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Sample records for subjective emotional response

  1. Subjective and physiological emotional response in euthymic bipolar patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Mathieu; Aguillon-Hernandez, Nadia; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Martineau, Joëlle; El-Hage, Wissam

    2014-12-15

    The euthymic phase of bipolar disorders may be associated with residual emotional and/or subsyndromal symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare subjective and physiologic emotional response to negative, neutral and positive emotion eliciting pictures between euthymic bipolar patients (n=26) and healthy controls (n=30). We evaluated emotional response using an emotional induction method with emotional pictures from the International Affective Picture System. We measured subjective emotional response with the Self-Assessment Manikin and physiological emotional response by measuring pupil size. No difference was found between euthymic bipolar patients and controls regarding subjective emotional response. However, upon viewing positive pictures, pupil dilation was significantly lower in euthymic bipolar patients compared to controls. This finding suggests that euthymic bipolar phase may be associated with reduced physiologic emotional response to positive valence, which is consistent with a more general negative emotional bias or can be understood as a residual emotional subsyndromal symptom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence of Rapid Modulation by Social Information of Subjective, Physiological, and Neural Responses to Emotional Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martial Mermillod

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that conceptual or emotional factors could influence the perceptual processing of stimuli. In this article, we aimed to evaluate the effect of social information (positive, negative, or no information related to the character of the target on subjective (perceived and felt valence and arousal, physiological (facial mimicry as well as on neural (P100 and N170 responses to dynamic emotional facial expressions (EFE that varied from neutral to one of the six basic emotions. Across three studies, the results showed reduced ratings of valence and arousal of EFE associated with incongruent social information (Study 1, increased electromyographical responses (Study 2, and significant modulation of P100 and N170 components (Study 3 when EFE were associated with social (positive and negative information (vs. no information. These studies revealed that positive or negative social information reduces subjective responses to incongruent EFE and produces a similar neural and physiological boost of the early perceptual processing of EFE irrespective of their congruency. In conclusion, the article suggests that the presence of positive or negative social context modulates early physiological and neural activity preceding subsequent behavior.

  3. Emotional Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Christensen, Sverre Riis; Lundsteen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    Recent neurological research has pointed to the importance of fundamental emotional processes for most kinds of human behaviour. Measures of emotional response tendencies towards brands seem to reveal intangible aspects of brand equity, particularly in a marketing context. In this paper a procedure...... for estimating such emotional brand equity is presented and findings from two successive studies of more than 100 brands are reported. It demonstrates how changes that occur between two years are explainable in terms of factors identifiable in the markets, and that the measures otherwise are stable over time....... Also, it is shown that the measurement procedure is extremely robust....

  4. Gender differences in response to emotional stress: an assessment across subjective, behavioral, and physiological domains and relations to alcohol craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M; Hong, Kwangik; Bergquist, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2008-07-01

    Women and men are at risk for different types of stress-related disorders, with women at greater risk for depression and anxiety and men at greater risk for alcohol-use disorders. The present study examines gender differences in emotional and alcohol craving responses to stress that may relate to this gender divergence in disorders. Healthy adult social drinkers (27 men, 27 women) were exposed to individually developed and calibrated stressful, alcohol-related, and neutral-relaxing imagery, 1 imagery per session, on separate days and in random order. Subjective emotions, behavioral/bodily responses, cardiovascular arousal [heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP)], and self-reported alcohol craving were assessed. Women reported and displayed greater sadness and anxiety following stress than men and men had greater diastolic BP response than women. No gender differences in alcohol craving, systolic BP or HR were observed. Subjective, behavioral, and cardiovascular measures were correlated in both genders. However, for men, but not women, alcohol craving was associated with greater subjective emotion and behavioral arousal following stress and alcohol cues. These data suggest that men and women respond to stress differently, with women experiencing greater sadness and anxiety, while men show a greater integration of reward motivation (craving) and emotional stress systems. These findings have implications for the gender-related divergence in vulnerability for stress-related disorders, with women at greater risk for anxiety and depression than men, and men at greater risk for alcohol-use disorders than women.

  5. Stay calm! Regulating emotional responses by implementation intentions: Assessing the impact on physiological and subjective arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbel-Jackson, Lena; Butler, Laurie T; Ellis, Judi A; van Reekum, Carien M

    2016-09-01

    Implementation intention (IMP) has recently been highlighted as an effective emotion regulatory strategy. Most studies examining the effectiveness of IMPs to regulate emotion have relied on self-report measures of emotional change. In two studies we employed electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate (HR) in addition to arousal ratings (AR) to assess the impact of an IMP on emotional responses. In Study 1, 60 participants viewed neutral and two types of negative pictures (weapon vs. non-weapon) under the IMP "If I see a weapon, then I will stay calm and relaxed!" or no self-regulatory instructions (Control). In Study 2, additionally to the Control and IMP conditions, participants completed the picture rating task either under goal intention (GI) to stay calm and relaxed or warning instructions highlighting that some pictures contain weapons. In both studies, participants showed lower EDA, reduced HR deceleration and lower AR to the weapon pictures compared to the non-weapon pictures. In Study 2, the IMP was associated with lower EDA compared to the GI condition for the weapon pictures, but not compared to the weapon pictures in the Warning condition. ARs were lower for IMP compared to GI and Warning conditions for the weapon pictures.

  6. Responsibility for others' emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Rietti, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    Recent philosophical work on responsibility for emotion has tended to focus on what responsibility we can have for our own emotions. Folk psychology suggests we can also be responsible for others’ emotions, and they for ours, and that this can be reason for praise or blame . However, many branches of applied (and popular) psychology, and some schools of philosophy, deny there can be interpersonal responsibility for emotion. I shall be arguing here against this view, and for an account on whic...

  7. Subjective experience of emotions and emotional empathy in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Anja; Bahçesular, Katja; Brockmann, Eva-Maria; Biederbick, Sarah-Elisabeth; Dziobek, Isabel; Gallinat, Jürgen; Montag, Christiane

    2014-12-30

    Unlike the cognitive dimensions, alterations of the affective components of empathy in schizophrenia are less well understood. This study explored cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy in the context of the subjective experience of aspects of emotion processing, including emotion regulation, emotional contagion, and interpersonal distress, in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In addition, the predictive value of these parameters on psychosocial function was investigated. Fifty-five patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 55 healthy controls were investigated using the Multifaceted Empathy Test and Interpersonal Reactivity Index, as well as the Subjective Experience of Emotions and Emotional Contagion Scales. Individuals with schizophrenia showed impairments of cognitive empathy, but maintained emotional empathy. They reported significantly more negative emotional contagion, overwhelming emotions, lack of emotions, and symbolization of emotions by imagination, but less self-control of emotional expression than healthy persons. Besides cognitive empathy, the experience of a higher extent of overwhelming emotions and of less interpersonal distress predicted psychosocial function in patients. People with schizophrenia and healthy controls showed diverging patterns of how cognitive and emotional empathy related to the subjective aspects of emotion processing. It can be assumed that variables of emotion processing are important moderators of empathic abilities in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Emotional response to advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Anastasiei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotions can transcend cultural, linguistic, demographic, and social boundaries. Emotions affect information processing and create a positive attitude toward the ad, which becomes associated with the brand. Objectives. This study investigates the role of pleasure (P, arousal (A and domination (D emotions in mobile’s photo camera advertisement and how each of them is influencing consumer attitude towards the advertisement and brand. Prior Work. Holbrook and Batra (1987 developed their own emotional scale based on these three dimensions (PAD, showing that these emotions mediate consumer responses to advertising. Approach. A 1*4 factorial experiment design method was adopted in order to measure the impact of independent variables (emotion type on dependent variables (attitude toward ad, attitude toward brand. Results. The results revealed that emotions like Pleasure (loving, friendly, grateful and Arousal (active, interested, excited, entertained influence consumers' attitudes towards brand and advertising. Value. Marketers need to understand the role of pleasure and arousal emotions when making advertising campaign; an effective promotion leads to persuading consumers. The results indicate that marketing practitioners should measure affective responses when testing an advertisement, as long as this action would predict brand attitude.

  9. The effect of cortisol on emotional responses depends on order of cortisol and placebo administration in a within-subjects design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Michelle M.; Scherer, Sean M.; Hoks, Roxanne M.; Abercrombie, Heather C.

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol does not exhibit a straightforward relationship with mood states; administration of glucocorticoids to human subjects has produced mixed effects on mood and emotional processing. In this study, participants (N=46) received intravenous hydrocortisone (synthetic cortisol; 0.1 mg/kg body weight) and placebo in randomized order over two sessions 48 hours apart. Following the infusion, participants rated neutral and unpleasant pictures. In Session 1, participants reported elevated negative affect (NA) following the picture-rating task, regardless of treatment. In Session 2, however, only participants who received cortisol (and thus who had received placebo in Session 1) reported elevated NA. Arousal ratings for unpleasant pictures followed a similar pattern. These findings suggest that the effects of cortisol on emotion vary based on situational factors, such as drug administration order or familiarity with the tasks and setting. Such factors can influence cortisol’s effects on emotion in two ways: A) cortisol may only potentiate NA and arousal ratings in the absence of other, overwhelming influences on affect, such as the novelty of the setting and tasks in Session 1; and B) cortisol in Session 1 may facilitate learning processes (e.g. habituation to the stimuli and setting; extinction of aversive responses) such that emotional responses to the pictures are lessened in Session 2. This interpretation is compatible with a body of literature on the effects of glucocorticoids on learning and memory processes. PMID:21232874

  10. The determinants of subjective emotional intensity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.; Sonnemans, J.

    1995-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that emotional intensity is determined jointly by variables from the following 4 classes: concerns (strength and relevance), appraisal, regulation, and individual response propensities. For 6 wks, 37 college students reported an emotion every week and answered questions on a

  11. Subjective quality of life and emotional pain among subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Heart failure (HF) is a common pathology worldwide. Associated emotional pain is an important risk factor of increased morbidity and secondary psychopathology. Methods: Subjects in stable state of HF attending the cardiology clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) were recruited into the study.

  12. [Emotional intelligence and oscillatory responses on the emotional facial expressions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazev, G G; Mitrofanova, L G; Bocharov, A V

    2013-01-01

    Emotional intelligence-related differences in oscillatory responses to emotional facial expressions were investigated in 48 subjects (26 men and 22 women) in age 18-30 years. Participants were instructed to evaluate emotional expression (angry, happy and neutral) of each presented face on an analog scale ranging from -100 (very hostile) to + 100 (very friendly). High emotional intelligence (EI) participants were found to be more sensitive to the emotional content of the stimuli. It showed up both in their subjective evaluation of the stimuli and in a stronger EEG theta synchronization at an earlier (between 100 and 500 ms after face presentation) processing stage. Source localization using sLORETA showed that this effect was localized in the fusiform gyrus upon the presentation of angry faces and in the posterior cingulate gyrus upon the presentation of happy faces. At a later processing stage (500-870 ms) event-related theta synchronization in high emotional intelligence subject was higher in the left prefrontal cortex upon the presentation of happy faces, but it was lower in the anterior cingulate cortex upon presentation of angry faces. This suggests the existence of a mechanism that can be selectively increase the positive emotions and reduce negative emotions.

  13. Emotional response towards food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis Xinwei; Corsi, Armando M.; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate consumers’ emotional responses to food packaging. More specifically, we use self-report and physiological measures to jointly assess emotional responses to three typical food packaging elements: colours (lowwavelength vs. high-wavelength), images (positive vs. negative......) and typefaces (simple vs. ornate). A sample of 120 participants was exposed to mock package design concepts of chocolate blocks. The results suggest that images generate an emotional response that can be measured by both self-report and physiological measures, whereas colours and typefaces generate emotional...... response that can only be measured by self-report measures. We propose that a joint application of selfreport and physiological measures can lead to richer information and wider interpretation of consumer emotional responses to food packaging elements than using either measure alone....

  14. Prediction of subjective ratings of emotional pictures by EEG features

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dennis J.; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Sarnacki, William A.; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Emotion dysregulation is an important aspect of many psychiatric disorders. Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology could be a powerful new approach to facilitating therapeutic self-regulation of emotions. One possible BCI method would be to provide stimulus-specific feedback based on subject-specific electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to emotion-eliciting stimuli. Approach. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we studied the relationships between emotional valence/arousal and three EEG features: amplitude of alpha activity over frontal cortex; amplitude of theta activity over frontal midline cortex; and the late positive potential over central and posterior mid-line areas. For each feature, we evaluated its ability to predict emotional valence/arousal on both an individual and a group basis. Twenty healthy participants (9 men, 11 women; ages 22-68) rated each of 192 pictures from the IAPS collection in terms of valence and arousal twice (96 pictures on each of 4 d over 2 weeks). EEG was collected simultaneously and used to develop models based on canonical correlation to predict subject-specific single-trial ratings. Separate models were evaluated for the three EEG features: frontal alpha activity; frontal midline theta; and the late positive potential. In each case, these features were used to simultaneously predict both the normed ratings and the subject-specific ratings. Main results. Models using each of the three EEG features with data from individual subjects were generally successful at predicting subjective ratings on training data, but generalization to test data was less successful. Sparse models performed better than models without regularization. Significance. The results suggest that the frontal midline theta is a better candidate than frontal alpha activity or the late positive potential for use in a BCI-based paradigm designed to modify emotional reactions.

  15. Physiological and self-assessed emotional responses to emotion-eliciting films in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elices, Matilde; Soler, Joaquim; Fernández, Cristina; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Jesús Portella, María; Pérez, Víctor; Alvarez, Enrique; Carlos Pascual, Juan

    2012-12-30

    According to Linehan's biosocial model, the core characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is emotional dysregulation. In the present study, we investigated two components of this model: baseline emotional intensity and emotional reactivity. A total of 60 women, 30 with BPD diagnosis and 30 age and sex-matched healthy subjects (HCs), participated in two experiments. In the first experiment, we evaluated emotional responses to six films designed to elicit discrete emotions (anger, fear, sadness, disgust, amusement and neutral). The second experiment evaluated emotional reactions to three emotion-eliciting films containing BPD-specific content (sexual abuse, emotional dependence and abandonment/separation). Skin conductance level, heart rate, and subjective emotional response were recorded for each film. Although self-reported data indicated that negative emotions at baseline were stronger in the BPD group, physiological measures showed no differences between the groups. Physiological results should be interpreted with caution since most BPD participants were under pharmacological treatment. BPD subjects presented no subjective heightened reactivity to most of the discrete emotion-eliciting films. Subjective responses to amusement and "BPD-specific content" films revealed significant between-group differences. These findings suggest that the main characteristic of BPD might be negative emotional intensity rather than heightened emotional reactivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Unpleasant subjective emotional experiencing of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Vallath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of pain medicine that once began as a supportive and compassionate care, adding value to the management of acute and chronic ailments, has now transformed into a vital and essential specialty with structured training programs and service units with professionals dedicating their careers to it. The expansion of understanding of the direct relationship of pain relief to the quality of life, uncovering of neuronal pathways, and technological advances in imaging as well as in interventional techniques have all contributed to this phenomenal growth. However, there is a growing concern whether the training programs and the specialized practitioners are gradually limiting their skilled inputs primarily within the sensory realm of the pain experience with sophisticated interventional techniques and relegating its subjective and emotional dimensions to perfunctory realms within the schema of service provision. While the specialty is still young, if we can understand the inherent aspect of these dimensions within the pain experience and acknowledge the gaps in service provision, it may be possible to champion development of truly comprehensive pain relief programs that responds effectively and ethically to a patient′s felt needs. This article attempts to position the subjectivity of pain experience in context and surface the need to design complete systems of pain relief services inclusive of this dimension. It presents authors′ review of literature on perspectives of ′unpleasant subjective emotional experiencing of the pain" to elucidate possible clinical implications based on the evidences presented on neuro-biology and neuro-psychology of the pain experience; the aim being to inspire systems of care where this dimension is sufficiently evaluated and managed.

  17. LSD enhances the emotional response to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaelen, M; Barrett, F S; Roseman, L; Lorenz, R; Family, N; Bolstridge, M; Curran, H V; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J; Carhart-Harris, R L

    2015-10-01

    There is renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD was used extensively in the 1950s and 1960s as an adjunct in psychotherapy, reportedly enhancing emotionality. Music is an effective tool to evoke and study emotion and is considered an important element in psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy; however, the hypothesis that psychedelics enhance the emotional response to music has yet to be investigated in a modern placebo-controlled study. The present study sought to test the hypothesis that music-evoked emotions are enhanced under LSD. Ten healthy volunteers listened to five different tracks of instrumental music during each of two study days, a placebo day followed by an LSD day, separated by 5-7 days. Subjective ratings were completed after each music track and included a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the nine-item Geneva Emotional Music Scale (GEMS-9). Results demonstrated that the emotional response to music is enhanced by LSD, especially the emotions "wonder", "transcendence", "power" and "tenderness". These findings reinforce the long-held assumption that psychedelics enhance music-evoked emotion, and provide tentative and indirect support for the notion that this effect can be harnessed in the context of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy. Further research is required to test this link directly.

  18. [Emotional response to affective stimuli in subjects addicted to opiates engaged in controlled use as part of the P.E.P.S.A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arcos, Francisco Aguilar; Verdejo García, Antonio; López Jiménez, Angeles; Montañez Pareja, Matilde; Gómez Juárez, Encarnación; Arráez Sánchez, Francisco; Pérez García, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze emotional response to a set of everyday emotional visual stimuli unrelated to drug use. Two groups of prescribed opiate drug abusers (heroin+methadone vs. methadone-only groups) currently participating in the Andalusian Experimental Prescribed Drug Program (Programa Experimental de Prescripcion de Estupefacientes de Andalucia, PEPSA) were studied, and comparisons made between them, within them for different phases, and between them and a normative group of nonusers. For this purpose we used the I.C.E.R.E., an instrument based on the I.A.P.S. (International Affective Picture System) and on Peter Lang's S.A.M. (Self-Assessment Manikin). The results showed patterns of emotional response in the opiate users, compared to the non-users, characterized by a lower rating of the everyday natural stimuli of a pleasant nature and a greater sensitivity to the stimuli of a neutral and negative nature. These patterns were quite stable even in different clinical situations and stages of development of the P.E.P.S.A.

  19. Emotional Stroop task: effect of word arousal and subject anxiety on emotional interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Thomas; Mériau, Katja; Heekeren, Hauke R; van der Meer, Elke

    2009-05-01

    Inconsistent findings regarding the emotional Stroop effect in healthy subjects may be explained by confounding effects of stimulus valence and arousal, as well as individual differences in anxiety. We examined reaction time data in a healthy sample using the emotional Stroop task while carefully matching arousal level of positive and negative words. Independent of valence, emotional relative to neutral words elicited emotional interference, indicating that arousal determines emotional interference. Independent of valence, emotional words were better re-called and recognized than neutral words. Individual differences in state anxiety were associated with emotional interference, that is, emotional interference was enhanced in subjects with high state anxiety. There was no influence of trait anxiety. These findings indicate that word arousal produces emotional interference independent of valence. State anxiety exacerbates interference of emotional words by further biasing attention towards emotionally salient stimuli.

  20. Subject-independent emotion recognition based on physiological signals: a three-stage decision method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hu, Bin; Wang, Yue; Moore, Philip; Dai, Yongqiang; Feng, Lei; Ding, Zhijie

    2017-12-20

    Collaboration between humans and computers has become pervasive and ubiquitous, however current computer systems are limited in that they fail to address the emotional component. An accurate understanding of human emotions is necessary for these computers to trigger proper feedback. Among multiple emotional channels, physiological signals are synchronous with emotional responses; therefore, analyzing physiological changes is a recognized way to estimate human emotions. In this paper, a three-stage decision method is proposed to recognize four emotions based on physiological signals in the multi-subject context. Emotion detection is achieved by using a stage-divided strategy in which each stage deals with a fine-grained goal. The decision method consists of three stages. During the training process, the initial stage transforms mixed training subjects to separate groups, thus eliminating the effect of individual differences. The second stage categorizes four emotions into two emotion pools in order to reduce recognition complexity. The third stage trains a classifier based on emotions in each emotion pool. During the testing process, a test case or test trial will be initially classified to a group followed by classification into an emotion pool in the second stage. An emotion will be assigned to the test trial in the final stage. In this paper we consider two different ways of allocating four emotions into two emotion pools. A comparative analysis is also carried out between the proposal and other methods. An average recognition accuracy of 77.57% was achieved on the recognition of four emotions with the best accuracy of 86.67% to recognize the positive and excited emotion. Using differing ways of allocating four emotions into two emotion pools, we found there is a difference in the effectiveness of a classifier on learning each emotion. When compared to other methods, the proposed method demonstrates a significant improvement in recognizing four emotions in the

  1. Long life to emotions: emotional response categorisation across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Luigi; Lanza, Francesca

    2011-12-01

    People perceive and organise their social world on the basis of their previous semantic knowledge as well as on the basis of their emotional responses. We tested the hypothesis that emotional response categorisation, namely the tendency to group stimuli on the basis of the emotion they evoke, increases across the lifespan. Young and older adults were asked to categorise target words and either conceptual or emotional response similarity could be used to perform the task. Results showed that older adults were more likely than younger adults to rely on emotional equivalence to categorise stimuli. In addition, current affective state was significantly related to emotional response categorisation. These findings are discussed in relation to recent models that propose a prominent role for emotions in the social life of older adults.

  2. EMG and cardiovascular responses to emotionally provocative photographs and text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesay, J R; Porter, T

    1994-08-01

    Previous studies on the psychophysiology of human emotion have repeatedly shown general and occasionally specific facial EMG (mu v) and covert cardiovascular response relationships to emotionally provocative photographs. Less clear are the relationships between psychophysiological response indices measured during the silent reading of emotionally charged versus emotionally neutral text. In this study, 12 adult subjects were presented two emotionally loaded color and black-and-white photographs and two brief newspaper articles, one emotionally charged and the other emotionally neutral in content. Each independent stimulus was presented for 1 min., preceded by a rest according to a multiple baseline-reversal design. Subjects evaluated each pictorial and textual stimulus condition according to adjective dimensions on 7-point rating scales. Mean values for corrugator supercilii EMG (mu v), upper trapezius EMG (mu v), surface temperature (degrees F), and heart rate (bpm) measured by finger photoplethysmography were measured during each rest and test period. Significant increases in the subjects' mean corrugator supercilii EMG (mu v) measures were observed during all color and black-and-white photograph presentations for both emotional and neutral content. As predicted, the subjects' mean corrugator supercilii EMG (mu v) measures increased significantly while silently reading text with an obvious unpleasant emotional tone. A significant positive relationship was observed between the subjects' mean ratings and mean corrugator EMG (mu v) difference values for the emotionally loaded color photographs.

  3. Believing Is Doing: Emotion Regulation Beliefs Are Associated With Emotion Regulation Behavioral Choices and Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Nicole Marie Ortner

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research in emotion regulation has begun to examine various predictors of emotion regulation choices, including individual differences and contextual variables. However, scant attention has been paid to the extent to which people’s beliefs about the specific consequences of emotion regulation strategies for the components of an emotional response and long-term well-being predict their behavioral regulatory choices and, in turn, their subjective well-being. Participants completed measures to assess their beliefs about the consequences of functional and dysfunctional strategies, behavioral choices of emotion regulation strategies in negative scenarios, and subjective well-being. The model that fit the data indicated partial mediation whereby beliefs were associated with approximately 9% of the variance in choices. Emotion regulation choices were related to subjective well-being, with an additional direct effect between beliefs and well-being. This suggests beliefs play a role in people’s regulatory choices. Future research should explore how beliefs interact with individual differences and contextual variables to better understand why people regulate their emotions in different ways and, ultimately, to help individuals make healthy emotion regulation choices.

  4. Believing Is Doing: Emotion Regulation Beliefs Are Associated With Emotion Regulation Behavioral Choices and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Catherine Nicole Marie; Briner, Esther Lydia; Marjanovic, Zdravko

    2017-01-01

    Research in emotion regulation has begun to examine various predictors of emotion regulation choices, including individual differences and contextual variables. However, scant attention has been paid to the extent to which people’s beliefs about the specific consequences of emotion regulation strategies for the components of an emotional response and long-term well-being predict their behavioral regulatory choices and, in turn, their subjective well-being. Participants completed measures to assess their beliefs about the consequences of functional and dysfunctional strategies, behavioral choices of emotion regulation strategies in negative scenarios, and subjective well-being. The model that fit the data indicated partial mediation whereby beliefs were associated with approximately 9% of the variance in choices. Emotion regulation choices were related to subjective well-being, with an additional direct effect between beliefs and well-being. This suggests beliefs play a role in people’s regulatory choices. Future research should explore how beliefs interact with individual differences and contextual variables to better understand why people regulate their emotions in different ways and, ultimately, to help individuals make healthy emotion regulation choices. PMID:28344675

  5. Differentiating emotional responses to images and words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Birgitte Falk; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    The emergence of low cost electroencephalography (EEG) wireless neuroheadsets may potentially turn smartphones into pocketable labs [1], and enable design of personalized interfaces that adapt the selection of media to our emotional responses when viewing images and reading text. However such EEG...... series responses in a single subject based on only a few trials. Comparing our results against previous findings we identify multiple early and late ICA components that are similarly modulated by neutral, pleasant and unpleasant content in both images and words. Suggesting that we might be able to model...

  6. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to induced emotional states: effects of RSA indices, emotion induction method, age, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Thérèse J M; van Boxtel, Anton; Westerink, Joyce H D M

    2012-09-01

    The literature shows large inconsistencies in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) responses to induced emotional states. This may be caused by differences in emotion induction methods, RSA quantification, and non-emotional demands of the situation. In 83 healthy subjects, we studied RSA responses to pictures and film fragments eliciting six different discrete emotions relative to neutral baseline stimuli. RSA responses were quantified in the time and frequency domain and were additionally corrected for differences in mean heart rate and respiration rate, resulting in eight different RSA response measures. Subjective ratings of emotional stimuli and facial electromyographic responses indicated that pictures and film fragments elicited the intended emotions. Although RSA measures showed various emotional effects, responses were quite heterogeneous and frequently nonsignificant. They were substantially influenced by methodological factors, in particular time vs. frequency domain response measures, correction for changes in respiration rate, use of pictures vs. film fragments, and sex of participants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparing Empirical Methodologies to Examine Enactive Subjects Experiencing Musical Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Justin

    2016-01-01

    in listeners. Many of these theories search for universal emotional essences and cause-and-effect relationships that often result in erasing the body from these experiences. Still, after reducing these emotional responses to discrete categories or localized brain functions, these theories have not been very...

  8. Emotional Response Deficits in Schizophrenia: Insights From Affective Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kring, Ann M; Moran, Erin K

    2008-01-01

    ... our understanding of emotional response deficits in schizophrenia. We review naturalistic studies and elicitation studies that evoke emotion responses among participants, including emotion expression, experience, and autonomic physiology...

  9. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  10. Relationships among Emotional and Intellectual Overexcitability, Emotional IQ, and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beduna, Kerry; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on intellectual and emotional overexcitabilities and their relationship to emotional intelligence and subjective well-being. Dabrowski's (1964) theory of positive disintegration (TPD), which proposes that optimum personality development involves the breaking down of current psychological structures, in which individuals…

  11. Musical emotions: predicting second-by-second subjective feelings of emotion from low-level psychoacoustic features and physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Eduardo; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2011-08-01

    We sustain that the structure of affect elicited by music is largely dependent on dynamic temporal patterns in low-level music structural parameters. In support of this claim, we have previously provided evidence that spatiotemporal dynamics in psychoacoustic features resonate with two psychological dimensions of affect underlying judgments of subjective feelings: arousal and valence. In this article we extend our previous investigations in two aspects. First, we focus on the emotions experienced rather than perceived while listening to music. Second, we evaluate the extent to which peripheral feedback in music can account for the predicted emotional responses, that is, the role of physiological arousal in determining the intensity and valence of musical emotions. Akin to our previous findings, we will show that a significant part of the listeners' reported emotions can be predicted from a set of six psychoacoustic features--loudness, pitch level, pitch contour, tempo, texture, and sharpness. Furthermore, the accuracy of those predictions is improved with the inclusion of physiological cues--skin conductance and heart rate. The interdisciplinary work presented here provides a new methodology to the field of music and emotion research based on the combination of computational and experimental work, which aid the analysis of the emotional responses to music, while offering a platform for the abstract representation of those complex relationships. Future developments may aid specific areas, such as, psychology and music therapy, by providing coherent descriptions of the emotional effects of specific music stimuli. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  12. The mental and subjective skin: Emotion, empathy, feelings and thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-López, E; Domínguez, E; Juárez Ramos, V; de la Fuente, J; Meins, A; Iborra, O; Gálvez, G; Rodríguez-Artacho, M A; Gómez-Milán, E

    2015-07-01

    We applied thermography to investigate the cognitive neuropsychology of emotions, using it as a somatic marker of subjective experience during emotional tasks. We obtained results that showed significant correlations between changes in facial temperature and mental set. The main result was the change in the temperature of the nose, which tended to decrease with negative valence stimuli but to increase with positive emotions and arousal patterns. However, temperature change was identified not only in the nose, but also in the forehead, the oro-facial area, the cheeks and in the face taken as a whole. Nevertheless, thermic facial changes, mostly nasal temperature changes, correlated positively with participants' empathy scores and their performance. We found that temperature changes in the face may reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions and feelings like love. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Can packaging elements elicit consumers’ emotional responses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis; Corsi, Armando; Lockshin, Larry

    Emotion has been an important concept in many areas of consumer research such as judgment, decision-making and advertising. Little research has been done on emotion in packaging adopting the physiological measures used in other areas. This paper draws on past studies in advertising that measure...... emotional responses toward image, colour and font, and apply them to packaging research. The study tests the extent at which packaging can elicit consumers’ spontaneous emotional response for each of those three elements, by using skin conductance, facial electromyography (EMG) and selfassessment scales....... The results show that packaging can elicit an emotional response via different elements. The paper also raises concerns about the accuracy of using selfreport measures of emotional responses to packaging research....

  14. Eating Disorders and Therapist Emotional Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Antonello; Speranza, Anna Maria; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Gentile, Daniela; Nassisi, Valentina; Hilsenroth, Mark J

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to identify (a) patterns of clinicians' emotional responses to patients with eating disorders (ED); (b) patient, clinician, and treatment variables associated with therapist emotional responses; and (c) the influence of patient personality on therapist emotional responses. A random national sample of psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapists (N = 149) was asked to examine one patient (>18 years old) with an ED. Clinicians completed the SWAP-200, the Therapist Response Questionnaire, and the Clinical Questionnaire-Eating Disorder Form to provide general information about themselves, patients, and therapies. Results suggested a therapist pattern of emotional response in relation to different ED diagnosis and indicated meaningful influence of therapist experience and patient variables (such as sexual abuse, dissociative symptoms, and self-harm) on therapist emotional reactions. Finally, regression analysis suggested that therapist responses are more related to patient personality than ED symptoms. This study confirms the importance of patient personality in evoking specific therapists' reactions.

  15. "Doing death": Reflecting on the researcher's subjectivity and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Renske C

    2017-01-01

    Given that death is a universal concept, the idea that a researcher must be objective when studying this topic is common place and problematic. Thus, this article adds to the literature by discussing the complexity of subjectivity within death studies. Three key elements of subjectivity form the basis of this discussion: (a) the researcher's cultural background, (b) the researcher's personal experiences, and (c) the emotional impact of research on the researcher. It is argued that transparency about the subjective nature of death studies research can be fruitful in understanding the research process before, during, and after fieldwork.

  16. Parenting styles, parental response to child emotion, and family emotional responsiveness are related to child emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topham, Glade L; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Page, Melanie C; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relations of parenting style, parent response to negative child emotion, and family emotional expressiveness and support to child emotional eating. Mothers (N=450) completed questionnaires and their 6-8-year-old children (N=450) were interviewed. Results showed that emotional eating was negatively predicted by authoritative parenting style and family open expression of affection and emotion, and positively predicted by parent minimizing response to child negative emotion. Results suggest the need for early prevention/intervention efforts directed to these parenting and family variables. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Locus of emotion: the effect of task order and age on emotion perceived and emotion felt in response to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Emery

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between emotions perceived to be expressed (external locus EL) versus emotions felt (internal locus--IL) in response to music was examined using 5 contrasting pieces of Romantic, Western art music. The main hypothesis tested was that emotion expressed along the dimensions of emotional-strength, valence, and arousal were lower in magnitude for IL than EL. IL and EL judgments made together after one listening (Experiment 2, n = 18) produced less differentiated responses than when each task was performed after separate listenings (Experiment 1, n = 28). This merging of responses in the locus-task-together condition started to disappear as statistical power was increased. Statistical power was increased by recruiting an additional subject pool of elderly individuals (Experiment 3, n = 19, mean age 75 years). Their valence responses were more positive, and their emotional-strength ratings were generally lower, compared to their younger counterparts. Overall data analysis revealed that IL responses fluctuated slightly more than EL emotions, meaning that the latter are more stable. An additional dimension of dominance-submissiveness was also examined, and was useful in differentiating between pieces, but did not return a difference between IL and EL. Some therapy applications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Enhanced emotional responses during social coordination with a virtual partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengsen; Dumas, Guillaume; Kelso, J A Scott; Tognoli, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    Emotion and motion, though seldom studied in tandem, are complementary aspects of social experience. This study investigates variations in emotional responses during movement coordination between a human and a Virtual Partner (VP), an agent whose virtual finger movements are driven by the Haken-Kelso-Bunz (HKB) equations of Coordination Dynamics. Twenty-one subjects were instructed to coordinate finger movements with the VP in either inphase or antiphase patterns. By adjusting model parameters, we manipulated the 'intention' of VP as cooperative or competitive with the human's instructed goal. Skin potential responses (SPR) were recorded to quantify the intensity of emotional response. At the end of each trial, subjects rated the VP's intention and whether they thought their partner was another human being or a machine. We found greater emotional responses when subjects reported that their partner was human and when coordination was stable. That emotional responses are strongly influenced by dynamic features of the VP's behavior, has implications for mental health, brain disorders and the design of socially cooperative machines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multimodal Emotion Recognition in Response to Videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleymani, Mohammad; Pantic, Maja; Pun, Thierry

    This paper presents a user-independent emotion recognition method with the goal of recovering affective tags for videos using electroencephalogram (EEG), pupillary response and gaze distance. We first selected 20 video clips with extrinsic emotional content from movies and online resources. Then,

  20. Enhanced embodied response following ambiguous emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beffara, Brice; Ouellet, Marc; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Basu, Anamitra; Morisseau, Tiffany; Mermillod, Martial

    2012-08-01

    It has generally been assumed that high-level cognitive and emotional processes are based on amodal conceptual information. In contrast, however, "embodied simulation" theory states that the perception of an emotional signal can trigger a simulation of the related state in the motor, somatosensory, and affective systems. To study the effect of social context on the mimicry effect predicted by the "embodied simulation" theory, we recorded the electromyographic (EMG) activity of participants when looking at emotional facial expressions. We observed an increase in embodied responses when the participants were exposed to a context involving social valence before seeing the emotional facial expressions. An examination of the dynamic EMG activity induced by two socially relevant emotional expressions (namely joy and anger) revealed enhanced EMG responses of the facial muscles associated with the related social prime (either positive or negative). These results are discussed within the general framework of embodiment theory.

  1. Fetal response to induced maternal emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Miyuki; Nishitani, Shota; Ushimaru, Keisho; Masuzaki, Hideaki; Oishi, Kazuyo; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between fetal movements and acute maternal emotional changes during pregnancy. Two empirically validated feature film clips were used for the external generation of two subjectively and facially well-characterized target emotions: happiness and sadness. We simultaneously monitored separate fetal arm, leg, and trunk movements by means of two ultrasound apparatuses while maternal emotions were manipulated by film clip presentation. The number of fetal arm movements, but not the duration, was increased when pregnant women were being shown a happy film. Both the number and the duration of fetal arm movements decreased with the sad film presentation. Neither the presentation of happiness nor the presentation of sadness affected fetal leg or trunk movements. These findings suggest that induced emotions in pregnant women primarily affect arm movements of their fetuses, and that positive and negative emotions have the opposite effects on fetus movement.

  2. [Gender and emotional response induced by imagery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa Aristu, Amaia; Vallejo Pareja, M A; Domínguez Sánchez, Javier

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study is to explore gender differences in emotional expression: Do men benefit from their stereotyped response pattern to some negative affects such as sadness? Do women benefit less than men from positive affect? We studied sadness and happiness in the laboratory, using imagery induction with some temporal proximity, and registering physiological, facial, and cognitive responses. The results show a complex panorama in which the differences depend on the emotional content and presentation order. The results are in accordance with the educational theories that postulate prototypical emotional education, and indicate a way to reduce the problems related to women's sensitization to sadness, using the beneficial effects of positive experiences.

  3. Modulation of the immune response by emotional stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croiset, G; Heijnen, C J; Veldhuis, H D; de Wied, D; Ballieux, R E

    1987-01-01

    The influence of mild, emotional stress was investigated for its effect on the immune system by subjecting rats to the one-trial-learning passive avoidance test. The reactivity of the immune system was tested by determining the proliferative response after mitogenic stimulation in vitro as well as

  4. Flupentixolhydrochloride in low dosages: effects on perceptual and psychomotor performance in emotionally stable and emotionally labile healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösler, F; Stieglitz, R D; Manzey, D

    1986-01-01

    Effects of flupentixol on performance were evaluated in a double-blind study with 107 healthy male subjects. Experimental factors were dosage (0, 1, and 2 mg Fluanxol 0.5/day), the trait variable 'neuroticism' (high vs. low score on a questionnaire scale), and time of measurement (before and after 4 days of treatment). Drug effects were measured by means of seven paper-and-pencil tests and eight apparatus tests covering the following cognitive functions: endurance in attention, spacial orientation, flexibility and speed of closure, perceptual speed, response speed, psychomotor coordination, knowledge of traffic rules, and basic motoric tempo. Univariate and multivariate ANOVAs disclosed that flupentixol has detrimental effects on perceptual and psychomotor functions, in particular when administered in a dosage of 2 mg/day. These treatment effects did not interact with the trait variable neuroticism. Nevertheless, there were substantial differences between emotionally stable and emotionally labile subjects in both absolute performance level and change of performance over time.

  5. Modeling listeners' emotional response to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerola, Tuomas

    2012-10-01

    An overview of the computational prediction of emotional responses to music is presented. Communication of emotions by music has received a great deal of attention during the last years and a large number of empirical studies have described the role of individual features (tempo, mode, articulation, timbre) in predicting the emotions suggested or invoked by the music. However, unlike the present work, relatively few studies have attempted to model continua of expressed emotions using a variety of musical features from audio-based representations in a correlation design. The construction of the computational model is divided into four separate phases, with a different focus for evaluation. These phases include the theoretical selection of relevant features, empirical assessment of feature validity, actual feature selection, and overall evaluation of the model. Existing research on music and emotions and extraction of musical features is reviewed in terms of these criteria. Examples drawn from recent studies of emotions within the context of film soundtracks are used to demonstrate each phase in the construction of the model. These models are able to explain the dominant part of the listeners' self-reports of the emotions expressed by music and the models show potential to generalize over different genres within Western music. Possible applications of the computational models of emotions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Vicarious Emotional Responses of Macho College Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Steven R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Explored whether vicarious emotional reactions of macho males reflect a lack of empathy and a tendency to respond with anger. Male subjects (n=107) viewed videotapes of a crying, quiescent, and smiling baby, respectively. Macho males reported more anger and less empathy for the crying baby than did less macho males. (RJM)

  7. EEG mu component responses to viewing emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Adrienne; Gorodnitsky, Irina; Pineda, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Simulation theories for the perceptual processing of emotional faces assert that observers recruit the neural circuitry involved in creating their own emotional facial expressions in order to recognize the emotions and infer the feelings of others. The EEG mu rhythm is a sensorimotor oscillation hypothesized to index simulation of some actions during perceptual processing of these actions. The purpose of this research was to extend the study of mu rhythm simulation responses during perceptual tasks to the domain of emotional face perception. Subjects viewed happy and disgusted face photos with empathy and non-empathy task instructions while EEG responses were measured. EEG components were isolated and analyzed using a blind source separation (BSS) method. Mu components were found to respond to the perception of happy and disgusted faces during both empathy and non-empathy tasks with an event-related desynchronization (ERD), activation that is consistent with face simulation. Significant differences were found between responses to happy and to disgusted faces across the right hemisphere mu components beginning about 500ms after stimulus presentation. These findings support a simulation account of perceptual face processing based on a sensorimotor mirroring mechanism, and are the first report of distinct EEG mu responses to observation of positively and negatively valenced emotional faces. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Emotional Intensity and Emotion Regulation in Response to Autobiographical Memories During Dysphoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Berntsen, Dorthe; Watson, Lynn Ann

    2017-01-01

    Retrieving personal memories may provoke different emotions and a need for emotion regulation. Emotional responses have been studied scarcely in relation to autobiographical memory retrieval. We examined the emotional response to everyday involuntary (spontaneously arising) and voluntary (strateg...... new insights into the understudied topic of emotional responses to everyday memories and suggest a novel interpretation of the intrusive nature of memories in psychological disorders, such as depression.......Retrieving personal memories may provoke different emotions and a need for emotion regulation. Emotional responses have been studied scarcely in relation to autobiographical memory retrieval. We examined the emotional response to everyday involuntary (spontaneously arising) and voluntary...... (strategically retrieved) memories, and how this response may be different during dysphoria. Participants (20 dysphoric and 23 non-depressed) completed a structured diary where the intensity of basic emotions and regulation strategies employed upon retrieval of memories were rated. Brooding, memory suppression...

  9. What our eyes tell us about feelings: Tracking pupillary responses during emotion regulation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Valerie L; Kuchinke, Lars; Dierolf, Angelika M; Merz, Christian J; Otto, Tobias; Wolf, Oliver T

    2017-04-01

    Emotion regulation is essential for adaptive behavior and mental health. Strategies applied to alter emotions are known to differ in their impact on psychological and physiological aspects of the emotional response. However, emotion regulation outcome has primarily been assessed via self-report, and studies comparing regulation strategies with regard to their peripheral physiological mechanisms are limited in number. In the present study, we therefore aimed to investigate the effects of different emotion regulation strategies on pupil dilation, skin conductance responses, and subjective emotional responses. Thirty healthy females were presented with negative and neutral pictures and asked to maintain or up- and downregulate their upcoming emotional responses through reappraisal or distraction. Pupil dilation and skin conductance responses were significantly enhanced when viewing negative relative to neutral pictures. For the pupil, this emotional arousal effect manifested specifically late during the pupillary response. In accordance with subjective ratings, increasing negative emotions through reappraisal led to the most prominent pupil size enlargements, whereas no consistent effect for downregulation was found. In contrast, early peak dilations were enhanced in all emotion regulation conditions independent of strategy. Skin conductance responses were not further modulated by emotion regulation. These results indicate that pupil diameter is modulated by emotional arousal, but is initially related to the extent of mental effort required to regulate automatic emotional responses. Our data thus provide first evidence that the pupillary response might comprise two distinct temporal components reflecting cognitive emotion regulation effort on the one hand and emotion regulation success on the other hand. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Resting lateralized activity predicts the cortical response and appraisal of emotions: an fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Grippa, Elisabetta; Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2015-12-01

    This study explored the effect of lateralized left-right resting brain activity on prefrontal cortical responsiveness to emotional cues and on the explicit appraisal (stimulus evaluation) of emotions based on their valence. Indeed subjective responses to different emotional stimuli should be predicted by brain resting activity and should be lateralized and valence-related (positive vs negative valence). A hemodynamic measure was considered (functional near-infrared spectroscopy). Indeed hemodynamic resting activity and brain response to emotional cues were registered when subjects (N = 19) viewed emotional positive vs negative stimuli (IAPS). Lateralized index response during resting state, LI (lateralized index) during emotional processing and self-assessment manikin rating were considered. Regression analysis showed the significant predictive effect of resting activity (more left or right lateralized) on both brain response and appraisal of emotional cues based on stimuli valence. Moreover, significant effects were found as a function of valence (more right response to negative stimuli; more left response to positive stimuli) during emotion processing. Therefore, resting state may be considered a predictive marker of the successive cortical responsiveness to emotions. The significance of resting condition for emotional behavior was discussed. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Film clips and narrative text as subjective emotion elicitation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Barbra; Babbage, Duncan R

    2017-01-01

    Film clips and narrative text are useful techniques in eliciting emotion in a laboratory setting but have not been examined side-by-side using the same methodology. This study examined the self-identification of emotions elicited by film clip and narrative text stimuli to confirm that selected stimuli appropriately target the intended emotions. Seventy participants viewed 30 film clips, and 40 additional participants read 30 narrative texts. Participants identified the emotion experienced (happy, sad, angry, fearful, neutral-six stimuli each). Eighty-five percent of participants self-identified the target emotion for at least two stimuli for all emotion categories of film clips, except angry (only one) and for all categories of narrative text, except fearful (only one). The most effective angry text was correctly identified 74% of the time. Film clips were more effective in eliciting all target emotions in participants for eliciting the correct emotion (angry), intensity rating (happy, sad), or both (fearful).

  12. Irony comprehension: social conceptual knowledge and emotional response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Yoritaka; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Miyazawa, Shiho; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-04-01

    Verbal irony conveys various emotional messages, from criticism to humor, that differ from the meaning of the actual words. To understand irony, we need conceptual knowledge of irony in addition to an understanding of context. We investigated the neural mechanism of irony comprehension, focusing on two overlooked issues: conceptual knowledge and emotional response. We studied 35 healthy subjects who underwent functional MRI. During the scan, the subject examined first-person-view stories describing verbal interactions, some of which included irony directed toward the subject. After MRI, the subject viewed the stories again and rated the degree of irony, humor, and negative emotion evoked by the statements. We identified several key findings about irony comprehension: (1) the right anterior superior temporal gyrus may be responsible for representing social conceptual knowledge of irony, (2) activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and the right anterior inferior temporal gyrus might underlie the understanding of context, (3) modulation of activity in the right amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus is associated with the degree of irony perceived, and (4) modulation of activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex varies with the degree of humor perceived. Our results clarified the differential contributions of the neural loci of irony comprehension, enriching our understanding of pragmatic language communication from a social behavior point of view. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Facial feedback and autonomic responsiveness reflect impaired emotional processing in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Pala, Francesca; Manenti, Rosa; Brambilla, Michela; Cobelli, Chiara; Rosini, Sandra; Benussi, Alberto; Padovani, Alessandro; Borroni, Barbara; Cotelli, Maria

    2016-08-11

    Emotional deficits are part of the non-motor features of Parkinson's disease but few attention has been paid to specific aspects such as subjective emotional experience and autonomic responses. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of emotional recognition in Parkinson's Disease (PD) using the following levels: explicit evaluation of emotions (Self-Assessment Manikin) and implicit reactivity (Skin Conductance Response; electromyographic measure of facial feedback of the zygomaticus and corrugator muscles). 20 PD Patients and 34 healthy controls were required to observe and evaluate affective pictures during physiological parameters recording. In PD, the appraisal process on both valence and arousal features of emotional cues were preserved, but we found significant impairment in autonomic responses. Specifically, in comparison to healthy controls, PD patients revealed lower Skin Conductance Response values to negative and high arousing emotional stimuli. In addition, the electromyographic measures showed defective responses exclusively limited to negative and high arousing emotional category: PD did not show increasing of corrugator activity in response to negative emotions as happened in heathy controls. PD subjects inadequately respond to the emotional categories which were considered more "salient": they had preserved appraisal process, but impaired automatic ability to distinguish between different emotional contexts.

  14. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L O; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  15. Music, Emotion and Time Perception: The influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIE eDROIT-VOLET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (< 2 s and long (> 2 s stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow (Experiment 1 or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces. The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant versus atonal (unpleasant versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  16. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L. O.; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music. PMID:23882233

  17. EMOTIONAL AND VOLITIONAL RELIABILITY AS A SUBJECT OF SCIENTIFIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Juan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the scientists’ views on the phenomenon of “reliability”. The author pays special attention to the fact that the concept “reliability” is considered by the scientists as the systematic characteristic, which is characterized by the specific number of professional, psychological, physiological qualities and functions at the different levels of a person’s activity. This activity provides stable and reliable work. It is found out that scientists think the quality is the most important property which provides definiteness to any phenomenon. Personal qualities that affect the maturity of emotional and volitional reliability are established. Scientific interpretation of the concept of “reliability” and the main features of performing reliability is revealed. The analysis of pedagogical and psychological literature proves that the emotional qualities are being formed throughout the life according to the person’s environmental and genetic conditions. Emotional irritability, emotional stability, emotional tone, emotional reactions, emotional stability are the qualities which depend upon a type of a person’s higher nervous activity. The person’s activity, especially music one, can’t exist without involving emotions and feelings. Music plays an important role; due to it emotions become conscious processes. Thanks to music the person’s higher emotions (moral, intellectual, esthetic are formed. It is noticed that individual differences in demonstration of emotions depend on a person’s volitional qualities. Volition is considered to be a person’s psychological activity that determines purposefulness of actions. The author concluded that the maturity level of emotional and volitional reliability depends on direction and resistance of socially significant motives (needs, interests, values, attitudes; personality’s psychophysical traits (abilities, capacities, which provide the required level and effectiveness

  18. Personality traits modulate neural responses to emotions expressed in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mona; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Bao, Yan; Carl, Petra; Pöppel, Ernst; Welker, Lorenz; Reiser, Maximilian; Meindl, Thomas; Gutyrchik, Evgeny

    2013-07-26

    Music communicates and evokes emotions. The number of studies on the neural correlates of musical emotion processing is increasing but few have investigated the factors that modulate these neural activations. Previous research has shown that personality traits account for individual variability of neural responses. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the dimensions Extraversion and Neuroticism are related to differences in brain reactivity to musical stimuli expressing the emotions happiness, sadness and fear. 12 participants (7 female, M=20.33 years) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and were scanned while performing a passive listening task. Neurofunctional analyses revealed significant positive correlations between Neuroticism scores and activations in bilateral basal ganglia, insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to music expressing happiness. Extraversion scores were marginally negatively correlated with activations in the right amygdala in response to music expressing fear. Our findings show that subjects' personality may have a predictive power in the neural correlates of musical emotion processing and should be considered in the context of experimental group homogeneity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Emotional response to music by postlingually-deafened adult cochlear implant users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Dong, Ruijuan; Zhou, Yun; Li, Jing; Qi, Beier; Liu, Bo

    2012-10-01

    To assess the emotional response to music by postlingually-deafened adult cochlear implant users. Munich music questionnaire (MUMU) was used to match the music experience and the motivation of use of music between 12 normal-hearing and 12 cochlear implant subjects. Emotion rating test in Musical Sounds in Cochlear Implants (MuSIC) test battery was used to assess the emotion perception ability for both normal-hearing and cochlear implant subjects. A total of 15 pieces of music phases were used. Responses were given by selecting the rating scales from 1 to 10. "1" represents "very sad" feeling, and "10" represents "very happy feeling. In comparison with normal-hearing subjects, 12 cochlear implant subjects made less active use of music for emotional purpose. The emotion ratings for cochlear implant subjects were similar to normal-hearing subjects, but with large variability. Post-lingually deafened cochlear implant subjects on average performed similarly in emotion rating tasks relative to normal-hearing subjects, but their active use of music for emotional purpose was obviously less than normal-hearing subjects.

  20. Emotional Responses to Music: Experience, Expression, and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Carlsson, Fredrik; Hilmersson, Per; Juslin, Patrik N.

    2009-01-01

    A crucial issue in research on music and emotion is whether music evokes genuine emotional responses in listeners (the emotivist position) or whether listeners merely perceive emotions expressed by the music (the cognitivist position). To investigate this issue, we measured self-reported emotion, facial muscle activity, and autonomic activity in…

  1. Emotional content modulates response inhibition and perceptual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Suyong; Luo, Wenbo; Zhu, Xiangru; Broster, Lucas S; Chen, Taolin; Li, Jinzhen; Luo, Yuejia

    2014-11-01

    In this study, event-related potentials were used to investigate the effect of emotion on response inhibition. Participants performed an emotional go/no-go task that required responses to human faces associated with a "go" valence (i.e., emotional, neutral) and response inhibition to human faces associated with a "no-go" valence. Emotional content impaired response inhibition, as evidenced by decreased response accuracy and N2 amplitudes in no-go trials. More importantly, emotional expressions elicited larger N170 amplitudes than neutral expressions, and this effect was larger in no-go than in go trials, indicating that the perceptual processing of emotional expression had priority in inhibitory trials. In no-go trials, correlation analysis showed that increased N170 amplitudes were associated with decreased N2 amplitudes. Taken together, our findings suggest that emotional content impairs response inhibition due to the prioritization of emotional content processing. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. Subjectivity of Time Perception: A Visual Emotional Orchestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eLambrechts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine how visual emotional content could orchestrate time perception. The experimental design allowed us to single out the share of emotion in the specific processing of content-bearing pictures, i.e. real-life scenes. Two groups of participants had to reproduce the duration (2, 4 or 6s of content-deprived stimuli (grey squares or differentially valenced content-bearing stimuli, which included neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures (IAPS. Results showed that the effect of content differed according to duration: for 2s, the reproduced duration was longer for content-bearing than content-deprived stimuli, but the difference between the two types of stimuli decreased as duration increased and was not significant for the longest duration (6s. For 4s, emotional (pleasant and unpleasant stimuli were judged longer than neutral pictures. Furthermore, whatever the duration, the precision of the reproduction was greater for non-emotional than emotional stimuli (pleasant and unpleasant. These results suggest a dissociation within content effect on timing: relative overestimation of all content-bearing pictures limited to short durations (2s, and delayed overestimation of emotional relative to neutral pictures at 4s, as well as a lesser precision in the temporal judgment of emotional pictures whatever the duration. The angle of emotion processing in time perception allows us to discuss a few theoretical models proposed in the timing literature.

  3. Direct and indirect relationships between emotional intelligence and subjective fatigue in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rhonda F; Schutte, Nicola S

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect relationships between emotional intelligence and subjective fatigue. One hundred sixty seven university students completed questionnaires assessing subjective fatigue, emotional intelligence, and a range of other psychosocial factors. A series of regression analyses were used to examine the direct and indirect relationships between subjective fatigue and psychosocial factors. Higher emotional intelligence was associated with less fatigue. The psychosocial variables depression, anxiety, optimism, internal health locus of control, amount of social support, and satisfaction with social support each partially mediated between emotional intelligence and fatigue. Additionally, sleep quality partially mediated between emotional intelligence and fatigue. These findings regarding the association between subjective fatigue, emotional intelligence, and other psychosocial factors may facilitate an understanding of the aetiology of fatigue and contribute to future research examining interventions aimed at helping individuals cope with fatigue.

  4. An investigation of emotional intelligence measures using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seonghee; Drasgow, Fritz; Cao, Mengyang

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of 3 frequently administered emotional intelligence (EI) scales (Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale [WLEIS], Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test [SEIT], and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire [TEIQue]), which were developed on the basis of different theoretical frameworks (i.e., ability EI and mixed EI). By conducting item response theory (IRT) analyses, the authors examined the item parameters and compared the fits of 2 response process models (i.e., dominance model and ideal point model) for these scales with data from 355 undergraduate sample recruited from the subject pool. Several important findings were obtained. First, the EI scales seem better able to differentiate individuals at low trait levels than high trait levels. Second, a dominance model showed better model fit to the self-report ability EI scale (WLEIS) and also fit better with most subfactors of the SEIT, except for the mood regulation/optimism factor. Both dominance and ideal point models fit a self-report mixed EI scale (TEIQue). Our findings suggest (a) the EI scales should be revised to include more items at moderate and higher trait levels; and (b) the nature of the EI construct should be considered during the process of scale development. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The paradox of fiction: Emotional response toward fiction and the modulatory role of self-relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperduti, Marco; Arcangeli, Margherita; Makowski, Dominique; Wantzen, Prany; Zalla, Tiziana; Lemaire, Stéphane; Dokic, Jérôme; Pelletier, Jérôme; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-03-01

    For over forty years, philosophers have struggled with the "paradox of fiction", which is the issue of how we can get emotionally involved with fictional characters and events. The few neuroscientific studies investigating the distinction between the processing of real and fictional entities have evidenced that midline cortical structures and lateral fronto-parietal regions are more engaged for real and fictional entities, respectively. Interestingly, the former network is engaged in autobiographical memory retrieval and self-reference, processes that are known to boost emotional reactivity, while the latter underpins emotion regulation. Thus, a possible modulation of the emotional response according to the nature (real or fictional) of the stimulus is conceivable. To test this hypothesis, we presented short emotional (negative and positive) and neutral video as fictional or real. For negative material, we found that subjective emotional experience, but not physiological arousal measured by electrodermal activity, was reduced in the fictional condition. Moreover, the amount of personal memories linked to the scenes counteracted this effect boosting the subjective emotional response. On the contrary, personal memories elicited by the scenes, but not fiction, modulate the emotional response for positive material. These results suggest that when a stimulus triggers a personal memory, the emotional response is less prone to be modulated by contextual factors, and suggest that personal engagement could be responsible for emotional reaction toward fiction. We discuss these results in the emotion regulation framework and underline their implications in informing theoretical accounts of emotion in the neuroscientific domain and the philosophical debate on the paradox of emotional response to fiction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Emotional responses as independent components in EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Birgitte Falk; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    2014-01-01

    Combine wireless neuroheadsets with smartphones that enable mobile brain imaging can potentially allow us to design cognitive interfaces which adapt to our affective responses. Neuroimaging experiments using electroencephalography (EEG) initially identified two components elicited by pleasant...... susceptible to noise if captured in a mobile context. Hypothesizing that retrieval of emotional responses in mobile usage scenarios could be enhanced through spatial filtering, we compare a standard EEG electrode based analysis against an approach based on independent component analysis (ICA). By clustering...... scalp maps and time series responses we identify neural signatures that are differentially modulated when passively viewing neutral, pleasant and unpleasant images. While early responses can be detected from the raw EEG signal we identify multiple early and late ICA components that are modulated...

  7. Mothers' responses to children's negative emotions and child emotion regulation: the moderating role of vagal suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Nelson, Jackie A; Leerkes, Esther M; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-07-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of children's cardiac vagal suppression on the association between maternal socialization of negative emotions (supportive and nonsupportive responses) and children's emotion regulation behaviors. One hundred and ninety-seven 4-year-olds and their mothers participated. Mothers reported on their reactions to children's negative emotions and children's regulatory behaviors. Observed distraction, an adaptive self-regulatory strategy, and vagal suppression were assessed during a laboratory task designed to elicit frustration. Results indicated that children's vagal suppression moderated the association between mothers' nonsupportive emotion socialization and children's emotion regulation behaviors such that nonsupportive reactions to negative emotions predicted lower observed distraction and lower reported emotion regulation behaviors when children displayed lower levels of vagal suppression. No interaction was found between supportive maternal emotion socialization and vagal suppression for children's emotion regulation behaviors. Results suggest physiological regulation may serve as a buffer against nonsupportive emotion socialization. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effects of stimulus characteristics and sex of subject on perceived emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, G H; Gilgen, A R; Gilpin, A R

    1985-08-01

    To determine the influence of pupil size, eye size, sex of stimulus face, and sex of subject on perceived emotion, 308 college students filled in missing features on stimulus faces. Each face was independently rated by two male judges on a continuum of negative to positive emotion. Analysis indicated that sex of subject was the only variable to affect perceived emotion. Women (n = 175) tended to draw faces that were judged to be more positive than faces drawn by men (n = 133).

  9. Facial EMG responses to emotional expressions are related to emotion perception ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Künecke

    Full Text Available Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a "reactivation" of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG--in response to emotional facial expressions. N° = °269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N° = °110 in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective.

  10. Facial EMG responses to emotional expressions are related to emotion perception ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künecke, Janina; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a "reactivation" of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG)--in response to emotional facial expressions. N° = °269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N° = °110) in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective.

  11. Emotional Responses to Multisensory Environmental Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Schreuder

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available How we perceive our environment affects the way we feel and behave. The impressions of our ambient environment are influenced by its entire spectrum of physical characteristics (e.g., luminosity, sound, scents, temperature in a dynamic and interactive way. The ability to manipulate the sensory aspects of an environment such that people feel comfortable or exhibit a desired behavior is gaining interest and social relevance. Although much is known about the sensory effects of individual environmental characteristics, their combined effects are not a priori evident due to a wide range of non-linear interactions in the processing of sensory cues. As a result, it is currently not known how different environmental characteristics should be combined to effectively induce desired emotional and behavioral effects. To gain more insight into this matter, we performed a literature review on the emotional effects of multisensory stimulation. Although we found some interesting mechanisms, the outcome also reveals that empirical evidence is still scarce and haphazard. To stimulate further discussion and research, we propose a conceptual framework that describes how environmental interventions are likely to affect human emotional responses. This framework leads to some critical research questions that suggest opportunities for further investigation.

  12. Experience, cortisol reactivity, and the coordination of emotional responses to skydiving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eMeyer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Physiological habituation to laboratory stressors has previously been demonstrated, although the literature remains equivocal. Previous studies have found skydiving to be a salient naturalistic stressor that elicits a robust subjective and physiological stress response. However, it is uncertain whether (or how stress reactivity habituates to this stressor given that skydiving remains a risky, life-threatening challenge with every jump despite experience. While multiple components of a stress response have been documented, it is unclear whether there is an individual’s subjective emotions are related to their physiological responses. Documenting coordinated responsivity would lend insight into shared underlying mechanisms for the nature of habituation of both subjective (emotion and objective (cortisol stress responses. Therefore, we examined subjective emotion and cortisol responses in first-time compared to experienced skydivers in a predominantly male sample (total n = 44; males = 32, females = 12. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that experienced skydivers showed less reactivity and faster recovery compared to first-time skydivers. Subjective emotions were coordinated with physiological responses primarily within first-time skydivers. Pre-jump anxiety predicted cortisol reactivity within first-time, but not experienced, skydivers. Higher post-jump happiness predicted faster cortisol recovery after jumping although this effect overlapped somewhat with the effect of experience. Results suggest that experience may modulate the coordination of emotional response with cortisol reactivity to skydiving. Prior experience does not appear to extinguish the stress response but rather alters the individual’s engagement of the HPA axis.

  13. Alexithymia predicts arousal-based processing deficits and discordance between emotion response systems during emotional imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasley-Miklus, Catherine E; Panayiotou, Georgia; Vrana, Scott R

    2016-03-01

    Alexithymia is believed to involve deficits in emotion processing and imagery ability. Previous findings suggest that it is especially related to deficits in processing the arousal dimension of emotion, and that discordance may exist between self-report and physiological responses to emotional stimuli in alexithymia. The current study used a well-established emotional imagery paradigm to examine emotion processing deficits and discordance in participants (N = 86) selected based on their extreme scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. Physiological (skin conductance, heart rate, and corrugator and zygomaticus electromyographic responses) and self-report (valence, arousal ratings) responses were monitored during imagery of anger, fear, joy, and neutral scenes and emotionally neutral high arousal (action) scenes. Results from regression analyses indicated that alexithymia was largely unrelated to responses on valence-based measures (facial electromyography, valence ratings), but that it was related to arousal-based measures. Specifically, alexithymia was related to higher heart rate during neutral and lower heart rate during fear imagery. Alexithymia did not predict differential responses to action versus neutral imagery, suggesting specificity of deficits to emotional contexts. Evidence for discordance between physiological responses and self-report in alexithymia was obtained from within-person analyses using multilevel modeling. Results are consistent with the idea that alexithymic deficits are specific to processing emotional arousal, and suggest difficulties with parasympathetic control and emotion regulation. Alexithymia is also associated with discordance between self-reported emotional experience and physiological response to emotion, consistent with prior evidence. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. THE EFFECTS OF SOUNDS IN ADVERTISING TOWARD CONSUMERS’ EMOTIONAL RESPONSE

    OpenAIRE

    Stefany, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of sounds in advertising toward consumers’ emotional response. The purpose of this study is to get better understanding about the role of emotions which come from the hearing of sounds, in marketing. Therefore, this study analyzed the relationships between consumers’ emotional response, familiarity, interest, and attention. The variables were examined by developing some hypotheses predicting emotional reaction and empirically test the hypotheses using data f...

  15. Cognitive emotion regulation enhances aversive prediction error activity while reducing emotional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulej Bratec, Satja; Xie, Xiyao; Schmid, Gabriele; Doll, Anselm; Schilbach, Leonhard; Zimmer, Claus; Wohlschläger, Afra; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive emotion regulation is a powerful way of modulating emotional responses. However, despite the vital role of emotions in learning, it is unknown whether the effect of cognitive emotion regulation also extends to the modulation of learning. Computational models indicate prediction error activity, typically observed in the striatum and ventral tegmental area, as a critical neural mechanism involved in associative learning. We used model-based fMRI during aversive conditioning with and without cognitive emotion regulation to test the hypothesis that emotion regulation would affect prediction error-related neural activity in the striatum and ventral tegmental area, reflecting an emotion regulation-related modulation of learning. Our results show that cognitive emotion regulation reduced emotion-related brain activity, but increased prediction error-related activity in a network involving ventral tegmental area, hippocampus, insula and ventral striatum. While the reduction of response activity was related to behavioral measures of emotion regulation success, the enhancement of prediction error-related neural activity was related to learning performance. Furthermore, functional connectivity between the ventral tegmental area and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, an area involved in regulation, was specifically increased during emotion regulation and likewise related to learning performance. Our data, therefore, provide first-time evidence that beyond reducing emotional responses, cognitive emotion regulation affects learning by enhancing prediction error-related activity, potentially via tegmental dopaminergic pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Explicit Emotion Regulation: Comparing Emotion Inducing Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Suman Dhaka; Naveen Kashyap

    2017-01-01

    Emotions are a major part of our subjective experiences of the world. At times, our emotions are not appropriate and require active management. Emotion regulation refers to the various ways of managing or controlling emotional responses. External stimuli play specific role in electing emotions. Pictures and movies elicit emotions and emotional effects of films are believed to exceed that of pictures. The aim of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies...

  17. Effects of virtual environment platforms on emotional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwanguk; Rosenthal, M Zachary; Zielinski, David J; Brady, Rachael

    2014-03-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of different virtual environment (VE) technologies (i.e., desktop, head mounted display, or fully immersive platforms) on emotional arousal and task performance. Fifty-three participants were recruited from a college population. Reactivity to stressful VEs was examined in three VE systems from desktop to high-end fully immersive systems. The experiment was a 3 (desktop system, head mounted display, and six wall system)×2 (high- and low-stressful VE) within subject design, with self-reported emotional arousal and valence, skin conductance, task performance, presence, and simulator sickness examined as dependent variables. Replicating previous studies, the fully immersive system induced the highest sense of presence and the head mounted display system elicited the highest amount of simulator sickness. Extending previous studies, the results demonstrated that VE platforms were associated with different patterns in emotional responses and task performance. Our findings suggest that different VE systems may be appropriate for different scientific purposes when studying stress reactivity using emotionally evocative tasks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Generalizations of the subject-independent feature set for music-induced emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pin; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Duann, Jeng-Ren; Lin, Chin-Teng; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion recognition has been an intensely growing field. Yet, how to achieve acceptable accuracy on a practical system with as fewer electrodes as possible is less concerned. This study evaluates a set of subject-independent features, based on differential power asymmetry of symmetric electrode pairs [1], with emphasis on its applicability to subject variability in music-induced emotion classification problem. Results of this study have evidently validated the feasibility of using subject-independent EEG features to classify four emotional states with acceptable accuracy in second-scale temporal resolution. These features could be generalized across subjects to detect emotion induced by music excerpts not limited to the music database that was used to derive the emotion-specific features.

  19. Subjective social status moderates cortisol responses to social threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenewald, Tara L; Kemeny, Margaret E; Aziz, Najib

    2006-07-01

    Research has demonstrated a robust relationship between social status, physiology and health in humans and animals. However, perceptions of social status within a specific social group have rarely been studied in this area and may provide additional relevant information. The current investigation examines subjective perceptions of social status as a moderator of cognitive, emotional and cortisol responses to stressor tasks characterized by social-evaluative threat or its absence. As part of a larger study, 81 college students living in a residential dormitory completed a measure of their subjective perceptions of their social status within their dormitory floor. They were randomly assigned to undergo a standard performance stressor task either with or without social evaluation. It was hypothesized that individuals who perceived that they were of low status within their dorm group would show greater increases in negative self-evaluative emotions (i.e., shame) and cognitions (low social self-esteem) and greater cortisol responses to the stressor under conditions of social-evaluative threat. Subjective social status moderated cortisol responses to the social-evaluative stressor, but in a direction opposite that hypothesized. Individuals who perceived themselves to be of high status showed sizable and significant cortisol increases (both peak and recovery), while those who perceived themselves to be of low status did not mount a significant cortisol response to the stressor. Both groups showed increased negative self-evaluative responses to the tasks. A discussion of the possible health implications of the robust cortisol responses of high status individuals and the hyporesponsive cortisol reactions of low status individuals is provided.

  20. Emotional Intensity and Emotion Regulation in Response to Autobiographical Memories During Dysphoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Berntsen, Dorthe; Watson, Lynn Ann

    2017-01-01

    Retrieving personal memories may provoke different emotions and a need for emotion regulation. Emotional responses have been studied scarcely in relation to autobiographical memory retrieval. We examined the emotional response to everyday involuntary (spontaneously arising) and voluntary...... (strategically retrieved) memories, and how this response may be different during dysphoria. Participants (20 dysphoric and 23 non-depressed) completed a structured diary where the intensity of basic emotions and regulation strategies employed upon retrieval of memories were rated. Brooding, memory suppression......, and emotional suppression were higher for all individuals’ involuntary memories than voluntary memories. Negative emotions and regulation strategies were greater for dysphoric individuals for both involuntary and voluntary memories after controlling for the valence of the remembered events. The results provide...

  1. Maternal Attachment Style and Responses to Adolescents’ Negative Emotions: The Mediating Role of Maternal Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason D.; Brett, Bonnie E.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Cassidy, Jude

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Previous research has examined the developmental consequences, particularly in early childhood, of parents’ supportive and unsupportive responses to children’s negative emotions. Much less is known about factors that explain why parents respond in ways that may support or undermine their children’s emotions, and even less is known about how these parenting processes unfold with adolescents. We examined the associations between mothers’ attachment styles and their distress, harsh, and supportive responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions two years later and whether these links were mediated by maternal emotion regulation difficulties. Design Mothers in a longitudinal study (n = 230) reported on their attachment style, difficulties regulating their emotions, and their hypothetical responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions, respectively, at consecutive laboratory visits one year apart. Results Mothers who reported greater attachment-related avoidance and anxiety reported having greater difficulties with emotion regulation one year later. Emotion dysregulation, in turn, predicted more distressed, harsher, and less supportive maternal responses to adolescents’ negative emotions the following year. In addition, greater avoidance directly predicted harsher maternal responses two years later. Conclusions These findings extend previous research by identifying maternal attachment style as a predictor of responses to adolescent distress and by documenting the underlying role of emotion dysregulation in the link between adult attachment style and parenting. PMID:25568638

  2. Enhancing the Benefits of Written Emotional Disclosure through Response Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R.; Vrana, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n = 113) or a neutral writing condition (n = 133). Participants in each condition wrote for 20 minutes on three occasions and received response training (n = 79), stimulus training (n = 84) or no training (n = 83). Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded throughout a 10-minute baseline, 20-minute writing, and a 10-minute recovery period. Self-reported emotion was assessed in each session. One month after completing the sessions, participants completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Emotional disclosure elicited greater physiological reactivity and self-reported emotion than neutral writing. Response training amplified physiological reactivity to emotional disclosure. Greater heart rate during emotional disclosure was associated with the greatest reductions in event-related distress, depression, and physical illness symptoms at follow-up, especially among response trained participants. Results support an exposure explanation of emotional disclosure effects and are the first to demonstrate that response training facilitates emotional processing and may be a beneficial adjunct to written emotional disclosure. PMID:24680230

  3. Enhancing the benefits of written emotional disclosure through response training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R; Vrana, Scott R

    2014-05-01

    Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n=113) or a neutral writing condition (n=133). Participants in each condition wrote for 20 minutes on 3 occasions and received response training (n=79), stimulus training (n=84) or no training (n=83). Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded throughout a 10-minute baseline, 20-minute writing, and a 10-minute recovery period. Self-reported emotion was assessed in each session. One month after completing the sessions, participants completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Emotional disclosure elicited greater physiological reactivity and self-reported emotion than neutral writing. Response training amplified physiological reactivity to emotional disclosure. Greater heart rate during emotional disclosure was associated with the greatest reductions in event-related distress, depression, and physical illness symptoms at follow-up, especially among response trained participants. Results support an exposure explanation of emotional disclosure effects and are the first to demonstrate that response training facilitates emotional processing and may be a beneficial adjunct to written emotional disclosure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Brain activity of adolescents with high functioning autism in response to emotional words and facial emoticons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Hyun Han

    Full Text Available Studies of social dysfunction in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD have generally focused on the perception of emotional words and facial affect. Brain imaging studies have suggested that the fusiform gyrus is associated with both the comprehension of language and face recognition. We hypothesized that patients with ASD would have decreased ability to recognize affect via emotional words and facial emoticons, relative to healthy comparison subjects. In addition, we expected that this decreased ability would be associated with altered activity of the fusiform gyrus in patients with ASD. Ten male adolescents with ASDs and ten age and sex matched healthy comparison subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. The diagnosis of autism was further evaluated with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Brain activity was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in response to emotional words and facial emoticon presentation. Sixty emotional words (45 pleasant words +15 unpleasant words were extracted from a report on Korean emotional terms and their underlying dimensions. Sixty emoticon faces (45 pleasant faces +15 unpleasant faces were extracted and modified from on-line sites. Relative to healthy comparison subjects, patients with ASD have increased activation of fusiform gyrus in response to emotional aspects of words. In contrast, patients with ASD have decreased activation of fusiform gyrus in response to facial emoticons, relative to healthy comparison subjects. We suggest that patients with ASD are more familiar with word descriptions than facial expression as depictions of emotion.

  5. Brain activity of adolescents with high functioning autism in response to emotional words and facial emoticons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Kim, Bung Nyun; McMahon, William; Renshaw, Perry F

    2014-01-01

    Studies of social dysfunction in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have generally focused on the perception of emotional words and facial affect. Brain imaging studies have suggested that the fusiform gyrus is associated with both the comprehension of language and face recognition. We hypothesized that patients with ASD would have decreased ability to recognize affect via emotional words and facial emoticons, relative to healthy comparison subjects. In addition, we expected that this decreased ability would be associated with altered activity of the fusiform gyrus in patients with ASD. Ten male adolescents with ASDs and ten age and sex matched healthy comparison subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. The diagnosis of autism was further evaluated with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Brain activity was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in response to emotional words and facial emoticon presentation. Sixty emotional words (45 pleasant words +15 unpleasant words) were extracted from a report on Korean emotional terms and their underlying dimensions. Sixty emoticon faces (45 pleasant faces +15 unpleasant faces) were extracted and modified from on-line sites. Relative to healthy comparison subjects, patients with ASD have increased activation of fusiform gyrus in response to emotional aspects of words. In contrast, patients with ASD have decreased activation of fusiform gyrus in response to facial emoticons, relative to healthy comparison subjects. We suggest that patients with ASD are more familiar with word descriptions than facial expression as depictions of emotion.

  6. Emotion response coherence: A dual-process perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, C.; Hopp, H.; Gross, J.J.; Fischer, A.H.; Manstead, A.S.R.; Mauss, I.B.

    2014-01-01

    Emotions are widely thought to involve coordinated responses across multiple responses (e.g., experiential, behavioral, and physiological). However, empirical support for this general "response coherence" postulate is inconsistent. The present research takes a dual-process perspective, suggesting

  7. Emotion response coherence : a dual-process perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Catharine|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/280594232; Hopp, Henrik; Gross, James J; Fischer, Agneta H; Manstead, Antony S R; Mauss, Iris B

    Emotions are widely thought to involve coordinated responses across multiple responses (e.g., experiential, behavioral, and physiological). However, empirical support for this general "response coherence" postulate is inconsistent. The present research takes a dual-process perspective, suggesting

  8. The relationship between negative emotions and acute subjective and objective symptoms of childhood asthma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, S.; Prins, P.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined whether negative emotions influence subjective rather than objective symptoms of asthma, breathlessness, and airways obstruction in 40 asthmatic children (aged 7-18 yrs). The Ss were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental conditions: (1) viewing an emotional film of 10 min; (2) performing

  9. Direct comparison of the acute subjective, emotional, autonomic, and endocrine effects of MDMA, methylphenidate, and modafinil in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolder, Patrick C; Müller, Felix; Schmid, Yasmin; Borgwardt, Stefan J; Liechti, Matthias E

    2017-05-27

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is used recreationally and investigated as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Methylphenidate and modafinil are psychostimulants that are used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy, respectively, but they are also misused as cognitive enhancers. Little is known about differences in the acute effects of equally cardiostimulant doses of these stimulant-type substances compared directly within the same subjects. We investigated the acute autonomic, subjective, endocrine, and emotional effects of single doses of MDMA (125 mg), methylphenidate (60 mg), modafinil (600 mg), and placebo in a double-blind, cross-over study in 24 healthy participants. Acute drug effects were tested using psychometric scales, the Facial Emotion Recognition Task (FERT), and the Sexual Arousal and Desire Inventory (SADI). All active drugs produced comparable hemodynamic and adverse effects. MDMA produced greater increases in pupil dilation, subjective good drug effects, drug liking, happiness, trust, well-being, and alterations in consciousness than methylphenidate or modafinil. Only MDMA reduced subjective anxiety and impaired fear recognition and led to misclassifications of emotions as happy on the FERT. On the SADI, only MDMA produced sexual arousal-like effects. Only MDMA produced marked increases in cortisol, prolactin, and oxytocin. In contrast to MDMA, methylphenidate increased subjective anxiety, and methylphenidate and modafinil increased misclassifications of emotions as angry on the FERT. Modafinil had no significant subjective drug effects but significant sympathomimetic and adverse effects. MDMA induced subjective, emotional, sexual, and endocrine effects that were clearly distinct from those of methylphenidate and modafinil at the doses used.

  10. Investigating the emotional response to room acoustics: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, M S; Vigeant, M C

    2015-10-01

    While previous research has demonstrated the powerful influence of pleasant and unpleasant music on emotions, the present study utilizes functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the positive and negative emotional responses as demonstrated in the brain when listening to music convolved with varying room acoustic conditions. During fMRI scans, subjects rated auralizations created in a simulated concert hall with varying reverberation times. The analysis detected activations in the dorsal striatum, a region associated with anticipation of reward, for two individuals for the highest rated stimulus, though no activations were found for regions associated with negative emotions in any subject.

  11. Negative emotions in cancer care: do oncologists' responses depend on severity and type of emotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennifer, Sarah L; Alexander, Stewart C; Pollak, Kathryn I; Jeffreys, Amy S; Olsen, Maren K; Rodriguez, Keri L; Arnold, Robert M; Tulsky, James A

    2009-07-01

    To examine how type and severity of patients' negative emotions influence oncologists' responses and subsequent conversations. We analyzed 264 audio-recorded conversations between advanced cancer patients and their oncologists. Conversations were coded for patients' expressions of negative emotion, which were categorized by type of emotion and severity. Oncologists' responses were coded as using either empathic language or blocking and distancing approaches. Patients presented fear more often than anger or sadness; severity of disclosures was most often moderate. Oncologists responded to 35% of these negative emotional disclosures with empathic language. They were most empathic when patients presented intense emotions. Responding empathically to patients' emotional disclosures lengthened discussions by an average of only 21s. Greater response rates to severe emotions suggest oncologists may recognize negative emotions better when patients express them more intensely. Oncologists were least responsive to patient fear and responded with greatest empathy to sadness. Oncologists may benefit from additional training to recognize negative emotions, even when displayed without intensity. Teaching cancer patients to better articulate their emotional concerns may also enhance patient-oncologist communication.

  12. Habitual emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms in healthy subjects predict fMRI brain activation patterns related to major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Birgit; Hofer, Christian; Walter, Henrik; Erk, Susanne; Hoffmann, Holger; Traue, Harald C; Kessler, Henrik

    2010-08-30

    The response-focused emotion regulation style 'Expressive suppression' has been associated with symptoms of lower psychological well-being and increased function magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation of the sublenticular extended amygdala (SLEA) in patients with major depression. Extending prior studies on active emotion regulation, we were interested in effects of habitual emotion regulation on neurobiology. Thirty subjects with either relatively high or low suppression scores as assessed with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire without symptoms of clinical depression participated in the study. They were instructed to expect and then perceive emotionally unpleasant, pleasant or neutral stimuli selected from the International Affective Picture System that were announced by a congruent cue during fMRI. In the subjects with high suppression scores, decreased activation of the orbital medial prefrontal cortex (oMFC) when expecting negative pictures and increased activation of the SLEA upon presentation of neutral stimuli were found. Subclinical depression ratings independently of suppression scores in the healthy subjects were positively correlated with brain activation in the SLEA when expecting negative pictures. SLEA hyperactivity may represent an emotional responsivity that involves less successful habitual emotion regulation and a tendency to depressed mood in healthy subjects, as shown in patients with major depression. Decreased anticipatory oMFC activation may parallel a lack of antecedent emotion regulation in subjects with high suppression scores, representing another neurobiological predictor of lower mental well-being. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gratitude mediates the effect of emotional intelligence on subjective well-being: A structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the relationship among emotional intelligence, gratitude, and subjective well-being in a sample of university students. A total of 365 undergraduates completed the emotional intelligence scale, the gratitude questionnaire, and the subjective well-being measures. The results of the structural equation model showed that emotional intelligence is positively associated with gratitude and subjective well-being, that gratitude is positively associated with subjective well-being, and that gratitude partially mediates the positive relationship between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being. Bootstrap test results also revealed that emotional intelligence has a significant indirect effect on subjective well-being through gratitude.

  14. Teachers' subjectivities and emotionality in HIV/AIDS teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper draws on qualitative, narrative data gathered from five teachers teaching in a midlands town in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It finds that teachers' subject positions play a significant role in presenting compassionate, supportive and knowledgeable subjectivities in the classroom; and that their positive and negative ...

  15. Emotional Responses to Service Learning: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priesmeyer, H. Richard; Mudge, Suzanne D.; Ward, Stephanie G.

    2016-01-01

    This study measured the emotional responses of students to common service learning activities. Two hypotheses focused on (1) expected changes in the mean emotion scores and (2) expected differences in individual responses. Results showed significant increases in Surprise, Anxiety and Distress and individual differences in Contempt, Disgust and…

  16. Effect of propofol on the medial temporal lobe emotional memory system: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, K O; Root, J C; Mehta, M; Stern, E; Pan, H; Veselis, R A; Silbersweig, D A

    2015-07-01

    Subclinical doses of propofol produce anterograde amnesia, characterized by an early failure of memory consolidation. It is unknown how propofol affects the amygdala-dependent emotional memory system, which modulates consolidation in the hippocampus in response to emotional arousal and neurohumoral stress. We present an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the effects of propofol on the emotional memory system in human subjects. Thirty-five healthy subjects were randomized to receive propofol, at an estimated brain concentration of 0.90 μg ml(-1), or placebo. During drug infusion, emotionally arousing and neutral images were presented in a continuous recognition task, while blood-oxygen-level-dependent activation responses were acquired. After a drug-free interval of 2 h, subsequent memory for successfully encoded items was assessed. Imaging analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping and behavioural analysis using signal detection models. Propofol had no effect on the stereotypical amygdalar response to emotional arousal, but caused marked suppression of the hippocampal response. Propofol caused memory performance to become uncoupled from amygdalar activation, but it remained correlated with activation in the posterior hippocampus, which decreased in proportion to amnesia. Propofol is relatively ineffective at suppressing amygdalar activation at sedative doses, but abolishes emotional modulation and causes amnesia via mechanisms that commonly involve hyporesponsiveness of the hippocampus. These findings raise the possibility that amygdala-dependent fear systems may remain intact even when a patient has diminished memory of events. This may be of clinical importance in the perioperative development of fear-based psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. NCT00504894. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  17. A Role for the Autonomic Nervous System in Modulating the Immune Response during Mild Emotional Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croiset, Gerda; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Wal, Wim E. van der; Boer, Sietse F. de; Wied, David de

    1990-01-01

    The role of the autonomic nervous system in the modulation of the immune response to emotional stimuli, was established in rats subjected to the passive avoidance test. An increase in splenic primary antibody response directed against SRBC was found after exposure of rats to the passive avoidance

  18. Probabilistic models of expectation violation predict psychophysiological emotional responses to live concert music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egermann, Hauke; Pearce, Marcus T; Wiggins, Geraint A; McAdams, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of a study testing the often-theorized role of musical expectations in inducing listeners' emotions in a live flute concert experiment with 50 participants. Using an audience response system developed for this purpose, we measured subjective experience and peripheral psychophysiological changes continuously. To confirm the existence of the link between expectation and emotion, we used a threefold approach. (1) On the basis of an information-theoretic cognitive model, melodic pitch expectations were predicted by analyzing the musical stimuli used (six pieces of solo flute music). (2) A continuous rating scale was used by half of the audience to measure their experience of unexpectedness toward the music heard. (3) Emotional reactions were measured using a multicomponent approach: subjective feeling (valence and arousal rated continuously by the other half of the audience members), expressive behavior (facial EMG), and peripheral arousal (the latter two being measured in all 50 participants). Results confirmed the predicted relationship between high-information-content musical events, the violation of musical expectations (in corresponding ratings), and emotional reactions (psychologically and physiologically). Musical structures leading to expectation reactions were manifested in emotional reactions at different emotion component levels (increases in subjective arousal and autonomic nervous system activations). These results emphasize the role of musical structure in emotion induction, leading to a further understanding of the frequently experienced emotional effects of music.

  19. Neural correlates of emotional responses to music: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ian; Malik, Asad; Hwang, Faustina; Roesch, Etienne; Weaver, James; Kirke, Alexis; Williams, Duncan; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2014-06-24

    This paper presents an EEG study into the neural correlates of music-induced emotions. We presented participants with a large dataset containing musical pieces in different styles, and asked them to report on their induced emotional responses. We found neural correlates of music-induced emotion in a number of frequencies over the pre-frontal cortex. Additionally, we found a set of patterns of functional connectivity, defined by inter-channel coherence measures, to be significantly different between groups of music-induced emotional responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Socioeconomic disadvantage, neural responses to infant emotions, and emotional availability among first-time new mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Capistrano, Christian G; Erhart, Andrew; Gray-Schiff, Rachel; Xu, Nanxi

    2017-05-15

    During the early postpartum period, mothers exhibit increased amygdala responses to positive infant expressions, which are important for positive mother-infant relationships. Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with altered amygdala response to emotional stimuli as well as more negative mother-infant relationships. However, little is known about the role of socioeconomic disadvantage in neural responses specifically to infants. Thus, we examined whether socioeconomic disadvantage (indexed by lower income-to-needs ratio) is associated with neural responses to infant emotions and parenting behaviors among new mothers. Using fMRI, neural responses to infants' emotional expressions (positive, negative, and neutral faces) were assessed among 39 low- and middle-income first-time mothers during 0-6 postpartum months. Lower income-to-needs ratio was associated with dampened amygdala responses to positive infant faces, but increased amygdala responses to negative infant faces. An indirect effect of socioeconomic disadvantage on emotional availability via amygdala activation suggests that socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with heightened neural sensitivity to infants' negative emotions, which is further associated with mothers' intrusiveness observed during interactions with their own infant. The findings suggest that low-income mothers may be more vulnerable to altered neural processing of infants' emotional expressions which may further influence mothers' emotional availability during interactions with their own infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The assessment of emotional clarity via response times to emotion items: shedding light on the response process and its relation to emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Charlotte; Lischetzke, Tanja; Crayen, Claudia; Eid, Michael

    2017-05-09

    Researchers have begun to use response times (RTs) to emotion items as an indirect measure of emotional clarity. Our first aim was to scrutinise the properties of this RT measure in more detail than previously. To be able to provide recommendations as to whether (and how) emotional intensity - as a possible confound - should be controlled for, we investigated the specific form of the relation between emotional intensity and RTs to emotion items. In particular, we assumed an inverted U-shaped relation at the item level. Moreover, we analysed the RT measure's convergent validity with respect to individuals' confidence in their emotion ratings. As a second aim, we compared the predictive validity of emotional clarity measures (RT measure, self-report) with respect to daily emotion regulation. The results of three experience sampling studies showed that the association between emotional intensity and RT followed an inverted U shape. RT was in part related to confidence. Emotional clarity measures were unrelated to reappraisal. There was some evidence that lower emotional clarity was related to a greater use of suppression. The findings highlight that emotional intensity and squared emotional intensity should be controlled for when using the RT measure of emotional clarity in future research.

  2. [Neural activity related to emotional and empathic deficits in subjects with post-traumatic stress disorder who survived the L'Aquila (Central Italy) 2009 earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Monica; Pino, Maria Chiara; Tempesta, Daniela; Catalucci, Alessia; Masciocchi, Carlo; Ferrara, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a chronic anxiety disorder. The continued efforts to control the distressing memories by traumatized individuals, together with the reduction of responsiveness to the outside world, are called Emotional Numbing (EN). The EN is one of the central symptoms in PTSD and it plays an integral role not only in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic symptomatology, but also in the disability of emotional regulation. This disorder shows an abnormal response of cortical and limbic regions which are normally involved in understanding emotions since the very earliest stages of the development of processing ability. Patients with PTSD exhibit exaggerated brain responses to emotionally negative stimuli. Identifying the neural correlates of emotion regulation in these subjects is important for elucidating the neural circuitry involved in emotional and empathic dysfunction. We showed that PTSD patients, all survivors of the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake, have a higher sensitivity to negative emotion and lower empathy levels. These emotional and empathic deficits are accompanied by neural brain functional correlates. Indeed PTSD subjects exhibit functional abnormalities in brain regions that are involved in stress regulation and emotional responses. The reduced activation of the frontal areas and a stronger activation of the limbic areas when responding to emotional stimuli could lead the subjects to enact coping strategies aimed at protecting themselves from the re-experience of pain related to traumatic events. This would result in a dysfunctional hyperactivation of subcortical areas, which may cause emotional distress and, consequently, impaired social relationships often reported by PTSD patients.

  3. Acute pharmacologically induced shifts in serotonin availability abolish emotion-selective responses to negative face emotions in distinct brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Cheryl L; Siebner, Hartwig R; Hornboll, Bettina; Macoveanu, Julian; Paulson, Olaf B; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2013-05-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of serotonin availability can alter the processing of facial expressions of emotion. Using a within-subject design, we measured the effect of serotonin on the brain's response to aversive face emotions with functional MRI while 20 participants judged the gender of neutral, fearful and angry faces. In three separate and counterbalanced sessions, participants received citalopram (CIT) to raise serotonin levels, underwent acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to lower serotonin, or were studied without pharmacological challenge (Control). An analysis designed to identify distributed brain responses identified two brain networks with modulations of activity related to face emotion and serotonin level. The first network included the left amygdala, bilateral striatum, and fusiform gyri. During the Control session this network responded only to fearful faces; increasing serotonin decreased this response to fear, whereas reducing serotonin enhanced the response of this network to angry faces. The second network involved bilateral amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and these regions also showed increased activity to fear during the Control session. Both drug challenges enhanced the neural response of this set of regions to angry faces, relative to Control, and CIT also enhanced activity for neutral faces. The net effect of these changes in both networks was to abolish the selective response to fearful expressions. These results suggest that a normal level of serotonin is critical for maintaining a differentiated brain response to threatening face emotions. Lower serotonin leads to a broadening of a normally fear-specific response to anger, and higher levels reduce the differentiated brain response to aversive face emotions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Intensified emotion perception in depression: Differences in physiological arousal and subjective perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzler, Sofia; Hagen, Marleen; Tarvainen, Mika P; Hilke, Marietheres; Ghirmai, Naddy; Huthmacher, Ann-Caitlin; Trettin, Marco; van Dick, Rolf; Reif, Andreas; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola

    2017-07-01

    People suffering from depression perceive themselves and their surroundings as more negative than healthy ones. An explanation might be that depressed individuals experience negative information as more stressful than non-depressed subjects and, consequently, respond in an amplified manner on a subjective and physiological level. To test this proposition, we presented 41 patients with recurrent depressive episodes and 42 controls with stimuli from the International Affective Picture System split into three valence categories while different parameters of physiological arousal (e.g., heart rate variability) and subjective perceptions of valence and arousal were assessed. Furthermore, we examined social skills and emotional competence. Results regarding physiological arousal revealed an elevated skin temperature and a more accentuated respiratory frequency in depressed subjects. Furthermore, depressed subjects rated the stimuli as more negative and arousing, which was associated with reduced social and emotional competence. Variation in antidepressant medication, menstrual cycle and other factors that have an impact on HRV are a potential bias. Our findings suggest an intensified perception of negative emotion in depressed individuals as compared to controls that manifests itself in an increased physiological arousal as well as on a subjective level. This intensified emotion perception is further associated with deficits in social and emotional competence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preschool Teachers' Emotional Socialization Responses to 4-6 Year-Old Turkish Preschoolers' Emotional Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Sukran

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate preschool teachers' emotion socialization responses to Turkish preschoolers' emotional expressions based on children's age and gender. The participants in the current study were 12 preschool full time teachers from 4 preschool and 288 preschoolers ranging in age from 4 to 6 years in Aksaray. In…

  6. The Role of Child Emotional Responsiveness and Maternal Negative Emotion Expression in Children's Coping Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodvin, Rebecca; Carlo, Gustavo; Torquati, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the additive and interactive effects of children's trait vicarious emotional responsiveness and maternal negative emotion expression on children's use of coping strategies. Ninety-five children (mean age = 5.87 years) and their mothers and teachers participated in the study. The mothers reported on their own negative emotion…

  7. Gender Differences in Emotional Response: Inconsistency between Experience and Expressivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yaling; Chang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Huo, Meng

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception—women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence. PMID:27362361

  8. Gender Differences in Emotional Response: Inconsistency between Experience and Expressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yaling; Chang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Huo, Meng; Zhou, Renlai

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception-women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence.

  9. Gender Differences in Emotional Response: Inconsistency between Experience and Expressivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Deng

    Full Text Available The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure. We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception-women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence.

  10. Cultural Specific Effects on the Recognition of Basic Emotions: A Study on Italian Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Anna; Riviello, Maria Teresa; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    The present work reports the results of perceptual experiments aimed to investigate if some of the basic emotions are perceptually privileged and if the cultural environment and the perceptual mode play a role in this preference. To this aim, Italian subjects were requested to assess emotional stimuli extracted from Italian and American English movies in the single (either video or audio alone) and the combined audio/video mode. Results showed that anger, fear, and sadness are better perceived than surprise, happiness in both the cultural environments (irony instead strongly depend on the language), that emotional information is affected by the communication mode and that language plays a role in assessing emotional information. Implications for the implementation of emotionally colored interactive systems are discussed.

  11. Mothers' electrophysiological, subjective, and observed emotional responding to infant crying: The role of secure base script knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Ashley M; Roisman, Glenn I; Haydon, Katherine C; Bost, Kelly; McElwain, Nancy; Garcia, Leanna; Hester, Colleen

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the extent to which secure base script knowledge-reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-relevant events are encountered, a clear need for assistance is communicated, competent help is provided and accepted, and the problem is resolved-is associated with mothers' electrophysiological, subjective, and observed emotional responses to an infant distress vocalization. While listening to an infant crying, mothers (N = 108, M age = 34 years) lower on secure base script knowledge exhibited smaller shifts in relative left (vs. right) frontal EEG activation from rest, reported smaller reductions in feelings of positive emotion from rest, and expressed greater levels of tension. Findings indicate that lower levels of secure base script knowledge are associated with an organization of emotional responding indicative of a less flexible and more emotionally restricted response to infant distress. Discussion focuses on the contribution of mothers' attachment representations to their ability to effectively manage emotional responding to infant distress in a manner expected to support sensitive caregiving.

  12. General and specific responsiveness of the amygdala during explicit emotion recognition in females and males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windischberger Christian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to recognize emotions in facial expressions relies on an extensive neural network with the amygdala as the key node as has typically been demonstrated for the processing of fearful stimuli. A sufficient characterization of the factors influencing and modulating amygdala function, however, has not been reached now. Due to lacking or diverging results on its involvement in recognizing all or only certain negative emotions, the influence of gender or ethnicity is still under debate. This high-resolution fMRI study addresses some of the relevant parameters, such as emotional valence, gender and poser ethnicity on amygdala activation during facial emotion recognition in 50 Caucasian subjects. Stimuli were color photographs of emotional Caucasian and African American faces. Results Bilateral amygdala activation was obtained to all emotional expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happy, and sad and neutral faces across all subjects. However, only in males a significant correlation of amygdala activation and behavioral response to fearful stimuli was observed, indicating higher amygdala responses with better fear recognition, thus pointing to subtle gender differences. No significant influence of poser ethnicity on amygdala activation occurred, but analysis of recognition accuracy revealed a significant impact of poser ethnicity that was emotion-dependent. Conclusion Applying high-resolution fMRI while subjects were performing an explicit emotion recognition task revealed bilateral amygdala activation to all emotions presented and neutral expressions. This mechanism seems to operate similarly in healthy females and males and for both in-group and out-group ethnicities. Our results support the assumption that an intact amygdala response is fundamental in the processing of these salient stimuli due to its relevance detecting function.

  13. Beautiful friendship: Social sharing of emotions improves subjective feelings and activates the neural reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ullrich; Galli, Lisa; Schott, Björn H; Wold, Andrew; van der Schalk, Job; Manstead, Antony S R; Scherer, Klaus; Walter, Henrik

    2015-06-01

    Humans have a strong tendency to affiliate with other people, especially in emotional situations. Here, we suggest that a critical mechanism underlying this tendency is that socially sharing emotional experiences is in itself perceived as hedonically positive and thereby contributes to the regulation of individual emotions. We investigated the effect of social sharing of emotions on subjective feelings and neural activity by having pairs of friends view emotional (negative and positive) and neutral pictures either alone or with the friend. While the two friends remained physically separated throughout the experiment-with one undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging and the other performing the task in an adjacent room-they were made aware on a trial-by-trial basis whether they were seeing pictures simultaneously with their friend (shared) or alone (unshared). Ratings of subjective feelings were improved significantly when participants viewed emotional pictures together than alone, an effect that was accompanied by activity increase in ventral striatum and medial orbitofrontal cortex, two important components of the reward circuitry. Because these effects occurred without any communication or interaction between the friends, they point to an important proximate explanation for the basic human motivation to affiliate with others, particularly in emotional situations. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Blood, Anne J.; Robert J Zatorre

    2001-01-01

    We used positron emission tomography to study neural mechanisms underlying intensely pleasant emotional responses to music. Cerebral blood flow changes were measured in response to subject-selected music that elicited the highly pleasurable experience of “shivers-down-the-spine” or “chills.” Subjective reports of chills were accompanied by changes in heart rate, electromyogram, and respiration. As intensity of these chills increased, cerebral blood flow increases a...

  15. The Development of an Emotional Response to Literature Measure: The Affective Response to Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald G.; Fischer, Jerome M.

    2006-01-01

    Based on theories of emotional intelligence, adult education, psychology of reading, and emotions and literature, this study was designed to develop and validate the Affective Response to Literature Survey (ARLS), a psychological instrument used to measure an emotional response to literature. Initially, 27 items were generated by a review of…

  16. Amygdala responses to emotional faces in twins discordant or concordant for the risk for anxiety and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfensberger, Saskia P. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; de Geus, Eco J. C.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional brain imaging studies have shown deviant amygdala responses to emotional stimuli in subjects suffering from anxiety and depressive disorder, but both hyperactivity and hypoactivity compared to healthy controls have been reported. To account for these discrepant findings, we

  17. Amygdala responses to emotional faces in twins discordant or concordant for the risk for anxiety and depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfensberger, S.P.A.; Veltman, D.J.; Hoogendijk, W.J.G.; Boomsma, D.I.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Functional brain imaging studies have shown deviant amygdala responses to emotional stimuli in subjects suffering from anxiety and depressive disorder, but both hyperactivity and hypoactivity compared to healthy controls have been reported. To account for these discrepant findings, we

  18. Effects of empathic social responses on the emotions of the recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehausen, Maria; Kazzer, Philipp; Bajbouj, Malek; Heekeren, Hauke R; Jacobs, Arthur M; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Menninghaus, Winfried; Prehn, Kristin

    2016-03-01

    Empathy is highly relevant for social behavior and can be verbally expressed by voicing sympathy and concern (emotional empathy) as well as by paraphrasing or stating that one can mentally reconstruct and understand another person's thoughts and feelings (cognitive empathy). In this study, we investigated the emotional effects and neural correlates of receiving empathic social responses after negative performance feedback and compared the effects of emotionally vs. cognitively empathic comments. 20 participants (10 male) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while receiving negative performance feedback for a cognitive task. Performance feedback was followed by verbal comments either expressing cognitive and emotional empathy or demonstrating a lack of empathy. Empathic comments in general led to less negative self-reported feelings and calmer breathing. At the neural level, empathic comments induced activity in regions associated with social cognition and emotion processing, specifically in right postcentral gyrus and left cerebellum (cognitively empathic comments), right precentral gyrus, the opercular part of left inferior frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus (emotionally empathic comments), as well as the orbital part of the left middle frontal gyrus and left superior parietal gyrus (emotionally empathic vs. unempathic comments). The study shows that cognitively and emotionally empathic comments appear to be processed in partially separable neural systems. Furthermore, confirming and expanding on another study on the same subject, the present results demonstrate that the social display of cognitive empathy exerts almost as positive effects on the recipient's feelings and emotions in states of distress as emotionally empathic response does. This can be relevant for professional settings in which strong negative emotions need to be de-escalated while maintaining professional impartiality, which may allow the display of cognitive but not

  19. Effects of Emotional Valence on Hemispheric Asymmetries in Response Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ocklenburg

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemispheric asymmetries are a major organizational principle in human emotion processing, but their interaction with prefrontal control processes is not well understood. To this end, we determined whether hemispheric differences in response inhibition depend on the emotional valence of the stimulus being inhibited. Participants completed a lateralised Go/Nogo task, in which Nogo stimuli were neutral or emotional (either positive or negative images, while Go stimuli were scrambled versions of the same pictures. We recorded the N2 and P3 event-related potential (ERP components, two common electrophysiological measures of response inhibition processes. Behaviourally, participants were more accurate in withholding responses to emotional than to neutral stimuli. Electrophysiologically, Nogo-P3 responses were greater for emotional than for neutral stimuli, an effect driven primarily by an enhanced response to positive images. Hemispheric asymmetries were also observed, with greater Nogo-P3 following left versus right visual field stimuli. However, the visual field effect did not interact with emotion. We therefore find no evidence that emotion-related asymmetries affect response inhibition processes.

  20. Emotional Response, Brand Recall and Response Latency to Visual Register for Food and Beverage Print Ads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Puskarevic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of advertising principles or any other means of marketing communication that affects consume behavior has long been the subject of marketing research. The research of emotional response in relation to ad efficiency in this paper is an extension of the research previously conducted (Nedeljkovic et al., 2011. The aim of this research is to show how the ad content i.e. visual message in printed advertisements affects emotional response. Two hypotheses were postulated. First, we expected more positive response for ads with predominating iconic content. The second hypothesis sought to determine if greater response latency can be expected for ads with dominant tropological content. The method of research was SAM visual method of self-assessment. Emotional response and response latency of the participants were measured for advertisements for food and beverage products and services in order to determine how visual ad content influences emotional response of the participants, as well as the effectiveness of the advertising campaign. In an experiment the participants could rate their emotional response using the Self-assessment Manikin (SAM scale toward both types of advertisements. At the same time the response latency was measured. The results show that the main hypothesis was neither confirmed nor rejected, whereas the second hypothesis was confirmed. We conclude that the attitude towards the ad, as mediating variable, is a good indicator of advertising effectiveness.

  1. How does emotional context modulate response inhibition in alexithymia: electrophysiological evidence from an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alexithymia, characterized by difficulties in identifying and describing feelings, is highly indicative of a broad range of psychiatric disorders. Several studies have also discovered the response inhibition ability impairment in alexithymia. However, few studies on alexithymic individuals have specifically examined how emotional context modulates response inhibition procedure. In order to investigate emotion cognition interaction in alexithymia, we analyzed the spatiao-temporal features of such emotional response inhibition by the approaches of event-related potentials and neural source-localization. METHOD: The study participants included 15 subjects with high alexithymia scores on the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (alexithymic group and 15 matched subjects with low alexithymia scores (control group. Subjects were instructed to perform a modified emotional Go/Nogo task while their continuous electroencephalography activities were synchronously recorded. The task includes 3 categories of emotional contexts (positive, negative and neutral and 2 letters ("M" and "W" centered in the screen. Participants were told to complete go and nogo actions based on the letters. We tested the influence of alexithymia in this emotional Go/Nogo task both in behavioral level and related neural activities of N2 and P3 ERP components. RESULTS: We found that negatively valenced context elicited larger central P3 amplitudes of the Nogo-Go difference wave in the alexithymic group than in the control group. Furthermore, source-localization analyses implicated the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC as the neural generator of the Nogo-P3. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that difficulties in identifying feelings, particularly in negative emotions, is a major feature of alexithymia, and the ACC plays a critical role in emotion-modulated response inhibition related to alexithymia.

  2. Music Induces Universal Emotion-Related Psychophysiological Responses: Comparing Canadian Listeners To Congolese Pygmies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauke eEgermann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mbenzélé Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29 to 99 seconds in duration in random order (8 from the Pygmy population and 11 Western instrumental excerpts. For both groups, emotion components were continuously measured: subjective feeling (using a two- dimensional valence and arousal rating interface, peripheral physiological activation, and facial expression. While Pygmy music was rated as positive and arousing by Pygmies, ratings of Western music by Westerners covered the range from arousing to calming and from positive to negative. Comparing psychophysiological responses to emotional qualities of Pygmy music across participant groups showed no similarities. However, Western stimuli, rated as high and low arousing by Canadians, created similar responses in both participant groups (with high arousal associated with increases in subjective and physiological activation. Several low-level acoustical features of the music presented (tempo, pitch, and timbre were shown to affect subjective and physiological arousal similarly in both cultures. Results suggest that while the subjective dimension of emotional valence might be mediated by cultural learning, changes in arousal might involve a more basic, universal response to low-level acoustical characteristics of music.

  3. Music induces universal emotion-related psychophysiological responses: comparing Canadian listeners to Congolese Pygmies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egermann, Hauke; Fernando, Nathalie; Chuen, Lorraine; McAdams, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mebenzélé Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29-99 s in duration in random order (eight from the Pygmy population and 11 Western instrumental excerpts). For both groups, emotion components were continuously measured: subjective feeling (using a two- dimensional valence and arousal rating interface), peripheral physiological activation, and facial expression. While Pygmy music was rated as positive and arousing by Pygmies, ratings of Western music by Westerners covered the range from arousing to calming and from positive to negative. Comparing psychophysiological responses to emotional qualities of Pygmy music across participant groups showed no similarities. However, Western stimuli, rated as high and low arousing by Canadians, created similar responses in both participant groups (with high arousal associated with increases in subjective and physiological activation). Several low-level acoustical features of the music presented (tempo, pitch, and timbre) were shown to affect subjective and physiological arousal similarly in both cultures. Results suggest that while the subjective dimension of emotional valence might be mediated by cultural learning, changes in arousal might involve a more basic, universal response to low-level acoustical characteristics of music.

  4. Music induces universal emotion-related psychophysiological responses: comparing Canadian listeners to Congolese Pygmies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egermann, Hauke; Fernando, Nathalie; Chuen, Lorraine; McAdams, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mebenzélé Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29–99 s in duration in random order (eight from the Pygmy population and 11 Western instrumental excerpts). For both groups, emotion components were continuously measured: subjective feeling (using a two- dimensional valence and arousal rating interface), peripheral physiological activation, and facial expression. While Pygmy music was rated as positive and arousing by Pygmies, ratings of Western music by Westerners covered the range from arousing to calming and from positive to negative. Comparing psychophysiological responses to emotional qualities of Pygmy music across participant groups showed no similarities. However, Western stimuli, rated as high and low arousing by Canadians, created similar responses in both participant groups (with high arousal associated with increases in subjective and physiological activation). Several low-level acoustical features of the music presented (tempo, pitch, and timbre) were shown to affect subjective and physiological arousal similarly in both cultures. Results suggest that while the subjective dimension of emotional valence might be mediated by cultural learning, changes in arousal might involve a more basic, universal response to low-level acoustical characteristics of music. PMID:25620935

  5. Disrupting SMA activity modulates explicit and implicit emotional responses: an rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodigari, Alessia; Oliveri, Massimiliano

    2014-09-05

    Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) has been considered as an interface between the emotional/motivational system and motor effector system. Here, we investigated whether it is possible to modulate emotional responses using non-invasive brain stimulation of the SMA. 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) trains were applied over the SMA of healthy subjects performing a task requiring to judge the valence and arousal of emotional stimuli. rTMS trains over the SMA increased the perceived valence of emotionally negative visual stimuli, while decreasing the perceived valence of emotionally positive ones. The modulatory effect on emotional valence was specific for stimuli with emotional content, since it was not observed for neutral visual stimuli. The effect was also specific for the site of stimulation, since rTMS of the visual cortex failed to modulate either perceived valence or arousal. These findings provide the first example of neuromodulation of emotional responses based on non-invasive brain stimulation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Liv Kondrup; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    Observing science classroom activities presents an opportunity to observe the emotional aspect of interactions, and this chapter presents how this can be done and why. Drawing on ideas proposed by French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty, emotions are theorized as publicly embodied enactments......, where differences in behavior between people shape emotional responses. Merleau-Ponty’s theorization of the body and feelings is connected to embodiment while examining central concepts such as consciousness and perception. Merleau-Ponty describes what he calls the emotional atmosphere and how it shapes...... the ways we experience events and activities. We use our interpretation of his understanding of emotions to examine an example of a group of year 8 science students who were engaged in a physics activity. Using the analytical framework of analyzing bodily stance by Goodwin, Cekaite, and Goodwin...

  7. Sex differences in emotional and psychophysiological responses to musical stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nater, Urs M; Abbruzzese, Elvira; Krebs, Monika; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2006-11-01

    Although it is known that men and women differ in their music preferences and emotional reactions to music, little is known about sex differences in physiological reactions to music. In our study, we therefore set out to examine the differential reactivity to two musical stimuli that elicit distinct psychological and physiological reaction patterns. Fifty-three healthy subjects (mean age: 26.13, SD: 3.97; 26 males, 27 females) were examined. Heart rate, electrodermal activity, skin temperature, salivary cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase, and psychological variables were assessed during the course of the whole study. Following baseline assessment, two musical stimuli, which were carefully selected and rated in a pre-study as relaxing and pleasant (renaissance music) and arousing and unpleasant (heavy metal), respectively, were introduced. They were presented on two different days in a randomized order. Whereas psychological variables did not differ between men and women, results of electrophysiological measures indicate significantly different reactivity patterns between men and women. Women displayed elevated response curves to the arousing and unpleasant stimulus, whereas men did not. However, no differences were found with regards to endocrine measures in saliva. Our results demonstrate sex differences in reactivity patterns to musical stimuli in psychophysiological measures. In our study, we were able to show that women tend to show hypersensitivity to aversive musical stimuli. This finding is in accordance with previous literature on sex differences in emotion research. Furthermore, our study indicates that the confounding effects of sex differences have to be considered when using musical stimuli for emotion induction.

  8. Medical errors; causes, consequences, emotional response and resulting behavioral change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bari, Attia; Khan, Rehan Ahmed; Rathore, Ahsan Waheed

    2016-01-01

    To determine the causes of medical errors, the emotional and behavioral response of pediatric medicine residents to their medical errors and to determine their behavior change affecting their future training...

  9. Rhythmic Density Affects Listeners' Emotional Response to Microtiming

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olivier Senn; Claudia Bullerjahn; Lorenz Kilchenmann; Richard von Georgi

    2017-01-01

    ... under which microtiming has no negative impact on groove. The three studies in this paper aim at explaining some of these discrepancies by clarifying to what extent listeners' emotional responses to microtiming depend on the distribution of microtiming...

  10. Interaction With PC Tablets And Possible Emotional Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emy Agren

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable developments in mobile-based technologies have brought prominent impacts on human life style. Today life is running on mobile electronic devices smart phones tablets gaming devices and video-players. Generally the users acquaint with the features and properties of products after emotionally and physically interacting with the devices. The interaction in return influencing our moods depending on the feelings the technology creates. The focus of this study lays on the uses of tablets or also called PC tablets and its effects on its users emotional responses. To discover possible emotional responses with the tablets the data in this work were collected through a survey questionnaire from participants belongs to various backgrounds age groups and genders. The model of emotions was adopted in order to classify the emotional responses.The study has found that during or after the interaction with the tablets the users may get positive or negative emotional responses of a different kind. The users mood can also be affected by awakening such emotional feelings as happiness sadness frustration etc.

  11. 5-HTTLPR differentially predicts brain network responses to emotional faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick M; Grady, Cheryl L; Madsen, Martin K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on neural responses to emotionally salient faces have been studied extensively, focusing on amygdala reactivity and amygdala-prefrontal interactions. Despite compelling evidence that emotional face paradigms engage a distributed network of brain regions...... resonance imaging in 76 healthy adults. We observed robust increased response to emotional faces in the amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, fusiform gyrus, superior temporal sulcus and lateral prefrontal and occipito-parietal cortices. We observed dissociation between 5-HTTLPR groups such that LA LA individuals...

  12. Self-distancing from trauma memories reduces physiological but not subjective emotional reactivity among Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisco, Blair E; Marx, Brian P; Sloan, Denise M; Gorman, Kaitlyn R; Kulish, Andrea L; Pineles, Suzanne L

    2015-11-01

    Self-distancing, or viewing oneself from a third-person perspective, reduces reactivity when analyzing one's feelings. Self-distancing may have important effects among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who have heightened emotional and physiological reactivity to trauma memories, but the effects of self-distancing in this group are unclear. We randomly assigned 48 Veterans diagnosed with PTSD to analyze their trauma-related feelings from an immersed (first-person) or distanced (third-person) perspective, and measured physiological and subjective emotional reactivity. Self-distancing during trauma analysis protected against increases in physiological reactivity, such that participants in the immersed condition showed a significant increase in heart rate and skin conductance responses not seen in the distanced condition. However, self-distancing had no effect on self-reported emotional reactivity. Our findings suggest that the effects of self-distancing on subjective emotions may not extend to trauma memories. However, self-distancing during trauma analysis did change physiological reactivity, suggesting at least a short-term benefit for individuals with PTSD.

  13. Dispositional emotion coping styles and physiological responses to expressive writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagawa, Rie; Moss-Morris, Rona; Martin, Alexandra; Robinson, Elizabeth; Booth, Roger J

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of these two studies was to assess how repressors and defensive, high-anxious individuals exhibit their psychological and health characteristics subjectively through self-reports and objectively through physiological markers and ratings of emotional expression. Cross-sectional descriptive design (study one) and randomized controlled design (study two). In the first descriptive study, repressors, defensive, high-anxious individuals and low-anxious individuals were identified from a pool of 748 undergraduates. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires assessing psychological and health characteristics. In the second experimental study, the three groups were randomized into either emotional or non-emotional writing conditions. Participants were asked to write three essays on either an emotional or a non-emotional topic in a single day. In the first study, defensive, high-anxious individuals reported significantly more distress, symptoms, sickness behaviours and difficulty expressing anger relative to repressors. In the second study, there was a significant difference in salivary cortisol concentrations between the two writing conditions regardless of the emotional coping grouping. Analysis of the writing showed no significant differences among repressors, defensive, high-anxious and low-anxious individuals in their cognitive and affective expression. Whereas self-reports of health outcomes and psychological traits clearly distinguish repressors and defensive, high-anxious individuals, more objective indices of emotional expressiveness and physiology do not appear to do so. The results also indicate that expressive writing may be helpful to reduce physiological arousal towards emotionally charged memories. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Maternal frustration, emotional and behavioural responses to prolonged infant crying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ronald G; Fairbrother, Nicole; Pauwels, Julie; Green, James; Chen, Mandy; Brant, Rollin

    2014-11-01

    Prolonged inconsolable crying bouts in the first months of life are frustrating to parents and may lead to abuse. There is no empirical description of frustration trajectories during prolonged crying, nor of their emotional predictors or emotional and behavioural sequelae. Frustration responses and their relationships were explored in an analogue cry listening paradigm. Without knowing how long it would last, 111 postpartum mothers were randomized to listen to a 10-min audiotape of infant crying or cooing while continuously recording frustration on a visual analogue 'slider' scale. The listening bout was preceded by questionnaires on negative mood, trait anger and empathy and followed by questionnaires on the reality of the cry sound, positive and negative emotions, soothing strategies, coping strategies and urges to comfort and flee. Individual frustration trajectories were modelled parametrically and characterized by frustration maximum, rate of rise, inflections and harmonicity parameters. As hypothesized, the modal response was of gradually increasing frustration throughout. However, there were marked individual differences in frustration trajectories. Negative mood, trait anger and empathy did not predict modal or modelled individual trajectories. However, frustration responses were significantly related to post-listening emotions and behavioural ratings. In particular, prolonged crying generated highly ambivalent positive and negative emotional responses. In summary, maternal frustration generally increased as the crying bout progressed; however, frustration trajectories were highly individual and emotional responses were highly ambivalent in terms of positive and negative emotions generated. Some emotional and behavioural responses were associated with specific trajectory parameters of frustration responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How Hearing Loss and Age Affect Emotional Responses to Nonspeech Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of hearing loss and age on subjective ratings of emotional valence and arousal in response to nonspeech sounds. Method: Three groups of adults participated: 20 younger listeners with normal hearing (M = 24.8 years), 20 older listeners with normal hearing (M = 55.8 years), and 20 older…

  16. Combining electroencephalographic activity and instantaneous heart rate for assessing brain-heart dynamics during visual emotional elicitation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, G; Greco, A; Gentili, C; Lanata, A; Sebastiani, L; Menicucci, D; Gemignani, A; Scilingo, E P

    2016-05-13

    Emotion perception, occurring in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, involves autonomic responses affecting cardiovascular dynamics. However, how such brain-heart dynamics is further modulated by emotional valence (pleasantness/unpleasantness), also considering different arousing levels (the intensity of the emotional stimuli), is still unknown. To this extent, we combined electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics and instantaneous heart rate estimates to study emotional processing in healthy subjects. Twenty-two healthy volunteers were elicited through affective pictures gathered from the International Affective Picture System. The experimental protocol foresaw 110 pictures, each of which lasted 10 s, associated to 25 different combinations of arousal and valence levels, including neutral elicitations. EEG data were processed using short-time Fourier transforms to obtain time-varying maps of cortical activation, whereas the associated instantaneous cardiovascular dynamics was estimated in the time and frequency domains through inhomogeneous point-process models. Brain-heart linear and nonlinear coupling was estimated through the maximal information coefficient (MIC). Considering EEG oscillations in theθband (4-8 Hz), MIC highlighted significant arousal-dependent changes between positive and negative stimuli, especially occurring at intermediate arousing levels through the prefrontal cortex interplay. Moreover, high arousing elicitations seem to mitigate changes in brain-heart dynamics in response to pleasant/unpleasant visual elicitation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Modulation of amygdala response to task-irrelevant emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Catherine L; McCrory, Eamon J; De Brito, Stephane A; Viding, Essi

    2017-04-01

    It has been shown that as cognitive demands of a non-emotional task increase, amygdala response to task-irrelevant emotional stimuli is reduced. However, it remains unclear whether effects are due to altered task demands, or altered perceptual input associated with task demands. Here, we present fMRI data from 20 adult males during a novel cognitive conflict task in which the requirement to scan emotional information was necessary for task performance and held constant across levels of cognitive conflict. Response to fearful facial expressions was attenuated under high (vs low) conflict conditions, as indexed by both slower reaction times and reduced right amygdala response. Psychophysiological interaction analysis showed that increased amygdala response to fear in the low conflict condition was accompanied by increased functional coupling with middle frontal gyrus, a prefrontal region previously associated with emotion regulation during cognitive task performance. These data suggest that amygdala response to emotion is modulated as a function of task demands, even when perceptual inputs are closely matched across load conditions. PPI data also show that, in particular emotional contexts, increased functional coupling of amygdala with prefrontal cortex can paradoxically occur when executive demands are lower. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Why emotions matter: expectancy violation and affective response mediate the emotional victim effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, Karl; Landström, Sara

    2010-10-01

    The mechanisms behind the 'emotional victim effect' (i.e., that the emotionality of a rape victim's demeanor affects perceived credibility) are relatively unexplored. In this article, a previously neglected mechanism--observers' affective response to the victim--is proposed as an alternative to the traditional expectancy-violation account. The emotional victim effect was replicated in an experiment with a sample of police trainees (N = 189), and cognitive load was found to increase the magnitude of the effect. Importantly, both compassionate affective response and expectancy violation actively mediated the emotional victim effect when the other mechanism was controlled for. These findings extend previous research on credibility judgments by introducing a 'hot' cognitive component in the judgment process. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  19. Emotional Responses during Reading: Physiological Responses Predict Real-Time Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Samantha G.; Willett, John B.; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between emotional responses and reading performance in middle-school students. Although a large number of prior studies have investigated the relationship between emotion and reading, those studies have concentrated primarily on relatively static and distal measures of emotion. In this research, we measured…

  20. The impact of emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies on the relation of illness-related negative emotions to subjective health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademas, Evangelos C; Tsalikou, Calliope; Tallarou, Maria-Christina

    2011-04-01

    In this study we examined whether emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies mediate and/ or moderate the relation of illness-related negative emotions to patients' subjective health. One hundred and thirty-five cardiac patients participated in the study. Illness-focused coping strategies were found to mediate the relation of emotions to physical functioning, whereas emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation to psychological well-being. Moreover, an emotion regulation strategy (i.e. emotion suppression) and two illness-focused coping strategies (instrumental coping and adherence) moderated the two relationships. These findings suggest that both emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies are integral parts of the illness-related negative emotions-health relationship.

  1. Two types of peak emotional responses to music: The psychophysiology of chills and tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2017-04-07

    People sometimes experience a strong emotional response to artworks. Previous studies have demonstrated that the peak emotional experience of chills (goose bumps or shivers) when listening to music involves psychophysiological arousal and a rewarding effect. However, many aspects of peak emotion are still not understood. The current research takes a new perspective of peak emotional response of tears (weeping, lump in the throat). A psychophysiological experiment showed that self-reported chills increased electrodermal activity and subjective arousal whereas tears produced slow respiration during heartbeat acceleration, although both chills and tears induced pleasure and deep breathing. A song that induced chills was perceived as being both happy and sad whereas a song that induced tears was perceived as sad. A tear-eliciting song was perceived as calmer than a chill-eliciting song. These results show that tears involve pleasure from sadness and that they are psychophysiologically calming; thus, psychophysiological responses permit the distinction between chills and tears. Because tears may have a cathartic effect, the functional significance of chills and tears seems to be different. We believe that the distinction of two types of peak emotions is theoretically relevant and further study of tears would contribute to more understanding of human peak emotional response.

  2. Healthy Architecture! Can environments evoke emotional responses?

    OpenAIRE

    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    2012-01-01

    We find environmental psychology at the intersection between architecture and psychology. This article discusses the ways in which individuals are affected by architecture, departing from an early source on the psychology of architecture and taking three architectural examples as illustrations: a public place in Berlin, a health environment in Sweden, and a fitness centre in Denmark. Each of these architectural examples creates what might be called its own psychological emotions, and these ar...

  3. Mapping a multidimensional emotion in response to television commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jon D; Klahr, Nelson J; Shen, Feng; Villegas, Jorge; Wright, Paul; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun

    2009-03-01

    Unlike previous emotional studies using functional neuroimaging that have focused on either locating discrete emotions in the brain or linking emotional response to an external behavior, this study investigated brain regions in order to validate a three-dimensional construct--namely pleasure, arousal, and dominance (PAD) of emotion induced by marketing communication. Emotional responses to five television commercials were measured with Advertisement Self-Assessment Manikins (AdSAM) for PAD and with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify corresponding patterns of brain activation. We found significant differences in the AdSAM scores on the pleasure and arousal rating scales among the stimuli. Using the AdSAM response as a model for the fMRI image analysis, we showed bilateral activations in the inferior frontal gyri and middle temporal gyri associated with the difference on the pleasure dimension, and activations in the right superior temporal gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus associated with the difference on the arousal dimension. These findings suggest a dimensional approach of constructing emotional changes in the brain and provide a better understanding of human behavior in response to advertising stimuli.

  4. Epileptogenesis alters gene expression pattern in rats subjected to amygdala-dependent emotional learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majak, K; Dabrowski, M; Pitkänen, A

    2009-03-17

    Here we tested a hypothesis that epileptogenesis influences expression pattern of genes in the basolateral amygdala that are critical for fear conditioning. Whole genome molecular profiling of basolateral rat amygdala was performed to compare the transcriptome changes underlying fear learning in epileptogenic and control animals. Our analysis revealed that after fear conditioning procedure 26 genes were regulated differently in the basolateral amygdala of both groups. Thus, our study provides the first evidence that not only the damage to the neuronal pathways but also altered composition or activity level of molecular machinery responsible for formation of emotional memories within surviving pathways can contribute to impairment in emotional learning in epileptogenic animals. Understanding the function of those genes in emotional learning provides an attractive avenue for identification of novel drug targets for treatment of emotional disorders after epileptogenesis-inducing insult.

  5. Emotional Intelligence Mediates the Relationship between Age and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwei; Peng, Yisheng; Fang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Individuals' Subjective Well-being (SWB) increases as they grow older. Past literature suggests that emotional intelligence may increase with age and lead to higher levels of SWB in older adults. The primary purpose of the present study was to test whether emotional intelligence would mediate the relationship between age and SWB. A total of 360 Chinese adults (age range: 20 to 79 years old) participated in this study. They filled out questionnaires that assessed their age, life satisfaction (The Satisfaction with Life Scale), affective well-being (The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and emotional intelligence (The Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale). Using Structural Equation Modeling, the mediation model was supported, χ(2) (75) = 194.21, p Emotional intelligence partially mediated the relationship between age and life satisfaction, and fully mediated the relationship between age and affective well-being. The findings suggest that older adults may use their increased emotional intelligence to enhance their SWB. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sukwoo

    It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial

  7. Affective immunology: where emotions and the immune response converge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Acquisto, Fulvio

    2017-03-01

    Affect and emotion are defined as "an essential part of the process of an organism's interaction with stimuli." Similar to affect, the immune response is the "tool" the body uses to interact with the external environment. Thanks to the emotional and immunological response, we learn to distinguish between what we like and what we do not like, to counteract a broad range of challenges, and to adjust to the environment we are living in. Recent compelling evidence has shown that the emotional and immunological systems share more than a similarity of functions. This review article will discuss the crosstalk between these two systems and the need for a new scientific area of research called affective immunology. Research in this field will allow a better understanding and appreciation of the immunological basis of mental disorders and the emotional side of immune diseases.

  8. Subjective quality of life of people with intellectual disabilities: the role of emotional competence on their subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Lourdes; Extremera, Natalio; Durán, Auxiliadora; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita

    2013-03-01

    For decades, the field of quality of life for people with intellectual disabilities has focused on the improving the external life conditions. However, scarce research has examined the contribution of person-related psychological resources such as emotional competence (EC) on well-being in this population. Using a cross-sectional design, 139 adults with intellectual disabilities completed different measures: Subjective Happiness Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale and Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale. Emotional competence shows a positive and significant association with life satisfaction and happiness. EC dimensions were predictors of well-being beyond socio-demographic variables and dispositional affectivity. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of the potential value of considering EC in the improvement in the quality of life of people with intellectual disabilities. Professionals interested in intellectual disabilities care might consider training programmes based on EC as an additional intervention strategy aimed at improving well-being. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Is desire to eat in response to positive emotions an 'obese' eating style: Is Kummerspeck for some people a misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, Tatjana; Donker, Marianne H; Ouwens, Machteld A

    2016-05-01

    Is desire to eat in response to positive emotions an 'obese' eating style: a style more prevalent in people with obesity? In other words: Is Kummerspeck (German: sorrow-fat) for some people a misnomer? This question was addressed in three studies on women. Study 1 (n = 188) tested the moderator effect of subjective well-being on the association of BMI with the scale on desire to eat in response to negative emotions (DEBQ-E). Study 2 tested in women (n = 832) whether items on desire to eat in response to positive emotions loaded on the same factor as those in response to negative emotions and body mass. Study 3 assessed in the total sample (n = 203) and an overweight subsample (n = 40) a) whether self-reported desire to eat in response to positive emotions predicted actual food intake and b) whether this also held true over and above self-reported desire to eat in response to negative emotions. Study 1 showed only for women with low positive affect a significant positive association of BMI with DEBQ-E. In Study 2, only items on desire to eat in response to negative emotions loaded on the same factor as BMI. Study 3: In the total sample, the significant effect on food intake of the scale on desire to eat in response to positive emotions disappeared when a scale on desire to eat in response to negative emotions was added to the model. In the overweight-subsample there was only an effect on food intake for desire to eat in response to negative emotions. It is concluded that only desire to eat in response to negative emotions is an 'obese' eating style, suggesting that Kummerspeck is not a misnomer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Healthy Architecture! Can environments evoke emotional responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    2012-06-05

    We find environmental psychology at the intersection between architecture and psychology. This article discusses the ways in which individuals are affected by architecture, departing from an early source on the psychology of architecture and taking three architectural examples as illustrations: a public place in Berlin, a health environment in Sweden, and a fitness centre in Denmark. Each of these architectural examples creates what might be called its own psychological emotions, and these are analysed and discussed using a psychodynamic and existential attempt to understand the interrelationship between individuals and spatial reality. A health oriented existential approach is used as a methodological basis to conceptualise the psychological effects of various forms of architecture.

  11. PROBLEM OF FORMATION OF EMOTIONAL REACTION IN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH MULTIPLE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS IN SUBJECT-COMMUNICATIVE ACTIVITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF KINDERGARTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Валентиновна Шохова

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of emotional response in children with developmental disorders in subject-communicative activity . The characteristic of the particularities of emotional reaction in children with divelopmental disorders is given. The author proves that it is necessary to develop emotional response as the base for further social adaptation of children with multiple disorders in development; mechanisms of formation of emotional reaction in communicative activity are described: contents, methods used for multiple diorders. Experimental data has proved the effectiveness of pedagogical thechnology on forming of emotional reaction in subject-communicative activity. Corrective and development work used in this technology is based on principles of integrity, complexness; the interralated series of thematical studies is organized intended for develoment of motor, sensor, communicative and emotional sphere in different activities of children. All this facilitate gradual interiorization of emotional reactions, their automatization in communicative activity.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-7

  12. Reducing the meta-emotional problem decreases physiological fear response during exposure in phobics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Couyoumdjian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders may not only be characterized by specific symptomatology (e.g., tachycardia in response to the fearful stimulus (primary problem or first-level emotion but also by the tendency to negatively evaluate oneself for having those symptoms (secondary problem or negative meta-emotion. An exploratory study was conducted driven by the hypothesis that reducing the secondary or meta-emotional problem would also diminish the fear response to the phobic stimulus. Thirty-three phobic participants were exposed to the phobic target before and after undergoing a psychotherapeutic intervention addressed to reduce the meta-emotional problem or a control condition. The electrocardiogram was continuously recorded to derive heart rate (HR and variability (HRV measures and affect ratings were obtained. Addressing the meta-emotional problem had the effect of reducing the physiological but not the subjective symptoms of anxiety after phobic exposure. Present preliminary findings support the role of the meta-emotional problem in the maintenance of the response to the fearful stimulus (primary problem.

  13. Facing emotions in narcolepsy with cataplexy: haemodynamic and behavioural responses during emotional stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Pizza, Fabio; Covassin, Naima; Vandi, Stefano; Cellini, Nicola; Stegagno, Luciano; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-08-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a complex sleep disorder that affects the modulation of emotions: cataplexy, the key symptom of narcolepsy, is indeed strongly linked with emotions that usually trigger the episodes. Our study aimed to investigate haemodynamic and behavioural responses during emotional stimulation in narco-cataplexy. Twelve adult drug-naive narcoleptic patients (five males; age: 33.3 ± 9.4 years) and 12 healthy controls (five males; age: 30.9 ± 9.5 years) were exposed to emotional stimuli (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures). Heart rate, arterial blood pressure and mean cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral arteries were continuously recorded using photoplethysmography and Doppler ultrasound. Ratings of valence and arousal and coping strategies were scored by the Self-Assessment Manikin and by questionnaires, respectively. Narcoleptic patients' haemodynamic responses to pictures overlapped with the data obtained from controls: decrease of heart rate and increase of mean cerebral blood flow velocity regardless of pictures' content, increase of systolic blood pressure during the pleasant condition, and relative reduction of heart rate during pleasant and unpleasant conditions. However, when compared with controls, narcoleptic patients reported lower arousal scores during the pleasant and neutral stimulation, and lower valence scores during the pleasant condition, respectively, and also a lower score at the 'focus on and venting of emotions' dimensions of coping. Our results suggested that adult narcoleptic patients, compared with healthy controls, inhibited their emotion-expressive behaviour to emotional stimulation, and that may be related to the development of adaptive cognitive strategies to face emotions avoiding cataplexy. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Cortisol, prolactin, growth hormone and neurovegetative responses to emotions elicited during an hypnoidal state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, L G; Simões, M; Barbosa, L; Raposo, J F; Pratas, S; Fernandes, P L; Santos, M A

    2003-01-01

    The present study describes the responses of cortisol, prolactin and growth hormone (GH) to emotions elicited during sessions in which an hypnoidal state was induced. The purpose of the study was to provide answers for the following questions: 1) Do sessions with an emotional content have more hormonal surges than baseline, relaxation-only, sessions? 2) Does the induction of a fantasy of pregnancy and nursing elicit a prolactin response? 3) Are there any associations between surges of different hormones? 4) Are hormonal responses related to the intensity, type, or mode of expression of the emotions? For this purpose, thirteen volunteers and twelve patients with minor emotional difficulties were studied during sessions under hypnosis. The period of observation lasted for about three hours. Heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC) and vagal tone (VT) were monitored. Serum cortisol, prolactin and growth hormone were sampled every 15 minutes. The volunteers had three types of sessions- "blank", consisting of relaxation only (12 sessions), "breast feeding", in which a fantasy of pregnancy and breast feeding was induced (12 sessions) and "free associations" in which the subjects were encouraged to evoke experiences or feelings (17 sessions). The patients had only sessions of free associations (38 sessions). Sessions of free associations had more hormonal surges than "blank" and "breast feeding" sessions. This was true for cortisol (8/17 v.3/24; p emotions were positively associated with GH surges (p types of emotions. The present study provides evidence that cortisol, prolactin and GH respond to psychological stress in humans. However, they are regulated differently from one another. Cortisol and prolactin surges appear to be alternative forms of response to specific emotions. GH surges depend on the intensity of the emotion, probably as a consequence of the associated muscular activity. The current paradigm of stress, implying corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) as the

  15. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Bloem, Gerda M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with

  16. Ability to maintain internal arousal and motivation modulates brain responses to emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Sterpenich

    Full Text Available Persistence (PS is defined as the ability to generate and maintain arousal and motivation internally in the absence of immediate external reward. Low PS individuals tend to become discouraged when expectations are not rapidly fulfilled. The goal of this study was to investigate whether individual differences in PS influence the recruitment of brain regions involved in emotional processing and regulation. In a functional MRI study, 35 subjects judged the emotional intensity of displayed pictures. When processing negative pictures, low PS (vs. high PS subjects showed higher amygdala and right orbito-frontal cortex (OFC activity but lower left OFC activity. This dissociation in OFC activity suggests greater prefrontal cortical asymmetry for approach/avoidance motivation, suggesting an avoidance response to aversive stimuli in low PS. For positive or neutral stimuli, low PS subjects showed lower activity in the amygdala, striatum, and hippocampus. These results suggest that low PS may involve an imbalance in processing distinct emotional inputs, with greater reactivity to aversive information in regions involved in avoidance behaviour (amygdala, OFC and dampened response to positive and neutral stimuli across circuits subserving motivated behaviour (striatum, hippocampus, amygdala. Low PS affective style was associated with depression vulnerability. These findings in non-depressed subjects point to a neural mechanism whereby some individuals are more likely to show systematic negative emotional biases, as frequently observed in depression. The assessment of these individual differences, including those that may cause vulnerability to depressive disorders, would therefore constitute a promising approach to risk assessment for depression.

  17. Ability to maintain internal arousal and motivation modulates brain responses to emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie; Maquet, Pierre; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Persistence (PS) is defined as the ability to generate and maintain arousal and motivation internally in the absence of immediate external reward. Low PS individuals tend to become discouraged when expectations are not rapidly fulfilled. The goal of this study was to investigate whether individual differences in PS influence the recruitment of brain regions involved in emotional processing and regulation. In a functional MRI study, 35 subjects judged the emotional intensity of displayed pictures. When processing negative pictures, low PS (vs. high PS) subjects showed higher amygdala and right orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) activity but lower left OFC activity. This dissociation in OFC activity suggests greater prefrontal cortical asymmetry for approach/avoidance motivation, suggesting an avoidance response to aversive stimuli in low PS. For positive or neutral stimuli, low PS subjects showed lower activity in the amygdala, striatum, and hippocampus. These results suggest that low PS may involve an imbalance in processing distinct emotional inputs, with greater reactivity to aversive information in regions involved in avoidance behaviour (amygdala, OFC) and dampened response to positive and neutral stimuli across circuits subserving motivated behaviour (striatum, hippocampus, amygdala). Low PS affective style was associated with depression vulnerability. These findings in non-depressed subjects point to a neural mechanism whereby some individuals are more likely to show systematic negative emotional biases, as frequently observed in depression. The assessment of these individual differences, including those that may cause vulnerability to depressive disorders, would therefore constitute a promising approach to risk assessment for depression.

  18. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit emotional responses to decision outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The interface between cognition, emotion, and motivation is thought to be of central importance in understanding complex cognitive functions such as decision-making and executive control in humans. Although nonhuman apes have complex repertoires of emotional expression, little is known about the role of affective processes in ape decision-making. To illuminate the evolutionary origins of human-like patterns of choice, we investigated decision-making in humans' closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). In two studies, we examined these species' temporal and risk preferences, and assessed whether apes show emotional and motivational responses in decision-making contexts. We find that (1) chimpanzees are more patient and more risk-prone than are bonobos, (2) both species exhibit affective and motivational responses following the outcomes of their decisions, and (3) some emotional and motivational responses map onto species-level and individual-differences in decision-making. These results indicate that apes do exhibit emotional responses to decision-making, like humans. We explore the hypothesis that affective and motivational biases may underlie the psychological mechanisms supporting value-based preferences in these species.

  19. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit emotional responses to decision outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G Rosati

    Full Text Available The interface between cognition, emotion, and motivation is thought to be of central importance in understanding complex cognitive functions such as decision-making and executive control in humans. Although nonhuman apes have complex repertoires of emotional expression, little is known about the role of affective processes in ape decision-making. To illuminate the evolutionary origins of human-like patterns of choice, we investigated decision-making in humans' closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and bonobos (Pan paniscus. In two studies, we examined these species' temporal and risk preferences, and assessed whether apes show emotional and motivational responses in decision-making contexts. We find that (1 chimpanzees are more patient and more risk-prone than are bonobos, (2 both species exhibit affective and motivational responses following the outcomes of their decisions, and (3 some emotional and motivational responses map onto species-level and individual-differences in decision-making. These results indicate that apes do exhibit emotional responses to decision-making, like humans. We explore the hypothesis that affective and motivational biases may underlie the psychological mechanisms supporting value-based preferences in these species.

  20. Health literacy and emotional responses related to fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kristina; Bliss, Donna Z; Savik, Kay

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine continence literacy of individuals with fecal incontinence (FI) by identifying terms they used to refer to FI and to explore their emotional responses to FI. A secondary aim was to compare differences based on gender and age in younger (65 years) with FI. Secondary analysis of data collected prospectively in a clinical trial of fiber supplementation for FI. Content analysis of participants' statements reported in field notes of data collectors and their responses to data forms and questions. Only one participant used the term fecal incontinence to describe FI. Alternate terms described stool characteristics, named other gastrointestinal problems, or respondents referred to FI, using a term that seemed to depersonalize the problem. Emotional responses to FI focused on the influence of bothersome symptoms, interference with social activities, and need for control. Some participants used humor to cope with FI and reported emotional benefits gained through participation in a study. Women were impacted by the social limitations of having FI more than men. Younger people were more likely to express feelings of emotional upset than were older respondents. There is a need to increase health literacy about FI. WOC nurses are well qualified to educate patients about FI and to evaluate if higher continence literacy increases reporting of FI. Understanding the various emotional responses to FI may guide the optimal support that WOC nurses can provide and facilitate better management of FI.

  1. Gender differences in human single neuron responses to male emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhoff, Morgan; Treiman, David M; Smith, Kris A; Steinmetz, Peter N

    2015-01-01

    Well-documented differences in the psychology and behavior of men and women have spurred extensive exploration of gender's role within the brain, particularly regarding emotional processing. While neuroanatomical studies clearly show differences between the sexes, the functional effects of these differences are less understood. Neuroimaging studies have shown inconsistent locations and magnitudes of gender differences in brain hemodynamic responses to emotion. To better understand the neurophysiology of these gender differences, we analyzed recordings of single neuron activity in the human brain as subjects of both genders viewed emotional expressions. This study included recordings of single-neuron activity of 14 (6 male) epileptic patients in four brain areas: amygdala (236 neurons), hippocampus (n = 270), anterior cingulate cortex (n = 256), and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (n = 174). Neural activity was recorded while participants viewed a series of avatar male faces portraying positive, negative or neutral expressions. Significant gender differences were found in the left amygdala, where 23% (n = 15∕66) of neurons in men were significantly affected by facial emotion, vs. 8% (n = 6∕76) of neurons in women. A Fisher's exact test comparing the two ratios found a highly significant difference between the two (p genders at the single-neuron level in the human amygdala. These differences may reflect gender-based distinctions in evolved capacities for emotional processing and also demonstrate the importance of including subject gender as an independent factor in future studies of emotional processing by single neurons in the human amygdala.

  2. The professional responsibility of lawyers: emotional competence, multiculturalism and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Marjorie A

    2006-05-01

    Traditional legal education and the Socratic method it utilises are by and large successful at training lawyers to think, reason and analyse. The cultivation of lawyers' intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, however, has been, at best, neglected by the profession. All lawyers, like all human beings, are emotional. Emotions affect who they are and how they practise law, whether or not they are conscious of them. As emotions cannot be removed from the practice of law, it is essential that lawyers learn to understand and manage their emotions, as well as learn to be attuned to their clients' emotional lives. Ignorance of concepts such as countertransference, denial and unconscious bias adversely impact the lawyer-client relationship. Lawyers who understand basic psychological principles and behaviours, who are aware of their own psychological makeup, understand their cultural perspective and recognise and credit their clients' differences, will enhance their effectiveness as counsellors. The client whose lawyer has these competencies will enjoy a therapeutically superior counselling or representational experience. The neglect of either the lawyer's or the client's emotional life threatens to sabotage the lawyer's ability, and thus professional responsibility, to render competent and impartial legal advice. Through drawing parallels to the training and practice in other counselling disciplines and relationships, this article argues that psychological-mindedness and multicultural competence are essential elements of ethically responsible legal representation.

  3. Interactions between cognition and emotion during response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Luiz; Padmala, Srikanth; Kenzer, Andrea; Bauer, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    Cognition and emotion interact to determine ongoing behaviors. In this study, we investigated the interaction between cognition and emotion during response inhibition using the stop-signal task. In Experiment 1, low-threat stop-signals comprising fearful and happy face pictures were employed. We found that both fearful and happy faces improved response inhibition relative to neutral ones. In Experiment 2, we employed high-threat emotional stimuli as stop signals, namely stimuli previously paired with mild shock. In this case, inhibitory performance was impaired relative to a neutral condition. We interpret these findings in terms of the impact of emotional stimuli on early sensory/attentional processing, which resulted in improved performance (Experiment 1), and in terms of their impact at more central stages, which impaired performance (Experiment 2). Taken together, our findings demonstrate that emotion can either enhance or impair cognitive performance depending on the emotional potency of the stimuli involved. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  4. EEG-based recognition of video-induced emotions: selecting subject-independent feature set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortelainen, Jukka; Seppänen, Tapio

    2013-01-01

    Emotions are fundamental for everyday life affecting our communication, learning, perception, and decision making. Including emotions into the human-computer interaction (HCI) could be seen as a significant step forward offering a great potential for developing advanced future technologies. While the electrical activity of the brain is affected by emotions, offers electroencephalogram (EEG) an interesting channel to improve the HCI. In this paper, the selection of subject-independent feature set for EEG-based emotion recognition is studied. We investigate the effect of different feature sets in classifying person's arousal and valence while watching videos with emotional content. The classification performance is optimized by applying a sequential forward floating search algorithm for feature selection. The best classification rate (65.1% for arousal and 63.0% for valence) is obtained with a feature set containing power spectral features from the frequency band of 1-32 Hz. The proposed approach substantially improves the classification rate reported in the literature. In future, further analysis of the video-induced EEG changes including the topographical differences in the spectral features is needed.

  5. Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, A J; Zatorre, R J

    2001-09-25

    We used positron emission tomography to study neural mechanisms underlying intensely pleasant emotional responses to music. Cerebral blood flow changes were measured in response to subject-selected music that elicited the highly pleasurable experience of "shivers-down-the-spine" or "chills." Subjective reports of chills were accompanied by changes in heart rate, electromyogram, and respiration. As intensity of these chills increased, cerebral blood flow increases and decreases were observed in brain regions thought to be involved in reward/motivation, emotion, and arousal, including ventral striatum, midbrain, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventral medial prefrontal cortex. These brain structures are known to be active in response to other euphoria-inducing stimuli, such as food, sex, and drugs of abuse. This finding links music with biologically relevant, survival-related stimuli via their common recruitment of brain circuitry involved in pleasure and reward.

  6. Impaired autonomic responses to emotional stimuli in autoimmune limbic encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eSchröder

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Limbic encephalitis (LE is an autoimmune-mediated disorder that affects structures of the limbic system, in particular the amygdala. The amygdala constitutes a brain area substantial for processing of emotional, especially fear-related signals. The amygdala is also involved in neuroendocrine and autonomic functions, including skin conductance responses (SCRs to emotionally arousing stimuli. This study investigates behavioral and autonomic responses to discrete emotion-evoking and neutral film clips in a patient suffering from LE associated with contactin-associated protein-2 (CASPR2-antibodies as compared to a healthy control group. Results show a lack of SCRs in the patient while watching the film clips, with significant differences compared to healthy controls in the case of fear-inducing videos. There was no comparable impairment in behavioral data (emotion report, valence and arousal ratings. The results point to a defective modulation of sympathetic responses during emotional stimulation in patients with LE, probably due to impaired functioning of the amygdala.

  7. Binge and Emotional Eating in obese subjects seeking weight loss treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Valdo Ricca; Giovanni Castellini; Carolina Lo Sauro; Claudia Ravaldi; Francesco Lapi; Edoardo Mannucci; Carlo Maria Rotella; Carlo Faravelli

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is highly prevalent among individuals seeking weight loss treatment. Considering the possible trigger factors for BED, different studies focused on the role of emotional eating. The present study compared threshold, subthreshold BED, and subjects without BED in a population of overweight/obese individuals seeking weight loss treatment, considering the anamnesis, the eating disorder specific and general psychopathology, the organic and psychiatric comorbi...

  8. Blunted brain activation in patients with schizophrenia in response to emotional cognitive inhibition: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egashira, Kazuteru; Matsuo, Koji; Nakashima, Mami; Watanuki, Toshio; Harada, Kenichiro; Nakano, Masayuki; Matsubara, Toshio; Takahashi, Kanji; Watanabe, Yoshifumi

    2015-03-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (SZ) have deficits of facial emotion processing and cognitive inhibition, but the brain pathophysiology underlying these deficits and their interaction are not clearly understood. We tested brain activity during an emotional face go/no-go task that requires rapid executive control affected by emotional stimuli in patients with SZ using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty-five patients with SZ and 28 healthy control subjects were studied. We evaluated behavioral performance and used fNIRS to measure oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes in fronto-temporal areas during the emotional go/no-go task with emotional and non-emotional blocks. Patients with SZ made more errors and had longer reaction times in both test blocks compared with healthy subjects. Significantly greater activation in the inferior, superior, middle, and orbital frontal regions were observed in healthy subjects during the emotional go/no-go block compared to the non-emotional go/no-go block, but this difference was not observed in patients with SZ. Relative to healthy subjects, patients with SZ showed less activation in the superior and orbital frontal and middle temporal regions during the emotional go/no-go block. Our results suggest that fronto-temporal dysfunction in patients with SZ is due to an interaction between abnormal processing of emotional facial expressions with negative valence and cognitive inhibition, especially during the rapid selection of rule-based associations that override automatic emotional response tendencies. They indicate that fronto-temporal dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of emotional-cognitive deficits in patients with SZ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The moderating impact of emotional intelligence on free cortisol responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczak, Moïra; Roy, Emmanuel; Luminet, Olivier; Fillée, Catherine; de Timary, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    The construct of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) refers to the individual differences in the perception, processing, regulation and utilization of emotional information. Several studies have found that trait EI was a significant moderator of subjective responses (e.g., mood deterioration, emotional intensity, action tendencies, bodily sensations) to both natural and laboratory stressors. The present study aims at extending these findings by examining whether trait EI also moderates the biological (i.e., cortisol) response to stress. To this end, 56 participants were assigned to either a neutral or a stressful condition (public speech task) and psychological and cortisol reactivity were examined. Results revealed that higher trait EI scores were associated with significantly lower reactivity to stress at both psychological (i.e., mood deterioration) and biological (i.e., salivary cortisol) levels. Additional analyses revealed that trait EI had incremental validity to predict stress reactivity over and above social desirability, alexithymia and the five-factor model of personality.

  10. Emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness of children with autism in improvisational music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Through behavioural analysis, this study investigated the social-motivational aspects of musical interaction between the child and the therapist in improvisational music therapy by measuring emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness in children with autism during joint attention ep...... play sessions than music therapy. The results of this exploratory study found significant evidence supporting the value of music therapy in promoting social, emotional and motivational development in children with autism.......Through behavioural analysis, this study investigated the social-motivational aspects of musical interaction between the child and the therapist in improvisational music therapy by measuring emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness in children with autism during joint attention...... episodes. It was a randomized controlled study (n=10) employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and toy play sessions and using DVD analysis of sessions.   Improvisational music therapy produced markedly more and longer events of ‘joy...

  11. Depressive-type emotional response pattern in impulsive-aggressive patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaro, C; De La Vega, I; Bayon-Palomino, C; Díaz-Marsá, M; Montes, A; Tajima, K; López-Ibor, J J; Carrasco, J L

    2011-12-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is typically characterized by severe affective dysregulation leading to impulsive behaviors. Accordingly, preliminary data suggest the hypothesis that BPD patients could have a specific and altered pattern of subjective emotional response to stimuli. The nature of the emotional response in BPD can be compared with other affective disorders and provide further insight on the nosological proximity with other psychiatric disorders. Subjective emotional response was investigated in 19 patients with DSM-IV BPD with no current depressive episode and in 19 healthy control subjects by using the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). The intensity of arousal, valence and dominance was rated in response to 60 images categorized as pleasant, unpleasant and neutral by using a self-assessment instrument. ANOVA of multiple factors was used for between-groups comparisons. The obtained pattern showed that BPD patients considered the unpleasant and neutral images as less aversive than controls, but the activation that these images induced was higher. Patients showed significantly greater arousal than controls for unpleasant and neutral images (pemotion) for these images (pemotional response pattern of BPD patients suggests a trait of vulnerability to pleasant stimuli and is similar to the pattern found in depressive patients in previous studies. This supports the evidence that BPD could in part be related with the spectrum of the affective temperament and affective disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cross-Subject EEG Feature Selection for Emotion Recognition Using Transfer Recursive Feature Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhong; Wang, Yongxiong; Liu, Li; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Using machine-learning methodologies to analyze EEG signals becomes increasingly attractive for recognizing human emotions because of the objectivity of physiological data and the capability of the learning principles on modeling emotion classifiers from heterogeneous features. However, the conventional subject-specific classifiers may induce additional burdens to each subject for preparing multiple-session EEG data as training sets. To this end, we developed a new EEG feature selection approach, transfer recursive feature elimination (T-RFE), to determine a set of the most robust EEG indicators with stable geometrical distribution across a group of training subjects and a specific testing subject. A validating set is introduced to independently determine the optimal hyper-parameter and the feature ranking of the T-RFE model aiming at controlling the overfitting. The effectiveness of the T-RFE algorithm for such cross-subject emotion classification paradigm has been validated by DEAP database. With a linear least square support vector machine classifier implemented, the performance of the T-RFE is compared against several conventional feature selection schemes and the statistical significant improvement has been found. The classification rate and F-score achieve 0.7867, 0.7526, 0.7875, and 0.8077 for arousal and valence dimensions, respectively, and outperform several recent reported works on the same database. In the end, the T-RFE based classifier is compared against two subject-generic classifiers in the literature. The investigation of the computational time for all classifiers indicates the accuracy improvement of the T-RFE is at the cost of the longer training time.

  13. Inter-individual variability of oscillatory responses to subject's own name. A single-subject analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höller, Yvonne; Kronbichler, Martin; Bergmann, Jürgen; Crone, Julia Sophia; Schmid, Elisabeth Verena; Golaszewski, Stefan; Ladurner, Gunther

    2011-06-01

    In previous studies event-related potentials and oscillations in response to subject's own name have been analyzed extensively on group-level in healthy subjects and in patients with a disorder of consciousness. Subject's own name as a deviant produces a P3. With equiprobable stimuli, non-phase-locked alpha oscillations are smaller in response to subject's own name compared to other names or subject's own name backwards. However, little is known about replicability on a single-subject level. Seventeen healthy subjects were assessed in an own-name paradigm with equiprobable stimuli of subject's own name, another name, and subject's own name backwards. Event-related potentials and non-phase locked oscillations were analyzed with single-subject, non-parametric statistics. No consistent results were found either for ERPs or for the non-phase locked changes of oscillatory activities. Only 4 subjects showed a robust effect as expected, that is, a lower activity in the alpha-beta range to subject's own name compared to other conditions. Four subjects elicited a higher activity for subject's own name. Thus, analyzing the EEG reactivity in the own-name paradigm with equiprobable stimuli on a single-subject level yields a high variance between subjects. In future research, single-subject statistics should be applied for examining the validity of physiologic measurements in other paradigms and for examining the pattern of reactivity in patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Voice of Anger: Oscillatory EEG Responses to Emotional Prosody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Del Giudice

    Full Text Available Emotionally relevant stimuli and in particular anger are, due to their evolutionary relevance, often processed automatically and able to modulate attention independent of conscious access. Here, we tested whether attention allocation is enhanced when auditory stimuli are uttered by an angry voice. We recorded EEG and presented healthy individuals with a passive condition where unfamiliar names as well as the subject's own name were spoken both with an angry and neutral prosody. The active condition instead, required participants to actively count one of the presented (angry names. Results revealed that in the passive condition the angry prosody only elicited slightly stronger delta synchronization as compared to a neutral voice. In the active condition the attended (angry target was related to enhanced delta/theta synchronization as well as alpha desynchronization suggesting enhanced allocation of attention and utilization of working memory resources. Altogether, the current results are in line with previous findings and highlight that attention orientation can be systematically related to specific oscillatory brain responses. Potential applications include assessment of non-communicative clinical groups such as post-comatose patients.

  15. Event-related potentials in response to emotional words in patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Yin, Hui-fang; Wu, Da-xing; Xu, Shu-jing

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunctional cognitive processing and abnormal brain activation in response to emotional stimuli have long been recognized as core features of the major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine how Chinese patients with MDD process Chinese emotional words presented to either the left (LH) or right hemisphere (RH). Reaction time (RT) and the late positive component of the event-related potential were measured while subjects judged the valence (positive or negative) of emotional words written in Chinese. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD exhibited slower RTs in response to negative words. In all subjects, the RTs in response to negative words were significantly faster than RTs in response to positive words presented to the LH, as well as significantly faster than responses to negative words presented to the RH. Compared to healthy controls, MDD patients exhibited reduced activation of the central and left regions of the brain in response to both negative and positive words. In healthy controls, the posterior brain areas were more active than the anterior brain areas when responding to negative words. All individuals showed faster RTs in response to negative words compared to positive words. In addition, MDD patients showed lateralization of brain activity in response to emotional words, whereas healthy individuals did not show this lateralization. Posterior brain areas appear to play an especially important role in discriminating and experiencing negative emotional words. This study provides further evidence in support of the negative bias hypothesis and the emotional processing theory.

  16. Marital conflict and parental responses to infant negative emotions: Relations with toddler emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Emotion Potentiates Response Activation and Inhibition in Masked Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eBocanegra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that emotion can have two-fold effects on perception. At the object-level, emotional stimuli benefit from a stimulus-specific boost in visual attention at the relative expense of competing stimuli. At the visual feature-level, recent findings indicate that emotion may inhibit the processing of small visual details and facilitate the processing of coarse visual features. In the present study, we investigated whether emotion can boost the activation and inhibition of automatic motor responses that are generated prior to overt perception. To investigate this, we tested whether an emotional cue affects covert motor responses in a masked priming task. We used a masked priming paradigm in which participants responded to target arrows that were preceded by invisible congruent or incongruent prime arrows. In the standard paradigm, participants react faster and commit fewer errors responding to the directionality of target arrows, when they are preceded by congruent vs. incongruent masked prime arrows (positive congruency effect: PCE. However, as prime-target SOAs increase, this effect reverses (negative congruency effect: NCE. These findings have been explained as evidence for an initial activation and a subsequent inhibition of a partial response elicited by the masked prime arrow. Our results show that the presentation of fearful face cues, compared to neutral face cues, increased the size of both the PCE and NCE, despite the fact that the primes were invisible. This is the first demonstration that emotion prepares an individual's visuomotor system for automatic activation and inhibition of motor responses in the absence of visual awareness.

  18. The trauma of peer victimization: psychophysiological and emotional characteristics of memory imagery in subjects with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansen, Lisa M; Iffland, Benjamin; Neuner, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the role of an associative information network as a mechanism underlying the relation of peer victimization and social anxiety disorder (SAD). A sample of N = 80 was divided according to diagnosis (SAD vs. no diagnosis) and amount of peer victimization (low vs. high). Responses to memory of a personally experienced aversive social situation and to imagining a standardized negative social situation were assessed. In terms of skin conductance level, subjects with SAD and peer victimization were more reactive to the memory script than the other three groups while responses to the standardized script did not vary. As to heart rate, there were no differences between the groups. Emotional responses presented with an inconsistent pattern. The results provide a first indication that associative memory structures resulting from aversive social experiences might play a role in the development and maintenance of SAD, but further research is needed. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Association of attachment disorganization, attachment-related emotion regulation, and cortisol response after standardized psychosocial stress procedure: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrowski Katja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Attachment representations are related to maintaining biological homeostasis, including physiological stress and emotional regulation. Therefore, recent research has focused on attachment stress regulation and hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA axis reactivity. However, the attachment disorganization underlying emotion regulation associated with the HPA axis response has not yet been investigated. In our study, the attachment representation and the HPA-axis reactivity by cortisol level before and after the Trier Social Stress Test were assessed in a sample of 98 healthy non-clinical subjects. As expected, approximately 30% of this sample showed a disorganized attachment representation. The subjects’ unresolved attachment (breakdown of emotional regulation showed a prolonged cortisol recovery. No differences were found between the attachment patterns in the increase and the delta of the cortisol response. However, the cortisol reactivity differed significantly for the occurrence of emotional regulation. The subjects with a high occurrence of attachment-related emotion regulation showed a higher cortisol response than the subjects with an unresolved attachment and the ones with a low occurrence of attachment-related emotion regulation. Regulating the negative emotions of stressful situations may require more attention as it might lead to an increased activation of the physiological system.

  20. Responsive Classroom?: A Critique of a Social Emotional Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Clio

    2016-01-01

    This paper looks critically at the Responsive Classroom (RC) program, a social/emotional learning program used ubiquitously in elementary schools for teacher and student training, in the US as well as in Australia, the UK, and other parts of Western Europe. The paper examines empirical studies on RC's efficacy and outcomes, many of which were…

  1. Emotional Responses to Environmental Messages and Future Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The present research investigated effects of message framing (losses-framed or gains-framed), message modality (video with text or text-only) and emotional arousal on environmentally responsible behavioral intentions. The sample consisted of 161 college students. The present research did not find a significant difference in behavioral intentions…

  2. Cultural Differences in Emotional Responses to Success and Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Takai-Kawakami, Kiyoko; Kawakami, Kiyobumi; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan

    2010-01-01

    The emotional responses to achievement contexts of 149 preschool children from three cultural groups were observed. The children were Japanese (N = 32), African American (N = 63) and White American of mixed European ancestry (N = 54). The results showed that Japanese children differed from American children in expressing less shame, pride, and…

  3. Positive and negative emotional responses to work-related trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, nurses tend to deny the negative impact of secondary trauma which leads to the silencing response and subsequent burnout. This article explores and describes the presence of these emotions and the relationships between them. A quantitative approach with a non-probability sampling method was used.

  4. Emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder: behavioral and neural responses to three socio-emotional tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is thought to involve deficits in emotion regulation, and more specifically, deficits in cognitive reappraisal. However, evidence for such deficits is mixed. Methods Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal, we examined reappraisal-related behavioral and neural responses in 27 participants with generalized SAD and 27 healthy controls (HC) during three socio-emotional tasks: (1) looming harsh faces (Faces); (2) videotaped actors delivering social criticism (Criticism); and (3) written autobiographical negative self-beliefs (Beliefs). Results Behaviorally, compared to HC, participants with SAD had lesser reappraisal-related reduction in negative emotion in the Beliefs task. Neurally, compared to HC, participants with SAD had lesser BOLD responses in reappraisal-related brain regions when reappraising faces, in visual and attention related regions when reappraising criticism, and in the left superior temporal gyrus when reappraising beliefs. Examination of the temporal dynamics of BOLD responses revealed late reappraisal-related increased responses in HC, compared to SAD. In addition, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), which showed reappraisal-related increased activity in both groups, had similar temporal dynamics in SAD and HC during the Faces and Criticism tasks, but greater late response increases in HC, compared to SAD, during the Beliefs task. Reappraisal-related greater late DMPFC responses were associated with greater percent reduction in negative emotion ratings in SAD patients. Conclusions These results suggest a dysfunction of cognitive reappraisal in SAD patients, with overall reduced late brain responses in prefrontal regions, particularly when reappraising faces. Decreased late activity in the DMPFC might be associated with deficient reappraisal and greater negative reactivity. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00380731 PMID

  5. Negative emotion enhances mnemonic precision and subjective feelings of remembering in visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2017-09-01

    Negative emotion sometimes enhances memory (higher accuracy and/or vividness, e.g., flashbulb memories). The present study investigates whether it is the qualitative (precision) or quantitative (the probability of successful retrieval) aspect of memory that drives these effects. In a visual long-term memory task, observers memorized colors (Experiment 1a) or orientations (Experiment 1b) of sequentially presented everyday objects under negative, neutral, or positive emotions induced with International Affective Picture System images. In a subsequent test phase, observers reconstructed objects' colors or orientations using the method of adjustment. We found that mnemonic precision was enhanced under the negative condition relative to the neutral and positive conditions. In contrast, the probability of successful retrieval was comparable across the emotion conditions. Furthermore, the boost in memory precision was associated with elevated subjective feelings of remembering (vividness and confidence) and metacognitive sensitivity in Experiment 2. Altogether, these findings suggest a novel precision-based account for emotional memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Decreased sleep duration is associated with increased fMRI responses to emotional faces in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Brooke L; Hamann, Stephan; Inman, Cory; Johnson, Katrina C; Brennan, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    In adults and children, sleep loss is associated with affective dysregulation and increased responsivity to negative stimuli. Adult functional neuroimaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated associations between restricted sleep and neural alterations in the amygdala and reward circuitry when viewing emotional picture and face stimuli. Despite this, few studies have examined the associations between short sleep duration and emotional responsivity in typically developing children, and no studies have investigated this relationship using fMRI. The current study examined the relationship between sleep duration and fMRI activation to emotional facial expressions in 15 male children (ages 7-11 years). During fMRI scanning, subjects viewed and made perceptual judgments regarding negative, neutral, and positive emotional faces. Maternal reported child sleep duration was negatively associated with (a) activation in the bilateral amygdala, left insula, and left temporal pole activation when viewing negative (i.e., fearful, disgust) vs. neutral faces, (b) right orbitofrontal and bilateral prefrontal activation when viewing disgust vs. neutral faces, and (c) bilateral orbitofrontal, right anterior cingulate, and left amygdala activation when viewing happy vs. neutral faces. Consistent with our prediction, we also noted that emotion-dependent functional connectivity between the bilateral amygdala and prefrontal cortex, cingulate, fusiform, and occipital cortex was positively associated with sleep duration. Paralleling similar studies in adults, these findings collectively suggest that decreased sleep duration in school-aged children may contribute to enhanced reactivity of brain regions involved in emotion and reward processing, as well as decreased emotion-dependent functional connectivity between the amygdala and brain regions associated with emotion regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Farmers' perceptual, emotional and behavioural responses to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental policies purposefully encourage environmental protection by redirecting human decision-making and activities. Achieving the right human responses to environmental policy is therefore critically important. This paper discusses the regulatory framework and pastoral farmers' adaptation to a new regulation, ...

  8. Sex differences in emotional contexts modulation on response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Loyo, Julieta; Angulo-Chavira, Armando; Llamas-Alonso, Luis A; González-Garrido, Andrés A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore sex differences in the effects that emotional contexts exert on the temporal course of response inhibition using event-related potentials (ERP). Participants performed a Go-NoGo response inhibition task under 3 context conditions: with 1) neutral background stimuli, and 2) pleasant, and 3) unpleasant emotional contexts. No sex differences were found in relation to accuracy. Women showed higher N2NoGo amplitudes than men in both emotional contexts; whereas during inhibition men tended to show higher P3NoGo amplitudes than women in the unpleasant context. Both groups experienced a relevant effect of the presence of the unpleasant context during inhibition processing, as shown by the enhancement of the N2NoGo amplitudes in frontal regions compared to results from the neutral and pleasant conditions. In addition, women showed differences between the pleasant and unpleasant contexts, with the latter inducing higher amplitude values. Only in men did inhibition accuracy correlate with higher N2NoGo and lower P3NoGo amplitudes in the emotional context conditions. These findings suggest that when an inhibition task is performed in an emotionally-neutral background context no sex differences are observed in either accuracy or ERP components. However, when the emotional context was introduced -especially the unpleasant one- some gender differences did become evident. The higher N2NoGo amplitude at the presence of the unpleasant context may reflect an effect on attention and conflict monitoring. In addition, results suggest that during earlier processing stages, women invested more resources to process inhibition than men. Furthermore, men who invested more neural resources during earlier stages showed better response inhibition than those who did it during later processing stages, more closely-related to cognitive and motor inhibition processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emotional complexity and its effect on psychological distress as a function of chronological age and subjective distance-to-death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit; Bodner, Ehud; Palgi, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    In light of mixed evidence regarding the associations between age, emotional complexity, and psychological distress, this study examined emotional complexity and its effect on psychological distress as a function of age and subjective distance-to-death. A sample of 188 participants (age range = 29-100) rated their subjective distance-to-death and psychological distress, and reported their emotions across 14 days. Emotional complexity was unrelated to age, but negatively related to feeling closer to death. Moreover, emotional complexity was negatively related to psychological distress among those feeling closer to death. Results suggest that when death is perceived to be nearer, emotional complexity is hampered, yet becomes relevant in buffering psychological distress.

  10. Exploring the socio-emotional factors associated with subjective well-being in the unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pilar Berrios

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the relations between dimensions of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI and classic constructs, such as social support, on depression, stress, and subjective well-being indicators (life satisfaction and happiness. The study also sought to determine whether PEI dimensions accounted for a significant portion of the variance beyond that of classic constructs in the study of depression, stress, and well-being outcomes in a sample of 442 unemployed subjects. Results indicated that social support and all PEI dimensions are found to be significant and negatively related to depression and stress, and these variables were also found to be significant and positively associated with life satisfaction and happiness. Additionally, results using regression analysis indicated that PEI, and specifically use of emotions and regulation of emotions, explain a significant amount of the variance of all outcomes after controlling for socio-demographics and social support dimensions. Finally, theoretical and practical implications of these constructs and their relation with psychological adjustment and well-being in unemployed people are discussed.

  11. Explaining age differences in women's emotional well-being: The role of subjective experiences of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne E; Toothman, Erica L

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines explanations for the "paradox" of older women's better emotional well-being compared with younger women. We consider the role of subjective experiences of aging in a society that devalues older women. Using a sample of women (n = 872) from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (1995-1996 and 2004-2006), we examine the role of five components of the subjective experience of aging in explaining older women's better emotional well-being compared with younger women: age identity, conceptions of the timing of middle age, aging attitudes, aging anxieties, and self-assessed physiological changes. We find that, compared with women 50-54 years old, those 35-39 years old report lower positive affect, and those 25-49 report higher negative affect. These patterns are partially explained by younger women's greater anxiety about declines in health and attractiveness and older women's more youthful identities. Our study underscores the value of considering the implications of our ageist and sexist society for women's emotional well-being across adulthood.

  12. Emotions over time: synchronicity and development of subjective, physiological, and facial affective reactions to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Oliver; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2007-11-01

    Most people are able to identify basic emotions expressed in music and experience affective reactions to music. But does music generally induce emotion? Does it elicit subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and motor reactions reliably in different individuals? In this interdisciplinary study, measurement of skin conductance, facial muscle activity, and self-monitoring were synchronized with musical stimuli. A group of 38 participants listened to classical, rock, and pop music and reported their feelings in a two-dimensional emotion space during listening. The first entrance of a solo voice or choir and the beginning of new sections were found to elicit interindividual changes in subjective feelings and physiological arousal. Quincy Jones' "Bossa Nova" motivated movement and laughing in more than half of the participants. Bodily reactions such as "goose bumps" and "shivers" could be stimulated by the "Tuba Mirum" from Mozart's Requiem in 7 of 38 participants. In addition, the authors repeated the experiment seven times with one participant to examine intraindividual stability of effects. This exploratory combination of approaches throws a new light on the astonishing complexity of affective music listening.

  13. Dealing with feeling: Specific emotion regulation skills predict responses to stress in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M; Hartmann, Maike; Köther, Ulf; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-08-15

    Elevated negative affect is an established link between minor stressors and psychotic symptoms. Less clear is why people with psychosis fail to regulate distressing emotions effectively. This study tests whether subjective, psychophysiological and symptomatic responses to stress can be predicted by specific emotion regulation (ER) difficulties. Participants with psychotic disorders (n=35) and healthy controls (n=28) were assessed for ER-skills at baseline. They were then exposed to a noise versus no stressor on different days, during which self-reported stress responses, state paranoia and skin conductance levels (SCL) were assessed. Participants with psychosis showed a stronger increase in self-reported stress and SCL in response to the stressor than healthy controls. Stronger increases in self-reported stress were predicted by a reduced ability to be aware of and tolerate distressing emotions, whereas increases in SCL were predicted by a reduced ability to be aware of, tolerate, accept and modify them. Although paranoid symptoms were not significantly affected by the stressors, individual variation in paranoid responses was also predicted by a reduced ability to be aware of and tolerate emotions. Differences in stress responses in the samples were no longer significant after controlling for ER skills. Thus, interventions that improve ER-skills could reduce stress-sensitivity in psychosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Entrepreneurs’ Emotional Responses to a Bankruptcy

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, Nisha; Gustafsson, Helén; Näs, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Entrepreneurs are often perceived to be creative and risk taking (Kreuger, 2002). The purpose of this paper is to investigate entrepreneurs’ response to a failure namely a bankruptcy. People react differently to a bankruptcy and tend to blame different things as the cause. Some blame themselves while others blame things out of their control. These differences can have an impact on the learning process and how easy the entrepreneur moves on after the failure. These findings can be used for sit...

  15. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Rudolph, Tina; Linares Gutierrez, Damisela; Winkler, Isabell

    2015-12-17

    Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective.

  16. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Rudolph, Tina; Linares Gutierrez, Damisela; Winkler, Isabell

    2015-01-01

    Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective. PMID:26694439

  17. Revealing Real-Time Emotional Responses: a Personalized Assessment based on Heartbeat Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Citi, Luca; Lanatá, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    Emotion recognition through computational modeling and analysis of physiological signals has been widely investigated in the last decade. Most of the proposed emotion recognition systems require relatively long-time series of multivariate records and do not provide accurate real-time characterizations using short-time series. To overcome these limitations, we propose a novel personalized probabilistic framework able to characterize the emotional state of a subject through the analysis of heartbeat dynamics exclusively. The study includes thirty subjects presented with a set of standardized images gathered from the international affective picture system, alternating levels of arousal and valence. Due to the intrinsic nonlinearity and nonstationarity of the RR interval series, a specific point-process model was devised for instantaneous identification considering autoregressive nonlinearities up to the third-order according to the Wiener-Volterra representation, thus tracking very fast stimulus-response changes. Features from the instantaneous spectrum and bispectrum, as well as the dominant Lyapunov exponent, were extracted and considered as input features to a support vector machine for classification. Results, estimating emotions each 10 seconds, achieve an overall accuracy in recognizing four emotional states based on the circumplex model of affect of 79.29%, with 79.15% on the valence axis, and 83.55% on the arousal axis.

  18. ROLE OF RESPONSIBILITY IN EMOTIONAL BURNOUTOF TEACHERS AT INITIAL STAGE OF PROFESSIONALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S I Kudinov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of the empirical research results of the formation of burnout symptoms in the teachers with low and high levels of personal responsibility. The sample of respondents was made by teachers with five years’ experience of work. At the preliminary stage the peculiarities of situational and personality anxiety, as well as indicators of emotional stability and neuroticism were studied. As a result of the data analysis the teachers with average anxiety and emotional stability were included in the final group of the subjects. The procedure of the respondents selection was motivated by the desire to exclude the respondents, potentially predisposed to intense emotional burnout due to their individual susceptibility to it from the empirical sample.During carrying out the basic research the responsibility indicators were studied at the first stage. According to the hierarchical distribution of the harmonic variables of responsibility the contrasting levels of the manifestation of this property were revealed and characterized. The high level of responsibility manifestation included mainly the positive characteristics responsible for the intensity of the display properties, such as ergicity, sthenicity, internality, socio-centeredness, meaningfulness and productivity. The second group included the respondents in whose hierarchy of variables property manifestation is dominated by the disharmonious components responsible for the weak manifestations of the property: aergicity, asthenicity, externality, ego-centeredness, etc. The selected indicators of responsibility in the both groups differed at a statistically significant level. At the following stage the emotional burnout indicators in each group were analyzed. The study confirmed the put forward hypothesis that the emotional burnout developed more intensively in the teachers with a high level of personal responsibility, rather than that of the respondents with a

  19. Patient expression of emotions and neurologist responses in first multiple sclerosis consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Piccolo, Lidia; Pietrolongo, Erika; Radice, Davide; Tortorella, Carla; Confalonieri, Paolo; Pugliatti, Maura; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Giordano, Andrea; Heesen, Christoph; Solari, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are common in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), but data on emotional communication during MS consultations are lacking. We assessed patient expressions of emotion and neurologist responses during first-ever MS consultations using the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES). We applied VR-CoDES to recordings/transcripts of 88 outpatient consultations (10 neurologists, four MS Italian centers). Before consultation, patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Multilevel sequential analysis was performed on the number of cues/concerns expressed by patients, and the proportion of reduce space responses by neurologists. Patients expressed 492 cues and 45 concerns (median 4 cues and 1 concern per consultation). The commonest cues were verbal hints of hidden worries (cue type b, 41%) and references to stressful life events (type d, 26%). Variables independently associated with number of cues/concerns were: anxiety (HADS-Anxiety score >8) (incidence risk ratio, IRR 1.08, 95% CI 1.06-1.09; pemotions by reducing space (changing subject, taking no notice, giving medical advice) for 58% of cues and 76% of concerns. Anxiety was the only variable significantly associated with 'reduce space' responses (odds ratio 2.17, 95% CI 1.32-3.57; p=0.003). Patient emotional expressions varied widely, but VR-CoDES cues b and d were expressed most often. Patient anxiety was directly associated with emotional expressions; older age of patients and neurologists, and second opinion consultations were inversely associated with patient emotional expression. In over 50% of instances, neurologists responded to these expressions by reducing space, more so in anxious patients. These findings suggest that neurologists need to improve their skills in dealing with patient emotions.

  20. Music induces universal emotion-related psychophysiological responses: comparing Canadian listeners to Congolese Pygmies

    OpenAIRE

    Egermann, Hauke; Fernando, Nathalie; Chuen, Lorraine; McAdams, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mebenz?l? Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29?99 s in duratio...

  1. Emotional responses to music: towards scientific perspectives on music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Miyuki; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Obata, Akiko; Koizumi, Hideaki; Maki, Atsushi

    2008-01-08

    Neurocognitive research has the potential to identify the relevant effects of music therapy. In this study, we examined the effect of music mode (major vs. minor) on stress reduction using optical topography and an endocrinological stress marker. In salivary cortisol levels, we observed that stressful conditions such as mental fatigue (thinking and creating a response) was reduced more by major mode music than by minor mode music. We suggest that music specifically induces an emotional response similar to a pleasant experience or happiness. Moreover, we demonstrated the typical asymmetrical pattern of stress responses in upper temporal cortex areas, and suggested that happiness/sadness emotional processing might be related to stress reduction by music.

  2. Behavioral Animal Model of the Emotional Response to Tinnitus and Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Amanda M; Larkin, Gail; Jones, Aikeen; May, Bradford J

    2017-10-18

    Increased prevalence of emotional distress is associated with tinnitus and hearing loss. The underlying mechanisms of the negative emotional response to tinnitus and hearing loss remain poorly understood, and it is challenging to disentangle the emotional consequences of hearing loss from those specific to tinnitus in listeners experiencing both. We addressed these questions in laboratory rats using three common rodent anxiety screening assays: elevated plus maze, open field test, and social interaction test. Open arm activity in the elevated plus maze decreased substantially after one trial in controls, indicating its limited utility for comparing pre- and post-treatment behavior. Open field exploration and social interaction behavior were consistent across multiple sessions in control animals. Individual sound-exposed and salicylate-treated rats showed a range of phenotypes in the open field, including reduced entries into the center in some subjects and reduced locomotion overall. In rats screened for tinnitus, less locomotion was associated with higher tinnitus scores. In salicylate-treated animals, locomotion was correlated with age. Sound-exposed and salicylate-treated rats also showed reduced social interaction. These results suggest that open field exploratory activity is a selective measure for identifying tinnitus distress in individual animals, whereas social interaction reflects the general effects of hearing loss. This animal model will facilitate future studies of the structural and functional changes in the brain pathways underlying emotional distress associated with hearing dysfunction, as well as development of novel interventions to ameliorate or prevent negative emotional responses.

  3. Inhibiting reactions to emotional versus non-emotional response cues in schizophrenia: Insights from a motor-process paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Regan E; Christensen, Bruce K; Smolewska, Kathy

    2016-03-01

    Recent models of schizophrenia suggest deficient use of contextual response cues when confronted with countermanding emotional cues. It is important to clinically validate these models by testing patients diagnosed with schizophrenia on tasks with competing emotional and contextual response determinants. Control and schizophrenia groups completed a novel task that elicited motor responses consistent with, or in opposition to, pre-potent emotional actions (i.e., approach vs. avoidance). An analogous non-emotional task was also used to examine cue-conflict impairment more generally. The groups demonstrated statistically equivalent performance decrements on incongruent versus congruent trials on both tasks. However, within the schizophrenia group, the incongruency effect was significantly greater in the emotional versus non-emotional task. These data suggest that, while patients with schizophrenia were able to employ contextual response cues to override competing emotional responses, they were slower to resolve emotional versus non-emotional response conflict. When patients were subdivided according to the presence or absence of disorganized symptoms, this effect was confined to patients with disorganized symptoms. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Prefrontal activation in response to emotional words in patients with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Toshio; Matsuo, Koji; Nakashima, Mami; Nakano, Masayuki; Harada, Kenichiro; Watanuki, Toshio; Egashira, Kazuteru; Watanabe, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-15

    Abnormal emotional processing is involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, whether the neural mechanism underlying this deficit is a trait characteristic of BD and MDD is unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the similarities and differences in processing of emotional stimuli between patients with BD and MDD in remission, using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Thirty-two patients (16 with BD and 16 with MDD) and 20 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex, handedness, and years of education were included. An emotional Stroop task, including happy, sad, and threat words, was used. The relative oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration ([oxy-Hb] and [deoxy-Hb]) changes in the frontal region were measured using 52-channels of NIRS. During the threat task, compared to healthy control subjects, patients with BD showed significantly increased [oxy-Hb] in the left inferior frontal region whereas patients with MDD showed significantly increased [oxy-Hb] in the left middle frontal region. During the happy task, compared to healthy control subjects, patients with BD showed significantly decreased [oxy-Hb] in the middle frontal region in both hemispheres. Moreover, patients with BD exhibited decreased [oxy-Hb] and increased [deoxy-Hb] in the superior frontal and middle frontal regions compared to MDD in response to the happy stimulus. No significant differences in [oxy-Hb] or [deoxy-Hb] were seen between the groups during the sad task. These results suggest that abnormal neural responses to emotional stimuli in patients with mood disorders in remission may be a trait characteristic, that negative emotional stimuli are associated with similar prefrontal responses, and that positive emotional stimuli are associated with different prefrontal responses in patients with BD and MDD. These findings indicate that different neural circuits play a role in emotional processing in BD and

  5. Pupillary Response to Negative Emotional Stimuli Is Differentially Affected in Meditation Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vasquez-Rosati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinically, meditative practices have become increasingly relevant, decreasing anxiety in patients and increasing antibody production. However, few studies have examined the physiological correlates, or effects of the incorporation of meditative practices. Because pupillary reactivity is a marker for autonomic changes and emotional processing, we hypothesized that the pupillary responses of mindfulness meditation practitioners (MP and subjects without such practices (non-meditators (NM differ, reflecting different emotional processing. In a group of 11 MP and 9 NM, we recorded the pupil diameter using video-oculography while subjects explored images with emotional contents. Although both groups showed a similar pupillary response for positive and neutral images, negative images evoked a greater pupillary contraction and a weaker dilation in the MP group. Also, this group had faster physiological recovery to baseline levels. These results suggest that mindfulness meditation practices modulate the response of the autonomic nervous system, reflected in the pupillary response to negative images and faster physiological recovery to baseline levels, suggesting that pupillometry could be used to assess the potential health benefits of these practices in patients.

  6. Anger and sadness in response to an emotionally neutral film: evidence for age-specific associations with well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M; Seider, Benjamin H; Shiota, Michelle N; Levenson, Robert W

    2012-06-01

    When the association between emotion and well-being is being considered, positive emotions usually come to mind. However, negative emotions serve important adaptive functions and particular negative emotions may be especially adaptive at different stages of adult development. We examined the associations between self-reported negative emotions in response to an emotionally neutral, thematically ambiguous film and subjective well-being among 76 young (age 20-29), 73 middle-aged (age 40-49), and 73 older (age 60-69) adults. Results indicated that higher self-reported anger in response to the film was associated with higher well-being for middle-aged adults, but not for young and older adults. Higher self-reported sadness in response to the film was associated with higher well-being for older adults, but not for young and middle-aged adults. These findings were stronger for cognitive well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life) than for affective well-being (i.e., ratio of dispositional positive to negative affect) and were specific to these emotions (not found for self-reported disgust or fear) and to the emotionally neutral film (not found for sad or disgusting films). Results are discussed in terms of the functions that anger and sadness are thought to serve and the control opportunities afforded in midlife and late life that render these functions differentially adaptive. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Incorporating emotions specific to the sexual response into theories of emotion using the Indiana Sexual and Affective Word Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Stevenson, Laurel D; Rupp, Heather A; Kim, Sunah; Janssen, Erick; James, Thomas W

    2011-02-01

    The sexual response includes an emotional component, but it is not clear whether this component is specific to sex and whether it is best explained by dimensional or discrete emotion theories. To determine whether the emotional component of the sexual response is distinct from other emotions, participants (n = 1099) rated 1450 sexual and non-sexual words according to dimensional theories of emotion (using scales of valence, arousal, and dominance) and according to theories of basic emotion (using scales of happiness, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust). In addition, ratings were provided for newly developed scales of sexual valence, arousal, and energy. A factor analysis produced four factors, together accounting for 91.5% of the variance in participant ratings. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that one word category or factor, labeled "sexual," was predicted only by the new sexual arousal and energy scales. The remaining three factors, labeled "disgusting," "happy," and "basic aversive" were best predicted by basic (or discrete) emotion ratings. Dimensional ratings of valence, sexual valence, and arousal were not predictive of any of the four categories. These results suggest that the addition of sexually specific emotions to basic emotion theories is justified and needed to account fully for emotional responses to sexual stimuli. In addition, the findings provide initial validation for the Indiana Sexual and Affective Words Set (ISAWS), supporting its use in future studies.

  8. Affective resonance in response to others' emotional faces varies with affective ratings and psychopathic traits in amygdala and anterior insula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Sebastian, Catherine L; Viding, Essi; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive research on the neural basis of empathic responses for pain and disgust, there is limited data about the brain regions that underpin affective response to other people's emotional facial expressions. Here, we addressed this question using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural responses to emotional faces, combined with online ratings of subjective state. When instructed to rate their own affective response to others' faces, participants recruited anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus, and amygdala, regions consistently implicated in studies investigating empathy for disgust and pain, as well as emotional saliency. Importantly, responses in anterior insula and amygdala were modulated by trial-by-trial variations in subjective affective responses to the emotional facial stimuli. Furthermore, overall task-elicited activations in these regions were negatively associated with psychopathic personality traits, which are characterized by low affective empathy. Our findings suggest that anterior insula and amygdala play important roles in the generation of affective internal states in response to others' emotional cues and that attenuated function in these regions may underlie reduced empathy in individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits.

  9. Mothers' frontal EEG asymmetry in response to infant emotion states and mother-infant emotional availability, emotional experience, and internalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Lauren A; Teti, Douglas M

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the links between mothers' frontal EEG asymmetry at rest and during videos of their 5- to 8-month-old infants expressing three emotion states (joy, anger/distress, and neutral interest), mother-infant emotional availability (EA) in the home, mothers' depressive and anxious symptoms, and mothers' emotional experience in response to infant emotion cues. Greater relative right frontal activity at rest was associated with greater maternal anxiety, but was unrelated to EA or mother-reported emotional experience in response to infant emotion cues. A shift toward greater relative right frontal activation in response to infant emotional stimuli was associated with lower maternal anxiety, greater mother-infant EA, and mothers' experience of sadness, concern, irritability, and the absence of joy in response to seeing their own infant in distress. These findings suggest that mothers' in the moment empathetic responding to their infant's emotions, indexed by a shift in frontal EEG asymmetry in response to infant emotional displays, is related to mother-infant EA in the home. Implications for conceptualizing parenting risk are discussed.

  10. Response to Kingsley Price's "How Can Music Seem to be Emotional"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nering, Marguerite

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a response to Kingsley Price's argument on the seemingness of the emotionality of music. For Price, music is not a person, cannot possibly harbor an inward life, and cannot possibly be emotional. He argues that since music is not personal, it cannot be emotional but can only seem emotional. He then sets out to discover how…

  11. Believing Is Doing: Emotion Regulation Beliefs Are Associated With Emotion Regulation Behavioral Choices and Subjective Well-Being

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Catherine Nicole Marie Ortner; Esther Lydia Briner; Zdravko Marjanovic

    2017-01-01

    ...-being. Participants completed measures to assess their beliefs about the consequences of functional and dysfunctional strategies, behavioral choices of emotion regulation strategies in negative scenarios...

  12. Rhythmic Density Affects Listeners' Emotional Response to Microtiming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Senn

    2017-10-01

    – Study A investigates the effect of fixed time displacements within and between the parts played by different musicians. Listeners (n = 160 reacted negatively to irregularities within the drum track, but the mutual displacement of bass vs. drums did not have an effect.– Study B develops three metrics to calculate the average microtiming magnitude in a musical excerpt. The experiment showed that listeners' (n = 160 emotional responses to expert performance microtiming aligned with each other across styles, when microtiming magnitude was adjusted for rhythmic density. This indicates that rhythmic density is a unifying moderator for listeners' emotional response to microtiming in swing and funk.– Study C used the data from both experiments in order to compare the effect of fixed microtiming displacements (from Study A with scaled versions of the originally performed microtiming patterns (from Study B. It showed that fixed snare drum displacements irritated expert listeners more than the more flexible deviations occurring in the original performances. This provides some evidence that listeners' emotional response to microtiming deviations not only depends on the magnitude of the deviations, but also on the kind and origin of the microtiming patterns (fixed lab displacements vs. flexible performance microtiming.

  13. Evidence for universality in phenomenological emotion response system coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Nezlek, John B; Koopmann, Birgit

    2007-02-01

    The authors reanalyzed data from Scherer and Wallbott's (Scherer, 1997b; Scherer & Wallbott, 1994) International Study of Emotion Antecedents and Reactions to examine how phenomenological reports of emotional experience, expression, and physiological sensations were related to each other within cultures and to determine if these relationships were moderated by cultural differences, which were operationally defined using Hofstede's (2001) typology. Multilevel random coefficient modeling analyses produced several findings of note. First, the vast majority of the variance in ratings was within countries (i.e., at the individual level); a much smaller proportion of the total variance was between countries. Second, there were negative relationships between country-level means and long- versus short-term orientation for numerous measures. Greater long-term orientation was associated with lowered emotional expressivity and fewer physiological sensations. Third, at the individual (within-culture) level, across the 7 emotions, there were consistent and reliable positive relationships among the response systems, indicating coherence among them. Fourth, such relationships were not moderated by cultural differences, as measured by the Hofstede dimensions. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Emotional Responses to Music: Shifts in Frontal Brain Asymmetry Mark Periods of Musical Change

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    Hussain-Abdulah Arjmand

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated increased activity in brain regions associated with emotion and reward when listening to pleasurable music. Unexpected change in musical features intensity and tempo – and thereby enhanced tension and anticipation – is proposed to be one of the primary mechanisms by which music induces a strong emotional response in listeners. Whether such musical features coincide with central measures of emotional response has not, however, been extensively examined. In this study, subjective and physiological measures of experienced emotion were obtained continuously from 18 participants (12 females, 6 males; 18–38 years who listened to four stimuli—pleasant music, unpleasant music (dissonant manipulations of their own music, neutral music, and no music, in a counter-balanced order. Each stimulus was presented twice: electroencephalograph (EEG data were collected during the first, while participants continuously subjectively rated the stimuli during the second presentation. Frontal asymmetry (FA indices from frontal and temporal sites were calculated, and peak periods of bias toward the left (indicating a shift toward positive affect were identified across the sample. The music pieces were also examined to define the temporal onset of key musical features. Subjective reports of emotional experience averaged across the condition confirmed participants rated their music selection as very positive, the scrambled music as negative, and the neutral music and silence as neither positive nor negative. Significant effects in FA were observed in the frontal electrode pair FC3–FC4, and the greatest increase in left bias from baseline was observed in response to pleasurable music. These results are consistent with findings from previous research. Peak FA responses at this site were also found to co-occur with key musical events relating to change, for instance, the introduction of a new motif, or an instrument change, or a

  15. Cognitions, emotions, and sexual response: analysis of the relationship among automatic thoughts, emotional responses, and sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Pedro J; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2008-08-01

    The relationship between automatic thoughts and emotions presented during sexual activity and their correlation with sexual arousal was investigated. A total of 491 individuals (163 women and 232 men without sexual problems and 47 women and 49 men with a DSM-IV diagnosis of sexual dysfunction) completed the Sexual Modes Questionnaire (SMQ; Nobre and Pinto-Gouveia, Journal of Sex Research, 40, 368-382, 2003). Results indicated several significant correlations among automatic thoughts, emotions, and sexual arousal. Erection concern thoughts in the men and failure/disengagement thoughts and lack of erotic thoughts in the women presented the most significant negative correlations with sexual arousal. Additionally, sadness and disillusion were positively related to these negative cognitions and negatively associated with sexual arousal in both sexes. On the other hand, pleasure and satisfaction were negatively associated with the above-mentioned negative cognitions and positively associated with subjective sexual arousal in both men and women. Overall, findings support the hypothesis that cognitive, emotional, and behavioral dimensions are closely linked and suggest a mode typical of sexual dysfunction composed of negative automatic thoughts, depressive affect, and low subjective sexual arousal.

  16. Frontolimbic responses to emotional face memory: the neural correlates of first impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Wolf, Daniel H; Gur, Ruben C; Ruparel, Kosha; Valdez, Jeffrey N; Gur, Raquel E; Loughead, James

    2009-11-01

    First impressions, especially of emotional faces, may critically impact later evaluation of social interactions. Activity in limbic regions, including the amygdala and ventral striatum, has previously been shown to correlate with identification of emotional content in faces; however, little work has been done describing how these signals may influence emotional face memory. We report an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study in 21 healthy adults where subjects attempted to recognize a neutral face that was previously viewed with a threatening (angry or fearful) or nonthreatening (happy or sad) affect. In a hypothesis-driven region of interest analysis, we found that neutral faces previously presented with a threatening affect recruited the left amygdala. In contrast, faces previously presented with a nonthreatening affect activated the left ventral striatum. A whole-brain analysis revealed increased response in the right orbitofrontal cortex to faces previously seen with threatening affect. These effects of prior emotion were independent of task performance, with differences being seen in the amygdala and ventral striatum even if only incorrect trials were considered. The results indicate that a network of frontolimbic regions may provide emotional bias signals during facial recognition.

  17. Sexual modes questionnaire: measure to assess the interaction among cognitions, emotions, and sexual response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Pedro J; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2003-11-01

    The goal of the present article is to present a new measure developed to assess cognitive and emotional factors of sexual function. This instrument was developed especially to test some hypotheses derived from Beck s new theoretical conceptualization (the modes theory; A. T. Beck, 1996). This model, characterized by its systemic and integrated approach, constitutes a remarkable development from a linear to a network perspective of the cognitive-emotional-behavioral processes. The new concept of mode, as a composite of schemas (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral) interacting together, is theoretically sound and supported by recent research findings from clinical and experimental sets (see A. T. Beck, 1996, for a revision). Our aim is to develop a new measure specifically created to assess these integrated and interdependent processes in the field of sexuality. The Sexual Modes Questionnaire (SMQ; male and female versions) is a combined measure constituted by three interdependent subscales: automatic thoughts, emotions, and sexual response presented during sexual activity. Psychometric studies showed good reliability and validity results in both versions, and high correlations between several dimensions of the three subscales support the concept of mode and its interactional character. Moreover, the capacity showed by the SMQ to discriminate between sexually functional and dysfunctional subjects and its high correlations with measures of sexual functioning emphasize the role of cognitive-emotional processes on sexual problems, supporting the clinical value of the measure.

  18. High versus low level of response to alcohol: evidence of differential reactivity to emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Martin P; Schuckit, Marc A; Tapert, Susan F; Tolentino, Neil J; Matthews, Scott C; Smith, Tom L; Trim, Ryan S; Hall, Shana A; Simmons, Alan N

    2012-11-15

    The low level of response (LR) or sensitivity to alcohol is genetically influenced and predicts heavy drinking and alcohol problems. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using cognitive tasks suggest that subjects with a low-LR process cognitive information differently after placebo and alcohol than those with a high LR, but no studies have evaluated whether similar LR group differences are seen during an emotional processing task. The fMRI data were gathered from 116 nonalcoholic subjects (60 women) after oral placebo or approximately .7 mL/kg of ethanol while performing a modified emotional faces processing task. These included 58 low- and high-LR pairs matched on demography and aspects of substance use. Blood alcohol levels and task performance were similar across LR groups, but low-LR subjects consumed approximately .8 drinks more/occasion. Thirteen brain regions (mostly the middle and inferior frontal gyri, cingulate, and insula) showed significant LR group or LR × placebo/alcohol condition interactions for emotional (mostly happy) faces relative to non-face trials. Low-LR subjects generally showed decreasing blood-oxygen level-dependent response contrasts across placebo to alcohol, whereas high LR showed increasing contrasts from placebo to alcohol, even after controlling for drinking quantities and alcohol-related changes in cerebral blood flow. Thus, LR group fMRI differences are as prominent during an emotional face task as during cognitive paradigms. Low-LR individuals processed both types of information in a manner that might contribute to an impaired ability to recognize modest levels of alcohol intoxication in a range of life situations. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender Differences in Human Single Neuron Responses to Male Emotional Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan eNewhoff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Well-documented differences in the psychology and behavior of men and women have spurred extensive exploration of gender's role within the brain, particularly regarding emotional processing. While neuroanatomical studies clearly show differences between the sexes, the functional effects of these differences are less understood. Neuroimaging studies have shown inconsistent locations and magnitudes of gender differences in brain hemodynamic responses to emotion. To better understand the neurophysiology of these gender differences, we analyzed recordings of single neuron activity in the human brain as subjects of both genders viewed emotional expressions.This study included recordings of single-neuron activity of 14 (6 male epileptic patients in four brain areas: amygdala (236 neurons, hippocampus (n=270, anterior cingulate cortex (n=256, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (n=174. Neural activity was recorded while participants viewed a series of avatar male faces portraying positive, negative or neutral expressions.Significant gender differences were found in the left amygdala, where 23% (n=15/66 of neurons in men were significantly affected by facial emotion, versus 8% (n=6/76 of neurons in women. A Fisher's exact test comparing the two ratios found a highly significant difference between the two (p<0.01. These results show specific differences between genders at the single-neuron level in the human amygdala. These differences may reflect gender-based distinctions in evolved capacities for emotional processing and also demonstrate the importance of including subject gender as an independent factor in future studies of emotional processing by single neurons in the human amygdala.

  20. Endocannabinoid System and Synaptic Plasticity: Implications for Emotional Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Paz Viveros

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system has been involved in the regulation of anxiety, and proposed as an inhibitory modulator of neuronal, behavioral and adrenocortical responses to stressful stimuli. Brain regions such as the amygdala, hippocampus and cortex, which are directly involved in the regulation of emotional behavior, contain high densities of cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Mutant mice lacking CB1 receptors show anxiogenic and depressive-like behaviors as well as an altered hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis activity, whereas enhancement of endocannabinoid signaling produces anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects. Genetic and pharmacological approaches also support an involvement of endocannabinoids in extinction of aversive memories. Thus, the endocannabinoid system appears to play a pivotal role in the regulation of emotional states. Endocannabinoids have emerged as mediators of short- and long- term synaptic plasticity in diverse brain structures. Despite the fact that most of the studies on this field have been performed using in vitro models, endocannabinoid-mediated plasticity might be considered as a plausible candidate underlying some of the diverse physiological functions of the endogenous cannabinoid system, including developmental, affective and cognitive processes. In this paper, we will focus on the functional relevance of endocannabinoid-mediated plasticity within the framework of emotional responses. Alterations of the endocannabinoid system may constitute an important factor in the aetiology of certain neuropsychiatric disorders, and, in turn, enhancers of endocannabinoid signaling could represent a potential therapeutical tool in the treatment of both anxiety and depressive symptoms.

  1. An assessment of emotional pain among subjects with chronic dermatological problems in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoeye, O A; Aina, O F; Omoluabi, P F; Olumide, Y M

    2007-01-01

    In dermatology, it is known that there is a significant co-morbidity between dermatological disorders and psychological complications, and it has been estimated that in at least one-third of patients with skin diseases, their effective management involves consideration of associated emotional factors. In Africa, particularly Nigeria, despite the prevalent dermatological disorders with their possible attendant mental health complications, little or no work has been done in the field of psycho-dermatology, hence the rationale for this study. A prospective study was carried out in the dermatology/venerology clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). Ethical clearance and consent were obtained to conduct the study. The subjects were selected by simple random sampling from adult patients that have had their dermatological disorders for at least six months before presentation in the clinic. Those with other co-existing chronic medical illness such as hypertension, diabetes, or haemoglobinopathy were excluded from the study. Controls were obtained to match for age and sex from apparently healthy workers in a nearby general hospital. Each subject was evaluated with a questionnaire to obtain necessary socio-demographic data: Psychache scale (PAS), and subscales C, D, and J of Symptom Check List (SCL-90). The data generated was analyzed to obtain means, and t-test was used to compare the means; p = 0.05 was taken as being significant. The analyses were done using SPSS version 10. Eighty subjects with dermatological disorders, and of equal sex distribution, were evaluated, with mean age of 33 +/- 12.1 years. Equal number of controls matched for sex and mean age of 34.6 +/- 7.3 years were also evaluated. Among the subjects, 16.3% had Acne, followed by Urticaria (13.8%), Vitiligo (12.5%), Tinea (11.3%), Hansen's disease (5%), and others (41.1%). From assessment with PAS and SCL subscales, the mean scores by the subjects were much higher than those of the controls and

  2. Childhood Poverty Predicts Adult Amygdala and Frontal Activity and Connectivity in Response to Emotional Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash eJavanbakht

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood poverty negatively impacts physical and mental health in adulthood. Altered brain development in response to social and environmental factors associated with poverty likely contributes to this effect, engendering maladaptive patterns of social attribution and/or elevated physiological stress. In this fMRI study, we examined the association between childhood poverty and neural processing of social signals (i.e., emotional faces in adulthood. 52 subjects from a longitudinal prospective study recruited as children, participated in a brain imaging study at 23-25 years of age using the Emotional Faces Assessment Task (EFAT. Childhood poverty, independent of concurrent adult income, was associated with higher amygdala and mPFC responses to threat vs. happy faces. Also, childhood poverty was associated with decreased functional connectivity between left amygdala and mPFC. This study is unique because it prospectively links childhood poverty to emotional processing during adulthood, suggesting a candidate neural mechanism for negative social-emotional bias. Adults who grew up poor appear to be more sensitive to social threat cues and less sensitive to positive social cues.

  3. Preservice Teachers' Emotion-Related Regulation and Cognition: Associations with Teachers' Responses to Children's Emotions in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Rebecca Anne; McElwain, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The present research examines preservice teachers' (N = 24) self-reported emotion-related regulation and cognition as predictors of their observed responses to young children's positive and negative emotional displays. Correlation and regression analyses revealed that teachers reporting greater reappraisal strategies in…

  4. Gender differences in human single neuron responses to male emotional faces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newhoff, Morgan; Treiman, David M; Smith, Kris A; Steinmetz, Peter N

    2015-01-01

    .... To better understand the neurophysiology of these gender differences, we analyzed recordings of single neuron activity in the human brain as subjects of both genders viewed emotional expressions...

  5. Investigating the cognitive precursors of emotional response to cancer stress: re-testing Lazarus's transactional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert-Williams, N J; Morrison, V; Wilkinson, C; Neal, R D

    2013-02-01

    Lazarus's Transactional Model of stress and coping underwent significant theoretical development through the 1990s to better incorporate emotional reactions to stress with their appraisal components. Few studies have robustly explored the full model. This study aimed to do so within the context of a major life event: cancer diagnosis. A repeated measures design was used whereby data were collected using self-report questionnaire at baseline (soon after diagnosis), and 3- and 6-month follow-up. A total of 160 recently diagnosed cancer patients were recruited (mean time since diagnosis = 46 days). Their mean age was 64.2 years. Data on appraisals, core-relational themes, and emotions were collected. Data were analysed using both Spearman's correlation tests and multivariate regression modelling. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated weak correlation between change scores of theoretically associated components and some emotions correlated more strongly with cognitions contradicting theoretical expectations. Cross-sectional multivariate testing of the ability of cognitions to explain variance in emotion was largely theory inconsistent. Although data support the generic structure of the Transactional Model, they question the model specifics. Larger scale research is needed encompassing a wider range of emotions and using more complex statistical testing. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ON THIS SUBJECT?: • Stress processes are transactional and coping outcome is informed by both cognitive appraisal of the stressor and the individual's emotional response (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). • Lazarus (1999) made specific hypotheses about which particular stress appraisals would determine which emotional response, but only a small number of these relationships have been robustly investigated. • Previous empirical testing of this theory has been limited by design and statistical limitations. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: • This study empirically investigates the cognitive precedents of a

  6. Subjective Response to Alcohol as a Research Domain Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Lara A; Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences in the subjective experience of the pharmacological effects of alcohol have long been implicated in the likelihood that one will drink heavily and develop alcoholism. The theme of this conceptual review and perspective article is to synthesize the literature on subjective responses to alcohol and to set an agenda for the next generation of research in the area. Specifically, we contend that in order for subjective response to alcohol to play a prominent role in alcoholism research, it is critical that it be studied as a multimodal phenotype. First, we review the human research on subjective response to alcohol measured under controlled laboratory conditions and draw recommendations for the application of these findings to understanding alcoholism neurobiology in humans. Second, we highlight multimodal approaches, including studies of the genetic and neural substrates of individual differences in subjective response to alcohol. Third, we review treatment implications with a focus on subjective response to alcohol as an intervention target. Upon review of the research on subjective response to alcohol across levels of analyses, we provide recommendations for leveraging these phenotypes in a systematic and methodologically rigorous fashion that can address central questions about alcoholism etiology, disease progression, and personalized treatment. The approach recommended herein is largely consistent with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative across the National Institute of Mental Health. The defining feature of such domains is that they inform behavior yet be amenable to examination through multiple units of analysis, such as molecular, genetic, circuit-level, and behavioral measurements. To that end, we contend that subjective response to alcohol represents a behaviorally and biologically plausible phenotype upon which to build using the RDoC framework for understanding alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society

  7. Association between subjective and cortisol stress response depends on the menstrual cycle phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Annie; Pruessner, Jens C

    2013-12-01

    The relation between the physiologic and subjective stress responses is inconsistently reported across studies. Menstrual cycle phases variations have been found to influence the psychophysiological stress response; however little is known about possible cycle phase differences in the relationship between physiological and subjective stress responses. This study examined the effect of menstrual cycle phase in the association between subjective stress and physiological response. Forty-five women in either the follicular (n=21) or the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle were exposed to a psychosocial stress task. Salivary cortisol, cardiovascular, and subjective stress were assessed throughout the experiment. Results revealed a significant group difference in the association between peak levels of cortisol and post task subjective stress. In women in the follicular phase a negative association was observed (r(2)=0.199, p=0.04), while this relation was positive in the group of women in the luteal phase (r(2)=0.227, p=0.02). These findings suggest a possible role of sex hormones in modulating the cortisol stress response function in emotion regulation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Toward a Further Understanding of Students' Emotional Responses to Classroom Injustice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chory, Rebecca M.; Horan, Sean M.; Carton, Shannon T.; Houser, Marian L.

    2014-01-01

    Guided by emotional response theory, we examined students' emotional reactions to perceptions of classroom injustice. Undergraduates from three universities participated by completing questionnaires. Students most frequently reported procedural injustice, but experienced the most severe and most negative emotional responses to violations involving…

  9. openemotionmap.org - Emotional response to space as an additional concept in cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, G.

    2012-08-01

    In this submission the concept is analysed, that the emotional relation and the degree of emotional response is structuring space and can therefore be relevant for human wayfinding. Possible measures for linking explicit links between person's memory/experience/emotional response with the physical environment are investigated and possible applications for navigation systems are discussed.

  10. Mothers’ Responses to Children’s Negative Emotions and Child Emotion Regulation: The Moderating Role of Vagal Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicole B.; Calkins, Susan D.; Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of children’s cardiac vagal suppression on the association between maternal socialization of negative emotions (supportive and non-supportive responses) and children’s emotion regulation behaviors. One hundred and ninety-seven 4-year-olds and their mothers participated. Mothers reported on their reactions to children’s negative emotions and children’s regulatory behaviors. Observed distraction, an adaptive self-regulatory strategy, and vagal suppression were assessed during a laboratory task designed to elicit frustration. Results indicated that children’s vagal suppression moderated the association between mothers’ non-supportive emotion socialization and children’s emotion regulation behaviors such that non-supportive reactions to negative emotions predicted lower observed distraction and lower reported emotion regulation behaviors when children displayed lower levels of vagal suppression. No interaction was found between supportive maternal emotion socialization and vagal suppression for children’s emotion regulation behaviors. Results suggest physiological regulation may serve as a buffer against non-supportive emotion socialization. PMID:22072217

  11. Tuning to the Positive: Age-Related Differences in Subjective Perception of Facial Emotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Picardo

    Full Text Available Facial expressions aid social transactions and serve as socialization tools, with smiles signaling approval and reward, and angry faces signaling disapproval and punishment. The present study examined whether the subjective experience of positive vs. negative facial expressions differs between children and adults. Specifically, we examined age-related differences in biases toward happy and angry facial expressions. Young children (5-7 years and young adults (18-29 years rated the intensity of happy and angry expressions as well as levels of experienced arousal. Results showed that young children-but not young adults-rated happy facial expressions as both more intense and arousing than angry faces. This finding, which we replicated in two independent samples, was not due to differences in the ability to identify facial expressions, and suggests that children are more tuned to information in positive expressions. Together these studies provide evidence that children see unambiguous adult emotional expressions through rose-colored glasses, and suggest that what is emotionally relevant can shift with development.

  12. Evaluation of the subjects' response to antipsychotics questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, HA; Knegtering, R; Wiersma, D; van den Bosch, RJ

    The present study reports on the development of a new self-administered instrument to assess patients' responses to antipsychotic medication. The Subjects' Response to Antipsychotics (SRA) Questionnaire is a 74-item instrument with eight scales (Recovery, Weight Gain, Sexual Anhedonia, Sedation,

  13. Item response theory at subject- and group-level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, Hilde

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature about item response models for the subject level and aggregated level (group level). Group-level item response models (IRMs) are used in the United States in large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the California

  14. Patient expression of emotions and neurologist responses in first multiple sclerosis consultations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Del Piccolo

    Full Text Available Anxiety and depression are common in people with multiple sclerosis (MS, but data on emotional communication during MS consultations are lacking. We assessed patient expressions of emotion and neurologist responses during first-ever MS consultations using the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES.We applied VR-CoDES to recordings/transcripts of 88 outpatient consultations (10 neurologists, four MS Italian centers. Before consultation, patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Multilevel sequential analysis was performed on the number of cues/concerns expressed by patients, and the proportion of reduce space responses by neurologists.Patients expressed 492 cues and 45 concerns (median 4 cues and 1 concern per consultation. The commonest cues were verbal hints of hidden worries (cue type b, 41% and references to stressful life events (type d, 26%. Variables independently associated with number of cues/concerns were: anxiety (HADS-Anxiety score >8 (incidence risk ratio, IRR 1.08, 95% CI 1.06-1.09; p<0.001; patient age (IRR 0.98, 95% CI 0.98-0.99; p<0.001; neurologist age (IRR 0.94, 95% CI 0.92-0.96; p=0.03; and second opinion consultation (IRR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60-0.86; p=0.007. Neurologists reacted to patient emotions by reducing space (changing subject, taking no notice, giving medical advice for 58% of cues and 76% of concerns. Anxiety was the only variable significantly associated with 'reduce space' responses (odds ratio 2.17, 95% CI 1.32-3.57; p=0.003.Patient emotional expressions varied widely, but VR-CoDES cues b and d were expressed most often. Patient anxiety was directly associated with emotional expressions; older age of patients and neurologists, and second opinion consultations were inversely associated with patient emotional expression. In over 50% of instances, neurologists responded to these expressions by reducing space, more so in anxious patients. These findings suggest that

  15. Neuroimaging Study of the Human Amygdala - Toward an Understanding of Emotional and Stress Responses -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya

    The amygdala plays a critical role in the neural system involved in emotional responses and conditioned fear. The dysfunction of this system is thought to be a cause of several neuropsychiatric disorders. A neuroimaging study provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive investigation of the human amygdala. We studied the activity of this structure in normal subjects and patients with schizophrenia by using the face recognition task. Our results showed that the amygdala was activated by presentation of face stimuli, and negative face activated the amygdala to a greater extent than a neutral face. Under the happy face condition, the activation of the amygdala was higher in the schizophrenic patients than in control subjects. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the regulatory region of the serotonin type 3 receptor gene had modulatory effects on the amygdaloid activity. The emotion regulation had a significant impact on neural interaction between the amygdala and prefrontal cortices. Thus, studies on the human amygdala would greatly contribute to the elucidation of the neural system that determines emotional and stress responses. To clarify the relevance of the neural dysfunction and neuropsychiatric disorders, further studies using physiological, genetic, and hormonal approaches are essential.

  16. Response effort discounts the subjective value of rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryoji

    2014-09-01

    Factors associated with obtaining a reward, such as a temporal delay in receiving the reward, can influence the subjective value of the reward. Cognitive as well as physical response effort is also known to influence choice behaviors. The present study used hypothetical situations to assess whether response effort affects the subjective value of rewards. The results demonstrated that increasing response effort increases the amount of money that participants are willing to forgo to avoid engaging in work. An exponential as well as hyperbolic function provided a good fit for such discounting. The findings suggest that response effort discounts the subjective value of a reward as a function of its amount. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Two types of peak emotional responses to music: The psychophysiology of chills and tears

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuma Mori; Makoto Iwanaga

    2017-01-01

    People sometimes experience a strong emotional response to artworks. Previous studies have demonstrated that the peak emotional experience of chills (goose bumps or shivers) when listening to music involves psychophysiological arousal and a rewarding effect. However, many aspects of peak emotion are still not understood. The current research takes a new perspective of peak emotional response of tears (weeping, lump in the throat). A psychophysiological experiment showed that self-reported chi...

  18. Pre-meal screen-time activities increase subjective emotions, but not food intake in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia O; Pollard, Damion; Welch, Jo M; Rossiter, Melissa; Faghih, Shiva; Bellissimo, Nick

    2017-04-01

    To determine the effect of pre-meal screen-time activities on subjective emotions, subjective appetite, and food intake (FI) in 9-14 year-old girls. In this clinical study, 31 girls completed four 45-min treatment conditions of television viewing (TVV), video game playing (VGP), a challenging computer task (CT), and sitting without screen exposure (control) in a randomized order. Each treatment condition was followed immediately by an ad libitum pizza lunch, and FI was calculated from the weight of the consumed pizza. Subjective appetite was assessed at baseline, 15, 30, and 45 min during the treatment condition, and upon trial completion at 75 min. Subjective emotions were assessed at baseline and at 45 min. FI was not affected by screen type, but was positively correlated with body composition (fat mass [FM, kg], fat free mass [FFM, kg]) in all treatment conditions. Subjective appetite was not affected by screen type, but increased with time in all treatment conditions (p emotions were affected by VGP only. Anger, excitement, frustration, and upset feelings were increased at 45 min following VGP. VGP led to increased frustration compared to control (p = 0.0003), CT (p = 0.007) and TVV (p = 0.0002). Exposure to TVV or CT before eating did not affect subjective emotions, subjective appetite, or FI, and no difference was found between screen activities and the control condition for average appetite or FI. Despite a change in subjective emotions during the VGP condition, there was no increase in subjective appetite or subsequent FI. These findings suggest that physiologic signals of satiation and satiety are not overridden by environmental stimuli of pre-meal screen-time exposure among young girls. (Clinical trial number NCT01750177). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Different brain activity in response to emotional faces alone and augmented by contextual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hwa; Siegle, Greg J

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the extent to which emotional face stimuli differ from the neural reactivity associated with more ecological contextually augmented stimuli. Participants were scanned when they viewed contextually rich pictures depicting both emotional faces and context, and pictures of emotional faces presented alone. Emotional faces alone were more strongly associated with brain activity in paralimbic and social information processing regions, whereas emotional faces augmented by context were associated with increased and sustained activity in regions potentially representing increased complexity and subjective emotional experience. Furthermore, context effects were modulated by emotional intensity and valence. These findings suggest that cortical elaboration that is apparent in contextually augmented stimuli may be missed in studies of emotional faces alone, whereas emotional faces may more selectively recruit limbic reactivity. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. An examination of personality, emotional intelligence, coping, gender and subjective well-being with perceived stress (trait and state) in undergraduate students.

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Shona Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This multivariate study aimed to further understand student stress. Associations between personality, emotional intelligence, coping and subjective well-being with perceived stress (trait and state) were examined in 238 undergraduate students, using self-report measures. Gender differences in these variables were also investigated. The results showed that students low in emotional stability, extraversion, emotional intelligence, subjective well-being and those with a tendency to use emotion...

  1. Subjective and Physiological Responses to Music Stimuli Controlled Over Activity and Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga; Moroki

    1999-01-01

    Results of physiological responses to music are inconclusive considering results of several studies, probably due to the insufficient control of the musical stimuli. The present study aimed to examine the effects of music type and preference on subjective and physiological responses using controlled stimuli by subjects' evaluations for music activity and preference. Subjects were 47 undergraduate students selected from a pool of 145 undergraduates. Results of evaluations of music activity and music preference for musical stimuli in preliminary research determined participation in the study. The music used in this study included the 4th movement of Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 4 as an excitative piece and the 3rd movement of Mahler's Symphony No. 6 as a sedative one. The excitative music aroused feelings of vigor and tension more than did the sedative one, while sedative music eased tension. Favorite music, regardless of music type, lowered subjective tension. Physiological responses (heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure) were greater during excitative music than during sedative music. Music preference did not, however, affect physiological responses. These results indicate that the dominant factor affecting emotional response was music type but not preference.

  2. Physiological and Emotional Responses of Disabled Children to Therapeutic Clowns: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shauna Kingsnorth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study examined the effects of Therapeutic Clowning on inpatients in a pediatric rehabilitation hospital. Ten disabled children with varied physical and verbal expressive abilities participated in all or portions of the data collection protocol. Employing a mixed-method, single-subject ABAB study design, measures of physiological arousal, emotion and behavior were obtained from eight children under two conditions—television exposure and therapeutic clown interventions. Four peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS signals were recorded as measures of physiological arousal; these signals were analyzed with respect to measures of emotion (verbal self reports of mood and behavior (facial expressions and vocalizations. Semistructured interviews were completed with verbally expressive children (n = 7 and nurses of participating children (n = 13. Significant differences among children were found in response to the clown intervention relative to television exposure. Physiologically, changes in ANS signals occurred either more frequently or in different patterns. Emotionally, children's (self and nurses' (observed reports of mood were elevated positively. Behaviorally, children exhibited more positive and fewer negative facial expressions and vocalizations of emotion during the clown intervention. Content and themes extracted from the interviews corroborated these findings. The results suggest that this popular psychosocial intervention has a direct and positive impact on hospitalized children. This pilot study contributes to the current understanding of the importance of alternative approaches in promoting well-being within healthcare settings.

  3. Proficiency in Positive versus Negative Emotion Identification and Subjective Well-being among Long-term Married Elderly Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ePetrican

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive versus negative emotions and a close partner’s well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1 and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease (Study 2, which tends to hinder emotional expressivity. To assess proficiency in identifying emotions from whole body postures, we had participants in both studies complete a pointlight walker task, featuring four actors (two male, two female expressing one positive (i.e., happiness and three negative (i.e., sadness, anger, fear basic emotions. Participants also filled out measures of subjective well-being. Among Study 1’s neurologically intact spouses, greater expertise in identifying positive (but not negative emotions was linked to greater partner life satisfaction (but not hedonic balance. Spouses of PD patients exhibited increased proficiency in identifying positive emotions relative to controls, possibly reflective of compensatory mechanisms. Complementarily, relative to controls, spouses of PD patients exhibited reduced proficiency in identifying negative emotions and a tendency to underestimate their intensity. Importantly, all of these effects attenuated with longer years from PD onset. Finally, there was evidence that it was increased partner expertise in identifying negative (rather than positive emotional states that predicted greater life satisfaction levels among the PD patients and their spouses. Our results thus suggest that positive versus negative emotions may play distinct roles in close relationship dynamics as a function of neurological status and disability trajectory.

  4. Proficiency in positive vs. negative emotion identification and subjective well-being among long-term married elderly couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrican, Raluca; Moscovitch, Morris; Grady, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive vs. negative emotions and a close partner's well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1) and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease (Study 2), which tends to hinder emotional expressivity. To assess proficiency in identifying emotions from whole body postures, we had participants in both studies complete a pointlight walker task, featuring four actors (two male, two female) expressing one positive (i.e., happiness) and three negative (i.e., sadness, anger, fear) basic emotions. Participants also filled out measures of subjective well-being. Among Study 1's neurologically intact spouses, greater expertise in identifying positive (but not negative) emotions was linked to greater partner life satisfaction (but not hedonic balance). Spouses of PD patients exhibited increased proficiency in identifying positive emotions relative to controls, possibly reflective of compensatory mechanisms. Complementarily, relative to controls, spouses of PD patients exhibited reduced proficiency in identifying negative emotions and a tendency to underestimate their intensity. Importantly, all of these effects attenuated with longer years from PD onset. Finally, there was evidence that it was increased partner expertise in identifying negative (rather than positive) emotional states that predicted greater life satisfaction levels among the PD patients and their spouses. Our results thus suggest that positive vs. negative emotions may play distinct roles in close relationship dynamics as a function of neurological status and disability trajectory.

  5. Does rewording MRI reports improve patient understanding and emotional response to a clinical report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossen, Jeroen K J; Hageman, Michiel G J S; King, John D; Ring, David C

    2013-11-01

    Diagnostic MRI reports can be distressing for patients with limited health literacy. Humans tend to prepare for the worst particularly when we are in pain, and words like "tear" can make us feel damaged and in need of repair. Research on words used in provider-patient interactions have shown an affect on response to treatment and coping strategies, but the literature on this remains relatively sparse. The aim of this observational cross-sectional study is to determine whether rewording of MRI reports in understandable, more dispassionate language will result in better patient ratings of emotional response, satisfaction, usefulness, and understanding. Furthermore, we wanted to find out which type of report patients would choose to receive. One hundred patients visiting an orthopaedic hand and upper extremity outpatient office for reasons unrelated to the presented MRI report were enrolled. Four MRI reports, concerning upper extremity conditions, were reworded to an eighth-grade reading level and with the use of neutral descriptive words and the most optimistic interpretations based on current best evidence. After reading each report, emotional response was measured using the Self Assessment Manikin (SAM). Subjects also completed questions about satisfaction, usefulness, and understanding of the report. According to the results of the SAM questionnaire, the reworded MRI reports resulted in significantly higher pleasure and dominance scores and lower arousal scores. The mean satisfaction, usefulness, and understanding scores of the reworded report were significantly higher compared with the original reports. Seventy percent of the patients preferred the reworded reports over the original reports. Emotional response, satisfaction, usefulness, and understanding were all superior in MRI reports reworded for lower reading level and optimal emotional content and optimism. Given that patients increasingly have access to their medical records and diagnostic reports

  6. Personality, emotion, and individual differences in physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmler, Gerhard; Wacker, Jan

    2010-07-01

    A dominant paradigm in biopsychological personality research seeks to establish links between emotional and motivational traits and habitual, transsituationally consistent individual differences in measures of physiological activity. An alternative approach conceptualizes traits as dispositions that are only operative in certain situational contexts and consequently predicts associations between emotional and motivational traits and physiological activity only for trait-relevant situational contexts in which the physiological systems underlying the traits in question are engaged. In the present paper we first examine and contrast these personistic and interactionistic conceptualizations of personality and personality-physiology associations and then present data from several large studies (N>100) in which electrocortical (e.g., frontal alpha asymmetry) and somatovisceral parameters were measured in various situational contexts (e.g., after the induction of either anger, or fear, or anxiety). As predicted by the interactionistic conceptualization of traits as dispositions the situational context and its subjective representation by the participants moderated the personality-physiology relationships for measures of both central and peripheral nervous system activity. We conclude by outlining the implications of the interactionistic approach for biopsychological personality research. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Subjective Quality of Life of People with Intellectual Disabilities: The Role of Emotional Competence on Their Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Lourdes; Extremera, Natalio; Duran, Auxiliadora; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Background: For decades, the field of quality of life for people with intellectual disabilities has focused on the improving the external life conditions. However, scarce research has examined the contribution of person-related psychological resources such as emotional competence (EC) on well-being in this population. Materials and Methods: Using…

  8. Higher risk of probable mental emotional disorder in low or severe vision subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfah Rif’ati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Gangguan penglihatan berat dan kebutaan, belum menjadi prioritas masalah kesehatan di Indonesia, dapat menimbulkan gangguan mental emosional. Pada tulisan ini disajikan penilaian gangguan mental emosional yang berkaitan dengan gangguan penglihatan berat. Metode: Analisis ini menggunakan sebagian data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas 2007. Subjek untuk keperluan analisis ini ialah yang berusia 15 tahun atau lebih. Gangguan mental emosional diukur dengan Self  Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ 20. Subjek yang mungkin menderita gangguan mental emosional, jika hasil SRQ sebesar 6 atau lebih, dan sebaliknya. Tajam penglihatan  ditentukan berdasarkan tes Snellen chart.  Visus normal/ringan ialah 20/20 to 20/60, visus rendah ialah kurang dari 20/60-3/60, sedangkan buta dengan visus kurang dari 3/60 sampai 0/0. Hasil: Di antara 972,989 subjek data Rskesdas 2007 terdapat 46,7% (554,886 yang berusia 15 tahun atau lebih. Subjek yang menderita gangguan mental emosional sebesar 11,4% (63,279/554,886,  prevalensi visus rendah sebesar 5,1% dan kebutaan 0,9%. Subjek yang menderita visus rendah dibandingkan subjek yang normal atau dengan gangguan tajam penglihatan ringan mempunyai 75% lebih besar menderita risiko gangguan mental emosional [risiko relatif (RRa=1,75; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI=1,71-1,79]. Sedangkan subjek yang buta dibandingkan subjek yang normal atau dengan gangguan tajam penglihatan ringan mempunyai risiko 2,7 kali lipat menderita gangguan mental emosional (RRa= 2,69; 95% (CI=2.60-2.78. Kesimpulan: Subjek dengan gangguan penglihatan makin berat mempunyai risiko menderita gangguan mental emosional. Oleh karena itu subjek yang menderita gangguan penglihatan berat perlu diperhatikan mental emosionalnya. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:9-13 Abstract Background: Severe visual impairments are able to induce psychological stress, especially among adults, which may stimulate mental emotional disorder (MED. Eye health problems are not a

  9. Social and Spatial Disparities in Emotional Responses to Education: Feelings of "Guilt" among Student-Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the emotional responses to higher education of students with dependent children, and draws on 68 in-depth interviews conducted with student-parents in universities in the UK and Denmark. By focussing on one specific emotion--guilt--it contends that emotions are important in helping to understand the way in which particular…

  10. Exploring Students' Emotional Responses and Participation in an Online Peer Assessment Activity: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Wu, Sheng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    In the social interactions among individuals of learning communities, including those individuals engaged in peer assessment activities, emotion may be a key factor in learning. However, research regarding the emotional response of learners in online peer assessment activities is relatively scarce. Detecting learners' emotion when they make…

  11. "My Work Is Bleeding": Exploring Students' Emotional Responses to First-Year Assignment Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the emotional responses that assignment feedback can provoke in first-year undergraduates. The literature on the link between emotions and learning is well established, but surprisingly research on the relationship between emotions and feedback is still relatively scarce. This article aims to make an additional contribution to…

  12. Absorption in Music: Development of a Scale to Identify Individuals with Strong Emotional Responses to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Russo, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rise in research investigating music and emotion over the last decade, there are no validated measures of individual differences in emotional responses to music. We created the Absorption in Music Scale (AIMS), a 34-item measure of individuals' ability and willingness to allow music to draw them into an emotional experience. It was…

  13. The intensity of emotional feelings: Product of peripheral emotional responses or cognitions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermond, B.; Frijda, N.H.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the function of peripheral feedback for emotions and theories describing emotions as information-processing systems. Cognitive processes are seen as a necessary condition for most human emotional experiences. Coping difficulties and degree of harmful or favorable appraisal have been

  14. Distribution of response time, cortical, and cardiac correlates during emotional interference in persons with subclinical psychotic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Kathinka Barbara Holper

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A psychosis phenotype can be observed below the threshold of clinical detection. The study aimed to investigate whether subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated with deficits in controlling emotional interference, and whether cortical brain and cardiac correlates of these deficits can be detected using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. A data set derived from a community sample was obtained from the Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services. 174 subjects (mean age 29.67 ± 6.41, 91 females were assigned to four groups ranging from low to high levels of subclinical psychotic symptoms (derived from the Symptom Checklist-90-R. Emotional interference was assessed using the emotional Stroop task comprising neutral, positive, and negative conditions. Statistical distributional methods based on delta plots (behavioral response time data and quantile analysis (fNIRS data were applied to evaluate the emotional interference effects.Results showed that both interference effects and disorder-specific (i.e., group-specific effects could be detected, based on behavioral response times, cortical hemodynamic signals (brain correlates, and heart rate variability (cardiac correlates. Subjects with high compared to low subclinical psychotic symptoms revealed significantly reduced amplitudes in dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (interference effect, p < 0.001 and middle temporal gyrus (disorder-specific group effect, p < 0.001, supported by behavioral and heart rate results. The present findings indicate that distributional analyses methods can support the detection of emotional interference effects in the emotional Stroop. The results suggested that subjects with high subclinical psychosis exhibit enhanced emotional interference effects. Based on these observations, subclinical psychosis may therefore prove to represent a valid extension of the clinical psychosis phenotype.

  15. What good are positive emotions for treatment? Trait positive emotionality predicts response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Charles T; Knapp, Sarah E; Bomyea, Jessica A; Ramsawh, Holly J; Paulus, Martin P; Stein, Murray B

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is empirically supported for the treatment of anxiety disorders; however, not all individuals achieve recovery following CBT. Positive emotions serve a number of functions that theoretically should facilitate response to CBT - they promote flexible patterns of information processing and assimilation of new information, encourage approach-oriented behavior, and speed physiological recovery from negative emotions. We conducted a secondary analysis of an existing clinical trial dataset to test the a priori hypothesis that individual differences in trait positive emotions would predict CBT response for anxiety. Participants meeting diagnostic criteria for panic disorder (n = 28) or generalized anxiety disorder (n = 31) completed 10 weekly individual CBT sessions. Trait positive emotionality was assessed at pre-treatment, and severity of anxiety symptoms and associated impairment was assessed throughout treatment. Participants who reported a greater propensity to experience positive emotions at pre-treatment displayed the largest reduction in anxiety symptoms as well as fewer symptoms following treatment. Positive emotions remained a robust predictor of change in symptoms when controlling for baseline depression severity. Initial evidence supports the predictive value of trait positive emotions as a prognostic indicator for CBT outcome in a GAD and PD sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Contrasting Public Opinion Dynamics and Emotional Response during Crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, Svitlana; Chetviorkin, Ilia; Arendt, Dustin L.; Van Durme, Ben

    2016-11-15

    We propose an approach for contrasting spatiotemporal dynamics of public opinions expressed toward targeted entities, also known as stance detection task, in Russia and Ukraine during crisis. Our analysis relies on a novel corpus constructed from posts on the VKontakte social network, centered on local public opinion of the ongoing Russian-Ukrainian crisis, along with newly annotated resources for predicting expressions of fine-grained emotions including joy, sadness, disgust, anger, surprise and fear. Akin to prior work on sentiment analysis we align traditional public opinion polls with aggregated automatic predictions of sentiments for contrastive geo-locations. We report interesting observations on emotional response and stance variations across geo-locations. Some of our findings contradict stereotypical misconceptions imposed by media, for example, we found posts from Ukraine that do not support Euromaidan but support Putin, and posts from Russia that are against Putin but in favor USA. Furthermore, we are the first to demonstrate contrastive stance variations over time across geo-locations using storyline visualization technique.

  17. Life history, code of honor, and emotional responses to inequality in an economic game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric J; Forster, Daniel E; McCullough, Michael E

    2014-10-01

    The code of honor, which is characterized by a preoccupation with reputation and willingness to take retaliatory action, has been used extensively to explain individual and cultural differences in peoples' tendencies to behave aggressively. However, research on the relationship between the code of honor and emotional responses to social interactions has been limited in scope, focusing primarily on anger in response to insults and reputational threats. Here we broaden this scope by examining the relationship between code of honor and emotional reactions in response to an unfair economic exchange that resulted in unequal monetary earnings among 3 laboratory participants. We found that endorsement of the code of honor was related to anger and envy in response to unfair monetary distributions. Interestingly, code of honor predicted envy above and beyond what could be accounted for by anger, but the converse was not the case. This suggests that the code of honor influenced perceptions of how subjects viewed their own earnings relative to those of others, which consequently was responsible for their apparent anger as a result of the economic transaction. Furthermore, the unique relationship between code of honor and envy was present only for subjects who received unfair treatment and not for subjects who merely witnessed unfair treatment. Additionally, we replicated previous findings that harsh childhood environmental conditions are associated with endorsement of the code of honor, highlighting the potential value of incorporating a life history theoretical approach to investigating individual differences in endorsement of the code of honor. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Response amendment in fencing: differences between elite and novice subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L R; Walmsley, A

    2000-08-01

    Reaction time (RT), movement time (MT), total response time (RMT), and accuracy of 3 elite and 3 novice fencers were studied under a dual response paradigm requiring a full lunge. Electromyographic activity (EMG) from selected arm and leg muscles was used to compare response profiles of the two groups. Although the elite subjects had slower MTs, their faster RTs resulted in significantly shorter total response times. The EMG analysis showed that in comparison to the novice subjects, onset of muscle activity was significantly faster for the elite group in five of the six muscles studied. In addition, the elite subjects showed more coherent muscle synergies and more consistent patterns of muscle coordination. Although the requirement to change targets (signalled by the arrival of a second stimulus) led to slightly more target misses for the elite group, the overall frequency was low, which indicates that it did not pose difficulty for either group. The present findings show that measures of response timing and neuromuscular coordination differentiate skill level in the fencing lunge and draw attention to practical implications for skill assessment and training.

  19. Daily associations between emotional functioning and alcohol involvement: Moderating effects of response inhibition and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Pearson, Matthew R; Sargent, Emily M; Stevenson, Brittany L; Mfon, Angel M

    2016-06-01

    Research has linked tonic and variable mood to problematic alcohol use, both between- and within-subjects. Indices of behavioral control have moderated these links, at least at the between-subjects level. The current study examines daily associations between indices of emotional functioning and alcohol involvement as a function of response inhibition. College student drinkers (n=74; 58.11% female) were enrolled in a study on emotion and alcohol use. Participants completed a stop-signal task as an index of response inhibition. They then carried a personal data device for 21 days, reporting daily on mood, alcohol use, and acute alcohol use disorder symptoms. Mood instability was the mean square of successive differences from daily mood assessments. There were 1309 person days (622 drinking days) available for analysis. Pre-drinking mood instability was positively associated the likelihood of drinking and drinks consumed on drinking days. The former association was diminished among women with high response inhibition. Pre-drinking positive mood was positively associated the likelihood of drinking and drinks consumed on drinking days. The latter association was diminished among women with high response inhibition. Pre-drinking negative mood was positively associated with drinks consumed on drinking days among women with low response inhibition. Finally, pre-drinking positive mood was associated with acute alcohol use disorder symptoms among those with low response inhibition. These results suggest that interventions targeting positive mood may be particularly important. Further, developing ways to improve response inhibition control may broadly influence negative drinking outcomes by affecting multiple mood-drinking associations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Models of subjective response to in-flight motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrapatna, A. N.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Mathematical relationships between subjective comfort and environmental variables in an air transportation system are investigated. As a first step in model building, only the motion variables are incorporated and sensitivities are obtained using stepwise multiple regression analysis. The data for these models have been collected from commercial passenger flights. Two models are considered. In the first, subjective comfort is assumed to depend on rms values of the six-degrees-of-freedom accelerations. The second assumes a Rustenburg type human response function in obtaining frequency weighted rms accelerations, which are used in a linear model. The form of the human response function is examined and the results yield a human response weighting function for different degrees of freedom.

  1. Effects of mindful-attention and compassion meditation training on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in an ordinary, non-meditative state

    OpenAIRE

    Gaelle eDesbordes; Lobsang Tenzin Negi; Pace, Thaddeus W. W.; B. Alan Wallace; Raison, Charles L.; Schwartz, Eric L.

    2012-01-01

    The amygdala has been repeatedly implicated in emotional processing of both positive and negative valence stimuli. Previous studies suggest that the amygdala response to emotional stimuli is lower when the subject is in a meditative state of mindful attention, both in beginner meditators after an eight-week meditation intervention and in expert meditators. However, the longitudinal effects of meditation training on amygdala responses have not been reported when participants are in an ordinary...

  2. Effects of mindful-attention and compassion meditation training on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in an ordinary, non-meditative state

    OpenAIRE

    Desbordes, Gaëlle; Negi, Lobsang T.; Pace, Thaddeus W. W.; Wallace, B. Alan; Raison, Charles L.; Schwartz, Eric L.

    2012-01-01

    The amygdala has been repeatedly implicated in emotional processing of both positive and negative-valence stimuli. Previous studies suggest that the amygdala response to emotional stimuli is lower when the subject is in a meditative state of mindful-attention, both in beginner meditators after an 8-week meditation intervention and in expert meditators. However, the longitudinal effects of meditation training on amygdala responses have not been reported when participants are in an ordinary, no...

  3. Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru eSato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1 and 30 (Experiment 2 ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing.

  4. Distinct Functional Connectivities Predict Clinical Response with Emotion Regulation Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liston, Conor; Roy, Amy K; Fresco, David M; Adelsberg, Samantha; Mennin, Douglas S; Garcia-Lesy, Emmanuel; Seeley, Saren

    2017-01-01

    ... associated with emotional/motivational salience (e.g., salience network) and self-referentiality (e.g., default network). Emotion Regulation Therapy (ERT) was developed to target this hypothesi...

  5. Effects of exposure to food images on physiological reactivity and emotional responses in women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yela Bernabé, José Ramon; Gómez Martínez, Maria Ángeles; Cortés Rodríguez, María; Salgado Ruiz, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of two exposure procedures on habituation of emotional responses to food stimuli: (a) exposure to external cues (food images) without eating forbidden food (CE) and (b) exposure to external cues eating forbidden food (with purge prevention). The influence of craving-trait and mood state on the habituation process is also studied. Emotional modulation of the defense startle reflex was assessed in 26 women at risk of bulimia nervosa. After four exposure trials, changes in the following variables were measured: (a) food craving-state; (b) physiological measures: hearth rate (HR) and skin conductance response (SCR); (c) motivational patterns towards food (defense startle response); and (d) valence, arousal and dominance of the emotional response to food images. After treatment, subjects tended to show non-significant lower SCR and heart orientation responses (vs. defense responses); defense startle response was also significantly lower. The exposure procedure, the induced emotional state and the number of exposure trials are analyzed.

  6. From Motion to Emotion: Accelerometer Data Predict Subjective Experience of Music

    OpenAIRE

    Irrgang, Melanie; Egermann, Hauke

    2016-01-01

    Music is often discussed to be emotional because it reflects expressive movements in audible form. Thus, a valid approach to measure musical emotion could be to assess movement stimulated by music. In two experiments we evaluated the discriminative power of mobile-device generated acceleration data produced by free movement during music listening for the prediction of ratings on the Geneva Emotion Music Scales (GEMS-9). The quality of prediction for different dimensions of GEMS varied between...

  7. Objective and subjective measures of vergence step responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainta, S; Hoormann, J; Jaschinski, W

    2007-12-01

    Dichoptic nonius lines are used for subjectively (psychophysically) measuring vergence states, but they have been questioned as valid indicators of vergence eye position. In a mirror-stereoscope, we presented convergent and divergent step-stimuli and estimated the vergence response with nonius lines flashed at fixed delays after the disparity step stimulus. For each delay, an adaptive psychophysical procedure was run to determine the physical nonius offset required for subjective alignment; these vergence states were compared with objective eye movement recordings. Between both measures of initial vergence, we calculated the maximal cross-correlation coefficient: the median in our sample was about 0.9 for convergence and divergence, suggesting a good agreement. Relative to the objective measures, the subjective method revealed a smaller vergence velocity and a larger vergence response in the final phase of the response, but both measures were well correlated. The dynamic nonius test is therefore considered to be useful to relatively evaluate a subject's ability in disparity vergence.

  8. Cry, Baby, Cry: A Dialogic Response to Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, E. Jayne

    2013-01-01

    This article challenges traditional approaches to emotion as a discreet biological or dialectic process in the early years. In doing so the proposition is made that emotion is an answerable social act of meaning-making and self-hood. Inspired by Bakhtinian philosophy, which resists separating emotion from cognition or the individual from their…

  9. Equity, Emotion, and Household Division of Labor Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Kathryn J.; Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Building upon insights generated by social psychological scholarship on equity, emotions, and identity, we use the General Social Survey (1996) Modules on Emotion and Gender and the National Survey of Family and Households (1992-1994) to investigate the relationship between perceived inequity in the household division of labor and emotion. These…

  10. Sex differences in the response to emotional distraction: an event-related fMRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordan, Alexandru D; Dolcos, Sanda; Denkova, Ekaterina; Dolcos, Florin

    2013-03-01

    Evidence has suggested that women have greater emotional reactivity than men. However, it is unclear whether these differences in basic emotional responses are also associated with differences in emotional distractibility, and what the neural mechanisms that implement differences in emotional distractibility between women and men are. Functional MRI recording was used in conjunction with a working memory (WM) task, with emotional distraction (angry faces) presented during the interval between the memoranda and the probes. First, we found an increased impact of emotional distraction among women in trials associated with high-confidence responses, in the context of overall similar WM performance in women and men. Second, women showed increased sensitivity to emotional distraction in brain areas associated with "hot" emotional processing, whereas men showed increased sensitivity in areas associated with "cold" executive processing, in the context of overall similar patterns of response to emotional distraction in women and men. Third, a sex-related dorsal-ventral hemispheric dissociation emerged in the lateral PFC related to coping with emotional distraction, with women showing a positive correlation with WM performance in left ventral PFC, and men showing similar effects in the right dorsal PFC. In addition to extending to men results that have previously been reported in women, by showing that both sexes engage mechanisms that are similar overall in response to emotional distraction, the present study identifies sex differences in both the response to and coping with emotional distraction. These results have implications for understanding sex differences in the susceptibility to affective disorders, in which basic emotional responses, emotional distractibility, and coping abilities are altered.

  11. Legal status, emotional well-being and subjective health status of Latino immigrants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Zayas, Luis H; Spitznagel, Edward L

    2007-01-01

    Among the many stresses that undocumented Latino immigrants experience, worries about their legal status and preoccupation with disclosure and deportation can heighten the risk for emotional distress...

  12. Toddlers' context-varying emotions, maternal responses to emotions, and internalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Aaron M; Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A

    2011-06-01

    Relations of toddlers' observed negative affect in high- and low-threat contexts to maternal perceptions of their toddlers' internalizing problems and to mothers' responses to emotions (RTE) for fear and sadness were examined. Child-driven, parent-driven, and reciprocal transactional models across 1 year were directly compared. Two-year-old toddlers (N = 106) participated in lab-based activities to elicit distress, and their negative affect was coded. Mothers completed measures of their child's internalizing behaviors and their responses to their toddler's fear and sadness at ages 2 and 3. At age 2, only negative affect in low-threat contexts was associated with greater internalizing problems. Mothers' punishing and minimizing RTE at age 2 predicted an increase in internalizing problems across 1 year. Age 2 internalizing problems predicted an increase in mother's use of supportive RTE over time. Results highlight the importance of considering the context of toddlers' negative affective displays and supported a reciprocal conceptualization of toddlers' internalizing behaviors and mothers' RTE.

  13. Behavioral responses to catecholamine depletion in unmedicated, remitted subjects with bulimia nervosa and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Simona; Stern, Jair; Gamper, Lara; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hasler, Gregor

    2015-04-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) has been associated with dysregulation of the central catecholaminergic system. An instructive way to investigate the relationship between catecholaminergic function and psychiatric disorder has involved behavioral responses to experimental catecholamine depletion (CD). The purpose of this study was to examine a possible catecholaminergic dysfunction in the pathogenesis of bulimia nervosa. CD was achieved by oral administration of alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) in 18 remitted female subjects with BN (rBN) and 31 healthy female control subjects. The study design consisted of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover, single-site experimental trial. The main outcome measures were bulimic symptoms assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. Measures were assessed before and 26, 30, 54, 78, 102 hours after the first AMPT or placebo administration. In the experimental environment (controlled environment with a low level of food cues) rBN subjects had a greater increase in eating disorder symptoms during CD compared with healthy control subjects (condition × diagnosis interaction, p < .05). In the experimental environment, rBN subjects experienced fewer bulimic symptoms than in the natural environment (uncontrolled environment concerning food cues) 36 hours after the first AMPT intake (environment × diagnosis interaction, p < .05). Serum prolactin levels increased significantly, and to a comparable degree across groups, after AMPT administration. This study suggests that rBN is associated with vulnerability for developing eating disorder symptoms in response to reduced catecholamine neurotransmission after CD. The findings support the notion of catecholaminergic dysfunction as a possible trait abnormality in BN. © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  14. The amygdala's response to face and emotional information and potential category-specific modulation of temporal cortex as a function of emotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Stuart F; Adalio, Christopher; Nolan, Zachary T; Yang, Jiongjiong; Martin, Alex; Blair, James R

    2014-01-01

    ... (facial expressions) or inanimate (objects) in the context of a dot probe task. The amygdala showed responses to both emotional and animacy information, but no emotion by stimulus-type interaction; i.e...

  15. [Effects of the recipient's response on the emotions and cognitions of female undergraduates disclosing negative emotional experiences in interpersonal relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hiroko; Yukawa, Shintaro

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between a recipient's response to a disclosure of negative emotional experiences, and the resulting negative emotions, hesitation in self-disclosure (interpersonal and intra-personal hesitation), and negatively-confused thoughts of the person making the disclosure were investigated. Female undergraduates (N=271) were asked to write about angry or sad events in their interpersonal relationships that they had disclosed to someone. Then they completed a questionnaire assessing the recipient's responses, negative emotions such as anger and depression caused by the recipient's responses, hesitation in self-disclosure about the events, and negatively-confused thoughts about the events. The results of covariance structure analysis indicated that a recipient's rejection in response to the disclosure of negative emotional experiences resulted in negative thoughts caused by an increase of negative emotions and hesitation in self-disclosure. The results also showed that a recipient's acceptance also increased depression in the person making the self-disclosure, which intensified the intra-personal hesitation, and increased negatively-confused thoughts.

  16. A wearable device for emotional recognition using facial expression and physiological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangho Kwon; Da-Hye Kim; Wanjoo Park; Laehyun Kim

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a glasses-typed wearable system to detect user's emotions using facial expression and physiological responses. The system is designed to acquire facial expression through a built-in camera and physiological responses such as photoplethysmogram (PPG) and electrodermal activity (EDA) in unobtrusive way. We used video clips for induced emotions to test the system suitability in the experiment. The results showed a few meaningful properties that associate emotions with facial expressions and physiological responses captured by the developed wearable device. We expect that this wearable system with a built-in camera and physiological sensors may be a good solution to monitor user's emotional state in daily life.

  17. More Than a Feeling: Public Expectations About Emotional Responses to Criminal Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Olof; Ask, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Crime victims' emotional display in legal settings has been found to influence credibility judgments. The specific nature of public expectations about crime victims' emotional responses have, however, not been adequately investigated. In an experimental vignette study, respondents in a community sample (N = 404) estimated the likelihood that female and male victims would experience 7 distinct emotions in response to 5 types of crimes. Across all crime types, female victims were expected to experience significantly more situation-focused (anxiety, fear) and inward-focused (guilt, shame, sadness) emotions, and significantly less other-focused emotions (hatred, anger) than male victims. This calls for an increased focus on distinct emotions in future research on victim's emotions. Implications for victims in legal and social settings are discussed.

  18. Distribution of Response Time, Cortical, and Cardiac Correlates during Emotional Interference in Persons with Subclinical Psychotic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holper, Lisa K B; Aleksandrowicz, Alekandra; Müller, Mario; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Haker, Helene; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Hagenmuller, Florence; Kawohl, Wolfram; Rössler, Wulf

    2016-01-01

    A psychosis phenotype can be observed below the threshold of clinical detection. The study aimed to investigate whether subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated with deficits in controlling emotional interference, and whether cortical brain and cardiac correlates of these deficits can be detected using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). A data set derived from a community sample was obtained from the Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services. 174 subjects (mean age 29.67 ± 6.41, 91 females) were assigned to four groups ranging from low to high levels of subclinical psychotic symptoms (derived from the Symptom Checklist-90-R). Emotional interference was assessed using the emotional Stroop task comprising neutral, positive, and negative conditions. Statistical distributional methods based on delta plots [behavioral response time (RT) data] and quantile analysis (fNIRS data) were applied to evaluate the emotional interference effects. Results showed that both interference effects and disorder-specific (i.e., group-specific) effects could be detected, based on behavioral RTs, cortical hemodynamic signals (brain correlates), and heart rate variability (cardiac correlates). Subjects with high compared to low subclinical psychotic symptoms revealed significantly reduced amplitudes in dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (interference effect, p < 0.001) and middle temporal gyrus (disorder-specific group effect, p < 0.001), supported by behavioral and heart rate results. The present findings indicate that distributional analyses methods can support the detection of emotional interference effects in the emotional Stroop. The results suggested that subjects with high subclinical psychosis exhibit enhanced emotional interference effects. Based on these observations, subclinical psychosis may therefore prove to represent a valid extension of the clinical psychosis phenotype.

  19. Relations of nostalgia with music to emotional response and recall of autobiographical memory

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 麻美; 岩永, 誠; 生和, 秀敏

    2002-01-01

    Previous researches suggest that musical mood and preferences affects on emotional response, and that context of music also affects on musical-dependent memory. We often feel 'nostalgia' when listening to old familiar tunes. Nostalgia is related to eliciting positive emotions, recall of autobiographical memory and positive evaluations for recall contents. The present study aimed to examine effects of musical mood, preference and nostalgia on emotional responses, the amounts of recall of autob...

  20. Emotion with tears decreases allergic responses to latex in atopic eczema patients with latex allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2006-07-01

    Allergic responses are enhanced by stress, whereas they are reduced by laughter in atopic eczema patients. Emotion with tears decreases plasma IL-6 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, the effect of emotion with tears on allergic responses in patients with atopic eczema was studied. Sixty patients with atopic eczema having latex allergy viewed both the weather information video and the heart-warming movie, Kramer vs. Kramer. Just before and immediately after viewing each video, allergic responses to latex were measured. Viewing the weather information video did not cause emotion with tears in any patients, and it failed to modulate allergic responses. In contrast, viewing Kramer vs. Kramer caused emotion with tears in 44 of 60 patients, and it reduced allergic skin wheal responses to latex and latex-specific IgE production in them. Emotion with tears reduced allergic responses, and it may be useful in the treatment of allergic diseases.

  1. Implicit learning and emotional responses in nine-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M; Peciña, Susana; Lin, Xu; Li, Mingyan; Sturza, Julia; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy

    2017-08-01

    To study the interplay between motor learning and emotional responses of young infants, we developed a contingent learning paradigm that included two related, difficult, operant tasks. We also coded facial expression to characterise emotional response to learning. In a sample of nine-month-old healthy Chinese infants, 44.7% achieved learning threshold during this challenging arm-conditioning test. Some evidence of learning was observed at the beginning of the second task. The lowest period of negative emotions coincided with the period of maximum movement responses after the initiation of the second task, and movement responses negatively correlated with the frequency of negative emotions. Positive emotions, while generally low throughout the task, increased during peak performance especially for learners. Peak frequency of movement responses was positively correlated with the frequency of positive emotions. Despite the weak evidence of learning this difficult task, our results from the learners would suggest that increasing positive emotions, and perhaps down-regulating negative emotional responses, may be important for improving performance and learning a complex operant task in infancy. Further studies are necessary to determine the role of emotions in learning difficult tasks in infancy.

  2. Attenuated response to repeated daily ozone exposures in asthmatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, H. Jr.; Linn, W.S. [Rancho Low Amigos Medical Center, Downey, CA (United States); McManus, M.S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The development of attenuated response ({open_quotes}tolerance{close_quotes}) to daily ozone (O{sub 3}) exposures in the laboratory is well established in healthy adult volunteers. However, the capability of asthmatics to develop tolerance during multiday ozone exposures in unclear. We exposed 10 adult volunteers with mild asthma to 0.4 ppm O{sub 3} in filtered air for 3 h/d on 5 consecutive d. Two similar filtered-air exposures during the preceding week served as controls. Follow-up O{sub 3} exposures were performed 4 and 7 d after the most recent consecutive exposure. All exposures were performed in an environmental chamber at 31 {degrees}C and 35% relative humidity. The subjects performed moderate exercise (mean ventilation rate of 32 l/min) for 15 min of each half-hour. Responses were measured with spirometry and symptom evaluations before and after each exposure, and a bronchial reactivity test (methacholine challenge) was conducted after each exposure. All response measurements showed clinically and statistically significant day-to-day variation. Symptom and forced-expiratory-volume-in-1-s responses were similarly large on the 1st and 2nd O{sub 3} exposure days, after which they diminished progressively, approaching filtered air response levels by the 5th consecutive O{sub 3} day. This tolerance was partially lost 4 and 7 d later. Bronchial reactivity peaked after the first O{sub 3} exposure and remained somewhat elevated after all subsequent O{sub 3} exposures, relative to its control level following filtered-air exposures. Individual responses varied widely; more severe initial responses to O{sub 3} predicted less rapid attenuation. We concluded that asthmatics can develop tolerance to frequent high-level O{sub 3} exposures in much the same manner as normal subjects, although the process may be slower and less fully effective in asthmatics. 27 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Emotional states of love moderate the association between catecholamines and female sexual responses in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundon, Carolyn M; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2012-10-01

    Research suggests that there are three interrelated, yet distinct, emotion-motivation brain systems for human love (lust, romantic love, and attachment), each associated with a unique catecholaminergic and hormonal profile. Of interest for the current study are norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), which have a hypothesized connection with romantic love. As NE and DA are also known to facilitate sexual arousal, it is plausible that NE and DA may have a greater positive association with the sexual arousal responses of women in romantic love compared with women in lust. This study investigated if the effects of NE and DA activity on sexual arousal responses would differ depending on emotion-motivation state (Lust or Romantic). Physiological sexual arousal was assessed by photoplethysmography and subjective sexual arousal was assessed with a participant-controlled lever. Seventeen women were included in the Lust group and 29 in the Romantic group. All participants provided a urine sample (to assess NE and DA) and completed a psychophysiological assessment. Elevated NE was positively and significantly associated with greater subjective and physiological sexual arousal for the Lust group, but not for the Romantic group. Similarly, elevated DA was positively and significantly associated with greater subjective sexual arousal for the Lust group, but not for the Romantic group. The sexual arousal responses of women in the Lust group, but not in the Romantic group, were positively and significantly associated with elevated NE and DA. It is feasible that, when women are seeking a partner (Lust), NE and DA may facilitate attention toward sexually relevant stimuli. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Effects of Exposure to Physique Slides on the Emotional Responses of Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausenblas, Heather A.; Janelle, Christopher M.; Gardner, Rebecca Ellis; Hagan, Amy L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined high and low body dissatisfied (BD) men's and women's in-task emotional responses to acute exposure to sex-specific physique slides of the aesthetic ideal and of themselves. Participating college students reported their immediate in-task emotional responses to viewing the slides. Men and women, as well as high and low BD groups, reported…

  5. Age-Specific Associations between Emotional Responses to Separation and Cognitive Performance in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marc D.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examined claim that associations between emotional responses to maternal separation and cognitive performance would change with cognitive development over the first year. Emphasized the measurement of separation and reunion distress. Found that emotional responses and cognitive performance may be linked by individual differences in self-regulation…

  6. The Contribution of Deficits in Emotional Clarity to Stress Responses and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the contribution of deficits in emotional clarity to children's socioemotional adjustment. Specifically, this study examined the proposal that deficits in emotional clarity are associated with maladaptive interpersonal stress responses, and that maladaptive interpersonal stress responses act as a mechanism linking…

  7. Students' Perceptions of Emotional and Instrumental Teacher Support: Relations with Motivational and Emotional Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.

    2014-01-01

    We explored whether students' perceptions of emotional and instrumental support provided by their mathematics teacher constitute separate dimensions of teacher support and how they are related. We also analyzed how students' perceptions of emotional and instrumental support in math lessons relate to math anxiety, intrinsic motivation, help-seeking…

  8. Emotions: Methods of Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Mortillaro, Marcello; Mehu, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Emotions are brief episodes during which several functional components are synchronized in response to an eliciting event. Emotions can be assessed by measuring responses in each of these components: subjective feeling, physiology, expression, and motivation. In this article we review the most advanced methods that can be used to assess emotions in each of the four components: self-report measures and questionnaires, measures of physiological activation, instruments for the analysis of nonver...

  9. Contingency awareness shapes acquisition and extinction of emotional responses in a conditioning model of pain-related fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska eLabrenz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental learning process, fear conditioning promotes the formation of associations between predictive cues and biologically-significant signals. In its application to pain, conditioning may provide important insight into mechanisms underlying pain-related fear, although knowledge especially in interoceptive pain paradigms remains scarce. Furthermore, while the influence of contingency awareness on excitatory learning is subject of ongoing debate, its role in pain-related acquisition is poorly understood and essentially unknown regarding extinction as inhibitory learning. Therefore, we addressed the impact of contingency awareness on learned emotional responses to pain- and safety-predictive cues in a combined dataset of two pain-related conditioning studies.In total, 75 healthy participants underwent differential fear acquisition, during which rectal distensions as interoceptive unconditioned stimuli (US were repeatedly paired with a predictive visual cue (conditioned stimulus; CS+ while another cue (CS- was presented unpaired. During extinction, both CS were presented without US. CS valence, indicating learned emotional responses, and CS-US contingencies were assessed on visual analogue scales. Based on an integrative measure of contingency accuracy, a median-split was performed to compare groups with low versus high contingency accuracy regarding learned emotional responses. To investigate predictive value of contingency accuracy, regression analyses were conducted. Highly accurate individuals revealed more pronounced negative emotional responses to CS+ and increased positive responses to CS- when compared to participants with low contingency accuracy. Following extinction, highly accurate individuals had fully extinguished pain-predictive cue properties, while exhibiting persistent positive emotional responses to safety signals. In contrast, individuals with low accuracy revealed equally positive emotional responses to both, CS+ and

  10. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWE<0.05). Our study demonstrates that genetic variability of NTRK2, a susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, is related to emotional arousal and—independently—to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals. PMID:26978740

  11. From Motion to Emotion: Accelerometer Data Predict Subjective Experience of Music

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irrgang, Melanie; Egermann, Hauke

    2016-01-01

    .... In two experiments we evaluated the discriminative power of mobile-device generated acceleration data produced by free movement during music listening for the prediction of ratings on the Geneva Emotion Music Scales (GEMS-9...

  12. Depersonalization disorder: disconnection of cognitive evaluation from autonomic responses to emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Matthias; Koechel, Ansgar; Canterino, Marco; Adler, Julia; Reiner, Iris; Vossel, Gerhard; Beutel, Manfred E; Gamer, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD) typically complain about emotional detachment. Previous studies found reduced autonomic responsiveness to emotional stimuli for DPD patients as compared to patients with anxiety disorders. We aimed to investigate autonomic responsiveness to emotional auditory stimuli of DPD patients as compared to patient controls. Furthermore, we examined the modulatory effect of mindful breathing on these responses as well as on depersonalization intensity. 22 DPD patients and 15 patient controls balanced for severity of depression and anxiety, age, sex and education, were compared regarding 1) electrodermal and heart rate data during a resting period, and 2) autonomic responses and cognitive appraisal of standardized acoustic affective stimuli in two conditions (normal listening and mindful breathing). DPD patients rated the emotional sounds as significantly more neutral as compared to patient controls and standardized norm ratings. At the same time, however, they responded more strongly to acoustic emotional stimuli and their electrodermal response pattern was more modulated by valence and arousal as compared to patient controls. Mindful breathing reduced severity of depersonalization in DPD patients and increased the arousal modulation of electrodermal responses in the whole sample. Finally, DPD patients showed an increased electrodermal lability in the rest period as compared to patient controls. These findings demonstrated that the cognitive evaluation of emotional sounds in DPD patients is disconnected from their autonomic responses to those emotional stimuli. The increased electrodermal lability in DPD may reflect increased introversion and cognitive control of emotional impulses. The findings have important psychotherapeutic implications.

  13. Depersonalization disorder: disconnection of cognitive evaluation from autonomic responses to emotional stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Michal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD typically complain about emotional detachment. Previous studies found reduced autonomic responsiveness to emotional stimuli for DPD patients as compared to patients with anxiety disorders. We aimed to investigate autonomic responsiveness to emotional auditory stimuli of DPD patients as compared to patient controls. Furthermore, we examined the modulatory effect of mindful breathing on these responses as well as on depersonalization intensity. METHODS: 22 DPD patients and 15 patient controls balanced for severity of depression and anxiety, age, sex and education, were compared regarding 1 electrodermal and heart rate data during a resting period, and 2 autonomic responses and cognitive appraisal of standardized acoustic affective stimuli in two conditions (normal listening and mindful breathing. RESULTS: DPD patients rated the emotional sounds as significantly more neutral as compared to patient controls and standardized norm ratings. At the same time, however, they responded more strongly to acoustic emotional stimuli and their electrodermal response pattern was more modulated by valence and arousal as compared to patient controls. Mindful breathing reduced severity of depersonalization in DPD patients and increased the arousal modulation of electrodermal responses in the whole sample. Finally, DPD patients showed an increased electrodermal lability in the rest period as compared to patient controls. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrated that the cognitive evaluation of emotional sounds in DPD patients is disconnected from their autonomic responses to those emotional stimuli. The increased electrodermal lability in DPD may reflect increased introversion and cognitive control of emotional impulses. The findings have important psychotherapeutic implications.

  14. Brain response to a humanoid robot in areas implicated in the perception of human emotional gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Zecca, Massimiliano; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Takanishi, Atsuo; Frith, Chris D; Micera, Silvestro; Dario, Paolo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2010-07-21

    The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents. Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust) and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted. Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance. Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions. Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.

  15. Different neural and cognitive response to emotional faces in healthy monozygotic twins at risk of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiak, K W; Glerup, L; Vestbo, C; Harmer, C J; Reinecke, A; Macoveanu, J; Siebner, H R; Kessing, L V; Vinberg, M

    2015-05-01

    Negative cognitive bias and aberrant neural processing of emotional faces are trait-marks of depression. Yet it is unclear whether these changes constitute an endophenotype for depression and are also present in healthy individuals with hereditary risk for depression. Thirty healthy, never-depressed monozygotic (MZ) twins with a co-twin history of depression (high risk group: n = 13) or without co-twin history of depression (low-risk group: n = 17) were enrolled in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. During fMRI, participants viewed fearful and happy faces while performing a gender discrimination task. After the scan, they were given a faces dot-probe task, a facial expression recognition task and questionnaires assessing mood, personality traits and coping strategies. High-risk twins showed increased neural response to happy and fearful faces in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), pre-supplementary motor area and occipito-parietal regions compared to low-risk twins. They also displayed stronger negative coupling between amygdala and pregenual ACC, dmPFC and temporo-parietal regions during emotional face processing. These task-related changes in neural responses in high-risk twins were accompanied by impaired gender discrimination performance during face processing. They also displayed increased attention vigilance for fearful faces and were slower at recognizing facial expressions relative to low-risk controls. These effects occurred in the absence of differences between groups in mood, subjective state or coping. Different neural response and functional connectivity within fronto-limbic and occipito-parietal regions during emotional face processing and enhanced fear vigilance may be key endophenotypes for depression.

  16. Dissociable recruitment of rostral anterior cingulate and inferior frontal cortex in emotional response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Pearl H; Holmes, Avram J; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2008-08-15

    The integrity of decision-making under emotionally evocative circumstances is critical to navigating complex environments, and dysfunctions in these processes may play an important role in the emergence and maintenance of various psychopathologies. The goal of the present study was to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of neural responses to emotional stimuli and emotion-modulated response inhibition. High-density event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured as participants (N=25) performed an emotional Go/NoGo task that required button presses to words of a "target" emotional valence (i.e., positive, negative, neutral) and response inhibition to words of a different "distractor" valence. Using scalp ERP analyses in conjunction with source-localization techniques, we identified distinct neural responses associated with affective salience and affect-modulated response inhibition, respectively. Both earlier (approximately 300 ms) and later (approximately 700 ms) ERP components were enhanced with successful response inhibition to emotional distractors. Only ERPs to target stimuli differentiated affective from neutral cues. Moreover, source localization analyses revealed right ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) activation in affective response inhibition regardless of emotional valence, whereas rostral anterior cingulate activation (rACC) was potentiated by emotional valence but was not modulated by response inhibition. This dissociation was supported by a significant Region x Trial Type x Emotion interaction, confirming that distinct regional dynamics characterize neural responses to affective valence and affective response-inhibition. The results are discussed in the context of an emerging affective neuroscience literature and implications for understanding psychiatric pathologies characterized by a detrimental susceptibility to emotional cues, with an emphasis on major depressive disorder.

  17. Achievement emotions in elementary, middle, and high school: how do students feel about specific contexts in terms of settings and subject-domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccanello, Daniela; Brondino, Margherita; De Bernardi, Bianca

    2013-12-01

    The present work investigates students' representation of achievement emotions, focusing in context-specific situations in terms of settings and subject-domains, as a function of grade level. We involved 527 fourth-, seventh-, and eleventh-graders, who evaluated ten discrete emotions through questionnaires, with reference to verbal language and mathematics, and different settings (class, homework, tests). Confirmatory multitrait-multimethod analyses indicated higher salience of subject-domains rather than settings for all the emotions; however, complexity of reality was best explained when also settings were accounted for. Analyses of variance revealed higher intensity of positive emotions for younger students, and the opposite pattern for older students; significant differences for most of the emotions based on the evaluative nature of settings, moderated by class levels; more intense positive emotions for mathematics and more intense negative emotions for Italian. Results are discussed considering their theoretical and applied relevance, corroborating previous literature on domain-specificity. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  18. Mapping correspondence between facial mimicry and emotion recognition in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponari, Marta; Conson, Massimiliano; D'Amico, Nunzia Pina; Grossi, Dario; Trojano, Luigi

    2012-12-01

    We aimed at verifying the hypothesis that facial mimicry is causally and selectively involved in emotion recognition. For this purpose, in Experiment 1, we explored the effect of tonic contraction of muscles in upper or lower half of participants' face on their ability to recognize emotional facial expressions. We found that the "lower" manipulation specifically impaired recognition of happiness and disgust, the "upper" manipulation impaired recognition of anger, while both manipulations affected recognition of fear; recognition of surprise and sadness were not affected by either blocking manipulations. In Experiment 2, we verified whether emotion recognition is hampered by stimuli in which an upper or lower half-face showing an emotional expression is combined with a neutral half-face. We found that the neutral lower half-face interfered with recognition of happiness and disgust, whereas the neutral upper half impaired recognition of anger; recognition of fear and sadness was impaired by both manipulations, whereas recognition of surprise was not affected by either manipulation. Taken together, the present findings support simulation models of emotion recognition and provide insight into the role of mimicry in comprehension of others' emotional facial expressions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Hallucinogenic drugs attenuate the subjective response to alcohol in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Sean P; Archambault, Jennifer; Engelberg, Marla J; Pihl, Robert O

    2000-10-01

    This study investigated possible interactions between alcohol and hallucinogens in 22 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and/or psilocybin users through retrospective structured interviews. Of those who had used LSD with alcohol, 86;7 per cent reported a complete blockade of subjective alcohol effects, while the remaining cases reported a diminished response. In addition, 60 per cent of respondents who had used alcohol and psilocybin together reported a partial antagonism of subjective alcohol effects.T-test analyses revealed that LSD's antagonism of alcohol effects were significantly greater than those associated with psilocybin. It is proposed that LSD's effect on alcohol intoxication may involve interactions with various serotonergic and/or dopaminergic receptor systems. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Antecedents of mothers' emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress: The role of family, mother, and infant characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M; Crockenberg, Susan C

    2006-07-01

    The antecedents of mothers' emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress were examined. Participants were 67 mothers and their infants. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their experiences in the family of origin and current marital relationships both pre- and postnatally and their coping strategies prenatally. Infant temperament was observed at 6 months, and mothers were interviewed about their emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress 2 years later to assess their emotional competencies (i.e., accurate identification of negative emotions, emotion efficacy, emotional responses to infant distress, and emotion goals). A childhood history of emotional rejection was negatively associated with empathy and efficacy and positively associated with negative emotions. The association between childhood history and some emotional competencies was moderated by current marital dysfunction, engaged coping, and positive intervening relationships. Maternal marital styles and coping strategies and infant temperament correlated with emotional competencies. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed from an attachment theory perspective. Copyright © 2006 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. Emotional facial expressions evoke faster orienting responses, but weaker emotional responses at neural and behavioural levels compared to scenes: A simultaneous EEG and facial EMG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavratzakis, Aimee; Herbert, Cornelia; Walla, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded simultaneously with facial electromyography (fEMG) to determine whether emotional faces and emotional scenes are processed differently at the neural level. In addition, it was investigated whether these differences can be observed at the behavioural level via spontaneous facial muscle activity. Emotional content of the stimuli did not affect early P1 activity. Emotional faces elicited enhanced amplitudes of the face-sensitive N170 component, while its counterpart, the scene-related N100, was not sensitive to emotional content of scenes. At 220-280ms, the early posterior negativity (EPN) was enhanced only slightly for fearful as compared to neutral or happy faces. However, its amplitudes were significantly enhanced during processing of scenes with positive content, particularly over the right hemisphere. Scenes of positive content also elicited enhanced spontaneous zygomatic activity from 500-750ms onwards, while happy faces elicited no such changes. Contrastingly, both fearful faces and negative scenes elicited enhanced spontaneous corrugator activity at 500-750ms after stimulus onset. However, relative to baseline EMG changes occurred earlier for faces (250ms) than for scenes (500ms) whereas for scenes activity changes were more pronounced over the whole viewing period. Taking into account all effects, the data suggests that emotional facial expressions evoke faster attentional orienting, but weaker affective neural activity and emotional behavioural responses compared to emotional scenes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Computing emotion awareness through galvanic skin response and facial electromyography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; van den Broek, Egon; Schut, Marleen H.; van Herk, Jan; Tuinenbreijer, Kees; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Ouwerkerk, Martin; Overbeek, Thérése; Pasveer, W. Frank; de Ruyter, Boris

    2008-01-01

    To improve human-computer interaction (HCI), computers need to recognize and respond properly to their user’s emotional state. This is a fundamental application of affective computing, which relates to, arises from, or deliberately influences emotion. As a first step to a system that recognizes

  3. Will They Like Me? Adolescents' Emotional Responses to Peer Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Caouette, Justin D.; Lee, Clinton C.; Ruiz, Sarah K.

    2014-01-01

    Relative to children and adults, adolescents are highly focused on being evaluated by peers. This increased attention to peer evaluation has implications for emotion regulation in adolescence, but little is known about the characteristics of the evaluatee and evaluator that influence emotional reactions to evaluative outcomes. The present study…

  4. Emotional and psychophysiological responses to tempo, mode, and percussiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; van den Broek, Egon

    People often listen to music to influence their emotional state. However, the specific musical characteristics which cause this process are not yet fully understood. We have investigated the influence of the musical characteristics of tempo, mode and percussiveness on our emotions. In a quest

  5. Emotion potentiates response activation and inhibition in masked priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R. Bocanegra (Bruno); R. Zeelenberg (René)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPrevious studies have shown that emotion can have 2-fold effects on perception. At the object-level, emotional stimuli benefit from a stimulus-specific boost in visual attention at the relative expense of competing stimuli. At the visual feature-level, recent findings indicate that

  6. Nasal Oxytocin Treatment Biases Dogs’ Visual Attention and Emotional Response toward Positive Human Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Somppi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role in social behavior and emotion regulation in mammals. The aim of this study was to explore how nasal oxytocin administration affects gazing behavior during emotional perception in domestic dogs. Looking patterns of dogs, as a measure of voluntary attention, were recorded during the viewing of human facial expression photographs. The pupil diameters of dogs were also measured as a physiological index of emotional arousal. In a placebo-controlled within-subjects experimental design, 43 dogs, after having received either oxytocin or placebo (saline nasal spray treatment, were presented with pictures of unfamiliar male human faces displaying either a happy or an angry expression. We found that, depending on the facial expression, the dogs’ gaze patterns were affected selectively by oxytocin treatment. After receiving oxytocin, dogs fixated less often on the eye regions of angry faces and revisited (glanced back at more often the eye regions of smiling (happy faces than after the placebo treatment. Furthermore, following the oxytocin treatment dogs fixated and revisited the eyes of happy faces significantly more often than the eyes of angry faces. The analysis of dogs’ pupil diameters during viewing of human facial expressions indicated that oxytocin may also have a modulatory effect on dogs’ emotional arousal. While subjects’ pupil sizes were significantly larger when viewing angry faces than happy faces in the control (placebo treatment condition, oxytocin treatment not only eliminated this effect but caused an opposite pupil response. Overall, these findings suggest that nasal oxytocin administration selectively changes the allocation of attention and emotional arousal in domestic dogs. Oxytocin has the potential to decrease vigilance toward threatening social stimuli and increase the salience of positive social stimuli thus making eye gaze of friendly human faces more salient for dogs. Our

  7. Vibration Response Imaging: evaluation of rater agreement in healthy subjects and subjects with pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makris Demosthenes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated pulmonologists variability in the interpretation of Vibration response imaging (VRI obtained from healthy subjects and patients hospitalized for community acquired pneumonia. Methods The present is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary university hospital. Twenty healthy subjects and twenty three pneumonia cases were included in this study. Six pulmonologists blindly analyzed images of normal subjects and pneumonia cases and evaluated different aspects of VRI images related to the quality of data aquisition, synchronization of the progression of breath sound distribution and agreement between the maximal energy frame (MEF of VRI (which is the maximal geographical area of lung vibrations produced at maximal inspiration and chest radiography. For qualitative assessment of VRI images, the raters' evaluations were analyzed by degree of consistency and agreement. Results The average value for overall identical evaluations of twelve features of the VRI image evaluation, ranged from 87% to 95% per rater (94% to 97% in control cases and from 79% to 93% per rater in pneumonia cases. Inter-rater median (IQR agreement was 91% (82-96. The level of agreement according to VRI feature evaluated was in most cases over 80%; intra-class correlation (ICC obtained by using a model of subject/rater for the averaged features was overall 0.86 (0.92 in normal and 0.73 in pneumonia cases. Conclusions Our findings suggest good agreement in the interpretation of VRI data between different raters. In this respect, VRI might be helpful as a radiation free diagnostic tool for the management of pneumonia.

  8. Emotional responses to Hindustani raga music: the role of musical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Avantika; Vijayakumar, Suhas H; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Singh, Nandini C

    2015-01-01

    In Indian classical music, ragas constitute specific combinations of tonic intervals potentially capable of evoking distinct emotions. A raga composition is typically presented in two modes, namely, alaap and gat. Alaap is the note by note delineation of a raga bound by a slow tempo, but not bound by a rhythmic cycle. Gat on the other hand is rendered at a faster tempo and follows a rhythmic cycle. Our primary objective was to (1) discriminate the emotions experienced across alaap and gat of ragas, (2) investigate the association of tonic intervals, tempo and rhythmic regularity with emotional response. 122 participants rated their experienced emotion across alaap and gat of 12 ragas. Analysis of the emotional responses revealed that (1) ragas elicit distinct emotions across the two presentation modes, and (2) specific tonic intervals are robust predictors of emotional response. Specifically, our results showed that the 'minor second' is a direct predictor of negative valence. (3) Tonality determines the emotion experienced for a raga where as rhythmic regularity and tempo modulate levels of arousal. Our findings provide new insights into the emotional response to Indian ragas and the impact of tempo, rhythmic regularity and tonality on it.

  9. Emotional responses to Hindustani Raga music: The role of musical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avantika eMathur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In Indian classical music, ragas constitute specific combinations of tonic intervals potentially capable of evoking distinct emotions. A raga composition is typically presented in two modes, namely, alaap and gat. Alaap is the note by note delineation of a raga bound by a slow tempo, but not bound by a rhythmic cycle. Gat on the other hand is rendered at a faster tempo and follows a rhythmic cycle. Our primary objective was to (1 discriminate the emotions experienced across alaap and gat of ragas, (2 investigate the association of tonic intervals, tempo and rhythmic regularity with emotional response. 122 participants rated their experienced emotion across alaap and gat of twelve ragas. Analysis of the emotional responses revealed that (1 ragas elicit distinct emotions across the two presentation modes, and (2 specific tonic intervals are robust predictors of emotional response. Specifically, our results showed that the ‘minor second’ is a direct predictor of negative valence. (3 Tonality determines the emotion experienced for a raga where as rhythmic regularity and tempo modulate levels of arousal. Our findings provide new insights into the emotional response to Indian ragas and the impact of tempo, rhythmic regularity and tonality on it.

  10. Influence of impulsiveness on emotional modulation of response inhibition: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerotti Benvenuti, Simone; Sarlo, Michela; Buodo, Giulia; Mento, Giovanni; Palomba, Daniela

    2015-10-01

    To examine how impulsiveness influences the emotional modulation of behavioral and neural correlates of response inhibition. Twenty-nine healthy individuals scoring high (HI, N=16) or low (LI, N=13) on motor impulsiveness performed an emotional Go/Nogo task, including the presentation of pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures. Behavioral [reaction times (RTs), accuracy to Go and Nogo trials] and neural (Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3) correlates of response inhibition were compared between HI and LI groups. Larger Nogo-P3 was found for emotional than neutral stimuli in HI relative to LI group. Faster RTs to Go stimuli and lower accuracy to Nogo stimuli were correlated with larger Nogo-P3 in HI, but not LI, group. No significant interactions between emotion content and impulsiveness for Nogo-N2 and behavioral measures were noted. Impulsiveness influences the emotional modulation of response inhibition by potentiating the response tendencies evoked by the emotional stimuli. Accordingly, high impulsive individuals may need an increased and/or more effortful response inhibition in order to counteract the prepotent tendency to respond elicited by the combination of high trait impulsiveness and high emotional arousal. The present study suggests the importance to examine how pathological impulsiveness may interact with emotional arousal in modulating response inhibition. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preclinical Medical Students' Diverse Educational and Emotional Responses to a Required Hospice Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chung Sang; Morrison, Laura J; Ellman, Matthew S

    2017-09-01

    Physicians' lack of comfort and skill in communicating about hospice care results in deficits and delays in hospice referrals. Preclinical exposure to hospice may lay a foundation to improve medical students' knowledge and comfort with hospice care. To understand how preclinical medical student (MS)-2s respond both educationally and emotionally to a required hospice care experience (HCE). Accompanied by hospice clinicians, MS-2s spent 3 hours seeing inpatient or home hospice patients followed by a 1-hour debriefing. Students submitted written reflections to e-mailed educational and emotional prompts. Two hundred and two MS-2s from 2 academic cohorts completed the HCE at 1 of 2 hospice sites. Written reflective responses were analyzed qualitatively, where salient themes extracted and responses were coded. Ninety-two students submitted 175 responses to Prompt #1 (educational impact) and 85 students entered 85 responses to prompt #2 (emotional impact) of the HCE. Eleven themes were identified for prompt #1, most frequently focusing on hospice services and goals and hospice providers' attitudes and skills. Prompt #2 elicited a diverse spectrum of emotional responses, spanning positive and negative emotions. Most often, students reported "no specified emotional reaction," "sad/depressed," "difficult /challenging," "heartened/encouraged," and "mixed emotions." In an HCE, preclinical students reported learning core aspects of hospice care and experiencing a broad spectrum of emotional responses. These findings may assist educators in the planning of HCEs for preclinical students, including debriefing sessions with skilled clinicians and opportunities for triggered reflection.

  12. Threshold responses in cinnamic-aldehyde-sensitive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, K E; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    1996-01-01

    usage concentrations in different kind of cosmetics. 72% (13/18) developed eczema in the use test performed with an alcoholic solution of cinnamic aldehyde on healthy upper arm skin. 6 of the 13 use-test-positive subjects (46%) reacted later than day 7, indicating that the standard exposure period of 7......Cinnamic aldehyde is an important fragrance material and contact allergen. The present study was performed to provide quantitative data on the eliciting capacity of cinnamic aldehyde, to be considered in assessment of clinical relevance and health hazard. The skin response to serial dilution patch...

  13. Invisible side of emotions: somato-motor responses to affective facial displays in alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpazza, Cristina; Làdavas, Elisabetta; Cattaneo, Luigi

    2017-11-17

    According to recent theories, the detection of emotions involves somatic experiences. In this study, we investigated the relation between somatic responses to affective stimuli, emotion perception, and alexithymia. Variations in automatic rapid facial reactions (RFRs) were measured in a selected population of participants with high and low levels of alexithymia (HA and LA, respectively). Electromyographic activity was recorded from the corrugator supercilii and the zygomaticus major, while participants performed a gender classification task on faces expressing various emotional states. LA participants showed congruent RFRs in response to both fearful and happy stimuli. On the other hand, HA participants did not show congruent RFRs in response to fearful faces. They showed congruent, but delayed, RFRs in response to happy faces. These results provide evidence of a deficit in somato-motor emotional processing in people with high alexithymic personality traits, and thus support the hypothesis that alexithymia is associated with a deficit in emotional embodiment.

  14. Toddlers' Social-Emotional Competence in the Contexts of Maternal Emotion Socialization and Contingent Responsiveness in a Low-Income Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Schiffman, Rachel F.; Bocknek, Erika London; Dupuis, Sara B.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Horodynski, Mildred; Onaga, Esther; Van Egeren, Laurie A.; Hillaker, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Early social-emotional development occurs in the context of parenting, particularly via processes such as maternal emotion socialization and parent-child interactions. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that maternal contingent responsiveness partially mediated the relationship between maternal emotion socialization of toddlers (N…

  15. Brain responses to facial expressions of pain: emotional or motor mirroring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budell, Lesley; Jackson, Phillip; Rainville, Pierre

    2010-10-15

    The communication of pain requires the perception of pain-related signals and the extraction of their meaning and magnitude to infer the state of the expresser. Here, BOLD responses were measured in healthy volunteers while they evaluated the amount of pain expressed (pain task) or discriminated movements (movement task) in one-second video clips displaying facial expressions of various levels of pain. Regression analysis using subjects' ratings of pain confirmed the parametric response of several regions previously involved in the coding of self-pain, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula (aINS), as well as areas implicated in action observation, and motor mirroring, such as the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Furthermore, the pain task produced stronger activation in the ventral IFG, as well as in areas of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) associated with social cognition and emotional mirroring, whereas stronger activation during the movement task predominated in the IPL. These results suggest that perception of the pain of another via facial expression recruits limbic regions involved in the coding of self-pain, prefrontal areas underlying social and emotional cognition (i.e. 'mentalizing'), and premotor and parietal areas involved in motor mirroring. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Authors’ response: what are emotions and how are they created in the brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Kristen A; Wager, Tor D; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Kober, Hedy; Barret, Lisa Feldman

    2012-06-01

    In our response, we clarify important theoretical differences between basic emotion and psychological construction approaches. We evaluate the empirical status of the basic emotion approach, addressing whether it requires brain localization, whether localization can be observed with better analytic tools, and whether evidence for basic emotions exists in other types of measures. We then revisit the issue of whether the key hypotheses of psychological construction are supported by our meta-analytic findings. We close by elaborating on commentator suggestions for future research.

  17. Resilience as a predictor for emotional response to the diagnosis and surgery in breast cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Markovitz, S.E.; Schrooten, Ward; Arntz, A.; Peters, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purposes of the present study were to investigate the role of resilience in the prediction of emotional response in breast cancer patients and to examine whether this association is specific for women undergoing this emotionally taxing condition or whether resilience is more generally associated with higher levels of emotional well-being. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-three breast cancer patients and 211 healthy female controls completed four psychological questionnaire...

  18. Differential effects of cognitive load on subjective versus motor responses to ambiguously valenced facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattek, Alison M; Whalen, Paul J; Berkowitz, Julia L; Freeman, Jonathan B

    2016-09-01

    Valence is a principal dimension by which we understand emotional experiences, but oftentimes events are not easily classified as strictly positive or negative. Inevitably, individuals vary in how they tend to interpret the valence of ambiguous situations. Surprised facial expressions are one example of a well-defined, ambiguous affective event that induces trait-like differences in the propensity to form a positive or negative interpretation. To investigate the nature of this affective bias, we asked participants to organize emotional facial expressions (surprised, happy, sad) into positive/negative categories while recording their hand-movement trajectories en route to each response choice. We found that positivity-negativity bias resulted in differential hand movements for modal versus nonmodal response trajectories, such that when an individual categorized a surprised face according to his or her nonmodal interpretation (e.g., a negatively biased individual selecting a positive interpretation), the hand showed an enhanced spatial attraction to the alternative, modal response option (e.g., negative) in the opposite corner of the computer screen (Experiment 1). Critically, we also demonstrate that this asymmetry between modal versus nonmodal response trajectories is mitigated when the valence interpretations are made under a cognitive load, although the frequency of modal interpretations is unaffected by the load (Experiment 2). These data inform a body of seemingly disparate findings regarding the effect of cognitive effort on affective responses, by showing within a single paradigm that varying cognitive load selectively alters the dynamic motor movements involved in indicating affective interpretations, whereas the subjective interpretations themselves remain consistent across variable cognitive loads. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Development of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEM-A): gender differences in emotional responses to family mealtimes and eating psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Hannah J; Haycraft, Emma; Wallis, Deborah J; Arcelus, Jon; Leung, Newman; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEM-A), a novel measure of emotional responses experienced during family mealtimes. Additionally, it examined gender differences in mealtime emotions and also the relationships between mealtime emotions and levels of eating psychopathology, when controlling for anxiety or depression. Adolescent participants (N = 527; 282 girls, 245 boys) with a mean age of 15.9 years completed the new mealtime measure for adolescents (MEM-A), in addition to questions about family mealtime atmosphere, and measures assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and eating psychopathology. Factor analysis produced a three factor solution for the MEM-A with two subscales relating to different types of negative mealtime emotions (Anxiety-related mealtime emotions and Anger-related mealtime emotions) and one subscale relating to Positive mealtime emotions. Generally, girls reported experiencing more Anxiety-related mealtime emotions compared to boys. Having conducted separate analyses controlling for levels of either anxiety or depression, there were several significant associations for both girls and boys between mealtime emotions, particularly Anxiety-related emotions, and eating psychopathology. The findings suggest that some mealtime emotions are associated with increased eating psychopathology. Replication and detailed examination of these emotional responses is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of P300 components for emotion-loaded visual event-related potential in elderly subjects, including those with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaumi, Yasue; Morita, Kiichiro; Nakashima, Youko; Muraoka, Akemi; Uchimura, Naohisa

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, the P300 component of the emotion-loaded visual event-related potential in response to photographs of babies crying or smiling was measured to evaluate cognitive function in elderly subjects, including those with dementia. The subjects were 48 elderly people who consulted a memory disorder clinic. The visual event-related potential was measured using oddball tasks. Brain waves were recorded from four sites. We analyzed the P300 amplitude and latency. Subjects were divided into three groups (the dementia with Alzheimer's disease group [ADG]; the intermediate group [MG], and the healthy group [HG]) based on the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale, Mini-mental State Examination scores and the Clinical Dementia Rating. For all subjects, there was a significant positive correlation between P300 latency and Z-score of voxel-based specific regional analysis for Alzheimer's disease for crying or smiling faces. There was a negative correlation between P300 amplitude and Z-score for the crying face. MG subjects were divided into two groups (high risk: HRMG, low risk: LRMG) based on Z-scores (HRMG ≥ 2.0). The P300 amplitude of ADG was significantly smaller than that of HG, and the P300 latency of ADG was significantly longer than those of other groups for crying or smiling faces. The P300 latency of HRMG was significantly longer than that of LRMG for the smiling face. Furthermore, the P300 latency for the crying face was significantly shorter than that for the smiling face in HG and ADG. These findings suggest that analysis of P300 components of the emotion-loaded visual event-related potential may be a useful neuropsychological index for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and high-risk subjects. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  1. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-03-15

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWEemotional arousal and-independently-to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals.

  2. Individual differences in emotional expressivity predict oxytocin responses to cortisol administration : Relevance to breast cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; van Peer, Jacobien M.; Korf, Jakob

    Reduced emotional expression has been consistently related to susceptibility or fast progression of breast cancer. Breast cancer development and reduced emotional expression have both been related to rejection- and separation-related conditions. The neuropeptide oxytocin is low in response to

  3. Research of Emotional Burning out in Teachers with Different Levels of Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S I Kudinov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of emotional burning out in teachers is discussed in the article. The results of the empirical research characterizing the different stages of the emotional burning out depending on the level of the responsibility manifestation in teachers are given.

  4. Resilience as a predictor for emotional response to the diagnosis and surgery in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovitz, S.E.; Schrooten, W.; Arntz, A.; Peters, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of the present study were to investigate the role of resilience in the prediction of emotional response in breast cancer patients and to examine whether this association is specific for women undergoing this emotionally taxing condition or whether resilience is more generally

  5. Engaging in Distancing Tactics among Sport Fans: Effects on Self-Esteem and Emotional Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizman, Aharon; Yinon, Yoel

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effects of distancing tactics on self-esteem and emotions following a win or loss of one's favorite basketball team. Measures the self-esteem and emotional responses of basketball fans as they exited the sport arena after their team won or lost an official game. (CMK)

  6. Emotional Responsiveness after Low- and Moderate-Intensity Exercise and Seated Rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. Carson; O'Connor, Patrick J.; Crabbe, James B.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether anxiety-reducing conditions of low- and moderate-intensity cycling exercise would lead to changes in emotional responsiveness to pictures designed to elicit pleasant neutral, and unpleasant emotions among healthy female college students. Results indicated that cycling exercise resulted in decreased baseline activity of facial…

  7. Adolescents Caught between Fires: Cognitive Emotion Regulation in Response to War Experiences in Northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Garnefski, Nadia; Kraaij, Vivian

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of war experiences and the use of specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies in response to these experiences among 294 formerly abducted adolescents at three rehabilitation centres in Uganda. Cognitive strategies were measured by Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). Symptoms of…

  8. Self-Conscious Emotions in Response to Perceived Failure: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidjerano, Temi

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the occurrence of self-conscious emotions in response to perceived academic failure among 4th-grade students from the United States and Bulgaria, and the author investigated potential contributors to such negative emotional experiences. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that regardless of country, negative…

  9. A Prospective Examination of Emotional Clarity, Stress Responses, and Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the proposal that difficulty understanding one's emotional experiences (i.e., deficits in emotional clarity) would interfere with the formulation of adaptive responses to interpersonal stress, which would then predict depressive symptoms. This process was examined across 3 years (fourth to sixth grade) during early…

  10. Modeling Reader's Emotional State Response on Document's Typographic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Tsonos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of an experimental study towards modeling the reader's emotional state variations induced by the typographic elements in electronic documents. Based on the dimensional theory of emotions we investigate how typographic elements, like font style (bold, italics, bold-italics and font (type, size, color and background color, affect the reader's emotional states, namely, Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance (PAD. An experimental procedure was implemented conforming to International Affective Picture System guidelines and incorporating the Self-Assessment Manikin test. Thirty students participated in the experiment. The stimulus was a short paragraph of text for which any content, emotion, and/or domain dependent information was excluded. The Analysis of Variance revealed the dependency of (a all the three emotional dimensions on font size and font/background color combinations and (b the Pleasure dimension on font type and font style. We introduce a set of mapping rules showing how PAD vary on the discrete values of font style and font type elements. Moreover, we introduce a set of equations describing the PAD dimensions' dependency on font size. This novel model can contribute to the automated reader's emotional state extraction in order, for example, to enhance the acoustic rendition of the documents, utilizing text-to-speech synthesis.

  11. Perceived Intensity of Emotional Point-Light Displays Is Reduced in Subjects with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Britta; Kaletsch, Morten; Pilgramm, Sebastian; Schwippert, Sven-Sören; Hennig, Jürgen; Stark, Rudolf; Lis, Stefanie; Gallhofer, Bernd; Sammer, Gebhard; Zentgraf, Karen; Munzert, Jörn

    2018-01-01

    One major characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is problems with social interaction and communication. The present study explored ASD-related alterations in perceiving emotions expressed via body movements. 16 participants with ASD and 16 healthy controls observed video scenes of human interactions conveyed by point-light displays. They…

  12. Temperature Response in Hardened Concrete Subjected to Tropical Rainforest Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Egba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to characterize concrete micro-environment temperature response to the natural climate of the tropical rainforest. The peculiar warmth, high humidity, and low pressure nature of the tropical rainforest necessitated the present study. Temperature probes were inserted into concrete specimens subjected to the sheltered and unsheltered environment to measure the micro-environment temperature of the concrete, and study the hysteresis characteristics in relation to the climate temperature. Some mathematical relationships for forecasting the internal temperature of concrete in the tropical rainforest environment were proposed and tested. The proposed relationships were found reliable. It was observed that the micro-environment temperature was lower at the crest, and higher at the trough than the climate environment temperature with a temperature difference of 1-3 oC. Also, temperature response in concrete for the unsheltered micro-environment was 1.85 times faster than the response in the sheltered micro-environment. The findings of the study may be used to assist the durability assessment of concrete.

  13. Development of response inhibition in the context of relevant versus irrelevant emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Schel, Margot A; Eveline A. Crone

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of relevant and irrelevant emotions on response inhibition from childhood to early adulthood. Ninety-four participants between 6 and 25 years of age performed two go/nogo tasks with emotional faces (neutral, happy, and fearful) as stimuli. In one go/nogo task emotion formed a relevant dimension of the task and in the other go/nogo task emotion was irrelevant and participants had to respond to the color of the faces instead. A special feature of the lat...

  14. "That pulled the rug out from under my feet!" - adverse experiences and altered emotion processing in patients with functional neurological symptoms compared to healthy comparison subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Astrid; Fiess, Johanna; Schmidt, Roger; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2015-06-24

    Medically unexplained movement or sensibility disorders, recently defined in DSM-5 as functional neurological symptoms (FNS), are still insufficiently understood. Stress and trauma have been addressed as relevant factors in FNS genesis. Altered emotion processing has been discussed. The present study screened different types and times of adverse experiences in childhood and adulthood in patients with FNS as well as in healthy individuals. The relationship between stress profile, aspects of emotion processing and symptom severity was examined, with the hypothesis that particularly emotional childhood adversities would have an impact on dysfunctional emotion processing as a mediator of FNS. Adverse childhood experiences (ACE), recent negative life events (LE), alexithymia, and emotion regulation style were assessed in 45 inpatients diagnosed with dissociative disorder expressing FNS, and in 45 healthy comparison subjects (HC). Patients reported more severe FNS, more (particularly emotional) ACE, and more LE than HC. FNS severity varied with emotional ACE and negative LE, and LE partially mediated the relation between ACE and FNS. Alexithymia and suppressive emotion regulation style were stronger in patients than HC, and alexithymia varied with FNS severity. Structural equation modeling verified partial mediation of the relationship between emotional ACE and FNS by alexithymia. Early, emotional and accumulating stress show a substantial impact on FNS-associated emotion processing, influencing FNS. Understanding this complex interplay of stress, emotion processing and the severity of FNS is relevant not only for theoretical models, but, as a consequence also inform diagnostic and therapeutic adjustments.

  15. The Neurodynamics of Affect in the Laboratory Predicts Persistence of Real-World Emotional Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Aaron S; Fox, Andrew S; Wing, Erik K; McQuisition, Kaitlyn M; Vack, Nathan J; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-07-22

    Failure to sustain positive affect over time is a hallmark of depression and other psychopathologies, but the mechanisms supporting the ability to sustain positive emotional responses are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the neural correlates associated with the persistence of positive affect in the real world by conducting two experiments in humans: an fMRI task of reward responses and an experience-sampling task measuring emotional responses to a reward obtained in the field. The magnitude of DLPFC engagement to rewards administered in the laboratory predicted reactivity of real-world positive emotion following a reward administered in the field. Sustained ventral striatum engagement in the laboratory positively predicted the duration of real-world positive emotional responses. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. Significance statement: How real-world emotion, experienced over seconds, minutes, and hours, is instantiated in the brain over the course of milliseconds and seconds is unknown. We combined a novel, real-world experience-sampling task with fMRI to examine how individual differences in real-world emotion, experienced over minutes and hours, is subserved by affective neurodynamics of brain activity over the course of seconds. When winning money in the real world, individuals sustaining positive emotion the longest were those with the most prolonged ventral striatal activity. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3510503-07$15.00/0.

  16. Emotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    En emotion er en evaluerende respons på en betydningsfuld hændelse, som har affektiv valens og motiverer organismen i forhold til objektverdenen (omverden). Emotioner fører til affekt: til smerte (negativ) eller glæde (positiv affekt). Både positive og negative emotioner påvirker organismens...

  17. General practitioners’ and psychiatrists’ responses to emotional disclosures in patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Fosgerau, Christina Fogtmann

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate general practitioners' (GPs') and psychiatrists' responses to emotional disclosures in consultations with patients with depression. METHODS: Thirteen patient consultations with GPs and 17 with psychiatrists were video-recorded and then analyzed using conversation analysis...... (CA). RESULTS: Psychiatrists responded to patients' emotional disclosures by attempting to clarify symptoms, by rational argumentation, or by offering an interpretation of the emotions from their own perspectives. GPs responded by claiming to understand the emotions or by formulating the patients......' statements, but without further exploring the emotions. CONCLUSION: GPs displayed a greater engagement with patients' emotions than psychiatrists. Their approach could be described as empathic, corresponding to a mentalizing stance. The different approaches taken by psychiatrists could represent conceptual...

  18. Prebiotic intake reduces the waking cortisol response and alters emotional bias in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kristin; Cowen, Philip J; Harmer, Catherine J; Tzortzis, George; Errington, Steven; Burnet, Philip W J

    2015-05-01

    There is now compelling evidence for a link between enteric microbiota and brain function. The ingestion of probiotics modulates the processing of information that is strongly linked to anxiety and depression, and influences the neuroendocrine stress response. We have recently demonstrated that prebiotics (soluble fibres that augment the growth of indigenous microbiota) have significant neurobiological effects in rats, but their action in humans has not been reported. The present study explored the effects of two prebiotics on the secretion of the stress hormone, cortisol and emotional processing in healthy volunteers. Forty-five healthy volunteers received one of two prebiotics (fructooligosaccharides, FOS, or Bimuno®-galactooligosaccharides, B-GOS) or a placebo (maltodextrin) daily for 3 weeks. The salivary cortisol awakening response was sampled before and after prebiotic/placebo administration. On the final day of treatment, participants completed a computerised task battery assessing the processing of emotionally salient information. The salivary cortisol awakening response was significantly lower after B-GOS intake compared with placebo. Participants also showed decreased attentional vigilance to negative versus positive information in a dot-probe task after B-GOS compared to placebo intake. No effects were found after the administration of FOS. The suppression of the neuroendocrine stress response and the increase in the processing of positive versus negative attentional vigilance in subjects supplemented with B-GOS are consistent with previous findings of endocrine and anxiolytic effects of microbiota proliferation. Further studies are therefore needed to test the utility of B-GOS supplementation in the treatment of stress-related disorders.

  19. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  20. Compliance and Subjective Patient Responses to Eyelid Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Yousef A; Camp, Andrew; Feuer, William; Karp, Carol L; Wellik, Sarah; Galor, Anat

    2017-07-01

    Lid hygiene is a commonly prescribed first-line therapy in patients with lid margin disease, yet compliance with therapy is not well characterized. The goals of this study were to assess patient compliance with lid hygiene and evaluate which factors predict a favorable symptomatic response to treatment. This was a cross-sectional study of patients seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic between August and December 2014. An evaluation was performed to assess dry eye symptoms and lid margin signs. All patients were then instructed to perform warm compresses and lid scrubs. A follow-up phone survey assessed compliance and subjective therapeutic response 6 weeks later. Two hundred seven of 211 (98%) patients (94% male, 60% white) completed the survey. Of the 207 patients, 188 (91%) completed the follow-up survey. Compliance with therapy was reported in 104 patients (55%); 66 reported complete improvement, 30 partial improvement, and 8 no improvement in symptoms. Patients who self-reported dry eye symptoms at first visit (n=86, 74%) were more likely to be compliant with lid hygiene than those who did not report symptoms (n=18, 25%) (P<0.0005). The only factor associated with poorer response to lid hygiene was longer time of self-reported dry eye symptoms. None of the other signs studied, including the presence of skin rosacea and lid margin telangiectasia, were associated with a differential response to lid hygiene. Patients with dry eye symptoms were moderately compliant with lid hygiene, and patients who performed the routine noted improvement in symptoms.

  1. Decreased fibularis reflex response during inversion perturbations in FAI subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Matthew S; Docherty, Carrie L; Riley, Zachary A

    2014-02-01

    Investigate reflex responses in muscles throughout the lower limb and low back during sudden inversion perturbations in individuals with and without Functional Ankle Instability (FAI) while walking. Forty subjects participated in the study. Surface electromyogram recordings were obtained from the fibularis (FIB), gluteus medius (GM), erector spinae (ES), and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) of the injured/matched side as well as the uninjured/matched contralateral side (FIB_CLS, GM_CLS, or ES_CLS). Latency and amplitude data were collected while subjects were walking on a custom-built perturbation walkway. The onset of the short-latency stretch reflex of the FIB was significantly later in the injured side of the FAI individuals when compared to the control group (P=0.009). Both the short and long latency reflex amplitude was significantly smaller in the FIB muscle in the FAI group than in the control group (P.05). Interpretation of these results indicate that during a dynamic perturbation task individuals with FAI demonstrate longer fibularis muscle latencies on the injured side while no significant changes in the proximal muscle groups. Additionally, short and long latency reflex amplitude was significantly decreased in FAI individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Socio-emotional selectivity in elderly and old age as a factor of subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melehin A.I.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the presence of social support, сonfidant network is associated with positive subjective well-being in elderly (55 - 74 years and old age (75-90 years. However, certain types of social interaction can be considered as predictors of affective disorders and chronic somatic disorders in later ages as in normal aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this article is to familiarize professionals in the mental health of people of later ages with the theory of socio-emotional selectivity (Socioemotional Selectivity Theory L.L. Carstensen, who makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the specificity and mechanisms of selection in social interaction in elderly and old age. Central mechanisms of socio-emotional selection in the later ages are the awareness of time and limited future time perspective, which enhances the awareness of mortality.

  3. Emotional responses to irony and emoticons in written language: Evidence from EDA and facial EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dominic; Mackenzie, Ian G; Leuthold, Hartmut; Filik, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    While the basic nature of irony is saying one thing and communicating the opposite, it may also serve additional social and emotional functions, such as projecting humor or anger. Emoticons often accompany irony in computer-mediated communication, and have been suggested to increase enjoyment of communication. In the current study, we aimed to examine online emotional responses to ironic versus literal comments, and the influence of emoticons on this process. Participants read stories with a final comment that was either ironic or literal, praising or critical, and with or without an emoticon. We used psychophysiological measures to capture immediate emotional responses: electrodermal activity to directly measure arousal and facial electromyography to detect muscle movements indicative of emotional expressions. Results showed higher arousal, reduced frowning, and enhanced smiling for messages with rather than without an emoticon, suggesting that emoticons increase positive emotions. A tendency toward less negative responses (i.e., reduced frowning and enhanced smiling) for ironic than literal criticism, and less positive responses (i.e., enhanced frowning and reduced smiling) for ironic than literal praise suggests that irony weakens the emotional impact of a message. The present findings indicate the utility of a psychophysiological approach in studying online emotional responses to written language. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Gender differences in emotional responses to cooperative and competitive game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivikangas, J Matias; Kätsyri, Jari; Järvelä, Simo; Ravaja, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that males prefer competition over cooperation, and it is sometimes suggested that females show the opposite behavioral preference. In the present article, we investigate the emotions behind the preferences: Do males exhibit more positive emotions during competitive than cooperative activities, and do females show the opposite pattern? We conducted two experiments where we assessed the emotional responses of same-gender dyads (in total 130 participants, 50 female) during intrinsically motivating competitive and cooperative digital game play using facial electromyography (EMG), skin conductance, heart rate measures, and self-reported emotional experiences. We found higher positive emotional responses (as indexed by both physiological measures and self-reports) during competitive than cooperative play for males, but no differences for females. In addition, we found no differences in negative emotions, and heart rate, skin conductance, and self-reports yielded contradictory evidence for arousal. These results support the hypothesis that males not only prefer competitive over cooperative play, but they also exhibit more positive emotional responses during them. In contrast, the results suggest that the emotional experiences of females do not differ between cooperation and competition, which implies that less competitiveness does not mean more cooperativeness. Our results pertain to intrinsically motivated game play, but might be relevant also for other kinds of activities.

  5. Gender Differences in Emotional Responses to Cooperative and Competitive Game Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivikangas, J. Matias; Kätsyri, Jari; Järvelä, Simo; Ravaja, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that males prefer competition over cooperation, and it is sometimes suggested that females show the opposite behavioral preference. In the present article, we investigate the emotions behind the preferences: Do males exhibit more positive emotions during competitive than cooperative activities, and do females show the opposite pattern? We conducted two experiments where we assessed the emotional responses of same-gender dyads (in total 130 participants, 50 female) during intrinsically motivating competitive and cooperative digital game play using facial electromyography (EMG), skin conductance, heart rate measures, and self-reported emotional experiences. We found higher positive emotional responses (as indexed by both physiological measures and self-reports) during competitive than cooperative play for males, but no differences for females. In addition, we found no differences in negative emotions, and heart rate, skin conductance, and self-reports yielded contradictory evidence for arousal. These results support the hypothesis that males not only prefer competitive over cooperative play, but they also exhibit more positive emotional responses during them. In contrast, the results suggest that the emotional experiences of females do not differ between cooperation and competition, which implies that less competitiveness does not mean more cooperativeness. Our results pertain to intrinsically motivated game play, but might be relevant also for other kinds of activities. PMID:24983952

  6. Gender differences in emotional responses to cooperative and competitive game play.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Matias Kivikangas

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that males prefer competition over cooperation, and it is sometimes suggested that females show the opposite behavioral preference. In the present article, we investigate the emotions behind the preferences: Do males exhibit more positive emotions during competitive than cooperative activities, and do females show the opposite pattern? We conducted two experiments where we assessed the emotional responses of same-gender dyads (in total 130 participants, 50 female during intrinsically motivating competitive and cooperative digital game play using facial electromyography (EMG, skin conductance, heart rate measures, and self-reported emotional experiences. We found higher positive emotional responses (as indexed by both physiological measures and self-reports during competitive than cooperative play for males, but no differences for females. In addition, we found no differences in negative emotions, and heart rate, skin conductance, and self-reports yielded contradictory evidence for arousal. These results support the hypothesis that males not only prefer competitive over cooperative play, but they also exhibit more positive emotional responses during them. In contrast, the results suggest that the emotional experiences of females do not differ between cooperation and competition, which implies that less competitiveness does not mean more cooperativeness. Our results pertain to intrinsically motivated game play, but might be relevant also for other kinds of activities.

  7. Emotional but not physical maltreatment is independently related to psychopathology in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety: a web-based internet survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffland Benjamin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies reported that social phobia is associated with a history of child maltreatment. However, most of these studies focused on physical and sexual maltreatment whilst little is known about the specific impact of emotional abuse and neglect on social anxiety. We examined the association between emotional maltreatment, including parental emotional maltreatment as well as emotional peer victimization, and social anxiety symptoms in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety. Methods The study was conducted as a web-based Internet survey of participants (N = 995 who had social anxiety symptoms falling within the high range, and including many respondents who had scores in the clinical range. The assessment included measures of child maltreatment, emotional peer victimization, social anxiety symptoms and general psychopathology. Results Regression and mediation analyses revealed that parental emotional maltreatment and emotional peer victimization were independently related to social anxiety and mediated the impact of physical and sexual maltreatment. Subjects with a history of childhood emotional maltreatment showed higher rates of psychopathology than subjects with a history of physical maltreatment. Conclusions Although our findings are limited by the use of an Internet survey and retrospective self-report measures, data indicated that social anxiety symptoms are mainly predicted by emotional rather than physical or sexual types of victimization.

  8. Development of response inhibition in the context of relevant versus irrelevant emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schel, Margot A; Crone, Eveline A

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of relevant and irrelevant emotions on response inhibition from childhood to early adulthood. Ninety-four participants between 6 and 25 years of age performed two go/nogo tasks with emotional faces (neutral, happy, and fearful) as stimuli. In one go/nogo task emotion formed a relevant dimension of the task and in the other go/nogo task emotion was irrelevant and participants had to respond to the color of the faces instead. A special feature of the latter task, in which emotion was irrelevant, was the inclusion of free choice trials, in which participants could freely decide between acting and inhibiting. Results showed a linear increase in response inhibition performance with increasing age both in relevant and irrelevant affective contexts. Relevant emotions had a pronounced influence on performance across age, whereas irrelevant emotions did not. Overall, participants made more false alarms on trials with fearful faces than happy faces, and happy faces were associated with better performance on go trials (higher percentage correct and faster RTs) than fearful faces. The latter effect was stronger for young children in terms of accuracy. Finally, during the free choice trials participants did not base their decisions on affective context, confirming that irrelevant emotions do not have a strong impact on inhibition. Together, these findings suggest that across development relevant affective context has a larger influence on response inhibition than irrelevant affective context. When emotions are relevant, a context of positive emotions is associated with better performance compared to a context with negative emotions, especially in young children.

  9. Discrete Emotion Effects on Lexical Decision Response Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briesemeister, Benny B.; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2011-01-01

    Our knowledge about affective processes, especially concerning effects on cognitive demands like word processing, is increasing steadily. Several studies consistently document valence and arousal effects, and although there is some debate on possible interactions and different notions of valence, broad agreement on a two dimensional model of affective space has been achieved. Alternative models like the discrete emotion theory have received little interest in word recognition research so far. Using backward elimination and multiple regression analyses, we show that five discrete emotions (i.e., happiness, disgust, fear, anger and sadness) explain as much variance as two published dimensional models assuming continuous or categorical valence, with the variables happiness, disgust and fear significantly contributing to this account. Moreover, these effects even persist in an experiment with discrete emotion conditions when the stimuli are controlled for emotional valence and arousal levels. We interpret this result as evidence for discrete emotion effects in visual word recognition that cannot be explained by the two dimensional affective space account. PMID:21887307

  10. Acute pharmacologically induced shifts in serotonin availability abolish emotion-selective responses to negative face emotions in distinct brain networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grady, Cheryl Lynn; Siebner, Hartwig R; Hornboll, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    distributed brain responses identified two brain networks with modulations of activity related to face emotion and serotonin level. The first network included the left amygdala, bilateral striatum, and fusiform gyri. During the Control session this network responded only to fearful faces; increasing serotonin...... decreased this response to fear, whereas reducing serotonin enhanced the response of this network to angry faces. The second network involved bilateral amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and these regions also showed increased activity to fear during the Control session. Both drug challenges...

  11. Selective REM-sleep deprivation does not diminish emotional memory consolidation in young healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, Jarste; Wiesner, Christian D; Hinze, Karoline; Abels, Lena C; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation and it has been hypothesized that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in particular facilitates the consolidation of emotional memory. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis using selective REM-sleep deprivation. We used a recognition memory task in which participants were shown negative and neutral pictures. Participants (N=29 healthy medical students) were separated into two groups (undisturbed sleep and selective REM-sleep deprived). Both groups also worked on the memory task in a wake condition. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for negative than for neutral stimuli and better after the sleep than the wake condition. There was, however, no difference in the recognition accuracy (neutral and emotional) between the groups. In summary, our data suggest that REM-sleep deprivation was successful and that the resulting reduction of REM-sleep had no influence on memory consolidation whatsoever.

  12. Selective REM-sleep deprivation does not diminish emotional memory consolidation in young healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarste Morgenthaler

    Full Text Available Sleep enhances memory consolidation and it has been hypothesized that rapid eye movement (REM sleep in particular facilitates the consolidation of emotional memory. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis using selective REM-sleep deprivation. We used a recognition memory task in which participants were shown negative and neutral pictures. Participants (N=29 healthy medical students were separated into two groups (undisturbed sleep and selective REM-sleep deprived. Both groups also worked on the memory task in a wake condition. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for negative than for neutral stimuli and better after the sleep than the wake condition. There was, however, no difference in the recognition accuracy (neutral and emotional between the groups. In summary, our data suggest that REM-sleep deprivation was successful and that the resulting reduction of REM-sleep had no influence on memory consolidation whatsoever.

  13. Preserved emotional modulation of motor response time despite psychomotor slowing in young-old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hälbig, Thomas D; Creighton, Judy; Assuras, Stephanie; Borod, Joan C; Tse, Winona; Gracies, Jean-Michel; Foldi, Nancy S; Kaufmann, Horacio; Olanow, C Warren; Voustianiouk, Andrei

    2011-08-01

    Whereas aging affects cognitive and psychomotor processes negatively, the impact of aging on emotional processing is less clear. Using an "old-new" binary decision task, we ascertained the modulation of response latencies after presentation of neutral and emotional pictures in "young" (M = 27.1 years) and "young-old" adults with a mean age below 60 (M = 57.7 years). Stimuli varied on valence (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant) and arousal (high and low) dimensions. Young-old adults had significantly longer reaction times. However, young and young-old adults showed the exact same pattern of response time modulation by emotional stimuli: Response latencies were longer for high-arousal than for low-arousal pictures and longer for negative than for positive or neutral stimuli. This result suggests that the specific effects of implicitly processed emotional valence and arousal information on behavioral response time are preserved in young-old adults despite significant age-related psychomotor decline.

  14. Relations among child negative emotionality, parenting stress, and maternal sensitive responsiveness in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulussen-Hoogeboom, M.C.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Peetsma, T.T.D.

    2008-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study focuses on relations between preschool-aged childrens' perceived "difficult" temperament (defined as high negative emotionality) and observed maternal sensitive responsiveness in the context of maternal parenting stress. Design. Participants were fifty-nine

  15. Emotional processing in Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia: Evidence for response bias deficits in PD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Paulina Laskowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in facial emotion recognition in Parkinson’s disease patients has been well documented. Nevertheless, it is still not clear whether facial emotion recognition deficits are secondary to other cognitive impairments. The aim of this study was to answer the question of whether deficits in facial emotion recognition in PD result from impaired sensory processes, or from impaired decision processes. To address this question, we tested the ability to recognize a mixture of basic and complex emotions in 38 non-demented PD patients and 38 healthy controls matched on demographic characteristics. By using a task with an increased level of ambiguity, in conjunction with the Signal Detection Theory, we were able to differentiate between sensitivity and response bias in facial emotion recognition. Sensitivity and response bias for facial emotion recognition were calculated using a d-prime value and a c index respectively. Our study is the first to employ the EIS-F scale for assessing facial emotion recognition among PD patients; to test its validity as an assessment tool, a group comprising schizophrenia patients and healthy controls were also tested. Patients with PD recognized emotions with less accuracy than healthy individuals (d-prime and used a more liberal response criterion (c index. By contrast, patients with schizophrenia merely showed diminished sensitivity (d-prime. Our results suggest that an impaired ability to recognize facial emotions in PD patients may result from both decreased sensitivity and a significantly more liberal response criteria, whereas facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia may stem from a generalized sensory impairment only.

  16. The presence of a culturally similar or dissimilar social partner affects neural responses to emotional stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate A. Woodcock

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional responding is sensitive to social context; however, little emphasis has been placed on the mechanisms by which social context effects changes in emotional responding. Objective: We aimed to investigate the effects of social context on neural responses to emotional stimuli to inform on the mechanisms underpinning context-linked changes in emotional responding. Design: We measured event-related potential (ERP components known to index specific emotion processes and self-reports of explicit emotion regulation strategies and emotional arousal. Female Chinese university students observed positive, negative, and neutral photographs, whilst alone or accompanied by a culturally similar (Chinese or dissimilar researcher (British. Results: There was a reduction in the positive versus neutral differential N1 amplitude (indexing attentional capture by positive stimuli in the dissimilar relative to alone context. In this context, there was also a corresponding increase in amplitude of a frontal late positive potential (LPP component (indexing engagement of cognitive control resources. In the similar relative to alone context, these effects on differential N1 and frontal LPP amplitudes were less pronounced, but there was an additional decrease in the amplitude of a parietal LPP component (indexing motivational relevance in response to positive stimuli. In response to negative stimuli, the differential N1 component was increased in the similar relative to dissimilar and alone (trend context. Conclusion: These data suggest that neural processes engaged in response to emotional stimuli are modulated by social context. Possible mechanisms for the social-context-linked changes in attentional capture by emotional stimuli include a context-directed modulation of the focus of attention, or an altered interpretation of the emotional stimuli based on additional information proportioned by the context.

  17. Empathy and distress: two distinct but related emotions in response to infant crying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Chu; McFatter, Robert

    2012-12-01

    This study examined a largely overlooked, yet potentially important, association between empathy and distress in cry responding. The cry stimulus included a 1-min-long video clip of a 4-week-old, crying, male infant. Participants reported their dispositional empathy and distress, perceived aversiveness of the cry stimulus, response emotions, and intention to intervene with the crying infant. Empathy and distress covaried positively both in disposition and in cry responding. Response empathy and distress were related to their corresponding dispositional emotions, but response empathy was also related to dispositional distress. Perceived aversiveness interacted with response distress in predicting response empathy. Both response empathy and distress appeared to be important determinants of intention to intervene. Overall, empathy and distress in response to infant crying appeared more closely related than previously thought. Implications concerning the regulation of emotions in cry responding are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Children’s altruistic behavior in context: The role of emotional responsiveness and culture

    OpenAIRE

    Purva Rajhans; Nicole Altvater-Mackensen; Amrisha Vaish; Tobias Grossmann

    2016-01-01

    Altruistic behavior in humans is thought to have deep biological roots. Nonetheless, there is also evidence for considerable variation in altruistic behaviors among individuals and across cultures. Variability in altruistic behavior in adults has recently been related to individual differences in emotional responsiveness to fear in others. The current study examined the relation between emotional responsiveness (using eye-tracking) and altruistic behavior (using the Dictator Game) in 4 to 5-y...

  19. Emotional responses to pleasant and unpleasant music correlate with activity in paralimbic brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, A J; Zatorre, R J; Bermudez, P; Evans, A C

    1999-04-01

    Neural correlates of the often-powerful emotional responses to music are poorly understood. Here we used positron emission tomography to examine cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes related to affective responses to music. Ten volunteers were scanned while listening to six versions of a novel musical passage varying systematically in degree of dissonance. Reciprocal CBF covariations were observed in several distinct paralimbic and neocortical regions as a function of dissonance and of perceived pleasantness/unpleasantness. The findings suggest that music may recruit neural mechanisms similar to those previously associated with pleasant/unpleasant emotional states, but different from those underlying other components of music perception, and other emotions such as fear.

  20. Emotional graphic cigarette warning labels reduce the electrophysiological brain response to smoking cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Li; Romer, Dan; Elman, Igor; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Gur, Ruben C.; Langleben, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study’s objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of smoking addiction and to determine whether labels rated higher on the emotional reaction (ER) scale are associated with greater effects. We studied 25 non-treatment-seeking smokers. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants viewed a random sequence of paired images, in which visual smoking (Cues) or non-smoking (non-Cues) images were preceded by GWLs or neutral images. Participants reported their cigarette craving after viewing each pair. Dependent variables were magnitude of P300 ERPs and self-reported cigarette craving in response to Cues. We found that subjective craving response to Cues was significantly reduced by preceding GWLs, whereas the P300 amplitude response to Cues was reduced only by preceding GWLs rated high on the ER scale. In conclusion, our study provides experimental neuroscience evidence that weighs in on the ongoing public and legal debate about how to balance the constitutional and public health aspects of the FDA-proposed GWLs. The high toll of smoking-related illness and death adds urgency to the debate and prompts consideration of our findings while longitudinal studies of GWLs are underway. PMID:24330194

  1. Cortical responses to consciousness of schematic emotional facial expressions: a high-resolution EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Buffo, Paola; Buttiglione, Maura; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2010-10-01

    Is conscious perception of emotional face expression related to enhanced cortical responses? Electroencephalographic data (112 channels) were recorded in 15 normal adults during the presentation of cue stimuli with neutral, happy or sad schematic faces (duration: "threshold time" inducing about 50% of correct recognitions), masking stimuli (2 s), and go stimuli with happy or sad schematic faces (0.5 s). The subjects clicked left (right) mouse button in response to go stimuli with happy (sad) faces. After the response, they said "seen" or "not seen" with reference to previous cue stimulus. Electroencephalographic data formed visual event-related potentials (ERPs). Cortical sources of ERPs were estimated by LORETA software. Reaction time to go stimuli was generally shorter during "seen" than "not seen" trials, possibly due to covert attention and awareness. The cue stimuli evoked four ERP components (posterior N100, N170, P200, and P300), which had similar peak latency in the "not seen" and "seen" ERPs. Only N170 amplitude showed differences in amplitude in the "seen" versus "not seen" ERPs. Compared to the "not seen" ERPs, the "seen" ones showed prefrontal, premotor, and posterior parietal sources of N170 higher in amplitude with the sad cue stimuli and lower in amplitude with the neutral and happy cue stimuli. These results suggest that nonconscious and conscious processing of schematic emotional facial expressions shares a similar temporal evolution of cortical activity, and conscious processing induces an early enhancement of bilateral cortical activity for the schematic sad facial expressions (N170). © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The joy of heartfelt music: An examination of emotional and physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynar, Emily; Cvejic, Erin; Schubert, Emery; Vollmer-Conna, Ute

    2017-10-01

    Music-listening can be a powerful therapeutic tool for mood rehabilitation, yet quality evidence for its validity as a singular treatment is scarce. Specifically, the relationship between music-induced mood improvement and meaningful physiological change, as well as the influence of music- and person-related covariates on these outcomes are yet to be comprehensively explored. Ninety-four healthy participants completed questionnaires probing demographics, personal information, and musical background. Participants listened to two prescribed musical pieces (one classical, one jazz), an "uplifting" piece of their own choice, and an acoustic control stimulus (white noise) in randomised order. Physiological responses (heart rate, respiration, galvanic skin response) were recorded throughout. After each piece, participants rated their subjective responses on a series of Likert scales. Subjectively, the self-selected pieces induced the most joy, and the classical piece was perceived as most relaxing, consistent with the arousal ratings proposed by a music selection panel. These two stimuli led to the greatest overall improvement in composite emotional state from baseline. Psycho-physiologically, self-selected pieces often elicited a "eustress" response ("positive arousal"), whereas classical music was associated with the highest heart rate variability. Very few person-related covariates appeared to affect responses, and music-related covariates (besides self-selection) appeared arbitrary. These data provide strong evidence that optimal music for therapy varies between individuals. Our findings additionally suggest that the self-selected music was most effective for inducing a joyous state; while low arousal classical music was most likely to shift the participant into a state of relaxation. Therapy should attempt to find the most effective and "heartfelt" music for each listener, according to therapeutic goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Joint physical custody, turning to parents for emotional support, and subjective health: A study of adolescents in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låftman, Sara Brolin; Bergström, Malin; Modin, Bitte; Östberg, Viveca

    2014-07-01

    Among children with separated parents, the arrangement of joint physical custody, i.e. children living equally much in both parents' homes, has increased substantially during the last decades in Sweden. To date, empirical research on the living conditions of this group is limited. This study analyses family type differences in turning to parents for emotional support and in subjective health among adolescents. The focus of the study is adolescents in joint physical custody, who are compared with those living with two original parents in the same household; those living (only) in a single-parent household; and those living (only) in a reconstituted family. The data come from the Stockholm School Survey of 2004, a total population survey of students in grade 9 (15-16 years) in Stockholm (n=8,840). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions were conducted. Turning to both parents about problems is most commonly reported by adolescents in intact families, followed by those in joint physical custody. Adolescents in non-traditional family types report worse subjective health than adolescents in intact families, but the difference is smaller for those in joint physical custody than for those living with a single parent. The slightly poorer health of adolescents in joint physical custody than those in intact families is not explained by their lower use of parents as a source of emotional support. The study suggests that joint physical custody is associated with a higher inclination to use parents as a source of emotional support and better subjective health than other post-divorce family types. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  4. Cardiac autonomic responses after resistance exercise in treated hypertensive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Alves Trevizani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess and to compare heart rate variability (HRV after resistance exercise (RE in treated hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Nine hypertensive men [HT: 58.0±7.7 years, systolic blood pressure (SBP =133.6±6.5 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure (DBP =87.3±8.1 mmHg; under antihypertensive treatment] and eleven normotensive men (NT: 57.1±6.0 years, SBP =127±8.5 mmHg, DBP =82.7±5.5 mmHg performed a single session of RE (2 sets of 15-20 repetitions, 50% of 1RM, 120 s interval between sets/exercise for the following exercises: leg extension, leg press, leg curl, bench press, seated row, triceps push-down, seated calf flexion, seated arm curl. HRV was assessed at resting and during 10 min of recovery period by calculating time (SDNN, RMSSD and frequency domain (LF and HF indices. Mean values of HRV indices were reduced in the post-exercise period compared to the resting period (HT: lnHF: 4.7±1.4 vs. 2.4±1.2 ms²; NT: lnHF: 4.8±1.5 vs. 2.2±1.1 ms², p<0.01. However, there was no group vs. time interaction in this response (p=0.8. The results indicate that HRV is equally suppressed after RE in normotensive and hypertensive individuals. These findings suggest that a single session of RE does not bring additional cardiac autonomic stress to treated hypertensive subjects.

  5. Dynamic emotional and neural responses to music depend on performance expression and listener experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Heather; Jantzen, Kelly; Kelso, J A Scott; Steinberg, Fred; Large, Edward

    2010-12-16

    Apart from its natural relevance to cognition, music provides a window into the intimate relationships between production, perception, experience, and emotion. Here, emotional responses and neural activity were observed as they evolved together with stimulus parameters over several minutes. Participants listened to a skilled music performance that included the natural fluctuations in timing and sound intensity that musicians use to evoke emotional responses. A mechanical performance of the same piece served as a control. Before and after fMRI scanning, participants reported real-time emotional responses on a 2-dimensional rating scale (arousal and valence) as they listened to each performance. During fMRI scanning, participants listened without reporting emotional responses. Limbic and paralimbic brain areas responded to the expressive dynamics of human music performance, and both emotion and reward related activations during music listening were dependent upon musical training. Moreover, dynamic changes in timing predicted ratings of emotional arousal, as well as real-time changes in neural activity. BOLD signal changes correlated with expressive timing fluctuations in cortical and subcortical motor areas consistent with pulse perception, and in a network consistent with the human mirror neuron system. These findings show that expressive music performance evokes emotion and reward related neural activations, and that music's affective impact on the brains of listeners is altered by musical training. Our observations are consistent with the idea that music performance evokes an emotional response through a form of empathy that is based, at least in part, on the perception of movement and on violations of pulse-based temporal expectancies.

  6. Dynamic emotional and neural responses to music depend on performance expression and listener experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Chapin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Apart from its natural relevance to cognition, music provides a window into the intimate relationships between production, perception, experience, and emotion. Here, emotional responses and neural activity were observed as they evolved together with stimulus parameters over several minutes. Participants listened to a skilled music performance that included the natural fluctuations in timing and sound intensity that musicians use to evoke emotional responses. A mechanical performance of the same piece served as a control. Before and after fMRI scanning, participants reported real-time emotional responses on a 2-dimensional rating scale (arousal and valence as they listened to each performance. During fMRI scanning, participants listened without reporting emotional responses. Limbic and paralimbic brain areas responded to the expressive dynamics of human music performance, and both emotion and reward related activations during music listening were dependent upon musical training. Moreover, dynamic changes in timing predicted ratings of emotional arousal, as well as real-time changes in neural activity. BOLD signal changes correlated with expressive timing fluctuations in cortical and subcortical motor areas consistent with pulse perception, and in a network consistent with the human mirror neuron system. These findings show that expressive music performance evokes emotion and reward related neural activations, and that music's affective impact on the brains of listeners is altered by musical training. Our observations are consistent with the idea that music performance evokes an emotional response through a form of empathy that is based, at least in part, on the perception of movement and on violations of pulse-based temporal expectancies.

  7. Emotional contagion, empathic concern and communicative responsiveness as variables affecting nurses' stress and occupational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omdahl, B L; O'Donnell, C

    1999-06-01

    Based on data gathered from registered nurses at two hospitals, this research examined the extent to which empathy variables contributed to nursing stress and occupational commitment. The empathy variables examined were emotional contagion (i.e. sharing the emotions of patients), empathic concern (i.e. being concerned for patients) and communicative effectiveness (i.e. effectively communicating with patients and their families). Nursing stress was explored through the variables of depersonalization, reduced personal accomplishment and emotional exhaustion. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the combination of the three emotional communication variables explained significant proportions of the variance in all three of the stress variables, as well as occupational commitment. The analyses further revealed that a lack of empathic concern and poor communicative responsiveness accounted for significant proportions of the variance in depersonalization. Lack of empathic concern, poor communicative responsiveness and high emotional contagion significantly contributed to reduced personal accomplishment. Emotional contagion explained a significant proportion of the variance in emotional exhaustion. Emotional contagion also significantly reduced occupational commitment. The findings are discussed in terms of nursing education and administration.

  8. Emotional expressions evoke a differential response in the fusiform face area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronson Blake Harry

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely assumed that the fusiform face area (FFA, a brain region specialised for face perception, is not involved in processing emotional expressions. This assumption is based on the proposition that the FFA is involved in face identification and only processes features that are invariant across changes due to head movements, speaking and expressing emotions. The present study tested this proposition by examining whether the response in the human FFA varies across emotional expressions with functional magnetic resonance imaging and brain decoding analysis techniques (n = 11. A one versus all classification analysis showed that most emotional expressions that participants perceived could be reliably predicted from the neural pattern of activity in left and the right FFA, suggesting that the perception of different emotional expressions recruit partially non-overlaping neural mechanisms. In addition, emotional expressions could also be decoded from the pattern of activity in the early visual cortex (EVC, indicating that retinotopic cortex also shows a differential response to emotional expressions. These results cast doubt on the idea that the FFA is involved in expression invariant face processing, and instead indicate that emotional expressions evoke partially de-correlated signals throughout occipital and posterior temporal cortex.

  9. Can adults with autism spectrum disorders infer what happened to someone from their emotional response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Sarah; Ropar, Danielle; Mitchell, Peter; Chapman, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Can adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) infer what happened to someone from their emotional response? Millikan has argued that in everyday life, others' emotions are most commonly used to work out the antecedents of behavior, an ability termed retrodictive mindreading. As those with ASD show difficulties interpreting others' emotions, we predicted that these individuals would have difficulty with retrodictive mindreading. Sixteen adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome and 19 typically developing adults viewed 21 video clips of people reacting to one of three gifts (chocolate, monopoly money, or a homemade novelty) and then inferred what gift the recipient received and the emotion expressed by that person. Participants' eye movements were recorded while they viewed the videos. Results showed that participants with ASD were only less accurate when inferring who received a chocolate or homemade gift. This difficulty was not due to lack of understanding what emotions were appropriate in response to each gift, as both groups gave consistent gift and emotion inferences significantly above chance (genuine positive for chocolate and feigned positive for homemade). Those with ASD did not look significantly less to the eyes of faces in the videos, and looking to the eyes did not correlate with accuracy on the task. These results suggest that those with ASD are less accurate when retrodicting events involving recognition of genuine and feigned positive emotions, and challenge claims that lack of attention to the eyes causes emotion recognition difficulties in ASD. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Amygdala hypersensitivity in response to emotional faces in Tourette's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Irene; Kellermann, Thilo; Stöcker, Tony; Kircher, Tilo; Habel, Ute; Shah, Jon N; Schneider, Frank

    2010-10-01

    Tourette's syndrome is characterised by motor and vocal tics as well as a high level of impulsivity and emotional dysregulation. Neuroimaging studies point to structural changes of the basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex and parts of the limbic system. However, there is no link between behavioural symptoms and the structural changes in the amygdala. One aspect of daily social interaction is the perception of emotional facial expressions, closely linked to amgydala function. We therefore investigated via fMRI the implicit discrimination of six emotional facial expressions in 19 adult Tourette's patients. In comparison to healthy control group, Tourette's patients showed significantly higher amygdala activation, especially pronounced for fearful, angry and neutral expressions. The BOLD-activity of the left amygdala correlated negatively with the personality trait extraversion. We will discuss these findings as a result of either deficient frontal inhibition due to structural changes or a desynchronization in the interaction of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical network within structures of the limbic system. Our data show an altered pattern of implicit emotion discrimination and emphasize the need to consider motor and non-motor symptoms in Tourette's syndrome in the choice of both behavioural and pharmacological treatment.

  11. The Role of Emotions in Reinforcement: Response Selection in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overskeid, Geir

    2012-01-01

    Historically, researchers have never quite been able to agree as to the role of emotions, if any, when behavior is selected by its consequences. A brief review of findings from several fields suggests that in contingency-shaped behavior, motivating events, often unconscious, seem needed for reinforcement to select behavior. In rule-governed…

  12. Amygdala response to emotional stimuli without awareness : Facts and Interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diano, M.; Celeghin, A.; Bagnis, Arianna; Tamietto, M.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, evidence has accumulated that the human amygdala exerts some of its functions also when the observer is not aware of the content, or even presence, of the triggering emotional stimulus. Nevertheless, there is as of yet no consensus on the limits and conditions that affect

  13. Gonadal hormones and heart rate as an emotional response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Loos, Wolter Statius

    1988-01-01

    Animai experiments may give information on the physiology of hormones under stress conditions. The model for the investigation of acute emotional stress in animals that has been chosen permits the study of heart rate in freely moving laboratory rats as a sensitive psychophysiological parameter, This

  14. Enjoying vs. smiling: Facial muscular activation in response to emotional language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fino, Edita; Menegatti, Michela; Avenanti, Alessio; Rubini, Monica

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined whether emotionally congruent facial muscular activation - a somatic index of emotional language embodiment can be elicited by reading subject-verb sentences composed of action verbs, that refer directly to facial expressions (e.g., Mario smiles), but also by reading more abstract state verbs, which provide more direct access to the emotions felt by the agent (e.g., Mario enjoys). To address this issue, we measured facial electromyography (EMG) while participants evaluated state and action verb sentences. We found emotional sentences including both verb categories to have valence-congruent effects on emotional ratings and corresponding facial muscle activations. As expected, state verb-sentences were judged with higher valence ratings than action verb-sentences. Moreover, despite emotional congruent facial activations were similar for the two linguistic categories, in a late temporal window we found a tendency for greater EMG modulation when reading action relative to state verb sentences. These results support embodied theories of language comprehension and suggest that understanding emotional action and state verb sentences relies on partially dissociable motor and emotional processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of valence-based and discrete emotional states on aesthetic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yin-Hui

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that consumer aesthetics--the responses of consumers to the aesthetic or appearance aspects of products--has become an important area of marketing in recent years. Consumer aesthetic responses to a product are a source of pleasure for the consumer. Previous research into the aesthetic responses to products has often emphasized exterior factors and visual design, but studies have seldom considered the psychological aesthetic experience of consumers, and in particular their emotional state. This study attempts to bridge this gap by examining the link between consumers' emotions and their aesthetic response to a product. Thus, the major goal of this study was to determine how valence-based and discrete emotional states influence choice. In Studies 1 and 2, positive and negative emotions were manipulated to implement two different induction techniques and explore the effect of emotions on participants' choices in two separate experiments. The results of both experiments confirmed the predictions, indicating that aesthetic responses and purchase intention are functions of emotional valence, such that both are stronger for people in a positive emotional state than for those in a negative emotional state. Study 2 also used a neutral affective state to establish the robustness of this observed effect of incidental affect. The results of Study 3 demonstrate that aesthetic response and purchase intention are not only a function of affect valence, but also are affected by the certainty appraisal associated with specific affective states. This research, therefore, contributes to the literature by offering empirical evidence that incidental affect is a determinant of aesthetic response.

  16. Brain Response to a Humanoid Robot in Areas Implicated in the Perception of Human Emotional Gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Zecca, Massimiliano; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Takanishi, Atsuo; Frith, Chris D.; Micera, Silvestro; Dario, Paolo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Background The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents. Methodology Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust) and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted. Principal Findings Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance. Conclusions Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions. Significance Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions. PMID:20657777

  17. Brain response to a humanoid robot in areas implicated in the perception of human emotional gestures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Chaminade

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents.Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted.Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance.Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions.Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.

  18. From Motion to Emotion: Accelerometer Data Predict Subjective Experience of Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrgang, Melanie; Egermann, Hauke

    2016-01-01

    Music is often discussed to be emotional because it reflects expressive movements in audible form. Thus, a valid approach to measure musical emotion could be to assess movement stimulated by music. In two experiments we evaluated the discriminative power of mobile-device generated acceleration data produced by free movement during music listening for the prediction of ratings on the Geneva Emotion Music Scales (GEMS-9). The quality of prediction for different dimensions of GEMS varied between experiments for tenderness (R12(first experiment) = 0.50, R22(second experiment) = 0.39), nostalgia (R12 = 0.42, R22 = 0.30), wonder (R12 = 0.25, R22 = 0.34), sadness (R12 = 0.24, R22 = 0.35), peacefulness (R12 = 0.20, R22 = 0.35) and joy (R12 = 0.19, R22 = 0.33) and transcendence (R12 = 0.14, R22 = 0.00). For others like power (R12 = 0.42, R22 = 0.49) and tension (R12 = 0.28, R22 = 0.27) results could be almost reproduced. Furthermore, we extracted two principle components from GEMS ratings, one representing arousal and the other one valence of the experienced feeling. Both qualities, arousal and valence, could be predicted by acceleration data, indicating, that they provide information on the quantity and quality of experience. On the one hand, these findings show how music-evoked movement patterns relate to music-evoked feelings. On the other hand, they contribute to integrate findings from the field of embodied music cognition into music recommender systems.

  19. From Motion to Emotion: Accelerometer Data Predict Subjective Experience of Music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Irrgang

    Full Text Available Music is often discussed to be emotional because it reflects expressive movements in audible form. Thus, a valid approach to measure musical emotion could be to assess movement stimulated by music. In two experiments we evaluated the discriminative power of mobile-device generated acceleration data produced by free movement during music listening for the prediction of ratings on the Geneva Emotion Music Scales (GEMS-9. The quality of prediction for different dimensions of GEMS varied between experiments for tenderness (R12(first experiment = 0.50, R22(second experiment = 0.39, nostalgia (R12 = 0.42, R22 = 0.30, wonder (R12 = 0.25, R22 = 0.34, sadness (R12 = 0.24, R22 = 0.35, peacefulness (R12 = 0.20, R22 = 0.35 and joy (R12 = 0.19, R22 = 0.33 and transcendence (R12 = 0.14, R22 = 0.00. For others like power (R12 = 0.42, R22 = 0.49 and tension (R12 = 0.28, R22 = 0.27 results could be almost reproduced. Furthermore, we extracted two principle components from GEMS ratings, one representing arousal and the other one valence of the experienced feeling. Both qualities, arousal and valence, could be predicted by acceleration data, indicating, that they provide information on the quantity and quality of experience. On the one hand, these findings show how music-evoked movement patterns relate to music-evoked feelings. On the other hand, they contribute to integrate findings from the field of embodied music cognition into music recommender systems.

  20. Emotional intelligence, life satisfaction and subjective happiness in female student health professionals: the mediating effect of perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aranda, D; Extremera, N; Pineda-Galán, C

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to extend previous findings by examining the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and well-being indicators (life satisfaction and happiness) in a 12-week follow-up study. In addition, we examined the influence of perceived stress on the relationship between EI and well-being. Female students from the School of Health Sciences (n = 264) completed an ability measure of emotional intelligence. After 12 weeks, participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and Subjective Happiness Scale. Participants with higher EI reported less perceived stress and higher levels of life satisfaction and happiness. The results of this study suggest that perceived stress mediates the relationship between EI and well-being indicators, specifically life satisfaction and happiness. These findings suggest an underlying process by which high emotional intelligence may increase well-being in female students in nursing and allied health sciences by reducing the experience of stress. The implications of these findings for future research and for working with health professions to improve well-being outcomes are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of Low Amphetamine Doses on Cardiac Responses to Emotional Stress in Aged Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyakas, Csaba; Buwalda, Bauke; Luiten, Paul G.M.; Bohus, Bela

    1992-01-01

    In young Wistar rats conditioned emotional stress can be characterized by a learned bradycardiac response to an inescapable footshock. In aged rats this bradycardiac response is attenuated and accompanied by suppressed behavioral arousal in response to novelty. In the present study, cardiac

  2. The impact of emotion-related autonomic nervous system responsiveness on pain sensitivity in female patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, H. van; Lumley, M.A.; Houtveen, J.H.; Jacobs, J.W.G.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Geenen, R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with fibromyalgia have shown hyporeactive autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to physical stressors, augmented pain to ANS changes, and heightened negative emotions, which can increase pain. This study examined ANS reactivity to negative emotions and its association with

  3. Preliminary Investigation of Self-Reported Emotional Responses to Approaching and Receding Footstep Sounds in a Virtual Reality Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikström, Erik; Nilsson, Niels Christian; Nordahl, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The emotional impact of approaching and receding sounds sources studies has previously been studied in seated laboratory experiments in with and without accompanying visual stimulus. This paper investigates the emotional responses to approaching and receding footstep sounds in an interactive...

  4. Emotional intelligence correlates with functional responses to dynamic changes in facial trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Schwab, Zachary J; Tkachenko, Olga; Webb, Christian A; DelDonno, Sophie R; Kipman, Maia; Rauch, Scott L; Weber, Mareen

    2013-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to a constellation of traits, competencies, or abilities that allow individuals to understand emotional information and successfully navigate and solve social/emotional problems. While little is known about the neurobiological substrates that underlie EI, some evidence suggests that these capacities may involve a core neurocircuitry involved in emotional decision-making that includes the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, and amygdala. In a sample of 39 healthy volunteers (22 men; 17 women), scores on the Bar-On EQ-i (a trait/mixed model of EI) and Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; an ability model of EI) were correlated with functional magnetic resonance imaging responses during brief presentations of moving facial expressions that changed in the level of perceived trustworthiness. Core emotion neurocircuitry was responsive to dynamic changes in facial features, regardless of whether they reflected increases or decreases in apparent trustworthiness. In response to facial movements indicating decreasing trustworthiness, MSCEIT correlated positively with functional responses of the vmPFC and rostral ACC, whereas the EQ-i was unrelated to regional activation. Systematic differences in EI ability appear to be significantly related to the responsiveness of the vmPFC and rostral ACC to facial movements suggesting potential trustworthiness.

  5. Subjective stress, salivary cortisol and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming eQi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the subjective stress, salivary cortisol, and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress induced by a modified version of a mental arithmetic task. Fifteen participants were asked to estimate whether the multiplication product of two-decimal numbers was above 10 or not either with a time limit (the stress condition or without a time limit (the control condition. The results showed that participants reported higher levels of stress, anxiety, and negative affect in the stress condition than they did in the control condition. Moreover, the salivary cortisol level continued to increase after the stress condition but exhibited a sharp decrease after the control condition. In addition, the electrophysiological data showed that the amplitude of the frontal-central N1 component was larger for the stress condition than it was for the control condition, while the amplitude of the frontal-central P2 component was larger for the control condition than it was for the stress condition. Our study suggests that the psychological stress characteristics of time pressure and social-evaluative threat caused dissociable effects on perception and on the subsequent attentional resource allocation of visual information.

  6. Physiological and subjective response to injustice: the effects of unjust evaluations on physiological responses and subjective experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, C.; de Man, J.; van der Meij, J.

    2013-01-01

    Professionals with high pressure jobs such as police officers and military personnel often have to deal with difficult situations. In order to train such professionals to deal with their emotions and prevent possible anxiety disorders an ambient virtual training environment is being developed. This

  7. Neural responses to emotional faces in women recovered from anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdrey, Felicity A; Harmer, Catherine J; Park, Rebecca J; McCabe, Ciara

    2012-03-31

    Impairments in emotional processing have been associated with anorexia nervosa. However, it is unknown whether neural and behavioural differences in the processing of emotional stimuli persist following recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural processing of emotional faces in individuals recovered from anorexia nervosa compared with healthy controls. Thirty-two participants (16 recovered anorexia nervosa, 16 healthy controls) underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Participants viewed fearful and happy emotional faces and indicated the gender of the face presented. Whole brain analysis revealed no significant differences between the groups to the contrasts of fear versus happy and vice versa. Region of interest analysis demonstrated no significant differences in the neural response to happy or fearful stimuli between the groups in the amygdala or fusiform gyrus. These results suggest that processing of emotional faces may not be aberrant after recovery from anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender, socioeconomic status, age, and jealousy: emotional responses to infidelity in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Melanie C; Sabini, John

    2006-05-01

    The authors used a representative national sample (N = 777) to test the evolutionary hypothesis that men would be more bothered by sexual infidelity and women by emotional infidelity, the Jealousy as a Specific Innate Module (JSIM) effect. Our alternative conceptualization of jealousy suggests that there are distinct emotional components of jealousy that did not evolve differently by gender. The authors looked for effects of age, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of measure (continuous or dichotomous) on jealousy. The authors did not find age or SES effects. Forced-choice items provided support for our alternative view; both genders showed more anger and blame over sexual infidelity but more hurt feelings over emotional infidelity. Continuous measures indicated more emotional response to sexual than emotional infidelity among both genders. 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  9. The impact of intranasal oxytocin on attention to social emotional stimuli in patients with anorexia nervosa: a double blind within-subject cross-over experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youl-Ri Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Social factors may be of importance causally and act as maintenance factors in patients with anorexia nervosa. Oxytocin is a neuromodulatory hormone involved in social emotional processing associated with attentional processes. This study aimed to examine the impact of oxytocin on attentional processes to social faces representing anger, disgust, and happiness in patients with anorexia nervosa. METHOD: A double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject crossover design was used. Intranasal oxytocin or placebo followed by a visual probe detection task with faces depicting anger, disgust, and happiness was administered to 64 female subjects: 31 patients with anorexia nervosa and 33 control students. RESULTS: Attentional bias to the disgust stimuli was observed in both groups under the placebo condition. The attentional bias to disgust was reduced under the oxytocin condition (a moderate effect in the patient group. Avoidance of angry faces was observed in the patient group under the placebo condition and vigilance was observed in the healthy comparison group; both of these information processing responses were moderated by oxytocin producing an increase in vigilance in the patients. Happy/smiling faces did not elicit an attentional response in controls or the patients under either the placebo or oxytocin conditions. CONCLUSION: Oxytocin attenuated attentional vigilance to disgust in patients with anorexia nervosa and healthy controls. On the other hand, oxytocin changed the response to angry faces from avoidance to vigilance in patients but reduced vigilance to anger in healthy controls. We conclude that patients with anorexia nervosa appear to use different strategies/circuits to emotionally process anger from their healthy counterparts.

  10. Consumer Perceptions About Pilot Training: An Emotional Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Timothy G.

    Civilian pilot training has followed a traditional path for several decades. With a potential pilot shortage approaching, ICAO proposed a new paradigm in pilot training methodology called the Multi-Crew Pilot License. This new methodology puts a pilot in the cockpit of an airliner with significantly less flight time experience than the traditional methodology. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent gender, country of origin and pilot training methodology effect an aviation consumer's willingness to fly. Additionally, this study attempted to determine what emotions mediate a consumer's decision. This study surveyed participants from India and the United States to measure their willingness to fly using the Willingness to Fly Scale shown to be valid and reliable by Rice et al. (2015). The scale uses a five point Likert-type scale. In order to determine the mediating emotions, Ekman and Friesen's (1979) universal emotions, which are happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sadness were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive statistics are provided for respondent's age and willingness to fly values. An ANOVA was conducted to test the first four hypotheses and Hayes (2004, 2008) bootstrapping process was used for the mediation analysis. Results indicated a significant main effect for training, F(1,972) = 227.76, p . .001, etap 2 = 0.190, country of origin, F(1, 972) = 28.86, p Mediation analysis indicated the emotions anger, fear, happiness, and surprise mediated the relationship between training and country of origin, and training. The findings of this study are important to designers of MPL training programs and airline marketers.

  11. Like mother, like daughter? An examination of the emotive responses to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sarah; Katsikitis, Mary; Mulgrew, Kate

    2015-06-01

    The modelling of sub-clinical eating disorders and emotive responses to food between mothers and their early adolescent daughters was investigated. Twenty dyads viewed images of food and rated their levels of happiness, fear and disgust. Results suggest similarities between mothers' and daughters' emotive responses, but the exact nature of this relationship differed across food type and response type. Disordered eating was only related to responses to the low-calorie foods. Furthermore, mother's eating disorders symptoms were related to concerns about shape and weight in the daughters (all ps emotive responses to food within the dyad which may inform family-based intervention efforts in the prevention of eating disorders in young women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Characterizing emotional response to music in the prefrontal cortex using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Saba; Kushki, Azadeh; Guerguerian, Anne Marie; Chau, Tom

    2012-09-06

    Known to be involved in emotional processing the human prefrontal cortex (PFC), can be non-invasively monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). As such, PFC NIRS can serve as a means for studying emotional processing by the PFC. Identifying patterns associated with emotions in PFC using NIRS may provide a means of bedside emotion identification for nonverbal children and youth with severe physical disabilities. In this study, NIRS was used to characterize the PFC hemodynamic response to emotional arousal and valence in a music-based emotion induction paradigm in 9 individuals without disabilities or known health conditions. In particular, a novel technique based on wavelet-based peak detection was used to characterize chromophore concentration patterns. The maximum wavelet coefficients extracted from oxygenated hemoglobin concentration waveforms from all nine recording locations on the PFC were significantly associated with emotional valence and arousal. Specifically, high arousal and negative emotions were associated with larger maximum wavelet coefficients. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Antioxidant responses of chickpea plants subjected to boron toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardic, M; Sekmen, A H; Tokur, S; Ozdemir, F; Turkan, I

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated oxidative stress and the antioxidant response to boron (B) of chickpea cultivars differing in their tolerance to drought. Three-week-old chickpea seedlings were subjected to 0.05 (control), 1.6 or 6.4 mm B in the form of boric acid (H(3)BO(3)) for 7 days. At the end of the treatment period, shoot length, dry weight, chlorophyll fluorescence, B concentration, malondialdehyte content and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were measured. The 1.6 mm B treatment did not cause significant changes in shoot length of cultivars, although shoot length increased in the drought-tolerant Gökce and decreased in the drought-sensitive Küsmen after 6.4 mm B treatment. Dry weights of both cultivars decreased with 6.4 mm B treatment. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) did not change in Gökce at either B level. Nor did it change in Küsmen with 1.6 mm B but Fv/Fm decreased with 6.4 mm B. Boron concentration in the shoots of both cultivars increased significantly with increasing levels of applied B. Significant increases in total SOD activity were observed in shoots of both cultivars given 1.6 and 6.4 mm B. Shoot extracts exhibited five activity bands, two of which were identified as MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD. In comparison to the control group, all enzyme activities (except APX and SOD) decreased with 1.6 mm B stress. GR activity decreased, while activities of CAT, POX and APX did not change with 6.4 mm B in Küsmen. On the other hand, activities of CAT, APX and SOD increased in Gökce at both B levels. In addition, lipid peroxidation was higher in Küsmen than in Gökce, indicating more damage by B to membrane lipids in the former cultivar. These results suggest that (i) Gökce is tolerant and Küsmen is sensitive to B, and (ii) B tolerance of Gökce might be closely related to increased capacity of the antioxidative system (total SOD, CAT and APX) to

  14. This advert makes me cry: Disclosure of emotional response to advertisement on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Mogaji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As social media is transforming how consumers interact with brands and how brand-related content is consumed, this paper aims to investigate if and how Facebook users express their emotions towards advertisements of brand share on the site. Seven hundred and three comments about the Lloyds 250th Anniversary advertisement on Facebook were analysed as positive, negative or neutral attitude towards the advert. Facebook users found the advertisement emotionally appealing and voluntarily report their emotion of love, pride and in some cases anger. The presence of an iconic image like the black horse and the cover music was found to be emotionally appealing. The background music as well aroused positive emotions and engaging. This study introduces the possibility of analysing Facebook comments on brand content to understand consumers’ emotional responses and attitudes to the brand. Managers can explore these opportunities to identify what consumers find interesting in advertisements and how best to develop their creative strategies. It also offers the opportunity to allocate resources better to engage consumers with creative advertisement. Unlike interviews or surveys, this is a pioneering study on measuring emotional responses to advertisement through users’ self-report on social media.

  15. You can't drink a word: lexical and individual emotionality affect subjective familiarity judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, Chris

    2014-10-01

    For almost 30 years, subjective familiarity has been used in psycholinguistics as an explanatory variable, allegedly able to explain many phenomena that have no other obvious explanation (Gernsbacher in J Exp Psychol General 113:256-281, 1984). In this paper, the hypothesis tested is that the subjective familiarity of words is reflecting personal familiarity with or importance of the referents of words. Using an empirically-grounded model of affective force derived from Wundt (Grundriss der Psychologie [Outlines of Psychology]. Engelmann, Leibzig, 1896) and based in a co-occurrence model of semantics (which involves no human judgment), it is shown that affective force can account for the same variance in a large set of human subjective familiarity judgments as other human subjective familiarity judgments, can predict whether people will rate new words of the same objective frequency as more or less familiar, can predict lexical access as well as human subjective familiarity judgments do, and has a predicted relationship to age of acquisition norms. Individuals who have highly affective reactivity [as measured by Carver and White's (J Pers Soc Psychol 67(2):319-333, 1994) Behavioral Inhibition Scale and Behavioral Activation Scales] rate words as significantly more familiar than individuals who have low affective reactivity.

  16. Complexities of Emotional Responses to Social and Nonsocial Affective Stimuli in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel S. Peterman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adaptive emotional responses are important in interpersonal relationships. We investigated self-reported emotional experience, physiological reactivity, and micro-facial expressivity in relation to the social nature of stimuli in individuals with schizophrenia.METHOD: Galvanic skin response (GSR and facial electromyography (fEMG were recorded in medicated outpatients with schizophrenia (SZ and demograph-ically-matched healthy controls (CO while they viewed social and non-social im-ages from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS. Participants rated the valence and arousal, and selected a label for experienced emotions. Symp-tom severity in the SZ, and schizotypy in CO were assessed.RESULTS: The two groups did not differ in their labeling of the emotions evoked by the stimuli, but individuals with schizophrenia were more positive in their va-lence ratings. Although self-reported arousal was similar in both groups, GSR was greater in schizophrenia, suggesting differential awareness or calibration of internal states. Both groups reported social images to be more arousing than non-social images but their physiological responses to nonsocial vs. social imag-es were different. Self-reported arousal to neutral social images was correlated with positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Negative symptoms in SZ and disor-ganized schizotypy in CO were associated with reduced fEMG. Greater corruga-tor fEMG activity for positive images in SZ indicates valence-incongruent facial expressions.CONCLUSIONS: The patterns of emotional responses differed between the two groups. While both groups were in broad agreement in self-reported arousal and emotion labels, their GSR and fEMG correlates of emotion diverged in relation to the social nature of the stimuli and clinical measures. Importantly, these results suggest disrupted self awareness of internal states in schizophrenia and under-score the complexities of emotion processing in health and

  17. Cortisol awakening response and negative emotionality linked to asymmetry in major limbic fibre bundle architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Jernigan, Terry L; Iversen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    the architecture of connections between limbic structures may be linked to individual differences in basal HPA-axis reactivity and negative emotionality is unknown. Here we tested the hypotheses that microstructural asymmetry of the major limbic fibre bundles would be associated with cortisol awakening response......-sided limbic circuits may bear an important relationship to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity, and to the tendency to experience negative emotions, and they raise important questions about the significance of limbic system architecture....

  18. Single-subject analyses of magnetoencephalographic evoked responses to the acoustic properties of affective non-verbal vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia, Emilie; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Kotz, Sonja A; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Pernet, Cyril R; Gross, Joachim; Belin, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Magneto-encephalography (MEG) was used to examine the cerebral response to affective non-verbal vocalizations (ANVs) at the single-subject level. Stimuli consisted of non-verbal affect bursts from the Montreal Affective Voices morphed to parametrically vary acoustical structure and perceived emotional properties. Scalp magnetic fields were recorded in three participants while they performed a 3-alternative forced choice emotion categorization task (Anger, Fear, Pleasure). Each participant performed more than 6000 trials to allow single-subject level statistical analyses using a new toolbox which implements the general linear model (GLM) on stimulus-specific responses (LIMO-EEG). For each participant we estimated "simple" models [including just one affective regressor (Arousal or Valence)] as well as "combined" models (including acoustical regressors). Results from the "simple" models revealed in every participant the significant early effects (as early as ~100 ms after onset) of Valence and Arousal already reported at the group-level in previous work. However, the "combined" models showed that few effects of Arousal remained after removing the acoustically-explained variance, whereas significant effects of Valence remained especially at late stages. This study demonstrates (i) that single-subject analyses replicate the results observed at early stages by group-level studies and (ii) the feasibility of GLM-based analysis of MEG data. It also suggests that early modulation of MEG amplitude by affective stimuli partly reflects their acoustical properties.

  19. Single-subject analyses of magnetoencephalographic evoked responses to the acoustic properties of affective non-verbal vocalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie eSalvia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-encephalography (MEG was used to examine the cerebral response to affective non-verbal vocalizations (ANVs at the single-subject level. Stimuli consisted of nonverbal affect bursts from the Montreal Affective Voices morphed to parametrically vary acoustical structure and perceived emotional properties. Scalp magnetic fields were recorded in three participants while they performed a 3-alternative forced choice emotion categorization task (Anger, Fear, Pleasure. Each participant performed more than 6000 trials to allow single-subject level statistical analyses using a new toolbox which implements the general linear model (GLM on stimulus-specific responses (LIMO-EEG. For each participant we estimated ‘simple’ models (including just one affective regressor (Arousal or Valence as well as ‘combined’ models (including acoustical regressors. Results from the ‘simple’ models revealed in every participant the significant early effects (as early as ~100 ms after onset of Valence and Arousal already reported at the group-level in previous work. However, the ‘combined’ models showed that few effects of Arousal remained after removing the acoustically-explained variance, whereas significant effects of Valence remained especially at late stages. This study demonstrates (i that single-subject analyses replicate the results observed at early stages by group-level studies and (ii the feasibility of GLM-based analysis of MEG data. It also suggests that early modulation of MEG amplitude by affective stimuli partly reflects their acoustical properties.

  20. Cognitions, Emotions, and Sexual Response: Analysis of the Relationship among Automatic Thoughts, Emotional Responses, and Sexual Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, Pedro; Pinto-Gouveia,José

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between automatic thoughts and emotions presented during sexual activity and their correlation with sexual arousal was investigated. A total of 491 individuals (163 women and 232 men without sexual problems and 47 women and 49 men with a DSM-IV diagnosis of sexual dysfunction) completed the Sexual Modes Questionnaire (SMQ; Nobre and Pinto-Gouveia, Journal of Sex Research, 40, 368–382, 2003). Results indicated several significant correlations among automatic thoughts...

  1. Emotion Regulation in Emerging Adult Couples: Temperament, Attachment, and HPA Response to Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Powers, Sally

    2007-01-01

    Difficulty managing the stress of conflict in close relationships can lead to mental and physical health problems, possibly through dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the neuroendocrine stress response system. Temperament, an individual characteristic, and attachment, a dyadic characteristic, have both been implicated in emotion regulation processes and physiological reactivity, yet there is no clear consensus on how the two work together to influence the stress response, especially after childhood. The present study investigated the ways in which temperament and attachment together predict HPA response in emerging adult couples. Analyses using multilevel modeling (HLM) found that partners' dyadic fit on attachment avoidance impacted females' cortisol response patterns, and attachment avoidance further moderated the effect of males' emotionality on both their own and their partners' cortisol. Results are discussed in terms of emotional coregulation processes in romantic attachment. PMID:17681662

  2. Why expressive suppression does not pay? Cognitive costs of negative emotion suppression: The mediating role of subjective tense-arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygieł Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive consequences of expressive suppression. Specifically, we examined whether the deteriorating effect of expressive suppression on cognitive functioning is caused by tense arousal enhanced by suppression. Two experiments were performed in order to test this prediction. In both studies we tested the effect of expressive suppression on working memory, as measured with a backwards digit-span task (Study 1, N = 43 and anagram problem-solving task (Study 2, N = 60. In addition, in Study 2 we tested whether expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression. Both studies were conducted in a similar design: Participants watched a film clip which evoked negative emotions (i.e. disgust in Study 1 and a combination of sadness and anxiety in Study 2 under the instruction to suppress those negative emotions or (in the control condition to simply watch the film. The results of these experiments lead to three conclusions. First, the results reveal that expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression and leads to poorer performance on working memory tasks, as measured with a backwards digit-span task and anagram problem-solving task. Second, the results indicate that expressive suppression leads to a significant increase in subjective tense arousal. Third, the results support our prediction that expressive suppression decreases cognitive performance through its effects on subjective tense arousal. The results of the Study 1 show that tense arousal activated during expressive suppression of disgust fully mediates the negative effect of suppression on working memory as measured with a backwards digit-span task. The results of Study 2 reveal that subjective tense arousal elicited while suppressing sadness and anxiety mediates both the effect of suppression on

  3. Infant Pupil Diameter Changes in Response to Others' Positive and Negative Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geangu, Elena; Hauf, Petra; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Bentz, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that infants resonate emotionally to others' positive and negative affect displays, and that these responses become stronger towards emotions with negative valence around the age of 12-months. In this study we measured 6- and 12-month-old infants' changes in pupil diameter when presented with the image and sound of peers experiencing happiness, distress and an emotionally neutral state. For all participants the perception of another's distress triggered larger pupil diameters. Perceiving other's happiness also induced larger pupil diameters but for shorter time intervals. Importantly, we also found evidence for an asymmetry in autonomous arousal towards positive versus negative emotional displays. Larger pupil sizes for another's distress compared to another's happiness were recorded shortly after stimulus onset for the older infants, and in a later time window for the 6-month-olds. These findings suggest that arousal responses for negative as well as for positive emotions are present in the second half of the first postnatal year. Importantly, an asymmetry with stronger responses for negative emotions seems to be already present at this age. PMID:22110605

  4. Infant pupil diameter changes in response to others' positive and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geangu, Elena; Hauf, Petra; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Bentz, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that infants resonate emotionally to others' positive and negative affect displays, and that these responses become stronger towards emotions with negative valence around the age of 12-months. In this study we measured 6- and 12-month-old infants' changes in pupil diameter when presented with the image and sound of peers experiencing happiness, distress and an emotionally neutral state. For all participants the perception of another's distress triggered larger pupil diameters. Perceiving other's happiness also induced larger pupil diameters but for shorter time intervals. Importantly, we also found evidence for an asymmetry in autonomous arousal towards positive versus negative emotional displays. Larger pupil sizes for another's distress compared to another's happiness were recorded shortly after stimulus onset for the older infants, and in a later time window for the 6-month-olds. These findings suggest that arousal responses for negative as well as for positive emotions are present in the second half of the first postnatal year. Importantly, an asymmetry with stronger responses for negative emotions seems to be already present at this age.

  5. Pupillary responses reveal infants' discrimination of facial emotions independent of conscious perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Sarah; Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Sensitive responding to others' emotions is essential during social interactions among humans. There is evidence for the existence of subcortically mediated emotion discrimination processes that occur independent of conscious perception in adults. However, only recently work has begun to examine the development of automatic emotion processing systems during infancy. In particular, it is unclear whether emotional expressions impact infants' autonomic nervous system regardless of conscious perception. We examined this question by measuring pupillary responses while subliminally and supraliminally presenting 7-month-old infants with happy and fearful faces. Our results show greater pupil dilation, indexing enhanced autonomic arousal, in response to happy compared to fearful faces regardless of conscious perception. Our findings suggest that, early in ontogeny, emotion discrimination occurs independent of conscious perception and is associated with differential autonomic responses. This provides evidence for the view that automatic emotion processing systems are an early-developing building block of human social functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-response to sad mood induction: implications for emotion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kovacs, Maria; Yaroslavsky, Ilya

    2017-05-03

    Experimental induction of sad mood states is a mainstay of laboratory research on affect and cognition, mood regulation, and mood disorders. Typically, the success of such mood manipulations is reported as a statistically significant pre- to post-induction change in the self-rated intensity of the target affect. The present commentary was motivated by an unexpected finding in one of our studies concerning the response rate to a well-validated sad mood induction. Using the customary statistical approach, we found a significant mean increase in self-rated sadness intensity with a moderate effect size, verifying the "success" of the mood induction. However, that "success" masked that, between one-fifth and about one-third of our samples (adolescents who had histories of childhood-onset major depressive disorder and healthy controls) reported absolutely no sadness in response to the mood induction procedure. We consider implications of our experience for emotion research by (1) commenting upon the typically overlooked phenomenon of nonresponse, (2) suggesting changes in reporting practices regarding mood induction success, and (3) outlining future directions to help scientists determine why some subjects do not respond to experimental mood induction.

  7. Dispositional Fear, Negative Affectivity, and Neuroimaging Response to Visually Suppressed Emotional Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizueta, Nathalie; Patrick, Christopher J.; Jiang, Yi; Thomas, Kathleen M.; He, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    “Invisible” stimulus paradigms provide a method for investigating basic affective processing in clinical and non-clinical populations. Neuroimaging studies utilizing continuous flash suppression (CFS) have shown increased amygdala response to invisible fearful versus neutral faces. The current study used CFS in conjunction with functional MRI to test for differences in brain reactivity to visible and invisible emotional faces in relation to two distinct trait dimensions relevant to psychopathology: negative affectivity (NA) and fearfulness. Subjects consisted of college students (N = 31) assessed for fear/fearlessness along with dispositional NA. The main brain regions of interest included the fusiform face area (FFA), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and amygdala. Higher NA, but not trait fear, was associated with enhanced response to fearful versus neutral faces in STS and right amygdala (but not FFA), within the invisible condition specifically. The finding that NA rather than fearfulness predicted degree of amygdala reactivity to suppressed faces implicates the input subdivision of the amygdala in the observed effects. Given the central role of NA in anxiety and mood disorders, the current data also support use of the CFS methodology for investigating the neurobiology of these disorders. PMID:21771661

  8. Healthy full-term infants' brain responses to emotionally and linguistically relevant sounds using a multi-feature mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostilainen, Kaisamari; Wikström, Valtteri; Pakarinen, Satu; Videman, Mari; Karlsson, Linnea; Keskinen, Maria; Scheinin, Noora M; Karlsson, Hasse; Huotilainen, Minna

    2018-01-24

    We evaluated the feasibility of a multi-feature mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm in studying auditory processing of healthy newborns. The aim was to examine the automatic change-detection and processing of semantic and emotional information in speech in newborns. Brain responses of 202 healthy newborns were recorded with a multi-feature paradigm including a Finnish bi-syllabic pseudo-word/ta-ta/as a standard stimulus, six linguistically relevant deviant stimuli and three emotionally relevant stimuli (happy, sad, angry). Clear responses to emotional sounds were found already at the early latency window 100-200 ms, whereas responses to linguistically relevant minor changes and emotional stimuli at the later latency window 300-500 ms did not reach significance. Moreover, significant interaction between gender and emotional stimuli was found in the early latency window. Further studies on using multi-feature paradigms with linguistic and emotional stimuli in newborns are needed, especially those containing of follow-ups, enabling the assessment of the predictive value of early variations between subjects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Anterior cingulate serotonin 1B receptor binding is associated with emotional response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Dam, Vibeke Høyrup; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Sestoft, Dorte; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-09-01

    Serotonin has a well-established role in emotional processing and is a key neurotransmitter in impulsive aggression, presumably by facilitating response inhibition and regulating subcortical reactivity to aversive stimuli. In this study 44 men, of whom 19 were violent offenders and 25 were non-offender controls, completed an emotional Go/NoGo task requiring inhibition of prepotent motor responses to emotional facial expressions. We also measured cerebral serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR) binding with [11C]AZ10419369 positron emission tomography within regions of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that 5-HT1BR would be positively associated with false alarms (failures to inhibit nogo responses) in the context of aversive (angry and fearful) facial expressions. Across groups, we found that frontal cortex 5-HT1BR binding was positively correlated with false alarms when angry faces were go stimuli and neutral faces were nogo stimuli (p = 0.05, corrected alpha = 0.0125), but not with false alarms for non-emotional stimuli (failures to inhibit geometric figures). A posthoc analysis revealed the strongest association in anterior cingulate cortex (p = 0.006). In summary, 5-HT1BRs in the anterior cingulate are involved in withholding a prepotent response in the context of angry faces. Our findings suggest that serotonin modulates response inhibition in the context of certain emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The interplay between partners' responsiveness and patients' need for emotional expression in couples coping with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagan, Meirav; Sanderman, Robbert; Hoff, Christiaan; Meijerink, W. J. H. Jeroen; Baas, Peter C.; van Haastert, Michiel; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2014-01-01

    The central aim of this longitudinal observational study was to test whether patients with a high need for emotional expression are especially sensitive to their partners' responsive behavior, and therefore at risk for depressive symptoms when responsiveness is withheld. Patients with colorectal

  11. Assessing Adolescents' Anticipated Behavioral and Emotional Responses to Offers of Alcohol and Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pristas, Erica V.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2010-01-01

    The Adolescent Responses to Alcohol and Drug Offers Scale (ARADOS) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess a respondent's anticipated emotional reactions and intended use of cognitive-behavioral refusal skills in response to an offer of alcohol or other drug. A sample of 267 students enrolled in the 11th and 12th grades of four public…

  12. Is outcome responsibility at work emotionally exhausting? Investigating employee proactivity as a moderator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; den Hartog, D.N.; Belschak, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between outcome responsibility and employees’ well-being in terms of emotional exhaustion. Outcome responsibility is a job demand implying that employees’ decisions at work have high material and/or nonmaterial consequences. Previous research indicates that

  13. Understanding Nonproductive System Responses to Emotionally Disturbed and Behaviorally Disordered Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Maria Frudden; Rezmierski, Virginia

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes a model for understanding system level responses to the cognitive dissonance produced by working with emotionally disturbed/behavior disordered students. Responses to mild, moderate, and severe levels of dissonance are cited, and the dibilitating effects of increasing threats to a system's order are portrayed. (CL)

  14. Beyond the lab: Investigating early adolescents' cognitive, emotional, and arousal responses to violent games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, K.M.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    Cognitive, emotional, and arousal responses to violent games play a central role in theoretical explanations of how violent media may affect aggression. However, existing research has focused on a relatively narrow range of responses to violent games in experimental settings. This limits our

  15. Children's Emotionality Moderates the Association Between Maternal Responsiveness and Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Evans, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    high and low maternal responsiveness on allostatic load, a physiological indicator of chronic stress. Participants were 226 mother and child dyads. Mothers reported on children's emotionality at child age 9. Maternal responsiveness was measured at age 13 using self-reports and behavioral observation...

  16. Comparison of verbal and emotional responses of elderly people with mild/moderate dementia and those with severe dementia in responses to seal robot, PARO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue eTakayanagi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The differences in verbal and emotional responses to a baby seal robot, PARO, of elderly people with dementia residing at an elderly nursing care facility were analyzed. There were two groups of elderly people: one was with mild/moderate dementia (M-group that consisted with 19 elderly residents in the general ward, and the other was with severe dementia (S-group that consisted with 11 elderly residents in the dementia ward.Method: Each elderly resident in both groups interacted with either PARO or a control (stuffed lion toy: Lion brought by a staff at each resident’s private room. Their responses were recorded on video. Behavioral analysis of the initial 6 minutes of the interaction was conducted using a time sampling method. Results: In both groups, subjects talked more frequently to PARO than to Lion, showed more positive changes in emotional expression with PARO than with Lion, and laughed more frequently with PARO than with Lion. Subjects in M-group even showed more negative emotional expressions with Lion than with PARO. Furthermore, subjects in S-group showed neutral expression more frequently with Lion than with PARO, suggesting more active interaction with PARO. For subjects in M-group, frequencies of touching and stroking, frequencies of talking to staff member, and frequencies of talking initiated by staff member were significantly higher with Lion than with PARO.Conclusion: The elderly people both with mild/moderate dementia and with severe dementia showed greater interest in PARO than in Lion. The results suggest that introducing PARO may increase willingness of the staff members to communicate and work with elderly people with dementia, especially those with mild/moderate dementia who express their demand of communication more than those with severe dementia.

  17. Comparison of Verbal and Emotional Responses of Elderly People with Mild/Moderate Dementia and Those with Severe Dementia in Responses to Seal Robot, PARO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Kazue; Kirita, Takahiro; Shibata, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    The differences in verbal and emotional responses to a baby seal robot, PARO, of elderly people with dementia residing at an elderly nursing care facility were analyzed. There were two groups of elderly people: one was with mild/moderate dementia (M-group) that consisted with 19 elderly residents in the general ward, and the other was with severe dementia (S-group) that consisted with 11 elderly residents in the dementia ward. Each elderly resident in both groups interacted with either PARO or a control (stuffed lion toy: Lion) brought by a staff at each resident's private room. Their responses were recorded on video. Behavioral analysis of the initial 6 min of the interaction was conducted using a time sampling method. In both groups, subjects talked more frequently to PARO than to Lion, showed more positive changes in emotional expression with PARO than with Lion, and laughed more frequently with PARO than with Lion. Subjects in M-group even showed more negative emotional expressions with Lion than with PARO. Furthermore, subjects in S-group showed neutral expression more frequently with Lion than with PARO, suggesting more active interaction with PARO. For subjects in M-group, frequencies of touching and stroking, frequencies of talking to staff member, and frequencies of talking initiated by staff member were significantly higher with Lion than with PARO. The elderly people both with mild/moderate dementia and with severe dementia showed greater interest in PARO than in Lion. The results suggest that introducing PARO may increase willingness of the staff members to communicate and work with elderly people with dementia, especially those with mild/moderate dementia who express their demand of communication more than those with severe dementia.

  18. Listening to the Shepard-Risset glissando: the relationship between emotional response, disruption of equilibrium and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline eVernooij

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The endless scale illusion, obtained by cyclically repeating a chromatic scale made up of Shepard tones, has been used in a variety of musical works. Music psychology and neuroscience has been interested in this particular psychoacoustic phenomenon mainly for studying the cognitive processes of pitch perception involved. In the present study, we investigated the emotional states induced by the Shepard-Risset glissando, a variant of the Shepard scale. For this purpose we chose three musical stimuli: a Matlab-generated Shepard Risset glissando, Jean-Claude Risset’s Computer Suite from Little Boy, which presents a Shepard-Risset glissando integrated in the aesthetic context of a composition, and an ordinary orchestral glissando taken from the opening of Iannis Xenakis’ Metastasis. Seventy-three volunteers completed a listening experiment during which they rated their emotional response to these stimuli on a 7-point Likert scale and indicated whether they had experienced a disruption of equilibrium. Personality was also measured with the Five-Factor Model of personality traits.The results show that negative emotions were most strongly evoked during listening to each of the stimuli. We also found that the Shepard-Risset glissando illusion, both within the aesthetic context of a musical composition and on its own, was capable of evoking disruption of equilibrium, frequently leading to the associated feeling of falling. Moreover, generally for the Shepard-Risset glissando illusion, higher negative emotional ratings were given by individuals who had experienced a feeling of disturbance of equilibrium relative to those who had not had this experience. Finally, we found a complex pattern of relationships between personality and the subjective experience of the glissando. Openness to experience correlated positively with positive emotion ratings for the Computer Suite, while agreeableness correlated negatively with positive emotion ratings for the

  19. Listening to the Shepard-Risset Glissando: the Relationship between Emotional Response, Disruption of Equilibrium, and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernooij, Eveline; Orcalli, Angelo; Fabbro, Franco; Crescentini, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    The endless scale illusion, obtained by cyclically repeating a chromatic scale made up of Shepard tones, has been used in a variety of musical works. Music psychology and neuroscience has been interested in this particular psychoacoustic phenomenon mainly for studying the cognitive processes of pitch perception involved. In the present study, we investigated the emotional states induced by the Shepard-Risset glissando, a variant of the Shepard scale. For this purpose we chose three musical stimuli: a Matlab-generated Shepard Risset glissando, Jean-Claude Risset's Computer Suite from Little Boy, which presents a Shepard-Risset glissando integrated in the aesthetic context of a composition, and an ordinary orchestral glissando taken from the opening of Iannis Xenakis's Metastasis. Seventy-three volunteers completed a listening experiment during which they rated their emotional response to these stimuli on a seven-point Likert scale and indicated whether they had experienced a disruption of equilibrium. Personality was also measured with the Five-Factor Model of personality traits. The results show that negative emotions were most strongly evoked during listening to each of the stimuli. We also found that the Shepard-Risset glissando illusion, both within the aesthetic context of a musical composition and on its own, was capable of evoking disruption of equilibrium, frequently leading to the associated feeling of falling. Moreover, generally for the Shepard-Risset glissando illusion, higher negative emotional ratings were given by individuals who had experienced a feeling of disturbance of equilibrium relative to those who had not had this experience. Finally, we found a complex pattern of relationships between personality and the subjective experience of the glissando. Openness to experience correlated positively with positive emotion ratings for the Computer Suite, while agreeableness correlated negatively with positive emotion ratings for the Matlab stimulus

  20. Emotional Responses to Self-Injury Imagery among Adults with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Stacy Shaw; Linehan, Marsha M.; Sylvers, Patrick; Chittams, Jesse; Rizvi, Shireen L.

    2008-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SAs) are especially prevalent in borderline personality disorder. One proposed mechanism for the maintenance of NSSI and SAs is escape conditioning, whereby immediate reductions in aversive emotional states negatively reinforce the behaviors. Psychophysiological and subjective indicators of…

  1. Clinicians' emotional responses and Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual adult personality disorders: A clinically relevant empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzillo, Francesco; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Del Corno, Franco; Genova, Federica; Bornstein, Robert F; Gordon, Robert M; McWilliams, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between level of personality organization and type of personality disorder as assessed with the categories in the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM; PDM Task Force, 2006) and the emotional responses of treating clinicians. We asked 148 Italian clinicians to assess 1 of their adult patients in treatment for personality disorders with the Psychodiagnostic Chart (PDC; Gordon & Bornstein, 2012) and the Personality Diagnostic Prototype (PDP; Gazzillo, Lingiardi, & Del Corno, 2012) and to complete the Therapist Response Questionnaire (TRQ; Betan, Heim, Zittel-Conklin, & Westen, 2005). The patients' level of overall personality pathology was positively associated with helpless and overwhelmed responses in clinicians and negatively associated with positive emotional responses. A parental and disengaged response was associated with the depressive, anxious, and dependent personality disorders; an exclusively parental response with the phobic personality disorder; and a parental and criticized response with narcissistic disorder. Dissociative disorder evoked a helpless and parental response in the treating clinicians whereas somatizing disorder elicited a disengaged reaction. An overwhelmed and disengaged response was associated with sadistic and masochistic personality disorders, with the latter also associated with a parental and hostile/criticized reaction; an exclusively overwhelmed response with psychopathic patients; and a helpless response with paranoid patients. Finally, patients with histrionic personality disorder evoked an overwhelmed and sexualized response in their clinicians whereas there was no specific emotional reaction associated with the schizoid and the obsessive-compulsive disorders. Clinical implications of these findings were discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Updating schematic emotional facial expressions in working memory: Response bias and sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Gerly; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Harro, Jaanus; Cowan, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    It is unclear if positive, negative, or neutral emotional expressions have an advantage in short-term recognition. Moreover, it is unclear from previous studies of working memory for emotional faces whether effects of emotions comprise response bias or sensitivity. The aim of this study was to compare how schematic emotional expressions (sad, angry, scheming, happy, and neutral) are discriminated and recognized in an updating task (2-back recognition) in a representative sample of birth cohort of young adults. Schematic facial expressions allow control of identity processing, which is separate from expression processing, and have been used extensively in attention research but not much, until now, in working memory research. We found that expressions with a U-curved mouth (i.e., upwardly curved), namely happy and scheming expressions, favoured a bias towards recognition (i.e., towards indicating that the probe and the stimulus in working memory are the same). Other effects of emotional expression were considerably smaller (1-2% of the variance explained)) compared to a large proportion of variance that was explained by the physical similarity of items being compared. We suggest that the nature of the stimuli plays a role in this. The present application of signal detection methodology with emotional, schematic faces in a working memory procedure requiring fast comparisons helps to resolve important contradictions that have emerged in the emotional perception literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Emotional hyperreactivity in response to childhood abuse by primary caregivers in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud

    2015-09-01

    One of the core postulated features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is extreme emotional reactivity to a wide array of evocative stimuli. Findings from previous experimental research however are mixed, and some theories suggest specificity of hyper emotional responses, as being related to abuse, rejection and abandonment only. The current experiment examines the specificity of emotional hyperreactivity in BPD. The impact of four film clips (BPD-specific: childhood abuse by primary caregivers; BPD-nonspecific: peer bullying; positive; and neutral) on self-reported emotional affect was assessed in three female groups; BPD-patients (n = 24), cluster C personality disorder patients (n = 17) and non-patient controls (n = 23). Results showed that compared to the neutral film clip, BPD-patients reacted with more overall negative affect following the childhood abuse clip, and with more anger following the peer bullying clip than the two other groups. The current study was restricted to assessment of the impact of evocative stimuli on self-reported emotions, and the order in which the film clips were presented to the participants was fixed. Results suggest that BPD-patients only react generally excessively emotional to stimuli related to childhood abuse by primary caregivers, and with excessive anger to peer-bullying stimuli. These findings are thus not in line with the core idea of general emotional hyperreactvity in BPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary physiological evidence for impaired emotion regulation in depersonalization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monde, Kai-Mosadi; Ketay, Sarah; Giesbrecht, Timo; Braun, Ashley; Simeon, Daphne

    2013-09-30

    Depersonalization disorder is associated with emotional responding deficits. Ability to regulate emotion was measured by heart rate, skin conductance, and subjective responses to pictures. Compared to controls, depersonalized participants were better able to suppress, but not enhance, emotions irrespective of valence (heart rate). Emotion regulation in depersonalization merits further study. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Lateral prefrontal cortex activity during cognitive control of emotion predicts response to social stress in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Tully, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LPFC dysfunction is a well-established neural impairment in schizophrenia and is associated with worse symptoms. However, how LPFC activation influences symptoms is unclear. Previous findings in healthy individuals demonstrate that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC activation during cognitive control of emotional information predicts mood and behavior in response to interpersonal conflict, thus impairments in these processes may contribute to symptom exacerbation in schizophrenia. We investigated whether schizophrenia participants show LPFC deficits during cognitive control of emotional information, and whether these LPFC deficits prospectively predict changes in mood and symptoms following real-world interpersonal conflict. During fMRI, 23 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 24 healthy controls completed the Multi-Source Interference Task superimposed on neutral and negative pictures. Afterwards, schizophrenia participants completed a 21-day online daily-diary in which they rated the extent to which they experienced mood and schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, as well as the occurrence and response to interpersonal conflict. Schizophrenia participants had lower dorsal LPFC activity (BA9 during cognitive control of task-irrelevant negative emotional information. Within schizophrenia participants, DLPFC activity during cognitive control of emotional information predicted changes in positive and negative mood on days following highly distressing interpersonal conflicts. Results have implications for understanding the specific role of LPFC in response to social stress in schizophrenia, and suggest that treatments targeting LPFC-mediated cognitive control of emotion could promote adaptive response to social stress in schizophrenia.

  6. Feeling is believing: emotional reasoning in obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, Miriam; Cath, Danielle; Engelhard, I.M; van Oppen, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Information processing in anxiety patients is characterized by biases and thinking errors. One of these reasoning biases includes emotional reasoning: the tendency to draw conclusions about a situation based on subjective emotional response about this situation rather than objective information.

  7. [The pain-emotion: Advocating pain as an emotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca Das Neves, J; Sule, N; Serra, E

    2017-12-01

    Pain is a common experience, both physical and emotional. However we often feel powerless with our patients suffering pain. This paper aims to give a new heuristic and psychological understanding of pain. According to new theories, recent researches as well as different points of view, we form an analogy between pain and emotion. Throughout historical considerations pain has always been perceived through theories and beliefs, changing its definition. This is also the case for emotion. Could they be two ways of expressing a single phenomenon? First, we must clarify the definition of emotion. In past, emotion was considered as a multiple-conditioned notion. To be considered as an emotion the pain had to fill numerous features, which differ according to the scientific opinions. The emotion may be considered as a physical expression or perceived only as the consequences of a real emotion, i.e., the subjective feeling. We propose as a way of thinking that emotion brings together these two concepts. We support a flexible vision of emotion. To investigate the field of the emotion different mental steps may be thought of: we should conceive of the emotion as a stimulus, as an emotional evaluation and as a tendency to action, which becomes an emotional response. These steps are colored by subjective feelings. It can be summarized in three levels: the situation decoding (1), the response organization (2) and the effectiveness of the response (3). Second pain can be considered as a complex notion involving personal and subjective feelings. We can use multidimensional patterns and consider emotion with its multiple features: the generating mechanisms, the pain perception, the pain behavior and the environment. Each stage can be divided in different ways. Hence pain treatment could be approached as an emotional treatment. Indeed, we can make a link between generating mechanisms and emotion situation decoding, between pain perception and emotion situation decoding and response

  8. Individual differences in alexithymia and brain response to masked emotion faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, Maraike; Ohrmann, Patricia; Rauch, Astrid V; Kugel, Harald; Bauer, Jochen; Dannlowski, Udo; Arolt, Volker; Heindel, Walter; Suslow, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Alexithymia is considered a dimensional personality trait that refers to a cluster of deficits in the recognition, differentiation, and verbalization of emotions. Research on the neurobiology of alexithymia has focused hitherto on impairments in the controlled processing of emotional information. In the present study automatic brain reactivity to facial emotion was investigated as a function of alexithymia (as assessed by the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale - TAS-20). During 3T fMRI scanning, pictures of sad, happy, and neutral facial expression masked by neutral faces were presented to 33 healthy women. A priori regions of interest in the whole brain analysis were cerebral structures that are known to be crucially involved in the emotion perception from the face. Independently from trait anxiety and depression TAS-20 alexithymia was negatively correlated with activation to masked sad and happy faces in several regions of interest (in particular, insula, superior temporal gyrus, middle occipital and parahippocampal gyrus). In addition, the TAS-20 score was negatively correlated with response of the left amygdala to masked sad faces. A reduced automatic reactivity of the amygdala and visual occipito-temporal areas could implicate less automated engagement in the encoding of emotional stimuli in high alexithymia. In addition, a low spontaneous insular and amygdalar responsivity in high alexithymia individuals could be related to an attenuation of basic emotional experiences which may contribute to problems in identifying and differentiating one's feelings. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of behavioral inhibition and parenting for an unfavorable emotional trauma response and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselmann, E; Wittchen, H-U; Lieb, R; Höfler, M; Beesdo-Baum, K

    2015-04-01

    The role of behavioral inhibition (BI) and parenting for an unfavorable emotional trauma response (DSM-IV criterion A2) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) development is unclear. A community sample of adolescents and young adults (aged 14-24) was followed up over 10 years (N=2378). Traumatic events, criterion A2, and PTSD (according to DSM-IV-TR) were assessed using the M-CIDI. BI and parenting were assessed using the Retrospective Self-Report of Inhibition and the Questionnaire of Recalled Parenting Rearing Behavior. Multiple logistic regressions adjusted for sex, age, and number of traumata were used to examine associations of BI as well as maternal and paternal overprotection, rejection, and reduced emotional warmth with (i) criterion A2 in those with trauma (N=1794) and (ii) subsequent PTSD in those with criterion A2 (N=1160). Behavioral inhibition (BI; odds ratio, OR=1.32) and paternal overprotection (OR=1.27) predicted criterion A2 in those with trauma, while only BI (OR=1.53) predicted subsequent PTSD. BI and paternal emotional warmth interacted on subsequent PTSD (OR=1.32), that is, BI only predicted PTSD in those with low paternal emotional warmth. Our findings suggest that BI and adverse parenting increase the risk of an unfavorable emotional trauma response and subsequent PTSD. Paternal emotional warmth buffers the association between BI and PTSD development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Empathic accuracy of nurses' immediate responses to fibromyalgia patients' expressions of negative emotions: an evaluation using interaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Hilde; Sibbern, Tonje; Johannessen, Tone

    2011-06-01

    This paper is a report of an observation study designed to describe and evaluate nurses' immediate responses to fibromyalgia patients' expressions of negative emotions in first consultations at a pain clinic. Providing comfort to patients in emotional distress is an important task for nurses. Empathic accurate perception of patients' emotions is a precondition for empathic accurate responses. We analysed 58 videotaped assessment consultations with patients with fibromyalgia performed from April 2005 to June 2007. Implicit and explicit negative emotional expressions were identified with the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences. Nurses' responses were coded with the Hierarchical Coding System for Sensitivity of Comforting Strategies, with three levels of response to the person's perspective: (i) denial, (ii) implicit recognition or approval and (iii) explicit recognition of the expressed emotion. We identified 801 expressions of negative emotions, 591 implicit and 210 explicit, on average 14 per consultation. Nurses responded with implicit recognition, mostly using minimal encouragement, to 75% of emotional expressions, with explicit recognition to 13% of expressions while 12% of responses were not within the perspective of the patient. Nurses responded with a higher degree of explicit recognition (Level 3 responses) to patients' explicit negative emotional expressions. The effects of empathic accurate response to implicit and explicit expressions of negative emotions should be explored further. The combination of coding systems used appears to be valid and reliable for assessing verbal empathic accuracy by observers in nursing settings. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Anterior cingulate serotonin 1B receptor binding is associated with emotional response inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Dam, Vibeke Høyrup

    2017-01-01

    -offender controls, completed an emotional Go/NoGo task requiring inhibition of prepotent motor responses to emotional facial expressions. We also measured cerebral serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR) binding with [11C]AZ10419369 positron emission tomography within regions of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that 5......Serotonin has a well-established role in emotional processing and is a key neurotransmitter in impulsive aggression, presumably by facilitating response inhibition and regulating subcortical reactivity to aversive stimuli. In this study 44 men, of whom 19 were violent offenders and 25 were non......-HT1BR would be positively associated with false alarms (failures to inhibit nogo responses) in the context of aversive (angry and fearful) facial expressions. Across groups, we found that frontal cortex 5-HT1BR binding was positively correlated with false alarms when angry faces were go stimuli...

  12. Attention and emotional responses to sexual stimuli and their relationship to sexual desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prause, Nicole; Janssen, Erick; Hetrick, William P

    2008-12-01

    Little is known about why individuals vary in their levels of sexual desire. Information processing models, like Barlow's (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 54:140-148, 1986) model of sexual functioning, suggest that individuals with higher sexual desire attend more and respond with more pleasant emotions to sexual cues than individuals with lower levels of sexual desire. In this study, 69 participants (36 women, 33 men) completed a dot detection task measuring attention capture by sexual stimuli and a startle eyeblink modulation task indexing the valence of emotional response to affective stimuli. Participants with high levels of sexual desire were slower to detect targets in the dot detection task that replaced sexual images but did not differ in startle eyeblink responses to sexual stimuli. The results suggest that the amount of attention captured by sexual stimuli is a stronger predictor of a person's sexual desire level than the valence of the emotional responses elicited by such stimuli.

  13. Amygdala response to emotional faces in seasonal affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgsted, Camilla; Ozenne, Brice; Mc Mahon, Brenda

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by seasonally recurring depression. Heightened amygdala activation to aversive stimuli is associated with major depressive disorder but its relation to SAD is unclear. We evaluated seasonal variation in amygdala activation in SAD...... and healthy controls (HC) using a longitudinal design targeting the asymptomatic/symptomatic phases of SAD. We hypothesized increased amygdala activation to aversive stimuli in the winter in SAD individuals (season-by-group interaction). METHODS: Seventeen SAD individuals and 15 HCs completed an implicit...... emotional faces BOLD-fMRI paradigm during summer and winter. We computed amygdala activation (SPM5) to an aversive contrast (angry & fearful minus neutral) and angry, fearful and neutral faces, separately. Season-by-group and main effects were evaluated using Generalized Least Squares. In SAD individuals...

  14. Emotional, psychophysiological and behavioral responses elicited by the exposition to cyberbullying situations: Two experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona C.S. Caravita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experimental studies investigated whether the exposure to cyberbullying situations produces in bullied youth, and in young people in general, higher levels of stress, negative emotions, and attention levels, in comparison to other peer interactions, including bullying. In both studies, participants' physiological activation (Study 1 and 2 and behavioral data (Study 2 were recorded while watching four 1-minute videos representing cyberbullying, face-to-face bullying, prosocial, and neutral interactions. Self-report questionnaires assessed participants' emotional responses to the videos, and victimization. Sixty-one adolescents (65.7% girls participated in Study 1; 35 young adults (60% girls participated in Study 2. Results indicate that cyberbullying causes higher stress and negative emotions than prosocial and neutral peer interactions, but not than bullying. Cyberbullying also elicited higher levels of stress and negative emotions in victims than non-victims, but only for adolescents.

  15. Age-Related Differences in Response to Music-Evoked Emotion among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, K. G.; Quintin, E. M.; South, M.

    2016-01-01

    While research regarding emotion recognition in ASD has focused primarily on social cues, musical stimuli also elicit strong emotional responses. This study extends and expands the few previous studies of response to music in ASD, measuring both psychophysiological and behavioral responses in younger children (ages 8-11) as well as older…

  16. Priorities for Primary Education? From Subjects to Life-Skills and Children's Social and Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, Sarah; Twohig, Mairéad; Morgan, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what needs and purposes should the primary curriculum be chiefly directed in the coming decades? In a first step towards revising the primary curriculum, the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA) invited responses to an open online call to "have your say" on priorities for primary education. Respondents were asked to…

  17. Enhanced perceptual, emotional, and motor processing in response to dynamic facial expressions of emotion1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    YOSHIKAWA, SAKIKO; SATO, WATARU

    2006-01-01

    .... The results revealed that the broad region of visual cortices, the amygdala, and the right inferior frontal gyrus were more activated in response to dynamic facial expressions than control stimuli...

  18. Enhanced perceptual, emotional, and motor processing in response to dynamic facial expressions of emotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Sato, Wataru

    2006-01-01

    .... The results revealed that the broad region of visual cortices, the amygdala, and the right inferior frontal gyrus were more activated in response to dynamic facial expressions than control stimuli...

  19. Neural correlates of explicit and implicit emotion processing in relation to treatment response in pediatric anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhouse, Katie L; Kujawa, Autumn; Klumpp, Heide; Fitzgerald, Kate D; Monk, Christopher S; Phan, K Luan

    2017-05-01

    Approximately 40%-45% of youth with anxiety disorders do not achieve remission (or a substantial reduction in symptoms) following treatment, highlighting the need to identify predictors of treatment response. Given the well-established link between attentional biases and anxiety disorders in youth and adults, this study examined the neural correlates of directing attention toward and away from emotional faces in relation to pediatric anxiety treatment response. Prior to beginning treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline or cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), 37 youth (age 7-19 years) with generalized and/or social anxiety disorder completed a task with conditions that manipulated whether participants were instructed to match emotional faces (explicit emotion processing) or match shapes in the context of emotional face distractors (implicit emotion processing) during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results revealed that reduced activation in superior frontal gyrus (SFG), encompassing the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), during implicit processing of emotional faces predicted a greater reduction in anxiety severity pre-to-post treatment. Post hoc analyses indicated that effects were not significantly moderated by the type of treatment or anxiety type. Findings suggest that less recruitment of SFG, including the dorsal ACC and dorsomedial PFC, during implicit emotion processing predicts a greater reduction in youth anxiety symptoms pre-to-post treatment. Youth who exhibit reduced activation in these areas while matching shapes in the context of emotional face distractors may have more to gain from CBT and SSRI treatment due to preexisting deficits in attentional control. These findings suggest that neuroimaging may be a useful tool for predicting which youth are most likely to benefit from anxiety treatment. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Age-related differences in affective responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Gilet, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music. In the present study, eighteen older (60-84 years) and eighteen younger (19-24 years) listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a) reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b) showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c) were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d) showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity.

  1. Emotional response to social dancing and walks in persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palo-Bengtsson, Liisa; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa

    2002-01-01

    The emotional response to social dancing and walks in persons with dementia was studied to better understand the feasibility, popularity, and meaning of these activities from the perspective of the patient. Social dance events and walks were videotaped and analyzed using Husserl's philosophy as a basis for the analysis. Six persons with dementia participated in the study. The results are described in terms of four interrelated themes: 1) the engaged body; 2) the caregivers' understanding, encouragement, and response to patients during the activity; 3) mutual tenderness and communion; and 4) environmental conditions. Results were then synthesized into a general assessment of the emotional states observed and reported in relation to the activities.

  2. Comparing the difficulty of examination subjects with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korobko, O.B.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Bosker, Roel; Luyten, Johannes W.

    2008-01-01

    Methods are presented for comparing grades obtained in a situation where students can choose between different subjects. It must be expected that the comparison between the grades is complicated by the interaction between the students' pattern and level of proficiency on one hand, and the choice of

  3. Emotional response in dopamine D2L receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Bucan, Maja; Wang, Yanyan

    2008-12-22

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) system has been implicated in emotional processing which is often impaired in neuropsychiatric disorders. The long (D2L) and the short (D2S) isoforms of D2R are generated by alternative splicing of the same gene. To study differential roles of the two D2R isoforms, D2L-deficient mice (D2L-/-) expressing functional D2S were previously generated. In this study the contribution of D2L isoform to emotional response was investigated by examining behaviors that reflect emotionality (exploratory behavior, anxiety-like behavior and learned helplessness) in D2L-/- and (wild-type) WT mice. While the thigmotactic, locomotor and general components of anxiety in zero maze did not differ among the genotypes, D2L-/- mice displayed significantly lower level of exploration in a hole board and zero maze, and significantly higher increase in latency to escape from a foot-shock after the learned helplessness training, compared with WT mice. These results suggest that D2L may play a more prominent role than D2S in mediating emotional response, such as behavioral reactions to novelty and inescapable stress. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying emotional responses.

  4. The role of the anterior cingulate cortex in emotional response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Jacobo; López-Martín, Sara; Tapia, Manuel; Montoya, Daniel; Carretié, Luis

    2012-09-01

    Although the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in emotional response inhibition is well established, there are several outstanding issues about the nature of this involvement that are not well understood. The present study aimed to examine the precise contribution of the ACC to emotion-modulated response inhibition by capitalizing on fine temporal resolution of the event-related potentials (ERPs) and the recent advances in source localization. To this end, participants (N = 30) performed an indirect affective Go/Nogo task (i.e., unrelated to the emotional content of stimulation) that required the inhibition of a motor response to three types of visual stimuli: arousing negative (A-), neutral (N), and arousing positive (A+). Behavioral data revealed that participants made more commission errors to A+ than to N and A-. Electrophysiological data showed that a specific region of the ACC at the intersection of its dorsal and rostral subdivisions was significantly involved in the interaction between emotional processing and motor inhibition. Specifically, activity reflecting this interaction was observed in the P3 (but not in the N2) time range, and was greater during the inhibition of responses to A+ than to N and A-. Additionally, regression analyses showed that inhibition-related activity within this ACC region was associated with the emotional content of the stimuli (its activity increased as stimulus valence was more positive), and also with behavioral performance (both with reaction times and commission errors). The present results provide additional data for understanding how, when, and where emotion interacts with response inhibition within the ACC. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Functional imaging of pain: from the somatic response to emotions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Functional brain imaging in subjects experiencing pain (real, observed or imagined) has led to considerable progress in our understanding of the role of the brain andpsyche in pain integration and control, as well as some forms of somatoform pain with no anatomical basis. This research is challenging not only the dichotomy between the soma and psyche, but also the concept of psychosomatic pain.

  6. Disturbances in Response Inhibition and Emotional Processing as Potential Pathways to Violence in Schizophrenia: A High-Density Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowski, Menahem I; De Sanctis, Pierfilippo; Foxe, John J; Hoptman, Matthew J; Nolan, Karen; Kamiel, Stephanie; Czobor, Pal

    2016-07-01

    Increased susceptibility to emotional triggers and poor response inhibition are important in the etiology of violence in schizophrenia. Our goal was to evaluate abnormalities in neurophysiological mechanisms underlying response inhibition and emotional processing in violent patients with schizophrenia (VS) and 3 different comparison groups: nonviolent patients (NV), healthy controls (HC) and nonpsychotic violent subjects (NPV). We recorded high-density Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) and behavioral responses during an Emotional Go/NoGo Task in 35 VS, 24 NV, 28 HC and 31 NPV subjects. We also evaluated psychiatric symptoms and impulsivity. The neural and behavioral deficits in violent patients were most pronounced when they were presented with negative emotional stimuli: They responded more quickly than NV when they made commission errors (ie, failure of inhibition), and evidenced N2 increases and P3 decreases. In contrast, NVs showed little change in reaction time or ERP amplitude with emotional stimuli. These N2 and P3 amplitude changes in VSs showed a strong association with greater impulsivity. Besides these group specific changes, VSs shared deficits with NV, mostly N2 reduction, and with violent nonpsychotic subjects, particularly P3 reduction. Negative affective triggers have a strong impact on violent patients with schizophrenia which may have both behavioral and neural manifestations. The resulting activation could interfere with response inhibition. The affective disruption of response inhibition, identified in this study, may index an important pathway to violence in schizophrenia and suggest new modes of treatment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. It's a bittersweet symphony: simultaneously mixed emotional responses to music with conflicting cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jeff T; Stastny, Bradley J

    2011-12-01

    Some evidence indicates that emotional reactions to music can be organized along a bipolar valence dimension ranging from pleasant states (e.g., happiness) to unpleasant states (e.g., sadness), but songs can contain some cues that elicit happiness (e.g., fast tempos) and others that elicit sadness (e.g., minor modes). Some models of emotion contend that valence is a basic building block of emotional experience, which implies that songs with conflicting cues cannot make people feel happy and sad at the same time. Other models contend that positivity and negativity are separable in experience, which implies that music with conflicting cues might elicit simultaneously mixed emotions of happiness and sadness. Hunter, Schellenberg, and Schimmack (2008) tested these possibilities by having subjects report their happiness and sadness after listening to music with conflicting cues (e.g., fast songs in minor modes) and consistent cues (e.g., fast songs in major modes). Results indicated that music with conflicting cues elicited mixed emotions, but it remains unclear whether subjects simultaneously felt happy and sad or merely vacillated between happiness and sadness. To examine these possibilities, we had subjects press one button whenever they felt happy and another button whenever they felt sad as they listened to songs with conflicting and consistent cues. Results revealed that subjects spent more time simultaneously pressing both buttons during songs with conflicting, as opposed to consistent, cues. These findings indicate that songs with conflicting cues can simultaneously elicit happiness and sadness and that positivity and negativity are separable in experience. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Modifying Action Sounds Influences People's Emotional Responses and Bodily Sensations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Miletto Tonetto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We report an experiment designed to investigate the effect of modifying the sound of high-heeled shoes on women's self-reported valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as any changes to a variety of measures of bodily sensation. We also assessed whether self-evaluated personality traits and the enjoyment associated with wearing heels were correlated with these effects. Forty-eight women walked down a “virtual runway” while listening to four interaction sounds (leather- and polypropylene-soled high-heeled shoes contacting ceramic flooring or carpet. Analysis of the questionnaires that the participants completed indicated that the type of sonic interaction impacted valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as the evaluated bodily sensations. There were also correlations between these scores and both self-evaluated personality traits and the reported enjoyment associated with wearing high heels. These results demonstrate the effect that the sound of a woman's physical interaction with the environment can have, especially when her contact with the ground while walking makes a louder sound. More generally, these results demonstrate that the manipulation of product extrinsic sounds can modify people's evaluation of their emotional outcomes (valence, arousal, and dominance, as well as their bodily sensations.

  9. Leptin is associated with exaggerated brain reward and emotion responses to food images in adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Lacadie, Cheryl; Seo, Dongju; Kubat, Jessica; Van Name, Michelle A; Giannini, Cosimo; Savoye, Mary; Constable, R Todd; Sherwin, Robert S; Caprio, Sonia; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-11-01

    In the U.S., an astonishing 12.5 million children and adolescents are now obese, predisposing 17% of our nation's youth to metabolic complications of obesity, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Adolescent obesity has tripled over the last three decades in the setting of food advertising directed at children. Obese adults exhibit increased brain responses to food images in motivation-reward pathways. These neural alterations may be attributed to obesity-related metabolic changes, which promote food craving and high-calorie food (HCF) consumption. It is not known whether these metabolic changes affect neural responses in the adolescent brain during a crucial period for establishing healthy eating behaviors. Twenty-five obese (BMI 34.4 kg/m2, age 15.7 years) and fifteen lean (BMI 20.96 kg/m2, age 15.5 years) adolescents underwent functional MRI during exposure to HCF, low-calorie food (LCF), and nonfood (NF) visual stimuli 2 h after isocaloric meal consumption. Brain responses to HCF relative to NF cues increased in obese versus lean adolescents in striatal-limbic regions (i.e., putamen/caudate, insula, amygdala) (P emotion processing. Higher endogenous leptin levels correlated with increased neural activation to HCF images in all subjects (P dysfunctional leptin signaling may contribute to the risk of overconsumption of these foods, thus further predisposing adolescents to the development of obesity and T2D. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. Salivary cortisol, heart rate, electrodermal activity and subjective stress responses to the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Tatyana; Schmahl, Christian; Wüst, Stefan; Bohus, Martin

    2012-06-30

    The availability of effective laboratory paradigms for inducing psychological stress is an important requirement for experimental stress research. Reliable protocols are scarce, usually laborious and manpower-intensive. In order to develop an economical, easily applicable standardized stress protocol, we have recently tailored the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST). This test has been shown to induce relatively high stress responses without focusing on social-evaluative components. In this study we evaluated changes in electrodermal activity and salivary cortisol in response to the MMST. The MMST simultaneously combines cognitive (mental arithmetic), emotional (affective pictures), acoustic (white noise) and motivational stressors (loss of money). This study comprised two independent experiments. For experiment 1, 80 female subjects were recruited; 30 subjects (15 females) participated in experiment 2. Significant changes in electrodermal activity and salivary cortisol levels in response to MMST exposure were found. Subjective stress and heart rate responses were significantly increased in both experiments. These results indicate that the MMST is an economical stress paradigm which is also applicable in larger cohorts or multicenter studies for investigating stress reactions. As social-evaluative threat is not the main stress component of the MMST, this procedure represents a useful and complementary alternative to other established stress protocols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mitigating the impact of hospital restructuring on nurses: the responsibility of emotionally intelligent leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Greta; Hayduk, Leslie; Estabrooks, Carole

    2005-01-01

    A decade of North American hospital restructuring in the 1990s resulted in the layoff of thousands of nurses, leading to documented negative consequences for both nurses and patients. Nurses who remained employed experienced significant negative physical and emotional health, decreased job satisfaction, and decreased opportunity to provide quality care. To develop a theoretical model of the impact of hospital restructuring on nurses and determine the extent to which emotionally intelligent nursing leadership mitigated any of these impacts. The sample was drawn from all registered nurses in acute care hospitals in Alberta, Canada, accessed through their professional licensing body (N = 6,526 nurses; 53% response rate). Thirteen leadership competencies (founded on emotional intelligence) were used to create 7 data sets reflecting different leadership styles: 4 resonant, 2 dissonant, and 1 mixed. The theoretical model was then estimated 7 times using structural equation modeling and the seven data sets. Nurses working for resonant leaders reported significantly less emotional exhaustion and psychosomatic symptoms, better emotional health, greater workgroup collaboration and teamwork with physicians, more satisfaction with supervision and their jobs, and fewer unmet patient care needs than did nurses working for dissonant leaders. Resonant leadership styles mitigated the impact of hospital restructuring on nurses, while dissonant leadership intensified this impact. These findings have implications for future hospital restructuring, accountabilities of hospital leaders, the achievement of positive patient outcomes, the development of practice environments, the emotional health and well-being of nurses, and ultimately patient care outcomes.

  12. Emotion responses under evoked consumption contexts: A focus on the consumers’ frequency of product consumption and the stability of responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Jaeger, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the context in which a certain food is consumed (even if imagined) can affect consumers’ associative emotional responses to that product. In three separate studies we extended this line of research by: (1) replicating these previous findings with consumers

  13. Effects of emotion regulation strategy use in response to stressors on PTSD symptoms: An ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Nicole A; Boffa, Joseph W; Clancy, Kevin; Schmidt, Norman B

    2018-04-01

    Although a burgeoning line of research identifies emotion regulation difficulties as a potential maintenance factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known in regard to what emotion regulation strategies individuals with PTSD use in their daily lives, their predictors, and their consequences on later PTSD symptoms. The current study utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to explore prospective relationships between maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategy use and PTSD symptoms in participants with PTSD (N = 30). Participants completed 4 EMAs per day over 8 days, assessing stressors, emotional response, and emotion regulation strategy use. Individuals with PTSD most commonly used avoidance as an emotion regulation strategy. Multilevel modeling indicated that baseline PTSD symptoms predicted maladaptive emotion regulation strategy use. After covarying for morning PTSD symptoms, maladaptive emotion regulation prospectively predicted increased PTSD symptoms later in the day. Adaptive emotion regulation strategies did not uniquely predict later PTSD symptoms. In line with conceptualizations of difficulties in emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic maintenance factor in PTSD, findings indicate that maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in response to stressors exacerbate PTSD symptoms. The use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies had no positive or negative impact on subsequent PTSD symptoms. Future studies should utilize longer-term prospective designs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Emotional response to virtual reality exposure across different cultures: the role of the attribution process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Alessandra; Mosso, José Luis; Mosso, Dejanira; Pineda, Erika; Ruíz, Norma Leticia; Ramíez, Miriam; Morales, José Luis; Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-12-01

    Many studies have shown the ability of media--television, movies, and virtual reality (VR) experiences--to elicit emotions. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how the different factors involved--user related and medium related--play a role in producing an emotional response during a VR experience. We investigate this issue, analyzing the role played by the cultural and technological backgrounds of the users in the emotional responses to VR. Specifically, we use the "core affect" model of emotions developed by Russell (2003) to explore how these factors influence the way in which participants experience virtual worlds. Our sample includes 20 Mexican participants: 8 living in El Tepeyac, a small rural and isolated Mexican village characterized by a very primitive culture, and 12 high civilized inhabitants of Mexico City. The "Green Valley," a noninteractive, relaxing immersive environment showing a mountain landscape around a calm lake, was used to induce relaxation in the two groups during an ambulatory surgical operation. To investigate the effects of VR on the relaxation process, we measured participants' physiological (heart rate) and emotional (VAS-A) responses before, during, and after the operation. The results show that VR significantly modified the core affect (reduced arousal) in all participants but that the final emotional response produced by this change was influenced by the attribution process: the civilized inhabitants of Mexico City, who were able to attribute the reduced arousal to the VR experience, reported a significant reduction in the self-reported level of anxiety, while people from El Tepeyac showed a reduction in their physiological reactions but not in their perceived anxiety.

  15. Response mechanisms of attached premixed flames subjected to harmonic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreekrishna

    The persistent thrust for a cleaner, greener environment has prompted air pollution regulations to be enforced with increased stringency by environmental protection bodies all over the world. This has prompted gas turbine manufacturers to move from nonpremixed combustion to lean, premixed combustion. These lean premixed combustors operate quite fuel-lean compared to the stochiometric, in order to minimize CO and NOx productions, and are very susceptible to oscillations in any of the upstream flow variables. These oscillations cause the heat release rate of the flame to oscillate, which can engage one or more acoustic modes of the combustor or gas turbine components, and under certain conditions, lead to limit cycle oscillations. This phenomenon, called thermoacoustic instabilities, is characterized by very high pressure oscillations and increased heat fluxes at system walls, and can cause significant problems in the routine operability of these combustors, not to mention the occasional hardware damages that could occur, all of which cumulatively cost several millions of dollars. In a bid towards understanding this flow-flame interaction, this research works studies the heat release response of premixed flames to oscillations in reactant equivalence ratio, reactant velocity and pressure, under conditions where the flame preheat zone is convectively compact to these disturbances, using the G-equation. The heat release response is quantified by means of the flame transfer function and together with combustor acoustics, forms a critical component of the analytical models that can predict combustor dynamics. To this end, low excitation amplitude (linear) and high excitation amplitude (nonlinear) responses of the flame are studied in this work. The linear heat release response of lean, premixed flames are seen to be dominated by responses to velocity and equivalence ratio fluctuations at low frequencies, and to pressure fluctuations at high frequencies which are in the

  16. Age-related differences in affective responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine eVieillard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for music. In the present study, eighteen older (60-84 years and eighteen younger (19-24 years listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard, et al., 2008 while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity.

  17. Emotion dysregulation and autonomic responses to film, rumination, and body awareness: Extending psychophysiological research to a naturalistic clinical setting and a chemically dependent female sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sheila E; Price, Cynthia J; Puzia, Megan E; Yaptangco, Mona; Cheng, Sunny Chieh

    2017-05-01

    Substance use is a complex clinical problem characterized by emotion dysregulation and daily challenges that can interfere with laboratory research. Thus, few psychophysiological studies examine autonomic and self-report measures of emotion dysregulation with multidiagnostic, chemically dependent samples or extend this work into naturalistic settings. In this study, we used a within-subject design to examine changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), electrodermal activity (EDA), and self-reported affect across three tasks designed to elicit distinct psychophysiological and emotional response patterns. We also examined emotion dysregulation as a moderator of psychophysiological responses. Participants include 116 women with multiple comorbid mental health conditions enrolled in substance use treatment, many of whom also reported high emotion dysregulation. Participants were assessed in the treatment setting and completed three tasks: watching a sad movie clip, rumination on a stressful event, and a mindful interoceptive awareness meditation. Multilevel models were used to examine changes from resting baselines to the tasks. During the film, results indicate a significant decrease in RSA and an increase in EDA. For the rumination task, participants showed a decrease in RSA but no EDA response. For the body awareness task, there was an increase in RSA and a decrease in EDA. Emotion dysregulation was associated with differences in baseline RSA but not with EDA or with the slope of response patterns across tasks. Self-reported affect was largely consistent with autonomic patterns. Findings add to the literature on emotion dysregulation, substance use, and the translation of psychophysiological measurements into clinical settings with complex samples. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. 'Oh my God, I can't handle this!': trainees' emotional responses to complex situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Diachun, Laura; Joseph, Radha; LaDonna, Kori; Noeverman-Poel, Nelleke; Lingard, Lorelei; Cristancho, Sayra

    2018-02-01

    Dealing with emotions is critical for medical trainees' professional development. Taking a sociocultural and narrative approach to understanding emotions, we studied complex clinical situations as a specific context in which emotions are evoked and influenced by the social environment. We sought to understand how medical trainees respond to emotions that arise in those situations. In an international constructivist grounded theory study, 29 trainees drew two rich pictures of complex clinical situations, one exciting and one frustrating. Rich pictures are visual representations that capture participants' perceptions about the people, situations and factors that create clinical complexity. These pictures were used to guide semi-structured, individual interviews. We analysed visual materials and interviews in an integrated way, starting with looking at the drawings, doing a 'gallery walk', and using the interviews to inform the aesthetic analysis. Participants' drawings depicted a range of personal emotions in response to complexity, and disclosed unsettling feelings and behaviours that might be considered unprofessional. When trainees felt confident, they were actively participating, engaged in creative problem-solving strategies, and emphasised their personal involvement. When trainees felt the situation was beyond their control, they described how they were running away from the situation, hiding themselves behind others or distancing themselves from patients or families. A sense of control seems to be a key factor influencing trainees' emotional and behavioural responses to complexity. This is problematic, as complex situations are by their nature emergent and dynamic, which limits possibilities for control. Following a social performative approach to emotions, we should help students understand that feeling out of control is an inherent property of participating in complex clinical situations, and, by extension, that it is not something they will 'grow out of

  19. Dynamic response of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes subjected to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dynamic behaviours of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes (MWBNNTs) with finite length were studied by employing continuum ... Multiwall boron nitride nanotube; dynamic response; impact; wave propagation. 1. Introduction. Boron nitride .... eV nm6 26 and R0 = 0.344 nm27 in equation (11) yields η = 0.262 GPa nm−1.

  20. Encoding negative events under stress: high subjective arousal is related to accurate emotional memory despite misinformation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; LaBar, Kevin S; Ryan, Lee; Jacobs, W Jake; Nadel, Lynn

    2014-07-01

    Stress at encoding affects memory processes, typically enhancing, or preserving, memory for emotional information. These effects have interesting implications for eyewitness accounts, which in real-world contexts typically involve encoding an aversive event under stressful conditions followed by potential exposure to misinformation. The present study investigated memory for a negative event encoded under stress and subsequent misinformation endorsement. Healthy young adults participated in a between-groups design with three experimental sessions conducted 48 h apart. Session one consisted of a psychosocial stress induction (or control task) followed by incidental encoding of a negative slideshow. During session two, participants were asked questions about the slideshow, during which a random subgroup was exposed to misinformation. Memory for the slideshow was tested during the third session. Assessment of memory accuracy across stress and no-stress groups revealed that stress induced just prior to encoding led to significantly better memory for the slideshow overall. The classic misinformation effect was also observed - participants exposed to misinformation were significantly more likely to endorse false information during memory testing. In the stress group, however, memory accuracy and misinformation effects were moderated by arousal experienced during encoding of the negative event. Misinformed-stress group participants who reported that the negative slideshow elicited high arousal during encoding were less likely to endorse misinformation for the most aversive phase of the story. Furthermore, these individuals showed better memory for components of the aversive slideshow phase that had been directly misinformed. Results from the current study provide evidence that stress and high subjective arousal elicited by a negative event act concomitantly during encoding to enhance emotional memory such that the most aversive aspects of the event are well remembered and

  1. Alexithymia and the labeling of facial emotions: response slowing and increased motor and somatosensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihme, Klas; Sacher, Julia; Lichev, Vladimir; Rosenberg, Nicole; Kugel, Harald; Rufer, Michael; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Pampel, André; Lepsien, Jöran; Kersting, Anette; Villringer, Arno; Suslow, Thomas

    2014-03-14

    Alexithymia is a personality trait that is characterized by difficulties in identifying and describing feelings. Previous studies have shown that alexithymia is related to problems in recognizing others' emotional facial expressions when these are presented with temporal constraints. These problems can be less severe when the expressions are visible for a relatively long time. Because the neural correlates of these recognition deficits are still relatively unexplored, we investigated the labeling of facial emotions and brain responses to facial emotions as a function of alexithymia. Forty-eight healthy participants had to label the emotional expression (angry, fearful, happy, or neutral) of faces presented for 1 or 3 seconds in a forced-choice format while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. The participants' level of alexithymia was assessed using self-report and interview. In light of the previous findings, we focused our analysis on the alexithymia component of difficulties in describing feelings. Difficulties describing feelings, as assessed by the interview, were associated with increased reaction times for negative (i.e., angry and fearful) faces, but not with labeling accuracy. Moreover, individuals with higher alexithymia showed increased brain activation in the somatosensory cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) in response to angry and fearful faces. These cortical areas are known to be involved in the simulation of the bodily (motor and somatosensory) components of facial emotions. The present data indicate that alexithymic individuals may use information related to bodily actions rather than affective states to understand the facial expressions of other persons.

  2. Positive Emotional Responses to Hybridised Writing about a Socio-Scientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Louisa; Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand better the role of affect in learning about socio-scientific issues (SSI), this study investigated Year 12 students' emotional arousal as they participated in an online writing-to-learn science project about the socio-scientific issue of biosecurity. Students wrote a series of hybridised scientific narratives, or BioStories, that integrate scientific information about biosecurity with narrative storylines, and uploaded these to a dedicated website. Throughout their participation in the project, students recorded their emotional responses to the various activities ( N = 50). Four case students were also video recorded during selected science lessons as they researched, composed and uploaded their BioStories for peer review. Analysis of these data, as well as interview data obtained from the case students, revealed that pride, strength, determination, interest and alertness were among the positive emotions most strongly elicited by the project. These emotions reflected students' interest in learning about a new socio-scientific issue, and their enhanced feelings of self-efficacy in successfully writing hybridised scientific narratives in science. The results of this study suggest that the elicitation of positive emotional responses as students engage in hybridised writing about SSI with strong links to environmental education, such as biosecurity, can be valuable in engaging students in education for sustainability.

  3. Effects of mindful-attention and compassion meditation training on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in an ordinary, non-meditative state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbordes, Gaëlle; Negi, Lobsang T; Pace, Thaddeus W W; Wallace, B Alan; Raison, Charles L; Schwartz, Eric L

    2012-01-01

    The amygdala has been repeatedly implicated in emotional processing of both positive and negative-valence stimuli. Previous studies suggest that the amygdala response to emotional stimuli is lower when the subject is in a meditative state of mindful-attention, both in beginner meditators after an 8-week meditation intervention and in expert meditators. However, the longitudinal effects of meditation training on amygdala responses have not been reported when participants are in an ordinary, non-meditative state. In this study, we investigated how 8 weeks of training in meditation affects amygdala responses to emotional stimuli in subjects when in a non-meditative state. Healthy adults with no prior meditation experience took part in 8 weeks of either Mindful Attention Training (MAT), Cognitively-Based Compassion Training (CBCT; a program based on Tibetan Buddhist compassion meditation practices), or an active control intervention. Before and after the intervention, participants underwent an fMRI experiment during which they were presented images with positive, negative, and neutral emotional valences from the IAPS database while remaining in an ordinary, non-meditative state. Using a region-of-interest analysis, we found a longitudinal decrease in right amygdala activation in the Mindful Attention group in response to positive images, and in response to images of all valences overall. In the CBCT group, we found a trend increase in right amygdala response to negative images, which was significantly correlated with a decrease in depression score. No effects or trends were observed in the control group. This finding suggests that the effects of meditation training on emotional processing might transfer to non-meditative states. This is consistent with the hypothesis that meditation training may induce learning that is not stimulus- or task-specific, but process-specific, and thereby may result in enduring changes in mental function.

  4. Effects of mindful-attention and compassion meditation training on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in an ordinary, non-meditative state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbordes, Gaëlle; Negi, Lobsang T.; Pace, Thaddeus W. W.; Wallace, B. Alan; Raison, Charles L.; Schwartz, Eric L.

    2012-01-01

    The amygdala has been repeatedly implicated in emotional processing of both positive and negative-valence stimuli. Previous studies suggest that the amygdala response to emotional stimuli is lower when the subject is in a meditative state of mindful-attention, both in beginner meditators after an 8-week meditation intervention and in expert meditators. However, the longitudinal effects of meditation training on amygdala responses have not been reported when participants are in an ordinary, non-meditative state. In this study, we investigated how 8 weeks of training in meditation affects amygdala responses to emotional stimuli in subjects when in a non-meditative state. Healthy adults with no prior meditation experience took part in 8 weeks of either Mindful Attention Training (MAT), Cognitively-Based Compassion Training (CBCT; a program based on Tibetan Buddhist compassion meditation practices), or an active control intervention. Before and after the intervention, participants underwent an fMRI experiment during which they were presented images with positive, negative, and neutral emotional valences from the IAPS database while remaining in an ordinary, non-meditative state. Using a region-of-interest analysis, we found a longitudinal decrease in right amygdala activation in the Mindful Attention group in response to positive images, and in response to images of all valences overall. In the CBCT group, we found a trend increase in right amygdala response to negative images, which was significantly correlated with a decrease in depression score. No effects or trends were observed in the control group. This finding suggests that the effects of meditation training on emotional processing might transfer to non-meditative states. This is consistent with the hypothesis that meditation training may induce learning that is not stimulus- or task-specific, but process-specific, and thereby may result in enduring changes in mental function. PMID:23125828

  5. Effects of mindful-attention and compassion meditation training on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in an ordinary, non-meditative state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelle eDesbordes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The amygdala has been repeatedly implicated in emotional processing of both positive and negative valence stimuli. Previous studies suggest that the amygdala response to emotional stimuli is lower when the subject is in a meditative state of mindful attention, both in beginner meditators after an eight-week meditation intervention and in expert meditators. However, the longitudinal effects of meditation training on amygdala responses have not been reported when participants are in an ordinary, non-meditative state. In this study, we investigated how eight weeks of training in meditation affects amygdala responses to emotional stimuli in subjects when in a non-meditative state. Healthy adults with no prior meditation experience took part in eight weeks of either Mindful Attention Training, Cognitively-Based Compassion Training (CBCT; a program based on Tibetan Buddhist compassion meditation practices, or an active control intervention. Before and after the intervention, participants underwent an fMRI experiment during which they were presented images with positive, negative, and neutral emotional valences from the IAPS database while remaining in an ordinary, non-meditative state. Using a region-of-interest analysis, we found a longitudinal decrease in right amygdala activation in the Mindful Attention group in response to positive images, and in response to images of all valences overall. In the CBCT group, we found a trend increase in right amygdala response to negative images, which was significantly correlated with a decrease in depression score. No effects or trends were observed in the control group. This finding suggests that the effects of meditation training on emotional processing might transfer to non-meditative states. This is consistent with the hypothesis that meditation training may induce learning that is not stimulus- or task-specific, but process-specific, and thereby may result in enduring changes in mental function.

  6. Expressive inhibition in response to stress: implications for emotional processing following trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Joshua D; Patton, Samantha C; Beck, J Gayle

    2015-01-01

    Expressive inhibition--the willful restriction of expressed emotion--is documented in individuals reporting trauma-related distress, but its impact on global affective functioning remains unclear. Theoretical models propose that chronic activation of negative emotion and deliberate restriction of affect operate synergistically to produce trauma-related emotional deficits. The current project examined the impact of these factors on subjective experience and physiological activation following exposure to an analog trauma. University students (N=192; Mage=20, 57% female, 42% White/Non-Hispanic) viewed a graphic film depicting scenes of a televised suicide. Participants then viewed either a sadness- or humor-eliciting film under instructions to inhibit [nsadness=45, nhumor=52] or naturally express emotion [nsadness=48, nhumor=47]. Expressive inhibition was associated with restricted amusement specifically among participants viewing the humor film. Inhibition also produced attenuated sympathetic and parasympathetic recovery, irrespective of film assignment. Evidence of disruptions in emotional processing supports models identifying inhibition as a possible mechanism in post-trauma affect dysregulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Expressive inhibition in response to stress: Implications for emotional processing following trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Patton, Samantha C.; Beck, J. Gayle

    2015-01-01

    Expressive inhibition - the willful restriction of expressed emotion - is documented in individuals reporting trauma-related distress, but its impact on global affective functioning remains unclear. Theoretical models propose that chronic activation of negative emotion and deliberate restriction of affect operate synergistically to produce trauma-related emotional deficits. The current project examined the impact of these factors on subjective experience and physiological activation following exposure to an analog trauma. University students (N = 192; Mage = 20, 57% female, 42% White/Non-Hispanic) viewed a graphic film depicting scenes of a televised suicide. Participants then viewed either a sadness- or humor-eliciting film under instructions to inhibit [nsadness = 45, nhumor = 52] or naturally express emotion [nsadness = 48, nhumor = 47]. Expressive inhibition was associated with restricted amusement specifically among participants viewing the humor film. Inhibition also produced attenuated sympathetic and parasympathetic recovery, irrespective of film assignment. Evidence of disruptions in emotional processing supports models identifying inhibition as a possible mechanism in post-trauma affect dysregulation. PMID:25576773

  8. Emotional Intelligence in Library Disaster Response Assistance Teams: Which Competencies Emerged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Frances C.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the relationship between emotional intelligence competencies and the personal attributes of library disaster response assistance team (DRAT) members. Using appreciative inquiry protocol to conduct interviews at two academic libraries, the study presents findings from emergent thematic coding of interview…

  9. Developing a Tiered Response Model for Social-Emotional Learning through Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Melissa A.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Lewis, Christie; Thornburg, Kathy; Hawks, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    A tiered response model for social-emotional learning (SEL) is needed to address the significant mental health needs of young people in this country. In collaboration with other school mental health professionals, school psychologists have a unique expertise that situates them to be systems change agents in this work. This article describes a…

  10. Emotional, Motivational and Interpersonal Responsiveness of Children with Autism in Improvisational Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Through behavioural analysis, this study investigated the social-motivational aspects of musical interaction between the child and the therapist in improvisational music therapy by measuring emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness in children with autism during joint engagement episodes. The randomized controlled study (n = 10)…

  11. University Lecturers' Emotional Responses to and Coping with Student Feedback: A Finnish Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutovac, Sonja; Kaasila, Raimo; Komulainen, Jyrki; Maikkola, Merja

    2017-01-01

    Lecturers often find themselves unable to appropriately interpret or deal with student feedback, which may consequently be essential to how they feel about teaching and students. Research into lecturers' emotional responses to student feedback is scarce, despite the growing use of student feedback as a means of evaluating teachers' work. This…

  12. Mastering moral misery : Emotional and coping responses to intragroup morality (vs. competence) evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lee, Romy; Ellemers, Naomi; Scheepers, Daan

    2016-01-01

    In social groups, individuals are often confronted with evaluations of their behaviour by other group members and are motivated to adapt their own behaviour accordingly. In two studies we examine emotional responses towards, and perceived coping abilities with, morality vs. competence evaluations

  13. Emotional Intelligence and Social Responsibility of Boy Students in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; K, Rajeswari

    2014-01-01

    The present study has been undertaken to know the relationship between emotional intelligence and social responsibility of boy students in middle school using correlation. Survey method was adopted for the study. Data were collected from 100 boy students studying in Miandoab City of Iran during the academic year, 2012-13 who were selected…

  14. Links between Chinese Mothers' Parental Beliefs and Responses to Children's Expression of Negative Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated relations between parental beliefs and mothers' reported responses to their children's negative emotions. Altogether 189 Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years were interviewed in group sessions using structured questionnaires. It was found that Chinese mothers endorsed Guan, the Chinese parental beliefs. They…

  15. Sensory Over-Responsivity in Elementary School: Prevalence and Social-Emotional Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Sasson, A.; Carter, A. S.; Briggs-Gowan, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Sensory over-responsivity (SOR) towards tactile and auditory input can impact children's participation in academic and social activities; however the prevalence of SOR behaviors and their relation to social-emotional problems and competence has not been rigorously studied. This study investigated SOR in a representative sample of elementary…

  16. Empathizing and systemizing (un)justified mediated violence: Psychophysiological indicators of emotional response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, L.; Potter, R.F.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines individual variability in empathizing and systemizing abilities (Baron-Cohen, 2003, 2009) on emotional responses to mediated violence. It is predicted that these abilities influence feelings of distress and enjoyment while processing violent media and that they interact with

  17. Relationships among Negative Emotionality, Responsive Parenting and Early Socio-Cognitive Development in Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kijoo

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the interplay among negative emotionality, responsive parenting and socio-cognitive developmental outcomes (i.e., communication, personal-social and problem-solving outcomes) in about 1620 Korean children using three waves of longitudinal data spanning the first 2 years of their life. Results from the Structural Equation…

  18. Autonomic and Emotional Responses of Graduate Student Clinicians in Speech-Language Pathology to Stuttered Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntupalli, Vijaya K.; Nanjundeswaran, Chayadevie; Dayalu, Vikram N.; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fluent speakers and people who stutter manifest alterations in autonomic and emotional responses as they view stuttered relative to fluent speech samples. These reactions are indicative of an aroused autonomic state and are hypothesized to be triggered by the abrupt breakdown in fluency exemplified in stuttered speech. Furthermore,…

  19. (Amusicality in Williams syndrome: Examining relationships among auditory perception, musical skill, and emotional responsiveness to music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eLense

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS, a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder, is of keen interest to music cognition researchers because of its characteristic auditory sensitivities and emotional responsiveness to music. However, actual musical perception and production abilities are more variable. We examined musicality in WS through the lens of amusia and explored how their musical perception abilities related to their auditory sensitivities, musical production skills, and emotional responsiveness to music. In our sample of 73 adolescents and adults with WS, 11% met criteria for amusia, which is higher than the 4% prevalence rate reported in the typically developing population. Amusia was not related to auditory sensitivities but was related to musical training. Performance on the amusia measure strongly predicted musical skill but not emotional responsiveness to music, which was better predicted by general auditory sensitivities. This study represents the first time amusia has been examined in a population with a known neurodevelopmental genetic disorder with a range of cognitive abilities. Results have implications for the relationships across different levels of auditory processing, musical skill development, and emotional responsiveness to music, as well as the understanding of gene-brain-behavior relationships in individuals with WS and typically developing individuals with and without amusia.

  20. Classifying Prosocial Behavior: Children's Responses to Instrumental Need, Emotional Distress, and Material Desire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunfield, Kristen A.; Kuhlmeier, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the diversity of early prosocial behavior by examining the ability of ninety-five 2- to 4-year-olds to provide aid to an adult experimenter displaying instrumental need, emotional distress, and material desire. Children provided appropriate aid in response to each of these cues with high consistency over multiple trials. In…