraulic analysis for next-generation light water reactors (LWRs) with passive safety systems were summarized based on survey results and discussion by subcommittee on improvement of reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis codes under nuclear code committee in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This survey was performed to promote the research of improvement of reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis codes in future. In the first part of this report, the status and subjects on system analysis and those on evaluation of passive safety system performance are summarized for various types of reactor proposed before. In the second part, the status and subjects on multidimensional two-phase flow analysis are reviewed, since the multidimensional analysis was recognized as one of most important subjects through the investigation in the first part. Besides, databases for bubbly flow and annular dispersed flow were explored, those are needed to assess and verify each multidimensional analytical method. The contents in this report are the forefront of thermal-hydraulic analysis for LWRs and those include current findings for the development of multidimensional two-phase flow analytical method. Thus, we expect that the contents can offer various useful information against the improvement of reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis codes in future. (author)

  9. Self-rated Subjective Health Status Is Strongly Associated with Sociodemographic Factors, Lifestyle, Nutrient Intakes, and Biochemical Indices, but Not Smoking Status: KNHANES 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2015-09-01

    Despite advertised health warnings regarding the deadly hazards of smoking, many people have not heeded recommendations to quit smoking. We examined factors that affect self-rated subjective health status (SRH) scores among lifestyle, nutrient intake and biochemical parameters, and the association of SRH scores and smoking status in a large Korean adult population. Adjusted odd ratios for SRH were calculated for smoking status, selected biochemical data, and food and nutrient intake obtained using the 24-hr recall method after covariate adjustment in the 2007-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (27,534 men and women aged ≥ 20 yr). Age, sex, income, education, drinking, exercise and stress levels were associated with SRH scores, regardless of smoking status (P smoking status groups considered the well-known indicators for metabolic diseases (HDL cholesterol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in the circulation), and the intake of fiber, total vitamins A, and vitamin C as indicators of SRH. Especially in current smokers, higher intake of nutritious food groups such as grains (OR = 1.227), vegetables (OR = 1.944), and milk (OR = 2.26) significantly increased the adjusted odds ratio of SRH. However, smoking status was not associated with SRH scores. In conclusion, SRH is affected by the indices related to health but not smoking status in Korean adults. The development of a new indicator of the direct adverse effects of smoking at regular health check-ups might be required to modulate the SRH in smokers and a nutritional education should not include the possible attenuation of adverse effects of smoking by good nutrition.

  10. Change of Nutritional Status Assessed Using Subjective Global Assessment Is Associated With All-Cause Mortality in Incident Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young Eun; Kee, Youn Kyung; Yoon, Chang-Yun; Han, In Mee; Han, Seung Gyu; Park, Kyoung Sook; Lee, Mi Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung H; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam-Ho; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-02-01

    Subjective global assessment (SGA) is associated with mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. However, little is known whether improvement or deterioration of nutritional status after dialysis initiation influences the clinical outcome. We aimed to elucidate the association between changes in nutritional status determined by SGA during the first year of dialysis and all-cause mortality in incident ESRD patients. This was a multicenter, prospective cohort study. Incident dialysis patients with available SGA data at both baseline and 12 months after dialysis commencement (n = 914) were analyzed. Nutritional status was defined as well nourished (WN, SGA A) or malnourished (MN, SGA B or C). The patients were divided into 4 groups according to the change in nutritional status between baseline and 12 months after dialysis commencement: group 1, WN to WN; group 2, MN to WN; group 3, WN to MN; and group 4, MN to MN. Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to clarify the association between changes in nutritional status and mortality. Being in the MN group at 12 months after dialysis initiation, but not at baseline, was a significant risk factor for mortality. There was a significant difference in the 3-year survival rates among the groups (group 1, 92.2%; group 2, 86.0%; group 3, 78.2%; and group 4, 63.5%; log-rank test, P nutritional status assessed by SGA during the first year of dialysis were associated with all-cause mortality in incident ESRD patients.

  11. Change in subjective social status following HIV diagnosis and associated effects on mental and physical health among HIV-positive gay men in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Wendy; Lyons, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the impact of HIV diagnosis on subjective social status and if changes are linked to health outcomes. Two measures of subjective social status, socio-economic and standing in the community were examined in 342 Australian HIV-positive gay men in 2014. Participants recalled ratings at diagnosis were compared with current ratings. Self-reported mental (psychological distress, self-esteem, positive mental health and satisfaction with life) and physical health (self-rated health, CD4 count, viral load). Half of the participants reported improvements in subjective socio-economic status (59%) or standing in the community (52%) since diagnosis, yet one quarter reported socio-economic status (25%) or standing in the community had decreased (23%). Increases in either measure of subjective social status were linked to higher self-esteem, positive mental health, satisfaction with life and better self-rated health. Decreases in subjective social status, however, were strongly linked to poorer outcomes on all mental health measures. Decreases in standing in the community were also associated with poorer physical self-rated health. Most participants reported their subjective social status were the same or better since diagnosis. Changes in subjective social status following diagnosis were strongly linked to mental health outcomes. Those who reported a decrease in subjective social status were particularly vulnerable to mental health problems.

  12. Vitamin D status assessed by a validated HPLC method: within and between variation in subjects supplemented with vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    -subject variation of vitamin D status in serum samples from four different dietary intervention studies in which subjects (n=92) were supplemented with different doses of vitamin D3 (5-12 g/day) and for different durations (4-20 months). Results. The HPLC method was applicable for 4.0-200 nmol S-25OHD/L, while...... estimated in each of the four human intervention studies did not differ significantly (p=0.55). Hence, the pooled standard deviation was 15.3 nmol 25OHD3/L. In the studies with 6-8 samplings during 7-20 months of supplementation, the within-subject variation was 3.9-7.2 nmol 25OHD3/L, while vitamin D status...... was in the range 47-120 nmol/L. Conclusions. The validated HPLC method was applied in samples from human intervention studies in which subjects were supplemented with vitamin D3. The estimated standard deviation between and within subjects is useful in the forthcoming decision on setting limits for optimal vitamin...

  13. [Study of the health status of subjects born with medical-assisted reproduction: the connexion between epidemiology and bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, A; Meli, P

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge of the newborns' health status from medical assisted procreation techniques represents the main objective of public health in this field. It is not acceptable, in fact, the use of fertilisation and artificial insemination techniques without a correct evaluation of these newborns' health status. As probable risks exist in medical protocols of treatments (mothers' exposition to hormonal drugs, manipulations of gametes, embryo development in growing coculture with different animal cells, cryopreservation, lack of natural selection of spermatozoa in intracytoplasmatic sperm injection techniques), a check of the results of these techniques is extremely necessary. Newborns' health status must be detected not only at delivery time but also in the following period to evaluate the right physical and psychological development. To estimate infertility risk that these children might run after their mothers' hormonal treatment, it is necessary to follow these subjects till adult age.

  14. Association between dental prosthesis need, nutritional status and quality of life of elderly subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Rajath; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Jain, Veena

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of prosthesis need on nutritional status and oral health-related quality of life (OHrQoL) in elderly and to check the disparity between prosthesis need and prosthesis want in the Indian elderly. METHODS: A total of 946 geriatric participants reporting to a geriatric medicine...... need (r = -0.460). Participants with some prosthesis need had significantly lower MNA and GOHAI scores as compared to those with no prosthesis need. Though prosthesis need was high (79.7 %), demand was low (39.3 %). CONCLUSION: Prosthesis need affects nutritional status and OHrQoL in elderly...... clinic were recruited in the study. Mini-nutritional assessment (MNA), geriatric oral health assessment (GOHAI) indices, prosthesis need according to WHO criteria, and prosthesis want was recorded along with age, gender, socioeconomic status and posterior occluding pair. RESULTS: Significant associations...

  15. Evaluation of vitamin B1 status of alcoholic subjects in Abidjan (Côte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the clinical importance of free thiamine and its esters on the essential human organs, their determination seems necessary to appreciate vitamin B1 status ... free thiamine and its phosphate esters: thiamine monophosphate and thiamine diphosphate by reverse phase liquid chromatography and fluorimetric detection.

  16. Subjective global assessment of nutritional status of patients with chronic renal insufficiency and end stage renal disease on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiawala, Shruti; Vora, H; Patel, Zamrud; Badve, S; Shah, B

    2006-12-01

    (1)To assess the nutritional status of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) and dialysis patients using the subjective global assessment (SGA) method. (2) To validate SGA in assessing the nutritional status of this group of patients. The nutritional status of 81 patients was evaluated using dietary recall, anthropometry, biochemical parameters and SGA. There were 51 males and 30 females. Their mean +/- SD age was 53.8 +/- 14.3 years. There were 27 patients with (CRI) on conservative management, 38 patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and 16 patients with ESRD on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). SGA was done using seven variables derived from medical history and physical examination. Each variable was scored from 1-7 depending on the severity. The SGA scores were correlated with the standard methods. Thirteen (48%) patients with CRI, 22 (58%) patients on HD and 8 (50%) patients on CAPD were malnourished. It was seen that the dietary protein & calorie intake and serum albumin level did not correlate well with the SGA scores. The anthropometric measures correlated with the SGA scores (Skinfolds and SGA r = 0.2, MAC and SGA r = 0.5 and MAMC and SGA r = 0.5). Malnutrition is an important complication in CRI patients and ESRD patients on dialysis. SGA is a reliable method of assessing nutritional status. Most important is the fact that it can detect the changing trend of nutritional status, which may be missed by one-time anthropometry and biochemical methods.

  17. The nutritional status of hospitalized children: Has this subject been overlooked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapçı, Nermin; Akçam, Mustafa; Koca, Tuğba; Dereci, Selim; Kapcı, Mücahit

    2015-07-01

    To determine the nutritional status of hospitalized children at the time of admission and to investigate the relationship between diagnosis and nutritional status. Body weight, height, triceps skinfold thickness, and mid-arm circumference were measured on admission and percentages of weight-for-age, weight-for-height, body mass index, mid-arm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness were calculated. The nutritional status was evaluated using the Waterlow, Gomez, and other anthropometric assessments. A total of 511 patients were included in the study with a mean age of 5.8±4.9 years. Malnutrition was determined in 52.7% of patients according to the Waterlow classification. Mild malnutrition was determined in 39%, moderate in 12%, and severe in 1.7%, with the characteristics of acute malnutrition in 23.9%, acute-chronic in 7.3%, and chronic in 21.5%. The highest rate of malnutrition was in the 0-2 years age group (62.3%). According to the Gomez classification, malnutrition rate was determined as 46.8%. The rates of malnutrition in malignant, gastrointestinal, and infectious diseases were 60%, 59.8%, and 54.5%, respectively. The prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized children was noticeably high. The nutritional evaluation of all patients and an early start to nutritional support could provide a significant positive contribution.

  18. Association between dental prosthesis need, nutritional status and quality of life of elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Rajath Sasidharan; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Jain, Veena; Shah, Naseem; Kalra, Sandeep; Kumar, Pravesh; Dey, A B

    2015-12-01

    To determine the effect of prosthesis need on nutritional status and oral health-related quality of life (OHrQoL) in elderly and to check the disparity between prosthesis need and prosthesis want in the Indian elderly. A total of 946 geriatric participants reporting to a geriatric medicine clinic were recruited in the study. Mini-nutritional assessment (MNA), geriatric oral health assessment (GOHAI) indices, prosthesis need according to WHO criteria, and prosthesis want was recorded along with age, gender, socioeconomic status and posterior occluding pair. Significant associations exist between prosthesis need and age (p = 0.005), MNA (p = 0.006) and GOHAI (p = 0.000). Prosthesis demand too was influenced by age (p = 0.004), posterior occluding pairs (p = 0.000), MNA (p = 0.012) and GOHAI (p = 0.000). GOHAI was negatively correlated with upper (r = -0.445) and lower prosthesis need (r = -0.460). Participants with some prosthesis need had significantly lower MNA and GOHAI scores as compared to those with no prosthesis need. Though prosthesis need was high (79.7 %), demand was low (39.3 %). Prosthesis need affects nutritional status and OHrQoL in elderly, and a wide gap exists between need and want of prosthesis.

  19. Influence of Job Status on Subjective Well-Being of University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjective well-being (SWB) is increasingly becoming important to individuals in various professions, university lecturers inclusive. Observations show that individuals desire to live fulfilling lives as evaluated by them, most importantly, and by others around them. Therefore, it is believed that the well-being of any individual ...

  20. A descriptive study of the oral status in subjects with Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olate, Sergio; Muñoz, Daniella; Neumann, Stephanie; Pozzer, Leandro; Cavalieri-Pereira, Lucas; de Moraes, Márcio

    2014-01-01

    Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune pathology of varying prevalence. Its involvement in exocrine glands requires that greater attention be paid to patients' oral health. A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the oral health of subjects with SS in constant medical follow-ups. Variables such as the presence of periodontal infections, decay and alterations in the oral mucosa were analyzed, and the individual's salivary flow was measured. The data were analyzed descriptively and with the chi-squared test, considering pdental check-up every 6 months in only 9% of cases, whereas the rest had one every 1 or 2 years. All the subjects recounted presenting with dry mouth and associated significantly the ingestion of fluids and teeth brushing to improve the sensation of dryness. The salivary flow was objectively seen to be compromised, showing a significant reduction in those with more time since diagnosis of the disease; more than 90% of subjects exhibited periodontal inflammation and a high level of caries. The mucosa presented a low level of pathology. In conclusion, education in oral health is imperative for subjects with this pathology and more frequent check-ups may be useful in decreasing the levels of oral pathology.

  1. Culture, Parental Conflict, Parental Marital Status, and the Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohm, Carol L.; Oishi, Shigehiro; Darlington, Janet; Diener, Ed

    1998-01-01

    Study 1 found that subjective well-being was negatively associated with marital conflict among offspring of never-divorced and remarried parents. Study 2 found that the negative association of divorce and of marital conflict with the life satisfaction of the offspring did not differ for adopted young adults. (Author/MKA)

  2. Effects of family budgeting responsibility on subjective health status: An empirical study of Japanese wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Bing; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    We examine whether the decision-making power of Japanese wives affects their health status. Looking at cross-sectional data from the Japanese Panel Survey of Consumers (JPSC) conducted with women, we create a new measure for decision-making power based on participation in family budgeting. The data sample covers 1,306 married women aged 25 to 45 years in 2004. We find that Japanese wives are more likely to report good health when they have more responsibility than their husbands for household budgeting. Additionally, having more education or being fully employed increased the probability of reporting "good health" by more than six percentage points.

  3. Predicting self-rated mental and physical health: the contributions of subjective socioeconomic status and personal relative deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Mitchell J; Kim, Hyunji; Matthews, William J

    2015-01-01

    Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD) relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people's perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others) and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints). Across six studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES), with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4-6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability) or response biases between the measures.

  4. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo A. Bisschoff, Ben Coetzee, Michael R. Esco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV, and heart rate recovery (HRR are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match, during (in-match, after (post-match and during rest periods (in-match rest of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014 was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626 and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085 and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258 for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  5. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschoff, Christo A; Coetzee, Ben; Esco, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV), and heart rate recovery (HRR) are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states) for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match), during (in-match), after (post-match) and during rest periods (in-match rest) of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014) was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626) and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085) and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258) for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  6. [THE LEGAL STATUS OF ELEMENTS AND PRODUCTS OF THE HUMAN BODY: OBJECT OR SUBJECT OF LAW?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lameigné, Anaïs Gayte-Papon

    2015-07-01

    The 2004 Act on bioethics has amended the 1994 Act regarding the donation and the use of elements and products of the human body, medically assisted procreation and prenatal diagnosis. The very purpose of these laws led the legislature not to attempt the summa divisio order distinguishing the object to the person. The analysis of bioethical laws reveals the consecration of the non-commercialization of the human body at the expense of its unavailability. Bioethical laws appear to be catalysts of biological scientific advances releasing the status of the components and the products of the human body while framing it. By limiting scientific opportunities, they prevent human beings from trying to play the sorcerer's apprentice.

  7. Absorption of anthocyanins from blueberries and serum antioxidant status in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, G; Kay, Colin D; Cottrell, Tony; Holub, Bruce J

    2002-12-18

    In recent years, numerous studies have shown that the polyphenolics present in fruit and vegetable products exhibit a wide range of biological effects. However, there is little reliable information on the absorption of glycosylated and acylated anthocyanins in humans. In the present study, the absorption of anthocyanins in humans was investigated after the consumption of a high-fat meal with a freeze-dried blueberry powder containing 25 individual anthocyanins including 6 acylated structures. Nineteen of the 25 anthocyanins present in the blueberries were detected in human blood serum. Furthermore, the appearance of total anthocyanins in the serum was directly correlated with an increase in serum antioxidant capacity (ORAC(acetone), P blueberries, a food source with high in vitro antioxidant properties, is associated with a diet-induced increase in ex vivo serum antioxidant status.

  8. Effects of manual percussion during postural drainage on lung volumes and metabolic status in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Klaphajone, Jakkrit; Prasannarong, Mujalin; Boontha, Kritsana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of manual percussion during three different positions of postural drainage (PD) on lung volumes and metabolic status. Twenty six healthy volunteers (13 women and 13 men), with a mean age of 20.15 ± 1.17 years, participated. They were randomized into three standard positions of PD (upper, middle, or lower lobes) and given manual percussion at a frequency of 240 times per minute for 5 min. Lung volumes, including tidal volume (TV), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), expiratory reserve volume (ERV) and vital capacity (VC); and metabolic status, such as oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide (VCO2), respiratory rate (RR), and minute ventilation (VE) were evaluated. The lung volumes showed no statistical difference in VC or IRV from percussion during PD in all positions, except for the lower lobe, where increased TV and decreased ERV were found when compared to PD alone. Furthermore, percussion during PD of the upper and middle lobes did not affect RR or VE, when compared to PD alone. In addition, percussion during PD of the middle and lower lobes increased VO2 and VCO2 significantly, when compared to PD alone, but it did not influence PD of the upper lobe. This study indicated that up to 5 min of manual percussion on PD of the upper and middle lobes is safe mostly for lung volumes, RR, and VE, but it should be given with care in PD conditions of the lower lobe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A descriptive study of the oral status in subjects with Sjögren’s syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Olate, Sergio; Muñoz, Daniella; Neumann, Stephanie; Pozzer, Leandro; Cavalieri-Pereira, Lucas; de Moraes, Márcio

    2014-01-01

    Sjögren’s Syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune pathology of varying prevalence. Its involvement in exocrine glands requires that greater attention be paid to patients’ oral health. A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the oral health of subjects with SS in constant medical follow-ups. Variables such as the presence of periodontal infections, decay and alterations in the oral mucosa were analyzed, and the individual’s salivary flow was measured. The data were analyzed descriptively and wit...

  10. Changes in depression status in low socioeconomic perinatal subjects in rural India after supervised physical exercise: A randomized controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Gopal Nambi Subash Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perinatal depression is a major public health problem, affecting up to a quarter of all pregnant women in rural Asean countries and often leads to psychologic symptoms, lower quality of life, and higher health care costs. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of supervised physical exercise on depression level of perinatal subjects. Subjects/Intervention: 60 subjects who fulfill the selection criteria were randomly assigned to exercise (Group-1, n=30) and control group (Group-2, n=30). Participants completed general screening form and Physical health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) before their intervention and again 4 weeks and 8 weeks later. Group-1 underwent aerobic training with 60-65% maximum heart rate and Group-2 was prescribed with handouts for 4 weeks. Statistics: Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was use to analyze group differences over time while controlling for baseline differences. Results: Demographic and the baseline values show homogenous population (P>0.05). Patients in both groups experienced significant reduction in depression level. Group A showed reduction of 91.70% (P=0.00) as compared to Group B 69.01% (P=0.00). Conclusion: These results suggest that supervised physical exercise provides better improvement in depression status in perinatal subjects than providing handouts alone. PMID:26816432

  11. Associations between subjective social status and DSM-IV mental disorders: results from the World Mental Health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kate M; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Andrade, Laura H; Borges, Guilherme; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Fiestas, Fabian; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lim, Carmen C W; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Williams, David R; Zakhozha, Victoria; Kessler, Ronald C

    2014-12-01

    The inverse social gradient in mental disorders is a well-established research finding with important implications for causal models and policy. This research has used traditional objective social status (OSS) measures, such as educational level, income, and occupation. Recently, subjective social status (SSS) measurement has been advocated to capture the perception of relative social status, but to our knowledge, there have been no studies of associations between SSS and mental disorders. To estimate associations of SSS with DSM-IV mental disorders in multiple countries and to investigate whether the associations persist after comprehensive adjustment of OSS. Face-to-face cross-sectional household surveys of community-dwelling adults in 18 countries in Asia, South Pacific, the Americas, Europe, and the Middle East (N=56,085). Subjective social status was assessed with a self-anchoring scale reflecting respondent evaluations of their place in the social hierarchies of their countries in terms of income, educational level, and occupation. Scores on the 1 to 10 SSS scale were categorized into 4 categories: low (scores 1-3), low-mid (scores 4-5), high-mid (scores 6-7), and high (scores 8-10). Objective social status was assessed with a wide range of fine-grained objective indicators of income, educational level, and occupation. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed the 12-month prevalence of 16 DSM-IV mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. The weighted mean survey response rate was 75.2% (range, 55.1%-97.2%). Graded inverse associations were found between SSS and all 16 mental disorders. Gross odds ratios (lowest vs highest SSS categories) in the range of 1.8 to 9.0 were attenuated but remained significant for all 16 disorders (odds ratio, 1.4-4.9) after adjusting for OSS indicators. This pattern of inverse association between SSS and mental disorders was significant in 14 of 18 individual countries, and in low-, middle-, and high

  12. [Association of the meaning of life with satisfaction, the occurrence of subjective complaints and the family's economic status in the population of lower secondary school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, Dorota; Stalmach, Magdalena; Oblacińska, Anna; Tabak, Izabela

    Feeling of meaning in life is extremely crucial factor of mental health. The lack of it can result in various disorders. Many authors, especially those connected with current of humanistic psychology underline the teenagers' life sense. The aim of the paper was to examine the level of satisfaction with life, the frequency of psychosomatic complaints by junior high school students as well as the estimation of economical status of family and the analysis of meaning in life with above mentioned factors. The research was carried out in 2015 at 70 schools from all over the country, in group of 3695 lower secondary school students of I-III classes at the age of 13-17 (M=14,9; SD=0,87). The analysis connected with meaning in life using the shorten version of Purpose in Life Test (PIL) as well as analysis of life satisfaction using Cantril scale were taken up. What is more, the subjective physical complaints using single-factor shorten scale and economic status of family with the usage of material resources FAS scale (Family Affluence Scale) were examined. The statistical analysis included a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), t-student test post-hoc test as well as multivariate logistic regression model. The average level of meaning in life among the examined students was 24,7 points (the summary scale 0-36 points), the boys achieved higher score than girls. The students satisfied with life (t=28,0; pmeaning in life than students who were dissatisfied with their life, often or fairly suffer from health complaints and live in families of at most average level of affluence. The meaning in life is positively connected with satisfaction with life, lack of subjective complaints and family affluence. Because there is a lack of analysis linked with school teenagers' meaning in life in Polish literature, another research involved not only shorten but also full version of this tool should be conducted.

  13. Recruitment of subjects for clinical trials after informed consent: does gender and educational status make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Researchers and investigators have argued that getting fully informed written consent may not be possible in the developing countries where illiteracy is widespread. AIMS: To determine the percentage of patients who agree to participate in a trial after receiving either complete or partial information regarding a trial and to find out whether there were gender or educational status-related differences. To assess reasons for consenting or refusing and their depth of understanding of informed consent. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A simulated clinical trial in two tertiary health care facilities on in-patients. METHODS AND MATERIAL: An informed consent form for a mock clinical trial of a drug was prepared. The detailed / partial procedure was explained to a purposive sample of selected in-patients and their consent was asked for. Patients were asked to free list the reasons for giving or withholding consent. Their depth of understanding was assessed using a questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: The percentages of those consenting after full disclosure 29/102 (30% and after partial disclosure 15/50 (30% were the same. There was a significant (p=0.043 gender difference with a lesser percentage of females (30% consenting to participation in a trial. Educational status did not alter this percentage. Most patients withheld consent because they did not want to give blood or take a new drug. Understanding of informed consent was poor in those who consented. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that only one-third of subjects are likely to give consent to participate in a trial needs to be considered while planning clinical trials with a large sample size. Gender but not educational status influences the number of subjects consenting for a study. Poor understanding of the elements of informed consent in patients necessitates evolving better methods of implementing consent procedures in India.

  14. Nutritional status, yield and composition of peach fruit subjected to the application of organic compost

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    George Wellington Bastos de Melo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional state, yield and composition of peaches on peach trees subjected to the application of organic compost to the soil. This experiment was conducted during the 2008 and 2009 cropping season in an orchard containing Chimarrita cultivars grafted onto Capdeboscq rootstocks and Haplumbrept soils in the municipality of Farroupilha (RS, Brazil. The treatments included 0, 9, 18, 36, 72 and 144 liters of organic compost per plant-1 year-1. The total nutrient contents in the leaves, yield components, yields per plant and hectare and compositions of the fruits were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 soon after harvest and after 30 days of storage. The application of organic compost to the soil increased the yield components and the yields per plant and hectare in the two treatments with the highest compost additions, which indicated that the addition of 72 L of compost per plant-1 is ideal economically. The organic compost had little effect on the composition of the peach fruit after harvest and after 30 days of storage.

  15. [TRANSDISCIPLINARITY A NEW STATUS OF THE SUBJECT IN HEALTH? EPISTEMOLOGICAL AND ETHICAL QUESTIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    The discoveries in human genetics regularly question the meaning and limits of our interventions. In fact, to intervene on the physical nature challenges their ethical framework. However a gap exists between a medicine treating biological imbalances, diseases with organics repercussions and the psychological, social and cultural reality of the treated human persons. This gap hopes to fade with bioethics, word that has, in its vocation, the desire to meet the "bios" (biology's techniques and knowledge) and ethics. Ethics therefore refers to the "self", to what has an independent existence, contrary to the quest for universality of science and technology. The same difference is suggested by the genome, which includes universal elements essential to the coding transmission and the development of life in general as well as the inscription and the manifestation of individual characters. Between the universal and the singular, unmasks the issue of the different levels of human reality. Each has its own laws making the genetic or bioethics questioning not only scientific or moral but also phenomenological, epistemological and logical. Transdisciplinarity in these areas could foster debate and open up innovative perspectives on the question of the subject into, through and beyond disease.

  16. Perceived social stress, pregnancy-related anxiety, depression and subjective social status among pregnant Mexican and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in subjective social status, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and pregnancy-related anxiety between pregnant Mexican American and Mexican immigrant women. Three hundred pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in South Texas were surveyed for pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and subjective social status. Pregnant Mexican immigrant women had higher levels of pregnancy-related anxiety and lower levels of depression and perceived social stress than pregnant Mexican American women. Change in these variables among Mexican immigrant women was relatively linear as time of residence in the United States increased. Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women had significantly different correlations between subjective social status, self-esteem and perceived social stress. Results indicate that subjective social status is an important psychosocial variable among pregnant Hispanic women. Results contribute to ongoing efforts to provide culturally responsive prenatal psychosocial support services.

  17. Differences in the association of subjective wellbeing measures with health, socioeconomic status, and social conditions among residents of an Eastern Cape township

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe use of variably self-reported measures of wellbeing may produce differing outcomes. This study examined the differences in association with health, socioeconomic status, and social conditions (marital status, social capital) of two widely used cognitive subjective wellbeing

  18. Unsaturated Oral Fat Load Test Improves Glycemia, Insulinemia and Oxidative Stress Status in Nondiabetic Subjects with Abdominal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Navarro, Inmaculada; Real, Jose T; Artero, Ana; Peiro, Marta; Gonzalez-Navarro, Herminia; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative stress markers during an oral fat load test in nondiabetic subjects with abdominal obesity and to analyze the association between postprandial oxidative stress markers and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. We included 20 subjects with abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women) and 20 healthy lean controls (waist circumference < 102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women). After 12 hours of fasting we performed a standardized fat load test (0-8 hours) with supracal® (50 g/m2). We determined metabolic parameters, oxidized and reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde. In both groups, insulin, HOMA, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the postprandial state after the OFLT. All these parameters were significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group at baseline and during all the postprandial points, but the reduction from the baseline levels was significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group. Unsaturated fat improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress status. It is possible that a consumption of unsaturated fat could be beneficial even in subjects with abdominal obesity in postprandial state.

  19. Unsaturated Oral Fat Load Test Improves Glycemia, Insulinemia and Oxidative Stress Status in Nondiabetic Subjects with Abdominal Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Martinez-Hervas

    Full Text Available To evaluate the changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative stress markers during an oral fat load test in nondiabetic subjects with abdominal obesity and to analyze the association between postprandial oxidative stress markers and postprandial glucose and insulin responses.We included 20 subjects with abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women and 20 healthy lean controls (waist circumference < 102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women. After 12 hours of fasting we performed a standardized fat load test (0-8 hours with supracal® (50 g/m2. We determined metabolic parameters, oxidized and reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde.In both groups, insulin, HOMA, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the postprandial state after the OFLT. All these parameters were significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group at baseline and during all the postprandial points, but the reduction from the baseline levels was significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group.Unsaturated fat improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress status. It is possible that a consumption of unsaturated fat could be beneficial even in subjects with abdominal obesity in postprandial state.

  20. Subjective Social Status, Mental and Psychosocial Health, and Birth Weight Differences in Mexican-American and Mexican Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-12-01

    Recent Mexican immigrant women on average have an unexpectedly low incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weights decline and LBW incidence increases in post-immigrant generations. This pilot project tested the hypothesis that subjective social status (SSS) of pregnant women predicts variation in birth weight between Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women. 300 low-income pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in South Texas were surveyed for SSS, depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress and self-esteem and subsequent birth weight. No significant difference in SSS levels between pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women were found. However, SSS better predicted variation in birth weight across both groups than mental and psychosocial health variables. Results suggest distinct relationships among SSS, mental and psychosocial health that could impact birth weight. They underscore the relevance of a multilevel, biopsychosocial analytical framework to studying LBW.

  1. Dietary Intake of Antioxidants and Serum Levels of Total Antioxidant Status (TAS in MS Patients with that of Normal Subjects

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    ehsan Hejazi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Hejazi E1, Amaani R2, Sharafodin-zadeh N3 1. M.sc Student of Nutritional Sciences, Department of Nutritional, Faculty of Para-Medicine, Jondi-shapour University of Medical Sciences 2. Associate Professor, Department of Nutritional, Faculty of Para-Medicine, Jondi-shapour University of Medical Sciences 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Jondi-shapour University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS, with an etiology that is not yet fully understood. Increasing evidence shows that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. The aim of this study was to compare dietary intake of antioxidants and serum levels of Total Antioxidant Status (TAS in MS patients with that of normal subjects. Materials and methods: Serum levels of TAS and dietary intake of the main antioxidants of twenty one MS patients (16 women were compared with age and gender matched healthy controls. Serum samples were collected and frozen for further spectrophotometer analysis. Food frequency questionnaires and 24-hour dietary recalls for 3 days of all subjects were obtained. Results: There was no significant difference in serum levels of TAS between the two groups. No significant difference was seen in consumption of dietary antioxidant sources between them. Additionally, daily intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin A, folate and dietary fiber were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: There is a lack of evidence on the possible relationship and benefits of dietary antioxidant in MS patients. More research is required to assess the effectiveness of diet interventions on antioxidant status in MS patients.

  2. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Nepalese Hemodialysis Patients by Anthropometric Examinations and Modified Quantitative Subjective Global Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Sedhain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the nutritional status of patients on maintenance hemodialysis by using modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA and anthropometric measurements. Method We Conducted a cross sectional descriptive analytical study to assess the nutritional status of fifty four patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing maintenance hemodialysis by using MQSGA and different anthropometric and laboratory measurements like body mass index (BMI, mid-arm circumference (MAC, mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC, triceps skin fold (TSF and biceps skin fold (BSF, serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP and lipid profile in a government tertiary hospital at Kathmandu, Nepal. Results Based on MQSGA criteria, 66.7% of the patients suffered from mild to moderate malnutrition and 33.3% were well nourished. None of the patients were severely malnourished. CRP was positive in 56.3% patients. Serum albumin, MAC and BMI were (mean + SD 4.0 + 0.3 mg/dl, 22 + 2.6 cm and 19.6 ± 3.2 kg/m 2 respectively. MQSGA showed negative correlation with MAC ( r = −0.563; P = < 0.001, BMI ( r = −0.448; P = < 0.001, MAMC ( r = −0.506; P = < .0001, TSF ( r = −0.483; P = < .0002, and BSF ( r = −0.508; P = < 0.0001. Negative correlation of MQSGA was also found with total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol without any statistical significance. Conclusion Mild to moderate malnutrition was found to be present in two thirds of the patients undergoing hemodialysis. Anthropometric measurements like BMI, MAC, MAMC, BSF and TSF were negatively correlated with MQSGA. Anthropometric and laboratory assessment tools could be used for nutritional assessment as they are relatively easier, cheaper and practical markers of nutritional status.

  3. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Nepalese Hemodialysis Patients by Anthropometric Examinations and Modified Quantitative Subjective Global Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedhain, Arun; Hada, Rajani; Agrawal, Rajendra Kumar; Bhattarai, Gandhi R; Baral, Anil

    2015-01-01

    To assess the nutritional status of patients on maintenance hemodialysis by using modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) and anthropometric measurements. We Conducted a cross sectional descriptive analytical study to assess the nutritional status of fifty four patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing maintenance hemodialysis by using MQSGA and different anthropometric and laboratory measurements like body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), triceps skin fold (TSF) and biceps skin fold (BSF), serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profile in a government tertiary hospital at Kathmandu, Nepal. Based on MQSGA criteria, 66.7% of the patients suffered from mild to moderate malnutrition and 33.3% were well nourished. None of the patients were severely malnourished. CRP was positive in 56.3% patients. Serum albumin, MAC and BMI were (mean + SD) 4.0 + 0.3 mg/dl, 22 + 2.6 cm and 19.6 ± 3.2 kg/m(2) respectively. MQSGA showed negative correlation with MAC (r = -0.563; P = r = -0.448; P = r = -0.506; P = r = -0.483; P = r = -0.508; P = statistical significance. Mild to moderate malnutrition was found to be present in two thirds of the patients undergoing hemodialysis. Anthropometric measurements like BMI, MAC, MAMC, BSF and TSF were negatively correlated with MQSGA. Anthropometric and laboratory assessment tools could be used for nutritional assessment as they are relatively easier, cheaper and practical markers of nutritional status.

  4. Predicting Self-Rated Mental and Physical Health: The Contributions of Subjective Socioeconomic Status and Personal Relative Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell J. Callan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people’s perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints. Across 6 studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES, with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4 to 6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability or response biases between the measures.

  5. Low subjective social status in the police is linked to health-relevant changes in diurnal salivary alpha-amylase activity in Swiss police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habersaat, Stéphanie; Abdellaoui, Sid; Geiger, Ashley M; Urben, Sébastien; Wolf, Jutta M

    2017-10-16

    The objective of this study was to assess basal autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity as a pathway linking subjective social status to health in a high-demand work environment. It was hypothesized that officers with a lower status experienced more chronic stress (higher basal ANS activity) and that chronic stress was related to more health problems. Fifty-six male and female Swiss police officers self-reported on subjective social status (country, community, friends, police) and their health (depression, post-traumatic stress, physical symptoms) and collected 12 saliva samples over two days for basal α-amylase activation (sAA) assessment. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that subjective social status in the police and physical symptoms explained a significant part of the variance in diurnal sAA activity patterns. The current findings support the idea that more narrowly defined subjective social status may be more closely linked to biological stress mechanisms. Additionally, sAA activity was specifically related to physical, but not mental health problems. These results suggest that subjective social status referencing one's work environment may be a promising early indicator of health-relevant changes in stress-related physiological systems.

  6. SUBJECTIVE AND OBJECTIVE ESTIMATION OF THE LEVEL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SERVICE OF CONSERVING HEALTH STATUS IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2014-06-01

    . One of the most important publications in which this connection is emphasized is the report of the American Ministry of Health, called Physical activity and health (1996, which gives a number of useful effects on health status of people who participated in some form of physical activity. Exact minimal volume and intensity of physical activity enough to cause positive effects on health status is still unknown, so the estimation of elements of physical form related to health became important for many institutions occupied with health of people. Discussion: For each of the above mentioned elements of physical form related to health, there were different subjective and objective procedures established that can be used for their estimation. Carpensen CJ. Powell KE, Cristenson GM Besides (1985, it is very important to take into account a clear aim for which a certain estimation is done, because it enables implementation of the most appropriate protocol for estimation of each element of physical form. In that sense, subjective and objective estimation of the level of physical activity of an individual is essential for preservation and improvement of their health status. References: American College for Sports Medicine, Guildelines for exericise testing and Prescription.8th ed. Philadelphia: 2009 Lippincott Williams&Wilkins, 248-52. Carpensen CJ, Powell KE, Cristenson GM (1985. Physical activity , ehercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for healt-related research. Public Health Rep., 100(2, 126-31. U.S. Department of Healt and Human Services and Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention. Physical Activity and health: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA: 1996 National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 89-90.

  7. The effect of micro and macro stressors in the work environment on computer professionals' subjective health status and productive behavior in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Maki; Asakura, Takashi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the effect of micro and macro stressors in the work environment on the subjective health status and productive behavior of computer professionals, we conducted a web-based investigation with Japanese IT-related company employees in 53 company unions. The questionnaire consisted of individual attributes, employment characteristics, working hour characteristics, company size and profitability, personal characteristics (i.e., Growth Need Strength), micro and macro stressors scale, and four outcome scales concerning the subjective health status and productive behavior. We obtained 1,049 Japanese IT-related company employees' data (response rate: 66%), and analyzed the data of computer engineers (80%; n=871). The results of hierarchical multiple regressions showed that each full model explained 23% in psychological distress, 20% in cumulative fatigue, 44% in job dissatisfaction, and 35% in intentions to leave, respectively. In micro stressors, "quantitative and qualitative work overload" had the strongest influence on both the subjective health status and intentions to leave. Furthermore, in macro stressors, "career and future ambiguity" was the most important predictor of the subjective health status, and "insufficient evaluation systems" and "poor supervisor's support" were important predictors of productive behavior as well. These findings suggest that improving not only micro stressors but also macro stressors will enhance the subjective health status and increase the productive behavior of computer professionals in Japan.

  8. Subjective Social Status and Rumination in Relation to Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms and Psychopathology Among Economically Disadvantaged Latinos in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, David C; Paulus, Daniel J; Garza, Monica; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Lemaire, Chad; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Manning, Kara; Walker, Rheeda; Businelle, Michael; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-03-09

    The present investigation examined the interactive effects of subjective social status and rumination in relation to anxiety/depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 276 Latinos (82% female; Mage = 39.2, SD = 11.1; 97.0% reported Spanish as first language) who attended a community-based primary health care clinic. Results indicated that the interaction between rumination and subjective social status was significantly associated with depression (B = -.04, t = -3.52, p anxiety (B = -.01, t = -3.84, p anxiety disorders (B = -.004, t = -2.80, p = .005, 95% CI [-.006, -.001]), after controlling for main effects of rumination and subjective social status. The form of the interactions suggested that the associations of rumination and the outcome variables were stronger for those with lower compared to higher subjective social status. For anxious arousal symptoms, however, there was not a statistically significant interaction. These findings underscore the potential importance of examining the interplay between rumination and subjective social status in regard to better understanding, and intervening to reduce, various forms of anxiety/depressive symptoms and disorders among Latinos in primary care settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Subjective Well-Being in Older Chinese and Korean Immigrants in the United States: Effects of Self-Rated Health and Employment Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung; Jun, Hyeyoun; Lee, Jisun; Linton, Kristen; Kim, Meehye; Browne, Colette

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of association between self-rated health and employment status on subjective well-being among older Chinese and Korean immigrants in the United States. Data were collected from 171 Chinese and 205 Korean older adult immigrants living in Los Angeles County. The primary variables included demographic data, subjective index of well-being, self-rated health, and employment status. Data support the association between self-rated health and subjective well-being for both groups. Employment, education, and age were associated with the level of subjective well-being only for older Korean immigrants. Similarities and differences were noted in these two Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest the need to develop health promotion services for both populations and employment opportunities targeted more so for Korean older immigrants to further support their subjective well-being. Results may have implications for other for older immigrants.

  10. Clinical interpretation of a masticatory normative indicator analysis of masticatory function in subjects with different occlusal and prosthodontic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Dick J; Woda, Alain; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Creugers, Nico H J

    2013-05-01

    To analyse the masticatory function of subjects characterised by different occlusal and prosthodontic status. Using Optosil(®) as a test food, the masticatory normative indicator (MNIOPT) was used to differentiate between sufficient ('normal') and impaired masticatory function. Outcomes of occlusal force and masticatory tests were aggregated from three earlier studies dealing with four denture groups and three natural dentition groups. The four denture groups had a complete removable dental prosthesis in the upper jaw, and displayed one of the four following lower jaw prosthodontic rehabilitations: (i) complete removable dental prosthesis on a low mandible; (ii) complete removable dental prosthesis on a higher mandible; (iii) overdenture on natural roots; and (iv) overdenture on dental implants. The three natural dentition groups were: (i) shortened dental arch; (ii) complete dentition in older participants, and (iii) complete dentition in younger participants. All participants were women. They performed the same tests twice, and outcomes were averaged. A MNIOPT value of 3.68 mm was determined from the participants with complete natural dentitions. Applying the MNIOPT to the participants in the denture groups pointed at a considerable chance for impaired masticatory function, except for participants in the overdenture -implants group. The four denture groups compensated for reduced masticatory efficiency by increased number of masticatory cycles and prolonged mastication time until 'swallowing'. Nevertheless, they also 'swallowed' larger particles compared to the complete dentition group. For a given patient or for a group of subjects with specific dental conditions, MNI enables to discriminate between a sufficient ('normal') and an impaired masticatory function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvement of glucose and lipid profile status with Aloe vera in pre-diabetic subjects: a randomized controlled-trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinejad-Mofrad, Samaneh; Foadoddini, Mohsen; Saadatjoo, Seyed Alireza; Shayesteh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Pre-diabetes is a disturbing trend in the population, who are at risk of developing type-two diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects use of Aloe vera in different doses on glucose and lipid profile in pre-diabetic subjects. This study was a double blind randomized controlled trial (72 subjects) with pre-diabetes symptoms in 3 groups consumed capsules twice a day: Aloe vera 300 mg (AL300), 500 mg (AL500) and placebo (PL). Fasting blood glucose (FBS), HbA1C and lipid profile were evaluated in baseline, 4 or 8 weeks. On-way ANOVA, Friedman, Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis , Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests were used for within or between groups statistical analysis. FBS level in group AL300, showed significantly decreased in fourth week after the intervention, compared to PL in the same time (p = 0.001). Also, HbA1C level in this group at the eighth week after the intervention (p = 0.042), had a significant decrease. The levels of Total cholesterol and LDL-C, only in the group AL500 (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01), was significantly reduced, along with HDL-C level improvement just after eight weeks (p = 0.004). Triglyceride level showed a significant decrease (p < 0.045) just after four weeks use of AL500. The Use of Aloe vera extract in pre-diabetic patients, could revert impaired blood glucose within four weeks, but after eight weeks could alleviate their abnormal lipid profile.

  12. Selected elements of socio-demographic status and lifestyle as factors determining subjective assessment of life in women after mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Czerniak, Urszula; Laski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to specify whether socio-demographic factors and physical activity result in differences in subjective assessment of life in women diagnosed with breast cancer. The study group consisted of 145 women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer. The women had undergone radical surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The participants filled in an anonymous questionnaire which contained a number of detailed questions relating to their socio-demographic standing, life style, condition and the current self-assessment of life after breast cancer. In order to assess the differences between groups made on the basis of socio-economic variables, the Kruskal-Wallis rank test was used. For a comprehensive assessment of relations, multiple correspondence analysis on the basis of Burt tables was used. Their mean age at the time of the study was 57.1 years. The analysis of the effect of education and marital status on differences in the assessment of quality of life showed that these variables resulted in differences in the sphere related to social contacts (better educated women more often avoided social contacts) and in feeling of fatigue and exhaustion (the participants who were in a relationship indicated less fatigue and exhaustion). Mastectomy caused by breast cancer in women and related chemotherapy and radiotherapy negatively affect the physical and emotional condition of patients involving mental stress. Selected socio-demographic factors and elements of life style co-exist with each other, interpenetrating; thus the assessment of quality of life should comprise a set of factors and take into consideration their mutual interrelations.

  13. Subjective health complaints and self-rated health: are expectancies more important than socioeconomic status and workload?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, Eline; Odeen, Magnus; Eriksen, Hege R; Indahl, Aage; Ihlebæk, Camilla; Hetland, Jørn; Harris, Anette

    2014-06-01

    The associations between socioeconomic status (SES), physical and psychosocial workload and health are well documented. According to The Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS), learned response outcome expectancies (coping, helplessness, and hopelessness) are also important contributors to health. This is in part as independent factors for health, but coping may also function as a buffer against the impact different demands have on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effect of SES (as measured by level of education), physical workload, and response outcome expectancies on subjective health complaints (SHC) and self-rated health, and if response outcome expectancies mediate the effects of education and physical workload on SHC and self-rated health. A survey was carried out among 1,746 Norwegian municipal employees (mean age 44.2, 81 % females). Structural Equation Models with SHC and self-rated health as outcomes were conducted. Education, physical workload, and response outcome expectancies, were the independent 28 variables in the model. Helplessness/hopelessness had a stronger direct effect on self-rated health and SHC than education and physical workload, for both men and women. Helplessness/hopelessness fully mediated the effect of physical workload on SHC for men (0.121), and mediated 30 % of a total effect of 0.247 for women. For women, education had a small but significant indirect effect through helplessness/hopelessness on self-rated health (0.040) and SHC (-0.040), but no direct effects were found. For men, there was no effect of education on SHC, and only a direct effect on self-rated health (0.134). The results indicated that helplessness/hopelessness is more important for SHC and health than well-established measures on SES such as years of education and perceived physical workload in this sample. Helplessness/hopelessness seems to function as a mechanism between physical workload and health.

  14. Lipase inhibition and hormonal status, body composition and gastrointestinal processing of a liquid high-fat mixed meal in moderately obese subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, M.L.; Popp-Snijders, C.; Adèr, H.J.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; van der Veen, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    DRENT, MADELEINE L, CORRIE POPP‐SNIJDERS, HERMAN J ADER, JAN BMJ JANSEN AND EDUARD A VAN DER VEEN. Lipase inhibition and hormonal status, body composition and gastrointestinal processing of a liquid high‐fat mixed meal in moderately obese subjects. Obes Res. The effect of Orlistat, a lipase

  15. Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Cancer Patients during Treatment by Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment: a Hospital-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dibyendu; Kannan, Ravi; Tapkire, Ritesh; Nath, Soumitra

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients frequently experience malnutrition. Cancer and cancer therapy effects nutritional status through alterations in the metabolic system and reduction in food intake. In the present study, fifty seven cancer patients were selected as subjects from the oncology ward of Cachar Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Silchar, India. Evaluation of nutritional status of cancer patients during treatment was carried out by scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). The findings of PG-SGA showed that 15.8% (9) were well nourished, 31.6% (18) were moderately or suspected of being malnourished and 52.6% (30) were severely malnourished. The prevalence of malnutrition was highest in lip/oral (33.33%) cancer patients. The study showed that the prevalence of malnutrition (84.2%) was high in cancer patients during treatment.

  16. The Effect of Psychological Suzhi on Problem Behaviors in Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Subjective Social Status and Self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Guangzeng Liu; Dajun Zhang; Yangu Pan; Yuanxiao Ma; Xingyue Lu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined subjective social status (SSS) and self-esteem as potential mediators between the association of psychological suzhi and problem behaviors in a sample of 1271 Chinese adolescents (44.5% male, grades 7–12). The results showed that SSS and self-esteem were fully mediating the relationship between psychological suzhi and problem behaviors. Moreover, the indirect effect was stronger via self-esteem than via SSS. These findings perhaps provide insight into the preliminar...

  17. Nutritional status assessed by the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) is associated with qualities of diet and life in Korean cerebral infarction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Jung; Choue, Ryowon

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the nutritional status of patients with cerebral infarction (CI) is important because their nutritional status influences disease outcome. The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status of patients with CI using the scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) and to investigate the relation of the quality of their diet and life with their nutritional status. Seventy-three patients with CI were recruited from Kyung Hee University Oriental Medical Center in Seoul, Korea, from May to July 2007. The subjects' PG-SGA, dietary quality (Dietary Diversity Score, Dietary Variety Score, and Diet Quality Index-International), and quality of life (Stroke-Specific Quality of Life, modified Barthel Index, and Beck Depression Inventory) were investigated. The patients were classified by PG-SGA categories as well nourished (26.0%), moderately malnourished (49.3%), or severely malnourished (24.7%). Quality of diet assessed by the Dietary Diversity Score and Dietary Variety Score was significantly lower in severely malnourished patients (P SGA is a useful nutritional assessment tool for patients with CI with stable vital signs. When patients with CI were categorized according to their PG-SGA score, well-nourished patients demonstrated better diet quality and better quality of life. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors associated with poor nutritional status among community dwelling Lebanese elderly subjects living in rural areas: results of the AMEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, C; Salameh, P; Barberger-Gateau, P

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutritional status, measured by MNA, and its association with socio-demographic indicators and health related characteristics of a representative sample of community dwelling elderly subjects. Cross-sectional study. Community dwelling elderly individuals living in rural communities in Lebanon. 1200 elderly individuals aged 65 years or more. Socio-demographic indicators and health related characteristics were recorded during a standardized interview. Nutritional status was assessed through Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). The 5-item GDS score and the WHO-5-A score were used to assess mood, whereas Mini Mental Status (MMS) was applied to evaluate cognitive status. The prevalence of malnutrition and risk of malnutrition was 8.0% respective 29.1% of the study sample. Malnutrition was significantly more frequent in elderly subjects aged more than 85 years, in females, widowed and illiterate people. Moreover, participants who reported lower financial status were more often malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Regarding health status, poor nutritional status was more common among those reporting more than three chronic diseases, taking more than three drugs daily, suffering from chronic pain and those who had worse oral health status. Also, depressive disorders and cognitive dysfunction were significantly related to malnutrition. After multivariate analysis following variables remained independently associated to malnutrition: living in the governorate of Nabatieh (ORa 2.30, 95% CI 1.35 -3.93), reporting higher income (ORa 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.97), higher number of comorbidities (ORa 1.22, 95% CI 1.12-1.32), chronic pain (ORa 1.72, 95% CI 1.24-2.39), and depressive disorders (ORa 1.66, 95% CI 1.47-1.88). On the other hand, better cognitive functioning was strongly associated with decreased nutritional risk (ORa 0.27, 95%CI 0.17-0.43). Our results highlighted the close relationship between health status and malnutrition. The

  19. Effects of Visual Communication Tool and Separable Status Display on Team Performance and Subjective Workload in Air Battle Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwartz, Daniel; Knott, Benjamin A; Galster, Scott M

    2008-01-01

    ... ambient cabin noise while performing several visual and manual tasks. The purpose of this study is to compare team performance and subjective workload on a simulated AWACS scenario, for two conditions of communication...

  20. The influence of ethnicity and glucose tolerance status on subjective hunger sensations and prospective food intake in overweight and obese Asian and European Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhardi, Leilani; Zhao, Yun; Solah, Vicky; Fyfe, Susan; Soares, Mario J

    2017-11-01

    To examine the influence of ethnicity and glucose tolerance status on subjective sensations and food intake in overweight/obese Asian and European Australians. 18 Asians and 26 Europids were classified as normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) based on serial measures of finger-prick glucose following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Subjective sensations of hunger and satiety were measured before and every 15min after the OGTT using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Food intake was measured covertly from consumption of a buffet style lunch and from self-maintained 24h food records. All serial measurements were converted into total area under the curve (TAUC) and comparisons adjusted for age, fat and fat-free mass. There was a significant difference interaction between ethnicity (ETH) and glucose tolerance (GTT) for subjective fullness, desire for food and prospective food intake. IGT Asians had significantly greater sensations of fullness, but lesser prospective food and desire to eat, as compared to other groups. However there were no differences in calorie and macronutrient intake at buffet lunch or over 24-h. Interactions between ethnicity and glucose tolerance status in subjective sensations did not transcribe to differences in prospective food intake. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Avaliação nutricional subjetiva global em pacientes cardiopatas Subjective global assessment of nutritional status in cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Kaoru Yamauti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a Avaliação Nutricional Subjetiva Global (ANSG para o diagnóstico de desnutrição em pacientes cardiopatas. MÉTODOS: Em 106 pacientes hospitalizados (53 com insuficiência cardíaca, aplicou-se o questionário de ANSG com histórico nutricional (peso, dieta, sintomas gastrointestinais, capacidade funcional física e diagnóstico e exame físico. Depois aferiram-se medidas antropométricas (peso, circunferência do braço, prega cutânea triciptal e circunferência muscular do braço. Para a avaliação objetiva dos pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca consideraram-se albumina sérica, contagem de linfócitos e antropometria. A curva ROC analisou sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia da ANSG em relação à avaliação objetiva. RESULTADOS: A idade dos pacientes era de 57,7 ± 15,7 anos, e a maioria era de homens (67,9%. A curva ROC indicou o escore 16 como ponto de corte da ANSG com maior sensibilidade (62,2% e especificidade (55,7%. A área sob a curva foi de 0,601 (IC 95%: 0,487 - 0,715. A prevalência de desnutrição foi de 51,9% pela ANSG e 42,5% pela avaliação antropométrica, com acurácia de 65,3% nos homens e 44,1% nas mulheres. Nos pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca, a prevalência de desnutrição foi de 60,4% pela ANSG e 32,1% pela avaliação objetiva, com acurácia de 67,6% nos homens e 31,3% nas mulheres. CONCLUSÃO: A ANSG identificou maior número de desnutridos do que a avaliação objetiva. O desempenho da ANSG na identificação de desnutrição foi maior nos homens. A ANSG detectou pacientes cardiopatas com risco nutricional.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of Subjective Global Assessment of Nutritional Status (SGA in diagnosing malnutrition in patients with heart disease. METHODS: One hundred and six hospitalized patients (53 with heart failure completed an SGA questionnaire on their nutritional history (changes in body weight, dietary intake, gastrointestinal symptoms, functional

  2. The Mediating Roles of Perceived Stress and Health Behaviors in the Relation between Objective, Subjective, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Perceived Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Objective, subjective, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with perceived health, morbidity, and mortality. Purpose We investigated whether perceived stress and health behaviors mediated the relation between the three types of SES and perceived health. Methods Participants (N = 508) attending a public clinic completed a computerized survey assessing objective SES (income, education, employment); health behaviors; perceived stress; and perceived health. They also indicated their social standing relative to others (subjective SES) and provided their current address to determine neighborhood SES. Results In a structural equation model including all three SES types, lower objective and subjective SES were related to poorer perceived health. When mediators were included in the model, there were significant indirect effects of: (a) SES on health through stress; and (b) SES on health through stress and health compromising behaviors. Conclusions Interventions to reduce the impact of stressors could improve the health of socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals. PMID:24648016

  3. Looking Down or Looking Up: Status and Subjective Well-Being among Asian and Latino Immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelatt, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Foundational theories of international migration rest on the assumption that immigrants maintain reference groups in their country of origin even after settling in a new place, while the transnationalism perspective suggests that immigrants maintain a dual frame of reference. This paper uses the nationally-representative National Latino and Asian American Survey to test the location of immigrants' reference groups. I find that the relationship between various measures of subjective social standing and subjective well-being suggests that immigrants maintain simultaneous reference groups in both the United States and the country of origin, supporting transnational theories, and refuting earlier theories.

  4. Variants of ESR1, APOE, LPL and IL-6 loci in young healthy subjects: association with lipid status and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelakovic Bojan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Findings BMI was increased (>25 in 22% of young healthy subjects. Increased cholesterol values (>5.0 mmol/L were found in 23% of subjects, LDL-C (>3.0 mmol/L in 23%, triglycerides (>1.7 mmol/L in 11% of subjects. We found statistically significant differences in subjects' weight (p = 0.015, BMI (p = 0.023, and waist-hip ratio (WHR (p = 0.015 in regard to their diet type; subjects with Mediterranean diet had the lowest values compared to those on continental and mixed diet. Significant associations were found for: LPL genetic polymorphic variant and abdominal obesity (p = 0.013, APO epsilon4 allele and hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.003, and ESR1-TA long allele and hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.011. Background Human obesity is a multifactorial syndrome influenced also by genetic factors. Among gene variants found to be involved in body weight regulation and development of obesity, particular attention has been paid to polymorphisms in genes associated with obesity-related metabolic disorders. We explored the association of genetic polymorphisms of: estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1-TA repeats; interleukin-6 (IL-6 G-174C; apolipoprotein E (APO epsilon2, epsilon3, epsilon4; lipoprotein lipase Pvu II (LPL P+/-, with clinical variables: gender, age, body mass index (BMI, diet type and biological variables: triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, CRP, homocysteine, urate, and glucose in 105 healthy young subjects (20-35 yrs of Croatian origin. Methods Genotyping of IL-6, LPL was performed by PCR-RFLP, of APOE by real-time PCR, and of ESR1 by PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Association analyses were performed of alleles and genotypes with biological variables. Conclusion ESR-1, LPL, and APO E genetic polymorphic variants could represent predictive genetic risk markers for obesity-related metabolic disorders in young healthy subjects. Mediterranean type of diet is also an important protective factor against abdominal obesity.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids status in human subjects estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and plasma phospholipids levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garneau Véronique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intakes of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids (FA are associated with several health benefits. The aim of this study was to verify whether intakes of n-3 FA estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ correlate with n-3 FA levels measured in plasma phospholipids (PL. Methods The study sample consisted of 200 French-Canadians men and women aged between 18 to 55 years. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Fasting blood samples were collected and the plasma PL FA profile was measured by gas chromatography. Results Low intakes of n-3 long-chain FA together with low percentages of n-3 long-chain FA in plasma PL were found in French-Canadian population. Daily intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were similar between men and women. Yet, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA and total n-3 FA intakes were significantly higher in men compared to women (ALA: 2.28 g and 1.69 g, p n-3 FA: 2.57 g and 1.99 g, p n-3 FA (men: r = 0.47, p  Conclusion Estimated n-3 long-chain FA intake among this young and well-educated French-Canadian population is lower than the recommendations. Further, FFQ data is comparable to plasma PL results to estimate DHA and total n-3 FA status in healthy individuals as well as to evaluate the EPA and DPA status in women. Overall, this FFQ could be used as a simple, low-cost tool in future studies to rank n-3 FA status of individuals.

  6. Traditional home-brewed beer consumption and iron status in patients with esophageal cancer and healthy control subjects from Transkei, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsha, Tandi; Brink, Lucy; van Rensburg, Susan; Hon, Dinie; Lombard, Carl; Erasmus, Rajiv

    2006-01-01

    Consumption of home-brewed beer is associated with dietary iron excess and a high incidence of esophageal cancer in Transkei, South Africa. We examined the relationship between home-brewed beer consumption and body iron status in 234 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and 595 control subjects residing in Transkei. Subjects were screened for iron overload using transferrin saturation >45%, and/or serum ferritin >200 microg/l for women and >300 microg/l for men. A questionnaire was administered to all subjects, and iron content of randomly selected home-brewed beer samples was determined. The iron content of home-brewed beer was 258-fold higher than the commercial Castle Lager beer produced by South African Breweries. The prevalence of home-brewed beer consumption was 30.1% in esophageal cancer patients and 15.5% in control subjects and was found not to be a risk factor for esophageal cancer after adjustment for age, sex, and tobacco consumption (male subjects, odds ratio= 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7-4.5); female subjects, odds ratio=1.7 (95% CI: 0.7-4.5). Iron overload as determined by transferrin saturation and elevated serum ferritin was observed in 4.3% of patients with esophageal cancer and 0.7% of control subjects and was not associated with the consumption of home-brewed beer. Consumption of home-brewed beer is not a risk factor for esophageal cancer and is not linked with iron overload in either cancer patients or control subjects; however, iron overload is likely to result from a combination of dietary intake and a genetic component.

  7. Making the middle classes on shifting ground? Residential status, performativity and middle-class subjectivities in contemporary London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michaela; Jackson, Emma

    2017-06-01

    This paper argues that shifts in access to housing - both in relation to rental and ownership - disrupt middle-class reproduction in ways that fundamentally influence class formation. While property ownership has had a long association with middle-class identities, status and distinction, an increasingly competitive rental market alongside inflated property prices has impacted on expectations and anxieties over housing futures. In this paper, we consider two key questions: (1) What happens to middle-class identities under the conditions of this wider structural change? (2) How do the middle classes variously manoeuvre within this? Drawing on empirical research conducted in London, we demonstrate that becoming an owner-occupier may be fractured along lines of class but also along the axes of age, wealth and timing, particularly as this relates to the housing market. It builds on understandings of residential status and place as central to the formation of class, orienting this around the recognition of both people and place as mutable, emphasizing that changing economic and social processes generate new class positionalities and strategies for class reproduction. We argue that these processes are writ large in practices of belonging and claims to place, with wider repercussions within the urban landscape. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  8. Evaluation of the Dental and Periodontal Status of Hemodialysis Subjects and Its Comparison with That of Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mortazavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Oral health problems of chronic renal failure patients can compromise systemic health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dental and periodontal status of patients on regular hemodialysis (HD maintenance therapy and the effect of duration of HD on oral health. Methods & Materials: In this historical cohort study 65 HD patients and 65 healthy people were collected as case and control groups. Decayed (D, Missed (M and Filled (F teeth, DMFT Index, Plaque Index (PI, Gingival Index (GI ,and Probing depth (PD were examined and compared between case and control groups. Also, HD patients were divided into two subgroups based on duration of hemodialysis: 1: three and less than three years and 2: more than three years. In this study all variables were examined and compared between these subgroups. T-test and chi-square and SPSS software were used for statistical analysis. Results: Except M and DMFT index, significant differences were found in other indices between case and control groups (P<0.05. D, M, F, DMFT values showed no significant differences between the two HD subgroups, whereas, PD, GI and PD values had significant increase in two groups based on the duration of hemodialysis. Conclusion: The dental and periodontal health is poor in HD patients and periodontal status becomes worse specially during the time of dialysis. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;17(4:10-16

  9. Selected elements of socio-demographic status and lifestyle as factors determining subjective assessment of life in women after mastectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Czerniak, Urszula; ?aski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study The main objective of the study is to specify whether socio-demographic factors and physical activity result in differences in subjective assessment of life in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Material and methods The study group consisted of 145 women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer. The women had undergone radical surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The participants filled in an anonymous questionnaire which contained a number of detailed questions relating...

  10. Nutritional status assessed by scored patient-generated subjective global assessment associated with length of hospital stay in adult patients receiving an appendectomy

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    Tzu-Hao Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition has been associated with poor health outcomes in hospitalized patients. This study assessed the validity of the scored patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA in adult patients who had undergone an open appendectomy, and examined the association of this assessment tool with length of hospital stay. Methods: Nutritional status was determined by using the scored PG-SGA in adult patients (n = 86 who had undergone an open appendectomy within 24 hours of admission. Variables were compared between well-nourished and malnourished participants. Regression analysis was used to identify potential predictors for length of hospital stay. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC analysis was used to examine the validity of the PG-SGA score to predict the nutritional status. Results: On admission, 17% of the study subjects were malnourished and associated with a significantly older age (53.0 vs. 39.5, greater PG-SGA score (8 vs. 2, higher comorbidity (67% vs. 27%, and longer length of hospital stay (6.9 d vs. 4.1 d. The PG-SGA score and comorbidity were the determined risk factors for length of hospital stay after performing multiple regression analysis. Furthermore, the PG-SGA score had a significantly positive correlation with length of hospital stay (Spearman's rho = 0.378, p < 0.001. The area under the ROC curve indicating the PG-SGA score, compared with nutritional status, is 0.9751. Conclusions: The scored PG-SGA in adults receiving an appendectomy is significantly associated with length of hospital stay, and is an effective tool for assessing the nutritional status of patients with cancer and chronic illness, as well as of patients with acute surgical abdomen.

  11. [Subjective social status and health-related quality of life among adults in Germany. Results from the German General Social Survey (ALLBUS 2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebel, J; Kuntz, B; Müters, S; Lampert, T

    2013-10-01

    The impact of subjective perception of social status on health has been analysed in international health research for several years. However, in Germany the empirical analysis of the relation between subjective social status (SSS) and health is still in the very early stages. This study investigates if health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in German adults is associated with SSS over and above conventional measures of social status. The results are based on the German General Social Survey (ALLBUS 2010), a representative cross-sectional survey of the adult resident population in Germany (n=2 827). HRQoL was assessed with 4 items referring to self-rated health (SRH) and impairment of well-being due to bodily pain, depressiveness, and loneliness. SSS was measured with a 10-point scale where participants rated their status in society. The impact of SSS on HRQoL was analysed separately for men and women using logistic regression models adjusted for age, school education, net equivalent household income, and occupational position. Poorer SRH, bodily pain, depressiveness, and loneliness occurred significantly more often in men and women with low SSS compared to those with higher SSS. After adjusting for age, education, income, and occupation, the effects of SSS on SRH and depressiveness remained significant in men and women (SRH: men: OR=4.76; 95% CI=2.52-8.99; women: OR=2.95; 95% CI=1.74-4.99; depressiveness: men: OR=2.86; 95% CI=1.60-5.10; women: OR=2.75; 95% CI=1.65-4.56). The effects of SSS on bodily pain and loneliness were observed only in women after adjustment for objective status indicators (OR=1.75; 95% CI=1.07-2.86 and OR=3.03; 95% CI=1.43-6.42, respectively). These findings indicate that self-perception of social disadvantage affects HRQoL in German adults independently and partly gender-specifically. Hence, complementary to objective status indicators the SSS offers additional potential for describing and explaining health inequalities. © Georg Thieme

  12. Use of Subjective Global Assessment, Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 to evaluate the nutritional status of non-critically ill patients on parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia-Tahull, M B; Cobo-Sacristán, S; Leiva-Badosa, E; Miquel-Zurita, M E; Méndez-Cabalerio, N; Jódar-Masanés, R; Llop-Talaverón, J

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the nutritional status of non-critically ill digestive surgery patients at the moment of parenteral nutrition initiation using three different nutritional test tools and to study their correlation. To study the association between the tests and the clinical and laboratory parameters used in the follow-up of PN treatment. Prospective study over 4 months. Anthropometric and clinical variables were recorded. Results of Subjective Global Assessment; Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment; and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 were compared applying kappa test. Relationship between the clinical and laboratory parameters with Subjective Global Assessment was studied by multinominal regression and with the other two tests by multiple linear regression models. Age and sex were included as adjustment variables. Malnutrition in 45 studied patients varied from 51% to 57%. Subjective Global Assessment correlated well with Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (κ = 0531 p = 0.000). The test with the greatest correlation with the clinical and analytical variables was the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002. Worse nutritional state in this test was associated with worse results in albumin (B = -0.087; CI = -0.169/-0.005], prealbumin (B = -0.005; CI = [-0.011/-0.001]), C-reactive protein (B = 0.006;CI = [0.001/ 0.011]) and leukocytes (B = 0.134; CI = [0.031/0.237]) at the en of parenteral nutrition treatment. Half of the digestive surgery patients were at malnutritional risk at the moment of initiating parenteral nutrition. Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 was the test with best association with the parameters used in the clinical follow-up of parenteral nutrition treated patients. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SELF-REPORTED HEALTH STATUS AND SUBJECTIVE HEALTH LITERACY AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN LITHUANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cesnaviciene, Jurate; Ustilaite, Stase; Kalinkeviciene, Ausra

    2016-01-01

    Seeking to successfully act in the 21st century, a person should have a relatively big spectrum of abilities and competences; in other words, s/he should develop literacy in a number of spheres. Health literacy is essential for a person’s daily capability to manage own health and the quality of life, which is dependent on it. It is significant for the social and economic development of the society. The purpose of the research was to identify the relationships between subjective health literac...

  14. The mediating effect of social relationships on the association between socioeconomic status and subjective health - results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonneilich, Nico; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Klein, Jens; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2012-04-17

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant of population health. Explanatory approaches on how SES determines health have so far included numerous factors, amongst them psychosocial factors such as social relationships. However, it is unclear whether social relationships can help explain socioeconomic differences in general subjective health. Do different aspects of social relationships contribute differently to the explanation? Based on a cohort study of middle and older aged residents (45 to 75 years) from the Ruhr Area in Germany our study tries to clarify the matter. For the analyses data from the population-based prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study is used. As indicators of SES education, equivalent household income and occupational status were employed. Social relations were assessed by including structural as well as functional aspects. Structural aspects were estimated by the Social Integration Index (SII) and functional aspects were measured by availability of emotional and instrumental support. Data on general subjective health status was available for both baseline examination (2000-2003) and a 5-year follow-up (2006-2008). The sample consists of 4,146 men and women. Four logistic regression models were calculated: in the first model we controlled for age and subjective health at baseline, while in models 2 and 3, either functional or structural aspects of social relationships were introduced separately. Model 4 then included all variables. As former studies indicated different health effects of SES and social relations in men and women, analyses were conducted with the overall sample as well as for each gender alone. Prospective associations of SES and subjective health were reduced after introducing social relationships into the regression models. Percentage reductions between 2% and 30% were observed in the overall sample when all aspects of social relations were included. The percentage reductions were strongest in the lowest SES

  15. The mediating effect of social relationships on the association between socioeconomic status and subjective health – results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonneilich Nico

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES is an important determinant of population health. Explanatory approaches on how SES determines health have so far included numerous factors, amongst them psychosocial factors such as social relationships. However, it is unclear whether social relationships can help explain socioeconomic differences in general subjective health. Do different aspects of social relationships contribute differently to the explanation? Based on a cohort study of middle and older aged residents (45 to 75 years from the Ruhr Area in Germany our study tries to clarify the matter. Methods For the analyses data from the population-based prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study is used. As indicators of SES education, equivalent household income and occupational status were employed. Social relations were assessed by including structural as well as functional aspects. Structural aspects were estimated by the Social Integration Index (SII and functional aspects were measured by availability of emotional and instrumental support. Data on general subjective health status was available for both baseline examination (2000–2003 and a 5-year follow-up (2006–2008. The sample consists of 4,146 men and women. Four logistic regression models were calculated: in the first model we controlled for age and subjective health at baseline, while in models 2 and 3, either functional or structural aspects of social relationships were introduced separately. Model 4 then included all variables. As former studies indicated different health effects of SES and social relations in men and women, analyses were conducted with the overall sample as well as for each gender alone. Results Prospective associations of SES and subjective health were reduced after introducing social relationships into the regression models. Percentage reductions between 2% and 30% were observed in the overall sample when all aspects of social relations were included. The

  16. Cytogenetic analysis chromosomal status of subjects from the regions in the vicinity of uranium-contaminated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovicic, D.; Milacie, S.; Kovacevic, R.; Petrovic, I.

    2004-07-01

    The past application of nuclear technology has brought about free emission of numerous Due to the military application of the depleted uranium (DU) in our country, the problem of its radioactivity and hemo toxicity if actualized. Likewise every heavy metal, its is highly toxic and, in addition to it, also radioactive: Interaction of the water-soluble uranium forms with soil is an important effect. In this way, it penetrates into food chain and endangers human health. The study was aimed at determining possible karyotype genotoxic effects in individuals from the regions close to the contaminated areas. Biological dosimetry was performed using modified Moorthead's micromethod. Our studies included the targeted group of 29 patients from the affected regions. The subjects were averagely aged 39.5{+-}2.8 years. Average age of the control group (k), unexposed to the effects of the known genotoxic agents comprising 22 individuals was 28.3{+-}1.2 years. The presented data evidenced that increased incidence of the chromosomal aberrations was found in 6 subjects,accounting for 20.6%. Dicentric type changes were evidence, as well ring chromosomes and eccentric fragments, which are, at the same time the most frequent aberrations. The changes are considered reparable aberrations accounting for 2-3% in metaphases of the unexposed individuals. Statistical data processing evidenced significant difference (p<0.005) between structural chromosomal aberrations in the studied and control groups, as well as in the number of chromatid aberrations (p<0.05).Based on the obtained data it may be concluded that human karyotype changes were present in the studied group, resulting from interaction of ionizing irradiation and other genotoxic agents, with possibility of potent synergistic effects. It is necessary to stress the importance of further monitoring and control of the general population health, particularly due to possible late genetic effects that may affect future generations

  17. A Comparison of the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 Tool With the Subjective Global Assessment Tool to Detect Nutritional Status in Chinese Patients Undergoing Surgery With Gastrointestinal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Juntao; Yin, Shaohua; Zhu, Yongjian; Gao, Fengli; Song, Xinna; Song, Zhenlan; Lv, Junying; Li, Miaomiao

    The objectives of this study were to describe the nutritional status of Chinese patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoing surgery and to compare the ease of use, diversity, and concordance of the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 with the Subjective Global Assessment in the same patients. A total of 280 gastrointestinal cancer patients admitted for elective surgery were evaluated by the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) tools within 48 hours of admission from April to October 2012. Related opinions about ease of using the tools were obtained from 10 nurses. The prevalence of patients at nutritional risk with the SGA and NRS 2002 was 33.9% and 53.2% on admission. In the total group, ≤70 age group, and >70 age group, respectively, consistency was observed in 214 (76.4%), 175 (91.1%), and 39 (44.3%); and kappa values were 0.54 (p 70 age group (p nutritional status of patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoing surgery, but it appeared to detect more patients at nutritional risk in the >70 age group.

  18. A legume-based hypocaloric diet reduces proinflammatory status and improves metabolic features in overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Zulet, M Ángeles; Abete, Itziar; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2011-02-01

    The nutritional composition of the dietary intake could produce specific effects on metabolic variables and inflammatory marker concentrations. This study assessed the effects of two hypocaloric diets (legume-restricted- vs. legume-based diet) on metabolic and inflammatory changes, accompanying weight loss. Thirty obese subjects (17 M/13F; BMI: 32.5 ± 4.5 kg/m(2); 36 ± 8 years) were randomly assigned to one of the following hypocaloric treatments (8 weeks): Calorie-restricted legume-free diet (Control: C-diet) or calorie-restricted legume-based diet (L-diet), prescribing 4 weekly different cooked-servings (160-235 g) of lentils, chickpeas, peas or beans. Body composition, blood pressure (BP), blood biochemical and inflammatory marker concentrations as well as dietary intake were measured at baseline and after the nutritional intervention. The L-diet achieved a greater body weight loss, when compared to the C-diet (-7.8 ± 2.9% vs. -5.3 ± 2.7%; p = 0.024). Total and LDL cholesterol levels and systolic BP were improved only when consuming the L-diet (p < 0.05). L-diet also resulted in a significant higher reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement C3 (C3) concentrations (p < 0.05), compared to baseline and C-diet values. Interestingly, the reduction in the concentrations of CRP and C3 remained significantly higher to L-diet group, after adjusting by weight loss (p < 0.05). In addition, the reduction (%) in CRP concentrations was positively associated with decreases (%) in systolic BP and total cholesterol concentration specifically in the L-diet group, independent from weight loss (p < 0.05). The consumption of legumes (4 servings/week) within a hypocaloric diet resulted in a specific reduction in proinflammatory markers, such as CRP and C3 and a clinically significant improvement of some metabolic features (lipid profile and BP) in overweight/ obese subjects, which were in some cases independent from weight loss.

  19. General Immune Status and Oral Microbiology in Patients with Different Forms of Periodontitis and Healthy Control Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jana; Jentsch, Holger; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana; Sack, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Objective Immunological processes in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, especially the aggressive form, are not well understood. This study examined clinical as well as systemic immunological and local microbiological features in healthy controls and patients with different forms of periodontitis. Materials and Methods 14 healthy subjects, 15 patients diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis, and 11 patients with chronic periodontitis were recruited. Periodontal examination was performed and peripheral blood was collected from each patient. Lymphocyte populations as well as the release of cytokines by T-helper cells were determined by flow cytometry and enzyme linked immunosorbent spot assay. Subgingival plaque samples were taken from each individual and immediately cultivated for microbiological examination. Results When stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with lipopolysaccharide, a higher IL-1β release was found in patients with moderate chronic periodontitis compared to the other groups (pperiodontitis showed the highest percentage of memory B-cells without class switch (p = 0.01). The subgingival plaque differed quantitatively as well as qualitatively with a higher number of Gram-negative anaerobic species in periodontitis patients. Prevotella denticola was found more often in patients with aggressive periodontitis (pperiodontitis, seems to be associated with an activation of the systemic immune response. Conclusion Differences between aggressive periodontitis and moderate chronic periodontitis are evident, which raises the question of an inadequate balance between systemic immune response and bacterial infection in aggressive periodontitis. PMID:25299619

  20. Self-rated health status and subjective health complaints associated with health-promoting lifestyles among urban Chinese women: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingru Cheng

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH and subjective health complaints (SHC of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL.We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II. Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL.Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%, eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%, and insomnia (1542, 18.9%. Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000 and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37.Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives.

  1. A cross-sectional study of factors associated with intentions to leave among newly graduated nurses in eight advanced treatment hospitals: job stressors, job readiness, and subjective health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei-Tominaga, Maki; Miki, Akiko; Fujimura, Kazumi

    2009-05-01

    This study was performed to examine job stressors, job readiness, and subjective health status as factors associated with intentions to leave among newly graduated nurses (NGNs) in advanced treatment hospitals in Japan. From June to August 2007, anonymous self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all NGNs in nine advanced treatment hospitals. The questionnaire items addressed individual attributes, employment characteristics, organizational characteristics, the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire, a novel job readiness scale, and scales for subjective health status (cumulative fatigue and psychological distress) and intentions to leave. The response rate was 73% (n=414), and 377 completed questionnaire data sets from eight hospitals were analyzed. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to investigate the factors associated with intentions to leave and subjective health status. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed 55% of the variance in intentions to leave. "orientation as nurse", subjective health status influenced by psychological job demand, and "supervisor support" were important independent factors of intentions to leave. Psychological job demand and job readiness were also important factors of subjective health status. To intervene in early resignation of NGNs, job stressors should be minimized to improve subjective health status; while simultaneously raising job readiness.

  2. Dry eye, sleep quality, and mood status in glaucoma patients receiving prostaglandin monotherapy were comparable with those in non-glaucoma subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shugyoku Ra

    Full Text Available Prior studies suggested that glaucoma patients suffer worse dry eye and mood and sleep disorders than non-glaucoma subjects. Prostaglandin analogues are first-line therapy for glaucoma, inducing few instillation problems and sufficient pressure-reduction effects. This study compared dry eye, sleep quality, and mood status between glaucoma patients receiving prostaglandin monotherapy and non-glaucoma subjects.This cross-sectional study evaluated 1520 patients (579 males and 941 females for glaucoma status and dry eye-related symptoms (dryness, eye fatigue, photophobia, pain, blurring and signs (Schirmer test, tear break-up time, corneal staining scores. Of the total cohort, 93 patients were also evaluated by Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI and hospital anxiety and depression score (HADS. Inclusion criteria were consecutive patients ≥ 51 years of age and best-corrected visual acuity ≥ 20/25. Glaucoma patients included those treated with prostaglandin or a fixed combination including prostaglandin. Exclusion criteria were history of ocular surgery within one month. Data were analyzed using the chi-square or Mann-Whitney U tests, at 5% significance.There were no significant differences in dry eye-related signs and symptoms between the control (n = 1431, mean age of 66.9 years and glaucoma groups (n = 89, 67.9 years. The psychiatric sub-analysis of the control (n = 61, 66.2 years and glaucoma groups (n = 32, 67.3 years revealed mean scores of 5.02 ± 3.10 and 5.16 ± 3.46 for PSQI (normal range ≤ 5, 9.47 ± 5.61 and 9.42 ± 7.36 for HADS (normal range ≤ 10, 4.84 ± 3.22 and 4.71 ± 3.45 for anxiety (normal range ≤ 5, and 4.63 ± 3.05 and 4.71 ± 4.40 for depression (normal range ≤ 5, respectively, without statistical significance.Our results were comparable between glaucoma patients on prostaglandin monotherapy and non-glaucoma subjects for dry eye-related clinical manifestations, sleep quality, and mood status.

  3. The Effect of Psychological Suzhi on Problem Behaviors in Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Subjective Social Status and Self-esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzeng Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined subjective social status (SSS and self-esteem as potential mediators between the association of psychological suzhi and problem behaviors in a sample of 1271 Chinese adolescents (44.5% male, grades 7–12. The results showed that SSS and self-esteem were fully mediating the relationship between psychological suzhi and problem behaviors. Moreover, the indirect effect was stronger via self-esteem than via SSS. These findings perhaps provide insight into the preliminary effect that SSS and self-esteem underlie psychological suzhi’s effect on adolescents’ problem behaviors, and also are important in helping school-teachers and administrators to develop a better understanding of problem behaviors in their schools as a pre-requisite to the development of more effective behaviors management practices from the perspective of psychological suzhi. Implications and limitations in the present study have also been discussed.

  4. The Effect of Psychological Suzhi on Problem Behaviors in Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Subjective Social Status and Self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangzeng; Zhang, Dajun; Pan, Yangu; Ma, Yuanxiao; Lu, Xingyue

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined subjective social status (SSS) and self-esteem as potential mediators between the association of psychological suzhi and problem behaviors in a sample of 1271 Chinese adolescents (44.5% male, grades 7-12). The results showed that SSS and self-esteem were fully mediating the relationship between psychological suzhi and problem behaviors. Moreover, the indirect effect was stronger via self-esteem than via SSS. These findings perhaps provide insight into the preliminary effect that SSS and self-esteem underlie psychological suzhi's effect on adolescents' problem behaviors, and also are important in helping school-teachers and administrators to develop a better understanding of problem behaviors in their schools as a pre-requisite to the development of more effective behaviors management practices from the perspective of psychological suzhi. Implications and limitations in the present study have also been discussed.

  5. Lifestyle-related factors that explain disaster-induced changes in socioeconomic status and poor subjective health: a cross-sectional study from the Fukushima health management survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Nagai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES and lifestyle-related factors are determinants of subjective health. However, changes in SES are inevitable in times of natural disaster, while lifestyle-related factors remain modifiable. The aim of this study was to use a cross-sectional approach to examine lifestyle-related factors that may attenuate the negative impact of disaster-induced changes in SES on poor subjective health. Methods We analyzed 33,350 men and women aged 20–64 years who were living in evacuation zones due to the radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan. Disaster-induced changes in SES were defined by living arrangements and working conditions. Using Poisson regression analysis adjusted for confounders (model 1 and lifestyle-related factors as intermediate variables (model 2, we compared the prevalence ratios (PRs of poor subjective health of participants who did not undergo disaster-induced changes in SES (did not become unemployed, income did not decrease, and living in relative’s home/own home with that of participants who did undergo disaster-induced changes in SES (became unemployed, decreased income, or lived in an evacuation shelter, temporary housing, or rental housing/apartment. We calculated the percentage of excess risks explained by lifestyle-related factors as follows: ((PRmodel 1 − PRmodel 2/(PRmodel 1–1 × 100. Results Disaster-induced changes in SES were significantly associated with poor subjective health. The PRs (95% CIs among participants who underwent disaster-induced changes in SES were 2.02 (1.81–2.24 for men and 1.80 (1.65–1.97 for women. After adjusting for lifestyle-related factors, we found that the PRs in men and women were remarkably attenuated, decreasing to 1.56 (1.40–1.73 and 1.43 (1.31–1.55, respectively. Controlling for lifestyle-related factors resulted in PR attenuation by 45.1% (men and 46.3% (women. Satisfaction of sleep and participation in recreation and community

  6. Lifestyle-related factors that explain disaster-induced changes in socioeconomic status and poor subjective health: a cross-sectional study from the Fukushima health management survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masato; Ohira, Tetsuya; Zhang, Wen; Nakano, Hironori; Maeda, Masaharu; Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-04-20

    Socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle-related factors are determinants of subjective health. However, changes in SES are inevitable in times of natural disaster, while lifestyle-related factors remain modifiable. The aim of this study was to use a cross-sectional approach to examine lifestyle-related factors that may attenuate the negative impact of disaster-induced changes in SES on poor subjective health. We analyzed 33,350 men and women aged 20-64 years who were living in evacuation zones due to the radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan. Disaster-induced changes in SES were defined by living arrangements and working conditions. Using Poisson regression analysis adjusted for confounders (model 1) and lifestyle-related factors as intermediate variables (model 2), we compared the prevalence ratios (PRs) of poor subjective health of participants who did not undergo disaster-induced changes in SES (did not become unemployed, income did not decrease, and living in relative's home/own home) with that of participants who did undergo disaster-induced changes in SES (became unemployed, decreased income, or lived in an evacuation shelter, temporary housing, or rental housing/apartment). We calculated the percentage of excess risks explained by lifestyle-related factors as follows: ((PRmodel 1 - PRmodel 2)/(PRmodel 1-1)) × 100. Disaster-induced changes in SES were significantly associated with poor subjective health. The PRs (95% CIs) among participants who underwent disaster-induced changes in SES were 2.02 (1.81-2.24) for men and 1.80 (1.65-1.97) for women. After adjusting for lifestyle-related factors, we found that the PRs in men and women were remarkably attenuated, decreasing to 1.56 (1.40-1.73) and 1.43 (1.31-1.55), respectively. Controlling for lifestyle-related factors resulted in PR attenuation by 45.1% (men) and 46.3% (women). Satisfaction of sleep and participation in recreation and community activity particularly contributed to this attenuation. While

  7. Association of stress, depression, and suicidal ideation with subjective oral health status and oral functions in Korean adults aged 35 years or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Han-Na; Lee, Jung-Ha; Kim, Se-Yeon; Jun, Eun-Joo; Kim, Jin-Bom

    2017-06-23

    Oral health greatly affects well-being throughout the different stages of life from childhood to late adulthood. Loss of teeth due to poor oral health hinders mastication, leading to poor nutrition absorption, and affects pronunciation and aesthetics, leading to interpersonal difficulties. As social activities become limited, a sense of isolation and loneliness, stress, and depression grows while happiness decreases. This study aimed to examine the association of stress, depression, and suicidal ideation with oral health status and oral functions in a large nationwide sample of Korean adults aged 35 years or more. The sample comprised 15,716 adults, selected using a rolling survey sampling method and data were extracted from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2010-2012). Participants were interviewed about their self-evaluation of health including oral health status and mental health, such as stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. Data from 11,347 adults were finally selected after excluding participants with missing answers. The dependent variables were stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. The independent variables were gender, age, household income, education, smoking, drinking, oral health perception, chewing, and speaking. Complex samples logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Participants met the criteria for stress (25.4%), depression (13.0%), and suicidal ideation (13.9%). Subjective oral health status was not significantly associated with stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. However, the presence of very uncomfortable chewing problems was significantly associated with stress (OR = 2.294, 95% CI = 1.41, 3.72), depression (OR = 3.232, 95% CI = 1.97, 5.31), and suicidal ideation (OR = 2.727, 95% CI = 1.58, 4.72). The presence of very uncomfortable speaking problems was significantly associated with stress (OR

  8. The Potential Explanatory Role of Perceived Stress in Associations Between Subjective Social Status and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Homeless Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garey, Lorra; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Homeless individuals smoke at high rates relative to the general population and are at heightened risk of tobacco-related illnesses and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Homeless smokers also report low subjective social status (SSS) or perceived social standing relative to others. SSS may contribute to poor HRQoL, potentially through perceived stress. The current study examined the role of perceived stress in the association of SSS and HRQoL among 227 (70.9% male, Mage = 43.2) homeless smokers. Participants completed self-report measures of SSS, perceived stress, and HRQoL. Perceived stress partially explained the relation between SSS (United States and Community) and HRQoL in covariate-adjusted analyses. Results suggested that perceived stress is a pathway through which SSS contributes to HRQoL among homeless smokers. Findings broaden current understanding of the impact of social disadvantage and perceived stress on HRQoL among homeless smokers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Perceptions of health equity and subjective social status among baccalaureate nursing students engaged in service-learning activities in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa M; Jarvis, Sarah; Sparacino, Patricia; Kuo, Devina; Genz, Stephanie

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure undergraduate students' knowledge of social determinants of health, health equity, and subjective social status (SSS). A cross-sectional semi-structured survey was administered to 68 racially/ethnically diverse freshman students enrolled in a baccalaureate nursing program in O'ahu, Hawai'i. Students ranked the impact of 13 issues on Hawai'i residents' health and described how well the health care system addressed these issues. A 10-rung ladder was used to rank SSS; students marked an "X" on the ladder rung where they stand in society and explained what they would need to "move up or down" the ladder. The students identified three key issues that adversely impact health: substance abuse, diet/nutrition, and cancer. Sixty-nine percent of students stated that social determinants of health impact Hawai'i residents' health either "quite a bit" or "very much", while only 31% felt that the health care system adequately addressed these determinants. Students who ranked high on the ladder (rungs 6-10) cited family as the reason. The students who ranked low on the ladder (rungs 3-5) credited their position to lack of money. Students' perceptions of social determinants of health and health equity align with findings from public health studies in Hawai'i. These concepts were integrated into the 4-year nursing school curricula and findings inform future research and service-based learning activities conducted by the students. While findings presented here focus on nursing students in Hawai'i, this educational innovation could be replicated with students in other undergraduate health sciences programs.

  10. Hunting in Groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Handique Girls' College,. Guwahati, Assam (India). His current research interest is on nonlinear ... Coopera- tive hunting in groups has a long and fascinating history with a special place in poetry, art and literature. A suc- .... representation of Kamimura and Ohira's result for the life- time of final (T) and typical targets (τ) for ...

  11. Status of antioxidant and lipid peroxidation in type 2 diabetic human subjects diagnosed with and without metabolic syndrome by using NCEP-ATPIII, IDF and WHO criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dhananjay; Mishra, Meerambika; Joseph, Anish Zacharia; Subramani, Senthil Kumar; Mahajan, Sunil; Singh, Nita; Bisen, Prakash Singh; Prasad, G B K S

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidants play a very crucial role in terms of disease incidence and its complications. Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are now more prevalent than any other disorder. In this regard this study focuses on type 2 diabetic subjects with MetS having highest incidence of cardiovascular disease. Hence the aim of the study was to reveal the level of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in MetS and non-MetS groups of type 2 diabetic subjects characterized by three different criteria. Present study was based on 70 type 2 diabetic subjects and 20 healthy controls. The metabolic syndrome criteria were defined by National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII), International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and World Health Organization (WHO). The selected subjects were of similar age group. The participants were selected from a diabetic camp being run in the University Campus. The antioxidant enzymes estimated were reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) while Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) measured as a marker of lipid peroxidation. The level of GSH, CAT, SOD decreases in non-MetS and MetS subjects as compared to normal. When comparison was made for GSH & SOD in the mentioned groups resulted a significant differences in non-MetS and MetS compared with normal subjects. TBARS levels was increased in non-MetS and MetS group of subjects. The results indicate reduction in antioxidant enzymes and elevation of lipid peroxidation in type 2 diabetic subjects with or without MetS defined by using any of the International criteria. The study revealed that absolute reduction of antioxidant and involvement of lipid peroxidation in MetS group may lead to progressive intensification of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic subjects irrespective of using any criteria. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Appearance self-esteem in systemic sclerosis--subjective experience of skin deformity and its relationship with physician-assessed skin involvement, disease status and psychological variables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Vonk, M.C.; Teunissen, H.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the importance of skin deformity in systemic sclerosis (SSc) relative to other disease stressors and to find psychological correlates of appearance self-esteem (ASE) after controlling for disease status. METHODS: Disease-related stressors, symptoms, physical and

  13. "I Am Working-Class": Subjective Self-Definition as a Missing Measure of Social Class and Socioeconomic Status in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark; Denson, Nida; Kilpatrick, Sue; Matthews, Kelly E.; Stehlik, Tom; Zyngier, David

    2014-01-01

    This review provides a critical appraisal of the measurement of students' social class and socioeconomic status (SES) in the context of widening higher education participation. Most assessments of social class and SES in higher education have focused on objective measurements based on the income, occupation, and education of students'…

  14. Association of vitamin K status with adiponectin and body composition in healthy subjects: uncarboxylated osteocalcin is not associated with fat mass and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Marjo H J; Schurgers, Leon J; Shearer, Martin J; Newman, Paul; Theuwissen, Elke; Vermeer, Cees

    2012-09-28

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent protein found in bone and in circulation. High serum γ-carboxylated OC reflects a high, and high uncarboxylated OC (ucOC) reflects a low vitamin K status. A revolutionary hypothesis is that ucOC acts as a hormone improving glucose handling and reducing fat mass. The objective was to test the logical extrapolation of the ucOC hormone hypothesis to humans that elevated ucOC is associated with higher body weight, BMI and fat mass. In a cross-sectional analysis, the associations of vitamin K status with circulating adiponectin and body composition were investigated in 244 postmenopausal women (study I). The effects of vitamin K treatment on adiponectin, body weight and BMI were investigated in archived samples from forty-two young men and women who received varying doses of menaquinone-7 during 12 weeks (study II) and from a cohort of 164 postmenopausal women who participated in a 3-year placebo-controlled trial on 45 mg menaquinone-4 (MK-4) (study III). No association was found between vitamin K status and circulating adiponectin before or after vitamin K supplementation. A higher carboxylation of OC was significantly correlated with lower body weight, BMI and fat mass of the trunk. Women taking MK-4 maintained their baseline body weight and BMI, whereas women taking placebo showed significant increases in both indices. These findings demonstrate that a high vitamin K status of bone has no effect on circulating adiponectin in healthy people and long-term vitamin K supplementation does not increase weight in healthy postmenopausal women.

  15. Status gizi awal berdasarkan Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA berhubungan dnegan asupan zat gizi dan perubahan berat badan pada penderita kanker rawat inap di RSUP Dr. Mohammad Hosein Palembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susetyowati Susetyowati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight loss is commonly detected among cancer patients in their early stages. This presumably happens due to low calory intake and increasing energy requirements which finally lead to malnutrition in cancer patients. Early detection to identify nutrition problems of cancer patients is through screening so as to maximize nutrient intake through nutrition therapy and diet modification and to improve nutrition status as well as quality of life of cancer patients. Objective: The study aimed to identify the relationship between nutrition status based on PS-SGA and nutrient intake and weight loss of cancer patients hospitalized at Dr. M. Hoesin Hospital of Palembang. Methods: The study was observational with prospective cohort study design. In this study the group that had fulfilled inclusion criteria were screened during their early hospitalization (within 24 hours using patient-generated subjective global assessment score to identify their nutrition problem. Next, the group was divided into 2 smaller groups consisting of one group with malnutrition and another group without malnutrition. Analysis of nutrient intake obtained from foods provided by the hospital and outside the hospital was made to the two groups within 2 weeks of hospitalization using visual comstock and food record. Anthropometric measurement was made to find weight loss the subject of the study. Results: The results of the study showed that there was significant relationship between nutrition status and intake of energy and protein with p=0.000. The result of logistic regression test to nutrition status based on weight changes indicated that there was significant relationship between risk of nutrition and weight changes; patients with risk of nutrition had 7.016 times greater probability for weight loss than those without risk of nutrition (95% C5  2.896-16.997. Conclusion: There was significant relationship between nutrition status and nutrient intake among cancer

  16. A comparison of the nutritional status between adult celiac patients on a long-term, strictly gluten-free diet and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, M; Della Valle, N; Rosania, R; Facciorusso, A; Trotta, A; Cantatore, F P; Falco, S; Pignatiello, S; Viggiani, M T; Amoruso, A; De Filippis, R; Di Leo, A; Francavilla, R

    2016-01-01

    There are conflicting data on the effect of a gluten-free diet (GFD) on the nutritional status of celiac patients. In the present study, we evaluated, in adult celiac patients, the influence of a long-term, strictly GFD on their nutritional status and compared it with matched healthy volunteers. Our study included 39 celiac patients and 39 healthy volunteers. The body mass index (BMI) of patients and controls was evaluated at enrollment, while the patients' BMI before the GFD was retrieved from clinical records. In addition, at enrollment, in both groups, we compared BMI, fat mass (FM), bone mineral density (BMD), as well as their dietary intake, recorded on a 7-day diary. At the time of diagnosis, the majority of celiac patients (82.0%) had a normal BMI or were overweight, while 10.3% were malnourished. After the GFD, patients with a normal BMI showed a significant weight increase (P=0.002), but none of them switched in the overweight or obese category. Two (50%) of the four malnourished patients achieved a normal BMI. Controls and patients on a GFD had a similar BMI, FM, BMD and total calorie intake, but the amount of lipids and fiber intake was significantly different in the two groups (P=0.003 and Pnutritional status of celiac patients without inducing overweight or obesity. Our findings are related to a celiac population adopting a GFD based on a Mediterranean-type diet.

  17. Effects of exogenous vitamins A, C, and E and NADH supplementation on proliferation, cytokines release, and cell redox status of lymphocytes from healthy aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamama, Samia; Merzouk, Hafida; Medjdoub, Amel; Merzouk-Saidi, Amel; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Aging is an inevitable biological event that is associated with immune alterations. These alterations are related to increased cellular oxidative stress and micronutrient deficiency. Antioxidant supplementation could improve these age-related abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro effects of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) on T cell proliferation, cytokine release, and cell redox status in the elderly compared with young adults. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated using a density gradient of Histopaque. They were cultured in vitro and stimulated with concanavalin A in the presence or absence of vitamins. Cell proliferation was determined by conducting MTT assays, and based on interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 secretions. Cell oxidant/antioxidant balance was assessed by assaying reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, carbonyl protein levels, and catalase activity. The present study demonstrated that T-lymphocyte proliferation was decreased with aging and was associated with cytokine secretion alterations, GSH depletion, and intracellular oxidative stress. In the elderly, vitamin C, vitamin E, and NADH significantly improved lymphocyte proliferation and mitigated cellular oxidative stress, whereas vitamin A did not affect cell proliferation or cell redox status. In conclusion, vitamin C, vitamin E, and NADH supplementation improved T-lymphocytes response in the elderly, and could contribute to the prevention of age-related immune alterations. Consumption of food items containing these vitamins is recommended, and further investigation is necessary to evaluate the effect of vitamin supplementation in vivo.

  18. Juice Powder Concentrate and Systemic Blood Pressure, Progression of Coronary Artery Calcium and Antioxidant Status in Hypertensive Subjects: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Houston

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Because micronutrients from plants may have beneficial cardiovascular effects, the hypothesis that an encapsulated juice powder concentrate might affect several measures of vascular health was tested in free living adults at low cardiovascular risk. Blood pressure, vascular compliance, lipid and antioxidant markers, and serial electron beam tomography (to calculate a coronary artery calcium score as a measure of atherosclerosis burden, were monitored in 51 pre-hypertensive and hypertensive subjects over 2 years. By the end of follow-up, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly (−2.4 ± 1.0 mmHg, P < 0.05 and −2.2 ± 0.6 mmHg, P < 0.001, and large artery compliance improved significantly (1.9 ± 0.6 ml mmHg−1 × 100, P < 0.01. The progression of coronary artery calcium score was smaller than expected compared with a historical database (P < 0.001. Laboratory testing showed a significant decrease in homocysteine (P = 0.05, HDL cholesterol (P = 0.025 and Apo A (P = 0.004, as well as a significant increase in β-carotene, folate, Co-Q10 and α-tocopherol (all P < 0.001. The phytonutrient concentrate we utilized induced several favorable modifications of markers of vascular health in the subjects. This study supports the notion that plant nutrients are important components of a heart healthy diet.

  19. The Effect of Cumin cyminum L. Plus Lime Administration on Weight Loss and Metabolic Status in Overweight Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Abedi, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Nasrin; Karamali, Fatemeh; Fakhrieh Kashan, Zohreh; Asemi, Zatollah

    2016-08-01

    Limited data are available regarding the effects of combined administration of Cumin cyminum L. and lime on weight loss and metabolic profiles among subjects with overweight subjects. The current study aimed to assess the effects of combined administration of Cumin cyminum L. and lime on weight loss and metabolic profiles among subjects with overweight. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 72 subjects with overweight, aged 18 - 50 years old. Participants were randomly divided into three groups: Group A received high-dose Cumin cyminum L. and lime capsules (75 mg each, n = 24), group B low-dose Cumin cyminum L. and lime capsules (25 mg each, n = 24) and group C placebos (n = 24) twice daily for eight weeks. After eight weeks of intervention, compared with low-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime and placebo, taking high-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime resulted in significant weight loss (in the high-dose group: -2.1 ± 1.7 vs. in the low-dose group: -1.2 ± 1.5 and in the placebo group: + 0.2 ± 1.3 kg, respectively; P < 0.001) and body mass index (-0.8 ± 0.6 vs. -0.5 ± 0.5 and +0.1 ± 0.5 kg/m(2), respectively; P < 0.001). In addition, administration of high-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime compared with low-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime and placebo, led to a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (P < 0.001) and a significant rise in quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (+ 0.02 ± 0.02 vs. + 0.01 ± 0.02 and 0.01 ± 0.01, respectively; P = 0.01). Moreover, a significant decrease in serum triglycerides (-14.1 ± 56.2 vs. +13.9 ± 36.8 and + 10.6 ± 25.1 mg/dL; respectively; P = 0.03), total-cholesterol (-18.4 ± 28.6 vs. +8.6 ± 28.5 and -1.0 ± 24.8 mg/dL; respectively; P = 0.004) and low density lipoproteins- (LDL)-cholesterol levels (-11.8 ± 20.7 vs. +6.5 ± 23.2 and -2.9 ± 20.4 mg/dL, respectively; P = 0.01) was observed following the consumption of high-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime compared with

  20. The malarial impact on the nutritional status of Amazonian adult subjects Impacto da malaria no estado nutricional de doentes adultos da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. M. Pereira

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The anthropometric (body weight, height, upper arm circumference, triceps and subescapular skinfolds; Quetelet index and arm muscle circunference and blood biochemistry (proteins and lipids parameters were evaluated in 93 males and 27 females, 17-72 years old voluntaries living in the malarial endemic area of Humaita city (southwest Amazon. According to their malarial history they were assembled in four different groups: G1-controls without malarial history (n:30; G2 - controls with malarial history but without actual manifestation of the disease (n:40; G3 - patients with Plasmodium vivax (n:19 and G4 - patients with Plasmodium falciparum (n:31. The malarial status was stablished by clinical and laboratory findings. The overall data of anthropometry and blood biochemistry discriminated the groups differently. The anthropometric data were low sensitive and contrasted only the two extremes (G1>G4 whereas the biochemistry differentiated two big groups, the healthy (G1+G2 and the patients (G3+G4. The nutritional status of the P. falciparum patients was highly depressed for most of the studied indices but none was sensitive enough to differentiate this group from the P. vivax group (G3. On the other hand the two healthy groups could be differentiated through the levels of ceruloplasmin (G1G2. Thus it seems that the malaria-malnourishment state exists and the results could be framed either as a consequence of nutrient sink and/or the infection stress both motivated by the parasite.A avaliação antropométrica (pêso, altura, circunferência branquial, prega cutânea tricipital, prega cutânea subescapular, índice de Quetelet e circunferência muscular do braço e bioquímica (proteínas e lipides foi realizado em 120 indivíduos (93 masculinos e 27 do sexo feminino, de 17 a 72 anos de idade, moradores de área endêmica de malária (Humaitá -AM. De acordo com a história da doença (malária eles foram divididos em 4 grupos: G1 - controle (n = 30

  1. Qualitative Research in Group Work: Status, Synergies, and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Deborah; Okech, Jane E. Atieno

    2017-01-01

    The article aims to advance the use of qualitative research methods to understand group work. The first part of this article situates the use of qualitative research methods in relationship to group work research. The second part examines recent qualitative group work research using a framework informed by scoping and systematic review methods and…

  2. Subjective Oral Health in Dutch Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsbert H.W. Verrips

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine whether the subjective oral health (SOH of the Dutch adult population was associated with clinical and demographic variables. Methods: A clinical examination was conducted in a sample of 1,018 people from the Dutch city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. SOH was measured using the Dutch translation of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL14. Results: The average score on the OHIP-NL14 was 2.8 ± 5.9 and 51% of the respondents had a score of 0. Dental status was the most important predictor of SOH. Conclusions:  The SOH in the Dutch adult population was much better than in groups of adults in Australia, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Nevertheless, there were important variations in SOH related to dental and socio-economic status.

  3. Present status and future subjects of the analytical studies related with application of charged particles and RI to materials science and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The position in the research field of radiation application of Theoretical Analysis Group for Radiation Application' which will be set up within fiscal 2003, and the relation between the research that this analytical group will advance in future and the analytical research made so far at Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Establishment (JAERI, Takasaki) are summarized. Since the JAERI Takasaki was founded as the center of the research and development on radiation chemistry, a lot of outcomes have been obtained in the research and development of radiation application using large-sized {sup 60}Co gamma ray irradiation facilities and high power electron accelerators, etc. After the ion irradiation research facility (TIARA) started operation, many outstanding outcomes have been obtained in the research of up-to-date science and technologies in the fields of material science and bio-technology, etc., making use of ions in addition to gamma rays and electron beams. Although these results of the research are mainly produced experimentally, theoretical analyses also are thought to be important because these results will be applied and expanded in future. We aim to set up 'Theoretical Analysis Group for Radiation Application' in fiscal 2003, and we aim at performing theoretical and engineering analyses about phenomena and things such as radiation chemical reactions, irradiation/implantation effects to semiconductors, model for plant function, etc. The irradiation effects of charged particles to materials are divided into the primary effects like generation of radicals and lattice defects, etc., which occurs immediately after charged particles impinge on materials, and the secondary effects like chemical changes and physical changes caused in materials as a result of the primary effects. The subjects of our analytical research are the analyses of the secondary effects and the systems which utilize the chemical and the physical changes to the radiation application

  4. Double-blind randomised controlled trial of the independent and synergistic effect of Spirulina maxima with exercise (ISESE) on general fitness, lipid profile and redox status in overweight and obese subjects: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Lepe, Marco Antonio; López-Díaz, José Alberto; de la Rosa, Laura Alejandra; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Juarez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In order to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors, a healthy diet must include dietary antioxidants from different sources (eg, Spirulina maxima) and regular practice of exercise should be promoted. There is some evidence from animal studies that S. maxima and exercise decrease cardiovascular disease risks factors. However, very few studies have proved the independent or synergistic effect of S. maxima plus exercise in humans. This study attempts to address the independent and synergistic effects in overweight and obese subjects participating in a systematic physical exercise programme at moderate intensity on general fitness, plasma lipid profile and antioxidant capacity. Methods and analysis Using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover study design, 80 healthy overweight and obese subjects will be evaluated during a 12-week isoenergetic diet accompanied by 4.5 g/day S. maxima intake and/or a physical systematic exercise programme at moderate intensity. Body composition, oxygen uptake, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols, total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, antioxidant status, lipid oxidation, protein carbonyls, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and paraoxonase will be assessed. Ethics and dissemination This study and all the procedures have been approved by the Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez Bioethics Committee. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02837666. PMID:28645949

  5. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  6. Felicidade, bem-estar subjetivo e variáveis sociodemográficas, em grupos de estudantes universitários Felicidad, bienestar subjetivo y variables sociodemográficas, en grupos de estudiantes universitarios Happiness, subjective well-being and socio-demographic variables in groups of college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Dela Coleta

    2012-04-01

    padres, con más altos niveles socioeconómicos se mostraron significativamente más populares, menos solitarios, más satisfechos con la vida y más felices.This study was developed with 388 college students using a set of scales to measure variables associated to happiness, subjective well-being, social behavior and some questions on demographic data. The results showed that the scales usually present high levels of reliability, average results superior to those expected in the subjective well-being measures and multiple correlation coefficient of 0.79 on the prediction of total happiness. When testing the differences among the several groups, it was verified that women, young people, those married or dating, those who had a religion, studied the first grade in a private school or the college in a public institution, those who know other languages with higher family income, having parents with high level of education or social-economic status, showed to be significantly more popular, less solitaires, more satisfied with their lives and happier.

  7. Advantages and disadvantages of using the PRISMA7 to determine the elderly subjects for whom the SMAF is useful for assessing functional status in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthé, A; Somda, M A S; Berthé-Sanou, L; Konaté, B; Hien, H; Bayala, E; Tou, F; Drabo, M; Badini-Kinda, F; Macq, J

    2017-02-01

    One of the difficulties faced by African actors working with the elderly is the lack of appropriate tools for the identification and/or diagnosis of functional disabilities among older people in this limited-resource (material, human, and financial) setting. This study sought to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the combined use of two tools, PRISMA7 (for identifying older individuals at risk of functional disabilities and loss of autonomy) and SMAF (to evaluate the functional status of the elderly) in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). PRISMA7 and SMAF were administered to a representative sample of elderly people who lived at home. Data analysis was performed with Stata. The results show that the combination of PRISMA7 and SMAF made it possible to avoid unncessary administration of the SMAF to all subjects, reducing the number of questionnaires to photocopy by 48 % and the working time by 45 %. The prevalence of moderate to severe functional disabilities was 32 % according to the SMAF alone and 25 % when PRISMA7 was administered first and determined whether the SMAF would be used. The 7 % rate of loss to follow-up shows a need for monitoring or help, generally in instrumental activities. In a limited-resource setting, this combination is a good strategy for identifying and evaluating functional disabilities in the elderly. This strategy allows the development of work plans tailored to individual functional needs.

  8. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  9. The emergence and effects of deviants in low and high status groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, D; Branscombe, NR; Spears, R; Doosje, B

    2002-01-01

    We test the proposition, derived from social identity theory and the subjective group dynamics model, that a group member who undermines the in-group's quest for positive status will be perceived as a "deviant." Using a minimal group paradigm, participants (N = 104) were assigned to either a high or

  10. Decision Dynamics in Group Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Fangqiu; Schlesinger, Kimberly J; Gür, Izzeddin; Carlson, Jean M

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that affect human decision making and quantifying their influence remain essential and challenging tasks for the design and implementation of social and technological communication systems. We report results of a behavioral experiment involving decision making in the face of an impending natural disaster. In a controlled laboratory setting, we characterize individual and group evacuation decision making influenced by several key factors, including the likelihood of the disaster, available shelter capacity, group size, and group decision protocol. Our results show that success in individual decision making is not a strong predictor of group performance. We use an artificial neural network trained on the collective behavior of subjects to predict individual and group outcomes. Overall model accuracy increases with the inclusion of a subject-specific performance parameter based on laboratory trials that captures individual differences. In parallel, we demonstrate that the social media activit...

  11. The herding hormone: oxytocin stimulates in-group conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallen, Mirre; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Shalvi, Shaul; Smidts, Ale; Sanfey, Alan G

    2012-01-01

    People often conform to others with whom they associate. Surprisingly, however, little is known about the possible hormonal mechanisms that may underlie in-group conformity. Here, we examined whether conformity toward one's in-group is altered by oxytocin, a neuropeptide often implicated in social behavior. After administration of either oxytocin or a placebo, participants were asked to provide attractiveness ratings of unfamiliar visual stimuli. While viewing each stimulus, participants were shown ratings of that stimulus provided by both in-group and out-group members. Results demonstrated that on trials in which the ratings of the in-group and out-group were incongruent, the ratings of participants given oxytocin conformed to the ratings of their in-group but not of their out-group. Participants given a placebo did not show this in-group bias. These findings indicate that administration of oxytocin can influence subjective preferences, and they support the view that oxytocin's effects on social behavior are context dependent.

  12. Status gizi awal berdasarkan Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) berhubungan dnegan asupan zat gizi dan perubahan berat badan pada penderita kanker rawat inap di RSUP Dr. Mohammad Hosein Palembang

    OpenAIRE

    Susetyowati Susetyowati; Yenita Yenita; Johan Kurnianda

    2010-01-01

    Background: Weight loss is commonly detected among cancer patients in their early stages. This presumably happens due to low calory intake and increasing energy requirements which finally lead to malnutrition in cancer patients. Early detection to identify nutrition problems of cancer patients is through screening so as to maximize nutrient intake through nutrition therapy and diet modification and to improve nutrition status as well as quality of life of cancer patients. Objective: The s...

  13. Evolutionary models of in-group favoritism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Fu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    In-group favoritism is the tendency for individuals to cooperate with in-group members more strongly than with out-group members. Similar concepts have been described across different domains, including in-group bias, tag-based cooperation, parochial altruism, and ethnocentrism. Both humans and other animals show this behavior. Here, we review evolutionary mechanisms for explaining this phenomenon by covering recently developed mathematical models. In fact, in-group favoritism is not easily realized on its own in theory, although it can evolve under some conditions. We also discuss the implications of these modeling results in future empirical and theoretical research.

  14. Individual- and Neighbourhood-Level Indicators of Subjective Well-Being in a Small and Poor Eastern Cape Township: The Effect of Health, Social Capital, Marital Status, and Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, J. M.; Moller, V.; Nieboer, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Our study used multilevel regression analysis to identify individual- and neighbourhood-level factors that determine individual-level subjective well-being in Rhini, a deprived suburb of Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The Townsend index and Gini coefficient were used to investigate whether contextual neighbourhood-level…

  15. Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa

  16. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF CARPAL BONE MOBILIZATION VERSUS NEURAL MOBILIZATION IN IMPROVING PAIN, FUNCTIONAL STATUS AND SYMPTOMS SEVERITY IN PATIENTS WITH CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikranth .G .R

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a constellation of symptoms associated with compression of the median nerve at the wrist in carpal tunnel. The Purpose of this study is to find the comparative effective of carpal bone mobilization and neural mobilization in improving pain, Functional Status and Symptom Severity in patients with CTS. Method: An experimental study design, 30 subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome were randomized into 2 groups with 15 subjects each in Group A and Group B. Subjects in Group A received carpal bone mobilization and subjects in Group B received median nerve mobilization. The duration of intervention was for two weeks. Outcome measurements such as pain using VAS, The Functional Status Score (FSS and Symptom Severity Score (SSS using the Boston’s questionnaire for CTS were measured before and after two weeks of intervention. Results: Analysis using paired ‘t’ test found that there is a statistically significant improvement (p<0.05 in pain, Functional Status score and Symptom Severity score within the groups. Comparative analysis using independent ‘t’ test found that there is no statistically significant difference in improving pain, Functional Status score and Symptom Severity score between both the groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that median nerve mobilization and carpal bone mobilization shown to be effective on improving pain, Functional Status and Symptom Severity in the treatment of patients presenting with carpal tunnel syndrome. However there is no significant difference in improvements obtained between the neural mobilization and carpal bone mobilisation.

  17. In-group modulation of perceptual matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Zargol; Sui, Jie; Hewstone, Miles; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-10-01

    We report a novel effect of in-group bias on a task requiring simple perceptual matching of stimuli. Football fans were instructed to associate the badges of their favorite football team (in-group), a rival team (out-group), and neutral teams with simple geometric shapes. Responses to matching in-group stimuli were more efficient, and discriminability was enhanced, as compared to out-group stimuli (rival and neutral)-a result that occurred even when participants responded only to the (equally familiar) geometric shapes. Across individuals, the in-group bias on shape matching was correlated with measures of group satisfaction, and similar results were found when football fans performed the task, in the context of both the football ground and a laboratory setting. We also observed effects of in-group bias on the response criteria in some but not all of the experiments. In control studies, the advantage for in-group stimuli was not found in an independent sample of participants who were not football fans. This indicates that there was not an intrinsic advantage for the stimuli that were "in-group" for football fans. Also, performance did not differ for familiar versus unfamiliar stimuli without in-group associations. These findings indicate that group identification can affect simple shape matching.

  18. Dentition status, malnutrition and mortality among older service housing residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, R K T; Soini, H; Hiltunen, K; Muurinen, S; Suominen, M; Pitkälä, K

    2014-01-01

    Oral health status and oral health problems can affect eating habits and thus consequently the nutritional status of frail older people. To assess older service house residents' dentition and its associations with nutritional status and eating habits, and as well as to explore the prognostic value of dentition status for mortality. A cross-sectional study with a three-year follow-up. In 2007, we assessed the nutritional status of all residents in service houses in the two cities of Helsinki and Espoo in Finland (N=2188). Altogether 1475 subjects (67%) participated in the study; dentition status data were available for 1369 of them. Using a personal interview and assessment, trained nurses familiar to the resident collected the subjects' demographic data, medical history, functional and cognitive status, information on dentition status, oral symptoms, eating habits and diets. We assessed nutritional status with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and retrieved information on mortality from central registers on 6 July 2010. Edentulousness was common; more than half of the residents (52%) had lost all their teeth: 7% (n=94) were totally edentulous without prosthesis (Group 1), 45% (n=614) had removable dentures (Group 2), and 48% (n = 661) of the residents, had some natural teeth left (Group 3). Dentition status was associated with age, gender, education and disability. According to the MNA, 13% were malnourished, 65% were at risk for malnutrition, and 22% were well nourished. Edentulousness without prosthesis was associated with malnutrition, oral symptoms and infrequent use of oral care services. In Group 1, 52% were deceased during follow-up period. The respective figures for Groups 2 and 3 were 48% and 40% (p=0.004). However, in Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, comorbidity and MNA score, dentition status no longer predicted mortality. Edentulousness is still common among older service housing residents. Edentulousness without prosthesis was

  19. Assessment of the accuracy of physiological blood indicators for the evaluation of stress, health status and welfare in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii subject to chronic heat stress and dietary supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémy Simide

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is growing interest in the evaluation of stress, health and welfare of farm-raised fish. However, there is no scientific consensus about the methodology that is used to assess them. Sturgeon aquaculture is a recent industry with increasing interest in the production of caviar, which is characterized by high turnover and costs. To improve aquaculture efficiency, this study was conducted on routine blood samples, taken from Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii, to test the robustness of using only physiological indicators to assess heat stress, health, and welfare. Sampling was performed after 1 month of prebiotic dietary supplementation followed by 4 weeks of sublethal heat stress. Data interpretation was achieved with a multivariate statistical tool. The expression of heat shock proteins (HSP was assessed for the first time in sturgeon erythrocytes. Hsp70 and hsp90 expression was triggered by both stress and dietary supplementation. Indicators of non-specific immunity were modified mainly by stress. Complement activity increases with stress while lysozyme activity decreases, but to a lesser extent in supplemented fish. The antioxidant capacity increases with stress while oxidant metabolites decrease and overall oxidative stress was lower for fish that received dietary supplementation. The positive impact of dietary supplementation on health status was observable after a stress challenge. A principal component analysis was used to combine all the measured parameters and to observe patterns in physiological fish status. The four experimental groups of fish were clearly discriminated with this statistical tool. Physiological indicators from blood samples may enable heat stress, health, and welfare to be assessed in Siberian sturgeon.

  20. THE INCIDENCE OF POSTURAL DISORDERS WITH REGARD TO DEGREE OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Protić-Gava

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze postural disorders and nutritional status in adolescents, and to compare the incidence of postural disorders with regard to category of nutritional status and gender dimorphism. The sample of subjects comprised of 305 adolescents, 11 - 14 years old, of both gender (158 girls and 147 boys, students of the primary school from Vojvodina. Postural status was assessed by Napoleon Volanski method. Body mass index (BMI was calculated by standard procedure. In establishment of differences in postural status, with regard to the age and the gender dimorphism, we used χ2 test. In order to establish differences in cumulative evaluation of postural status, we applied rank-sum Mann-Whitney Z-test. In establishment of differences in groups of subjects formed on the basis of degree of nutritional status, we applied Kruskall-Wollis test. The survey results show a statistically significant difference acording to the gender, in subjects aged 13 to 14 years, and a significant positive correlation of these two indicators.

  1. IL-2 AND IFN-g, BUT NOT IL-4 SECRETION BY PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS (PBMC ARE RELATED TO CD4+ T CELLS AND CLINICAL STATUS IN BRAZILIAN HIV-1-INFECTED SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa A. HONG

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that production of IL-2 and IFN-g, known as T-helper type 1 cytokines, by peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC decreases with progression of HIV infection. In contrast, IL-4 and IL-10 production, Th2 cytokine profile, increases with HIV disease progression. PBMC were evaluated from 55 HIV-infected subjects from Divisão de Imunologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, to "in vitro" cytokines production after 24 hours of stimulation with PHA. Low levels of IL-4 production in both HIV- infected patients and normal subjects, were detected. The patients with CD4+ T cell counts g production compared to controls. Patients with higher counts of CD4+ T cells (either between 200-500 or >500 cells/mm3 also showed decreased production of IL-2 that was not statistically significant. There was a correlation between IL-2 and IFN-g release with CD4+ T cells counts. HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T cells >500 cells/mm3 showed increased levels of IL-2 and IFN-g, than individuals with CD4+ T cells g production at advanced HIV disease. IL-4 production was not affected during HIV infection. Taken together, these findings suggest that the cytokine profile might be influenced by the HIV infection rather than the cause of disease progression.

  2. Status epilepticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensiek, AE; Absalom, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Status epilepticus is defined as epileptic activity that continues for more than 30 minutes as a single seizure or as recurrent seizures without inter-ictal return of consciousness. The seizure activity is usually classified as partial or generalized. Although status epilepticus is an uncommon

  3. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  4. Status-Based Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destin, Mesmin; Rheinschmidt-Same, Michelle; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2017-03-01

    Psychological research on socioeconomic status (SES) has grown significantly over the past decade. In this article, we build upon and integrate existing approaches to direct greater attention toward investigating the subjective meaning and value that people attach to understanding their own SES as an identity. We use the term status-based identity to organize relevant research and examine how people understand and make meaning of their SES from moment to moment in real time. Drawing from multiple areas of research on identity, we suggest that even temporary shifts in how people construe their status-based identities predict changes in thought, affect, motivation, and behavior. This novel focus is positioned to examine the psychological effects of status transitions (e.g., upward or downward mobility). Further, in initial empirical work, we introduce a new measure to assess uncertainty regarding one's SES (i.e., status-based identity uncertainty) and offer evidence that greater uncertainty regarding one's status-based identity is associated with lower individual well-being. In sum, we argue that insight from the literature on identity will both expand and serve to organize the burgeoning literature on the psychology of SES and, in so doing, reveal promising new directions for research.

  5. [Asymmetric effect of in-group social values on identity with common-identity and common-bond in-groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Isobe, Chikae; Toshihiko, Souma; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Moderating effects of group type on the relationship between in-group social values and group identity were investigated. Previous research has indicated that values attached to the in-group, such as its status, privileges, and power, lead to increased group identity. However, these studies have not investigated the role of the type of in-groups on this effect. We conducted an experiment that manipulated the in-group type. In the common-identity type of in-group condition, formation of in- and out-groups on the basis of social categorization was established. In the common-bond type of in-group condition, interactions between the group members were conducted. Results indicated that in the former condition, the degree of in-group social values affected group identity; however, this effect was not found in the latter condition. These results suggest that social values of the in-group have an asymmetric effect on group identity, depending upon the in-group type as a common-identity or common-bond group.

  6. Capacidade funcional de hemiparéticos crônicos submetidos a um programa de fisioterapia em grupo Functional status of hemiparetic subjects submitted to group physical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Háruka Giriko

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivos analisar a eficácia da fisioterapia em grupo sobre a marcha, o equilíbrio corporal e o risco de queda, e verificar se há correlação entre a capacidade funcional da marcha e o equilíbrio em indivíduos com hemiparesia crônica. Participaram do estudo 21 adultos hemiparéticos, com idade média de 58,9±10,6 anos, com seqüela de no mínimo 1 ano após acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico ou hemorrágico. Os sujeitos foram submetidos a um programa de 1 hora de fisioterapia em grupo duas vezes por semana durante seis meses. Foram avaliados por meio da escala de equilíbrio de Berg (EEB e do teste de levantar e caminhar cronometrado TLCC (TUG, na sigla em inglês de timed up & go antes do programa, após 13 e ao fim de 26 semanas. Os resultados mostram uma redução progressiva, embora não-significativa, no tempo de execução do TLCC e aumento progressivo, também não-significativo, do escore na EEB. Foi observada forte correlação entre as duas escalas (r=0,7, pThe purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a group therapy program on gait, body balance and risk of falling, and to search for a correlation between functional gait and balance in subjects with chronic hemiparesis. A total of 21 hemiparetic adults, mean aged 58.9±10.6 years, with sequelae (at least 1 year after stroke of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, underwent a program of one-hour group therapy twice a week, for six months. They were assessed using the Berg balance scale (BBS and the timed up-and-go test (TUGT at baseline, after 13 weeks, and at the end of six months. Results show a progressive, though non-significant, reduction in TUGT times, and an also non-significant increase in BBS scores. A strong correlation (r=0.7, p<0.05 was found between the two scales. The therapy was then not effective in providing improvement in subjects' gait or balance, but allowed for maintaining them.

  7. Gender, Legitimation, and Identity Verification in Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Peter J.; Stets, Jan E.; Cerven, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Drawing upon identity theory, expectation states theory, and legitimation theory, we examine how the task leader identity in task-oriented groups is more likely to be verified for persons with high status characteristics. We hypothesize that identity verification will be accomplished more readily for male group members and legitimated task leaders…

  8. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  9. Framework for Flexible Security in Group Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patrick; Prakash, Atul

    2006-01-01

    The Antigone software system defines a framework for the flexible definition and implementation of security policies in group communication systems. Antigone does not dictate the available security policies, but provides high-level mechanisms for implementing them. A central element of the Antigone architecture is a suite of such mechanisms comprising micro-protocols that provide the basic services needed by secure groups.

  10. Poetry and Therapeutic Factors in Group Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Marion

    1989-01-01

    Describes the ways in which the use of poetry in group therapy facilitates therapeutic goals consistent with interpersonal theory. Discusses the relationship between poetic interventions and I. D. Yalom's therapeutic factors, and offers a case example of an in-patient therapy group. (SR)

  11. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were…

  12. Multilevel Modeling for Research in Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, James P.; Trott, Arianna; Lemberger, Matthew E.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers in group counseling often encounter complex data from individual clients who are members of a group. Clients in the same group may be more similar than clients from different groups and this can lead to violations of statistical assumptions. The complexity of the data also means that predictors and outcomes can be measured at both the…

  13. Magazine Picture Collage in Group Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Blythe C.; Guenette, Francis L.

    2010-01-01

    A magazine picture collage activity was used with three female counsellor education students as a vehicle to support them in processing their experience as counsellors in training. The use of magazine picture collage in group supervision is described, and the benefits and challenges are presented. The collages served as jumping-off points for…

  14. Stock Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data inform the public of the most recent stock status for all stocks (FSSI and non-FSSI) in the fishery management unit contained in a fishery managment plan....

  15. Keeping horses in groups: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Although husbandry conditions for horses have improved over the last decades, many horses are still kept singly with limited or no physical contact to other horses. This is surprising, given the fact that keeping horses in groups is recognised best to fulfil their physical and behavioural needs......, especially their need for social contact with conspecifics, as well as to have a beneficial effect on horse–human interactions during training. Group housing of farm animals is widely applied in practice. As a consequence, scientists have investigated numerous aspects of group housing to help further improve...... animal welfare and human–animal interactions under these conditions. However, compared to this literature available in farm animals, and the plentiful studies conducted of feral horse populations, there is much less done when it comes to the management of horses kept in groups in the domestic environment...

  16. The Ripple Effect: Emotional Contagion In Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Sigal G. Barsade

    2001-01-01

    Emotional contagion, the transfer of emotion between individuals, and its influence on work group dynamics was examined in two managerial simulations using multiple, convergent measures of emotions and group dynamics. The studies tested hypotheses on differential contagion effects due to the degree of pleasantness of the emotion, and the energy with which this pleasantness was conveyed. After determining that emotional contagion existed in groups, I then examined the influence of emotional co...

  17. Discrimination constrained and justified : Variable effects of group variability and in-group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, J; Spears, R; Hogg, MA; Manstead, ASR

    In two studies we investigated how group variability influences the degree to which in-group bias is expressed by high and low group identifiers. Group members were provided with group variability and group status feedback in a minimal (Study 1) and in a natural group setting (Study 2). Results show

  18. Compliance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford`s compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute.

  19. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  20. Nutritional Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.

  1. Antioxidant Vitamins Status of Hypertensive Subjects in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increased evidence that hypertension is associated with increased levels of oxidative stress markers. The current work aimed to estimate blood pressure, vitamins A, C, and E levels in 54 hypertensives attending the outpatient clinic of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria and the ...

  2. antioxidant vitamins status of hypertensive subjects in sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Packer, L. (2002): Alpha Lipoic acid as a biological antioxidants. J. Free Radical Bio Med. 20: 1020 -1032. Pickering, T. G. and White, W. B. (2008): When and how to use self (home) and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring J. Am. Soc. Hypertens., 2(3): 119 – 124. Roe, J. H. and Kuether, C. A. (1943): Determination of.

  3. Determinants of subjective health status of HIV positive mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by human immune deficiency virus (HIV), once dominated by infected males has become feminized especially in sub-Saharan Africa where the majority of adults living with the condition are females. Positive life styles, belonging to social support ...

  4. Feedback in Group Psychotherapy for Eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Poulsen, Stig; Lindschou, Jane

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of client feedback in group psychotherapy on attendance and treatment outcome for patients with eating disorders. METHOD: We conducted a randomized clinical trial with central randomization stratified for diagnosis and treatment type according to a computer...... outcome was rate of attendance to treatment sessions; the secondary outcome was severity of eating disorder symptoms measured with the Eating Disorder Examination interview. Exploratory outcomes were psychological distress measured with the Symptom Checklist-90-R and the Outcome Rating Scale, social......-generated allocation sequence concealed to the investigators. One-hundred and 59 adult participants, diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or eating disorder not otherwise specified according to DSM-IV, were included. Eighty participants were allocated to the experimental group, and 79 participants...

  5. Oxytocin modulates charismatic influence in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ilanit; Berson, Yair

    2018-01-01

    Charismatic leaders have had tremendous effects on the fortunes and fates of individuals and societies across the world. Via verbal and nonverbal signaling, such leaders form profound emotional bonds with followers. Despite evidence for its powerful effects, we know very little about what facilitates the charismatic relationship. Here, we argue that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), known to be implicated in parent-child attachment, also enhances the effects of charismatic leaders in groups. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, we administered intranasal OT to participants, led by a confederate trained to exhibit charisma, and monitored participants' responses to the confederate's signaling while leading a group task. We found that OT enhanced the effects of 3 common manifestations of charismatic signaling-verbal behaviors, nonverbal behaviors, and followers' perceptions of the confederate's charisma-on classic outcomes of charismatic influence. Specifically, participants under OT showed more expressions of positive affect and mimicry of the leader in response to the confederate's signaling, and perceptions of the confederate's charisma had stronger effects on participants' willingness to trust each other. These findings extend the role of OT beyond the attachment bond to explain leader-follower relationships, shed light on the role of neuroendocrine factors in contagion processes in groups, and support the social saliency perspective of OT. We note, however, that because charisma was not manipulated, we had reduced control over the confederates' specific behaviors. We address this limitation in the Discussion, point to broader theoretical implications of our work, and offer ideas for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Vasodilation increases pulse pressure variation, mimicking hypovolemic status in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco A Westphal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that pulse pressure respiratory variation (PPV amplification, observed in hypovolemia, can also be observed during sodium nitroprusside (SNP-induced vasodilation. INTRODUCTION: PPV is largely used for early identification of cardiac responsiveness, especially when hypovolemia is suspected. PPV results from respiratory variation in transpulmonary blood flow and reflects the left ventricular preload variations during respiratory cycles. Any factor that decreases left ventricular preload can be associated with PPV amplification, as seen in hypovolemia. METHODS: Ten anesthetized and mechanically ventilated rabbits underwent progressive hypotension by either controlled hemorrhage (Group 1 or intravenous SNP infusion (Group 2. Animals in Group 1 (n = 5 had graded hemorrhage induced at 10% steps until 50% of the total volume was bled. Mean arterial pressure (MAP steps were registered and assumed as pressure targets to be reached in Group 2. Group 2 (n = 5 was subjected to a progressive SNP infusion to reach similar pressure targets as those defined in Group 1. Heart rate (HR, systolic pressure variation (SPV and PPV were measured at each MAP step, and the values were compared between the groups. RESULTS: SPV and PPV were similar between the experimental models in all steps (p > 0.16. SPV increased earlier in Group 2. CONCLUSION: Both pharmacologic vasodilation and graded hemorrhage induced PPV amplification similar to that observed in hypovolemia, reinforcing the idea that amplified arterial pressure variation does not necessarily represent hypovolemic status but rather potential cardiovascular responsiveness to fluid infusion.

  7. Managing Victim Status in Group Therapy for Men: A Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverina, Michaela; Stam, Henderikus J.; Babins-Wagner, Robbie

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the abundance of research on women victims, this article sheds light on the discourse of men who are self-identified as victims of their female partners' abuse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the most salient identity constructions and abuse conceptualizations among participants of group psychotherapy for men who have…

  8. Quorum sensing in group A Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Juan Cristobal; Federle, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a widespread phenomenon in the microbial world that has important implications in the coordination of population-wide responses in several bacterial pathogens. In Group A Streptococcus (GAS), many questions surrounding QS systems remain to be solved pertaining to their function and their contribution to the GAS lifestyle in the host. The QS systems of GAS described to date can be categorized into four groups: regulator gene of glucosyltransferase (Rgg), Sil, lantibiotic systems, and LuxS/AI-2. The Rgg family of proteins, a conserved group of transcription factors that modify their activity in response to signaling peptides, has been shown to regulate genes involved in virulence, biofilm formation and competence. The sil locus, whose expression is regulated by the activity of signaling peptides and a putative two-component system (TCS), has been implicated on regulating genes involved with invasive disease in GAS isolates. Lantibiotic regulatory systems are involved in the production of bacteriocins and their autoregulation, and some of these genes have been shown to target both bacterial organisms as well as processes of survival inside the infected host. Finally AI-2 (dihydroxy pentanedione, DPD), synthesized by the LuxS enzyme in several bacteria including GAS, has been proposed to be a universal bacterial communication molecule. In this review we discuss the mechanisms of these four systems, the putative functions of their targets, and pose critical questions for future studies. PMID:25309879

  9. Micronutrient deficiency in obese subjects undergoing low calorie diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damms-Machado, Antje; Weser, Gesine; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2012-01-01

    .... Furthermore, we determined the micronutrient status in obese subjects undergoing a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet to analyze if the DRI meet the micronutrient requirements of obese individuals...

  10. [Effects of vitamin A supplementation on nutritional status of iron in healthy adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuwen; Fan, Ping; Deng, Gangbo; Du, Zhen; Shao, Zewei; Wang, Zhixu

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effect of vitamin A (VA) supplementation on the nutritional status of iron in healthy adults. One hundred and fifteen healthy adults were recruited and divided randomly into four groups, with 28 or 29 adults in each group. VA supplements with different doses of retinyl acetate in capsules were given for 4-month. The equivalent doses of supplemented retinyl acetate were 600 microg/d, 400 microg/d, 200 microg/d and 0 microg/d (control) of retinol, respectively. The capsules were administered orally by double blind method. During the experiment, the subjects kept their usual dietary pattern but avoided high VA or pre-VA carotenoids foods from their diets. A 24-h dietary recall was carried out monthly on every subject. Before and after the intervention, the fast blood samples were collected from each subject, and were determined for hemoglobin concentration, levels of serum retinol, iron, ferrtin and transferrtin receptor. Total 108 subjects finished the experiment, with 27, 28, 27 and 26 persons left in group A, B, C and D, respectively. The subjects from each group had similar dietary intakes of energy nutrients, VA and iron (both were P > 0.05) during the experimental period. The serum retinol concentration of subjects from group A increased from 1.63 +/- 0.55 micromol/L of baseline to 1.93 +/-0.52 micromol/L at the end of the experiment (P 0.05). There was no significant difference on Hb concentration before and after the experiment as well as between groups (all were P > 0.05). In subjects of group A, serum iron concentration increased (P supplement intervention. No such changes were observed in group B and C (P supplement with relative high dose of retinol at dietary level could enhance the iron status further in no-anemic healthy adults even without dietary iron supplementation.

  11. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  12. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  13. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  14. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  15. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  16. Consumption of alcoholic beverages and subjective health in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Guallar-Castillon, P; Rodriguez-Artalej..., F; Ganan, L; Banegas, J; Urdinguio, P; Cabrera, R.

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To examine the relation between alcohol and main alcoholic beverage consumption and subjective health in Spain.
DESIGN—Logistic regression analysis using a cross sectional survey based on self reported data on alcohol and alcoholic beverage consumption, subjective health and the principal confounding factors (age, sex, civil status, educational level, job status, social support, region of residence, size of town or city, tobacco consumption, physical activity during leisure ti...

  17. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  18. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  19. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  20. Life Events and Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall

    2014-01-01

    The literature on Happiness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) has been dominated by studies of the impact from income and labour market status - and the impact on happiness from changes in these determinants. It seems obvious to expect an impact from non-economic factors as well. In the present paper...... we focus on the eventual impact on SWB from having children. The dominant result in the rather few studies until now is the finding of no – or even a negative – impact on subjective well being following birth of a child. We focus on the impact from having children using two very big panel data sets...

  1. Physical activity impairment in depressed COPD subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Fabiano; Terraneo, Silvia; Roggi, Maria Adelaide; Repossi, Alice C; Pellegrino, Giulia M; Veronelli, Anna; Santus, Pierachille; Pontiroli, Antonio E; Centanni, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Limited exercise tolerance is a cardinal clinical feature in COPD. Depression and COPD share some clinical features, such as reduced physical activity and impaired nutritional status. The aim of the present study was to evaluate maximum and daily physical activities and the nutritional status of COPD patients affected or not by depression. In 70 COPD out-patients, daily and maximum physical activities were assessed by multisensor accelerometer armband, 6-min walk test, and cardiopulmonary exercise test. Mental status, metabolic/muscular status, and systemic inflammation were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and with regard to fibrinogen/C-reactive protein, respectively. Depressed subjects (27% of the sample) showed a similar level of respiratory functional impairment but a higher level of shortness of breath and a worse quality of life compared to non-depressed subjects (P physical activity impairment consisting of a reduced number of steps per day, a lower peak of oxygen consumption, an early anaerobic threshold, and a reduced distance in the 6-min walk test (P daily number of steps. Our study found that depressed COPD patients have a reduced daily and maximum exercise capacity compared to non-depressed patients. This further suggests the potential utility of screening for depression in COPD.

  2. Ethics of Research Involving Human Subjects in Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Seth Allan; Wilkins, Leslie T.

    1977-01-01

    Research in criminal justice involving human subjects has increased greatly, yet we have no code of ethics to guide such research. This paper argues that the primary purpose of a code should be protection of these research subjects, who are especially susceptible to mistreatment because of their prisoner status. (Author)

  3. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  4. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  5. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  6. Stability of cooperation under image scoring in group interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nax, Heinrich H.; Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-07-01

    Image scoring sustains cooperation in the repeated two-player prisoner’s dilemma through indirect reciprocity, even though defection is the uniquely dominant selfish behaviour in the one-shot game. Many real-world dilemma situations, however, firstly, take place in groups and, secondly, lack the necessary transparency to inform subjects reliably of others’ individual past actions. Instead, there is revelation of information regarding groups, which allows for ‘group scoring’ but not for image scoring. Here, we study how sensitive the positive results related to image scoring are to information based on group scoring. We combine analytic results and computer simulations to specify the conditions for the emergence of cooperation. We show that under pure group scoring, that is, under the complete absence of image-scoring information, cooperation is unsustainable. Away from this extreme case, however, the necessary degree of image scoring relative to group scoring depends on the population size and is generally very small. We thus conclude that the positive results based on image scoring apply to a much broader range of informational settings that are relevant in the real world than previously assumed.

  7. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  8. Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal

  9. Subjective Duration and Psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Hannes

    1975-01-01

    Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)

  10. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  11. Do Social Networks Improve Chinese Adults' Subjective Well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population-the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants-happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people.

  12. Marital Status and Occupation versus Serum Total Cholesterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of marital status and occupation on serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL – CH) concentrations was studied in sixty one (61) adult male and female Hausa subjects aged 20 – 50 years. Irrespective of marital status and occupation, female subjects had higher mean serum ...

  13. marital status and occupation versus serum total cholesterol and hdl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. The influence of marital status and occupation on serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL – CH) concentrations was studied in sixty one (61) adult male and female Hausa subjects aged 20 – 50 years. Irrespective of marital status and occupation, female subjects had higher ...

  14. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  15. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  16. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  17. Residents' Class Status and Social Political Attitude: Two Cases of Middle-Class Community in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Lipeng  ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    According to the data in two type of middle class community, this paper finds out that differences on residents' objective class status exist, so does subjective class status. The type of the community, occupation, and annual household income influences residents' subjective class status. This paper also compares people's social political attitude in two types of communities. People value some social political issues according to their subjective class status.

  18. Subject Sensitive Invariantism: In Memoriam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Subject sensitive invariantism is the view that whether a subject knows depends on what is at stake for that subject: the truth-value of a knowledge-attribution is sensitive to the subject's practical interests. I argue that subject sensitive invariantism cannot accept a very plausible principle for

  19. Clinical and Neurological Status in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment due to Chronic Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokudhon N. Madjidova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was to study the neurological status and cognitive function in patients with stage I and II CCI, depending on its nature. Material and Methods: The study included 302 patients (mean age - 61.3±0.3 years; 165/54.6% men and 137/45.4% women with stage I and II CCI. Clinical and neurological examination, study of cognitive function, and MRI were performed in all patients. The degree of cognitive defect was determined by the MMSE (Mini-Mental State Exam test and the Bourdon test (visual perception and vigilance. All the subjects were categorized into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 133 patients with the amnestic type of MCI (AT-MCI; Group 2 consisted of 169 patients with the multifunction type of MCI (MT-MCI. Results: The highest frequency of complaints of a cerebral nature was observed in Group 2 patients with MT-MCI compared to Group 1 patients with AT-MCI. It should be noted that memory impairment occurred in all patients in Group 1. The clinical-neurological examination revealed that the subjective complaints of a cerebral nature occurred significantly more frequently in Group 2 patients compared with Group 1 patients, except for the memory disorders, which prevailed in Group 1 patients with AT-MCI. With regard to the objective symptoms, the focal neurological symptoms occurred with equal frequency in both groups. It should be noted that the symptoms of the carotid region were more frequent in Group 2 patients and the symptoms of the vertebrobasilar region in Group 1 patients. The parameters of the cognitive function related to the concentration and stability of attention were less disturbed in patients with AT-MCI compared with the patients having the MT-MCI, and those parameters correlated with the parameters of the neurological focal symptoms.

  20. Oxytocin motivates non-cooperation in intergroup conflict to protect vulnerable in-group members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten K W De Dreu

    Full Text Available Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual's motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in reproduction and social bonding. An intergroup conflict game was developed to disentangle whether oxytocin motivates competitive approach to protect (i immediate self-interest, (ii vulnerable in-group members, or (iii both. Males self-administered oxytocin or placebo (double-blind placebo-controlled and made decisions with financial consequences to themselves, their fellow in-group members, and a competing out-group. Game payoffs were manipulated between-subjects so that non-cooperation by the out-group had high vs. low impact on personal payoff (personal vulnerability, and high vs. low impact on payoff to fellow in-group members (in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was high, non-cooperation was unaffected by treatment and in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was low, however, in-group vulnerability motivated non-cooperation but only when males received oxytocin. Oxytocin fuels a defense-motivated competitive approach to protect vulnerable group members, even when personal fate is not at stake.

  1. Association of Age with Thyroid Hormone Status and Ischaemic Heart Disease (IHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ashraf-uz-zaman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is associated with increased prevalence of thyroid function abnormalities including hypothyroidism. A meta-analysis showed an increased prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular mortality only in a relatively younger population. Objective: To compare the thyroid function status in IHD patients of different age groups. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out on 31 IHD subjects aged 35-59 years (Group B1 and 19 IHD subjects aged 60-85 years (Group B2 in the Department of Physiology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from July 2009 to June 2010. For comparison 24 healthy subjects aged 35-59 years (Group A1 and 26 with age 60-85 years (Group A2 were studied. The IHD subjects were selected from coronary care unit of cardiology department and OPD of Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka. Serum FT3, FT4 and TSH of all subjects were measured by radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired Student’s ‘t’ test. Results: The mean ± SD of FT3 and FT4 were significantly lower and TSH was significantly higher in Group B1 IHD patients than that of Group A1 healthy subjects, but no difference was found between Group A2 and Group B2 and between Group B1 and Group B2. Conclusion: Thyroid hormone levels are significantly lower in younger IHD population (age 35-59 years than the age-matched normal controls.

  2. Assessment of nutritional status at the time of diagnosis in patients treated for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righini, C-A; Timi, N; Junet, P; Bertolo, A; Reyt, E; Atallah, I

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the nutritional status at the time of diagnosis of patients treated for head and neck cancer. Single-centre prospective study. Nutritional assessment comprised: clinical interview, physical examination, and a laboratory work-up. Clinical interview assessed: reference weight, diet, calorie intake, causes of weight loss, use of dietary supplements. A subjective global assessment of nutritional status (Detsky index) was established on the basis of clinical interview. The patient's height and weight were determined and serum albumin was assayed. Weight loss, body mass index, and Buzby index were then calculated. Two groups of malnourished patients were distinguished: moderately malnourished (group 1), severely malnourished (group 2). Variables were compared between the two groups by Chi(2) test. One hundred and sixty-nine patients were included in the study: 145 had a history of smoking and alcohol abuse, 82 (48.5%) were malnourished and 47 of them were classified in group 1. All patients of group 1 had a normal or pureed diet. 21 (69%) patients of group 2 had a pureed or liquid diet. The mean daily calorie intake was 31kcal/kg/24h for group 1 and 20kcal/kg/24h for group 2. The main causes of weight loss were pain and dysphagia. Dietary supplements were not used by any of the patients in group 1 and by four (13%) patients in group 2. The concordance between the Detsky index and objective nutritional status was 92% for the overall population. Malnutrition was significantly more frequent among males (P=0.01), alcohol users (P=0.02), elderly subjects (P=0.01), patients with pharyngeal tumour (P=0.03), and patients with advanced tumour stage (P=0.01). The prevalence of malnutrition among patients with head and neck cancer is high. Assessment of nutritional status and appropriate management must be part of the initial work-up of these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between neonatal developmental status and post-natal nutritional status in Hungarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Kalman; Molnar, Denes; Gyenis, Gyula; Zsakai, Annamaria

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal development may have an influence on post-natal nutritional status. Age at adiposity rebound is critical for later development of nutritional status. The objective was to analyse the relationship between neonatal development and post-natal changes in nutritional status. Subjects were studied in a longitudinal national survey (1980-2001) from birth (n = 6219) to 18.0 years (n = 1448). Subjects were divided into small (SGA), appropriate (AGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) sub-groups. Nutritional status was assessed by BMI. The Reed-Asefa model was fitted to the subject's serial data of BMI. The body parameters of the neonatal developmental sub-groups differed significantly in all studied neonatal body dimensions: the higher the intra-uterine growth rate (the slowest growth rate was assumed in the SGA, the fastest in the LGA children), the heavier the body weight, the longer the length and the bigger the BMI values found. The nutritional status of the neonatal developmental sub-groups differed significantly during the studied post-natal interval: the higher the pre-natal growth rate, the better nutritional status (the larger BMI) was found after birth. Neonatal development influenced strongly the post-natal nutritional status of children. The results indicate that not only age at adiposity rebound but also neonatal developmental status can be used as an indicator of later obesity.

  4. Similarities and Differences in Group and Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Max

    1988-01-01

    Examines contextual and process similarities and differences in group and family therapy, with emphasis on Yalom's group therapy and structural, strategic, and symbolic-experiential family therapy. (Author)

  5. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  6. When do low status individuals accept less? The interaction between self- and other-status during resource distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Richard Blue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In real-world social interactions, social status influences responses to resource distribution. However, the way in which one’s own social status interacts with another’s status to influence responses to resource distribution is far from clear. In the current study, we dynamically manipulated participants’ social status and then asked participants to act as recipients in the ultimatum game (UG along with proposers whose social status was made known to the participants. Experiment 1 used a between-participants design in which the participants were assigned as being of either high or low status according to their performance in a math competition (i.e., rank-inducing task. In Experiment 2, social status was manipulated within-subjects using the same rank-inducing task, with rounds of UG interleaved between rank-inducing sessions. Findings from the two experiments showed that both self-status and other-status influenced responses to UG offers, as participants were more likely to accept low offers from high status than low status proposers; this effect was particularly robust for low status participants when compared with high status participants. These findings suggest that, in comparison with individuals in high status, individuals in low status are more willing to accept low offers during resource distribution and are more affected by other-status considerations.

  7. Subjective oral health in Dutch adults

    OpenAIRE

    Verrips, G.H.W.; Schuller, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the subjective oral health (SOH) of the Dutch adult population was associated with clinical and demographic variables. Methods: A clinical examination was conducted in a sample of 1,018 people from the Dutch city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. SOH was measured using the Dutch translation of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL14). Results: The average score on the OHIP-NL14 was 2.8 ± 5.9 and 51% of the respondents had a score of 0. Dental status was the mo...

  8. The herding hormone: Oxytocin stimulates in-group conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stallen, M.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Shalvi, S.; Smidts, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    People often conform to others with whom they associate. Surprisingly, however, little is known about the possible hormonal mechanisms that may underlie in-group conformity. Here, we examined whether conformity toward one’s in-group is altered by oxytocin, a neuropeptide often implicated in social

  9. The herding hormone: Oxytocin stimulates in-group conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stallen, M.; Dreu, C.K.W. de; Shalvi, S.; Smidts, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    People often conform to others with whom they associate. Surprisingly, however, little is known about the possible hormonal mechanisms that may underlie in-group conformity. Here, we examined whether conformity toward one's in-group is altered by oxytocin, a neuropeptide often implicated in social

  10. Overestimating HIV infection: The construction and accuracy of subjective probabilities of HIV infection in rural Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Anglewicz, Philip; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2009-01-01

    In the absence of HIV testing, how do rural Malawians assess their HIV status? In this paper, we use a unique dataset that includes respondents' HIV status as well as their subjective likelihood of HIV infection. These data show that many rural Malawians overestimate their likelihood of current HIV infection. The discrepancy between actual and perceived status raises an important question: Why are so many wrong? We begin by identifying determinants of self-assessed HIV status, and then compar...

  11. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.

  12. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  13. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  14. ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN DIABETIC NEUROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giriraja Vrushabaiah Kanakapura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy are the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. Neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy are microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. Antioxidant status is reduced in DM-induced retinopathy and nephropathy. Present study is undertaken to evaluate the degree of oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy patients. The aim of the study is to study on oxidative stress as measured by lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde and antienzyme status in type II DM patients with neuropathy and compared them with a controlled nondiabetic group. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study included 100 subjects from Sapthagiri Medical College, Bangalore, from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2015, of age group 50 to 70 yrs. out of which 50 patients were non-insulin-dependent DM with neuropathy and rest 50 age and sex matched apparently healthy individuals (control group. Antioxidant status was assessed by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, Catalase and Reduced Glutathione (GSH. RESULTS It showed a significant increase p<0.001 in FBS, PPBS, TC, TG, LDL, VLDL, CAT, MDA, while HDL, GSH, GPX, GR and SOD were found to be decreased significantly (p 0.001. CONCLUSION MDA was significantly elevated in diabetic group, whereas antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and reduced glutathione were significantly decreased, which might be helpful in risk assessment of various complications of DM. The data suggests that alteration in antioxidant status and MDA may help to predict the risk of diabetic neuropathy.

  15. ''We are, therefore we should'' : evidence that in-group identification mediates the acquisition of in-group norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livingstone, Andrew G.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Postmes, Tom; Jetten, Jolanda

    In 2 field studies (Ns = 71 and 113), we tested the prediction that in-group identification would mediate the acquisition of group norms by new group members. Study 1 demonstrated that participants surveyed after a team-development program reported greater awareness of in-group norms of teamwork and

  16. Occlusal status among Yemeni children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M Al-Zubair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the occlusal status in schoolchildren in Yemen, and to compare the results with those of other studies. Materials and Methods: The sample for this epidemiological survey consisted of 3003 primary school students, half of whom were boys and the other half girls, aged 12 years. The subjects were randomly selected, and none had received previous orthodontic treatment. Variables examined included intra-arch irregularities and malalignment (crowding and spacing in the incisal segments of the arch and midline diastema and discrepancies in occlusal contact relationship (maxillary overjet, mandibular overjet, anterior openbite and antero-posterior molar relation. Results: The results showed that about 26.1% of the subjects were still in the late mixed dentition stage and 73.9% presented with a dentition in the early permanent stage. Normal overjet was found in 55% of the sample. Crowding was observed in 31.4% of the subjects and midline diastema in 14.2%. Conclusion: Occlusal status among Yemeni children was characterized by a relatively high frequency of dental crowding, as well as a relatively high frequency of anterior mandibular overjet (Class III malocclusions.

  17. Current status of fast reactor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of calculation of reactivity coefficients for fast reactors is developed, starting with a discussion of the status of relevant nuclear data and proceeding to the subjects of group cross section generation and of methods of obtaining reactivity coefficients from group cross sections. Reactivity coefficients measured in critical experiments are compared with calculated values. Dependence of reactivity coefficients on reactor design is discussed. Finally, results of the recent international comparison of calculated reactivity coefficients are presented.

  18. Peer influence: neural mechanisms underlying in-group conformity

    OpenAIRE

    Stallen, Mirre; Smidts, Ale; Sanfey, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    People often conform to the behavior of others with whom they identify. However, it is unclear what fundamental mechanisms underlie this type of conformity. Here, we investigate the processes mediating in-group conformity by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants completed a perceptual decision-making task while undergoing fMRI, during which they were exposed to the judgments of both in-group and out-group members. Our data suggest that conformity to the in-group is ...

  19. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject-oriented anaphors 27 and it holds little explanatory value. At best, EPP ensures that the highest argument will move to subject position. The final property I will discuss here is the fact that, in some languages (e.g. Icelandic and. Dutch), there is a subset of ...

  20. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  1. Decoupling social status and status certainty effects on health in macaques: a network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Vandeleest

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions. In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status, allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects. Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also

  2. USCIS My Case Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — USCIS provide a way for the public who applied for U.S. citizenship to check the status of their application online. To view the status of a case, the application...

  3. Low socioeconomic status of the opposite sex is a risk factor for middle aged mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Kopp, M.; Skrabski, A; Kawachi, I; Adler, N.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relations between subjective social status, and objective socioeconomic status (as measured by income and education) in relation to male/female middle aged mortality rates across 150 sub-regions in Hungary.

  4. Oral Health Status among 12‑ and 15‑Year‑Old Children from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic background. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess and to compare the oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience between children from government and private schools in Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and ...

  5. Peer influence: Neural mechanisms underlying in-group conformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirre eStallen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available People often conform to the behavior of others with whom they identify. However, it is unclear what fundamental mechanisms underlie this type of conformity. Here, we investigate the processes mediating in-group conformity by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Participants completed a perceptual decision-making task while undergoing fMRI, during which they were exposed to the judgments of both in-group and out-group members. Our data suggest that conformity to the in-group is mediated by both positive affect as well as the cognitive capacity of perspective taking. Examining the processes that drive in-group conformity by utilizing a basic decision-making paradigm combined with neuroimaging methods provides important insights into the potential mechanisms of conformity. These results may provide an integral step in developing more effective campaigns using group conformity as a tool for behavioral change.

  6. Peer influence: neural mechanisms underlying in-group conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallen, Mirre; Smidts, Ale; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-01-01

    People often conform to the behavior of others with whom they identify. However, it is unclear what fundamental mechanisms underlie this type of conformity. Here, we investigate the processes mediating in-group conformity by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants completed a perceptual decision-making task while undergoing fMRI, during which they were exposed to the judgments of both in-group and out-group members. Our data suggest that conformity to the in-group is mediated by both positive affect as well as the cognitive capacity of perspective taking. Examining the processes that drive in-group conformity by utilizing a basic decision-making paradigm combined with neuroimaging methods provides important insights into the potential mechanisms of conformity. These results may provide an integral step in developing more effective campaigns using group conformity as a tool for behavioral change.

  7. Peer influence: Neural mechanisms underlying in-group conformity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stallen, Mirre; Smidts, Ale; Sanfey, Alan

    2013-01-01

    .... However, it is unclear what fundamental mechanisms underlie this type of conformity. Here, we investigate the processes mediating in-group conformity by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI...

  8. Free radicals and antioxidant status in protein energy malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, M; Mohanty, C; Das, B K; Jyoti, A; Mukhopadhyay, B; Mishra, S P

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status in children with different grades of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM). Subjects/Methods. A total of two hundred fifty (250) children (age range: 6 months to 5 years) living in eastern UP, India, were recruited. One hundred and ninety-three (193) of these children had different grades of PEM (sixty-five (65) children belong to mild, sixty (60) to moderate, and sixty-eight (68) to severe group). Grading in group was done after standardization in weight and height measurements. Fifty-seven (57) children who are age and and sex matched, healthy, and well-nourished were recruited from the local community and used as controls after checking their protein status (clinical nutritional status) with height and weight standardization. Redox homeostasis was assessed using spectrophotometric/colorimetric methods. Results. In our study, erythrocyte glutathione (GSH), plasma Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD,EC 1.15.1.1), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and ascorbic acid were significantly (P < 0.001) more decreased in children with malnutrition than controls. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl (PC) were significantly (P < 0.001) raised in cases as compared to controls. Conclusion. Stress is created as a result of PEM which is responsible for the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROSs). These ROSs will lead to membrane oxidation and thus an increase in lipid peroxidation byproducts such as MDA and protein oxidation byproducts such as PC mainly. Decrease in level of antioxidants suggests an increased defense against oxidant damage. Changes in oxidant and antioxidant levels may be responsible for grading in PEM.

  9. Free Radicals and Antioxidant Status in Protein Energy Malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status in children with different grades of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM. Subjects/Methods. A total of two hundred fifty (250 children (age range: 6 months to 5 years living in eastern UP, India, were recruited. One hundred and ninety-three (193 of these children had different grades of PEM (sixty-five (65 children belong to mild, sixty (60 to moderate, and sixty-eight (68 to severe group. Grading in group was done after standardization in weight and height measurements. Fifty-seven (57 children who are age and and sex matched, healthy, and well-nourished were recruited from the local community and used as controls after checking their protein status (clinical nutritional status with height and weight standardization. Redox homeostasis was assessed using spectrophotometric/colorimetric methods. Results. In our study, erythrocyte glutathione (GSH, plasma Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD,EC 1.15.1.1, ceruloplasmin (Cp, and ascorbic acid were significantly (P<0.001 more decreased in children with malnutrition than controls. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA, and protein carbonyl (PC were significantly (P<0.001 raised in cases as compared to controls. Conclusion. Stress is created as a result of PEM which is responsible for the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROSs. These ROSs will lead to membrane oxidation and thus an increase in lipid peroxidation byproducts such as MDA and protein oxidation byproducts such as PC mainly. Decrease in level of antioxidants suggests an increased defense against oxidant damage. Changes in oxidant and antioxidant levels may be responsible for grading in PEM.

  10. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  11. Reliability of scored patient generated subjective global assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Establish the reliability of the scored Patient Generated-Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) in determining nutritional status among Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) naive HIV-infected adults. Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional study among outpatient medical clinics, in The AIDS Support Organization ...

  12. What are the most effective methods for assessment of nutritional status in outpatients with gastric and colorectal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe Vicente, Mariana; Barão, Katia; Silva, Tiago Donizetti; Forones, Nora Manoukian

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate methods for the identification of nutrition risk and nutritional status in outpatients with colorectal (CRC) and gastric cancer (GC), and to compare the results to those obtained for patients already treated for these cancers. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 137 patients: group 1 (n = 75) consisting of patients with GC or CRC, and group 2 (n = 62) consisting of patients after treatment of GC or CRC under follow up, who were tumor free for a period longer than 3 months. Nutritional status was assessed in these patients using objective methods [body mass index (BMI), phase angle, serum albumin]; nutritional screening tools [Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST), Nutritional Risk Index (NRI)], and subjective assessment [Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PGSGA)]. The sensitivity and specificity of each method was calculated in relation to the PG-SGA used as gold standard. One hundred thirty seven patients participated in the study. Stage IV cancer patients were more common in group 1. There was no difference in BMI between groups (p = 0.67). Analysis of the association between methods of assessing nutritional status and PG-SGA showed that the nutritional screening tools provided more significant results (p methods in the two groups. PG-SGA detected the highest proportion of undernourished patients in group 1. The nutritional screening tools MUST, NRI and MST were more sensitive than the objective methods. Phase angle measurement was the most sensitive objective method in group 1. The nutritional screening tools showed the best association with PG-SGA and were also more sensitive than the objective methods. The results suggest the combination of MUST and PG-SGA for patients with cancer before and after treatment. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasma copper status in hypercholesterolemic patients | Oluwatosin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been inconsistent association between low copper (Cu) status and hypercholesterolemia (Hypercholesterolemia is a known risk factor in coronary heart disease). Most of these earlier studies have been predominantly in experimental models; very few reports have examined human subjects. We investigated the ...

  14. 75 FR 9247 - Multifamily Default Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Multifamily Default Status Report AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... Act. The Department is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. Mortgagees use this report..., Washington, DC 20503; fax: 202-395-5806. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Leroy McKinney Jr., Reports...

  15. Life Span Personality Stability in Sibling Statuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, B. G.

    Personality stability and change in sibling status in the one- and two-child-family are examined in this Study. Q-sort data were analyzed for the same 33 male and 34 female subjects during four periods of their lives-- early and late adolescence and early and middle adulthood. Results indicate that stability of personality was greatest during…

  16. Depression and subjective economy among elderly people in Asian communities: Japan, Taiwan, and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hissei; Chen, Wen-ling; Fukutomi, Eriko; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Wada, Taizo; Sakamoto, Ryota; Fujisawa, Michiko; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Kimura, Yumi; Chang, Chia-Ming; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the cross-cultural relationship between depressive state and subjective economic status, as well as subjective quality of life (QOL) and activities of daily living (ADL) among elderly people in communities in Japan, Taiwan, and Korea. We studied 595 subjects aged 65 years or older in three Asian communities (261 subjects in T town in Japan, 164 in D town in Taiwan, and 170 in H town in Korea). The Geriatric Depression Scale-15, a self-rating questionnaire assessing ADL, subjective QOL, social situations, and past and current medical status, was used. Depression of the elderly was associated with dependence in basic ADL, subjective QOL, and subjective sense of low economic status. After adjusting for the effects of age, sex, and basic ADL, subjective sense of low economic status was closely associated with depression in community-living elderly people in all three communities in Asia. In conclusion, absolute and objective economic status is an important contributing factor to depressive state or psychosocial deterioration, however, we should pay more attention to the roles of perception of low economic status in determining depressive state in community-dwelling elderly people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Heuristic status polling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Kumar, Sameer [White Plains, NY; Parker, Jeffrey J [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN

    2011-06-07

    Methods, compute nodes, and computer program products are provided for heuristic status polling of a component in a computing system. Embodiments include receiving, by a polling module from a requesting application, a status request requesting status of a component; determining, by the polling module, whether an activity history for the component satisfies heuristic polling criteria; polling, by the polling module, the component for status if the activity history for the component satisfies the heuristic polling criteria; and not polling, by the polling module, the component for status if the activity history for the component does not satisfy the heuristic criteria.

  18. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory profile of patients with subjective tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Nuray; Oğuztürk, Omer; Koç, Can

    2002-10-01

    Subjective tinnitus is frequently seen in the general population. We investigated the personality traits in tinnitus and nontinnitus groups, both of which were nonpsychiatric. In this study, we evaluated 28 patients with subjective tinnitus and 28 subjects for a control group. In the analysis of psychiatric status, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) profiles were used. Psychasthenia was found to be higher in tinnitus patients of both sexes, whereas Hypochondriasis, Hysteria, Masculinity/Feminity, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, and Social Introversion scores were higher in females with tinnitus. In our research, it is thought that the experience of tinnitus may cause the psychological disturbance.

  19. Employment status, medical support and Income as significant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Two factors: 'employment status and perceived unreasonable burden' were significant predictors of affordability .... A questionnaire was utilized in investigating subjects' economic capacity, income, cost of healthcare ... Using the WHO standard affordability measurement framework, affordability was operationalized ...

  20. Nrf2 and Redox Status in Prediabetic and Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica S. Jiménez-Osorio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The redox status associated with nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2 was evaluated in prediabetic and diabetic subjects. Total antioxidant status (TAS in plasma and erythrocytes, glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA content and activity of antioxidant enzymes were measured as redox status markers in 259 controls, 111 prediabetics and 186 diabetic type 2 subjects. Nrf2 was measured in nuclear extract fractions from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Nrf2 levels were lower in prediabetic and diabetic patients. TAS, GSH and activity of glutamate cysteine ligase were lower in diabetic subjects. An increase of MDA and superoxide dismutase activity was found in diabetic subjects. These results suggest that low levels of Nrf2 are involved in the development of oxidative stress and redox status disbalance in diabetic patients.

  1. Nutritional and Health Status of Adolescents from Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional and Health Status of Adolescents from Selected Secondary Schools ... measurements were taken on each subject, to determine body mass index (BMI). ... percentage of underweight and a low risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD).

  2. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  3. SCIENTIFIC STATUS OF DIDACTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Osmolovskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at scientific justification of didactics referred to the social and humanitarian field of knowledge. The author deals with the scientific character criteria (verity, inter-subjectivity, systemacity and validity taking into account different scientific rationality types (classical and nonclassical and identifying post-modernism influence on didactics. Objectives and results of research. Attempts are made to systematize the didactic knowledge and identify its components and structure. Didactic concepts are classified in accordance with its objects: teaching process by the whole, its individual components or educative process aspects that enable to form definite teaching views, studying it from the specific positions. The author singles out holistic-didactic, component and aspect concepts; and specifies the concept of didactic systems and models with its hierarchy. The author highlights the didactic knowledge increment. Apart from traditional empirical theoretical researches, the author’s attention is drawn to the academic pursuit such as a scientific project based on the didactic object specificity of the teaching process which is fully human controlled and realized and doesn’texist without human being. It is shown that basic theoretical ideas of scientific projects are itemized, concretized and enlarged during co-current educative practice, i.e. an adhesion of theory and practice occurs.It is stressed that there are two special directions of didactic development multidimensionality: 1. extension of its semantic field in the context of modern socio-cultural conditions; 2. increase of scientific status related to a conceptual framework improvement, empirically accumulated information arrangement, new hypotheses, theories and concepts’ development. Scientific novelty. The research findings demonstrate well-reasoned statement of the didactics’ scientific status, its particular components and structure

  4. SCIENTIFIC STATUS OF DIDACTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Osmolovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at scientific justification of didactics referred to the social and humanitarian field of knowledge. The author deals with the scientific character criteria (verity, inter-subjectivity, systemacity and validity taking into account different scientific rationality types (classical and nonclassical and identifying post-modernism influence on didactics. Objectives and results of research. Attempts are made to systematize the didactic knowledge and identify its components and structure. Didactic concepts are classified in accordance with its objects: teaching process by the whole, its individual components or educative process aspects that enable to form definite teaching views, studying it from the specific positions. The author singles out holistic-didactic, component and aspect concepts; and specifies the concept of didactic systems and models with its hierarchy. The author highlights the didactic knowledge increment. Apart from traditional empirical theoretical researches, the author’s attention is drawn to the academic pursuit such as a scientific project based on the didactic object specificity of the teaching process which is fully human controlled and realized and doesn’texist without human being. It is shown that basic theoretical ideas of scientific projects are itemized, concretized and enlarged during co-current educative practice, i.e. an adhesion of theory and practice occurs.It is stressed that there are two special directions of didactic development multidimensionality: 1. extension of its semantic field in the context of modern socio-cultural conditions; 2. increase of scientific status related to a conceptual framework improvement, empirically accumulated information arrangement, new hypotheses, theories and concepts’ development. Scientific novelty. The research findings demonstrate well-reasoned statement of the didactics’ scientific status, its particular components and structure

  5. HUBUNGAN ANTARA ANEMI DAN STATUS BESI DENGAN STATUS IMUNITAS PADA ANAK YANG MENDAPAT VAKSINASI CAMPAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Suwarti Suwardi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANEMIA AND IRON STATUS WITH IMMUNE STATUS OF CHILDREN VACCINATED WITH MEASLES VACCINE.Background: Anemia, especially caused by iron deficiency, is one of several health problems in Indonesian children below 5 years of age. That condition seems appear in young children whose food is lack of iron. When those children are going to be vaccinated, how will the result be?.Objective: We sought to determine the relationship between anemia and iron with immune status of children who have got measles vaccine.Method: The study was conducted in village of Bantarjaya district of Bogor, from June 1997 to February 1998 in 86 children above 9 months old who received measles vaccines in local Post Integrated Service (Posyandu. Before intervention, data on physical examination, weight, height, hemoglobin, hematocrit serum ferritin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP and measle immunoglobin G were obtained from all Subjects. Information on morbidity, socioeconomic, environment and food consumption also were recorded. After intervention or six mouths later, the same data were collected again.Results: Subjects were divided into two group; (1 anemic group (Hb<11 g/dl consisting of 46 subjects (53,5% and (2 non anemic group (Hb>11 g/dl with 40 subjects (45,5%. The study revealed that 27,9% subjects have iron deficiency and 43,0% suffered from iron deficiency anemia. Six months after vaccination, the level of measles IgG was increased in 87,4% subjects. The measle IgG level of the non anemic group was increased significantly, but was not significant for the anemic group.Conclusions: There were no relationship between iron status and immune status but however anemic condition influenced the level of measles IgG.Key Words: iron status, anemia, immunoglobulin G.

  6. Thyroid function and bone mineral density among Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Thyroid hormones affect bone remodeling in patients with thyroid disease by acting directly or indirectly on bone cells. In view of limited information on correlation of thyroid function with bone mineral density (BMD in euthyroid subjects, we undertook this study to evaluate the correlation between thyroid function with BMD in subjects with normal thyroid function and subclinical hypothyroidism. Material and Methods : A total of 1290 subjects included in this cross sectional study, were divided in Group-1 with normal thyroid function and Group-2 with subclinical hypothyroidism. Fasting blood samples were drawn for the estimation of serum 25(OHD, intact parathyroid hormone, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. BMD at lumbar spine, femur, and forearm was measured. Results : BMD at all sites (radius, femur, and spine were comparable in both groups. There was no difference in BMD when subjects were divided in tertiles of TSH in either group. In group-1, FT4 and TSH were positively associated with BMD at 33% radius whereas FT3 was negatively associated with BMD at femoral neck in multiple regression analysis after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, 25(OHD and PTH levels. In group-2, there was no association observed between TSH and BMD at any site. Amongst all study subjects FT4 and FT3 were positively correlated with BMD at lumbar spine and radius respectively among all subjects. Conclusion: TSH does not affect BMD in euthyroid subjects and subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormones appear to have more pronounced positive effect on cortical than trabecular bone in euthyroid subjects.

  7. Predicting Participation in Group Parenting Education in an Australian Sample: The Role of Attitudes, Norms, and Control Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M.; Wellington, Larne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence…

  8. [Do androids need a legal status?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioy, Xavier

    2013-12-01

    The existence of the subject of law is not an automatic allocation when the will and the autonomy are awarded, but a tool conferred by the legal system in order to protect the humanity (based on the presupposition of a consciousness that the human being remains to be the only one to have and to suppose at the others). He cannot involve thus of reducing the question of the status of the android to the simple recognition of an intelligence, besides artificial, but of denying the reasoning by analogy any real impact for the existence of a legal status. If specific status there would be, it will be only because the human being will have decided on it for his own legally protected interest. The status of the android will be metonymical, by inclusion in that of the human person, or will not be.

  9. Self evaluated oral status impact on quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Andrade Botelho Mesquira; Sônia Vieira

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To associate people’s perception of the impact of oral health and disease status on the quality of life, with the following variables: Age bracket, socioeconomic conditions, educational level, dentition status, use of dental services, and oral hygiene habits.Methods: A subjective indicator (OHIP-14) was used to evaluate people’s perception of the impact of the self-evaluated oral health status on the quality of their own lives. A survey was made of demographic data, dentition statu...

  10. Roles of participation and feedback in group potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero, Nuria; Peiró, José M; Zornoza, Ana; Picazo, Carmen

    2009-08-01

    The roles of group participation and group performance feedback were examined as antecedents of group potency, i.e., beliefs shared among a work group's members about the general effectiveness of the work group. Also examined were how group participation and the congruence of the feedback received from different sources about performance predicted convergence in members' beliefs about group effectiveness. The sample comprised 61 work groups of professionals involved in Master in Business Administration (MBA) programs (284 participants). Mean group size was 4.6 members (SD = .58). 65% of participants were male, and 51% were between 30 and 40 years of age. Data were gathered at two measurement times. Increases in group participation were positively related to increases in group potency and the convergence in beliefs about group effectiveness among group members over time. Results supported the premise that group performance feedback is an antecedent of changes in group potency over time.

  11. Malaria infection and socioeconomic status of some residents of Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The study investigated the prevalence of malaria and socioeconomic status of subjects in part of Port Harcourt ... Keywords: Malaria infection, prevalence, Parasite intensity, Socio-economic status,. Malaria is one of the most severe ..... of effective vaccine for malaria prevention and development of unacceptable ...

  12. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Alien status and eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alien status and eligibility. 1626.5 Section 1626... RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.5 Alien status and eligibility. Subject to all other... may provide legal assistance to an alien who is present in the United States and who is within one of...

  13. Correlation of sense of coherence with oral health behaviors, socioeconomic status, and periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommuri Sahithi Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The sense of coherence (SOC has been suggested to be highly applicable concept in the public health area because a strong SOC is stated to decrease the likelihood of perceiving the social environment as stressful. This reduces the susceptibility to the health-damaging effect of chronic stress by lowering the likelihood of repeated negative emotions to stress perception. Materials and Methods: The demographic data and general information of subjects' oral health behaviors such as frequency of cleaning teeth, aids used to clean teeth, and dental attendance were recorded in the self-administered questionnaire. The SOC-related data were obtained using the short version of Antonovsky's SOC scale. The periodontal status was recorded based on the modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. Results: The total of 780 respondents comprising 269 (34.5% males and 511 (65.5% females participated in the study. A significant difference was noted among the subjects for socioeconomic status based on gender (P = 0.000. The healthy periodontal status (community periodontal index [CPI] code 0 was observed for 67 (24.9% males and 118 (23.1% females. The overall SOC showed statistically negative correlation with socioeconomic status scale (r = −0.287. The CPI and loss of attachment (periodontal status were significantly and negatively correlated with SOC. Conclusion: The present study concluded that a high level of SOC was associated with good oral health behaviors, periodontal status, and socioeconomic status.

  14. Subjective memory complaints and personality traits in normal elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, T; Reinikainen, K J; Helkala, E L; Koivisto, K; Mykkänen, L; Laakso, M; Pyörälä, K; Riekkinen, P J

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between objectively measured memory functions and subjective complaints of memory disturbance and whether subjective complaints are affected by some personality traits or affective states. Cross-sectional two-group comparison. The city of Kuopio in Eastern Finland, considered representative of the urban elderly population of Finland. Originally 403 subjects aged 67-78 years from the random sample and then two matched study groups initially including eighteen subjects but only ten in the final analysis. Screening and follow-up examinations of subjects with and without subjective memory complaints: (1) Memory functions: Benton's visual retention test and the paired-associated learning subtest of Wechsler Memory Scale. (2) Memory complaints: Memory Complaint Questionnaire. (3) Personality traits and affective state: Two subscales from Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale. Complaints of memory loss did not correlate with the actual memory performance in the tests. However, those subjects who most emphatically complained of memory disturbance had greater tendencies toward somatic complaining, higher feelings of anxiety about their physical health, and more negative feelings of their own competence and capabilities than those who did not complain of memory deterioration associated with aging. The study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment are more closely associated with personality traits than with actual memory performance in normal elderly people.

  15. Subjectivity and professional vocational counselling

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Marina

    2004-01-01

    In this work, I shall deal with the psychodynamic approach to subjectivity in P.V.C. To this effect, I want to develop the concept of subject and subjectivity, its variation and historical-social construction and its approach in counselling, from a psychodynamic conceptual framework in P.V.C. with a short reference to the theoretical sources on which this approach is founded. Departamento de Psicología

  16. Development of a tool to measure therapeutic factors in group process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings-Vertino, K; Getty, C; Wooldridge, P

    1996-08-01

    A tool, the Therapeutic Group Interaction Factors Scale (TGIF), was developed for systematically and objectively measuring the extent to which therapeutic factors defined by Yalom are present or absent in group process. Preliminary findings suggest that the TGIF is relatively easy to learn and use by coders who are familiar with Yalom's work. Once this tool has been further developed and tested, it will permit nurses and other therapists who lead/facilitate therapeutic groups to study the relationship between Yalom's factors and therapeutic outcomes objectively, rather than by asking patients to evaluate the contribution of each factor subjectively.

  17. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  18. HUBUNGAN KUALITAS PELAYANAN, STATUS EKONOMI, STATUS PENDIDIKAN TERHADAP LOYALITAS PELANGGAN KARTU SIMPATI Dl SURAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lailiyani Khoirannisa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationship between service quality, economic status, educational status of Simpati card customers loyalty in Surakarta. The subjects of in this research are the Simpati card customers in Surakarta. Data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using Multiple Linear Regression. The result of t test statistic tcount  was 6088, P.value (Sig. 0000 and the regression coefficient 0663. It means that there is an influence of quality of service (X on customer loyalty. Test results obtained by t test statistic tcount was 0228; P.value (Sig. 0820 and the regression coefficient 0560. It means that there is no influence of socioeconomic status (X on customer loyalty. Test results obtained by t test statistic tcount equals to -1820; P.value (Sig. 0071, and the regression coefficients is -0759. This indicates that there is no effect of educational Status (X₃ on custumer loyalty. The results of the regression test known value of fcount  equal to 14.118 with a significance value 0.000. This indicates an increase in the quality of service simultaneously together social status and educational status will increase customer loyalty. Results of test regression relations service quality, economic status, status education against customer loyalty card Simpati is as follow: there is a relation between service quality; there is no correlation between economic status and loyalty; there is no correlation between educational status and customer loyalty; and simultaneously, service quality, economic status, and educational status have influence on loyalty of Simpati card customers in Surakarta.

  19. CALIPSO Mission Status Update: Payload Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhappen, Ron; Borchardt, Robert; MacDonnell, David; Cisewski, Mike

    2007-01-01

    The CALIPSO mission payload status update is presented. The contents include: 1) Wide Field Camera Overview; 2) WFC Temperatures; 3) WFC Voltages; 4) Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) Health; 5) IIR Voltages; 6) Payload Control (PLC) Voltages; 7) PLC Temperatures; 8) Low Voltage Power Supply (LVPS) (CALOPS0025N); 9) PLC Radiation Effects; 10) SDS Status (CALOPS0020N); 11) CALIOP LIDAR; 12) Laser Energy Trends; 13) Laser Energy Zoom; 14) Laser Management Approach; 15) Green / Red Ratio; 16) Pedestal @ SHG Temperature Trends; 17) LOM Heater Duty Cycle Trends; 18) LOM Pressure Trends; 19) Boresight Trend; 20) 1064 Dark Noise Trend; 21) 532 SNR Trend; 22) Spike Trends; 23) LIDAR Highlights; 24) Backup Laser Status; and 25) Future Plans.

  20. Treatment Compliance in Group Therapy: Issues and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt Hollenbaugh, Karen Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In this manuscript, research on treatment compliance and dropout in group therapy is reviewed. A number of variables found to be related to the compliance and dropout are identified including client characteristics, treatment characteristics, and therapist perceptions and behavior. Implications of these results for increasing treatment compliance…

  1. Explaining Cooperation in Groups: Testing Models of Reciprocity and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biele, Guido; Rieskamp, Jorg; Czienskowski, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    What are the cognitive processes underlying cooperation in groups? This question is addressed by examining how well a reciprocity model, two learning models, and social value orientation can predict cooperation in two iterated n-person social dilemmas with continuous contributions. In the first of these dilemmas, the public goods game,…

  2. Motivated information processing in group judgement and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Nijstad, B.A.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2008-01-01

    This article expands the view of groups as information processors into a motivated information processing in groups (MIP-G) model by emphasizing, first, the mixedmotive structure of many group tasks and, second, the idea that individuals engage in more or less deliberate information search and

  3. Motivated information processing in group judgment and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; van Knippenberg, Daan

    This article expands the view of groups as information processors into a motivated information processing in groups (MIP-G) model by emphasizing, first, the mixed-motive structure of many group tasks and, second, the idea that individuals engage in more or less deliberate information search and

  4. A standard for test reliability in group research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Many authors adhere to the rule that test reliabilities should be at least .70 or .80 in group research. This article introduces a new standard according to which reliabilities can be evaluated. This standard is based on the costs or time of the experiment and of administering the test. For example,

  5. Integrating Social Justice in Group Work: The Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Arredondo, Patricia; Gladding, Samuel T.; Toporek, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    Group work can be an effective outlet for facilitating client empowerment at individual and systemic levels. This article outlines strategies for increasing attention to social justice issues in group work over the next decade within education, training, supervision, practice, and research. Drawing from historical perspectives, current literature,…

  6. Peer influence: neural mechanisms underlying in-group conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stallen, M.; Smidts, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    People often conform to the behavior of others with whom they identify. However, it is unclear what fundamental mechanisms underlie this type of conformity. Here, we investigate the processes mediating in-group conformity by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants completed

  7. Peer influence: Neural mechanisms underlying in-group conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Stallen (Mirre); A. Smidts (Ale); A.G. Sanfey (Alan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPeople often conform to the behavior of others with whom they identify. However, it is unclear what fundamental mechanisms underlie this type of conformity. Here, we investigate the processes mediating in-group conformity by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

  8. Service Level Status

    CERN Multimedia

    Lopienski, S

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, IT departments provide, and people use, computing services of an increasingly heterogeneous nature. There is thus a growing need for a status display that groups these different services and reports status and availability in a uniform way. The Service Level Status (SLS) system addresses these needs by providing a web-based display that dynamically shows availability, basic information and statistics about various IT services, as well as the dependencies between them.

  9. SIS - Status Determination

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Status Determination dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information related to overfishing, overfished, and approaching overfished...

  10. Transcranial cerebral oximetry in random normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Mukesh; Stark, Jennifer; Dujovny, Manuel; Alp, M. Serdar; Widman, Ronald; Ausman, James I.

    1997-08-01

    Near infrared optical spectroscopy is becoming a useful method for monitoring regional cerebral oxygenation status. The method is simple, reliable and noninvasive and the information which it provides is clinically significant in managing a growing number of neurological ailments. Use of this technique has been described previously by numerous authors. In the present study, regional cerebral oxygen saturation was measured at rest in 94 subjects randomly elected from a diverse population of individuals. This sample consisted of 38 males and 65 females, with the age ranging from 18 - 70. There were 68 light-skinned individuals and 35 with darker skin comprising various ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Mean regional cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation was recorded as 67.14 plus or minus 8.84%. The association of the mean regional cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation in various group of individuals in relationship of their age, race, sex and skin color is examined.

  11. The disease-subject as a subject of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottow Andrea R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the distinction between living body and lived body, we describe the disease-subject as representing the impact of disease on the existential life-project of the subject. Traditionally, an individual's subjectivity experiences disorders of the body and describes ensuing pain, discomfort and unpleasantness. The idea of a disease-subject goes further, representing the lived body suffering existential disruption and the possible limitations that disease most probably will impose. In this limit situation, the disease-subject will have to elaborate a new life-story, a new character or way-of-being-in-the-world, it will become a different subject. Health care professionals need to realize that patients are not mere observers of their body, for they are immersed in a reassesment of values, relationships, priorities, perhaps even life-plans. Becoming acquainted with literature's capacity to create characters, modify narratives and depict life-stories in crisis, might sharpen physicians' hermeneutic acumen and make them more receptive to the quandaries of disease-subjects facing major medical and existential decisions in the wake of disruptive disease.

  12. The Object of the Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a theory of the subject, based on the work of Jacques Lacan, using the concepts of alienation, separation and liberation.......The article presents a theory of the subject, based on the work of Jacques Lacan, using the concepts of alienation, separation and liberation....

  13. Electromyographic and neuromuscular variables in unstable postpolio subjects, stable postpolio subjects, and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, A A; Agre, J C; Franke, T M

    1997-09-01

    To compare strength and endurance variables obtained in the quadriceps muscles of postpolio and control subjects over a 7-year interval with macro and single fiber electromyography (EMG) variables. A controlled inception cohort study. Neuromuscular research laboratory of a university hospital. A cohort of 23 postpolio and 14 control subjects. All postpolio subjects had a history, physical examination, and EMG consistent with previous poliomyelitis, and had greater than antigravity strength in the quadriceps muscle tested. Unstable postpolio subjects acknowledged new quadriceps weakness over the 7-year period of the study (n = 11), and stable postpolio subjects denied new weakness of the quadriceps over the same period (n = 12). All subjects had tests of neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscles at the onset of this study and yearly over a 7-year period. EMG variables were determined on a separate day after the seventh year of neuromuscular measurements. Neuromuscular variables measured were isometric knee extension peak torque, isometric endurance (time to inability to maintain knee extensor contraction at 40% of maximal torque), tension time index (TTI) (product of isometric endurance time and 40% of maximal torque), and recovery of torque at 10 minutes after the endurance test. EMG variables were macro EMG and single fiber EMG (jitter, fiber density, and percent blocking). Unstable postpolio subjects did not lose strength more rapidly than stable postpolio subjects or control subjects. Unstable postpolio subjects were significantly weaker, had decreased TTI, larger macro EMG amplitude, greater jitter, blocking, and fiber density in comparison with stable postpolio subjects (all p postpolio group (p .05) with neuromuscular or EMG variables in control, stable, or unstable postpolio subjects.

  14. Skeletal pattern in subjects with temporomandibular joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almăşan, Oana Cristina; Băciuţ, Mihaela; Almăşan, Horea Artimoniu; Bran, Simion; Lascu, Liana; Iancu, Mihaela; Băciuţ, Grigore

    2013-02-21

    To establish the skeletal pattern in subjects with malocclusions and temporomandibular disorders (TMD); to assess the relationship between craniofacial skeletal structures and TMD in subjects with malocclusions. Sixty-four subjects with malocclusions, over 18 years of age, were included in the study. Temporomandibular disorders were clinically assessed according to the Helkimo Anamnestic Index. Subjects underwent a lateral cephalogram. Subjects were grouped according to the sagittal skeletal pattern (ANB angle) into class I, II and III. Parametric Student tests with equal or unequal variations were used (variations were previously tested with Levene test). Twenty-four patients with TMD (experimental sample); 40 patients without TMD (control group); interincisal angle was higher in class I and II (p < 0.05) experimental subjects; overjet was larger in experimental subjects; midline shift and Wits appraisal were broader in the experimental group in all three classes. In class III subjects, the SNB angle was higher in the experimental group (p = 0.01). Joint noises followed by reduced mandible mobility, muscular pain and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain were the most frequent symptoms in subjects with TMD and malocclusions. Temporomandibular joint status is an important factor to consider when planning orthodontic treatment in patients with severe malocclusions; midline shift, large overjet and deep overbite have been associated with signs and symptoms of TMD.

  15. Which social needs are important for subjective well-being? What happens to them with aging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steverink, N; Lindenberg, S

    In this study the authors investigated how satisfaction levels of affection, behavioral confirmation, and status, as three human social needs, relate to age, physical loss, and subjective well-being. Results (N = 883, aged 65 to 98 years) revealed that (a) affection was relatively high and status

  16. Morocco: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Morocco begins with an overview of the distribution and usage of Arabic, the official language, the Berber dialects, and French, an unofficial second language. The continuing high status and widespread use of French despite arabization efforts is discussed. A matrix follows that rates these languages and…

  17. Status of APEmille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoloni, A.; Boucaud, P.; Cabibbo, N.; Calvayrac, F.; Della Morte, M.; De Pietri, R.; De Riso, P.; Di Carlo, F.; Di Renzo, F.; Errico, W.; Frezzotti, R.; Giorgino, T.; Heitger, J.; Lonardo, A.; Loukianov, M.; Magazzu, G.; Micheli, J.; Morenas, V.; Paschedag, N.; Pene, O.; Petronzio, R.; Pleiter, D.; Rapuano, F.; Rolf, J.; Rossetti, D.; Sartori, L.; Simma, H.; Schifano, F.; Torelli, M.; Tripiccione, R.; Vicini, P.; Wegner, P

    2002-03-01

    This paper presents the status of the APEmille project, which is essentially completed, as far as machine development and construction is concerned. Several large installations of APEmille are in use for physics production runs leading to many new results presented at this conference. This paper briefly summarizes the APEmille architecture, reviews the status of the installations and presents some performance figures for physics codes.

  18. The Evolution of Lateralization in Group Hunting Sailfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Krause, Stefan; Viblanc, Paul E

    2017-01-01

     individual-level specialization, while still allowing for group-level unpredictability. We investigated this mechanism in group hunting sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus, attacking schooling sardines, Sardinella aurita. During these attacks, sailfish alternate in attacking the prey using their elongated bills to slash or tap......, predators might increase capture success because of specialization in a lateralized attack, but at the cost of increased predictability to their prey, constraining the evolution of lateralization. One unexplored mechanism for evading such costs is group hunting: this would allow...... the prey [22–24]. This rapid bill movement is either leftward or rightward. Using behavioral observations of identifiable individual sailfish hunting in groups, we provide evidence for individual-level attack lateralization in sailfish. More strongly lateralized individuals had a higher capture success...

  19. Research collaboration in groups and networks: differences across academic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyvik, Svein; Reymert, Ingvild

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a macro-picture of collaboration in research groups and networks across all academic fields in Norwegian research universities, and to examine the relative importance of membership in groups and networks for individual publication output. To our knowledge, this is a new approach, which may provide valuable information on collaborative patterns in a particular national system, but of clear relevance to other national university systems. At the system level, conducting research in groups and networks are equally important, but there are large differences between academic fields. The research group is clearly most important in the field of medicine and health, while undertaking research in an international network is most important in the natural sciences. Membership in a research group and active participation in international networks are likely to enhance publication productivity and the quality of research.

  20. Socio-Economic Status as Predictor of Deviant Behaviours among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated socio-economic status as predictor of deviant behaviours among Nigeria secondary school students. The subject were sixty five students with an age range of 10 – 19 years drawn from Senior secondary school (SSS) 1 – III in four secondary schools in Oyo State. The subjects were selected from those ...

  1. The status of music in contemporary Nigerian school programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the status of music in Nigeria's Secondary school system. Necessary data were collected, analyzed and discussed to bring out the true picture of how music stands when compared with other secondary school subjects. The findings showed that out of the forty different subjects offered in Nigerian ...

  2. Non-enzymatic antioxidants status of leprosy patients in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plasma levels of vitamin C, vitamin E and uric acid were determined in leprosy subjects from in Ossiomo leprosorium settlement in Edo state, Nigeria. In this study, antioxidant status were determined in a total of 86 subjects that comprised of 31 leprosy patients on multidrug therapy (MBT), 40 leprosy patients relieved ...

  3. Virtual race transformation reverses racial in-group bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice S Hasler

    Full Text Available People generally show greater preference for members of their own racial group compared to racial out-group members. This type of 'in-group bias' is evident in mimicry behaviors. We tend to automatically mimic the behaviors of in-group members, and this behavior is associated with interpersonal sensitivity and empathy. However, mimicry is reduced when interacting with out-group members. Although race is considered an unchangeable trait, it is possible using embodiment in immersive virtual reality to engender the illusion in people of having a body of a different race. Previous research has used this technique to show that after a short period of embodiment of White people in a Black virtual body their implicit racial bias against Black people diminishes. Here we show that this technique powerfully enhances mimicry. We carried out an experiment with 32 White (Caucasian female participants. Half were embodied in a White virtual body and the remainder in a Black virtual body. Each interacted in two different sessions with a White and a Black virtual character, in counterbalanced order. The results show that dyads with the same virtual body skin color expressed greater mimicry than those of different color. Importantly, this effect occurred depending on the virtual body's race, not participants' actual racial group. When embodied in a Black virtual body, White participants treat Black as their novel in-group and Whites become their novel out-group. This reversed in-group bias effect was obtained regardless of participants' level of implicit racial bias. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this surprising psychological phenomenon.

  4. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  5. International energy: Subject thesaurus supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This is a supplement to International Energy: Subject Thesaurus (ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.1)), which replaced DOE/TIC-7000--the EDB Subject Thesaurus. This supplement is provided periodically to keep International Energy: Subject Thesaurus recipients up-to-date on valid vocabulary terms (descriptors) used in building and maintaining several international energy information databases. Each issue contains all new terms added since the publication of the Thesaurus. Each supplement is a cumulative listing of the new terms, so that each issue replaces the previous one.

  6. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  7. Corneal Biomechanics Determination in Healthy Myopic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kunliang; Lu, Xuehui; Zhang, Riping; Wang, Geng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the corneal biomechanical properties by using the Ocular Response Analyzer™ and to investigate potential factors associated with the corneal biomechanics in healthy myopic subjects. Methods. 135 eyes from 135 healthy myopic subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Cornea hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) were determined with the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to investigate factors associated with corneal biomechanics. Results. The mean CH and CRF were 9.82 ± 1.34 mmHg and 9.64 ± 1.57 mmHg, respectively. In univariate regression analysis, CH was significantly correlated with axial length, refraction, central corneal thickness (CCT), and IOPg (r = −0.27, 0.23, 0.45, and 0.21, resp.; all with p ≤ 0.015), but not with corneal curvature or age; CRF was significantly correlated with CCT and IOPg (r = 0.52 and 0.70, resp.; all with p corneal curvature, or age. In multivariate regression analysis, axial length, IOPcc, and CCT were found to be independently associated with CH, while CCT and IOPg were associated with CRF. Conclusions. Both CH and CRF were positively correlated with CCT. Lower CH but not CRF was associated with increasing degree of myopia. Evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties should take CCT and myopic status into consideration. PMID:27525109

  8. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork in th...

  9. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork...

  10. The Subjective Experience of Punishment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adam J. Kolber

    2009-01-01

    ... laws pay little attention to such differences. I make two central claims: First, a successful justification of punishment must take account of offenders' subjective experiences when assessing punishment severity...

  11. The Romantic subject as an absolutely autonomous individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljana Cunta

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay deals with the Romantic subject as a philosophical and literary category. Recog­ nizing the diversity and complexity of literary production in the Romantic period, this study does not attempt to treat all the many aspects of this subject, but it instead focuses upan a few: the role of nature, the status of imagination, and the subject's relation to the transcendental reality. In its rela­ tion to these issues, the Romantic subject appears as an absolutely autonomous individual, one who finds no satisfaction in claims to transcendental certainty made by any source outside the self, but relies on his immanent powers to achieve the self-awareness that is the only sure access to truth. Special attention is given to the Romantic mystical experience, whereby the subject eames into relation with the transcendental reality. Here what are termed mystical feelings are contrasted with religious feelings proper so as to stress the peculiarities of the Romantic religious experience. In providing a theoretical framewok for the religious experience, we have recourse to Rudolf Otto's definition of the "numinous," which denotes the feeling response of the subject to the divine aspect of reality. In comparison with the true religious experience, the Romantic type is seen as pseudo­- religious, thus confirming the proposed definition of the Romantic subject as a truly autonomous individual. The essay's second part contains an interpretation of selected poems by Samuel Taylor Coleridge with a view of extrapolating from them some aspects of the Romantic subject.

  12. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  13. The subjective experience of solitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Long; Thomas A. More; James R. Averill

    2007-01-01

    Solitude is a frequently cited motive for visiting parks, forests, and wilderness areas. But while visitors frequently say they achieve their solitude goals, most visit in groups of two or more, suggesting a conception that differs from the classical ideal of being profoundly alone with the universe. Moreover, solitude often can be experienced negatively, surrounded by...

  14. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF MAINTENANCE HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenling Ye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate nutritional status and body composition in different ages of maintaining hemodialysis (HD patients. 129 patients (male 62, female 67 with the mean age 56.33±14.14 years on HD were divided into four groups with age under 40, 40-69, 60-69 and over 70 years. Body composition was evaluated with Multi-frequency bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA and 83 healthy subjects, matched for age and sex, were as the control. In all patients, about 6.2% were underweight with body mass index (BMI less than 18.5 Kg/m2. The incidence of underweight were 0%, 6.2%, 4.8% and 11.1% in groups under 40, 40-59, 60-69 and over 70 years respectively. Serum Creatinine, ALB, pre-ALB and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR were significantly decreased in patients over 70 years. The young patients under 40 years also displayed lower nPCR and CHO value compared with that of group 40-59 years. Body cell mass, lean tissue mass, lean tissue index and relative lean tissue mass in HD patients were significantly lower than that in age and sex matched control group. Meanwhile, fat mass, fat tissue index and relative fat were increase 20% than the control. They were less different between HD patients and controls in age of 40-59 years, however, difference significantly increased in other three groups and changes were most obvious in patients over 70 years. In conclusion, our study showed that nutritional status was significantly associated with the age in HD patients. Patients under 40 years and over 70 years old displayed much severer protein wasting and more fat tissue storage.

  15. Ribcage compressibility in living subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M; Hill, S; Scullin, J

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of normal living subjects to the application of anteroposterior forces to the ribcage. Seventeen subjects aged between 25 and 37 years were tested during slow oscillatory loading while breath-holding at the end of a normal expiration. The mean stiffness coefficient was found to be 9.4 N mm(-1) (SD 2.9) and the mean gradient of the force-strain relation was 1888 N (SD 646). Comparison with previously published cadaver data indicates that the embalmed cadaver ribcage stiffness is in the order of three times stiffer than living subjects, while fresh cadavers showed comparable stiffness to living subjects. A number of studies have used models to predict and understand the behaviour of the thoracic spine. Validation of the behaviour of models which include the thoracic spine and ribcage depends on comparison of model response predictions with observed responses of human subjects. The present study provides data on the anteroposterior compressibility of the ribcage of living subjects which may be suitable for use in model validation studies. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Preverbal subjects in null subject languages are not necessarily dislocated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Costa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent work on null subject languages it has been claimed that preverbal subjects are always (clitic-left dislocated. In this paper, we argue against this claim, on the grounds of empirical evidence from European Portuguese concerning agreement facts, asymmetries between preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs with respect to minimality effects, the existence of languages with a mixed system (null expletive subjects and full referential ones, language acquisition data, the behavior of negative QPs and interpretation facts, and propose a non-uniform analysis of preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs that derives their topic interpretation from a predication rule stated configurationally (section 2. Our account of the SVO and VSO orders displayed in European Portuguese relies on a specific formulation of the EPP parameter, on the locality constraint Attract Closest X and on the independently motivated claim that V-movement targets T in European Portuguese (section 3. Under our analysis, the computational system generates equally economical SVO and VSO derivations and discourse considerations, at the appropriate interface, rule out the unfelicitous ones.

  17. A research regarding the relationship among intensive care nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction and subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Huihui Liu; Xiaohong Zhang; Rui Chang; Weining Wang

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The paper aims to explore the status of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being and to investigate the relationship among the three elements. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 224 nurses from five teaching hospitals in Tianjin, China, was conducted. Self-esteem scale, job satisfaction scale, and subjective well-being scale were used to explore the status of ICU nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being....

  18. Enzymatic antioxidants status in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zichuan; Li, Shan; Fang, Huiqing

    2017-10-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has been thought to play a main role in the etiopathogenesis of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), which is one of the most common oral mucosal diseases characterized by recurrent and painful oral ulcers. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the enzymatic antioxidants status in patients with RAS in the active stage and remission stage. Ninety-seven patients with idiopathic minor RAS and 102 race-, age- and gender-matched healthy individuals were recruited. All these subjects were allocated to three groups: RAS patients with active lesion (group A); the same patients in group A in the remission stage of RAS (group B); and healthy individuals without RAS (group C). Following an overnight fast, blood samples were obtained. The serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) were measured by the spectrophotometric method. Independent-samples t-test and paired t-test were performed for statistical evaluation. The serum levels of SOD, GSHPx, and CAT (83.9 ± 17.1 U/ml, 6687.2 ± 2629.2 U/ml, 1789.7 ± 593.8 U/l) were found to be significantly lower in group A as compared to those of group B (99.8 ± 11.1 U/ml, 9364.1 ± 1607.9 U/ml, 2789.1 ± 1113.4 U/l; P 0.05). Our results indicate that enzymatic antioxidant defense system is impaired in RAS patients with active lesion and seems to play a crucial role in its pathogenesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Adolescent Weight Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort Kjelldgaard, Heidi; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    -aged Children study 2010. The study population (n = 4,922) included students in the fifth, seventh, and ninth grade from a representative sample of Danish schools. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to study the associations between weight status and social relations, supported by a conceptual...... framework for the study of social relations. RESULTS: Among girls, overweight/obese weight status was associated with spending less time with friends after school compared to normal-weight status (0 days/week: odds ratio: 6.25, 95% confidence interval: 2.18-17.95, 1 day/week: 2.81, 1.02-7.77, 2 days/week: 3...

  20. Present status of and subjects on the industrial utilization of polymer separation membranes. Reuse of wastewater and recovery of resources using membrane technology; Kobunshi bunrimaku no sangyo riyo no genjo to kadai. Haisui sairiyo shigen kaishu bun`ya ni okeru makuriyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Y. [Hitachi Plant Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-05

    Membrane technology is introduced, involving the recovery of metal from wastewater after plating and of paint from wastewater after electrodeposition painting, and reuse of wastewater from buildings as water for miscellaneous use and of treated sewage for improving recreational water environments. For wastewater from planting, a recovery tank is provided right after the metal plating bath. The content of the tank is removed of organic matters by active carbon and then subjected to electrodialysis, and becomes roughly equal in concentration to what is in the plating bath. In the process of electrodeposition painting, the object to be plated is immersed in a tank and then taken out for washing in water. Paint is recovered at a rate of 98% or higher from the wastewater by a combination of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. Wastewater from buildings after activated sludge treatment is subjected to microfiltration or ultrafiltration using membranes, to be reused for miscellaneous purposes for the building. As for treated sewage, it is further treated using a combination of microfiltration membranes, or ultrafiltration membranes, and reverse osmosis membranes for use in facilities such as artificial fountains and ponds. A recently developed bipolar membrane decomposes salts in wastewater into acids and alkalis and recover them separately, thereby enlarging the scope of wastewater from which valuables may be recovered. 11 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Diabetes, depression and employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, R; Nanjundappa, G

    1986-01-01

    The relationship among diabetes, depression and employment status was assessed. It was hypothesized that: unemployment would be associated with diabetes; and employability problems would be associated with higher depression levels among diabetic persons than among non-diabetic persons. A case-control design was employed in which the cases (n = 56) were currently active diabetic patients and the controls (n = 56) were non-diabetic patients. Subjects were selected from a computerized data base at a primary care clinic located in Orange County, California, U.S.A. Depression was measured by the CES-D scale. The results were as follows: diabetes was associated with both depression and unemployment; being employed was the most significant predictor of depressive symptomatology followed by being diabetic; and education, type of diabetes, blood sugar level, medication type were not significant predictors of depressive symptomatology in a stepwise multiple regression analysis. Problems of employment among diabetic persons may warrant special employment and counseling programs.

  2. Ethical issues in record keeping in group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauss, Linda K

    2006-10-01

    This article discusses numerous ethical issues regarding the keeping of records in group psychotherapy, those activities that have to do with the creating, retaining, storing, releasing, and disposing of them. A central dilemma for the group therapist is whether to keep records separately for each individual group member or to keep one record for the group as a whole. Confidentiality of records, patient access, and release of information tend to be more complex issues for group psychotherapists than for individual psychotherapists. Although notes written about the entire group may capture important themes, such notes can compromise the privacy and confidentiality of individual group members. An individual record for each patient is recommended.

  3. Cyclic Competition and Percolation in Grouping Predator-Prey Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra F. Lütz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We study, within the framework of game theory, the properties of a spatially distributed population of both predators and preys that may hunt or defend themselves either isolatedly or in group. Specifically, we show that the properties of the spatial Lett-Auger-Gaillard model, when different strategies coexist, can be understood through the geometric behavior of clusters involving four effective strategies competing cyclically,without neutral states. Moreover, the existence of strong finite-size effects, a form of the survival of the weakest effect, is related to a percolation crossover. These results may be generic and of relevance to other bimatrix games.

  4. STATUS GIZI DAN STATUS KESEHATAN SUKU BADUY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Anwar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} The objectives of the study were: (1 To analyze the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of Baduy people; (2 To analyze the health status and nutritional status of Baduy people and its influential factors. This research is an explorative and descriptive study on the socio-cultural aspects of food system. The data were collected through a direct interview and discussion with respondents as well as a direct observation at the location of respondents. A sample size of 338 households was drawn from the population. To obtain the data on the cultural aspects, history and  socio aspect of food, in-depth interviews was conducted with 19 key persons. The study was last for 12 months. In Outer Baduy, the factors significantly related to nutritional status are age, number of household size, income, nutritional knowledge, and wife’s ability to read. In Moslem Baduy, only age and income are related to the nutritional status of children. In Moslem Baduy and the Outer Baduy, the correlation between age and W/A or W/H is similar: namely, the higher the age, the lower would the Z-score for the W/A or W/H. The income is significantly correlated to the child nutritional status according to Z-score for W/A with a high correlation coefficient, that is, 0.61. This means that the higher the income, the higher would be the Z-score value for the W/A.  The distribution of adults according to BMI classification in Outer Baduy it shows that 12.7% husbands and 17.6% wives are thin (wasted, while the

  5. Periodontal Status of Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur V. Melkumyan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the periodontal status in postmenopausal women with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Material and Methods: We examined 43 postmenopausal women aged from 55 to 74 years. Material assessment of bones in every patient was performed by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA from two points on the skeleton – part of the femur neck and between the first and fourth lumbar vertebrae. A lipid blood test was done for patients of both groups. All patients were divided into two groups (the 1st with osteopenia, and the 2nd with osteoporosis. All patients were subjected to an oral clinical examination: the periodontal examination was composed of Plaque Index (PI, Pocket Score (PS, and Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI. X-ray analysis was performed for every patient. Results: The results of the clinical periodontal examination demonstrated that the mean PBI in patients in the 1st group had no significant differences from the PBI in patients in the 2nd group. PI value and PS findings in patients with general osteoporosis also had no statistical differences from the same parameters in patients with osteopenia. Conclusion: Under the circumstances of these patients’ characteristics and within the limits of the present study, we concluded that there is no significant difference in the periodontal status of postmenopausal women with systemic osteopenia and with osteoporosis.

  6. Subjectivity and severe psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the "art" of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field.

  7. [Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, H-J; Schmidt, O; Ritsche, A

    2014-11-01

    Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement is limited by various factors. The main factors affecting reproducibility include the characteristics of the measurement method and of the subject and the examiner. This article presents the results of a study on this topic, focusing on the reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes. The results of previous studies are not all presented in the same way by the respective authors and cannot be fully standardized without consulting the original scientific data. To the extent that they are comparable, the results of our study largely correspond largely with those of previous investigations: During repeated subjective refraction measurement, 95% of the deviation from the mean value was approximately ±0.2 D to ±0.65 D for the spherical equivalent and cylindrical power. The reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes is limited, even under ideal conditions. Correct assessment of refraction results is only feasible after identifying individual variability. Several measurements are required. Refraction cannot be measured without a tolerance range. The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental).

  8. NAIP Status Maps Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — NAIP Status Maps Gallery. These maps illustrate what aerial imagery collection is planned, whats been collected, when it is available and how it is available. These...

  9. Micronutrient status in phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert, M.; Rocha, J. C.; van Rijn, M.; Ahring, K.; Belanger-Quintana, A.; MacDonald, A.; Dokoupil, K.; Ozel, H. Gokmen; Lammardo, A. M.; Goyens, P.; Feillet, F.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) encompass an 'at risk' group for micronutrient imbalances. Optimal nutrient status is challenging particularly when a substantial proportion of nutrient intake is from non-natural sources. In PKU patients following dietary treatment supplementation with

  10. PRESENT STATUS IN INDIA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. PRESENT STATUS IN INDIA. FIXED LINES – 36 MILLION. MOBILE CONNECTIONS – 14 MILLION. TELEDENSITY APPROXIMATELY 5. INTERNET CONNECTIONS – 5 MILLION. INTERNET USERS NEARLY – 25 MILLION.

  11. Deadline Compliance Status Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These monthly Deadline Compliance Status Reports assist Participating Jurisdictions and HUD Field Offices in monitoring compliance with the 2-year commitment and...

  12. A model for amalgamation in group decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutello, Vincenzo; Montero, Javier

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we present a generalization of the model proposed by Montero, by allowing non-complete fuzzy binary relations for individuals. A degree of unsatisfaction can be defined in this case, suggesting that any democratic aggregation rule should take into account not only ethical conditions or some degree of rationality in the amalgamating procedure, but also a minimum support for the set of alternatives subject to the group analysis.

  13. Callous-unemotional traits and adolescents' role in group crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Laura C; Frick, Paul J; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Ray, James V; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined the association of callous-unemotional (CU) traits with group offending (i.e., committing a crime with others; gang involvement) and with the role that the offender may play in a group offense (e.g., being the leader). This analysis was conducted in an ethnically and racially diverse sample (N = 1,216) of justice-involved adolescents (ages 13 to 17) from 3 different sites. CU traits were associated with a greater likelihood of the adolescent offending in groups and being in a gang. Importantly, both associations remained significant after controlling for the adolescent's age, level of intelligence, race and ethnicity, and level of impulse control. The association of CU traits with gang membership also remained significant after controlling for the adolescent's history of delinquent behavior. Further, CU traits were associated with several measures of taking a leadership role in group crimes. CU traits were also associated with greater levels of planning in the group offense for which the adolescent was arrested, although this was moderated by the adolescent's race and was not found in Black youth. These results highlight the importance of CU traits for understanding the group process involved in delinquent acts committed by adolescents. They also underscore the importance of enhancing the effectiveness of treatments for these traits in order to reduce juvenile delinquency. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Opinions of Online Nursing Students Related to Working in Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Debra C; El-Mallakh, Peggy

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine nursing students' perceptions regarding the usefulness of group work in online nursing programs, to identify challenges with online group work, and to determine which factors contribute to successful completion of online group assignments. An online survey was used to obtain data for this qualitative descriptive study. The sample consisted of 217 nursing students in RN-to-Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Master's of Science in Nursing, and Doctor of Nursing Practice programs. The majority of online nursing students preferred not to work on assignments in groups due to the challenges but realized the importance and value of doing so. Participants stated that the greatest challenges to effective group work included time management and unequal contributions of individual group members. Strategies that facilitated effective group work included identification of compatible group members, communication, establishment of clear expectations for time lines and organization, and oversight from the course instructors. Faculty need to implement strategies to result in positive learning experiences for online nursing students because working effectively in groups is a critical nursing skill. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(10):611-616.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. INTERNET ADDICTION AND MENTAL HEALTH STATUS OF ADOLESCENTS IN CROATIA AND GERMANY

    OpenAIRE

    Karacic, Silvana; Oreskovic, Stjepan

    2017-01-01

    Background: The research examines the influence of internet addiction of adolescents in Croatia and Germany and its impact on the subjective feeling of health status. The purpose of this paper is also to give insight into how the Internet addiction which is a risky health behavior affects the health status of adolescents. The excessive use of Internet is linked with the lower health status of Croatian adolescents as well as of the adolescents in Germany. Subjects and methods: Resp...

  16. subjective approach to subjective approach to human physiological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This study was based on the subjective responses of the masons that are performing physical activity of blocklaying in the outdoor condition in outdoor condition in outdoor condition in Ogun State Nigeria. A total of 204 masons were investigated on the average of seventeen. Ogun State Nigeria. A total of 204 masons were ...

  17. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  18. Subjective quality of life and emotional pain among subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Heart failure (HF) is a common pathology worldwide. Associated emotional pain is an important risk factor of increased morbidity and secondary psychopathology. Methods: Subjects in stable state of HF attending the cardiology clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) were recruited into the study.

  19. COMPASS Status Report 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, A

    2012-01-01

    The report reviews the activities and the achievements of the Collaboration during the last year. Covered items are the results and ongoing analysis for the data collected in the previous years, the production status for the last year run and the preparation and start-up of the 2012 run. Hardware topics such as the status of the superconducting target magnet after the failures in 2011 and ECAL0 and CAMERA construction for the 2012 DVCS run are also covered.

  20. Homeownership and Subjective Wellbeing in Urban China: Does Owning a House Make You Happier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of homeownership status on individual subjective wellbeing indicators in urban China using a large nationally representative dataset. It is the first to gauge the relationship between homeownership and individual subjective wellbeing in the setting of China and is also among the few empirical studies concerning…

  1. Effects of growth hormone on glucose and fat metabolism in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens O L; Møller, Louise; Krag, Morten Brøgger

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on in vivo data from tests performed in normal subjects and in patients who had abnormal growth hormone (GH) status. Experimental data in human subjects demonstrate that GH acutely inhibits glucose disposal in skeletal muscle. At the same time GH stimulates the turnover and o......, but it is recommended that overdosing be avoided and glycemic control be monitored....

  2. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  3. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redford, J.S. (ed.)

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included. (JSR)

  4. Safety system status monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  5. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  6. Specifics of psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyněk Janečka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenesis of the psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children has its own specifics. Visual defect is influenced by many things. In the period from birth to two years of age occur in children, significant changes in cognitive, psychomotor and social development. Compared with the normal sighted population go the development of congenital blind children in all these areas slower. Visual deprivation also influenced on development of body posture. More important is whether the development proceeds in stages that correspond to the development of normal vision child. If development proceeds in the right direction is the temporal aspect criterion rather orientation. For blind children is also important to strengthen the ability to correctly identify their own body through somatognosy. Stereognosy in turn determines the degree of contact with the outer world and focus it in relation to the physical schema.

  7. The adaptive use of recognition in group decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämmer, Juliane E; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Reimer, Torsten; Schermuly, Carsten C

    2014-06-01

    Applying the framework of ecological rationality, the authors studied the adaptivity of group decision making. In detail, they investigated whether groups apply decision strategies conditional on their composition in terms of task-relevant features. The authors focused on the recognition heuristic, so the task-relevant features were the validity of the group members' recognition and knowledge, which influenced the potential performance of group strategies. Forty-three three-member groups performed an inference task in which they had to infer which of two German companies had the higher market capitalization. Results based on the choice data support the hypothesis that groups adaptively apply the strategy that leads to the highest theoretically achievable performance. Time constraints had no effect on strategy use but did have an effect on the proportions of different types of arguments. Possible mechanisms underlying the adaptive use of recognition in group decision making are discussed. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. A standard for test reliability in group research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jules L

    2013-03-01

    Many authors adhere to the rule that test reliabilities should be at least .70 or .80 in group research. This article introduces a new standard according to which reliabilities can be evaluated. This standard is based on the costs or time of the experiment and of administering the test. For example, if test administration costs are 7 % of the total experimental costs, the efficient value of the reliability is .93. If the actual reliability of a test is equal to this efficient reliability, the test size maximizes the statistical power of the experiment, given the costs. As a standard in experimental research, it is proposed that the reliability of the dependent variable be close to the efficient reliability. Adhering to this standard will enhance the statistical power and reduce the costs of experiments.

  9. Workplace status: The development and validation of a scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjevic, Emilija; Stoverink, Adam C; Klotz, Anthony C; Koopman, Joel; da Motta Veiga, Serge P; Yam, Kai Chi; Chiang, Jack Ting-Ju

    2017-07-01

    Research suggests that employee status, and various status proxies, relate to a number of meaningful outcomes in the workplace. The advancement of the study of status in organizational settings has, however, been stymied by the lack of a validated workplace status measure. The purpose of this manuscript, therefore, is to develop and validate a measure of workplace status based on a theoretically grounded definition of status in organizations. Subject-matter experts were used to examine the content validity of the measure. Then, 2 separate samples were employed to assess the psychometric properties (i.e., factor structure, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity) and nomological network of a 5-item, self-report Workplace Status Scale (WSS). To allow for methodological flexibility, an additional 3 samples were used to extend the WSS to coworker reports of a focal employee's status, provide additional evidence for the validity and reliability of the WSS, and to demonstrate consensus among coworker ratings. Together, these studies provide evidence of the psychometric soundness of the WSS for assessing employee status using either self-reports or other-source reports. The implications of the development of the WSS for the study of status in organizations are discussed, and suggestions for future research using the new measure are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  11. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis...

  12. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…

  13. Sexuality: Still a Taboo Subject?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, Lucille

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that we are all bombarded with sexual messages every day, the subject of relationship and sexuality education for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities continues to be a taboo one. Generally speaking, the author has found it is not the parents of those young people who are reluctant to have the discussion,…

  14. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned...

  15. The Subjective Dimension of Nazism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Föllmer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present historiographical review discusses the subjective dimension of Nazism, an ideology and regime that needed translation into self-definitions, gender roles, and bodily practices to implant itself in German society and mobilize it for racial war. These studies include biographies of some of

  16. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  17. Subjectivity, individuality and singularity in children: a socially constituted subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Del Ré

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the hypothesis that Bakhtin and his Circle‟s reflections can help us think about issues involving the field of Language Acquisition, in addition to the fact that there are only a few works developed within this perspective in Brazil, in this article, we intend to discuss the notions of “subject”, “subjectivity”,“individuality” and “singularity”, drawing on Bakhtin‟s theory. Thus, in order to make this discussion clearer, we bring data from the speech of young children, from 1.8 to 3 years old, who were filmed in natural contexts interacting with their parents and relatives. From these data, we could verify, among other things, that children, as individuals who constitute themselves as subjects in and throughlanguage, bring marks to their discourse, revealing their subjectivity (through lexical, morphological, syntactic or genre choices.

  18. Differences in masticatory function of subjects with different closing path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Shiga, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Masaoki; Arakawa, Ichiro; Nakajima, Kunihisa

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify whether there was a difference in the masticatory function between two masticatory path patterns: a convex closing path and a concave closing path. For 80 healthy subjects, the masticatory function (masticatory muscular activity, mandibular movement, and masticatory performance) when chewing a gummy jelly was recorded. Out of the 160 chewing cases (80 subjects chewing on either side), 65 cases (Group I) in which the incisal point opened in a linear or concave manner toward the working side and closed in a convex manner, and 15 cases (Group II) in which the opening path was the same as that in Group I, but the closing followed a concave path, were selected. For the masticatory function, the integral values per unit time of masseter and temporal muscular activities, the gape and masticatory width, the indicators representing the stability of movement path, and the glucose extraction from chewing gummy jelly were measured and compared between the two groups. The integral values of muscular activities and the amount of glucose extraction were significantly greater in Group I. The gape and masticatory width were not significantly different between the groups. The values of the indicators representing the stability of path were smaller in Group I than in Group II. From these results, it was suggested that there was a functional difference between Group I (with a convex closing path) and Group II (with a concave closing path), and that Group I had a superior masticatory function to Group II.

  19. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  20. The use of the self in group leadership: a relational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F

    2000-04-01

    This article, written from a relational perspective, describes a shift that is taking place in the thinking of many psychodynamically oriented psychotherapists regarding the practice of therapy and the implications it has for group therapists. The shift, from one-person to two-person and multi-person theory, has particular importance for group leaders since it recommends making the subjective involvement of the therapist in the interactional field of the group much more a part of the treatment process. Theory and research on the use of countertransference, non-interpretive interventions, humor, and spontaneity by the leader are reviewed and vignettes are presented to illustrate the application of these ideas. Guidelines regarding the application of such ideas in group therapy are also discussed.

  1. Refractory status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay P Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Refractory status epilepticus is a potentially life-threatening medical emergency. It requires early diagnosis and treatment. There is a lack of consensus upon its semantic definition of whether it is status epilepticus that continues despite treatment with benzodiazepine and one antiepileptic medication (AED, i.e., Lorazepam + phenytoin. Others regard refractory status epilepticus as failure of benzodiazepine and 2 antiepileptic medications, i.e., Lorazepam + phenytoin + phenobarb. Up to 30% patients in SE fail to respond to two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs and 15% continue to have seizure activity despite use of three drugs. Mechanisms that have made the treatment even more challenging are GABA-R that is internalized during status epilepticus and upregulation of multidrug transporter proteins. All patients of refractory status epilepticus require continuous EEG monitoring. There are three main agents used in the treatment of RSE. These include pentobarbital or thiopental, midazolam and propofol. RSE was shown to result in mortality in 35% cases, 39.13% of patients were left with severe neurological deficits, while another 13% had mild neurological deficits.

  2. Loneliness, Depression and Health Status of the Institutionalized Elderly in Korea and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Oksoo; Byeon, Young-Soon; Kim, Jung-Hee; Endo, Emiko; Akahoshi, Makoto; Ogasawara, Hiromi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe loneliness, depression, and health status in Korean and Japanese institutionalized elderly and explore differences between the countries. Also this study determined predictors of depression in each group. Methods: Elderly subjects, aged 65–98 (n = 184), were recruited from private nursing homes in Korea and Japan. Subjects were interviewed on health status, loneliness, and depression. Results: Korean subjects had higher loneliness scores than Jap...

  3. Corneal Biomechanics Determination in Healthy Myopic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunliang Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the corneal biomechanical properties by using the Ocular Response Analyzer™ and to investigate potential factors associated with the corneal biomechanics in healthy myopic subjects. Methods. 135 eyes from 135 healthy myopic subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Cornea hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc, and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg were determined with the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to investigate factors associated with corneal biomechanics. Results. The mean CH and CRF were 9.82±1.34 mmHg and 9.64±1.57 mmHg, respectively. In univariate regression analysis, CH was significantly correlated with axial length, refraction, central corneal thickness (CCT, and IOPg (r=-0.27, 0.23, 0.45, and 0.21, resp.; all with p≤0.015, but not with corneal curvature or age; CRF was significantly correlated with CCT and IOPg (r=0.52 and 0.70, resp.; all with p<0.001, but not with axial length/refraction, corneal curvature, or age. In multivariate regression analysis, axial length, IOPcc, and CCT were found to be independently associated with CH, while CCT and IOPg were associated with CRF. Conclusions. Both CH and CRF were positively correlated with CCT. Lower CH but not CRF was associated with increasing degree of myopia. Evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties should take CCT and myopic status into consideration.

  4. Pengaruh taburia terhadap status anemia dan status gizi balita gizi kurang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuni Kunayarti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micronutrient deficiency seriously contributes to child morbidity and mortality. The need for micronutrient can be fulfilled from food, fortified food, and direct supplementation. Taburia is multivitamin multimineral that is aimed to meet the need for micronutrient of undernourished under-fives and to prevent the increased prevalence of undernourishment. It is necessary efficacy and effectiveness study of Taburia to anemia and nutritional status of undernourished under fives of 24-55 months. Objective: To identify the effect of Taburia supplementation to anemia and nutrition status of under fives at District of Lombok Timur. Method: The study was experimental with prospective cohort study design carried out at District of Lombok Timur, Province of Nusa Tenggara Barat. The subject of the study was undernourished under fives at the area of Nutrition Improvement Community through Empowerment (NICE project. The independent variables were Taburia and biscuits; the dependent variables were anemia and nutrition status; and the external variables were the intake of energy, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, Fe, and zinc. Data analysis used ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: There was a significant difference in the average level of hemoglobin of the subject after the intervention, either in taburia group, biscuit group, or taburia+biscuit group (p<0.05. There was the difference in average weight after intervention in the three groups (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the average level of hemoglobin and the average level of weight between biscuit group and Taburia+biscuit group. There was a change in anemia status from anemia to nonanemia; the highest was in Taburia group, i.e. 96%; and better nutrition status at the end of the experiment occurred at Taburia+biscuit group from emaciated to normal (100%. Conclusion: Taburia supplementation could increase anemia status. Micronutrient supplementation was needed to increase nutrition

  5. [Evaluation of nutritional status in hospitalized aged persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanello, S; Foucault, S; Delbos, V; Jousset, N

    2000-03-01

    The health status of older people strongly depends on their nutritional status. Hospitalisation is a factor that aggravates protein-energy malnutrition among older people. A descriptive study was completed among 71 subjects over 65 years old and hospitalised in a gerontological internal medicine service. The study used a nutritional evaluation scale called the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). The study showed that 21% of subjects had an acceptable nutritional status, 49% were considered to be "at risk of undernourishment", and 31% were malnourished. A relationship was observed between the MNA score, the degree of autonomy (AGGIR grid), cognitive functions (Mini Mental State: MMS) and the existence of an anxious-depressive state. These elements should be taken into consideration to avoid the aggravation of the nutritional status of older people in the hospital, or to improve it. In addition, certain simple biological exams (albumin, pre-albumin, reactive protein) are necessary to assess the endogenous or exogenous aspect of undernourishment.

  6. Verbal Protocol in Group at Brazilian research in Knowledge Organization and Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cristina Dal'Evedove Tartarotti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2017v22n48p41 In order to enable the qualitative data collection of introspective nature, some studies in Information Science are conducted through the Verbal Protocol. The option for the technical results from the feasibility is magnified observation studies, mostly related to the mental processes of research subjects in reading activities. As a way to contribute to the operation of Verbal Protocol in qualitative research in the Organization and Representation of Knowledge and offer subsidies for the correct use of emphasis on technique, the purpose of this article is to present the Verbal Protocol in Group, its main advantages and disadvantages as a qualitative technique of data collection, characterize the Brazilian scientific community in the theme through production and connection bibliometric indicators and present examples of its applicability in Brazilian research. The analysis enabled the identification of relevant aspects of scientific production in the highlighted modality, whose results contribute to the direction of future research by the scientific community of Information Science. It concludes that the modality of Verbal Protocol in Group contributes as an introspective and interactive technique of data collection to provide consistent results for a significant body of research that was used.

  7. Subject-verb number (disagreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Isac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses cases of number mismatches between subjects and verbs. The main proposal is that subject-verb agreement is not in number but in a different feature, that we call Cardinality. Cardinality is a feature of DPs that is computed on the basis of number features and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP. The “computation” of the Cardinality feature proceeds internal to the feature matrix of one lexical item - the D. The values of the number and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP are transferred to the D by means of a feature checking mechanism and the value of the Cardinality feature is then derived from these.

  8. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...... with antipsychotics. All participants gradually tapered the use of benzodiazepines after randomization to add-on treatment with melatonin versus placebo. Here we report a subsample of 23 patients undergoing sleep recordings (one-night polysomnography) and 55 patients participating in subjective sleep quality ratings....... Melatonin had no effect on objective sleep efficiency, but significantly improved self-reported sleep quality. Reduced benzodiazepine dosage at the 24-week follow-up was associated with a significantly decreased proportion of stage 2 sleep. These results indicate that prolonged-release melatonin has some...

  9. Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    This seventh edition of the subject thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured by the technical staff of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information as part of its subject indexing activities for building and maintaining the Energy Data Base (EDB) and other energy information data bases for the Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this thesaurus is to enhance the efficiency of information retrieval from these data bases. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of DOE's research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences for also from areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation. There are 21,080 valid descriptors and 5683 forbidden terms in this edition of the Thesaurus. These descriptors are listed alphabetically.

  10. Fighting status inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Landes, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    as a theoretical foil for this as compared to a liberal notion of non-interference. The article concludes that there is a prima facie case for incorporating non-dominance into our thinking about public health, but that it needs to go hand in hand with a more traditional liberal ideal of non-interference.......Status inequalities seem to play a fairly big role in creating inequalities in health. This article assumes that there can be good reasons to fight status inequalities in order to reduce inequalities in health. It examines whether the neorepublican ideal of non-dominance does a better job...

  11. New Service Status Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On Monday 14 October, the Service Status Board for GS and IT will change. The new Status Board will be integrated with the CERN Service Portal and with the CERN Service Catalogue.   As of today, the SSB will display “Service Incidents”, “Planned Interventions” and “Service Changes”. References valid from 14 October: CERN SSB at https://cern.ch/ssb Computing SSB (previously IT SSB) at https://cern.ch/itssb   Nicole Cremel, IT and GS Service Management Support

  12. FRIB Cryogenic Plant Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kelly D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Ganni, Venkatarao [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Knudsen, Peter N. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Casagranda, Fabio [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-12-01

    After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.

  13. Backward disequilibrium in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Manckoundia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Manckoundia1,2, France Mourey1,2, Dominic Pérennou2,3, Pierre Pfitzenmeyer1,21Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, University Hospital, Dijon, France; 2INSERM/ERIT-M 0207 Motricity-Plasticity University of Burgundy, Dijon, France; 3Department of Neurological Rehabilitation, University Hospital, Dijon, FranceAbstract: Backward disequilibrium is observed frequently in daily clinical practice. However, there are no epidemiological data concerning this postural disorder. Defined by a posterior position of the centre of mass with respect to the base of support, backward disequilibrium is abnormal postural behavior, usually characterized by a posterior trunk tilt in standing and sitting positions, which predisposes subjects to backward falls. Many afflictions whether they are somatic (degenerative, ischemic and traumatic brain lesions, psychosomatic (psychomotor disadaptation syndrome, confinement to bed, nonuse situations or psychological (depression can cause backward disequilibrium. A vicious circle of falls, and loss of autonomy can arise and this is the main consequence of backward disequilibrium. Thus, in this paper, we review backward disequilibrium in elderly subjects with regard to the causes, consequences, assessment, and management.Keywords: backward disequilibrium, balance, elderly subject, falls, posture

  14. Longitudinal study on oral health in subjects with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ship, J A; Puckett, S A

    1994-01-01

    To examine longitudinal oral health changes in unmedicated, generally healthy subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and compare them to age- and gender-matched healthy, unmedicated control subjects. Oral health parameters were evaluated over 2 to 3 years and the results compared between subjects with AD and controls. Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Twenty-one community-dwelling subjects with a clinical diagnosis of AD and 21 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Neither population was being treated for any other systemic condition nor taking any prescription medications. Unstimulated and stimulated major salivary gland flow rates were measured, and gingival, periodontal, dental, and oral mucosal tissues assessed. In general, subjects with AD demonstrated decreased salivary flow rates and diminished oral health, but most longitudinal changes in oral health status were not significantly different than controls. Patients with AD are susceptible to a variety of oral health problems, and progression of AD can lead to a deterioration in oral health and function. These patients require aggressive preventive care to maintain function for as long as possible, which necessitates close cooperation among numerous health care professionals.

  15. Dietary management for older subjects with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoff, Ronni

    2005-11-01

    In recent years, obesity has been recognized as a form of malnutrition in older adults and a continuing risk factor for serious health problems. Weight reduction in older adults is not as reliable a recommendation as it is for younger adults; a decreased body mass index (BMI) seems to be associated with a higher incidence of stroke, and a normal or slightly elevated BMI has been linked to greater reserve capacity. Weight loss in older adults requires strategies that consider health status, functional ability, and rational targets. Strategies may include behavior modification, dietary alterations, exercise or physical activity, and reasonable goals that do not put the individual at nutritional risk. Studies that examine different approaches to weight reduction rarely include older subjects, so it is difficult to make judgments about various interventions (surgery, exercise, drugs, or diet) and their efficacy in this population. Fad diets may be lacking in essential nutrients and may prove to be risky for elderly people. Weight loss programs for older adults should focus on maintaining adequate intake of essential nutrients while reducing calories by controlling dietary fat intake.

  16. Criticality triggers the emergence of collective intelligence in groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vincenzo, Ilario; Giannoccaro, Ilaria; Carbone, Giuseppe; Grigolini, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    A spinlike model mimicking human behavior in groups is employed to investigate the dynamics of the decision-making process. Within the model, the temporal evolution of the state of systems is governed by a time-continuous Markov chain. The transition rates of the resulting master equation are defined in terms of the change of interaction energy between the neighboring agents (change of the level of conflict) and the change of a locally defined agent fitness. Three control parameters can be identified: (i) the social interaction strength β J measured in units of social temperature, (ii) the level of confidence β' that each individual has on his own expertise, and (iii) the level of knowledge p that identifies the expertise of each member. Based on these three parameters, the phase diagrams of the system show that a critical transition front exists where a sharp and concurrent change in fitness and consensus takes place. We show that at the critical front, the information leakage from the fitness landscape to the agents is maximized. This event triggers the emergence of the collective intelligence of the group, and in the end it leads to a dramatic improvement in the decision-making performance of the group. The effect of size M of the system is also investigated, showing that, depending on the value of the control parameters, increasing M may be either beneficial or detrimental.

  17. Algebra in action a course in groups, rings, and fields

    CERN Document Server

    Shahriari, Shahriar

    2017-01-01

    This text-based on the author's popular courses at Pomona College-provides a readable, student-friendly, and somewhat sophisticated introduction to abstract algebra. It is aimed at sophomore or junior undergraduates who are seeing the material for the first time. In addition to the usual definitions and theorems, there is ample discussion to help students build intuition and learn how to think about the abstract concepts. The book has over 1300 exercises and mini-projects of varying degrees of difficulty, and, to facilitate active learning and self-study, hints and short answers for many of the problems are provided. There are full solutions to over 100 problems in order to augment the text and to model the writing of solutions. Lattice diagrams are used throughout to visually demonstrate results and proof techniques. The book covers groups, rings, and fields. In group theory, group actions are the unifying theme and are introduced early. Ring theory is motivated by what is needed for solving Diophantine equa...

  18. A Study on Relationship between Personality and Socio Economic Status of Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Prakash; Xavier, Amaladoss

    2015-01-01

    Personality covers the whole nature of the individual. Socio Economic Status refers to the position that an individual and family occupies with reference to prevailing average standards, cultural possession and participation in group activity of community. This paper reports on relationship between Personality and Socio Economic Status of student…

  19. Status of serum magnesium in type 2 diabetes mellitus with particular reference to serum triacylglycerol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, A R; Niranjan, G; Kuzhandai Velu, V; Parmar, Pragnesh; Anish, A

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and the second most common intracellular cation. The association between hypomagnesemia and insulin resistance (IR) in diabetes mellitus has been documented earlier. However, we wanted to study whether the extracellular status of magnesium (Mg) could be a biochemical mediator between hypertriacylglycerolemia and diabetes mellitus. To find out the probable association among HbA1c, triacylglycerol (TG) and magnesium levels - a predictor of vascular complications in T(2)DM. Thirty patients who had attended the diabetic clinics during the period of this study were included. All the samples were analysed for glucose, TG, Mg, and HbA1c. For statistical analysis, SPSS 17 package was used. Serum TG (236.67*, 195.06) and HbA1C (9.97*, 8.57) levels were independently compared between the two groups and were significantly high in group A subjects (Mg1.2mg/dl) (*p-valuediabetes mellitus patients with accompanying hypomagnesemia. This compared well with that of the glycemic control. Low Mg levels, high TG levels in association with enhanced HbA1c levels could thus serve as a reliable biochemical indicator of insulin status and action without resorting to the usage of criteria for insulin sensitivity and resistance. Copyright © 2012 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Disorders of nutritional status in sepsis - facts and myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosałka, Katarzyna; Wachowska, Ewelina; Słotwiński, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The problem of diagnosing nutritional status disorders in septic patients remains unresolved. This is associated with the necessity of the introduction of newer and newer methods of assessing nutritional status, often requiring precise and expensive equipment as well as employment of professionals in this field in hospital wards, primarily including intensive care units (ICU). Methods that have been applied thus far for assessing nutritional status, also used in severely ill septic patients, have little impact on improving treatment results. This is due to the high dynamics of changes in nutritional status in these patients, healing process variability in individual patients, and the "mismatch" of methods for assessing nutritional status in relation to the patient's clinical status. The diagnostic value of the traditional methods of assessing nutritional status, i.e. anthropometric analysis and selected laboratory tests, as markers of nutritional status disorders in septic patients, is still debatable. There is still no precise method that could become the "gold standard" allowing for early identification of malnutrition in these group of patients. Phase angle, bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), and the "illness marker", obtained directly from the resistance, reactance, and impedance, can be used as prognostic or nutritional indices in severely ill septic patients, but the intensity of research on this subject needs to be increased. Detailed assessment of nutritional status should include tests of selected inflammation markers (including TLC, HMGB1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra, sTNFRI).

  1. Disorders of nutritional status in sepsis – facts and myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowska, Ewelina; Słotwiński, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The problem of diagnosing nutritional status disorders in septic patients remains unresolved. This is associated with the necessity of the introduction of newer and newer methods of assessing nutritional status, often requiring precise and expensive equipment as well as employment of professionals in this field in hospital wards, primarily including intensive care units (ICU). Methods that have been applied thus far for assessing nutritional status, also used in severely ill septic patients, have little impact on improving treatment results. This is due to the high dynamics of changes in nutritional status in these patients, healing process variability in individual patients, and the “mismatch” of methods for assessing nutritional status in relation to the patient’s clinical status. The diagnostic value of the traditional methods of assessing nutritional status, i.e. anthropometric analysis and selected laboratory tests, as markers of nutritional status disorders in septic patients, is still debatable. There is still no precise method that could become the “gold standard” allowing for early identification of malnutrition in these group of patients. Phase angle, bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), and the “illness marker”, obtained directly from the resistance, reactance, and impedance, can be used as prognostic or nutritional indices in severely ill septic patients, but the intensity of research on this subject needs to be increased. Detailed assessment of nutritional status should include tests of selected inflammation markers (including TLC, HMGB1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra, sTNFRI). PMID:28702094

  2. Disorders of nutritional status in sepsis – facts and myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kosałka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of diagnosing nutritional status disorders in septic patients remains unresolved. This is associated with the necessity of the introduction of newer and newer methods of assessing nutritional status, often requiring precise and expensive equipment as well as employment of professionals in this field in hospital wards, primarily including intensive care units (ICU. Methods that have been applied thus far for assessing nutritional status, also used in severely ill septic patients, have little impact on improving treatment results. This is due to the high dynamics of changes in nutritional status in these patients, healing process variability in individual patients, and the “mismatch” of methods for assessing nutritional status in relation to the patient’s clinical status. The diagnostic value of the traditional methods of assessing nutritional status, i.e. anthropometric analysis and selected laboratory tests, as markers of nutritional status disorders in septic patients, is still debatable. There is still no precise method that could become the “gold standard” allowing for early identification of malnutrition in these group of patients. Phase angle, bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA, and the “illness marker”, obtained directly from the resistance, reactance, and impedance, can be used as prognostic or nutritional indices in severely ill septic patients, but the intensity of research on this subject needs to be increased. Detailed assessment of nutritional status should include tests of selected inflammation markers (including TLC, HMGB1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra, sTNFRI.

  3. n status confessionis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both the World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC) and the — then — Re- formed Ecumenical Synod (RES) eventually declared a status confessionis against the theological and moral justification of apartheid. In this process the Afrikaans Re- formed Churches came under serious fire. The questions arising from this ...

  4. Status, Numbers and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, David; Savage, Scott V.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a theoretical model of social influence in n-person groups. We argue that disagreement between group members introduces uncertainty into the social situation, and this uncertainty motivates people to use status characteristics to evaluate the merits of a particular opinion. Our model takes the numerical distribution of opinions and the…

  5. Status and the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda V Utevsky

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social hierarchy is a fact of life for many animals. Navigating social hierarchy requires understanding one's own status relative to others and behaving accordingly, while achieving higher status may call upon cunning and strategic thinking. The neural mechanisms mediating social status have become increasingly well understood in invertebrates and model organisms like fish and mice but until recently have remained more opaque in humans and other primates. In a new study in this issue, Noonan and colleagues explore the neural correlates of social rank in macaques. Using both structural and functional brain imaging, they found neural changes associated with individual monkeys' social status, including alterations in the amygdala, hypothalamus, and brainstem--areas previously implicated in dominance-related behavior in other vertebrates. A separate but related network in the temporal and prefrontal cortex appears to mediate more cognitive aspects of strategic social behavior. These findings begin to delineate the neural circuits that enable us to navigate our own social worlds. A major remaining challenge is identifying how these networks contribute functionally to our social lives, which may open new avenues for developing innovative treatments for social disorders.

  6. Experimental status of physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a short period of time, we will have a large amount of results from -factories including ones on CP violation. In this talk, we briefly review the current experimental status of -physics. After a quick description of -facilities, we divide this vast field into two categories: (1) weak interaction and QCD, (2) unitarity triangle and ...

  7. Angola: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Thea C.

    A survey of the status of language usage in Angola begins with an overview of the usage and distribution of Portuguese as the official language, and the four most significant native languages and dialects spoken there: Umbundu, Kimbundu, Kikongo, and Lunda-Chokwe. The introduction of Spanish through Cuban trainers, teachers, and military advisors…

  8. Status of numerical relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Numerical relativity; gravitational waves; black hole; neutron star. ... and stellar collapse, emphasizing the well-developed current status of such implementations that enable simulations for several astrophysical phenomena. Some of our latest results for simulation of binary neutron star mergers are briefly presented.

  9. Liberia: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barbara

    A survey of the status of language usage in Liberia begins with an overview of the distribution of the 16 languages and dialects spoken natively there that are recognized by the government. These include, in order of number of native speakers: Kpelle, Bassa, Gio, Kru, Mano, Lorma, Krahn, Gola, Mandingo, Kissi, Vai, English, Gbandi, Mende, Belle,…

  10. Thirst perception and drinking in euhydrate and dehydrate human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obika, L F O; Idu, F K; George, G O; Ajayi, O I; Mowoe, R S

    2009-06-01

    Studies on how the body senses the need to correct extracellular and intracellular volumes and ionic concentration changes is relatively scanty. The present studies were designed to determine the effect of oral distilled water (DW) and saline loads, gargling with DW and DW preload on thirst perception (TP) and drinking in euhydrate and dehydrated subjects. The subjects were healthy male volunteers between the ages of 17 and 35 years. Group A subjects were given DW or various concentrations of sodium chloride [NaCl] orally. Subjects in groups B, C and D were dehydrated for 18 hours before the experiment. Group B gargled 500 ml of DW in divided volume of 50 ml at five minutes interval over a period of 50 minutes. Group C gargled with DW and different concentrations of NaCl. Group D were preloaded with four volumes of DW before ad libitum DW intake. TP was rated using the Visual Analogue Scale. Results showed that in Group A, drinking DW reduced TP, suggesting that baseline TP in normal euhydrate subjects is slightly elevated. Drinking DW reduced TP more than drinking NaCl solutions. Gargling resulted in a gradual fall in TP. The decrease in TP was statistically significant after 30 minutes of gargling. Gargling with different concentrations of NaCl solutions resulted in significant reductions in TP in all the groups. There was a significant decrease in TP in the group preloaded with 1000 ml of distilled water at 5 minutes of rehydration. At 20 minutes TP was abolished suggesting that approximately 1000 ml of water was needed for the rehydration. These results show that baseline TP in euhydrates is elevated and that TP increases in dehydrated subjects. Gargling reduces TP, but did not abolish thirst. It is suggested that a fall in plasma osmolality due to drinking may be responsible for abolishing thirst.

  11. Life in groups: the roles of oxytocin in mammalian sociality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison eAnacker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, scientific understanding of the many roles of oxytocin in social behavior has advanced tremendously. The focus of this research has been on maternal attachments and reproductive pair-bonds, and much less is known about the substrates of sociality outside of reproductive contexts. It is now apparent that oxytocin influences many aspects of social behavior including recognition, trust, empathy, and other components of the behavioral repertoire of social species. This review provides a comparative perspective on the contributions of oxytocin to life in mammalian social groups. We provide background on the functions of oxytocin in maternal attachments and the early social environment, and give an overview of the role of oxytocin circuitry in support of different mating systems. We then introduce peer relationships in group-living rodents as a means for studying the importance of oxytocin in non-reproductive affiliative behaviors. We review species differences in oxytocin receptor distributions in solitary and group-living species of South American tuco-tucos and in African mole-rats, as well as singing mice. We discuss variation in oxytocin receptor levels with seasonal changes in social behavior in female meadow voles, and the effects of oxytocin manipulations on peer huddling behavior. Finally, we discuss avenues of promise for future investigation, and relate current findings to research in humans and non-human primates. There is growing evidence that oxytocin is involved in social selectivity, including increases in aggression toward social outgroups and decreased huddling with unfamiliar individuals, which may support existing social structures or relationships at the expense of others. Oxytocin’s effects reach beyond maternal attachment and pair bonds to play a role in affiliative behavior underlying friendships, organization of broad social structures, and maintenance of established social relationships with individuals

  12. Social Status and the Demand for Security and Privacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossklags, Jens; Barradale, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    High-status decision makers are often in a position to make choices with security and privacy relevance not only for themselves but also for groups, or even society at-large. For example, decisions about security technology investments, anti-terrorism activities, and domestic security, broadly...... shape the balance between security and privacy. However, it is unclear to what extent the mass of individuals share the same concerns as high-status individuals. In particular, it is unexplored in the academic literature whether an individual’s status position shapes one’s security and privacy concerns....... The method of investigation used is experimental, with 146 subjects interacting in high- or low-status assignments and the subsequent change in the demand for security and privacy being related to status assignment with a significant t-statistic up to 2.9, depending on the specification. We find that a high...

  13. Determinants for oral hygiene and periodontal status among mentally disabled children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the impact of socio-demographic and clinical variables on the oral hygiene and periodontal status in a sample of mentally disabled subjects. Materials and Methods: Study sample comprised of 171 mentally disabled subjects attending a special school in Udaipur, India. Oral hygiene status was assessed by Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S and periodontal status by Community Periodontal Index. Results: Stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that the best predictors in the descending order for oral hygiene index were disabled sibling, medical diagnosis, IQ level, education of mother and father. Having Down syndrome, less educated parents, poor economic status and a disabled sibling were the most important predictors for poor periodontal status. Conclusions: The present study highlighted that the oral hygiene and periodontal status of the present study population is poor and was influenced by medical diagnosis, IQ level, disabled sibling, parent′s level of education and economic status.

  14. Intellectual Development Features and Status in the Nursery Group in Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyn V.A.,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of intellectual development of high-status, middle-status and low-status members of the educational preschool groups. It is shown that the intellectual development of high status and middle status 4-5 years old children is higher than their low-status peers, especially in such aspects as perception, attention, and memory. This integral indicator of high status subjects corresponds to the average or high level of intelligence, and for most of the subjects of this category is characterized by a high level. An integral component of intellectual development of middle-status children is comparable to the one in high-status. In fact, there is only one, but not least, difference between the two categories: among high-status children there is no kids whose integral indicator of intellectual development is below average. Integral indicator of intellectual development of most low-status subjects corresponds to the low intelligence level. We analyzed a dialectical relationship of intellectual, social, and psychological development of preschool children according to the concept of «interpersonal situation of development». The article presents methodical maintenance of structure definition of interpersonal relations in the preschool educational groups. The study proposed a number of scientific and practical recommendations.

  15. The Effect of Life Skills Training in Group and Behavior Change on Affective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shakiba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although various medical and psychological interventions have been used to treat addiction, addiction particularly methamphetamine addiction as a social, health and medical issues is still jeopardizing the human community. This study is aimed at determining the impact of teaching life skills and changing behavior on the emotional well-being of the individuals addicted to crystal methamphetamine. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out using before-after plan with participation of 28 crystal methamphetamine addicts. In addition to receiving medical treatment, the intervention group patients obtained necessary trainings required for developing life skill and changing behavior during 15 sessions, whilst the control group received only the routine pharmacotherapy treatments and primary interventions. Then pretest and posttest scores of the two groups were compared. Results: The mean score on emotional well-being by the intervention group is lower than that in control group after treatment (10.71<18.78 which was statistically significant. The history of dependence on methamphetamine, age, education, the times of quits, and the marital status had no impact on the extent of the influence of teaching life skills and behavior changes on the individuals’ emotional well-being. Conclusion: Notwithstanding that addiction could influence various aspects of mental and emotional health of dependent people, teaching life skills and behavioral changes may lead to enhancement in their emotional well-being. Hence it is necessary to encourage these individuals to participate in group sessions of changing behavior and teaching life skills.

  16. PARENTAL SKILLS TRAINING IN GROUPS: REFLECTIVE PRACTICE OF SOCIAL WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorūnė Vyšniauskytė-Rimkienė

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of parents in children’s life is essential. Constantly changing world, fast life rhythm dictates new needs for parents raising children: what was suitable fifty, thirty or even ten years ago now cannot be suitable for contemporary parents. Parenting skills training becomes more and more popular for parents to learn new skills and to get support while bringing up their children. This article reveals reflective practice of social workers while implementing parenting skills training program “Effective Parenting Skills” using groups format during the period of seven years. The program teaching parental skills – “Effective Parenting Skills” is based upon elements of the Dutch programs “Opvoeden Zo” from the Netherlands Youth Institute (Nederlands Jeugdinstituut, NJI in Utrecht and “3 x Groei” from PI Research in Amsterdam/Duivendrecht. The elements are adapted for performing parental skill training in Lithuania. The program was developed as part of the project “Positive Parenting” funded by the Dutch Government. Positive parenting is a way of raising your children effectively and respectfully influencing their behavior. Positive parenting helps to respect children’s rights: parents raise their children in a more democratic (positive, supportive, protective way. This leads to more competent and healthy children and more self-confident parents. Parenting skills training was organized in closed groups of parents, the duration of which was from 12 to 14 hours. “Effective Parenting Skills” program was led by two social workers for parents with different parenting experience and needs. Reflective practice reveals positive outcome for parents who attended “Effective Parenting Skills” program. Positive influence for parents was connected not only with training material of the program, but also with such processes in groups as sharing one’s experience, mutual aid between each other, learning from their peers

  17. Clinical and dietary indicators associated with uremic status in hospitalized dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiber, Alison L; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J; Handu, Deepa

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether any differences existed between specific admission variables and uremic status in patients with chronic renal failure receiving dialysis. This was a prospective, observational study conducted at BryanLGH Medical Center East Campus in Lincoln, Nebraska. The subjects were hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients admitted to an acute care facility, who met the following inclusion criteria: (1) they had a primary or secondary underlying diagnosis of chronic renal failure, and (2) they were not receiving parenteral or enteral tube feeding nutritional support on admission. The patients were separated into 2 groups by their blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations. Group 1 had a BUN concentration less than 50 and group 2 had a BUN concentration greater than or equal to 50. Admission data (age, sex, percentage of ideal body weight, reported retrospective weight loss over time, type of dialysis, gastrointestinal history, BUN and creatinine concentrations, and dietary prescription) were collected from patient medical records. Two-day kilocalorie and protein counts were conducted on the patients within 24 hours of admission to the acute care facility. Chi-square and 1-way analysis of variance were performed to compare the groups. The total number of participants in the study was 42, with 21 in each BUN group. The mean age was 60 years, and the dietary intake was a mean of 10 kcal/kg and 0.4 g protein/kg. Only 14.3% and 7.1% of the patients met their kcal and protein needs, respectively. The mean percentage ideal body weight was 125 and the mean reported weight loss per week was 2.6 pounds. Gastrointestinal symptoms, specifically nausea and a kilocalorie-restricted diet prescription, were significantly different between the 2 groups. Patients in group 2 were more likely to have gastrointestinal symptoms overall (P < .05) specifically, nausea (P <.05). Group 1 patients were also more frequently placed on a kilocalorie

  18. Taste loss in hospitalized multimorbid elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toffanello ED

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ED Toffanello,1 EM Inelmen,1 A Imoscopi,1 E Perissinotto,2 A Coin,1 F Miotto,1 LM Donini,3 D Cucinotta,4 M Barbagallo,5 E Manzato,1 G Sergi11Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Geriatrics Division and University of Padova, Padova, 2Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; 3Department of Medical Physiopathology (Food Science Section, University of Roma, La Sapienza, Roma, 4S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, 5Geriatric Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and Emerging Diseases, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyBackground: Loss of the sense of taste is common among older people. Morbidities and polypharmacy may contribute to the age-related decline in gustatory function. The aims of the present study were to investigate taste perception in elderly hospitalized patients by comparing their taste recognition thresholds with those of healthy, free-living elderly individuals and to identify potential determinants of taste loss.Methods: The participants in this observational study were 55 elderly patients hospitalized in the acute geriatric section of the Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences at Padova University and 41 free-living individuals aged older than 65 years, randomly recruited from elderly people attending mild fitness programs at public gymnasiums in Padova. Data were collected on nutrition, health, cognitive, and functional status for all participants. Gustatory capabilities were assessed using aqueous solutions of sucrose, sodium chloride, citric acid, and quinine hydrochloride (representing sweet, salty, sour, and bitter stimuli, respectively, and taste recognition thresholds were measured in both groups.Results: In comparison with the free-living elderly subjects, those in hospital were significantly less able to recognize the taste of citric acid (P < 0.05. Low citric acid sensitivity was independently associated with advanced age (≥75 years; odds ratio [OR] 3

  19. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  20. Status of memory loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iyer, Parameswaran Mahadeva

    2012-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman presented with first onset of seizure with no prior history of cognitive dysfunction. EEG revealed focal non-convulsive status epilepticus. MRI brain showed a left temporal non-enhancing lesion. Temporal pole biopsy showed acute neuronal necrosis and astrocyte hyperplasia together with extensive amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Perivascular oligodendroglial hyperplasia was present. Postmortem examination revealed extensive plaque and tangle disease. Perivascular oligodendroglial hyperplasia was limited to the left temporal area. The presence of focal perivascular oligodendroglial hyperplasia in the left temporal cortex, combined with extensive plaque and tangle disease may have contributed to the focal status epilepticus in this patient. Although the presence of focal perivascular oligodendroglial hyperplasia has been reported in cases of temporal lobe epilepsy, it has not been reported as a cause of seizure in patients with Alzheimer\\'s disease previously. Further studies for clinical-pathologic correlation would be required to confirm this hypothesis.

  1. Status Epilepticus in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, K; Rana, S; Kanitkar, M; Adhikari, M

    2005-02-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening emergency that requires prompt treatment, including basic neuroresuscitation principles (the ABCs), antiepileptic drugs to stop the seizure and identification of etiology. It results from an inability to normally abort an isolated seizure either due to ineffective inhibition, or due to abnormally persistent excessive excitation. Symptomatic SE is more common in younger children and the likely etiology depends on the age of the child. Treating the precipitating cause may prevent ongoing neurologic injury and facilitates seizure control. Benzodiapenes, phenytoin and phenobarbital form the mainstay of treatment. A systematic treatment regimen, planned in advance, is needed, including one for refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Patient education and home management of seizures is important to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with SE.

  2. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO -16E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was an experiment initiated to expand nominal pre- and postflight clinical nutrition testing, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples 5 times during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests, including nutritional, physiological, general chemistry, and endocrinology indices. These data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analyzing the data will help us to define nutritional requirements for long-duration missions, and better understand human adaptation to microgravity. This expanded set of measurements will also aid in the identification of nutritional countermeasures to counteract, for example, the deleterious effects of microgravity on bone and muscle and the effects of space radiation.

  3. The Perceived Socioeconomic Status Is an Important Factor of Health Recovery for Victims of Occupational Accidents in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to examine whether there is a correlation between the health recovery of industrial accident victims and their perceived socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the first Panel Study of Worker's Compensation Insurance, which included 2,000 participants. We performed multivariate regression analysis and determined the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and for those with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status using 95% confidence intervals. An additional multivariate regression analysis yielded the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and those with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic class using 95% confidence intervals. Of all participants, 299 reported a full recovery, whereas 1,701 did not. We examined the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for participants' health recovery according to their subjective socioeconomic status while controlling for sex, age, education, tobacco use, alcohol use, subjective state of health prior to the accident, chronic disease, employment duration, recovery period, accident type, disability status, disability rating, and economic participation. The odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status were 1.707 times greater (1.264-2.305) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Similarly, the odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic status were 3.124 times greater (1.795-5.438) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate that participants' perceived socioeconomic disparities extend to disparities in their health status. The reinforcement of welfare measures is greatly needed to temper these disparities.

  4. Status of MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  5. The status of GALLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cribier, M. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique des Particules Elementaires)

    1990-01-01

    The present status of the Gallium Solar Neutrino Experiment performed by the GALLEX Collaboration in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory is described. The implementation phase of this experiment is now completed, the whole gallium is at hand and data taking starts now. After a short introduction and an outline of the basic experimental procedure, details will be given on different parts of the experiment and on some background. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Uranium mining: Saskatchewan status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, V. [AREVA Resources Canada Inc., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    This paper gives the status of uranium mining by Areva in Saskatchewan. Uranium production now meets 85% of world demand for power generation. 80% of world production of uranium comes from top 5 countries: Kazakhstan, Canada, Australia, Niger and Namibia. Saskatchewan is currently the only Canadian province with active uranium mines and mills and the largest exploration programs. Several mine projects are going through the environmental assessment process. Public opinion is in favour of mining activities in Saskatchewan.

  7. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  8. [Civil status and suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bitzer-Quintero, Oscar Kurt; García-González, Adolfo; Celis-de la Rosa, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    To determine if civil status acts as a risk factor in suicide and how it modifies according to gender, age and population size. A retrospective study which analyzes information from the mortality data from the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Information, from 1998 to 2002. Variables like suicides age, sex, cause of death, federal entity, population size and civil status were registered. Single men showed twofold risk for committing suicide. Women did not show any associated risk for suicide according to civil status. The risk of married men for committing suicide increased gradually with age. Medium-sized communities with less than 19,999 habitants presented the highest risk for habitants to commit suicide. Suicide is associated to gender especially to men who are not married and living in small and medium-sized communities. One explanation could be the lack of integrated behavior as defined by Emile Durkheim, where the physical density of society will determine behavior and ideas. This social structure phenomenon is called the "moral cocoon." This works around the individual being less individualistic and granting him/her the feeling of belonging to a group.

  9. Growth Performance and Behaviour in Grouped Pigs Fed Fibrous Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Bakare

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding fibrous diets on growth performance and occurrence of aggressive behaviours in growing pigs. Sixty healthy castrated pigs (initial body weight: 46.7±4.35 kg were used. A basal diet was diluted with maize cobs to two levels (0 and 160 g/kg dry matter. Behavioural activities were observed using video cameras for three weeks, 8 h/d starting at 0800 h. Pigs subjected to control diet gained more weight compared to pigs receiving fibrous diet in week 1 (0.47 vs 0.15 kg, respectively and 2 (1.37 vs 1.04, respectively (p<0.05. Average daily gain was not affected by treatment diet in the third week. Pigs on high fibrous spent more time eating, lying down, standing, walking and fighting (p<0.05 compared to pigs on control diet. Time spent eating increased as the weeks progressed whilst time spent lying down decreased. Time of day had an effect on time spent on different behavioural activities exhibited by all pigs on different treatment diet (p<0.05. Inactivity was greatest in 5th (1200 to 1300 h hour of the day for all the pigs on different dietary treatments. Skin lesions appeared the most on neck and shoulder region followed by chest, stomach and hind leg region, and finally head region (p<0.05. Pigs on high fibre diet had more skin lesions in all body regions compared to pigs on control diet (p<0.05. It can be concluded that the high fibrous diet with maize cobs did not affect growth performance and also did not reduce aggressive behaviours. Aggressive behaviours emanated out of frustration when queuing on the feeder. The findings of this study suggest that maize cobs can be included at a level of 160 g/kg in diets of pigs. However, to reduce the level of aggression more feeding space should be provided.

  10. Reduced total antioxidant status in postterm pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, S; Keskin, H L; Kaya, B; Ustuner, I; Avsar, A F

    2013-01-01

    The placenta is the major source of oxidative stress in normal human pregnancy. The placental tissue is typically functional in postterm pregnancies. We hypothesized that such pregnancies experience deteriorating oxidative balance and increasing oxidative stress. In this case-control study, our aim was to investigate the oxidative status in postterm pregnancies comparing with term by using total antioxidant status (TAS) measurement. Fifty pregnant women who were in their 41st gestational week (GW) and whose labor had not yet started were selected for the study group. Fifty subjects whose spontaneous labor onset and who delivered before their 41st GW were included for control group. Venous blood samples were obtained from each participant before the onset of labor. A premixed reagent was used to obtain serum TAS measurements from the blood samples. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the groups. Age, gravity, and parity of the subjects were similar between the groups (p> 0.05). Body mass index (BMI) were statistically higher in postterm group (p =0.011). The median (interquartile range) TAS level was lower in the pregnancies beyond 41 weeks than term pregnancies [1.69 (0.12) mM vs 1.75 (0.20) mM, (p< 0.05)]. A lower total antioxidant status in past days pregnancy suggests an association with decreased oxidative status compared to term. It can be speculated that pregnancies beyond 41 weeks are associated with decreased oxidative stress and this may be play a role in the etiology of the prolonged pregnancy.

  11. [Obesity and dyslipidemia in Tunisian bipolar subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzaher, Asma; Haj Mouhamed, Dhouha; Mechri, Anwar; Neffati, Fadoua; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence of obesity and overweight and their association with lipid parameters in bipolar patients. Our study included 130 patients with bipolar disorder and 130 control subjects aged respectively 37.9 +/- 12.1 and 37.2 +/- 13.1 years. Obesity was evaluated by body mass index (BMI). Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, cLDL and cHDL were determined by enzymatic methods and ApoA1, ApoB and Lp(a) by techniques immunoturbidimetric. The prevalence of obesity in patients is 30.1% vs 12.3% in controls. A significant increase in BMI was noted in patients compared with controls regardless of sex and tobacco status and in patients aged less than 35 years and those consumers of alcohol. The majority of obese and overweight patients are treated with valproic acid. We found increase in cholesterol (4.41 +/- 1.02 vs 3.90 +/- 0.98 mmol/L), in cLDL (2.13 +/- 1.09 vs 1.29 +/- 0.56 mmol/L) and in Lp(a) (236 +/- 207 vs 163 +/- 150 mg/L) and decrease in HDLc (0.98 +/- 0.28 vs 1.09 +/- 0.36 mmol/L), more frequent at the obese patients and those presenting an overweight. In conclusion, in bipolar patients, obesity and overweight are frequent and associated with perturbations in lipid profile particularly an increase in total cholesterol, cLDL and Lp(a) and decrease in cHDL that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  12. in sedentary healthy and unhealthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hammami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recreational soccer (RS is becoming a popular alternative to the classical continuous exercise mode used for the improvement of cardiovascular and metabolic fitness in untrained people. The objective of this paper was to conduct a detailed systematic review of the literature, identifying the physiological responses to RS and the training effects of RS on aerobic fitness and health in untrained healthy individuals and clinical patients. PubMed, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases were searched using terms related to recreational soccer. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCT that assessed acute physiological responses to RS or the training effects of RS on physical fitness and health in sedentary, untrained subjects of any age or health status. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria; seven examined the acute response to RS, and 28 assessed training effects. Clear evidence was found that RS had positive effects on many health-related indices and variables, including VO2max (gains of 7-16%, blood pressure (reductions of 6-13 mmHg, body composition (decreased fat mass and improved indices of bone health, and metabolic and cardiac function. These positive effects were observed in both healthy individuals and clinical patients, irrespective of age or sex. Although this review provides clear evidence of the positive effects of RS on health, most studies had limitations of methodology (an average PEDro score < 6. Furthermore, many of the training studies were from a small number of research groups. Future studies should be extended to other countries and institutions to ensure generality of the results. Regular RS training leads to significant cardiovascular and muscular adaptations and gains of health both in sedentary individuals and clinical patients at all ages, suggesting that RS is a potentially highly motivational method to enhance

  13. Scoring Rules for Subjective Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    report the true subjective probability of a binary event, even under Subjective Expected Utility. To address this one can “calibrate” inferences about true subjective probabilities from elicited subjective probabilities over binary events, recognizing the incentives that risk averse agents have...

  14. Building a profile of subjective well-being for social media users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lushi; Gong, Tao; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Davidson, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Subjective well-being includes 'affect' and 'satisfaction with life' (SWL). This study proposes a unified approach to construct a profile of subjective well-being based on social media language in Facebook status updates. We apply sentiment analysis to generate users' affect scores, and train a random forest model to predict SWL using affect scores and other language features of the status updates. Results show that: the computer-selected features resemble the key predictors of SWL as identified in early studies; the machine-predicted SWL is moderately correlated with the self-reported SWL (r = 0.36, p social media language.

  15. Building a profile of subjective well-being for social media users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Davidson, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Subjective well-being includes ‘affect’ and ‘satisfaction with life’ (SWL). This study proposes a unified approach to construct a profile of subjective well-being based on social media language in Facebook status updates. We apply sentiment analysis to generate users’ affect scores, and train a random forest model to predict SWL using affect scores and other language features of the status updates. Results show that: the computer-selected features resemble the key predictors of SWL as identified in early studies; the machine-predicted SWL is moderately correlated with the self-reported SWL (r = 0.36, p social media language. PMID:29135991

  16. Peer victimization and subjective health among students reporting disability or chronic illness in 11 Western countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sentenac, Mariane; Gavin, Aoife; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To compare the strength of the association between peer victimization at school and subjective health according to the disability or chronic illness (D/CI) status of students across countries. METHODS: This study used data from 55 030 students aged 11, 13 and 15 years from 11 countries...... reporting D/CI were more likely to report being victims of bullying. Victims of bullying reported more negative subjective health outcomes regardless of their D/CI status. Although inclusive education is currently a major topic of educational policies in most countries, additional efforts should be made...

  17. Neutrino astronomy current status, future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Karle, Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    This review volume is motivated by the recent discovery of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos by IceCube. The aim of the book is to bring together chapters on the status of current and future neutrino observatories with chapters on the implications and possible interpretations of the present observations and their upper limits. Each chapter is a mini-review of one aspect of the subject by leading experts. Taken together, the chapters constitute an up-to-date review of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos and their potential sources.

  18. Health literacy and functional health status in Korean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Hyun

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships of health literacy to chronic medical conditions and the functional health status among community-dwelling Korean older adults. In the literature, limited health literacy has been reported to have adverse effect on health outcomes. However, the link between health literacy to health status among Korean older adults needs to be clarified. A cross-sectional survey. A cross-sectional survey of 103 community-dwelling Korean older adults was conducted from June 2007-September 2007. Health literacy was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy test and functional health status was measured using the subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Individuals with a low health literacy had significantly higher rates of arthritis and hypertension. After adjusting for age, education and income, older individuals with low health literacy had higher limitations in activity and lower subjective health. In a model adjusting for age and income only, older individuals with low health literacy were more likely to report lower levels of physical function and subjective health and higher levels of limitations in activity and pain. Among community-dwelling Korean older adults, limited health literacy is associated independently with higher rates of chronic medical conditions and lower subjective health status. Nurses are key to providing health education to older adults. The understanding of the relationship of health literacy to health status is essential to develop communication and health education efforts for older adults in nursing practice.

  19. Cocaine-Associated Seizures and Incidence of Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlesi, Nima DO

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acute complications from cocaine abuse are commonly treated in the emergency department (ED; one of the most consequential is status epilepticus. The incidence of this complication is not clearly defined in the prior literature on cocaine-associated sequelae. We evaluated the incidence of status epilepticus in patients with seizures secondary to suspected cocaine use.Methods: We performed a retrospective multi-center study of patients with seizures resulting from cocaine use. We identified study subjects at 15 hospitals by record review and conducted a computer-assisted records search to identify patients with seizures for each institution over a four-year period. We selected subjects from this group on the basis of cocaine use and determined the occurrence of status epilepticus among them. Data were collected on each subject using a standardized data collection form.Results: We evaluated 43 patients in the ED for cocaine-associated seizures. Their age range was 17 to 54, with a mean age was 31 years; 53% were male. Of 43 patients, 42 experienced a single tonic-clonic seizure and one developed status epilepticus. All patients had either a history of cocaine use or positive urine drug screen for cocaine.Conclusion: Despite reported cases of status epilepticus with cocaine-induced seizures, the incidence of this complication was unclear based on prior literature. This study shows that most cocaine-associated seizures are self-limited. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2:157-160.

  20. Relationship between iron status and dietary fruit and vegetables based on their vitamin C and fiber content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péneau, Sandrine; Dauchet, Luc; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Estaquio, Carla; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Bertrais, Sandrine; Latino-Martel, Paule; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar

    2008-05-01

    Dietary fruits and vegetables may enhance iron status because of their high vitamin C content. The potential association between iron status and intakes of specific fruits and vegetables, according to sex and menopausal status, must be investigated. The objective was to assess the relation between dietary fruits, vegetables, and juices (FVJ) according to their vitamin C and fiber contents and serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations. A total of 4358 subjects, aged 35-60 y, of the Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals (SU.VI.MAX) cohort were selected. Subjects had completed at least six 24-h-dietary records over 2 y. The relation between serum ferritin and hemoglobin, measured at inclusion, and dietary FVJ according to their vitamin C and fiber contents was assessed by multiple regression analysis. In premenopausal women, serum ferritin was positively associated with intakes of fiber-poor FVJ (up to 10% higher serum ferritin in the third tertile compared with the first tertile). In the whole sample, hemoglobin was positively associated with fruits, vitamin C-rich FVJ, FVJ ascorbic acid, and fiber-poor FVJ categories (up to 1.5 g/L higher hemoglobin concentration). Intakes of fiber-poor FVJ were associated with higher serum ferritin concentrations in premenopausal women and with higher hemoglobin concentrations in the whole sample. Our results suggest that the fiber content of fruits and vegetables influences iron stores in premenopausal women but has no influence in groups in whom nonheme-iron absorption is limited because of high iron stores. Other mechanisms are likely to be involved in the case of hemoglobin.

  1. Empowering Esrd Patients For Assisted Self Nutritional Care: A Simple But Effective Intervention For Improving Nutritional Status Of Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratim Sengupta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein energy wasting (PEW is a prevalent problem among hemodialysis patients. Lack of adherence to dietary principle based conventional diet charts often fail to satisfy the nutritional requirements of the patients. We studied the effect of simple nutritional training and empowerment of the patients to formulate their own dietary menu in nutritional parameters of hemodialysis patients in 68 stable non diabetic End stage renal disease (ESRD patients who are on maintenance hemodialysis. The factors which otherwise can affect the nutritional status like sepsis, malignancy,tuberculosis were excluded. At the beginning patient's baseline nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric measurements, Subjective Global Assessment and serum albumin level. Body composition was assessed by linear regression equation (Durin-Womersley and Siri equation. The patients were divided in two comparable groups (Group-A&B. In group A patients were prescribed individualized dietary prescription; based on their nutritional allowance as per KDOQI guideline. In Group-B the patients were initially made familiar with the dietary principals of the commonly consumed food. Then they were trained by renal nutritionist by study material, visual aid, and proportional food models and one to one discussion to formulate a dietary menu, by these they were empowered to formulate their own dietary menu. They were constantly assisted when faced any problem. In both the group the nutritional parameters were reassessed after three months of intervention. The results were analyzed statistically. There was statistically significant mean increment in the fat free mass index in GroupB[0.8%(Gr.-AVs1.0%(Gr.-B,(p<0.05], the mean increment in the serum albumin in the GroupB was also significantly higher than GroupA[(0.6gm/dl(Gr.A Vs 0.9 gm/dl(Gr.B, p<0.0].Compared to Group-A there was statistically favorable anthropometric changes in Group-B. In conclusion patient empowerment and self

  2. Status kesehatan oral dan asupan zat gizi berhubungan dengan status gizi lansia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhdrisa Mura Wijaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central Bureau of Statistics data in 2006, showed that the average life expectancy of the population living in Yogyakarta (DIY was 73 years, and 73.8 years for those living in Sleman. This was higher than the average national life expectancy of 68.5 years. National Health Survey in 2007 showed that the prevalence of oral and dental problems in DIY was 23.6%, while the pulp and periapical tissue diseases in the elderly in Sleman districts was approximately 1704 cases. Hence, it was classified as one of the 10 most prevalent diseases in Public Health Centre. In addition, there were 406 older adults who were underweight. Objectives: To investigate the relationship between oral health status, nutrient intake and nutritional status in older adults. Methods: This study is an observational study with cross sectional design. Subjects were 310 patients aged 60-74 years old in Sleman district. Data obtained by interview, examination of the oral health status, measurement of body weight and arm span. Data were analyzed with Chi-square test. Results: There was a significant association between oral health status and protein intake (RP=2.38; 95%CI:1.42-3.970. Energy, fat and carbohydrates intake were not associated with oral health status (p>0,05. Nutritional status was significantly associated with the intake of the energy (RP=2.98, 95%CI:1.58-5.58, protein (RP=2.44, 95%CI:1,05-5.67, fat (RP=3.68, 95%CI:1.93-7.03 and carbohydrates (RP=4.89, 95%CI:2.54-9.4. However, there were no relationship found between oral health and nutritional status (RP=1.79, 95%CI:0.94-3.43. Conclusion: There was a significant association between oral health status and protein intake. The intake of nutrients (energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate was significantly associated with nutritional status. However, there was no significant relationship found between oral health and nutritional status in older adults.

  3. Determinants of selenium status in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) status in non-deficient subjects is typically assessed by the Se contents of plasma/serum. That pool comprises two functional, specific selenoprotein components and at least one non-functional, non-specific components which respond differently to changes in Se intake. A more informative means of characterizing Se status in non-deficient individuals is needed. Methods Multiple biomarkers of Se status (plasma Se, serum selenoprotein P [SEPP1], plasma glutathione peroxidase activity [GPX3], buccal cell Se, urinary Se) were evaluated in relation to selenoprotein genotypes (GPX1, GPX3, SEPP1, SEP15), dietary Se intake, and parameters of single-carbon metabolism in a cohort of healthy, non-Se-deficient men (n = 106) and women (n = 155). Conclusions Plasma Se concentration was 142.0 ± 23.5 ng/ml, with GPX3 and serum-derived SEPP1 calculated to comprise 20% and 34%, respectively, of that total. The balance, comprised of non-specific components, accounted for virtually all of the interindividual variation in total plasma Se. Buccal cell Se was associated with age and plasma homocysteine (hCys), but not plasma Se. SEPP1 showed a quadratic relationship with body mass index, peaking at BMI 25-30. Urinary Se was greater in women than men, and was associated with metabolic body weight (kg0.75), plasma folate, vitamin B12 and hCys (negatively). One GPX1 genotype (679T/T) was associated with significantly lower plasma Se levels than other allelic variants. Selenium intake, estimated from food frequency questionnaires, did not predict Se status as indicated by any biomarker. These results show that genotype, methyl-group status and BMI contribute to variation in Se biomarkers in Se-adequate individuals. PMID:21767397

  4. Determinants of selenium status in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeg Antonia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium (Se status in non-deficient subjects is typically assessed by the Se contents of plasma/serum. That pool comprises two functional, specific selenoprotein components and at least one non-functional, non-specific components which respond differently to changes in Se intake. A more informative means of characterizing Se status in non-deficient individuals is needed. Methods Multiple biomarkers of Se status (plasma Se, serum selenoprotein P [SEPP1], plasma glutathione peroxidase activity [GPX3], buccal cell Se, urinary Se were evaluated in relation to selenoprotein genotypes (GPX1, GPX3, SEPP1, SEP15, dietary Se intake, and parameters of single-carbon metabolism in a cohort of healthy, non-Se-deficient men (n = 106 and women (n = 155. Conclusions Plasma Se concentration was 142.0 ± 23.5 ng/ml, with GPX3 and serum-derived SEPP1 calculated to comprise 20% and 34%, respectively, of that total. The balance, comprised of non-specific components, accounted for virtually all of the interindividual variation in total plasma Se. Buccal cell Se was associated with age and plasma homocysteine (hCys, but not plasma Se. SEPP1 showed a quadratic relationship with body mass index, peaking at BMI 25-30. Urinary Se was greater in women than men, and was associated with metabolic body weight (kg0.75, plasma folate, vitamin B12 and hCys (negatively. One GPX1 genotype (679T/T was associated with significantly lower plasma Se levels than other allelic variants. Selenium intake, estimated from food frequency questionnaires, did not predict Se status as indicated by any biomarker. These results show that genotype, methyl-group status and BMI contribute to variation in Se biomarkers in Se-adequate individuals.

  5. Guidelines to Classify Female Subject Groups in Sport-Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroix, Lieselot; De Pauw, Kevin; Foster, Carl; Meeusen, Romain

    2016-03-01

    To review current cycling-related sport-science literature to formulate guidelines to classify female subject groups and to compare this classification system for female subject groups with the classification system for male subject groups. A database of 82 papers that described female subject groups containing information on preexperimental maximal cycle-protocol designs, terminology, biometrical and physiological parameters, and cycling experience was analyzed. Subject groups were divided into performance levels (PLs), according to the nomenclature. Body mass, body-mass index, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak power output (PPO), and training status were compared between PLs and between female and male PLs. Five female PLs were defined, representing untrained, active, trained, well-trained, and professional female subjects. VO2max and PPO significantly increased with PL, except for PL3 and PL4 (P groups. Relative VO2max is the most cited parameter for female subject groups and is proposed as the principal parameter to classify the groups. This systematic review shows the large variety in the description of female subject groups in the existing literature. The authors propose a standardized preexperimental testing protocol and guidelines to classify female subject groups into 5 PLs based on relative VO2max, relative PPO, training status, absolute VO2max, and absolute PPO.

  6. Authentic subjectivity and social transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O'Sullivan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Holiness in the Christian tradition has often been understood in a way that devalues embodiment and practical engagement with the world of one’s time. The latter understanding, for example, led to Marx’s critique and repudiation of Christianity. Both interpretations of holiness can be understood as mistaken efforts to express the dynamism for authenticity in contextualised human subjectivity. Vatican 2 opposed both views by addressing itself to all people of good will, declaring that everyone was called to holiness, and that authentic Christian identity involved solidarity with the world of one’s time, especially those who are poor. Vatican 2, therefore, provided an authoritative faith foundation for holiness expressed through social commitment and for viewing social commitment on the part of people of good will in whatever state of life as a form of holiness. This vision was also the conviction of leading spirituality writers of the period, like Thomas Merton, and inspired liberation theologians and the Latin American Catholic bishops at their conference in Medellín a few years after the Council. The argument of this article is that the emergence and development of a non-dualist Christian spirituality is grounded methodologically in the correct appropriation of the common innate dynamism for authenticity in concrete human persons and lived spiritual experiences consistent with and capable of enhancing this dynamism.

  7. Clinical management of transsexual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho

    2014-03-01

    Transsexual subjects are individuals who have a desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by a sense of discomfort with, or inappropriateness of, one's anatomic sex, and a wish to have surgery and hormonal treatment to make one's body as congruent as possible with one's preferred sex. They seek to develop the physical characteristics of the desired gender, and should undergo an effective and safe treatment regimen. The goal of treatment is to rehabilitate the individual as a member of society in the gender he or she identifies with. Sex reassignment procedures necessary for the treatment of transsexual patients are allowed in our country, at Medical Services that have a multidisciplinary team composed of a psychologist, a social worker, a psychiatrist, an endocrinologist and surgeons (gynecologists, plastic surgeons, and urologists). Patients must be between 21 to 75 years old and in psychological and hormonal treatment for at least 2 years. Testosterone is the principal agent used to induce male characteristics in female transsexual patients, and the estrogen is the chosen hormone used to induce the female sexual characteristics in male transsexual patients. Based on our 15 years of experience, we can conclude that testosterone and estradiol treatment in physiological doses are effective and safe in female and male transsexual patients, respectively.

  8. Researching Risk: Narrative, Biography, Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Henwood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the development of methodological practices promoting greater epistemic reflexivity in risk research and in social science generally. Knowledge of the specific practices researchers will find useful cannot exist separately from any particular empirical project. Accordingly, we report on, and provide a reflective account of, the "nuclear risk" project that was part of the Social Contexts and Responses to Risk (SCARR network in the UK (2003-2008. A key focus is exploring the value of narrative methods—especially narrative elicitation methods—for understanding people's perceptions of, and ways of living with, risk. We credit our deployment of a narrative method with producing a rich form of data on risk-biography intersections, which have carried great significance in our analytical work on the way biographical experiences, dynamically unfolding through space and time, can be interrupted by risk events. Arguments from the literature on reflexive modernity are deployed to make the case for: researching risk in everyday life as a problematic in and of itself; placing concepts of risk-biography, risk-reflexivity and risk-subjectivity at centre stage; and finding ways to inquire into the social and psychic complexities involved in the dynamic construction and reconstruction of risk phenomena. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001201

  9. The Nutritional Status of Mothers Practicing Breast Feeding In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exclusive breastfeeding is a globally recommended way of feeding and caring for young infants (0-6 months). Its benefits to both infants and mothers have been established. However, its impact on the maternal nutritional status is still a subject of contention. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the effect of ...

  10. Vitamin D status of older South Africans | Charlton | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To detennine the vitamin D status of older 'coloured' South Africans who had not sustained a fracture. Design: Cross-sectional analytic study. Methods: A random sample of 200 non-institutionalised subjects in Cape Town aged ≥65 years was drawn using a two-stage cluster design. Trained fieldworkers ...

  11. Anaemia, Nutritional Status and Parasitic Infection among Preschool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the packed cell volume nutritional status and parasitic infection among preschool children living in rural villages. Subjects and Methods: A total of 116 preschool children in nine villages formed the population for this study. The preschool children were studied using ...

  12. Nutritional status of renal transplant patients | du Plessis | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the effect of renal transplantation on the nutritional status of patients. Design. Prospective descriptive study. Setting. Renal Transplant Clinic at Tygerberg Hospital, Western Cape. Subjects. Fifty-eight renal transplant patients from Tygerberg Hospital were enrolled in the study. The sample was divided into two ...

  13. Treadmill walking exercise modulates bone mineral status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treadmill walking exercise modulates bone mineral status and inflammatory cytokines in ... Methods: Eighty obese asthmatic patients of both sexes, their age ranged from 41 to 53 years. Subjects were divided into two equal groups: training group (group A) received aerobic exercise training on ... OTHER RESOURCES.

  14. Parental socioeconomic status and birth weight distribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-03-17

    Mar 17, 2013 ... birth. The relationship between neonatal anthropometry and pa- rental socioeconomic status was evaluated. Results: The mean birth weight of the 280 newborns was 3180g + ... fants' birth weight among Nigerian singleton term ba- bies. Subjects and ..... ers are usually given iron supplementation. This had.

  15. The influence of socioeconomic status on the hemoglobin level and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 100 children with SCA and 100 age-, sex-, and social class-matched ..... This reduced red blood cell lifespan in the subjects is due to premature hemolysis. Furthermore, lower socioeconomic status was associated with significant reduction in mean hemoglobin.

  16. The nutritional status of patients with tuberculosis in comparison with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To report on the nutritional status of newly diagnosed patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in comparison to contacts who are tuberculosis free. Design: This was a community-based case-control study. Setting and subjects: The study was conducted in Delft, a periurban community in the Western Cape. Forty-three ...

  17. The Effects of Occupational Prestige, Marital Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the perceptions of mothers as a function of their marital status, prestige and technological level of their jobs. 320 university students and civil servants participated in the study. Each subject rated a briefly described working woman as a stimulus person on a 24 seven-point bipolar scales that describe ...

  18. Employment status, medical support and Income as significant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It asks the question: in what ways does the ability to purchase medicines depend on income, perceived unreasonable burden, age, gender, medical aid and employment status? 1000 subjects who utilized primary healthcare facility were randomly selected for the study. A standardized questionnaire was used to determine ...

  19. Nutritional knowledge, nutrients intake and nutritional status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concluded that hypertension was signifi cantly infl uenced by BMI of the subjects, which may be an indication of high intake of calories. Therefore, calorie intake should be controlled among the hypertensives. Keywords: anthropometry, micronutrient status, hypertension, knowledge, Nigeria Tanzania Journal of ...

  20. Neighbourhood status development in the Netherlands 1998-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frans Knol; with Jeroen Boelhouwer; Vic Veldheer

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Statusontwikkeling van wijken in Nederland 1998-2010 The Netherlands Institute for Social Research | SCP has a long tradition in describing the social status of neighbourhoods. The last time a report was published on this subject was in 1998 (Van hoog naar laag, van laag

  1. Periodontal Status of Adolescents in Surulere, Lagos State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    83% of the subjects presented predominately with the worst condition recorded, code 2 (i.e. calculus), which is a reversible condition. A mean of 0.6 healthy sextants, 2.3 bleeding sextants and 3.1 calculus-accumulated sextants was calculated. A statistical difference in periodontal status was noted with age, the younger ...

  2. Nutritional knowledge, nutrients intake and nutritional status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: This study aimed at assessing the anthropometry, dietary intake and micronutrient status of hypertensive pa- tients attending specialist hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria. A descriptive case control study was conducted among subjects attending two specialist hospitals located in Akure and Ondo towns. A total of 452 ...

  3. Identity Statuses in Upper-Division Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2016-01-01

    We use the theories of identity statuses and communities of practice to describe three different case studies of students finding their paths through undergraduate physics and developing a physics subject-specific identity. Each case study demonstrates a unique path that reinforces the link between the theories of communities of practice and…

  4. Language Status and Use in Dilling City, the Nuba Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugaddam, Abdel Rahim Hamid

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the status and use of language in the Nuba Mountains, Sudan. It is based on responses to 1496 questionnaires administered to people belonging to 37 different ethnic groups. Subjects were asked about language proficiency, language use in different domains and language attitudes. Factors such as sex, generation, intermarriage,…

  5. Independent Schools: Charitable Status, Public Benefit and UDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfreyman, David

    2007-01-01

    In England and Wales "independent schools" ("private schools" or, confusingly, "public schools") almost always have "charitable status". Hence, they are now subject to the new "public benefit" test imposed in the Charities Act 2006. There is much discussion as to whether this test will be a…

  6. Physiologic Status Monitoring via the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Traverso

    Full Text Available Reliable, real-time heart and respiratory rates are key vital signs used in evaluating the physiological status in many clinical and non-clinical settings. Measuring these vital signs generally requires superficial attachment of physically or logistically obtrusive sensors to subjects that may result in skin irritation or adversely influence subject performance. Given the broad acceptance of ingestible electronics, we developed an approach that enables vital sign monitoring internally from the gastrointestinal tract. Here we report initial proof-of-concept large animal (porcine experiments and a robust processing algorithm that demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. Implementing vital sign monitoring as a stand-alone technology or in conjunction with other ingestible devices has the capacity to significantly aid telemedicine, optimize performance monitoring of athletes, military service members, and first-responders, as well as provide a facile method for rapid clinical evaluation and triage.

  7. Predicting participation in group parenting education in an Australian sample: the role of attitudes, norms, and control factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Wellington, Larne

    2009-03-01

    We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence variables (self-identity and group norm). Regression analyses supported the TPB predictors of participation intentions with self-identity and group norm also significantly predicting intentions. Editors' Strategic Implications: these findings provide preliminary support for the TPB, in conjunction with additional sources of social influence, as a predictive model for participation in parent education and other prevention programs.

  8. Identity Centrality and In-Group Superiority Differentially Predict Reactions to Historical Victimization and Harm Doing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezarta Bilali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two U.S. studies report a differential effect of identity centrality and in-group superiority on reactions to in-group victimization and in-group harm-doing. Study 1 (N = 80 found that higher identity centrality predicted less justification for freely-recalled in-group victim events, whereas higher in-group superiority predicted more justification for freely-recalled in-group harm-doing events. Study 2 (N = 105 reexamined these findings in specific contexts of historical victimization (Pearl Harbor and harm-doing (Hiroshima and Nagasaki, finding that in-group superiority was a predictor of reactions to historical in-group harm-doing (justification, emotional reactions, importance of events, whereas centrality was a predictor of reactions to historical in-group victimization.

  9. Ground reaction force analysed with correlation coefficient matrix in group of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerbik, Ewa; Krawczyk, Maciej; Syczewska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is the third cause of death in contemporary society and causes many disorders. Clinical scales, ground reaction force (GRF) and objective gait analysis are used for assessment of patient's rehabilitation progress during treatment. The goal of this paper is to assess whether signal correlation coefficient matrix applied to GRF can be used for evaluation of the status of post-stroke patients. A group of patients underwent clinical assessment and instrumented gait analysis simultaneously three times. The difference between components of patient's GRF (vertical, fore/aft, med/lat) and normal ones (reference GRF of healthy subjects) was calculated as correlation coefficient. Patients were divided into two groups ("worse" and "better") based on the clinical functional scale tests done at the beginning of rehabilitation process. The results obtained by these two groups were compared using statistical analysis. An increase of median value of correlation coefficient is observed in all components of GRF, but only in non-paretic leg. Analysis of GRF signal can be helpful in assessment of post-stroke patients during rehabilitation. Improvement in stroke patients was observed in non-paretic leg of the "worse" group. GRF analysis should not be the only tool for objective validation of patient's improvement, but could be used as additional source of information.

  10. Project Management Practices as a Subject of Research for CSCW: Status and Future Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Leimbach, Timo

    2017-01-01

    The ‘project’ is a prevalent form for organising endeavours of construction, innovation, IT development and organisational change. ‘Projects’ involve coordination and cooperation between colocated and distributed actors, and are relevant for CSCW (computer supported cooperative work) research as ...

  11. Effects of Gymnema lactiferum leaves on glycemic and lipidemic status in type 2 diabetes subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thushari Bandara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The diabetic patients in Sri Lanka use G. lactiferum leaves as a treatment for diabetes. However, scientific data is not available on this plant. A clinical trial was conducted including 26, type 2 diabetic patients with hypercholesterolemia. The treatment group received a suspension of G. lactiferum leaf powder twice daily for four weeks. Blood parameters of both groups (treated and control were determined at the beginning and the end of the study period. Study indicates significant effects on FBS (p=0.002, cholesterol (p=0.004, and LDL lowering (p=0.023 and a significant postprandial glucose lowering effect (p=0.026 for 60 min and p=0.022 for 120 min, after four weeks. In spite of the short study period, a significant reduction (p=0.012 in HbA1C levels was also observed.

  12. Propionic acid affects immune status and metabolism in adipose tissue from overweight subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Lahham, S.; Roelofsen, H.; Rezaee, F.; Weening, D.; Hoek, A.; Vonk, R.; Venema, K.

    Background Adipose tissue is a primary site of obesity-induced inflammation, which is emerging as an important contributor to obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Dietary fibre consumption appears to be protective. Short-chain fatty acids, e.g. propionic acid, are the principal products

  13. Religious Involvement, Social Engagement, and Subjective Health Status of Older Residents of Informal Neighborhoods of Nairobi

    OpenAIRE

    Kodzi, Ivy Abla; Obeng Gyimah, Stephen; Emina, Jacques; Chika Ezeh, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Although past research has extensively documented the effects of religious involvement and social integration on the health outcomes of older people, relatively little research has examined the relationship among older Africans. In this article, we examined the effects of religious affiliation and participation as well as forms of social engagement, including social support, sociability, and community participation on self-reported health. The study used data from a sample of older men and wo...

  14. Religious involvement, social engagement, and subjective health status of older residents of informal neighborhoods of Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodzi, Ivy Abla; Obeng Gyimah, Stephen; Emina, Jacques; Chika Ezeh, Alex

    2011-06-01

    Although past research has extensively documented the effects of religious involvement and social integration on the health outcomes of older people, relatively little research has examined the relationship among older Africans. In this article, we examined the effects of religious affiliation and participation as well as forms of social engagement, including social support, sociability, and community participation on self-reported health. The study used data from a sample of older men and women (50 years and above) from two informal settlements in Nairobi Kenya. Differences in religious groups were statistically significant. Frequency of religious attendance was negatively associated with health, while the number of close friends, social support, and frequency of community participation were positively and independently related to self-reported health.

  15. Status of Standardization Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-30

    STATUS CODES: A- 8 G - 0 , Y- 0 , Z- 0 8925 0153 A-A-20177 CANDY AND CHOCOLATE CONFECTION GL F2 934 944 944 A GL SA 50 SS N D 8925 0155 JJJ-S-351H SYRUP...944 944 A GL SA 50 SS N D 8925 0153 A-A-20177 CANDY AND CHOCOLATE CONFECTION GL F2 934 944 944 A GL SA 50 SS N D 8925 0155 JJJ-S-351H SYRUP MCA GL G5

  16. Model Validation Status Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  17. The status of GALLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsten, T.; Anselmann, P.; Breitenbach, M.; Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Lenzing, A.; Pernicka, E.; Plaga, R.; Povh, B.; Schlosser, C.; Voelk, H.; Wink, R.; Wojcik, M. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)); Bellotti, E. (Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy)); Ammon, R. v.; Balata, M.; Ebert, K.; Fritsch, T.; Hellriegel, K.; Henrich, E.; Stieglitz, L.; Weyrich, F. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.)); Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Ragazzi, S.; Zanotti, L. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica); Feilitzsch, F. v.; Moessbauer, R.; Schanda, U. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Physik); Berthomieu, G.; Schatzmann, E. (Nice Univ., 06 (France). Observatoire); Carmi, I.; Dostrovsky, I. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel)); D' Angelo, S.; Bacci, C.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Paoluzi, L. (Rome-2 Univ. (Italy)); Cribier, M.; Dupont, G.; Gosset, L.; Pichard, B.; Rich, J.; Spiro; GALLEX Collaboration

    1991-04-01

    A radiochemical Gallium-Solar-Neutrino Detector has been set up at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory. All major installations are implemented and the target, 53,5 m{sup 3} of galliumchloride solution containing 30.3 tons of gallium, has been brought underground after removing cosmogenic Ge-isotopes through nitrogen purge. This final implementation status and the achieved parameters characterizing the experiment are described in this report. Full scale performance tests and optimalization of the operating conditions of the extraction system are presently under way. (orig.).

  18. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Status of Standardization Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    PERFO CS B2 B 943 954 954 A 99 N 55M TOTAL -3 ,DELINQUENT -0 , STATUS CODES: A- 3 G6-0 , Y -0 , Z-O0 5610 0513 NIL D 16680D DECK COVERING SH D2 883 893...MIL A 49201 ARRESTER ELEC F1482 F1495 G CR D2 904 924 934 A CR U B 5920 A947 MIL M 49240A MULTIPLEXER TD 1235 P TTC CR F! 923 924 924 A N C 5920 D196

  20. Pyrrhic victories: the need for social status drives costly competitive behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van den Bos, Wouter; Golka, Philipp J M; Effelsberg, David; McClure, Samuel M

    2013-01-01

    .... We argue instead that competitive drive derives from a desire for social status. We make use of a multi-player auction task in which subjects knowingly incur financial losses for the sake of winning auctions...