WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjected recombinase activating

  1. Spontaneous recombinase activity of Cre-ERT2 in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristianto, Jasmin; Johnson, Michael G; Zastrow, Ryley K; Radcliff, Abigail B; Blank, Robert D

    2017-06-01

    Inducible Cre-ERT recombinase technology is widely used for gene targeting studies. The second generation of inducible Cre-ERT recombinase, hemizygous B6.129S-Tg(UBC-cre/ERT2)1Ejb/J (hereafter abbreviated as Cre-ERT2), a fusion of a mutated estrogen receptor and Cre recombinase, was engineered to be more efficient and specific than the original Cre-ERT. The putative mechanism of selective Cre-mediated recombination is Cre sequestration in the cytoplasm in the basal state with translocation to the nucleus only in the presence of tamoxifen. We utilized both a reporter mouse (B6.129 (Cg)-Gt(ROSA)26Sor tm4(ACTB-tdTomato,-EGFP)Luo /J) and endothelin converting enzyme-1 floxed transgenic mouse line to evaluate Cre-ERT2 activity. We observed spontaneous Cre activity in both settings. Unintended Cre activity is a confounding factor that has a potentially large impact on data interpretation. Thus, it is important to consider background Cre activity in experimental design.

  2. Recombinase Activating Gene 1 Deficiencies Without Omenn Syndrome May Also Present With Eosinophilia and Bone Marrow Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, Ezgi; Karaca, Neslihan Edeer; Azarsiz, Elif; Berdeli, Afig; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndromes are a heterogenous group of diseases characterized by impairment in both cellular and humoral immunity with a range of genetic disorders. Complete recombinase activating gene (RAG) deficiency is associated with classical T-B-NK+ SCID which is the most common phenotype of Turkish SCID patients. There is a broad spectrum of hypomorfic RAG mutations including Omenn syndrome, leaky or atypical SCID with expansion of ?? T cells, autoimmu...

  3. Generation of chickens expressing Cre recombinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Philip A; Pedersen, Darlene; Ching, Kathryn; Collarini, Ellen J; Izquierdo, Shelley; Jacob, Roy; van de Lavoir, Marie-Cecile

    2016-10-01

    Cre recombinase has been extensively used for genome engineering in transgenic mice yet its use in other species has been more limited. Here we describe the generation of transgenic chickens expressing Cre recombinase. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive chicken primordial germ cells were stably transfected with β-actin-Cre-recombinase using phiC31 integrase and transgenic chickens were generated. Cre recombinase activity was verified by mating Cre birds to birds carrying a floxed transgene. Floxed sequences were only excised in offspring from roosters that inherited the Cre recombinase but were excised in all offspring from hens carrying the Cre recombinase irrespective of the presence of the Cre transgene. The Cre recombinase transgenic birds were healthy and reproductively normal. The Cre and GFP genes in two of the lines were closely linked whereas the genes segregated independently in a third line. These founders allowed development of GFP-expressing and non-GFP-expressing Cre recombinase lines. These lines of birds create a myriad of opportunities to study developmentally-regulated and tissue-specific expression of transgenes in chickens.

  4. Enhancement of the RAD51 Recombinase Activity by the Tumor Suppressor PALB2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dray, Eloise; Etchin, Julia; Wiese, Claudia; Saro, Dorina; Williams, Gareth J.; Hammel, Michal; Yu, Xiong; Galkin, Vitold E.; Liu, Dongqing; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Sy, Shirley M-H.; Egelman, Edward; Chen, Junjie; Sung, Patrick; Schild, D.

    2010-08-24

    Homologous recombination mediated by the RAD51 recombinase helps eliminate chromosomal lesions, such as DNA double-stranded breaks induced by radiation or arising from injured DNA replication forks. The tumor suppressors BRCA2 and PALB2 act together to deliver RAD51 to chromosomal lesions to initiate repair. Here we document a new function of PALB2 in the enhancement of RAD51's ability to form the D-loop. We show that PALB2 binds DNA and physically interacts with RAD51. Importantly, while PALB2 alone stimulates D-loop formation, a cooperative effect is seen with RAD51AP1, an enhancer of RAD51. This stimulation stems from PALB2's ability to function with RAD51 and RAD51AP1 to assemble the synaptic complex. Our results help unveil a multi-faceted role of PALB2 in chromosome damage repair. Since PALB2 mutations can cause breast and other tumors or lead to Fanconi anemia, our findings are important for understanding the mechanism of tumor suppression in humans.

  5. Physical interaction of RECQ5 helicase with RAD51 facilitates its anti-recombinase activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwendener, S.; Raynard, S.; Paliwal, S.; Cheng, A.; Kanagaraj, R.; Shevelev, Igor; Stark, J.M.; Sung, P.; Janscak, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 285, č. 21 (2010), s. 15739-15745 ISSN 0021-9258 Grant - others:NIH(US) R01CA120954; NIH(US) ES015632; SNSF(CH) 3100A0-116008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : DNA helicase * double-strand breaks * homologous recombination Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.328, year: 2010

  6. Role of allosteric switch residue histidine 195 in maintaining active-site asymmetry in presynaptic filaments of bacteriophage T4 UvsX recombinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Joshua N; Morrical, Scott W

    2009-01-16

    Recombinases of the highly conserved RecA/Rad51 family play central roles in homologous recombination and DNA double-stranded break repair. RecA/Rad51 enzymes form presynaptic filaments on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that are allosterically activated to catalyze ATPase and DNA strand-exchange reactions. Information is conveyed between DNA- and ATP-binding sites, in part, by a highly conserved glutamine residue (Gln194 in Escherichia coli RecA) that acts as an allosteric switch. The T4 UvsX protein is a divergent RecA ortholog and contains histidine (His195) in place of glutamine at the allosteric switch position. UvsX and RecA catalyze similar strand-exchange reactions, but differ in other properties. UvsX produces both ADP and AMP as products of its ssDNA-dependent ATPase activity--a property that is unique among characterized recombinases. Details of the kinetics of ssDNA-dependent ATP hydrolysis reactions indicate that UvsX-ssDNA presynaptic filaments are asymmetric and contain two classes of ATPase active sites: one that generates ADP, and another that generates AMP. Active-site asymmetry is reduced by mutations at the His195 position, since UvsX-H195Q and UvsX-H195A mutants both exhibit stronger ssDNA-dependent ATPase activity, with lower cooperativity and markedly higher ADP/AMP product ratios, than wild-type UvsX. Reduced active-site asymmetry correlates strongly with reduced ssDNA-binding affinity and DNA strand-exchange activity in both H195Q and H195A mutants. These and other results support a model in which allosteric switch residue His195 controls the formation of an asymmetric conformation of UvsX-ssDNA filaments that is active in DNA strand exchange. The implications of our findings for UvsX recombination functions, and for RecA functions in general, are discussed.

  7. Chimeric TALE recombinases with programmable DNA sequence specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Andrew C; Gaj, Thomas; Fuller, Roberta P; Barbas, Carlos F

    2012-11-01

    Site-specific recombinases are powerful tools for genome engineering. Hyperactivated variants of the resolvase/invertase family of serine recombinases function without accessory factors, and thus can be re-targeted to sequences of interest by replacing native DNA-binding domains (DBDs) with engineered zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs). However, imperfect modularity with particular domains, lack of high-affinity binding to all DNA triplets, and difficulty in construction has hindered the widespread adoption of ZFPs in unspecialized laboratories. The discovery of a novel type of DBD in transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins from Xanthomonas provides an alternative to ZFPs. Here we describe chimeric TALE recombinases (TALERs): engineered fusions between a hyperactivated catalytic domain from the DNA invertase Gin and an optimized TALE architecture. We use a library of incrementally truncated TALE variants to identify TALER fusions that modify DNA with efficiency and specificity comparable to zinc-finger recombinases in bacterial cells. We also show that TALERs recombine DNA in mammalian cells. The TALER architecture described herein provides a platform for insertion of customized TALE domains, thus significantly expanding the targeting capacity of engineered recombinases and their potential applications in biotechnology and medicine.

  8. Construction of a viral T2A-peptide based knock-in mouse model for enhanced Cre recombinase activity and fluorescent labeling of podocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Sybille; Brähler, Sebastian; Braun, Fabian; Hagmann, Henning; Rinschen, Markus M; Späth, Martin R; Höhne, Martin; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Schermer, Bernhard; Benzing, Thomas; Brinkkoetter, Paul T

    2017-06-01

    Podocyte injury is a key event in glomerular disease leading to proteinuria and opening the path toward glomerular scarring. As a consequence, glomerular research strives to discover molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways affecting podocyte health. The hNphs2.Cre mouse model has been a valuable tool to manipulate podocyte-specific genes and to label podocytes for lineage tracing and purification. Here we designed a novel podocyte-specific tricistronic Cre mouse model combining codon improved Cre expression and fluorescent cell labeling with mTomato under the control of the endogenous Nphs2 promoter using viral T2A-peptides. Independent expression of endogenous podocin, codon improved Cre, and mTomato was confirmed by immunofluorescence, fluorescent activated cell sorting and protein analyses. Nphs2 pod.T2A.ciCre.T2A.mTomato/wild-type mice developed normally and did not show any signs of glomerular disease or off-target effects under basal conditions and in states of disease. Nphs2 pod.T2A.ciCre.T2A.mTomato/wild-type -mediated gene recombination was superior to conventional hNphs2.Cre mice-mediated gene recombination. Last, we compared Cre efficiency in a disease model by mating Nphs2 pod.T2A.ciCre.T2A.mTomato/wild-type and hNphs2.Cre mice to Phb2 fl/fl mice. The podocyte-specific Phb2 knockout by Nphs2 pod.T2A.ciCre.T2A.mTomato/wild-type mice resulted in an aggravated glomerular injury as compared to a podocyte-specific Phb2 gene deletion triggered by hNphs2.Cre. Thus, we generated the first tricistronic podocyte mouse model combining enhanced Cre recombinase efficiency and fluorescent labeling in podocytes without the need for additional matings with conventional reporter mouse lines. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cre recombinase activity is inhibited in vivo but not ex vivo by a mutation in the asymmetric spacer region of the distal loxP site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguello, Tania; Moraes, Carlos T

    2015-11-01

    The cre/loxP recombination system is a valuable tool used to generate tissue specific genomic rearrangements in mouse models. The deletion of a region of interest flanked by two loxP sites is accomplished by the recombinase (cre) enzyme, which binds to the inverted repeat segments of two loxP sites and recognition of a conserved TA sequence in the asymmetric central spacer region "ATAACTTCGTATA -NNNTANNN-TATACGAAGTTAT. In vivo, we found that a single T to C mutation at position 4 of the central spacer region in the distal (3') loxP site, completely inhibited the recombination reaction in two conditional mouse models. These mice were generated using a mitochondrial methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase (Mtfmt) gene targeted construct and cre transgene under the control of tissue-specific promoters: calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II alpha (Camk2a-cre) and myosin light polypeptide 1 (Myl1-cre). Surprisingly, transient transfection of a plasmid expressing cre in dermal fibroblasts derived from the same mutant floxed Mtfmt((loxP/loxP)) mice line, successfully deleted the region of interest. This study demonstrates the sequence specificity required in vivo, the possibility of bypassing this limitation by expressing high levels of cre recombinase ex vivo and raises concerns related to the quality control of large scale production of gene targeted constructs and mice. genesis 53:695-700, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Nucleic acid constructs containing orthogonal site selective recombinases (OSSRs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Joshua M.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Dueber, John E.

    2017-08-29

    The present invention provides for a recombinant nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence comprising a plurality of constructs, wherein each construct independently comprises a nucleotide sequence of interest flanked by a pair of recombinase recognition sequences. Each pair of recombinase recognition sequences is recognized by a distinct recombinase. Optionally, each construct can, independently, further comprise one or more genes encoding a recombinase capable of recognizing the pair of recombinase recognition sequences of the construct. The recombinase can be an orthogonal (non-cross reacting), site-selective recombinase (OSSR).

  11. Enzymatic engineering of the porcine genome with transposons and recombinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlson Daniel F

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swine is an important agricultural commodity and biomedical model. Manipulation of the pig genome provides opportunity to improve production efficiency, enhance disease resistance, and add value to swine products. Genetic engineering can also expand the utility of pigs for modeling human disease, developing clinical treatment methodologies, or donating tissues for xenotransplantation. Realizing the full potential of pig genetic engineering requires translation of the complete repertoire of genetic tools currently employed in smaller model organisms to practical use in pigs. Results Application of transposon and recombinase technologies for manipulation of the swine genome requires characterization of their activity in pig cells. We tested four transposon systems- Sleeping Beauty, Tol2, piggyBac, and Passport in cultured porcine cells. Transposons increased the efficiency of DNA integration up to 28-fold above background and provided for precise delivery of 1 to 15 transgenes per cell. Both Cre and Flp recombinase were functional in pig cells as measured by their ability to remove a positive-negative selection cassette from 16 independent clones and over 20 independent genomic locations. We also demonstrated a Cre-dependent genetic switch capable of eliminating an intervening positive-negative selection cassette and activating GFP expression from episomal and genome-resident transposons. Conclusion We have demonstrated for the first time that transposons and recombinases are capable of mobilizing DNA into and out of the porcine genome in a precise and efficient manner. This study provides the basis for developing transposon and recombinase based tools for genetic engineering of the swine genome.

  12. Homologous Recombination in Protozoan Parasites and Recombinase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Kelso

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination (HR is a DNA double-strand break (DSB repair pathway that utilizes a homologous template to fully repair the damaged DNA. HR is critical to maintain genome stability and to ensure genetic diversity during meiosis. A specialized class of enzymes known as recombinases facilitate the exchange of genetic information between sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes with the help of numerous protein accessory factors. The majority of the HR machinery is highly conserved among eukaryotes. In many protozoan parasites, HR is an essential DSB repair pathway that allows these organisms to adapt to environmental conditions and evade host immune systems through genetic recombination. Therefore, small molecule inhibitors, capable of disrupting HR in protozoan parasites, represent potential therapeutic options. A number of small molecule inhibitors were identified that disrupt the activities of the human recombinase RAD51. Recent studies have examined the effect of two of these molecules on the Entamoeba recombinases. Here, we discuss the current understandings of HR in the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Plasmodium, and Entamoeba, and we review the small molecule inhibitors known to disrupt human RAD51 activity.

  13. Blood bactericidal activity in Hiroshima subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Hamilton, H B

    1961-03-07

    A simple screening method for blood bactericidal activity was developed for study of irradiated atomic bomb survivors and nonirradiated subjects in Hiroshima. Blood bactericidal activity was found to be a relatively constant biological phenomenon in all subjects studied. No differences in activity were detected in relationship to radiation exposure in 1945. 17 references, 6 tables.

  14. Robust inducible Cre recombinase activity in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum enables efficient gene deletion within a single asexual erythrocytic growth cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christine R; Das, Sujaan; Wong, Eleanor H; Andenmatten, Nicole; Stallmach, Robert; Hackett, Fiona; Herman, Jean-Paul; Müller, Sylke; Meissner, Markus; Blackman, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Asexual blood stages of the malaria parasite, which cause all the pathology associated with malaria, can readily be genetically modified by homologous recombination, enabling the functional study of parasite genes that are not essential in this part of the life cycle. However, no widely applicable method for conditional mutagenesis of essential asexual blood-stage malarial genes is available, hindering their functional analysis. We report the application of the DiCre conditional recombinase system to Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most dangerous form of malaria. We show that DiCre can be used to obtain rapid, highly regulated site-specific recombination in P. falciparum, capable of excising loxP-flanked sequences from a genomic locus with close to 100% efficiency within the time-span of a single erythrocytic growth cycle. DiCre-mediated deletion of the SERA5 3' UTR failed to reduce expression of the gene due to the existence of alternative cryptic polyadenylation sites within the modified locus. However, we successfully used the system to recycle the most widely used drug resistance marker for P. falciparum, human dihydrofolate reductase, in the process producing constitutively DiCre-expressing P. falciparum clones that have broad utility for the functional analysis of essential asexual blood-stage parasite genes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A new location to split Cre recombinase for protein fragment complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaee, Maryam; Ow, David W

    2017-11-01

    We have previously described a recombinase-mediated gene stacking system in which the Cre recombinase is used to remove lox-site flanked DNA no longer needed after each round of Bxb1 integrase-mediated site-specific integration. The Cre recombinase can be conveniently introduced by hybridization with a cre-expressing plant. However, maintaining an efficient cre-expressing line over many generations can be a problem, as high production of this DNA-binding protein might interfere with normal chromosome activities. To counter this selection against high Cre activity, we considered a split-cre approach, in which Cre activity is reconstituted after separate parts of Cre are brought into the same genome by hybridization. To insure that the recombinase-mediated gene stacking system retains its freedom to operate, we tested for new locations to split Cre into complementing fragments. In this study, we describe testing four new locations for splitting the Cre recombinase for protein fragment complementation and show that the two fragments of Cre split between Lys244 and Asn245 can reconstitute activity that is comparable to that of wild-type Cre. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Excision of HIV-1 proviral DNA by recombinant cell permeable tre-recombinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmikanth Mariyanna

    Full Text Available Over the previous years, comprehensive studies on antiretroviral drugs resulted in the successful introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART into clinical practice for treatment of HIV/AIDS. However, there is still need for new therapeutic approaches, since HAART cannot eradicate HIV-1 from the infected organism and, unfortunately, can be associated with long-term toxicity and the development of drug resistance. In contrast, novel gene therapy strategies may have the potential to reverse the infection by eradicating HIV-1. For example, expression of long terminal repeat (LTR-specific recombinase (Tre-recombinase has been shown to result in chromosomal excision of proviral DNA and, in consequence, in the eradication of HIV-1 from infected cell cultures. However, the delivery of Tre-recombinase currently depends on the genetic manipulation of target cells, a process that is complicating such therapeutic approaches and, thus, might be undesirable in a clinical setting. In this report we demonstrate that E.coli expressed Tre-recombinases, tagged either with the protein transduction domain (PTD from the HIV-1 Tat trans-activator or the translocation motif (TLM of the Hepatitis B virus PreS2 protein, were able to translocate efficiently into cells and showed significant recombination activity on HIV-1 LTR sequences. Tre activity was observed using episomal and stable integrated reporter constructs in transfected HeLa cells. Furthermore, the TLM-tagged enzyme was able to excise the full-length proviral DNA from chromosomal integration sites of HIV-1-infected HeLa and CEM-SS cells. The presented data confirm Tre-recombinase activity on integrated HIV-1 and provide the basis for the non-genetic transient application of engineered recombinases, which may be a valuable component of future HIV eradication strategies.

  17. A recombinase-mediated transcriptional induction system in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, T; Schnorr, K M; Mundy, J

    2001-01-01

    We constructed and tested a Cre-loxP recombination-mediated vector system termed pCrox for use in transgenic plants. In this system, treatment of Arabidopsis under inducing conditions mediates an excision event that removes an intervening piece of DNA between a promoter and the gene to be expressed......-mediated GUS activation. Induction was shown to be possible at essentially any stage of plant growth. This single vector system circumvents the need for genetic crosses required by other, dual recombinase vector systems. The pCrox system may prove particularly useful in instances where transgene over...

  18. Personality as a Subject of Managerial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tytova Kateryna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological science, along with many other natural and social sciences, studies a person and personality, but it allocates in them its own specific aspect. The psychological science has a big number of approaches to understanding essence of the personality. Professionally important qualities are individual qualities of a subject of activity, which influence efficiency of activity and success of its mastering. The considered concepts are efforts to put in order various sociological and psychological knowledge about the personality and unite the personality theory with the theory of professional choice. The problem of professional formation of the personality belongs to actively developed psychological problems.

  19. The Carboxy-Terminal ?N Helix of the Archaeal XerA Tyrosine Recombinase Is a Molecular Switch to Control Site-Specific Recombination

    OpenAIRE

    Serre, Marie-Claude; El Arnaout, Toufic; Brooks, Mark A.; Durand, Dominique; Lisboa, Johnny; Lazar, Noureddine; Raynal, Bertrand; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine recombinases are conserved in the three kingdoms of life. Here we present the first crystal structure of a full-length archaeal tyrosine recombinase, XerA from Pyrococcus abyssi, at 3.0 Å resolution. In the absence of DNA substrate XerA crystallizes as a dimer where each monomer displays a tertiary structure similar to that of DNA-bound Tyr-recombinases. Active sites are assembled in the absence of dif except for the catalytic Tyr, which is extruded and located equidistant from each ...

  20. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  1. Site-specific DNA Inversion by Serine Recombinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Reversible site-specific DNA inversion reactions are widely distributed in bacteria and their viruses. They control a range of biological reactions that most often involve alterations of molecules on the surface of cells or phage. These programmed DNA rearrangements usually occur at a low frequency, thereby preadapting a small subset of the population to a change in environmental conditions, or in the case of phages, an expanded host range. A dedicated recombinase, sometimes with the aid of additional regulatory or DNA architectural proteins, catalyzes the inversion of DNA. RecA or other components of the general recombination-repair machinery are not involved. This chapter discusses site-specific DNA inversion reactions mediated by the serine recombinase family of enzymes and focuses on the extensively studied serine DNA invertases that are stringently controlled by the Fis-bound enhancer regulatory system. The first section summarizes biological features and general properties of inversion reactions by the Fis/enhancer-dependent serine invertases and the recently described serine DNA invertases in Bacteroides. Mechanistic studies of reactions catalyzed by the Hin and Gin invertases are then discussed in more depth, particularly with regards to recent advances in our understanding of the function of the Fis/enhancer regulatory system, the assembly of the active recombination complex (invertasome) containing the Fis/enhancer, and the process of DNA strand exchange by rotation of synapsed subunit pairs within the invertasome. The role of DNA topological forces that function in concert with the Fis/enhancer controlling element in specifying the overwhelming bias for DNA inversion over deletion and intermolecular recombination is emphasized. PMID:25844275

  2. Using the Textpresso Site-Specific Recombinases Web server to identify Cre expressing mouse strains and floxed alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Brian G; Urbanski, William M

    2014-01-01

    Effective tools for searching the biomedical literature are essential for identifying reagents or mouse strains as well as for effective experimental design and informed interpretation of experimental results. We have built the Textpresso Site Specific Recombinases (Textpresso SSR) Web server to enable researchers who use mice to perform in-depth searches of a rapidly growing and complex part of the mouse literature. Our Textpresso Web server provides an interface for searching the full text of most of the peer-reviewed publications that report the characterization or use of mouse strains that express Cre or Flp recombinase. The database also contains most of the publications that describe the characterization or analysis of strains carrying conditional alleles or transgenes that can be inactivated or activated by site-specific recombinases such as Cre or Flp. Textpresso SSR complements the existing online databases that catalog Cre and Flp expression patterns by providing a unique online interface for the in-depth text mining of the site specific recombinase literature.

  3. Initial characterization of the Pf-Int recombinase from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghorbal

    Full Text Available Genetic variation is an essential means of evolution and adaptation in many organisms in response to environmental change. Certain DNA alterations can be carried out by site-specific recombinases (SSRs that fall into two families: the serine and the tyrosine recombinases. SSRs are seldom found in eukaryotes. A gene homologous to a tyrosine site-specific recombinase has been identified in the genome of Plasmodium falciparum. The sequence is highly conserved among five other members of Plasmodia.The predicted open reading frame encodes for a ∼57 kDa protein containing a C-terminal domain including the putative tyrosine recombinase conserved active site residues R-H-R-(H/W-Y. The N-terminus has the typical alpha-helical bundle and potentially a mixed alpha-beta domain resembling that of λ-Int. Pf-Int mRNA is expressed differentially during the P. falciparum erythrocytic life stages, peaking in the schizont stage. Recombinant Pf-Int and affinity chromatography of DNA from genomic or synthetic origin were used to identify potential DNA targets after sequencing or micro-array hybridization. Interestingly, the sequences captured also included highly variable subtelomeric genes such as var, rif, and stevor sequences. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with DNA were carried out to verify Pf-Int/DNA binding. Finally, Pf-Int knock-out parasites were created in order to investigate the biological role of Pf-Int.Our data identify for the first time a malaria parasite gene with structural and functional features of recombinases. Pf-Int may bind to and alter DNA, either in a sequence specific or in a non-specific fashion, and may contribute to programmed or random DNA rearrangements. Pf-Int is the first molecular player identified with a potential role in genome plasticity in this pathogen. Finally, Pf-Int knock-out parasite is viable showing no detectable impact on blood stage development, which is compatible with such function.

  4. 24-h monitoring of calcineurin phosphatase activity in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed-Nielsen, P.B.; Karamperis, N.; Jørgensen, Kaj Anker

    2005-01-01

    The calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine and tacrolimus are the cornerstone immunosuppressants used in solid organ transplantation. Studies investigating calcineurin (CaN) activity in renal transplanted patients have been published, but basic properties of the enzyme activity in healthy subjects...... remain to be described. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CaN displays circadian variation or sex difference is present in healthy subjects. Twenty subjects had blood samples drawn every 4 h for a 24-h period. CaN activity was determined in whole blood as the release of 32P from...

  5. Older people and 'active ageing': Subjective aspects of ageing actively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Paul; McFarquhar, Tara; Bowling, Ann

    2011-04-01

    Following a critical overview of the active ageing concept, a thematic decomposition of 42 transcribed interviews with British people aged 72 years and over indicates that active ageing is understood in relation to physical, cognitive, psychological and social factors, but that these co-exist in complex combinations. The notion of activity in active ageing is grasped in relation to an active/passive distinction which emphasizes the enhancement or diminishment of concrete powers of activity. A 'challenge and response' framework is suggested for future research on active ageing.

  6. Cre recombinase expression can result in phenotypic aberrations in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppoolse, E.; Vroomen, de M.J.; Roelofs, D.; Smit, J.; Gennip, van F.; Hersmus, B.J.M.; Nijkamp, H.J.J.; Haaren, van M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The cre recombinase gene was stably introduced and expressed in tomato, petunia and Nicotiana tabacum. Some plants expressing the cre gene driven by a CaMV 35S promoter displayed growth retardation and a distinct pattern of chlorosis in their leaves. Although no direct relation can be proven between

  7. Cre recombinase expression can result in phenotypic aberrations in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppoolse, Eric R; de Vroomen, Marianne J; Roelofs, Dick; Smit, Jaap; van Gennip, Femke; Hersmus, Bart J M; Nijkamp, H John J; van Haaren, Mark J J

    The cre recombinase gene was stably introduced and expressed in tomato, petunia and Nicotiana tabacum. Some plants expressing the cre gene driven by a CaMV 35S promoter displayed growth retardation and a distinct pattern of chlorosis in their leaves. Although no direct relation can be proven between

  8. Active Learning: 101 Strategies To Teach Any Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Mel

    This book contains specific, practical strategies that can be used for almost any subject matters to promote active learning. It brings together in one source a comprehensive collection of instructional strategies, with ways to get students to be active from the beginning through activities that build teamwork and get students thinking about the…

  9. Regulation of Cre recombinase by ligand-induced complementation of inactive fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullien, Nicolas; Sampieri, François; Enjalbert, Alain; Herman, Jean-Paul

    2003-11-01

    Cre recombinase is extensively used to engineer the genome of experimental animals. However, its usefulness is still limited by the lack of an efficient temporal control over its activity. To overcome this, we have developed DiCre, a regulatable fragment complementation system for Cre. The enzyme was split into two moieties that were fused to FKBP12 (FK506-binding protein) and FRB (binding domain of the FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein), respectively. These can be efficiently heterodimerized by rapamycin. Several variants, based on splitting Cre at different sites and using different linker peptides, were tested in an indicator cell line. The fusion proteins, taken separately, had no recombinase activity. Stable transformants, co-expressing complementing fragments based on splitting Cre between Asn59 and Asn60, displayed low background activity affecting 0.05-0.4% of the cells. Rapamycin induced a rapid recombination, reaching 100% by 48-72 h, with an EC50 of 0.02 nM. Thus, ligand-induced dimerization can efficiently regulate Cre, and should be useful to achieve a tight temporal control of its activity, such as in the case of the creation of conditional knock-out animals.

  10. Decoding subjective mental states from fMRI activity patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masako; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoding has emerged as a powerful tool to read out detailed stimulus features from multi-voxel brain activity patterns. Moreover, the method has been extended to perform a primitive form of 'mind-reading,' by applying a decoder 'objectively' trained using stimulus features to more 'subjective' conditions. In this paper, we first introduce basic procedures for fMRI decoding based on machine learning techniques. Second, we discuss the source of information used for decoding, in particular, the possibility of extracting information from subvoxel neural structures. We next introduce two experimental designs for decoding subjective mental states: the 'objective-to-subjective design' and the 'subjective-to-subjective design.' Then, we illustrate recent studies on the decoding of a variety of mental states, such as, attention, awareness, decision making, memory, and mental imagery. Finally, we discuss the challenges and new directions of fMRI decoding. (author)

  11. Cytokeratin 19 promoter directs the expression of Cre recombinase in various epithelia of transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Feng; Zhao, Shuang; Liu, Jia-Jie; Wu, Ji-Cheng; He, Hao-Yu; Ding, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Xue-Wen; Huang, Ke-Qiang; Li, Zhi-Jie; Zheng, Hua-Chuan

    2017-03-14

    Cytokeratin 19 (K19) is expressed in various differentiated cells, including gastric, intestinal and bronchial epithelial cells, and liver duct cells. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse line, K19-Cre, in which the expression of Cre recombinase was controlled by the promoter of K19. To test the tissue distribution and excision activity of Cre recombinase, K19-Cre transgenic mice were bred with Rosa26 reporter strain and a mouse strain that carries PTEN conditional alleles (PTENLoxp/Loxp). At mRNA level, Cre was strongly expressed in the stomach, lung and intestine, while in stomach, lung, and liver at protein level. The immunoreactivity to Cre was strongly observed the cytoplasm of gastric, bronchial and intestinal epithelial cells. Cre activity was detectable in gastric, bronchial and intestinal epithelial cells, according to LacZ staining. In K19-Cre/PTEN Loxp/Loxp mice, PTEN was abrogated in stomach, intestine, lung, liver and breast, the former two of which were verified by in situ PCR. There appeared breast cancer with PTEN loss. These data suggest that K19 promoter may be a useful tool to study the pathophysiological functions of cytokeratin 19-positive cells, especially gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Cell specificity of neoplasia is not completely attributable to the cell-specific expression of oncogenes and cell-specific loss of tumor suppressor genes.

  12. The carboxy-terminal αN helix of the archaeal XerA tyrosine recombinase is a molecular switch to control site-specific recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serre, Marie-Claude; El Arnaout, Toufic; Brooks, Mark A; Durand, Dominique; Lisboa, Johnny; Lazar, Noureddine; Raynal, Bertrand; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine recombinases are conserved in the three kingdoms of life. Here we present the first crystal structure of a full-length archaeal tyrosine recombinase, XerA from Pyrococcus abyssi, at 3.0 Å resolution. In the absence of DNA substrate XerA crystallizes as a dimer where each monomer displays a tertiary structure similar to that of DNA-bound Tyr-recombinases. Active sites are assembled in the absence of dif except for the catalytic Tyr, which is extruded and located equidistant from each active site within the dimer. Using XerA active site mutants we demonstrate that XerA follows the classical cis-cleavage reaction, suggesting rearrangements of the C-terminal domain upon DNA binding. Surprisingly, XerA C-terminal αN helices dock in cis in a groove that, in bacterial tyrosine recombinases, accommodates in trans αN helices of neighbour monomers in the Holliday junction intermediates. Deletion of the XerA C-terminal αN helix does not impair cleavage of suicide substrates but prevents recombination catalysis. We propose that the enzymatic cycle of XerA involves the switch of the αN helix from cis to trans packing, leading to (i) repositioning of the catalytic Tyr in the active site in cis and (ii) dimer stabilisation via αN contacts in trans between monomers.

  13. The carboxy-terminal αN helix of the archaeal XerA tyrosine recombinase is a molecular switch to control site-specific recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Serre

    Full Text Available Tyrosine recombinases are conserved in the three kingdoms of life. Here we present the first crystal structure of a full-length archaeal tyrosine recombinase, XerA from Pyrococcus abyssi, at 3.0 Å resolution. In the absence of DNA substrate XerA crystallizes as a dimer where each monomer displays a tertiary structure similar to that of DNA-bound Tyr-recombinases. Active sites are assembled in the absence of dif except for the catalytic Tyr, which is extruded and located equidistant from each active site within the dimer. Using XerA active site mutants we demonstrate that XerA follows the classical cis-cleavage reaction, suggesting rearrangements of the C-terminal domain upon DNA binding. Surprisingly, XerA C-terminal αN helices dock in cis in a groove that, in bacterial tyrosine recombinases, accommodates in trans αN helices of neighbour monomers in the Holliday junction intermediates. Deletion of the XerA C-terminal αN helix does not impair cleavage of suicide substrates but prevents recombination catalysis. We propose that the enzymatic cycle of XerA involves the switch of the αN helix from cis to trans packing, leading to (i repositioning of the catalytic Tyr in the active site in cis and (ii dimer stabilisation via αN contacts in trans between monomers.

  14. Implementation of Active Learning Method in Unit Operations II Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Ma'mun, Sholeh

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Active Learning Method which requires students to take an active role in the process of learning in the classroom has been applied in Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Islamic University of Indonesia for Unit Operations II subject in the Even Semester of Academic Year 2015/2016. The purpose of implementation of the learning method is to assist students in achieving competencies associated with the Unit Operations II subject and to help in creating...

  15. Molecular Basis for Enhancement of the Meiotic DMCI Recombinase by RAD51AP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dray, Eloise; Dunlop, Myun Hwa; Kauppi, Liisa; San Filippo, Joseph San; Wiese, Claudia; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Begovic, Sead; Schild, David; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott; Sung, Patrick

    2010-11-05

    Homologous recombination is needed for meiotic chromosome segregation, genome maintenance, and tumor suppression. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) has been shown to interact with and enhance the recombinase activity of RAD51. Accordingly, genetic ablation of RAD51AP1 leads to enhanced sensitivity to and also chromosome aberrations upon DNA damage, demonstrating a role for RAD51AP1 in mitotic homologous recombination. Here we show physical association of RAD51AP1 with the meiosis-specific recombinase DMC1 and a stimulatory effect of RAD51AP1 on the DMC1-mediated D-loop reaction. Mechanistic studies have revealed that RAD51AP1 enhances the ability of the DMC1 presynaptic filament to capture the duplex DNA partner and to assemble the synaptic complex, in which the recombining DNA strands are homologously aligned. We also provide evidence that functional co-operation is dependent on complex formation between DMC1 and RAD51AP1, and that distinct epitopes in RAD51AP1 mediate interactions with RAD51 and DMC1. Finally, we show that RAD51AP1 is expressed in mouse testes, and that RAD51AP1 foci co-localize with a subset of DMC1 foci in spermatocytes. These results suggest that RAD51AP1 also serves an important role in meiotic homologous recombination.

  16. Prayeras the Subject of Speech Activity and its Communicative Intension

    OpenAIRE

    Khomulenko Tamara; Kuznetsov Oleksiy; Fomenko Karyna

    2018-01-01

    The article reveals the phenomenon of prayer as a form of communication between individual and God. It is shown that prayer as a subject of speech activity is the leading form of religious discourse. Based on the analysis of the definitions and classifications of prayer in psychological and psycholinguistic studies, the author concluded that the communicative intention of prayer is highly variable and emphasized the significant heuristic potential of the psychodiagnostic method of prayer for ...

  17. Tie-1-directed expression of Cre recombinase in endothelial cells of embryoid bodies and transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, E; Brakebusch, C; Hietanen, K

    2001-01-01

    Tissue-specific gene inactivation using the Cre-loxP system has become an important tool to unravel functions of genes when the conventional null mutation is lethal. We report here the generation of a transgenic mouse line expressing Cre recombinase in endothelial cells. In order to avoid...... the production and screening of multiple transgenic lines we used embryonic stem cell and embryoid body technology to identify recombinant embryonic stem cell clones with high, endothelial-specific Cre activity. One embryonic stem cell clone that showed high Cre activity in endothelial cells was used to generate...... germline chimeras. The in vivo efficiency and specificity of the transgenic Cre was analysed by intercrossing the tie-1-Cre line with the ROSA26R reporter mice. At initial stages of vascular formation (E8-9), LacZ staining was detected in almost all cells of the forming vasculature. Between E10 and birth...

  18. Transgenic mice for a tamoxifen-induced, conditional expression of the Cre recombinase in osteoclasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Arantzazu Sanchez-Fernandez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies on osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells, have remained limited due to the lack of transgenic mice allowing the conditional knockout of genes in osteoclasts at any time during development or adulthood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We report here on the generation of transgenic mice which specifically express a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase in osteoclasts. These mice, generated on C57BL/6 and FVB background, express a fusion Cre recombinase-ERT2 protein whose expression is driven by the promoter of cathepsin K (CtsK, a gene highly expressed in osteoclasts. We tested the cellular specificity of Cre activity in CtsKCreERT2 strains by breeding with Rosa26LacZ reporter mice. PCR and histological analyses of the CtsKCreERT2LacZ positive adult mice and E17.5 embryos show that Cre activity is restricted largely to bone tissue. In vitro, primary osteoclasts derived from the bone marrow of CtsKCreERT2+/-LacZ+/- adult mice show a Cre-dependent β-galactosidase activity after tamoxifen stimulation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have generated transgenic lines that enable the tamoxifen-induced, conditional deletion of loxP-flanked genes in osteoclasts, thus circumventing embryonic and postnatal gene lethality and avoiding gene deletion in other cell types. Such CtsKCreERT2 mice provide a convenient tool to study in vivo the different facets of osteoclast function in bone physiology during different developmental stages and adulthood of mice.

  19. Quality of Life and Leisure Activities: How Do Leisure Activities Contribute to Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajsa-Zganec, Andreja; Merkas, Marina; Sverko, Iva

    2011-01-01

    The quality of life is determined with objective factors and also with subjective perception of factors which influence human life. Leisure activities play a very important role in subjective well-being because they provide opportunities to meet life values and needs. Through participation in leisure activities people build social relationships,…

  20. [Body image and participation in physical activities by obese subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, Anne; Perera, Éric; Rodhain, Angélique; Férez, Sylvain

    2016-06-08

    From a sociological perspective, physical activity and diet are perceived as social and cultural practices, constructed and transmitted within human societies. The body is then thought of as a social construct, a sign and foundation of individual and collective identities. In this context, this article was designed to highlight some social processes underlying the obesity epidemic. Clarifying issues about a medical definition of obesity in an obesogenic society, and theoretical approaches to the meanings of the obesity epidemic are proposed. Individual stories of a gradual shift towards obesity are presented to illustrate the variety of trajectories that can lead to obesity in adulthood but also the variety of subjective experiences about the situation of obesity. In particular, the relationship to the body and experiences in terms of physical activity are investigated in order to understand how obesity is associated with non-commitment, low commitment or abandonment of physical activity. The issue of configurations in which commitment or re-commitments in regular exercise for sedentary populations can be possible are discussed. The discussion shows that although commitment to regular and sustainable physical activity requires a profound transformation of lifestyle for the persons concerned, the collective dimension of this change is rarely taken into account..

  1. Nutritional strategies of physically active subjects with muscle dysmorphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contesini, Nadir; Adami, Fernando; Blake, Márcia de-Toledo; Monteiro, Carlos Bm; Abreu, Luiz C; Valenti, Vitor E; Almeida, Fernando S; Luciano, Alexandre P; Cardoso, Marco A; Benedet, Jucemar; de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos, Francisco; Leone, Claudio; Frainer, Deivis Elton Schlickmann

    2013-05-26

    The aim of this study was to identify dietary strategies for physically active individuals with muscle dysmorphia based on a systematic literature review. References were included if the study population consisted of adults over 18 years old who were physically active in fitness centers. We identified reports through an electronic search ofScielo, Lilacs and Medline using the following keywords: muscle dysmorphia, vigorexia, distorted body image, and exercise. We found eight articles in Scielo, 17 in Medline and 12 in Lilacs. Among the total number of 37 articles, only 17 were eligible for inclusion in this review. The results indicated that the feeding strategies used by physically active individuals with muscle dysmorphia did not include planning or the supervision of a nutritionist. Diet included high protein and low fat foods and the ingestion of dietary and ergogenic supplements to reduce weight. Physically active subjects with muscle dysmorphia could benefit from the help of nutritional professionals to evaluate energy estimation, guide the diet and its distribution in macronutrient and consider the principle of nutrition to functional recovery of the digestive process, promote liver detoxification, balance and guide to organic adequate intake of supplemental nutrients and other substances.

  2. THE PUBLIC OFFICER - THE ACTIVE SUBJECT OF A CRIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA-ELENA BUZATU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to analyze the active subject of the crime committed by an individual - the public officer, for example - during his daily duty program or with reference to the attributions he has versus the public office he holds, in the light of the regulations provided not only by the Penal Code in force but also by the future New Penal Code, as, among the important amendments it provides, the definition of the public officer is also mentioned. In the case of such a trespassing, the active subject shall hold the quality of a public officer the way this quality is regulated by the Penal Code, even if the definition is much ampler as compared to the one given by the Statute of the Public Officers. According to Art 147, paragraph 1 Penal Code, a public officer is any individual who permanently or temporarily exercises - irrespective of his/her rank or of the way this office was appointed, a paid or unpaid task of no matter what nature or importance - in the service of a department Art 145 refers to. The regulation proposed in perfect agreement with the solutions offered by other international legislations and conventions in the domain, the definition of a public officer refers to the individual who - permanently or temporarily appointed, paid or unpaid - shall exercise attributions specific to the legislative, executive or judiciary powers, a function of public dignity or a function of any other type - alone or in a group - within a self-governing management of another economic agent or of a legal person with a whole or a greater capital, or belonging to a legally declared person capital or to a legal person considered to be of public utility - attributions connected with the object of the latter’s activity.

  3. Heme oxygenase-1 expression protects the heart from acute injury caused by inducible Cre recombinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Travis D; Bolisetty, Subhashini; DeAlmeida, Angela C; Litovsky, Silvio H; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Agarwal, Anupam; George, James F

    2013-08-01

    The protective effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cardiovascular disease has been previously demonstrated using transgenic animal models in which HO-1 is constitutively overexpressed in the heart. However, the temporal requirements for protection by HO-1 induction relative to injury have not been investigated, but are essential to employ HO-1 as a therapeutic strategy in human cardiovascular disease states. Therefore, we generated mice with cardiac-specific, tamoxifen (TAM)-inducible overexpression of a human HO-1 (hHO-1) transgene (myosin heavy chain (MHC)-HO-1 mice) by breeding mice with cardiac-specific expression of a TAM-inducible Cre recombinase (MHC-Cre mice), with mice containing an hHO-1 transgene preceded by a floxed-stop signal. MHC-HO-1 mice overexpress HO-1 mRNA and the enzymatically active protein following TAM administration (40 mg/kg body weight on 2 consecutive days). In MHC-Cre controls, TAM administration leads to severe, acute cardiac toxicity, cardiomyocyte necrosis, and 80% mortality by day 3. This cardiac toxicity is accompanied by a significant increase in inflammatory cells in the heart that are predominantly neutrophils. In MHC-HO-1 mice, HO-1 overexpression ameliorates the depression of cardiac function and high mortality rate observed in MHC-Cre mice following TAM administration and attenuates cardiomyocyte necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. These results highlight that HO-1 induction is sufficient to prevent the depression of cardiac function observed in mice with TAM-inducible Cre recombinase expression by protecting the heart from necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. These findings are important because MHC-Cre mice are widely used in cardiovascular research despite the limitations imposed by Cre-induced cardiac toxicity, and also because inflammation is an important pathological component of many human cardiovascular diseases.

  4. THE NEPHROTOXICITY RISK IN RATS SUBJECTED TO HEAVY MUSCLE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsen Öner

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When the body is exposed to insults, the kidneys exhibit adaptive changes termed renal cytoresistance, characterized by cholesterol accumulation in the membranes of the tubule cells. However, heavy muscle activity has not yet been accepted as one of the stressors that could lead to cytoresistance. In order to study the renal functional characteristics of animals exposed to heavy muscle activity, rats were subjected to exhaustive treadmill exercise for 5 days and their data was compared to those of sedentary controls. It was found that in exercised rats, blood lactate, muscle citrate synthase and proximal tubule peroxynitrite levels were all elevated, suggesting the presence of oxidative stress in the proximal tubule segments. However, mean arterial pressure, renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, fractional excretion of sodium and potassium, and organic anion excretion remained normal. Despite unchanged blood cholesterol levels, cholesterol loading in the proximal tubule segments, especially the free form, and decreased lactate dehydrogenase release from cytoresistant proximal tubule segments indicated the development of renal cytoresistance. However, this resistance did not seem to have protected the kidneys as expected because organic anion accumulation associated with glycosuria and proteinuria, in addition to the elevated urinary cholesterol levels, all imply the presence of an impaired glomerular permeability and reabsorption in the proximal tubule cells. Therefore, we suggest that in response to heavy muscle activity the tubular secretion may remain intact, although cytoresistance in the proximal tubule cells may affect the tubular reabsorptive functions and basolateral uptake of substances. Thus, this differential sensitivity in the cytoresistance should be taken into account during functional evaluation of the kidneys

  5. Resting brain activity varies with dream recall frequency between subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-06-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5 ± 0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2 ± 1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory.

  6. Dermal Delivery of Constructs Encoding Cre Recombinase to Induce Skin Tumors in PtenLoxP/LoxP;BrafCA/+ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel A. Deken

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current genetically-engineered mouse melanoma models are often based on Tyr::CreERT2-controlled MAPK pathway activation by the BRAFV600E mutation and PI3K pathway activation by loss of PTEN. The major drawback of these models is the occurrence of spontaneous tumors caused by leakiness of the Tyr::CreERT2 system, hampering long-term experiments. To address this problem, we investigated several approaches to optimally provide local delivery of Cre recombinase, including injection of lentiviral particles, DNA tattoo administration and particle-mediated gene transfer, to induce melanomas in PtenLoxP/LoxP;BrafCA/+ mice lacking the Tyr::CreERT2 allele. We found that dermal delivery of the Cre recombinase gene under the control of a non-specific CAG promoter induced the formation of melanomas, but also keratoacanthoma and squamous cell carcinomas. Delivery of Cre recombinase DNA under the control of melanocyte-specific promoters in PtenLoxP/LoxP;BrafCA/+ mice resulted in sole melanoma induction. The growth rate and histological features of the induced tumors were similar to 4-hydroxytamoxifen-induced tumors in Tyr::CreERT2;PtenLoxP/LoxP;BrafCA/+ mice, while the onset of spontaneous tumors was prevented completely. These novel induction methods will allow long-term experiments in mouse models of skin malignancies.

  7. Imaging Voltage in Genetically Defined Neuronal Subpopulations with a Cre Recombinase-Targeted Hybrid Voltage Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayguinov, Peter O; Ma, Yihe; Gao, Yu; Zhao, Xinyu; Jackson, Meyer B

    2017-09-20

    Genetically encoded voltage indicators create an opportunity to monitor electrical activity in defined sets of neurons as they participate in the complex patterns of coordinated electrical activity that underlie nervous system function. Taking full advantage of genetically encoded voltage indicators requires a generalized strategy for targeting the probe to genetically defined populations of cells. To this end, we have generated a mouse line with an optimized hybrid voltage sensor (hVOS) probe within a locus designed for efficient Cre recombinase-dependent expression. Crossing this mouse with Cre drivers generated double transgenics expressing hVOS probe in GABAergic, parvalbumin, and calretinin interneurons, as well as hilar mossy cells, new adult-born neurons, and recently active neurons. In each case, imaging in brain slices from male or female animals revealed electrically evoked optical signals from multiple individual neurons in single trials. These imaging experiments revealed action potentials, dynamic aspects of dendritic integration, and trial-to-trial fluctuations in response latency. The rapid time response of hVOS imaging revealed action potentials with high temporal fidelity, and enabled accurate measurements of spike half-widths characteristic of each cell type. Simultaneous recording of rapid voltage changes in multiple neurons with a common genetic signature offers a powerful approach to the study of neural circuit function and the investigation of how neural networks encode, process, and store information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Genetically encoded voltage indicators hold great promise in the study of neural circuitry, but realizing their full potential depends on targeting the sensor to distinct cell types. Here we present a new mouse line that expresses a hybrid optical voltage sensor under the control of Cre recombinase. Crossing this line with Cre drivers generated double-transgenic mice, which express this sensor in targeted cell types. In

  8. Recombinase, chromosomal translocations and lymphoid neoplasia: targeting mistakes and repair failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculescu, Rodrig; Vanura, Katrina; Montpellier, Bertrand; Roulland, Sandrine; Le, Trang; Navarro, Jean-Marc; Jäger, Ulrich; McBlane, Fraser; Nadel, Bertrand

    2006-09-08

    A large number of lymphoid malignancies is characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which are closely linked to the initial steps of pathogenesis. The hallmark of these translocations is the ectopic activation of a silent proto-oncogene through its relocation at the vicinity of an active regulatory element. Due to the unique feature of lymphoid cells to somatically rearrange and mutate receptor genes, and to the corresponding strong activity of the immune enhancers/promoters at that stage of cell development, B- and T-cell differentiation pathways represent propitious targets for chromosomal translocations and oncogene activation. Recent progress in the understanding of the V(D)J recombination process has allowed a more accurate definition of the translocation mechanisms involved, and has revealed that V(D)J-mediated translocations result both from targeting mistakes of the recombinase, and from illegitimate repair of the V(D)J recombination intermediates. Surprisingly, V(D)J-mediated translocations turn out to be restricted to two specific sub-types of lymphoid malignancies, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias, and a restricted set of mature B-cell Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

  9. 13 CFR 101.401 - What programs and activities of SBA are subject to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATION Intergovernmental Partnership § 101.401 What programs and activities of SBA are subject to this subpart? SBA publishes in the Federal Register a list of programs and activities subject...

  10. Radar cross section of human cardiopulmonary activity for recumbent subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriazi, John E; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lubecke, Victor M

    2009-01-01

    The radar cross section (RCS) corresponding to human cardio-respiratory motion is measured for a subject in two different recumbent positions. Lying face-up (supine), the subject showed an RCS of 0.326 m(2). But when lying face-down (prone), the RCS increased to 2.9 m(2). This is the first reported RCS measurement corresponding to human cardio-respiratory motion. The results obtained in this experiment suggest modeling the upper part of the human body as a half-cylinder where the front body corresponds to the cylindrical surface and the back corresponds to the rectangular one.

  11. The active subject: Political antropology in Amartya Sen. [Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Eduardo Saldarriaga Madrigal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents Amartya Sen’s critique of the anthropological model that underlies the conception of neoclassical economics (especially in its utilitarian and rational choice versions, in order to present the conception of subject offered by the abilities approach and then the notion of development as freedom.

  12. Cell-specific cre recombinase expression allows selective ablation of glutamate receptors from mouse horizontal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ströh

    Full Text Available In the mouse retina, horizontal cells form an electrically coupled network and provide feedback signals to photoreceptors and feedforward signals to bipolar cells. Thereby, horizontal cells contribute to gain control at the first visual synapse and to the antagonistic organization of bipolar and ganglion cell receptive fields. However, the nature of horizontal cell output remains a matter of debate, just as the exact contribution of horizontal cells to center-surround antagonism. To facilitate studying horizontal cell function, we developed a knockin mouse line which allows ablating genes exclusively in horizontal cells. This knockin line expresses a Cre recombinase under the promoter of connexin57 (Cx57, a gap junction protein only expressed in horizontal cells. Consistently, in Cx57+/Cre mice, Cre recombinase is expressed in almost all horizontal cells (>99% and no other retinal neurons. To test Cre activity, we crossbred Cx57+/Cre mice with a mouse line in which exon 11 of the coding sequence for the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit GluA4 was flanked by two loxP sites (GluA4fl/fl. In GluA4fl/fl:Cx57+/Cre mice, GluA4 immunoreactivity was significantly reduced (∼ 50% in the outer retina where horizontal cells receive photoreceptor inputs, confirming the functionality of the Cre/loxP system. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from isolated horizontal cell somata showed a reduction of glutamate-induced inward currents by ∼ 75%, suggesting that the GluA4 subunit plays a major role in mediating photoreceptor inputs. The persistent current in GluA4-deficient cells is mostly driven by AMPA and to a very small extent by kainate receptors as revealed by application of the AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI52466 and concanavalin A, a potentiator of kainate receptor-mediated currents. In summary, the Cx57+/Cre mouse line provides a versatile tool for studying horizontal cell function. GluA4fl/fl:Cx57+/Cre mice, in which horizontal cells receive less

  13. Cell-Specific Cre Recombinase Expression Allows Selective Ablation of Glutamate Receptors from Mouse Horizontal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike; Schultz, Konrad; Cimiotti, Kerstin; Weiler, Reto; Willecke, Klaus; Dedek, Karin

    2013-01-01

    In the mouse retina, horizontal cells form an electrically coupled network and provide feedback signals to photoreceptors and feedforward signals to bipolar cells. Thereby, horizontal cells contribute to gain control at the first visual synapse and to the antagonistic organization of bipolar and ganglion cell receptive fields. However, the nature of horizontal cell output remains a matter of debate, just as the exact contribution of horizontal cells to center-surround antagonism. To facilitate studying horizontal cell function, we developed a knockin mouse line which allows ablating genes exclusively in horizontal cells. This knockin line expresses a Cre recombinase under the promoter of connexin57 (Cx57), a gap junction protein only expressed in horizontal cells. Consistently, in Cx57+/Cre mice, Cre recombinase is expressed in almost all horizontal cells (>99%) and no other retinal neurons. To test Cre activity, we crossbred Cx57+/Cre mice with a mouse line in which exon 11 of the coding sequence for the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit GluA4 was flanked by two loxP sites (GluA4fl/fl). In GluA4fl/fl:Cx57+/Cre mice, GluA4 immunoreactivity was significantly reduced (∼50%) in the outer retina where horizontal cells receive photoreceptor inputs, confirming the functionality of the Cre/loxP system. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from isolated horizontal cell somata showed a reduction of glutamate-induced inward currents by ∼75%, suggesting that the GluA4 subunit plays a major role in mediating photoreceptor inputs. The persistent current in GluA4-deficient cells is mostly driven by AMPA and to a very small extent by kainate receptors as revealed by application of the AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI52466 and concanavalin A, a potentiator of kainate receptor-mediated currents. In summary, the Cx57+/Cre mouse line provides a versatile tool for studying horizontal cell function. GluA4fl/fl:Cx57+/Cre mice, in which horizontal cells receive less excitatory input

  14. Cell Type-Specific Manipulation with GFP-Dependent Cre Recombinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jonathan C Y; Rudolph, Stephanie; Dhande, Onkar S; Abraira, Victoria E; Choi, Seungwon; Lapan, Sylvain; Drew, Iain R; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Huberman, Andrew D; Regehr, Wade G; Cepko, Constance L

    2016-01-01

    Summary There are many transgenic GFP reporter lines that allow visualization of specific populations of cells. Using such lines for functional studies requires a method that transforms GFP into a molecule that enables genetic manipulation. Here we report the creation of a method that exploits GFP for gene manipulation, Cre Recombinase Dependent on GFP (CRE-DOG), a split component system that uses GFP and its derivatives to directly induce Cre/loxP recombination. Using plasmid electroporation and AAV viral vectors, we delivered CRE-DOG to multiple GFP mouse lines, leading to effective recombination selectively in GFP-labeled cells. Further, CRE-DOG enabled optogenetic control of these neurons. Beyond providing a new set of tools for manipulation of gene expression selectively in GFP+ cells, we demonstrate that GFP can be used to reconstitute the activity of a protein not known to have a modular structure, suggesting that this strategy might be applicable to a wide range of proteins. PMID:26258682

  15. Redesign of the monomer–monomer interface of Cre recombinase yields an obligate heterotetrameric complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Myers, Connie A.; Qi, Zongtai; Mitra, Robi D.; Corbo, Joseph C.; Havranek, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Cre recombinase catalyzes the cleavage and religation of DNA at loxP sites. The enzyme is a homotetramer in its functional state, and the symmetry of the protein complex enforces a pseudo-palindromic symmetry upon the loxP sequence. The Cre-lox system is a powerful tool for many researchers. However, broader application of the system is limited by the fixed sequence preferences of Cre, which are determined by both the direct DNA contacts and the homotetrameric arrangement of the Cre monomers. As a first step toward achieving recombination at arbitrary asymmetric target sites, we have broken the symmetry of the Cre tetramer assembly. Using a combination of computational and rational protein design, we have engineered an alternative interface between Cre monomers that is functional yet incompatible with the wild-type interface. Wild-type and engineered interface halves can be mixed to create two distinct Cre mutants, neither of which are functional in isolation, but which can form an active heterotetramer when combined. When these distinct mutants possess different DNA specificities, control over complex assembly directly discourages recombination at unwanted half-site combinations, enhancing the specificity of asymmetric site recombination. The engineered Cre mutants exhibit this assembly pattern in a variety of contexts, including mammalian cells. PMID:26365240

  16. Redesign of the monomer-monomer interface of Cre recombinase yields an obligate heterotetrameric complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Myers, Connie A; Qi, Zongtai; Mitra, Robi D; Corbo, Joseph C; Havranek, James J

    2015-10-15

    Cre recombinase catalyzes the cleavage and religation of DNA at loxP sites. The enzyme is a homotetramer in its functional state, and the symmetry of the protein complex enforces a pseudo-palindromic symmetry upon the loxP sequence. The Cre-lox system is a powerful tool for many researchers. However, broader application of the system is limited by the fixed sequence preferences of Cre, which are determined by both the direct DNA contacts and the homotetrameric arrangement of the Cre monomers. As a first step toward achieving recombination at arbitrary asymmetric target sites, we have broken the symmetry of the Cre tetramer assembly. Using a combination of computational and rational protein design, we have engineered an alternative interface between Cre monomers that is functional yet incompatible with the wild-type interface. Wild-type and engineered interface halves can be mixed to create two distinct Cre mutants, neither of which are functional in isolation, but which can form an active heterotetramer when combined. When these distinct mutants possess different DNA specificities, control over complex assembly directly discourages recombination at unwanted half-site combinations, enhancing the specificity of asymmetric site recombination. The engineered Cre mutants exhibit this assembly pattern in a variety of contexts, including mammalian cells. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Regulation of Recombination between gtfB/gtfC Genes in Streptococcus mutans by Recombinase A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Inagaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans produces 3 types of glucosyltransferases (GTFs, whose cooperative action is essential for cellular adhesion. The recombinase A (RecA protein is required for homologous recombination. In our previous study, we isolated several strains with a smooth colony morphology and low GTF activity, characteristics speculated to be derived from the GTF fusions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of those fusions. S. mutans strain MT8148 was grown in the presence of recombinant RecA (rRecA protein, after which smooth colonies were isolated. The biological functions and sequences of the gtfB and gtfC genes of this as well as other clinical strains were determined. The sucrose-dependent adherence rates of those strains were reduced as compared to that of MT8148. Determination of the sequences of the gtfB and gtfC genes showed that an approximately 3500 bp region was deleted from the area between them. Furthermore, expression of the recA gene was elevated in those strains as compared to MT8148. These results suggest that RecA has an important role in fusions of gtfB and gtfC genes, leading to alteration of colony morphology and reduction in sucrose-dependent adhesion.

  18. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Diagnostics of Dengue Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abd El Wahed

    Full Text Available Over 2.5 billion people are exposed to the risk of contracting dengue fever (DF. Early diagnosis of DF helps to diminish its burden on public health. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase amplification assays (RT-PCR are the standard method for molecular detection of the dengue virus (DENV. Real-time RT-PCR analysis is not suitable for on-site screening since mobile devices are large, expensive, and complex. In this study, two RT-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA assays were developed to detect DENV1-4.Using two quantitative RNA molecular standards, the analytical sensitivity of a RT-RPA targeting the 3´non-translated region of DENV1-4 was found to range from 14 (DENV4 to 241 (DENV1-3 RNA molecules detected. The assay was specific and did not cross detect other Flaviviruses. The RT-RPA assay was tested in a mobile laboratory combining magnetic-bead based total nucleic acid extraction and a portable detection device in Kedougou (Senegal and in Bangkok (Thailand. In Kedougou, the RT-RPA was operated at an ambient temperature of 38 °C with auxiliary electricity tapped from a motor vehicle and yielded a clinical sensitivity and specificity of 98% (n=31 and 100% (n=23, respectively. While in the field trial in Bangkok, the clinical sensitivity and specificity were 72% (n=90 and 100%(n=41, respectively.During the first 5 days of infection, the developed DENV1-4 RT-RPA assays constitute a suitable accurate and rapid assay for DENV diagnosis. Moreover, the use of a portable fluorescence-reading device broadens its application potential to the point-of-care for outbreak investigations.

  19. DEM Analysis of Backfilled Walls Subjected to Active Translation Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Khosravi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of a retaining wall under active translation mode is investigated numerically. To this end, a series of numerical models is conducted using the discrete element code, PFC2D. The backfill soil is simulated by an assembly of separate cohesionless circular particles. Backfill soil was prepared by pouring soil particles from a specific height under gravity force and giving them enough time for appropriate settlement. Different heights of retaining walls are simulated and the lateral earth pressure on the wall is observed under both at-rest and active conditions. Numerical results compared with predictions from some analytical methods and measurements from physical models. The active state of earth pressure is defined as the earth pressure distribution corresponding to the values of wall displacement where the failure zone in the backfill is fully developed. The numerical results showed that the fully active state of earth pressure occurred at a wall displacement corresponding to the strains required for reaching the critical state in biaxial compressive tests.

  20. Stereospecific suppression of active site mutants by methylphosphonate substituted substrates reveals the stereochemical course of site-specific DNA recombination

    OpenAIRE

    Rowley, Paul A.; Kachroo, Aashiq H.; Ma, Chien-Hui; Maciaszek, Anna D.; Guga, Piotr; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine site-specific recombinases, which promote one class of biologically important phosphoryl transfer reactions in DNA, exemplify active site mechanisms for stabilizing the phosphate transition state. A highly conserved arginine duo (Arg-I; Arg-II) of the recombinase active site plays a crucial role in this function. Cre and Flp recombinase mutants lacking either arginine can be rescued by compensatory charge neutralization of the scissile phosphate via methylphosphonate (MeP) modificati...

  1. Electrocortical activity associated with subjective communication with the deceased

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud eDelorme

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During advanced meditative practices, unusual perceptions can arise including the sense of receiving information about unknown people who are deceased (discarnates. The reported experience of initiating mental communication with the deceased, may involve a state of consciousness similar to that achieved in contemplative meditation practices. As with meditation, this mental state involves calming mental chatter and becoming receptive to subtle feelings and sensations. Psychometric and brain electrophysiology data were collected from six individuals who had previously reported accurate information about discarnates under double-blind conditions. Each experimental participant performed two tasks with eyes closed. In the first task, the participant was given only the first name of a discarnate and asked 25 questions. After each question, the participant was asked to silently perceive information relevant to the question for 20 seconds so clean electro-encephalography data could be collected and then respond verbally. Responses were then transcribed and scored by individuals who knew the discarnates. Of the six participants, two could not be evaluated, and the four other participants scored higher than chance level (p<0.03 for 3 of the 4 participants. The correlation between accuracy and brain activity was significant in frontal theta for one participant (p < 0.01. In the second task, participants were asked to experience four mental states, each repeated three times for one minute: (1 Thinking about a known living person, (2 Listening to a biography, (3 Thinking about an imaginary person, and (4 Interacting mentally with a known discarnate. Statistically significant differences in electrocortical activity among the four conditions were obtained in all six participants, primarily at gamma frequencies. These differences suggest that the impression of communicating with the deceased may be a distinct mental state distinct from ordinary thinking or

  2. Cerebellar activation in verb generation. Activation study with positron emission tomography in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Eriko [Inst. for Rehabilitation and Mental Health, Kyowa, Akita (Japan); Kanno, Iwao; Sadato, Norihiro; Senda, Michio; Fujita, Hideaki; Nagata, Ken

    1999-06-01

    To investigate the role of cerebellum in language function, we used the silent verb generation task in PET activation study. Subjects were 11 right-handed, healthy men with the mean age of 24.3. We used two experimental conditions, resting state and verb generation, and measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) alternately and repeatedly, three times for each condition. In the verb generation task, the subject was asked to silently think of as many verbs associated with auditorily given noun as he could. The subtraction image between verb generation and resting state showed activation foci at the left inferior to middle frontal lobe as well as temporal lobe in the supratentorium, consistent with previous studies. In the infratentorium, there were significant foci at bilateral cerebellar hemisphere and brain stem, which was predominantly seen over the right cerebellum. Activations were seen in the superior-lateral part of the right cerebellar hemisphere including the right dentate nucleus, and in the inferior-lateral part of the left cerebellar hemisphere. The amount of CBF increase by the task as compared with the resting condition in the upper cerebellum showed an increasing trend from the first to the third measurement. The present results suggest specific roles of the cerebellum in word retrieval as well as the practice-related changes during verbal learning. (author)

  3. Cerebellar activation in verb generation. Activation study with positron emission tomography in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Eriko; Kanno, Iwao; Sadato, Norihiro; Senda, Michio; Fujita, Hideaki; Nagata, Ken

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the role of cerebellum in language function, we used the silent verb generation task in PET activation study. Subjects were 11 right-handed, healthy men with the mean age of 24.3. We used two experimental conditions, resting state and verb generation, and measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) alternately and repeatedly, three times for each condition. In the verb generation task, the subject was asked to silently think of as many verbs associated with auditorily given noun as he could. The subtraction image between verb generation and resting state showed activation foci at the left inferior to middle frontal lobe as well as temporal lobe in the supratentorium, consistent with previous studies. In the infratentorium, there were significant foci at bilateral cerebellar hemisphere and brain stem, which was predominantly seen over the right cerebellum. Activations were seen in the superior-lateral part of the right cerebellar hemisphere including the right dentate nucleus, and in the inferior-lateral part of the left cerebellar hemisphere. The amount of CBF increase by the task as compared with the resting condition in the upper cerebellum showed an increasing trend from the first to the third measurement. The present results suggest specific roles of the cerebellum in word retrieval as well as the practice-related changes during verbal learning. (author)

  4. Productive Activities and Subjective Well-Being among Older Adults: The Influence of Number of Activities and Time Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsey A.; Cahalin, Lawrence P.; Gerst, Kerstin; Burr, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines relationships among three measures of subjective well-being (life satisfaction, happiness and depressive symptoms), and two global measures of productive activity (number of activities and time commitment). We argue that participation in multiple productive activities should increase subjective well-being because these…

  5. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Boyle

    Full Text Available Improved access to effective tests for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB has been designated a public health priority by the World Health Organisation. In high burden TB countries nucleic acid based TB tests have been restricted to centralised laboratories and specialised research settings. Requirements such as a constant electrical supply, air conditioning and skilled, computer literate operators prevent implementation of such tests in many settings. Isothermal DNA amplification technologies permit the use of simpler, less energy intensive detection platforms more suited to low resource settings that allow the accurate diagnosis of a disease within a short timeframe. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA is a rapid, low temperature isothermal DNA amplification reaction. We report here RPA-based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC DNA in <20 minutes at 39 °C. Assays for two MTC specific targets were investigated, IS6110 and IS1081. When testing purified MTC genomic DNA, limits of detection of 6.25 fg (IS6110 and 20 fg (IS1081were consistently achieved. When testing a convenience sample of pulmonary specimens from suspected TB patients, RPA demonstrated superior accuracy to indirect fluorescence microscopy. Compared to culture, sensitivities for the IS1081 RPA and microscopy were 91.4% (95%CI: 85, 97.9 and 86.1% (95%CI: 78.1, 94.1 respectively (n = 71. Specificities were 100% and 88.6% (95% CI: 80.8, 96.1 respectively. For the IS6110 RPA and microscopy sensitivities of 87.5% (95%CI: 81.7, 93.2 and 70.8% (95%CI: 62.9, 78.7 were obtained (n = 90. Specificities were 95.4 (95% CI: 92.3,98.1 and 88% (95% CI: 83.6, 92.4 respectively. The superior specificity of RPA for detecting tuberculosis was due to the reduced ability of fluorescence microscopy to distinguish Mtb complex from other acid fast bacteria. The rapid nature of the RPA assay and its low energy requirement compared to other amplification technologies suggest RPA-based TB

  6. 75 FR 60772 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit AGENCY: U.S... the Paperwork Reduction Act: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and... techniques or other forms of information. Title: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP...

  7. Identification of a minimal functional linker in human topoisomerase I by domain swapping with Cre recombinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Rikke Frøhlich; Juul, Sissel; Vinther, Maria

    2008-01-01

    . In this study we replace 86 amino acids including the linker domain of the cellular type IB topoisomerase, human topoisomerase I, with four, six, or eight amino acids from the corresponding short loop region in Cre recombinase. In vitro characterization of the resulting chimeras, denoted Cropos, reveals...

  8. Creating Transgenic shRNA Mice by Recombinase-Mediated Cassette Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premsrirut, Prem K.; Dow, Lukas E.; Park, Youngkyu; Hannon, Gregory J.; Lowe, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) enables sequence-specific, experimentally induced silencing of virtually any gene by tapping into innate regulatory mechanisms that are conserved among most eukaryotes. The principles that enable transgenic RNAi in cell lines can also be used to create transgenic animals, which express short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in a regulated or tissue-specific fashion. However, RNAi in transgenic animals is somewhat more challenging than RNAi in cultured cells. The activities of promoters that are commonly used for shRNA expression in cell culture can vary enormously in different tissues, and founder lines also typically vary in transgene expression due to the effects of their single integration sites. There are many ways to produce mice carrying shRNA transgenes and the method described here uses recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). RMCE permits insertion of the shRNA transgene into a well-characterized locus that gives reproducible and predictable expression in each founder and enhances the probability of potent expression in many cell types. This procedure is more involved and complex than simple pronuclear injection, but if even a few shRNA mice are envisioned, for example, to probe the functions of several genes, the effort of setting up the processes outlined below are well worthwhile. Note that when creating a transgenic mouse, one should take care to use the most potent shRNA possible. As a rule of thumb, the sequence chosen should provide >90% knockdown when introduced into cultured cells at single copy (e.g., on retroviral infection at a multiplicity of ≤0.3). PMID:24003198

  9. A novel Cre recombinase imaging system for tracking lymphotropic virus infection in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette M Dutia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection, isolation, and identification of individual virus infected cells during long term infection are critical to advance our understanding of mechanisms of pathogenesis for latent/persistent viruses. However, current approaches to study these viruses in vivo have been hampered by low sensitivity and effects of cell-type on expression of viral encoded reporter genes. We have designed a novel Cre recombinase (Cre-based murine system to overcome these problems, and thereby enable tracking and isolation of individual in vivo infected cells.Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68 was used as a prototypic persistent model virus. A Cre expressing recombinant virus was constructed and characterised. The virus is attenuated both in lytic virus replication, producing ten-fold lower lung virus titres than wild type virus, and in the establishment of latency. However, despite this limitation, when the sEGFP7 mouse line containing a Cre-activated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP was infected with the Cre expressing virus, sites of latent and persistent virus infection could be identified within B cells and macrophages of the lymphoid system on the basis of EGFP expression. Importantly, the use of the sEGFP7 mouse line which expresses high levels of EGFP allowed individual virus positive cells to be purified by FACSorting. Virus gene expression could be detected in these cells. Low numbers of EGFP positive cells could also be detected in the bone marrow.The use of this novel Cre-based virus/mouse system allowed identification of individual latently infected cells in vivo and may be useful for the study and long-term monitoring of other latent/persistent virus infections.

  10. Motion or activity: their role in intra- and inter-subject variation in fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben E; Nørgaard, Minna D; Rostrup, Egill

    2005-01-01

    MRI to pre-surgical planning because of a higher requirement for intra-subject precision. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of residual movement artefacts on intra-subject and inter-subject variability in the observed fMRI activation. Ten subjects were examined using three different...... word-generation tasks. Two of the subjects were examined 10 times on 10 different days using the same paradigms. We systematically investigated one approach of correcting for residual movement effects: the inclusion of regressors describing movement-related effects in the design matrix of a General...

  11. Serum prolidase enzyme activity in obese subjects and its relationship with oxidative stress markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Mehmet; Duzenli, Ufuk; Esen, Ramazan; Soyoral, Yasemin Usul

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between increased serum enzyme activity of prolidase and increased rate of collagen turnover in the arterial wall has been asserted in previous studies. Collagen reflects much of the strength to the connective tissue involved in the arterial wall. Atherosclerosis is very common vessel disease and oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the etiopathogenesis. Our objective was to examine the serum enzyme activity of prolidase and its possible relationships with oxidative stress parameters in obese subjects. Our present study was conducted 27 obese subjects and 26 age-matched healthy control subjects. The serum enzyme activity of prolidase in all study population was evaluated spectrophotometrically. Oxidative stress levels in obese subjects were analyzed with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) as well as oxidative stress index (OSI). Obese subjects have higher serum TOS and OSI indicators as well as prolidase activity than those in control subjects (for all; pstress levels in obese subjects. The significantly correlation between increased oxidative stress and increased prolidase activity may play a pivotal role in etiopathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in obese subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Breath pacing system and method for pacing the respiratory activity of a subject

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    To provide a breath pacing system and a corresponding method for pacing the respiratory activity of a subject that provide the possibility to adapt the output signal to the respiration characteristics of the subject automatically and effectively a breath pacing system (10) for pacing the respiratory

  13. 78 FR 76152 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit AGENCY: U.S... the Paperwork Reduction Act: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and..., mechanical, or other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: Transportation Entry and...

  14. Subjective user experience and performance with active tangibles on a tabletop interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B. van; Toet, A.; Meijer, K.; Janssen, J.; Jong, A. de

    2015-01-01

    We developed active tangibles (Sensators) that can be used in combination with multitouch tabletops and that can provide multisensory (visual, auditory, and vibrotactile) feedback. For spatial alignment and rotation tasks we measured subjective user experience and objective performance with these

  15. Subjective User Experience and Performance with Active Tangibles on a Tabletop Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Toet, Alexander; Meijer, Koos; Janssen, Joris; Jong, Arnoud; Streitz, Norbert; Markopoulos, Panos

    We developed active tangibles (Sensators) that can be used in combination with multitouch tabletops and that can provide multisensory (visual, auditory, and vibrotactile) feedback. For spatial alignment and rotation tasks we measured subjective user experience and objective performance with these

  16. Raman spectroscopy applied to identify metabolites in urine of physically active subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Letícia Parada; Silveira, Landulfo; da Silva, Alexandre Galvão; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares; Rocco, Débora Dias Ferraretto Moura

    2017-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid and non-destructive technique suitable for biological fluids analysis. In this work, dispersive Raman spectroscopy has been employed as a rapid and nondestructive technique to detect the metabolites in urine of physically active subjects before and after vigorous 30min pedaling or running compared to sedentary subjects. For so, urine samples from 9 subjects were obtained before and immediately after physical activities and submitted to Raman spectroscopy (830nm excitation, 250mW laser power, 20s integration time) and compared to urine from 5 sedentary subjects. The Raman spectra of urine from sedentary showed peaks related to urea, creatinine, ketone bodies, phosphate and other nitrogenous compounds. These metabolic biomarkers presented peaks with different intensities in the urine of physically active individuals after exercises compared to before, measured by the intensity of selected peaks the Raman spectra, which means different concentrations after training. These peaks presented different intensity values for each subject before physical activity, also behaving differently compared to the post-training: some subjects presented increase while others decrease the intensity. Raman spectroscopy may allow the development of a rapid and non-destructive test for metabolic evaluation of the physical training in active and trained subjects using urine samples, allowing nutrition adjustment with the sport's performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced neutrophil chemotactic activity after bronchial challenge in subjects with grain dust-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Jung, K S

    1998-03-01

    There have been few reports suggesting involvement of neutrophils in induction of bronchoconstriction after inhalation of grain dust. To understand the role of neutrophils in pathogenesis of grain dust-induced asthma. We observed serum neutrophil chemotactic activity during grain dust-bronchoprovocation tests in six asthmatic subjects with positive bronchial challenges (group I). They were compared with those of six symptomatic subjects from the same workplace with negative bronchial challenges (group II). After grain dust inhalation, serum neutrophil chemotactic activity significantly increased at 30 minutes (P = .028), and then decreased to baseline level at 240 minutes (P = .028) in five subjects of group I having isolated early asthmatic responses. Enhanced neutrophil chemotactic activity was persistent for up to 240 minutes in one asthmatic subject having both early and late asthmatic responses. There was, however, no significant change in serum neutrophil chemotactic activity during bronchial challenges in subjects of group II. Pre-incubation of sera with anti-interleukin-8 (IL-8) antibody did not affect the neutrophil chemotactic activity results of group I subjects. These results suggest that enhanced neutrophil chemotactic activity distinct from IL-8 may contribute to significant bronchoconstriction induced by grain dust.

  18. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  19. Caries-free subjects have high levels of urease and arginine deiminase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn REYES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between urease and arginine deiminase system (ADS activities and dental caries through a cross-sectional study. Material and Methods: Urease and ADS activities were measured in saliva and plaque samples from 10 caries-free subjects and 13 caries-active. Urease activity was obtained from the ammonia produced by incubation of plaque and saliva samples in urea. ADS activity was obtained from the ammonia generated by the arginine-HCl and Tris-maleate buffer. Specific activity was defined as micromoles of ammonia per minute per milligram of protein. Shapiro-Wilk statistical test was used to analyze the distribution of the data, and Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the significance of the data. Results: The specific urease activity in saliva and plaque was significantly higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. ADS activity in saliva (6.050 vs 1.350, p=0.0154 and plaque (8.830 vs 1.210, p=0.025 was also higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. Conclusions: Caries-free subjects had a higher ammonia generation activity by urease and arginine deiminase system for both saliva and plaque samples than low caries-active subjects. High levels of alkali production in oral environment were related to caries-free subjects.

  20. Correlation between Cholinesterase and Paraoxonase 1 Activities: Case Series of Pesticide Poisoning Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Austin Richard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute exposure to pesticide due to suicidal poisoning is the most extensive cause of pesticide exposure, compared with all other causes including agricultural or industrial exposure. Organophosphate (OP and carbamate group of pesticides can inhibit acetylcholinesterase; on the other hand, paraoxonase1 can detoxify organophosphate poisoning by hydrolyzing organophosphate metabolites. Methods: We have compared the serum paraoxonase1 status and cholinesterase activity of subjects who attempted to commit suicide by consuming OP pesticide. Cholinesterase and paraoxonase1 activity were measured spectrophotometrically using butyrylthiocholine and phenyl acetate as substrates, respectively. Results: A positive correlation was found between serum paraoxonase1 activity and cholinesterase activity among pesticide consumed subjects. Conclusion: Our results suggest that subjects with higher paraoxonase1 activity may have a better chance of detoxifying the lethal effect of acute organophosphate poisoning.

  1. Marker Removal in Transgenic Plants Using Cre Recombinase Delivered with Potato Virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopertekh, Lilya; Schiemann, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we present an alternative method to develop marker-free transgenic plants. It makes use of the Cre/loxP recombination system from bacteriophage P1 and consists of two essential components. The first component is the transgenic plant containing a loxP-flanked marker gene. The second component is a cre transient expression vector based on potato virus X. The great benefit of this transient delivery method consists in the avoidance of stable integration of the cre recombinase gene into the plant genome. Upon infection of the loxP-target plant with PVX-Cre, the virus spreads systemically through the plant and causes the recombinase-mediated excision of the marker gene. Marker-free transgenic loci can be transmitted to the progeny by plant regeneration from PVX-Cre systemically infected leaves or self-pollination of virus-infected plants. The protocol covers generation of loxP-target transgenic plants, PVX-mediated delivery of Cre recombinase protein, phenotypic and molecular analysis of recombination events, and transmission of marker-free transgenic loci to the next generation. The transient expression system described in this chapter can be adapted for marker gene removal in other plant species that are amenable for virus infection.

  2. Structure of a hexameric form of RadA recombinase from Methanococcus voltae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Liqin; Luo, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Hexameric rings of RadA recombinase from M. voltae have been crystallized. Structural comparisons suggest that homologues of RadA tend to form double-ringed assemblies. Archaeal RadA proteins are close homologues of eukaryal Rad51 and DMC1 proteins and are remote homologues of bacterial RecA proteins. For the repair of double-stranded breaks in DNA, these recombinases promote a pivotal strand-exchange reaction between homologous single-stranded and double-stranded DNA substrates. This DNA-repair function also plays a key role in the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and in the resistance of bacterial cells to antibiotics. A hexameric form of a truncated Methanococcus voltae RadA protein devoid of its small N-terminal domain has been crystallized. The RadA hexamers further assemble into two-ringed assemblies. Similar assemblies can be observed in the crystals of Pyrococcus furiosus RadA and Homo sapiens DMC1. In all of these two-ringed assemblies the DNA-interacting L1 region of each protomer points inward towards the centre, creating a highly positively charged locus. The electrostatic characteristics of the central channels can be utilized in the design of novel recombinase inhibitors

  3. Hamstrings co-activation in ACL-deficient subjects during isometric whole-leg extensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbersberg, S.; Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient subjects increase the level of hamstrings activation and this has been interpreted as a means to cope with increased anterior tibial laxity in the knee. This study aimed to establish to what extent co-activation strategies in

  4. Comparing Primary Student Teachers' Attitudes, Subject Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Needs in a Physics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jane; Ahtee, Maija

    2006-01-01

    This research explores and compares primary student teachers' attitudes, subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in physics in two institutions in England and Finland, using a practical physics activity and questionnaire. Teaching of physics activities was rated unpopular both in Finland and England, although English students…

  5. VASTUS LATERALIS OBLIQUE ACTIVITY DURING GAIT OF SUBJECTS WITH PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Moraes Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: So far, little is known about the behavior of electromyographic activity of vastus lateralis oblique muscle during treadmill gait in subjects with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the electromyographic activity of the patellar stabilizers muscles and the angle of the knee joint flexion in subjects with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. Method: Fifteen subjects without (21 ± 3 years and 12 with patellofemoral pain syndrome (20 ± 2 years were evaluated. The electromyographic activity and flexion angle of the knee joint were obtained during gait on the treadmill with a 5 degree inclination. Results: The knee flexion angle was significantly lower in the subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome when compared with the healthy controls. The electromyographic activity of vastus lateralis longus was significantly greater during gait on the treadmill with inclination in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome. The results also showed that the electromyographic activity of vastus lateralis oblique and vastus medialis oblique were similar in both groups, regardless of the condition (with/without inclination. Conclusion: We have shown that knee kinematics during gait differs among patients with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome and healthy controls and that a different motor strategy persists even when the pain is no longer present. In addition, the findings suggested that the vastus lateralis oblique has a minor role in patellar stability during gait.

  6. Metabolic mapping of functional activity in human subjects with the [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.H.; Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.

    1981-01-01

    The 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose technique was used to measure regional cerebral glucose utilization by human subjects during functional activation. Normal male volunteers subjected to one or more sensory stimuli exhibited focal increases in glucose metabolism in response to the stimulus. These results demonstrate that the technique is capable of providing functional maps in vivo related to both body region and submodality of sensory information in the human brain

  7. Interaction Between Subjective Well-Being, Economic Activity and Education in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Gataūlinas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the impact of professional well-being of EU citizens on their life satisfaction at both micro and macro levels. The following indicators were selected to describe the professional well-being: involvment in the official employment, level of education, and job satisfaction. The findings of the article suggest that employed respondents evaluated their subjective well-being significantly higher as compared to those not participating in the labour market. Similar findings were drawn when comparing subjective well-being of the respondents in relation to their education. Respondents with higher education reported significantly higher statistically proven subjective well-being than those with lower education. In the article, the interpretation of the findings is based on the conceptual model of subjective well-being of needs as well as on the role of employment and education in satisfaction of physiological and socially acceptable needs of individuals. Work activity is more directly linked with the satisfaction of individual needs than education. However, engagement in work has only an impact on subjective well-being if work activity is perceived as job satisfaction. If employment is perceived by individuals as providing greater satisfaction, it tends to make a more positive impact on the subjective well-being of individuals compared to activities that are perceived as providing less satisfaction.

  8. Source-space EEG neurofeedback links subjective experience with brain activity during effortless awareness meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lutterveld, Remko; Houlihan, Sean D; Pal, Prasanta; Sacchet, Matthew D; McFarlane-Blake, Cinque; Patel, Payal R; Sullivan, John S; Ossadtchi, Alex; Druker, Susan; Bauer, Clemens; Brewer, Judson A

    2017-05-01

    Meditation is increasingly showing beneficial effects for psychiatric disorders. However, learning to meditate is not straightforward as there are no easily discernible outward signs of performance and thus no direct feedback is possible. As meditation has been found to correlate with posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) activity, we tested whether source-space EEG neurofeedback from the PCC followed the subjective experience of effortless awareness (a major component of meditation), and whether participants could volitionally control the signal. Sixteen novice meditators and sixteen experienced meditators participated in the study. Novice meditators were briefly trained to perform a basic meditation practice to induce the subjective experience of effortless awareness in a progressively more challenging neurofeedback test-battery. Experienced meditators performed a self-selected meditation practice to induce this state in the same test-battery. Neurofeedback was provided based on gamma-band (40-57Hz) PCC activity extracted using a beamformer algorithm. Associations between PCC activity and the subjective experience of effortless awareness were assessed by verbal probes. Both groups reported that decreased PCC activity corresponded with effortless awareness (Pneurofeedback to link an objective measure of brain activity with the subjective experience of effortless awareness, and suggest potential utility of this paradigm as a tool for meditation training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of physical activity in pre-service teachers’ subjective vitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Bora Özkara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present study, subjective vitality considered to be one of the contributions provided by participation in physical activity is examined on a sample of pre-service teachers. When teachers who are important part of education system are healthy and fit, it will help to build future generations. Materials: The research was conducted in the city of Trabzon, located in the northeastern region of Turkey. The sample of the study is composed of 328 last grade pre-service teachers (133 women, 195 men, age: 23.14 ± 2.62 studying at Karadeniz Technical University in the academic year of 2015-2016. Data was collected through Childhood and Adolescence Physical Activity Levels Questionnaire, Subjective Vitality Scale, and a personal information form asking for information about gender, doing sports as a certified sportsman/woman and department. Results: The research results yielded a significant difference between subjective vitality levels of those who do sports as a certified sportsman/woman and those who do not, and between pre-service teachers of physical education and those of other departments (p<0,01. There was also a positive and low-level significant relationship between subjective vitality and physical activity experiences of pre-service teachers (r= .23; p<0.01. However, subjective vitality did not differ significantly by gender. Conclusions: The research results seem to support other studies that reveal social and psychological contributions provided by participation in physical activity. Therefore, participation in physical activity seems to have positive effects on the subjective vitality of pre-service teachers.

  10. Subjective Word-Finding Difficulty Reduces Engagement in Social Leisure Activities in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Meagan T.; Zahodne, Laura B.; Stern, Yaakov; Dorrejo, Jhedy; Yeung, Philip; Cosentino, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the influence of subjective word-finding difficulty on Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients’ likelihood of engaging in social leisure activities. Design Analysis of data collected from the second cohort of the Multicenter Study of Predictors of Disease Course in Alzheimer’s disease. Setting Four study sites in the U.S. and France. Participants Individuals diagnosed with mild to moderate AD (N = 236) Measurements On separate questionnaires, patients were asked to 1) report whether had trouble finding the right word when speaking (subjective word-finding difficulty), and 2) rate their frequency and enjoyment of both social and nonsocial leisure activities. Objective language measures included object naming and verbal fluency. Measures of dependence, depression, cognitive status, age, sex, and education were also included as covariates in regression analyses. Results Over half (52%) of the sample reported word-finding difficulty, and subjective complaints were correlated with poorer verbal fluency scores. Subjective word-finding difficulty was uniquely related to social activity measures. Endorsers of word-finding difficulty reported reduced frequency and enjoyment of social leisure activities, controlling for covariates. In contrast, engagement in nonsocial activities was associated with higher age and depression scores, but was not related to word-finding complaints. These results were corroborated by the caregivers’ reports, and occurred above and beyond the effect of objective word-finding ability. Conclusion AD patients who are aware of increasing word-finding failures are less likely to participate in and enjoy socially-oriented leisure activities. This finding may have significant implications for clinical and health outcomes in AD. A failure to evaluate subjective language complaints could result in social withdrawal symptoms, thereby threatening the patient’s quality of life as well as increasing caregiver burden. Importantly

  11. 14 CFR 1204.1503 - Programs and activities subject to these regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... regulations. 1204.1503 Section 1204.1503 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND POLICY Intergovernmental Review of National Aeronautics and Space Administration... publishes in the Federal Register a description of the Agency's programs and activities that are subject to...

  12. Understanding the Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR): An electromyographic study in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, H.; Meijer, O.G.; Bruijn, S.M.; Strijers, R.L.M.; Nanayakkara, P.W.B.; van Royen, B.J.; Wu, W; Xia, C.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR) is an important test in diagnosing pelvic girdle pain (PGP). It is difficult to understand what happens normally during the ASLR, let alone why it would be impaired in PGP. In the present study, healthy subjects performed the ASLR under normal conditions, with

  13. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance.

  14. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: a Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Konrad Imbir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop (EST and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance.

  15. 75 FR 43997 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit AGENCY: U.S... agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning the: Transportation Entry and... CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Transportation...

  16. 78 FR 57405 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit AGENCY: U.S... agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning the: Transportation Entry and... CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Transportation...

  17. Museum activities in dementia care: Using visual analog scales to measure subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joana; Culverwell, Alison; Hulbert, Sabina; Robertson, Mitch; Camic, Paul M

    2017-07-01

    Introduction Previous research has shown that people with dementia and caregivers derive wellbeing-related benefits from viewing art in a group, and that facilitated museum object handling is effective in increasing subjective wellbeing for people with a range of health conditions. The present study quantitatively compared the impact of two museum-based activities and a social activity on the subjective wellbeing of people with dementia and their caregivers. Methods A quasi-experimental crossover design was used. People with early to middle stage dementia and caregivers ( N = 66) participated in museum object handling, a refreshment break, and art viewing in small groups. Visual analog scales were used to rate subjective wellbeing pre and post each activity. Results Mixed-design analysis of variances indicated wellbeing significantly increased during the session, irrespective of the order in which the activities were presented. Wellbeing significantly increased from object handling and art viewing for those with dementia and caregivers across pooled orders, but did not in the social activity of a refreshment break. An end-of-intervention questionnaire indicated that experiences of the session were positive. Conclusion Results provide a rationale for considering museum activities as part of a broader psychosocial, relational approach to dementia care and support the use of easy to administer visual analog scales as a quantitative outcome measure. Further partnership working is also supported between museums and healthcare professionals in the development of nonclinical, community-based programs for this population.

  18. Spatial and temporal lineage analysis of a Pitx3-driven Cre-recombinase knock-in mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten P Smidt

    Full Text Available Development and function of mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA neurons has received a lot of scientific interest since these neurons are critically involved in neurological diseases as Parkinson and psychiatric diseases as schizophrenia, depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The understanding of the molecular processes that lead to normal development and function of mdDA neurons has provided insight in the pathology and provided critical information on new treatment paradigms. In order to be able to study specific genetic ablation in mdDA neurons a new tools was developed that drives Cre-recombinase under the control of the Pitx3 locus. The Pitx3 gene is well known for its specific expression in mdDA neurons and is present at the onset of terminal differentiation. Analysis of newly generated Pitx3-Cre knock-in mice shows that Cre expression, measured through the activation of eYfp by removal of a "Stop" signal (LoxP-Stop-LoxP-eYfp reporter mouse, is present at the onset of terminal differentiation and mimics closely the native Pitx3 expression domain. In conclusion, we present here a new Cre-driver mouse model to be used in the restricted ablation of interesting genes in mdDA neurons in order to improve our understanding of the underlying molecular programming.

  19. A comparison of subjective and objective measures of physical activity from the Newcastle 85+ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innerd, Paul; Catt, Michael; Collerton, Joanna; Davies, Karen; Trenell, Michael; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Jagger, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about physical activity (PA) in the very old, the fastest growing age group in the population. We aimed to examine the convergent validity of subjective and objective measures of PA in adults aged over 85 years. A total of 484 participants aged 87-89 years recruited to the Newcastle 85+ study completed a purpose-designed physical activity questionnaire (PAQ), which categorised participants as mildly active, moderately active and very active. Out of them, 337 participants wore a triaxial, raw accelerometer on the right wrist over a 5-7-day period to obtain objective measures of rest/activity, PA intensity and PA type. Data from subjective and objective measurement methods were compared. Self-reported PA was significantly associated with objective measures of the daily sedentary time, low-intensity PA and activity type classified as sedentary, activities of daily living and walking. Objective measures of PA were significantly different when low, moderate and high self-reported PA categories were compared (all P PAQ demonstrated convergent validity with objective measures of PA. Our findings suggest that this PAQ can be used in the very old to rank individuals according to their level of total PA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  20. The relationship between vitamin D status, physical activity and insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülis Kavadar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM incidence has been increasing worldwide along with the rise of obesity and sedantery lifestyle. Decreased physical activity (PA and obesity have also been associated with the low vitamin D levels. We aimed to determine the association between PA, vitamin D status and insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects. A total of 294 (186 female, 108 male overweight or obese subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD, insulin, fasting plasma glucose (FPG and HbA1c levels were measured in blood samples. Body mass index (BMI, HOMA-index and total score of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form (IPAQ were calculated. Insulin resistant subjects were compared with the non-resistant group. The mean age of the participants was 45±12.25 and 41.39±10.32; 25(OHD levels were 8.91 ± 4.30 and 17.62 ± 10.47 ng/dL; BMIs were 31.29 ± 4.48  and 28.2 ± 3.16 kg/m², IPAQ total scores were 548.71±382.81 and 998±486.21 in the insulin resistant and nonresistant subjects, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in terms of 25(OHD, FPG, insulin levels, IPAQ  total score and BMI between the two groups (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001.Significantly low 25(OHD levels, high BMI and low PA in insulin resistant subjects confirm the importance of active lifestyle and the maintenance of normal vitamin D levels in overweight and obese subjects in prevention of T2DM.

  1. Physical activity in subjects with multiple sclerosis with focus on gender differences: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anens, Elisabeth; Emtner, Margareta; Zetterberg, Lena; Hellström, Karin

    2014-03-10

    There is increasing research that examines gender-issues in multiple sclerosis (MS), but little focus has been placed on gender-issues regarding physical activity. The aim of the present study was to describe levels of physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, fall-related self-efficacy, social support for physical activity, fatigue levels and the impact of MS on daily life, in addition to investigating gender differences. The sample for this cross-sectional cohort study consisted of 287 (84 men; 29.3%) adults with MS recruited from the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. A questionnaire was sent to the subjects consisting of the self-administrated measurements: Physical Activity Disability Survey - Revised, Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, Falls-Efficacy Scale (Swedish version), Social Influences on Physical Activity, Fatigue Severity Scale and Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Response rate was 58.2%. Men were less physically active, had lower self-efficacy for physical activity and lower fall-related self-efficacy than women. This was explained by men being more physically affected by the disease. Men also received less social support for physical activity from family members. The level of fatigue and psychological consequences of the disease were similar between the genders in the total sample, but subgroups of women with moderate MS and relapsing remitting MS experienced more fatigue than men. Men were less physically active, probably a result of being more physically affected by the disease. Men being more physically affected explained most of the gender differences found in this study. However, the number of men in the subgroup analyses was small and more research is needed. A gender perspective should be considered in strategies for promoting physical activity in subjects with MS, e.g. men may need more support to be physically active.

  2. Construction of permanently inducible miRNA-based expression vectors using site-specific recombinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garwick-Coppens Sara E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi is a conserved gene silencing mechanism mediated by small inhibitory microRNAs (miRNAs. Promoter-driven miRNA expression vectors have emerged as important tools for delivering natural or artificially designed miRNAs to eukaryotic cells and organisms. Such systems can be used to query the normal or pathogenic functions of natural miRNAs or messenger RNAs, or to therapeutically silence disease genes. Results As with any molecular cloning procedure, building miRNA-based expression constructs requires a time investment and some molecular biology skills. To improve efficiency and accelerate the construction process, we developed a method to rapidly generate miRNA expression vectors using recombinases instead of more traditional cut-and-paste molecular cloning techniques. In addition to streamlining the construction process, our cloning strategy provides vectors with added versatility. In our system, miRNAs can be constitutively expressed from the U6 promoter, or inducibly expressed by Cre recombinase. We also engineered a built-in mechanism to destroy the vector with Flp recombinase, if desired. Finally, to further simplify the construction process, we developed a software package that automates the prediction and design of optimal miRNA sequences using our system. Conclusions We designed and tested a modular system to rapidly clone miRNA expression cassettes. Our strategy reduces the hands-on time required to successfully generate effective constructs, and can be implemented in labs with minimal molecular cloning expertise. This versatile system provides options that permit constitutive or inducible miRNA expression, depending upon the needs of the end user. As such, it has utility for basic or translational applications.

  3. Motor control patterns during an active straight leg raise in pain-free subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beales, Darren John; O'Sullivan, Peter Bruce; Briffa, N Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Repeated measures. To investigate motor control (MC) patterns of normal subjects during the low level physical load of the active straight leg raise (ASLR). Aberrant MC patterns, as observed with the ASLR test, are considered to be a mechanism for ongoing pain and disability in subjects with chronic musculoskeletal pelvic girdle pain. These patterns may not only affect the provision of lumbopelvic stability, but also respiration and the control of continence. Greater understanding of MC patterns in pain-free subjects may improve the management of pelvic girdle pain. METHODS.: Fourteen pain-free nulliparous women were examined during the ASLR. Electromyography of the anterior abdominal wall, right chest wall and the anterior scaleni, intraabdominal pressure (IAP), intrathoracic pressure (ITP), respiratory rate, pelvic floor kinematics, and downward leg pressure of the nonlifted leg were compared between a left and right ASLR. There was greater activation of obliquus internus abdominis and obliquus externus abdominis on the side of the ASLR. The predominant pattern of activation for the chest wall was tonic activation during an ipsilateral ASLR, and phasic respiratory activation lifting the contralateral leg. Respiratory fluctuation of both IAP and ITP did not differ lifting either leg. The baseline shifts of these pressure variables in response to the physical demand of lifting the leg was also the same either side. There was no difference in respiratory rate, pelvic floor kinematics, or downward leg pressure. Pain-free subjects demonstrate a predominant pattern of greater ipsilateral tonic activation of the abdominal wall and chest wall on the side of the ASLR. This was achieved with minimal apparent disruption to IAP and ITP. The findings of this study demonstrate the plastic nature of the abdominal cylinder and the flexibility of the neuromuscular system in controlling load transference during an ASLR.

  4. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  5. Activity of masticatory muscles in subjects with different orofacial pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodéré, Céline; Téa, Say Hack; Giroux-Metges, Marie Agnes; Woda, Alain

    2005-07-01

    The existence of a pathophysiological link between tonic muscle activity and chronic muscle pain is still being debated. The purpose of this retrospective, controlled study was to evaluate the electromyographic (EMG) activity of masticatory muscles in subjects with different orofacial pain conditions. The temporal and masseter EMG activity at rest and the masseteric reflex were recorded in two groups of patients with either myofascial pain (n=33) or neuropathic pain (n=20), one group of non-pain patients with disc derangement disorders (n=27) and one control group of healthy, asymptomatic subjects (n=32). The EMG activities of both muscles at rest were significantly higher in the pain patient groups compared to the asymptomatic control group. There was no significant difference between the disc derangement disorder group and the control group. The masseteric reflex amplitude was reduced in all patient groups when compared with the control group. In pain patient groups, the increased EMG activity at rest and the reduction of the masseteric reflex amplitude were equally distributed in the pain and non-pain sides. In addition, subjects presenting with bilateral pain showed higher EMG activity at rest than those with unilateral pain. These results suggested that the modulation of muscle activity was not the direct consequence of a peripheral nociceptive mechanism and seemed to indicate that a central mechanism was at work. The contrast between the increased EMG activity at rest and the reduction of the masseteric reflex amplitude may reflect modulations of motoneurones that differed in tonic versus phasic conditions in chronic pain patients.

  6. Rapid and sensitive detection of canine parvovirus type 2 by recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianchang; Liu, Libing; Li, Ruiwen; Wang, Jinfeng; Fu, Qi; Yuan, Wanzhe

    2016-04-01

    A novel recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA)-based method for detection of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was developed. Sensitivity analysis showed that the detection limit of RPA was 10 copies of CPV-2 genomic DNA. RPA amplified both CPV-2a and -2b DNA but did not amplify the template of other important dog viruses (CCoV, PRV or CDV), demonstrating high specificity. The method was further validated with 57 canine fecal samples. An outstanding advantage of RPA is that it is an isothermal reaction and can be performed in a water bath, making RPA a potential alternative method for CPV-2 detection in resource-limited settings.

  7. Increased Subjective Distaste and Altered Insula Activity to Umami Tastant in Patients with Bulimia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikukage Setsu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine differences in brain neural activation in response to monosodium glutamate (MSG, the representative component of umami, between patients with bulimia nervosa (BN and healthy women (HW controls. We analyzed brain activity after ingestion of an MSG solution using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in a group of women with BN (n = 18 and a group of HW participants (n = 18. Both groups also provided a subjective assessment of the MSG solution via a numerical rating scale. The BN group subjectively rated the MSG solution lower in pleasantness and liking than the control group, although no difference in subjective intensity was noted. The fMRI results demonstrated greater activation of the right insula in the BN group versus the control group. Compared with the HW controls, the BN patients demonstrated both altered taste perception-related brain activity and more negative hedonic scores in response to MSG stimuli. Different hedonic evaluation, expressed as the relative low pleasing taste of umami tastant and associated with altered insula function, may explain disturbed eating behaviors, including the imbalance in food choices, in BN patients.

  8. Increased Subjective Distaste and Altered Insula Activity to Umami Tastant in Patients with Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setsu, Rikukage; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Tokunaga, Miki; Takahashi, Toru; Numata, Noriko; Matsumoto, Koji; Masuda, Yoshitada; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Iyo, Masaomi; Shimizu, Eiji; Nakazato, Michiko

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in brain neural activation in response to monosodium glutamate (MSG), the representative component of umami, between patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and healthy women (HW) controls. We analyzed brain activity after ingestion of an MSG solution using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a group of women with BN ( n  = 18) and a group of HW participants ( n  = 18). Both groups also provided a subjective assessment of the MSG solution via a numerical rating scale. The BN group subjectively rated the MSG solution lower in pleasantness and liking than the control group, although no difference in subjective intensity was noted. The fMRI results demonstrated greater activation of the right insula in the BN group versus the control group. Compared with the HW controls, the BN patients demonstrated both altered taste perception-related brain activity and more negative hedonic scores in response to MSG stimuli. Different hedonic evaluation, expressed as the relative low pleasing taste of umami tastant and associated with altered insula function, may explain disturbed eating behaviors, including the imbalance in food choices, in BN patients.

  9. Altered spontaneous activity in anisometropic amblyopia subjects: revealed by resting-state FMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Lin

    Full Text Available Amblyopia, also known as lazy eye, usually occurs during early childhood and results in poor or blurred vision. Recent neuroimaging studies have found cortical structural/functional abnormalities in amblyopia. However, until now, it was still not known whether the spontaneous activity of the brain changes in amblyopia subjects. In the present study, regional homogeneity (ReHo, a measure of the homogeneity of functional magnetic resonance imaging signals, was used for the first time to investigate changes in resting-state local spontaneous brain activity in individuals with anisometropic amblyopia. Compared with age- and gender-matched subjects with normal vision, the anisometropic amblyopia subjects showed decreased ReHo of spontaneous brain activity in the right precuneus, the left medial prefrontal cortex, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left cerebellum, and increased ReHo of spontaneous brain activity was found in the bilateral conjunction area of the postcentral and precentral gyri, the left paracentral lobule, the left superior temporal gyrus, the left fusiform gyrus, the conjunction area of the right insula, putamen and the right middle occipital gyrus. The observed decreases in ReHo may reflect decreased visuo-motor processing ability, and the increases in ReHo in the somatosensory cortices, the motor areas and the auditory area may indicate compensatory plasticity in amblyopia.

  10. Effect of frustration on brain activation pattern in subjects with different temperament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBierzynska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the prevalence of frustration in everyday life, very few neuroimaging studies were focused on this emotional state. In the current study we aimed to examine effects of frustration on brain activity while performing a well-learned task in participants with low and high tolerance for arousal. Prior to the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI session, the subjects underwent two weeks of Braille reading training. Frustration induction was obtained by using a novel highly difficult tactile task based on discrimination of Braille-like raised dots patterns and negative feedback. Effectiveness of this procedure has been confirmed in a pilot study using galvanic skin response (GSR and questionnaires. Brain activation pattern during tactile discrimination task before and after frustration were compared directly. Results revealed changes in brain activity in structures mostly reported in acute stress studies: striatum, cingulate cortex, insula, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus and in structures engaged in tactile Braille discrimination: SI and SII. Temperament type affected activation pattern. Subjects with low tolerance for arousal showed higher activation in the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL than high reactivity group. Even though performance in the discrimination trials following frustration was unaltered, we observed increased activity of primary and secondary somatosensory cortex processing the tactile information. We interpret this effect as an indicator of additional involvement required to counteract the effects of frustration.

  11. Effect of Frustration on Brain Activation Pattern in Subjects with Different Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierzynska, Maria; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Marchewka, Artur; Debowska, Weronika; Duszyk, Anna; Zajkowski, Wojciech; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Nowicka, Anna; Strelau, Jan; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the prevalence of frustration in everyday life, very few neuroimaging studies were focused on this emotional state. In the current study we aimed to examine effects of frustration on brain activity while performing a well-learned task in participants with low and high tolerance for arousal. Prior to the functional magnetic resonance imaging session, the subjects underwent 2 weeks of Braille reading training. Frustration induction was obtained by using a novel highly difficult tactile task based on discrimination of Braille-like raised dots patterns and negative feedback. Effectiveness of this procedure has been confirmed in a pilot study using galvanic skin response and questionnaires. Brain activation pattern during tactile discrimination task before and after frustration were compared directly. Results revealed changes in brain activity in structures mostly reported in acute stress studies: striatum, cingulate cortex, insula, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus and in structures engaged in tactile Braille discrimination: SI and SII. Temperament type affected activation pattern. Subjects with low tolerance for arousal showed higher activation in the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule than high reactivity group. Even though performance in the discrimination trials following frustration was unaltered, we observed increased activity of primary and secondary somatosensory cortex processing the tactile information. We interpret this effect as an indicator of additional involvement required to counteract the effects of frustration.

  12. Subjective Preferences of Criterion-Oriented Support of Professional Activities of Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina S. Mirolyubova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the results of a pilot research of a subjective system of activitycriteria represented in professional experience of business managers from the Uralregion. The authors investigate the question of changes in an individual criterionorientedsystem of assessing effectiveness of activities depending on a subject’sprofessional experience and his/her position. The cluster analysis helped to singleout groups of criteria that underwent a preliminary quantitative and qualitativeanalysis. A complex interdisciplinary approach was used in this research.

  13. Effect of Frustration on Brain Activation Pattern in Subjects with Different Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Bierzynska, Maria; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Marchewka, Artur; Debowska, Weronika; Duszyk, Anna; Zajkowski, Wojciech; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Nowicka, Anna; Strelau, Jan; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the prevalence of frustration in everyday life, very few neuroimaging studies were focused on this emotional state. In the current study we aimed to examine effects of frustration on brain activity while performing a well-learned task in participants with low and high tolerance for arousal. Prior to the functional magnetic resonance imaging session, the subjects underwent 2 weeks of Braille reading training. Frustration induction was obtained by using a novel highly difficult tact...

  14. Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Exposure and Subjective Symptoms in Residents Participating in Clean-Up Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ha, Mina; Lee, Jong Seong; Kwon, Hojang; Ha, Eun-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Choi, Yeyong; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Hur, Jongil; Lee, Seung-Min; Kim, Eun-Jung; Im, Hosub

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to examine the relationship between crude oil exposure and physical symptoms among residents participating in clean-up work associated with the Hebei Spirit oil spill, 2007 in Korea. Methods A total of 288 residents responded to a questionnaire regarding subjective physical symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics and clean-up activities that occurred between two and eight weeks after the accident. Additionally, the urine of 154 of the respondents was ana...

  15. The effects of diet and physical activity on plasma homovanillic acid in normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Mohs, R C; Davis, K L

    1983-03-01

    This study examines the effect of diet and moderate physical activity on plasma levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in healthy young males. At weekly intervals, subjects were fed four isocaloric meals: polycose (pure carbohydrate), sustecal, low monoamine, and high monoamine. Moderate physical activity consisted of 30 minutes of exercise on a bicycle ergometer. The effect of diet on plasma HVA (pHVA) was highly significant. Compared to the polycose meal, the high monoamine meal significantly increased pHVA. Moderate physical activity also significantly increased pHVA. Future clinical studies using pHVA in man as an index of brain dopamine function should control for the effects of both diet and physical activity.

  16. Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay for Vibrio parahaemolyticus detection with an internal amplification control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan-Lan; Wei, Shuang; Gooneratne, Ravi; Mutukumira, Anthony N; Ma, Xue-Jun; Tang, Shu-Ze; Wu, Xi-Yang

    2018-04-01

    A novel RPA-IAC assay using recombinase polymerase and an internal amplification control (IAC) for Vibrio parahaemolyticus detection was developed. Specific primers were designed based on the coding sequence for the toxR gene in V. parahaemolyticus. The recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) reaction was conducted at a constant low temperature of 37 °C for 20 min. Assay specificity was validated by using 63 Vibrio strains and 10 non-Vibrio bacterial species. In addition, a competitive IAC was employed to avoid false-negative results, which co-amplified simultaneously with the target sequence. The sensitivity of the assay was determined as 3 × 10 3 CFU/mL, which is decidedly more sensitive than the established PCR method. This method was then used to test seafood samples that were collected from local markets. Seven out of 53 different raw seafoods were detected as V. parahaemolyticus-positive, which were consistent with those obtained using traditional culturing method and biochemical assay. This novel RPA-IAC assay provides a rapid, specific, sensitive, and more convenient detection method for V. parahaemolyticus.

  17. Recombinase-mediated reprogramming and dystrophin gene addition in mdx mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Zhao

    Full Text Available A cell therapy strategy utilizing genetically-corrected induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC may be an attractive approach for genetic disorders such as muscular dystrophies. Methods for genetic engineering of iPSC that emphasize precision and minimize random integration would be beneficial. We demonstrate here an approach in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy that focuses on the use of site-specific recombinases to achieve genetic engineering. We employed non-viral, plasmid-mediated methods to reprogram mdx fibroblasts, using phiC31 integrase to insert a single copy of the reprogramming genes at a safe location in the genome. We next used Bxb1 integrase to add the therapeutic full-length dystrophin cDNA to the iPSC in a site-specific manner. Unwanted DNA sequences, including the reprogramming genes, were then precisely deleted with Cre resolvase. Pluripotency of the iPSC was analyzed before and after gene addition, and ability of the genetically corrected iPSC to differentiate into myogenic precursors was evaluated by morphology, immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, FACS analysis, and intramuscular engraftment. These data demonstrate a non-viral, reprogramming-plus-gene addition genetic engineering strategy utilizing site-specific recombinases that can be applied easily to mouse cells. This work introduces a significant level of precision in the genetic engineering of iPSC that can be built upon in future studies.

  18. Recombinase-driver rat lines: tools, techniques, and optogenetic application to dopamine-mediated reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Ilana B; Steinberg, Elizabeth E; Lee, Soo Yeun; Davidson, Thomas J; Zalocusky, Kelly A; Brodsky, Matthew; Yizhar, Ofer; Cho, Saemi L; Gong, Shiaoching; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Stuber, Garret D; Tye, Kay M; Janak, Patricia H; Deisseroth, Karl

    2011-12-08

    Currently there is no general approach for achieving specific optogenetic control of genetically defined cell types in rats, which provide a powerful experimental system for numerous established neurophysiological and behavioral paradigms. To overcome this challenge we have generated genetically restricted recombinase-driver rat lines suitable for driving gene expression in specific cell types, expressing Cre recombinase under the control of large genomic regulatory regions (200-300 kb). Multiple tyrosine hydroxylase (Th)::Cre and choline acetyltransferase (Chat)::Cre lines were produced that exhibited specific opsin expression in targeted cell types. We additionally developed methods for utilizing optogenetic tools in freely moving rats and leveraged these technologies to clarify the causal relationship between dopamine (DA) neuron firing and positive reinforcement, observing that optical stimulation of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of Th::Cre rats is sufficient to support vigorous intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). These studies complement existing targeting approaches by extending the generalizability of optogenetics to traditionally non-genetically-tractable but vital animal models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. FLP recombinase-mediated site-specific recombination in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Pei Long

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of gene function and the production of site-specific genetically modified mutants are two major goals of genetic engineering in the post-genomic era. Although site-specific recombination systems have been powerful tools for genome manipulation of many organisms, they have not yet been established for use in the manipulation of the silkworm Bombyx mori genome. In this study, we achieved site-specific excision of a target gene at predefined chromosomal sites in the silkworm using a FLP/FRT site-specific recombination system. We first constructed two stable transgenic target silkworm strains that both contain a single copy of the transgene construct comprising a target gene expression cassette flanked by FRT sites. Using pre-blastoderm microinjection of a FLP recombinase helper expression vector, 32 G3 site-specific recombinant transgenic individuals were isolated from five of 143 broods. The average frequency of FLP recombinase-mediated site-specific excision in the two target strains genome was approximately 3.5%. This study shows that it is feasible to achieve site-specific recombination in silkworms using the FLP/FRT system. We conclude that the FLP/FRT system is a useful tool for genome manipulation in the silkworm. Furthermore, this is the first reported use of the FLP/FRT system for the genetic manipulation of a lepidopteran genome and thus provides a useful reference for the establishment of genome manipulation technologies in other lepidopteran species.

  20. Rearrangement of Rag-1 recombinase gene in DNA-repair deficient/immunodeficient ``wasted`` mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Weaver, P.; Churchill, M.; Chang-Liu, C-M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Mice recessive for the autosomal gene ``wasted`` (wst) display a disease pattern which includes increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency, and neurologic dysfunction. The recent cloning and characterization of recombinase genes (Rag-l/Rag-2) expressed in lymphoid and possibly central nervous system tissues prompted us to examine expression of these genes in DNA repair-deficient/immunodeficient wasted mice. Our results revealed that in thymus tissue, a small Rag-I transcript (1.0 kb) was detected in wst/wst mice that was not evident in thymus from control mice. In wst/{sm_bullet} mice, a two-fold increase in Rag-1 mRNA was evident in thymus tissue. Rag-2 mRNA could only be detected in thymus tissue from wst/{sm_bullet} and not from wst/wst or parental control BCF, mice. Southern blots revealed a rearrangement or deletion within the Rag-1 gene of affected wasted mice that was not evident in known strain-specific parental or littermate controls. These results support the idea that the Rag-1 gene may map at or near the locus for the wasted mutation. In addition, they suggest the importance of recombinase function in normal immune and central nervous system development as well as the potential contribution of this gene family to the normal repair of radiation-induced DNA damage.

  1. Rearrangement of RAG-1 recombinase gene in radiation-sensitive ''wasted'' mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Weaver, P.

    1994-01-01

    The recent cloning and characterization of recombinase genes (RAG- 1/RAG-2) expressed in lymphoid and possibly central nervous system tissues prompted us to examine expression of these genes in DNA repair-deficient/immunodeficient wasted mice (wst). Our results revealed expression of RAG-1 mRNA was detected in spinal cord or brain from wst/wst mice or their normal littermates (wst/sm-bullet mice). In thymus tissue, a small RAG-1 transcript was detected in wst/wst mice that was not evident in thymus from control mice. In wst/lg-bullet mice, a two-fold increase in RAG-1 mRNA was evident in thymus tissue. RAG-2 mRNA could only be detected in thymus tissue from wst/sm-bullet and not from wst;/wst or parental control BCF 1 mice. Southern blots revealed a rearrangement/deletion within the RAG-1 gene of affected wasted mice, not evident in known strain-specific parental or littermate controls. These results support the idea that the RAG-1 gene may map at or near the locus for the wasted mutation. In addition, they suggest the importance of recombinase function in normal immune and central nervous system development as well as the potential contribution of this gene family to the normal repair of radiation-induced DNA damage

  2. Brain electrical activity and subjective experience during altered states of consciousness: ganzfeld and hypnagogic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Jiri; Pütz, Peter; Büchi, Simone; Strauch, Inge; Lehmann, Dietrich

    2002-11-01

    Manifestations of experimentally induced altered states of consciousness in the brain's electrical activity as well as in subjective experience were explored via the hypnagogic state at sleep onset, and the state induced by exposure to an unstructured perceptual field (ganzfeld). Twelve female paid volunteers participated in sessions involving sleep onset, ganzfeld, and eyes-closed relaxed waking, and were repeatedly prompted for recall of their momentary mentation, according to a predefined schedule. Nineteen channel EEG, two channels EOG and EMG were recorded simultaneously. The mentation reports were followed by the subjects' ratings of their experience on a number of ordinal scales. Two-hundred and forty-one mentation reports were collected. EEG epochs immediately preceding the mentation reports were FFT-analysed and the spectra compared between states. The ganzfeld EEG spectrum, showing no signs of decreased vigilance, was very similar to the EEG spectrum of waking states, even showed a minor acceleration of alpha activity. The subjective experience data were reduced to four principal components: Factor I represented the subjective vigilance dimension, as confirmed by correlations with EEG spectral indices. Only Factor IV, the 'absorption' dimension, differentiated between the ganzfeld state (more absorption) and other states. In waking states and in ganzfeld, the subjects estimated elapsed time periods significantly shorter than in states at sleep onset. The results did not support the assumption of a hypnagogic nature of the ganzfeld imagery. Dream-like imagery can occur in various global functional states of the brain; hypnagogic and ganzfeld-induced states should be conceived as special cases of a broader class of 'hypnagoid' phenomena.

  3. Liver afferents contribute to water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects: a clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus May

    Full Text Available Water drinking acutely increases sympathetic activity in human subjects. In animals, the response appears to be mediated through transient receptor potential channel TRPV4 activation on osmosensitive hepatic spinal afferents, described as osmopressor response. We hypothesized that hepatic denervation attenuates water drinking-induced sympathetic activation. We studied 20 liver transplant recipients (44±2.6 years, 1.2±0.1 years post transplant as model of hepatic denervation and 20 kidney transplant recipients (43±2.6 years, 0.8±0.1 years post transplant as immunosuppressive drug matched control group. Before and after 500 ml water ingestion, we obtained venous blood samples for catecholamine analysis. We also monitored brachial and finger blood pressure, ECG, and thoracic bioimpedance. Plasma norepinephrine concentration had changed by 0.01±0.07 nmol/l in liver and by 0.21±0.07 nmol/l in kidney transplant recipients (p<0.05 between groups after 30-40 minutes of water drinking. While blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance increased in both groups, the responses tended to be attenuated in liver transplant recipients. Our findings support the idea that osmosensitive hepatic afferents are involved in water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01237431.

  4. Liver Afferents Contribute to Water Drinking-Induced Sympathetic Activation in Human Subjects: A Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Marcus; Gueler, Faikah; Barg-Hock, Hannelore; Heiringhoff, Karl-Heinz; Engeli, Stefan; Heusser, Karsten; Diedrich, André; Brandt, André; Strassburg, Christian P.; Tank, Jens; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Jordan, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Water drinking acutely increases sympathetic activity in human subjects. In animals, the response appears to be mediated through transient receptor potential channel TRPV4 activation on osmosensitive hepatic spinal afferents, described as osmopressor response. We hypothesized that hepatic denervation attenuates water drinking-induced sympathetic activation. We studied 20 liver transplant recipients (44±2.6 years, 1.2±0.1 years post transplant) as model of hepatic denervation and 20 kidney transplant recipients (43±2.6 years, 0.8±0.1 years post transplant) as immunosuppressive drug matched control group. Before and after 500 ml water ingestion, we obtained venous blood samples for catecholamine analysis. We also monitored brachial and finger blood pressure, ECG, and thoracic bioimpedance. Plasma norepinephrine concentration had changed by 0.01±0.07 nmol/l in liver and by 0.21±0.07 nmol/l in kidney transplant recipients (pwater drinking. While blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance increased in both groups, the responses tended to be attenuated in liver transplant recipients. Our findings support the idea that osmosensitive hepatic afferents are involved in water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01237431 PMID:22016786

  5. Subjective memory complaints and their relation with verbal fluency in active older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Flavia Rodrigues; Machado, Camila Kretzer; Souza, Monique Coan; Machado, Marcos José; Belaunde, Aline Megumi Arakawa

    2017-05-22

    To verify subjective memory complaints and their relation to verbal fluency in older people participating in community groups. An epidemiological quantitative study performed in community groups for older people in Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected by structured interview using the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) and the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT) by semantic categories "animals/minute". For an inferential descriptive analysis, data with p people in question and added to the questionnaire). We found no relation between subjective memory complaints and verbal fluency of active older people. Mnemonic complaints were correlated to the negative perception of memory and to the duration of the complaint. However, subjective memory complaints were an indicator for those individuals with negative perception of memory, being one aspect that must be considered in older people's speech when investigating a possible cognitive deterioration. Such data can assist in formulating public health care policies aimed at older people in the city, which emphasizes the importance of verifying subjective memory complaints in this population.

  6. Subjective memory complaints are associated with brain activation supporting successful memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jessica M; Tang, Lingfei; Viviano, Raymond P; van Rooden, Sanneke; Ofen, Noa; Damoiseaux, Jessica S

    2017-12-01

    Subjective memory complaints, the perceived decline in cognitive abilities in the absence of clinical deficits, may precede Alzheimer's disease. Individuals with subjective memory complaints show differential brain activation during memory encoding; however, whether such differences contribute to successful memory formation remains unclear. Here, we investigated how subsequent memory effects, activation which is greater for hits than misses during an encoding task, differed between healthy older adults aged 50 to 85 years with (n = 23) and without (n = 41) memory complaints. Older adults with memory complaints, compared to those without, showed lower subsequent memory effects in the occipital lobe, superior parietal lobe, and posterior cingulate cortex. In addition, older adults with more memory complaints showed a more negative subsequent memory effects in areas of the default mode network, including the posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that for successful memory formation, older adults with subjective memory complaints rely on distinct neural mechanisms which may reflect an overall decreased task-directed attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Body composition changes over 9 years in healthy elderly subjects and impact of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Laurence; Karsegard, Véronique L; Chevalley, Thierry; Kossovsky, Michel P; Darmon, Patrice; Pichard, Claude

    2011-08-01

    Age-related changes of body composition affect health status. This study aims at clarifying body composition changes in healthy elderly subjects, and evaluating the impact of physical activity on these changes. In 1999, 213 subjects ≥ 65 years recruited through advertisements underwent assessment of health state, energy expenditure by physical activity, body composition by bioimpedance analysis and body cell mass by total body potassium. In 2008, 112 of them repeated these assessments with additional determination of Barthel index, Mini Mental State Examination and Geriatric Depression Score. Lean tissues decreased in both genders (p men: -3.7 ± 5.4 vs. 0.4 ± 5.4 kg, women: -3.6 ± 5.5 vs. 0.3 ± 5.2 kg, both p men: -3.6 ± 3.3 vs. -0.4 ± 2.7 kg, women: -1.8 ± 2.3 vs. -0.1 ± 2.5 kg, both p physical activity limited lean tissue loss in men but not in women. Loss of lean tissues occurs exponentially with aging. Further research should confirm these changes in subjects over 80 years. Increasing physical activity limits fat-free mass loss in men but not women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Suppression of EMG activity by transcranial magnetic stimulation in human subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Butler, Jane E; Marchand-Pauvert, Veronique

    2001-01-01

    1. The involvement of the motor cortex during human walking was evaluated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex at a variety of intensities. Recordings of EMG activity in tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus muscles during walking were rectified and averaged. 2. TMS of low...... intensity (below threshold for a motor-evoked potential, MEP) produced a suppression of ongoing EMG activity during walking. The average latency for this suppression was 40.0 +/- 1.0 ms. At slightly higher intensities of stimulation there was a facilitation of the EMG activity with an average latency of 29.......5 +/- 1.0 ms. As the intensity of the stimulation was increased the facilitation increased in size and eventually a MEP was clear in individual sweeps. 3. In three subjects TMS was replaced by electrical stimulation over the motor cortex. Just below MEP threshold there was a clear facilitation at short...

  9. Methodologic treatment for the contents of inclusive physical education in the subject adapted physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Gómez-Valdés

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work came about because of the necessity to introduce the contents relating to Inclusive Physical Education in the subject Adaptive Physical Activity, in form coherently and comprehensive for the students, for there future endeavour of a professional in Physical Culture and Sports; giving them the possibility to know what to do in each moment that the practice physical activities directed to children with Special Educative Needs. This work is structured fundamentally from the usage of activity games in the Introduction, assimilation y evaluation of what is imparted; that permits the indication of forms y didactic strategies that gives them answers to concrete situations in which they have to pay direct attention to the diversity, fostering therefore the respect for the differences in others.

  10. Semi-active friction damper for buildings subject to seismic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Juan S.; Solarte, Alexander; Gomez, Daniel; Marulanda, Johannio; Thomson, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Structural control systems are considered an effective alternative for reducing vibrations in civil structures and are classified according to their energy supply requirement: passive, semi-active, active and hybrid. Commonly used structural control systems in buildings are passive friction dampers, which add energy dissipation through damping mechanisms induced by sliding friction between their surfaces. Semi-Active Variable Friction Dampers (SAVFD) allow the optimum efficiency range of friction dampers to be enhanced by controlling the clamping force in real time. This paper describes the development and performance evaluation of a low-cost SAVFD for the reduction of vibrations of structures subject to earthquakes. The SAVFD and a benchmark structural control test structure were experimentally characterized and analytical models were developed and updated based on the dynamic characterization. Decentralized control algorithms were implemented and tested on a shaking table. Relative displacements and accelerations of the structure controlled with the SAVFD were 80% less than those of the uncontrolled structure

  11. Intra-active subject formation – with friends and violent video games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    Violent videogames and their implications for children’s and youth’s subject formation have engaged researchers and educational professionals for many years. In a study on bullying, I asked: Why does online violent gaming become so attractive to children and youth positioned in schools saturated...... with bullying practices? How do they encounter and develop this relevance together? I will discuss the potentials and limitations in an agential realist approach to analyses rooted in these questions, and argue that although agential realist conceptualizations of diffraction and material-discursive intra......-activity promise a strong potential re. attention to complexity, in order to be helpful the concepts need further diffractive readings with theories that offer refined understandings of subject formation. And – that the science-approach of agential realisme, in relation to analyses of ethnographic material, must...

  12. Development of the recombinase-based in vivo expression technology in Streptococcus thermophilus and validation using the lactose operon promoter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junjua, M.; Galia, W.; Gaci, N.; Uriot, O.; Genay, M.; Bachmann, H.; Kleerebezem, M.; Dary, A.; Roussel, Y.

    2014-01-01


    Aims

    To construct and validate the recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (R-IVET) tool in Streptococcus thermophilus (ST).

    Methods and Results

    The R-IVET system we constructed in the LMD-9 strain includes the plasmid pULNcreB allowing transcriptional fusion

  13. Delivery of the Cre recombinase by a self-deleting lentiviral vector: efficient gene targeting in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeifer, A.; Brandon, E. P.; Kootstra, N.; Gage, F. H.; Verma, I. M.

    2001-01-01

    The Cre recombinase (Cre) from bacteriophage P1 is an important tool for genetic engineering in mammalian cells. We constructed lentiviral vectors that efficiently deliver Cre in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, we found a significant reduction in proliferation and an accumulation in the G(2)/M

  14. Refining Time-Activity Classification of Human Subjects Using the Global Positioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Maogui; Li, Wei; Li, Lianfa; Houston, Douglas; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Detailed spatial location information is important in accurately estimating personal exposure to air pollution. Global Position System (GPS) has been widely used in tracking personal paths and activities. Previous researchers have developed time-activity classification models based on GPS data, most of them were developed for specific regions. An adaptive model for time-location classification can be widely applied to air pollution studies that use GPS to track individual level time-activity patterns. Time-activity data were collected for seven days using GPS loggers and accelerometers from thirteen adult participants from Southern California under free living conditions. We developed an automated model based on random forests to classify major time-activity patterns (i.e. indoor, outdoor-static, outdoor-walking, and in-vehicle travel). Sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the contribution of the accelerometer data and the supplemental spatial data (i.e. roadway and tax parcel data) to the accuracy of time-activity classification. Our model was evaluated using both leave-one-fold-out and leave-one-subject-out methods. Maximum speeds in averaging time intervals of 7 and 5 minutes, and distance to primary highways with limited access were found to be the three most important variables in the classification model. Leave-one-fold-out cross-validation showed an overall accuracy of 99.71%. Sensitivities varied from 84.62% (outdoor walking) to 99.90% (indoor). Specificities varied from 96.33% (indoor) to 99.98% (outdoor static). The exclusion of accelerometer and ambient light sensor variables caused a slight loss in sensitivity for outdoor walking, but little loss in overall accuracy. However, leave-one-subject-out cross-validation showed considerable loss in sensitivity for outdoor static and outdoor walking conditions. The random forests classification model can achieve high accuracy for the four major time-activity categories. The model also performed well

  15. Shoulder muscle activation during stable and suspended push-ups at different heights in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, Sebastien; Calatayud, Joaquin; Colado, Juan C; Tella, Victor; Moya-Nájera, Diego; Martin, Fernando; Rogers, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    To analyze shoulder muscle activation when performing push-ups under different stability conditions and heights. Comparative study by repeated measures. Valencia University laboratory. 29 healthy males participated. Subjects performed 3 push-ups each with their hands at 2 different heights (10 vs. 65 cm) under stable conditions and using a suspension device. Push-up speed was controlled and the testing order was randomized. The average amplitudes of the electromyographic root mean square of the long head of the triceps brachii (TRICEP), upper trapezius (TRAPS), anterior deltoid (DELT) and clavicular pectoralis (PEC) were recorded. The electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Suspended push-ups at 10 cm resulted in greater activation in the TRICEP (17.14 ± 1.31 %MVIC vs. 37.03 ± 1.80 %MVIC) and TRAPS (5.83 ± 0.58 %MVIC vs. 14.69 ± 1.91 %MVIC) than those performed on the floor. For DELT and PEC similar or higher activation was found performing the push-ups on the floor, respectively. Height determines different muscle activation patterns. Stable push-ups elicit similar PEC and higher DELT muscle activation, being greater at 10 cm; whereas suspended push-ups elicit greater TRAPS and TRICEP muscle activation, being greater at 65 cm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative study of anthropometric variables in female classical ballet dancers, volleyball players and physically active subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Vaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare anthropometric variables (body weight, height, and percent body fat and plantarflexion and dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM between three different groups of women: classical ballet dancers (n=14, volleyball players (n=22 and physically active subjects (n=13. The assumption was that different functional requirements should produce differences in the anthropometric variables and ROM between the three groups. Body weight and height were higher in volleyball players (66.42 ± 5.8 kg; 174.77 ± 5.6 cm, followed by physically active women (59.93 ±10.3 kg; 164 ± 7.5 cm and ballet dancers (49.25 ± 4.5 kg; 157.03 ± 3.6 cm (p<0.05. Percent body fat was higher in physically active women (30.67 ± 4.6% compared to theother two groups, which showed similar percentages (volleyball players: 24.93 ± 4.1%; ballet dancers: 21.94 ± 4.3%. The three groups were similar in terms of total ankle ROM and active dorsiflexion ROM between the right and left sides. However, plantarflexion ROM was higher in ballet dancers (~83°, followed by physically active women (~68° and volleyball players who presented the smallest ROM (~60°. The different requirements imposed by the three distinct physical activities seem to be responsible for changes in some of the anthropometric variables and ankle joint ROM.

  17. A compositional look at the human gastrointestinal microbiome and immune activation parameters in HIV infected subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece A Mutlu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV progression is characterized by immune activation and microbial translocation. One factor that may be contributing to HIV progression could be a dysbiotic microbiome. We therefore hypothesized that the GI mucosal microbiome is altered in HIV patients and this alteration correlates with immune activation in HIV. 121 specimens were collected from 21 HIV positive and 22 control human subjects during colonoscopy. The composition of the lower gastrointestinal tract mucosal and luminal bacterial microbiome was characterized using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was correlated to clinical parameters as well as immune activation and circulating bacterial products in HIV patients on ART. The composition of the HIV microbiome was significantly different than that of controls; it was less diverse in the right colon and terminal ileum, and was characterized by loss of bacterial taxa that are typically considered commensals. In HIV samples, there was a gain of some pathogenic bacterial taxa. This is the first report characterizing the terminal ileal and colonic mucosal microbiome in HIV patients with next generation sequencing. Limitations include use of HIV-infected subjects on HAART therapy.

  18. Force steadiness, muscle activity, and maximal muscle strength in subjects with subacromial impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Rasmussen, Lars; Aagaard, Per

    2006-01-01

    physically active in spite of shoulder pain and nine healthy matched controls were examined to determine isometric and isokinetic submaximal shoulder-abduction force steadiness at target forces corresponding to 20%, 27.5%, and 35% of the maximal shoulder abductor torque, and maximal shoulder muscle strength......We investigated the effects of the subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) on shoulder sensory-motor control and maximal shoulder muscle strength. It was hypothesized that both would be impaired due to chronic shoulder pain associated with the syndrome. Nine subjects with unilateral SIS who remained...

  19. Gastric stimulation in obese subjects activates the hippocampus and other regions involved in brain reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Yang, Julia; Volkow, Nora D; Telang, Frank; Ma, Yeming; Zhu, Wei; Wong, Christopher T; Tomasi, Dardo; Thanos, Panayotis K; Fowler, Joanna S

    2006-10-17

    The neurobiological mechanisms underlying overeating in obesity are not understood. Here, we assessed the neurobiological responses to an Implantable Gastric Stimulator (IGS), which induces stomach expansion via electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve to identify the brain circuits responsible for its effects in decreasing food intake. Brain metabolism was measured with positron emission tomography and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose in seven obese subjects who had the IGS implanted for 1-2 years. Brain metabolism was evaluated twice during activation (on) and during deactivation (off) of the IGS. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire was obtained to measure the behavioral components of eating (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating). The largest difference was in the right hippocampus, where metabolism was 18% higher (P drug craving in addicted subjects (orbitofrontal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and striatum) suggests that similar brain circuits underlie the enhanced motivational drive for food and drugs seen in obese and drug-addicted subjects, respectively.

  20. Associations of Subjective Social Status with Physical Activity and Body Mass Index across Four Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Frerichs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study were to (1 assess physical activity and weight status differences and (2 explore the direction and shape of subjective social status (SSS association with physical activity and weight status within four Asian countries. Methods. Cross section data of adult respondents from the nationally representative East Asian Social Survey were used for analyses. Logistic regression stratified by gender was conducted for the first aim, and simple and quadratic logistic regression models were used for the second. Results. SSS was significantly associated with odds of weekly or daily physical activity across all countries and genders, except for South Korean and Japanese females. Quadratic models provided significantly better fit for Chinese males (LR (d.f. = 1 = 6.51, P value <.05 and females (LR (d.f. = 1 = 7.36, P value <.01, South Korean males (LR (d.f. = 1 = 4.40, P value <.05, and Taiwanese females (LR (d.f. = 1 = 4.87, P value <.05. Conclusions. This study provides a comparable cross Asian country measure of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and new findings that a connection exists between SSS and physical activity. Differences of class distinction help explain the different shaped SSS relationships.

  1. Electromyographic Pattern during Gait Initiation Differentiates Yoga Practitioners among Physically Active Older Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lelard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During gait initiation, postural adjustments are needed to deal with balance and movement. With aging, gait initiation changes and reflects functional degradation of frailty individuals. However, physical activities have demonstrated beneficial effects of daily motor tasks. The aim of our study was to compare center of pressure (COP displacement and ankle muscle co-activation during gait initiation in two physically active groups: a group of walkers (n = 12; mean age ± SD 72.6 ± 3.2 years and a yoga group (n = 11; 71.5 ± 3.8 years. COP trajectory and electromyography of leg muscles were recorded simultaneously during five successive trials of gait initiation. Our main finding was that yoga practitioners had slower COP displacements (p < 0.01 and lower leg muscles % of coactivation (p < 0.01 in comparison with walkers. These parameters which characterized gait initiation control were correlated (r = 0.76; p < 0.01. Our results emphasize that lengthy ankle muscle co-activation and COP path in gait initiation differentiate yoga practitioners among physically active subjects.

  2. Basal blood parameters of horses subjected to aerobic activity fed with lipidic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding diets were evaluated containing low and high levels of soybean oil for horses athletes subjected to two protocols of aerobic training on the response of basal blood biochemical parameters. Four horses were used in latin square design with treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted levels of 5 and 15% oil concentrates and two aerobic training, 40' and 60' minutes. Plasmatic parameters were monitored, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, glucose (GLU and lactate (LAC, during basal metabolism. The TG, TC, GLU and LAC from horses at rest were not affected (P> 0.05 neither of diet and physical activity, 0.21, 3.79, 4.18, 0.93 mmol L-1, respectively. It can be concluded that offer concentrate with high content of soybean oil to athletic horses in aerobic activities can be performed without altering the blood biochemical profile of basal metabolism.

  3. Urban school leadership for elementary science instruction: Identifying and activating resources in an undervalued school subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, James P.; Diamond, John B.; Walker, Lisa J.; Halverson, Rich; Jita, Loyiso

    2001-10-01

    This article explores school leadership for elementary school science teaching in an urban setting. We examine how school leaders bring resources together to enhance science instruction when there appear to be relatively few resources available for it. From our study of 13 Chicago elementary (K-8) schools' efforts to lead instructional change in mathematics, language arts, and science education, we show how resources for leading instruction are unequally distributed across subject areas. We also explore how over time leaders in one school successfully identified and activated resources for leading change in science education. The result has been a steady, although not always certain, development of science as an instructional area in the school. We argue that leading change in science education involves the identification and activation of material resources, the development of teachers' and school leaders' human capital, and the development and use of social capital.

  4. Belief about nicotine Modulates subjective craving and insula activity in Deprived smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, X. S.; Lohrenz, Terry; Salas, Ramiro

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the specific neural mechanisms through which cognitive factors influence craving and associated brain responses, despite the initial success of cognitive therapies in treating drug addiction. In this study, we investigated how cognitive factors such as beliefs influence...... subjective craving and neural activities in nicotine-addicted individuals using model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropharmacology. Deprived smokers (N = 24) participated in a two-by-two balanced placebo design, which crossed beliefs about nicotine (told "nicotine" vs. told "no......, smokers demonstrated significantly reduced craving after smoking when told "nicotine in cigarette" but showed no change in craving when told "no nicotine." Second, neural activity in the insular cortex related to craving was only significant when smokers were told "nicotine" but not when told "no nicotine...

  5. Theoretical and practical implications on the subjects charged with duties of conducting special investigation activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obadă Dumitru

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an endeavor to analyze Moldova’s legal framework aimed at regulating Special investigative activity (SIA in terms of subjects or, in other words, of procedural exponents, invested by a legislator with duties of carrying out SIM. It is also an attempt to reveal the normative inconsistencies specified in the regulatory content of the Criminal Procedural Law, including a verifiable analysis of the legal norms stipulated in the Code of Criminal Procedure, as well as other regulations related to this specific area of state activity specified in the related legislation. Moreover, the author sought to highlight the adverse legal effects that may be generated by the misinterpretation and misapplication of the legal norms related to SIA. While carrying out this study, we have taken into account the practice of law enforcement by state bodies in conducting criminal investigations, as well as the attempt to clarify and define the concept of “carrying out special investigative activity”. The research is also an attempt to clarify the competences of procedural subjects in charge of conducting SIA, as well as their functional interdependence in this activity. Furthermore, the study reasons upon some author’s assertions regarding the legal nature of SIM results from the perspective of the theory of evidence, particularly the admissibility of evidence obtained through SIM, the procedural stage at which the SIM can be performed, the impact of the current normative inadvertences regarding the possibility of taking evidence by means of SIM. The research has also been focused on identifying the prosecutor’s functional characteristics in conducting special investigative activity.

  6. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: positive subjective value or personal significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmi; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-04-01

    Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of 'self' and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the 'positivity' or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. 25 CFR 170.622 - What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? 170.622 Section 170.622 Indians BUREAU OF..., functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? All IRR...

  8. NT-pro-BNP during hypoglycemia and hypoxemia in normal subjects: impact of renin-angiotensin system activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Andersen, R; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Høi-Hansen, T

    2008-01-01

    subjects with high-RAS activity and 10 subjects with low-RAS activity (age 26 +/- 1 yr; mean +/- SE) were studied in a single-blinded, randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study on three occasions separated by at least 3 wk: 1) hypoglycemia (mean nadir plasma glucose 2.7 +/- 0.5 mmol/l), 2) hypoxemia...

  9. Expression of Peroxisomes-Proliferate Activated Receptors-γ in Diabetics, Obese and Normal Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current research in type 2 diabetes mellitus focuses on the role of Peroxisome-Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs) in the pathogenesis of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (IRS), which are pre-diabetic lesion and the hallmark of fully developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aims at identifying the abnormal status of the PPAR-g in adipose tissues of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, when compared with matched normal controls. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, from 2012 to 2014. Sample included three equal groups of patients. Group-1 with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged 40-65 years, acting as the test group, Group-2 included non-diabetic obese, and Group-3 with normal subjects. Transcription Factor Assay for Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (gamma PPAR) was done on ELISA Technique from Nuclear Extract procured from Adipose Tissue of the subjects. Results: Mean age of enrolled participants was 48.93 SD±6.52.years. Patients ranged between ages of 40 years to 67 years. The mean values of PPAR in normal, obese and diabetic group were 1.72 SD±0.28, 1.282 SE±0.18 and 1.283 SE±0.18 respectively. The difference in mean values of PPAR was significant ρ<0.05. Conclusion: The levels of PPAR-g in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obese cases are significantly lower than normal controls. (author)

  10. Associations of subjective social status with accelerometer-based physical activity and sedentary time among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Katja; Kankaanpää, Anna; Laine, Kaarlo; Itkonen, Hannu; Goodman, Elizabeth; Tammelin, Tuija

    2018-06-11

    This study examined the associations of subjective social status (SSS) with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) among adolescents. The study population consisted of 420 Finnish adolescents aged 13 to 14 years. The adolescents reported their own SSS within their school (school SSS) and their family's social position within society (society SSS) based on the youth version of the Subjective Social Status Scale. Adolescents' moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and ST were measured objectively by accelerometers and analyzed separately for the whole day and the school day. The associations between SSS and MVPA and ST outcomes were analyzed using multilevel modeling. School SSS was positively associated with whole-day MVPA and negatively associated with school-time ST. Society SSS was not significantly associated with objectively measured MVPA or ST. Both MVPA and ST are important behavioral determinants of health. As an important correlate of MVPA and ST, school SSS should be addressed by providers when discussing obesity risk and healthy behaviors with adolescents.

  11. The relationship between intensity and duration of physical activity and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Pamela; Frick, Bernd

    2015-10-01

    Previous research documented a positive effect of physical activity on subjective well-being (SWB). Yet, mainly broad activity measures (e.g. resulting from yes-no questions) were used and the effect of different participation intensities and durations has been largely neglected. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of physical activity on SWB by focusing on participation intensity and duration. Survey data from 28 European countries are used for the analysis (n = 22 971). Two regression models (Generalized Method of Moments) are estimated which analyze the effect of participation intensity and duration on SWB (measured by life satisfaction). Given the endogeneity of the participation measures, instrumental variables are used (sport opportunities, club membership, time spent sitting). The models also control for other factors that could affect SWB (e.g. age, occupation). The results for participation intensity show that the number of days people practised at moderate intensity in the week prior to the interview have a significant and positive effect on SWB, while the number of days with vigorous-intensity activity has a significant and negative impact. Similarly, the models for duration indicate that the minutes spent on moderate-intensity activity significantly add to SWB, while the minutes spent on vigorous-intensity activity significantly reduce the level of SWB. The findings challenge the World Health Organization's recommendation in the sense that activity at moderate and vigorous intensity is not interchangeable if the aim is to also improve SWB (and not only physical health). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Localization of recombination proteins and Srs2 reveals anti-recombinase function in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Rebecca C; Lisby, Michael; Altmannova, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    , and surprisingly, can form in the absence of Rad52 mediation. However, these Rad51 foci do not represent repair-proficient filaments, as determined by recombination assays. Antagonistic roles for Rad52 and Srs2 in Rad51 filament formation are also observed in vitro. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Srs2......Homologous recombination (HR), although an important DNA repair mechanism, is dangerous to the cell if improperly regulated. The Srs2 "anti-recombinase" restricts HR by disassembling the Rad51 nucleoprotein filament, an intermediate preceding the exchange of homologous DNA strands. Here, we...... removes Rad51 indiscriminately from DNA, while the Rad52 protein coordinates appropriate filament reformation. This constant breakdown and rebuilding of filaments may act as a stringent quality control mechanism during HR....

  13. Recombinase polymerase amplification: Emergence as a critical molecular technology for rapid, low-resource diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ameh; Macdonald, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Isothermal molecular diagnostics are bridging the technology gap between traditional diagnostics and polymerase chain reaction-based methods. These new techniques enable timely and accurate testing, especially in settings where there is a lack of infrastructure to support polymerase chain reaction facilities. Despite this, there is a significant lack of uptake of these technologies in developing countries where they are highly needed. Among these novel isothermal technologies, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) holds particular potential for use in developing countries. This rapid nucleic acid amplification approach is fast, highly sensitive and specific, and amenable to countries with a high burden of infectious diseases. Implementation of RPA technology in developing countries is critically required to assess limitations and potentials of the diagnosis of infectious disease, and may help identify impediments that prevent adoption of new molecular technologies in low resource- and low skill settings. This review focuses on approaching diagnosis of infectious disease with RPA.

  14. Estimation of physical activity levels using cell phone questionnaires: a comparison with accelerometry for evaluation of between-subject and within-subject variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexelius, Christin; Sandin, Sven; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Litton, Jan-Eric; Löf, Marie

    2011-09-25

    Physical activity promotes health and longevity. Further elaboration of the role of physical activity for human health in epidemiological studies on large samples requires accurate methods that are easy to use, cheap, and possible to repeat. The use of telecommunication technologies such as cell phones is highly interesting in this respect. In an earlier report, we showed that physical activity level (PAL) assessed using a cell phone procedure agreed well with corresponding estimates obtained using the doubly labeled water method. However, our earlier study indicated high within-subject variation in relation to between-subject variations in PAL using cell phones, but we could not assess if this was a true variation of PAL or an artifact of the cell phone technique. Our objective was to compare within- and between-subject variations in PAL by means of cell phones with corresponding estimates using an accelerometer. In addition, we compared the agreement of daily PAL values obtained using the cell phone questionnaire with corresponding data obtained using an accelerometer. PAL was measured both with the cell phone questionnaire and with a triaxial accelerometer daily during a 2-week study period in 21 healthy Swedish women (20 to 45 years of age and BMI from 17.7 kg/m² to 33.6 kg/m²). The results were evaluated by fitting linear mixed effect models and descriptive statistics and graphs. With the accelerometer, 57% (95% confidence interval [CI] 40%-66%) of the variation was within subjects, while with the cell phone, within-subject variation was 76% (95% CI 59%-83%). The day-to-day variations in PAL observed using the cell phone questions agreed well with the corresponding accelerometer results. Both the cell phone questionnaire and the accelerometer showed high within-subject variations. Furthermore, day-to-day variations in PAL within subjects assessed using the cell phone agreed well with corresponding accelerometer values. Consequently, our cell phone

  15. Altered medial temporal activation related to local glutamate levels in subjects with prodromal signs of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Isabel; Stone, James; Mechelli, Andrea; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Raffin, Marie; Allen, Paul; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Lythgoe, David; O'Gorman, Ruth; Seal, Marc; McGuire, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Both medial temporal cortical dysfunction and perturbed glutamatergic neurotransmission are regarded as fundamental pathophysiological features of psychosis. However, although animal models of psychosis suggest that these two abnormalities are interrelated, their relationship in humans has yet to be investigated. We used a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the relationship between medial temporal activation during an episodic memory task and local glutamate levels in 22 individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis and 14 healthy volunteers. We observed a significant between-group difference in the coupling of medial temporal activation with local glutamate levels. In control subjects, medial temporal activation during episodic encoding was positively associated with medial temporal glutamate. However, in the clinical population, medial temporal activation was reduced, and the relationship with glutamate was absent. In individuals at high risk of psychosis, medial temporal dysfunction seemed related to a loss of the normal relationship with local glutamate levels. This study provides the first evidence that links medial temporal dysfunction with the central glutamate system in humans and is consistent with evidence that drugs that modulate glutamatergic transmission might be useful in the treatment of psychosis. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rearrangement of RAG-1 recombinase gene in radiation-sensitive ''wasted'' mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Libertin, C.R.; Weaver, P.; Churchill, M.; Chang-Liu, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Mice recessive for the autosomal gene ''wasted'' (wst) display a disease pattern which includes increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency, and neurologic dysfunction. The recent cloning and characterization of recombinase genes (RAG-1/RAG-2) expressed in lymphoid and possibly central nervous system tissues prompted us to examine expression of these genes in DNA repair-deficient/immunodeficient wasted mice. Our results revealed expression of RAG-1 mRNA in spinal cord (but not brain) of control mice; no expression of RAG-1 mRNA was detected in spinal cord or brain from wst/wst mice or their normal littermates (wst/· mice). In thymus tissue, a small RAG-1 transcript (1.0 kb) was detected in wst/wst mice that was not evident in thymus from control mice. In wst/· mice, a two-fold increase in RAG-1 MRNA was evident in thymus tissue. RAG-2 mRNA could only be detected in thymus tissue from wst/· and not from wst/wst or parental control BCF 1 mice. Southern blots revealed a rearrangement/deletion within the RAG-1 gene of affected wasted mice, not evident in known strain-specific parental or littermate controls. These results support the idea that the RAG-1 gene may map at or near the locus for the wasted mutation. In addition, they suggest the importance of recombinase function in normal immune and central nervous system development as well as the potential contribution of this gene family to the normal repair of radiation-induced DNA damage

  17. Rearrangement of RAG-1 recombinase gene in DNA-repair deficient ``wasted`` mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Libertin, C.R.; Weaver, P. [Loyola Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Churchill, M.; Chang-Liu, C.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Mice recessive for the autosomal gene ``wasted`` wst display a disease pattern which includes increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency, and neurologic dysfunction. The recent cloning and characterization of recombinase genes (RAG-l/RAG-2) expressed in lymphoid and possibly central nervous system tissues prompted us to examine expression of these genes in DNA repair-deficient/immunodeficient wasted mice. Our results revealed expression of RAG-1 mRNA in spinal cord (but not brain) of control mice; no expression of RAG-1 mRNA was detected in spinal cord or brain from wst/wst mice or their normal littermates (wst/{center_dot}mice). In thymus tissue, a small RAG-1 transcript (1.0 kb) was detected in wst/wst mice that was not evident in thymus from control mice. In wst/{center_dot}mice, a two-fold increase in RAG-1 mRNA was evident in thymus tissue. RAG-2 mRNA could only be detected in thymus tissue from wst/{center_dot} and not from wst/wst or parental control BCF{sub 1} mice. Southern blots revealed a rearrangement/deletion within the RAG-1 gene of affected wasted mice, not evident in known strain-specific parental or littermate controls. These results support the idea that the RAG-1 gene may map at or near the locus for the wasted mutation. In addition, they suggest the importance of recombinase function in normal immune and central nervous system development as well as the potential contribution of this gene family to the normal repair of radiation-induced DNA damage.

  18. Rearrangement of RAG-1 recombinase gene in radiation-sensitive ``wasted`` mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States); Libertin, C.R.; Weaver, P. [Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States); Churchill, M.; Chang-Liu, C.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Mice recessive for the autosomal gene ``wasted`` (wst) display a disease pattern which includes increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency, and neurologic dysfunction. The recent cloning and characterization of recombinase genes (RAG-1/RAG-2) expressed in lymphoid and possibly central nervous system tissues prompted us to examine expression of these genes in DNA repair-deficient/immunodeficient wasted mice. Our results revealed expression of RAG-1 mRNA in spinal cord (but not brain) of control mice; no expression of RAG-1 mRNA was detected in spinal cord or brain from wst/wst mice or their normal littermates (wst/{center_dot} mice). In thymus tissue, a small RAG-1 transcript (1.0 kb) was detected in wst/wst mice that was not evident in thymus from control mice. In wst/{center_dot} mice, a two-fold increase in RAG-1 MRNA was evident in thymus tissue. RAG-2 mRNA could only be detected in thymus tissue from wst/{center_dot} and not from wst/wst or parental control BCF{sub 1} mice. Southern blots revealed a rearrangement/deletion within the RAG-1 gene of affected wasted mice, not evident in known strain-specific parental or littermate controls. These results support the idea that the RAG-1 gene may map at or near the locus for the wasted mutation. In addition, they suggest the importance of recombinase function in normal immune and central nervous system development as well as the potential contribution of this gene family to the normal repair of radiation-induced DNA damage.

  19. Anorectal stimulation causes increased colonic motor activity in subjects with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsten, Mark A; Singal, Ashwani K; Monga, Amit; Chaparala, Geeta; Khan, Amir M; Palmon, Ron; Mendoza, John Reagan D; Lirio, Juan P; Rosman, Alan S; Spungen, Ann; Bauman, William A

    2007-01-01

    Difficulty with evacuation (DWE) is a major problem after spinal cord injury (SCI). Stimulation of the anal canal and lower rectum, accomplished using a gloved finger (so-called digital rectal stimulation or DRS) is often used as an adjunct to laxatives and enemas to facilitate bowel evacuation. However, the basis for the efficacy of DRS is not known. This study assessed the effect of DRS on colonic motility. Six subjects with SCI were studied several hours after a bowel care session. Colonic motility was assessed using a manometric catheter (affixed endoscopically to the splenic flexure) at baseline, during DRS, and after DRS. In addition, evacuation of barium oatmeal paste (with the consistency of stool and introduced into the rectum and descending colon) was assessed simultaneously using fluoroscopic techniques. The mean number (+/- SEM) of peristaltic waves per minute increased from 0 at baseline to 1.9 (+/- 0.5/min) during DRS and 1.5 (+/- 0.3/min) during the period immediately after cessation of DRS (P < 0.05). The mean amplitude (+/- SEM) of the peristaltic contractions was 43.4 (+/- 2.2) mmHg. The frequency of contractions, as well as amplitude of contractions, during or immediately after DRS was not significantly different. These manometric changes in response to DRS were accompanied by expulsion of barium oatmeal paste in every subject by the fifth DRS. DRS causes left-sided colonic activity in subjects with SCI. At least in part, an anorectal colonic reflex that results in enhanced contractions of the descending colon and rectum may contribute to bowel evacuation in individuals with SCI.

  20. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P < 0.001), and it significantly decreased systolic (130 +/- 3 to 121 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01), diastolic (69 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.04), and mean (89 +/- 2 to 81 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01) arterial blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  1. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines.

  2. Modulation of electroencephalograph activity by manual acupuncture stimulation in healthy subjects: An autoregressive spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Guo-Sheng; Wang Jiang; Deng Bin; Wei Xi-Le; Han Chun-Xiao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether and how manual acupuncture (MA) modulates brain activities, we design an experiment where acupuncture at acupoint ST36 of the right leg is used to obtain electroencephalograph (EEG) signals in healthy subjects. We adopt the autoregressive (AR) Burg method to estimate the power spectrum of EEG signals and analyze the relative powers in delta (0 Hz–4 Hz), theta (4 Hz–8 Hz), alpha (8 Hz–13 Hz), and beta (13 Hz–30 Hz) bands. Our results show that MA at ST36 can significantly increase the EEG slow wave relative power (delta band) and reduce the fast wave relative powers (alpha and beta bands), while there are no statistical differences in theta band relative power between different acupuncture states. In order to quantify the ratio of slow to fast wave EEG activity, we compute the power ratio index. It is found that the MA can significantly increase the power ratio index, especially in frontal and central lobes. All the results highlight the modulation of brain activities with MA and may provide potential help for the clinical use of acupuncture. The proposed quantitative method of acupuncture signals may be further used to make MA more standardized. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  3. Fecal hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventists, control subjects, and bowel cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, I A; Webb, G R; Mahony, D E

    1978-10-01

    Cell-free extracts were prepared from mixed fecal anaerobic bacteria grown from stools of 14 vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventists, 16 omnivorous control subjects, and eight patients recently diagnosed with cancer of the large bowel. Preparations were assayed for NAD- and NADP-dependent 3alpha-, 7alpha- and 12alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases with bile salts and androsterone as substrates (eight substrate-cofactor combinations were tested). A significant intergroup difference was observed in the amounts of NAD- and NADP-dependent 7alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase produced: bowel cancer patients exceeded controls, and controls exceeded Seventh-Day Adventists. Other enzyme activity comparisons were not significant. The pH values of the stools were significantly higher in cancer patients compared to Seventh-Day Adventists; values were 7.03 +/- 0.60 and 6.46 +/- 0.58 respectively. The pH value for controls was 6.66 +/- 0.62. A plot of pH value versus NADP-dependent 7alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase tended to separate the cancer patients from the other groups. Comparative data suggest that much of the 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase active against bile salt is also active against androsterone.

  4. Life-threatening event reduces subjective well-being through activating avoidance motivation: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Dina; Seger-Guttmann, Tali; Heller, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Drawing on the approach-avoidance theory, we have examined the role of avoidance motivation in explaining the negative effects of a life-threatening event on subjective well-being (SWB). Residents of the south of Israel were surveyed during heavy missile attacks in January 2009 (T1; n = 283), and again after 6 months (T2; n = 212) and 1 year (T3; n = 154). During the missile attacks, we also surveyed a group from the center of the country (T1; n = 102), not exposed to the attacks. The results indicate that avoidance motivation was activated by the life threat and further mediated its detrimental influence on SWB measures (positive/negative affects, anxiety, and subjective health). Moreover, within the southern sample, the drop in avoidance motivation over time mediated the parallel drop in SWB. In contrast to avoidance motivation, approach motivation remained stable over time and was related to positive emotions. The role of avoidance and approach motivations in life-threatening situations is further discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Psychological distress of older Chinese: exploring the roles of activities, social support, and subjective social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Min

    2014-03-01

    The goal of this research is to examine if the long neglected correlates such as social and leisure activities, social support, and subjective social status contribute to variations in psychological distress among older Chinese. Using data collected in one of the most developed areas in China-Suzhou city, Jiangsu province, the authors find that engaging in various exercises, living with both spouse and adult children, perceived availability of social support from others as well as believing in the importance of caring for other family members are particularly beneficial for mental health whereas the perception of relative deprivation and low life quality is detrimental to mental health for older Chinese. This work is among the first studies that comprehensively examined various important correlates of psychological distress and indicate the unique patterns of distress among the elderly in the most developed area in the contemporary China.

  6. Design of Active Magnetic Bearing Controllers for Rotors Subjected to Gas Seal Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2018-01-01

    Proper design of feedback controllers is crucial for ensuring high performance of Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) supported rotor dynamic systems. Annular seals in those systems can contribute with significant forces, which, in many cases, are hard to model in advance due to complex geometries...... of the seal and multiphase fluids. Hence, it can be challenging to design AMB controllers that will guarantee robust performance for these kinds of systems. This paper demonstrates the design, simulation and experimental results of model based controllers for AMB systems, subjected to dynamic seal forces....... The controllers are found using H-infinity - and µ synthesis and are based on a global rotor dynamic model in-which the seal coefficients are identified in-situ. The controllers are implemented in a rotor-dynamic test facility with two radial AMBs and one annular seal with an adjustable inlet pressure. The seal...

  7. Bioequivalence of eslicarbazepine acetate from two different sources of its active product ingredient in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Amílcar; Lima, Ricardo; Sousa, Rui; Nunes, Teresa; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2013-06-01

    To compare the bioavailability (BA) and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and to demonstrate the bioequivalence (BE) between two active product ingredient (API) sources of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) in healthy volunteers. Forty healthy male and female subjects aged 18-40 years were randomized to treatment with 400 or 800 mg ESL marketed (MF) formulation [current active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) source] and 400 or 800 mg ESL to-be-marketed (TBM) formulation (new API source) under a gender-balanced, two-period, two-sequence crossover open-label study design. Subjects were assigned to receive either 400 or 800 mg ESL dose strengths, and each was randomly administered on two occasions--either a single oral tablet of MF or a single oral tablet of TBM--separated by a washout period of at least 7 days. Formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if, for both 400 or 800 mg ESL dosage strengths, the test (TBM)/reference (MF) geometric mean ratios (GMR) and 90% confidence intervals (90% CI) of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) were within the predetermined range of 80-125%. Test/reference GMR (90% CI) for the Cmax and AUC was respectively 100% (94-109%) and 96% (94-98%) following 400 mg ESL and 100% (95-105%) and 100% (97-103%) following 800 mg ESL. Oral tablet formulations of either 400 or 800 mg ESL from the new API source were found to be bioequivalent to the corresponding marketed Zebinix® formulation according to the regulatory definition of bioequivalence.

  8. Humoral Na+-K+ pump inhibitory activity in essential hypertension and in normotensive subjects after acute volume expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamnani, M.B.; Burris, J.F.; Jemionek, J.F.; Huot, S.J.; Price, M.; Freis, E.D.; Haddy, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma from black male patients with essential hypertension was bioassayed for vascular Na+-K+ pump inhibitory activity. Halves of the same rat tail artery were incubated for two hours in boiled plasma supernates from a hypertensive patient and a paired age-, sex-, and race-matched normotensive subject and then ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake was measured. Ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake by their leukocytes was also measured. Eighteen pairs of subjects were studied. The uptakes were not significantly different in the hypertensive patients and control subjects. However, when we selected from the eighteen hypertensive patients, nine with low plasma renin activity on the day of the study, uptakes were reduced in the hypertensive patients relative to the paired control subjects. We also assayed plasma supernates from normotensive black and white male subjects before and after acute volume expansion (2.5 L saline IV + 1.5 L distilled water orally over a three-hour period) and from paired normotensive subjects before and after sham volume expansion and obtained a positive bioassay in the expanded subjects both on intraindividual and interindividual comparisons. These studies demonstrate increased vascular Na+-K+ pump inhibitory activity in the plasma of black male patients with low renin essential hypertension and in the plasma of normotensive subjects after acute volume expansion. The findings suggest that the inhibitory activity in the hypertensive subjects' plasma is related to volume expansion, relative or absolute

  9. The Study About Physical Activity for Subjects With Prevention of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Won Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe number of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH subjects has been increasing worldwide, and many studies have been conducted to determine the treatment that can delay drug therapy or surgery. Subsequently, most of these studies involved physical activity (PA and associated factors. Therefore, we aimed to determine factors associated with BPH prevalence based on a review of past and present studies and to investigate the effect of a healthy lifestyle as a protective factor of BPH occurrence.MethodsWe selected 582 subjects aged ≥40 years from an initial 779 subjects recruited from Gyeonggi, Yangpyeong, South Korea, during August 2009 to August 2011. Trained investigators surveyed International Prostate Symptom Score and demographic information, including PA and lifestyle questionnaire during face-to-face interviews; further, they performed digital rectal examination, rectal ultrasonography, and measured prostate-specific antigen levels. The statistical association between PA and BPH was analyzed by logistic regression analysis using multivariable regression models which use categorical variables by the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test and continuous variables by the general linear model.ResultsSeven statistically significant variables for PA were selected. Regular exercise, frequency of exercise, sedentary time, nonsedentary time, leisure time PA (metabolic equivalent, hr/wk were not statistically associated with prostate volume but sedentary time (hr/day was the only factor that showed a significant association in the multivariable model, including a linear effect relationship. Subjects with lower levels of sedentary time (4.5-7.0 hr/day had a significantly lower risk of BPH (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-1.67 than those with a higher sedentary time (>7 hr/day (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 0.96-3.09 (P for trend=0.05.ConclusionsOur study showed that reducing sedentary time could have a protective effect and reduce the

  10. Comparison of brain activation to purposefully activate a tool in healthy subjects and brain tumor patients using fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Masahiko; Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Hyodo, Akio; Sugimoto, Koichi; Tsuchida, Yukihiro; Yonaha, Hirokatsu; Ito, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the functional organization of the human brain involved in tool-manipulation. Blood Oxygen Level Dependent was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging in seventeen right-handed healthy volunteers and two brain tumor patients during two tool-manipulation tasks: simulated tightening a bolt with a screwdriver (Simulation), and tightening a bolt with a screwdriver (Real). Subjects performed the experiment without watching the tasks. Bilateral pre-supplementary motor areas, bilateral cerebellar posterior lobes, right ventral premotor area, right calcarine sulcus, and cerebellar vermis were activated during Real but not during Simulation tasks in healthy volunteers. In addition, brain tumor patients activated the prefrontal areas. Our results suggest that the human brain mechanisms for tool-manipulation have a neural-network comprised of presupplementary motor area, ventral premotor area, and bilateral cerebellar posterior lobes. In the patients with brain dusfurction diee to tumors, activation at the prefrontal area provided function compensation without motor paralysis. (author)

  11. 45 CFR 660.3 - What programs and activities of the Foundation are subject to these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What programs and activities of the Foundation are... (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 660.3 What programs and activities of the Foundation are subject to these regulations...

  12. 49 CFR 17.3 - What programs and activities of the Department are subject to these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What programs and activities of the Department are subject to these regulations? 17.3 Section 17.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 17.3 What programs and activities...

  13. The impact of physical activity on endothelial function in middle-aged and elderly subjects: the Ikaria study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siasos, Gerasimos; Chrysohoou, Christina; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Zaromitidou, Marina; Zisimos, Konstantinos; Marinos, Georgios; Mazaris, Savvas; Kampaksis, Manolis; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training and physical activity (PA) have substantial vascular and cardiac health benefits. Ikaria Island has been recognised as having one of the highest longevity rates worldwide and a high percentage of healthy ageing. We examined the relationship between endothelial function and levels of habitual PA to evaluate the factors related to healthy ageing in this population. The study was conducted on a subgroup population of the IKARIA study consisting of 185 middle-aged (40-65 years) and 142 elderly subjects (66-91 years). Endothelial function was evaluated by ultrasound measurement of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). PA was evaluated using the shortened version of the self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Subjects in the low PA group (physically inactive and the rest as active. In the overall study population FMD was inversely associated with age (r=-0.24, pphysically active had higher FMD compared with the physically inactive. Physically active subjects in the middle-aged group showed higher FMD compared with the physically active elderly (p=0.008). However, there was no difference in FMD values between middle-aged inactive subjects and the elderly physically active (p=NS). The present study revealed that increased PA was associated with improved endothelial function in middle-aged subjects and that PA in elderly subjects can ameliorate the devastating effects of ageing on arterial wall properties.

  14. 28 CFR 30.3 - What programs and activities of the Department are subject to these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What programs and activities of the Department are subject to these regulations? 30.3 Section 30.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Department are subject to these regulations? The Attorney General publishes in the Federal Register a list of...

  15. Achilles tendinopathy in elderly subjects with type II diabetes: the role of sport activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Michele; Salini, Vincenzo; Schiavone, Cosima

    2016-04-01

    Exercise is an important therapeutic tool in the management of diabetes in older people. Aim of this study was to assess the relationship among type II diabetes, sport, overweight, and symptomatic Achilles tendinopathy in elderly subjects. Thirty-eight patients suffering from Achilles tendinopathy and thirty-eight controls were enrolled. The prevalence of diabetes and sport practice as well as BMI and Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) values were registered. An ultrasound evaluation of Achilles tendon was performed. Patients showed an increased prevalence of diabetes (42 vs. 13.1 %, p = 0.004), and practice of sport (60.5 vs. 28.9 %, p = 0.0001), and higher BMI values (26.8 ± 3 vs. 24.8 ± 2.3, p = 0.001). Sonographic abnormalities, being diagnostic criteria, were present in all the patients with Achilles tendinopathy, but signs of degeneration were also found in 36.8 % of asymptomatic controls. Symptomatic subjects with diabetes, compared to those without, showed a higher prevalence of severe degeneration (75 vs. 36.3 %, p = 0.01). HbA1c values were significantly lower in sport practitioners, both diabetics and non-diabetics. Moreover, patients practicing sport showed a trend towards lower BMI values, compared to the sedentary counterpart. Sport practice in elderly diabetics provides relevant metabolic advantages, reducing HbA1c and BMI. However, some sport activities (e.g., speed walking, jogging or tennis) can expose to the risk of Achilles tendinopathy. So, sport practice should be encouraged, but practitioners should follow individual training programs and be submitted to periodic sonographic controls.

  16. Peculiarities of activities of public administration subjects in the public finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Миколаївна Клімова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive reform of public administration and public finances conducted in Ukraine to implement the Association Agreement between Ukraine and the EU requires a thorough research. Problems related to the functioning of public administration, investigated by V. Averyanov, M. Benio, T.Belozerskaya, S. Vitvitsky, D. Vlasenko, S. Gaiduchenko, N. Hnidyuk, O. Jafarova, A. Zelentsov, T. Karabin, T. Kolomoets. The subject of the study is public administration in the field of public finance. T. Karabin investigated the basic theory of public administration and singled out the following: 1 classical theory; 2 the theory of new public management; 3 the theory of public service. The wording of the "broad" and "narrow" understanding of public administration should be made taking into account that today the public administration in Ukraine in the narrow sense consists of: 1 the bodies of state executive power (the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, central executive authorities, their territorial offices, local state administrations, etc.; 2 specialized public authorities (for example, the Accounting Chamber, the National Bank of Ukraine; 3 subjects of local self-government (village, settlement, city council, village, settlement, city mayor, executive bodies of village, settlement, city council, head of state, rayon and regional councils, representing common interests of territorial communities of villages, settlements, cities; organs of self-organization of the population . In the broad sense, non-state actors (both collective and individual should be included in the circle of subjects of the public administration of Ukraine, which delegates power and administrative powers, which are in continuous interaction with public authorities, performing the functions assigned to them. The complexity of public administration in our country is due to the variability of all elements of the system, the links between them and the environment in which the

  17. Subjective memory complaints, depressive symptoms and instrumental activities of daily living in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, Tae Woo; Lee, Taek Jun

    2016-03-01

    The diagnostic relevance of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains to be unresolved. The aim of this study is to determine clinical correlates of SMCs in MCI. Furthermore, we examined whether there are the differences due to different aspects of complaints (i.e. prospective memory (PM) versus retrospective memory (RM) complaints). We examined the cross-sectional associations between SMCs and depressive symptoms, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and cognitive measures in sixty-six individuals with MCI (mean age: 65.7 ± 8.01 years). The criteria for MCI included SMCs, objective cognitive impairment, normal general cognitive function, largely intact functional activities, and absence of dementia. SMCs were assessed using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), which contains 16 items describing everyday memory failure of both PM and RM. SMC severity (i.e. PRMQ total score) was associated with stronger depressive symptoms and worse IADL performance. SMCs were not related to cognitive measures. For PM and RM subscores, both depressive symptoms and IADL were related to the PRMQ-PM and -RM scores. The main contributors to these PM and RM scores were depressive symptoms and IADL impairment, respectively. This study suggests that SMCs are more associated with depressive symptoms and IADL problems than with cognitive performance in individuals with MCI. Furthermore, while PM and RM complaints are related to both depressive symptoms and IADL, the differences between these main contributors suggest that RM complaints based on IADL could be more associated with the organically driven pathological features of MCI.

  18. Bone mineral density in subjects using central nervous system-active medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Mitsuyo; Setoguchi, Soko; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Solomon, Daniel H

    2005-12-01

    Decreased bone mineral density defines osteoporosis according to the World Health Organization and is an important predictor of future fractures. The use of several types of central nervous system-active drugs, including benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and opioids, have all been associated with increased risk of fracture. However, it is unclear whether such an increase in risk is related to an effect of bone mineral density or to other factors, such as increased risk of falls. We sought to examine the relationship between bone mineral density and the use of benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and opioids in a representative US population-based sample. We analyzed data on adults aged 17 years and older from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). Total femoral bone mineral density of 7114 male and 7532 female participants was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable linear regression models were used to quantify the relation between central nervous system medication exposure and total femoral bone mineral density. Models controlled for relevant covariates, including age, sex, and body mass index. In linear regression models, significantly reduced bone mineral density was found in subjects taking anticonvulsants (0.92 g/cm2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89 to 0.94) and opioids (0.92 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.95) compared with nonusers (0.95 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.95) after adjusting for several potential confounders. The other central nervous system-active drugs--benzodiazepines or antidepressants--were not associated with significantly reduced bone mineral density. In cross-sectional analysis of NHANES III, anticonvulsants and opioids (but not benzodiazepines or antidepressants) were associated with significantly reduced bone mineral density. These findings have implications for fracture-prevention strategies.

  19. Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Exposure and Subjective Symptoms in Residents Participating in Clean-Up Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Lee, Jong Seong; Kwon, Hojang; Ha, Eun-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Choi, Yeyong; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Hur, Jongil; Lee, Seung-Min; Kim, Eun-Jung; Im, Hosub

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to examine the relationship between crude oil exposure and physical symptoms among residents participating in clean-up work associated with the Hebei Spirit oil spill, 2007 in Korea. Methods A total of 288 residents responded to a questionnaire regarding subjective physical symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics and clean-up activities that occurred between two and eight weeks after the accident. Additionally, the urine of 154 of the respondents was analyzed for metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals. To compare the urinary levels of exposure biomarkers, the urine of 39 inland residents who were not directly exposed to the oil spill were analyzed. Results Residents exposed to oil remnants through clean-up work showed associations between physical symptoms and the exposure levels defined in various ways, including days of work, degree of skin contamination, and levels of some urinary exposure biomarkers of VOCs, metabolites and metals, although no major abnormalities in urinary exposure biomarkers were observed. Conclusions This study provides evidence of a relationship between crude oil exposure and acute human health effects and suggests the need for follow-up to evaluate the exposure status and long-term health effects of clean-up participants. PMID:22125768

  20. Construction of Marker-Free Transgenic Strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Using a Cre/loxP-Mediated Recombinase System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Yuki; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2016-01-01

    The Escherichia coli bacteriophage P1 encodes a site-specific recombinase called Cre and two 34-bp target sites of Cre recombinase called loxP. The Cre/loxP system has been used to achieve targeted insertion and precise deletion in many animal and plant genomes. The Cre/loxP system has particularly been used for the removal of selectable marker genes to create marker-free transgenic organisms. For the first time, we applied the Cre/loxP-mediated site-specific recombination system to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to construct marker-free transgenic strains. Specifically, C. reinhardtii strains cc4350 and cc124 carrying an aphVIII expression cassette flanked by two direct repeats of loxP were constructed. Separately, a synthetic Cre recombinase gene (CrCRE), the codons of which were optimized for expression in C. reinhardtii, was synthesized, and a CrCRE expression cassette was introduced into strain cc4350 carrying a single copy of the loxP-flanked aphVIII expression cassette. Among 46 transformants carrying the CrCRE expression cassette stably, the excision of aphVIII by CrCre recombinase was observed only in one transformant. We then constructed an expression cassette of an in-frame fusion of ble to CrCRE via a short linker peptide. The product of ble (Ble) is a bleomycin-binding protein that confers resistance to bleomycin-related antibiotics such as Zeocin and localizes in the nucleus. Therefore, the ble-(linker)-CrCRE fusion protein is expected to localize in the nucleus. When the ble-(linker)-CrCRE expression cassette was integrated into the genome of strain cc4350 carrying a single copy of the loxP-flanked aphVIII expression cassette, CrCre recombinase-mediated excision of the aphVIII expression cassette was observed at a frequency higher than that in stable transformants of the CrCRE expression cassette. Similarly, from strain cc124 carrying a single loxP-flanked aphVIII expression cassette, the aphVIII expression cassette was successfully excised after

  1. Validation of the Subjective Vitality Scale and study of the vitality of elderly people according to their physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Couto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to validate the Portuguese version of the Subjective Vitality Scale - SVS for the Portuguese elderly population through of confirmatory factorial analysis. The existence of differences in the perception of subjective vitality among sufficiently active and insufficiently active older adults was also analyzed. A total of 309 Portuguese elderly (242 females, 67 males aged 60-90 years (M = 68.59, SD = 6.60 participated in this study. Of the total sample, 256 are sufficiently active, while 53 are insufficiently active. The results show that the model was adjusted to data in a satisfactory way (χ² = 28.95; df = 9; CFI = .97; TLI = .94; SRMR = .04; RMSEA = .08; RMSEA 90% CI = .05 - .12, and show a concurrent validity with the Portuguese version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale. The data obtained allow us concluding that the Portuguese version of the Subjective Vitality Scale can be used as a measure of subjective vitality in the Portuguese elderly population. It was also verified that the subjective perception of vitality is greater among individuals sufficiently active compared with their peers that do not reach the amount of practice of recommended physical activity.

  2. Pronounced between-subject and circadian variability in thymidylate synthase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase enzyme activity in human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Bart A W; Deenen, Maarten J; Pluim, Dick; van Hasselt, J G Coen; Krähenbühl, Martin D; van Geel, Robin M J M; de Vries, Niels; Rosing, Hilde; Meulendijks, Didier; Burylo, Artur M; Cats, Annemieke; Beijnen, Jos H; Huitema, Alwin D R; Schellens, Jan H M

    AIMS: The enzymatic activity of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and thymidylate synthase (TS) are important for the tolerability and efficacy of the fluoropyrimidine drugs. In the present study, we explored between-subject variability (BSV) and circadian rhythmicity in DPD and TS activity in

  3. Detection and Characterization of Viral Species/Subspecies Using Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glais, Laurent; Jacquot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Numerous molecular-based detection protocols include an amplification step of the targeted nucleic acids. This step is important to reach the expected sensitive detection of pathogens in diagnostic procedures. Amplifications of nucleic acid sequences are generally performed, in the presence of appropriate primers, using thermocyclers. However, the time requested to amplify molecular targets and the cost of the thermocycler machines could impair the use of these methods in routine diagnostics. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) technique allows rapid (short-term incubation of sample and primers in an enzymatic mixture) and simple (isothermal) amplification of molecular targets. RPA protocol requires only basic molecular steps such as extraction procedures and agarose gel electrophoresis. Thus, RPA can be considered as an interesting alternative to standard molecular-based diagnostic tools. In this paper, the complete procedures to set up an RPA assay, applied to detection of RNA (Potato virus Y, Potyvirus) and DNA (Wheat dwarf virus, Mastrevirus) viruses, are described. The proposed procedure allows developing species- or subspecies-specific detection assay.

  4. Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase amplification (RPA) of Schistosoma haematobium DNA and oligochromatographic lateral flow detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, A; Rollinson, D; Forrest, M; Webster, B L

    2015-09-04

    Accurate diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis is vital for surveillance/control programs. Amplification of schistosome DNA in urine by PCR is sensitive and specific but requires infrastructure, financial resources and skilled personnel, often not available in endemic areas. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) is an isothermal DNA amplification/detection technology that is simple, rapid, portable and needs few resources. Here a Schistosoma haematobium RPA assay was developed and adapted so that DNA amplicons could be detected using oligochromatographic Lateral Flow (LF) strips. The assay successfully amplified S. haematobium DNA at 30-45 °C in 10 mins and was sensitive to a lower limit of 100 fg of DNA. The assay was also successful with the addition of crude urine, up to 5% of the total reaction volume. Cross amplification occurred with other schistosome species but not with other common urine microorganisms. The LF-RPA assay developed here can amplify and detect low levels of S. haematobium DNA. Reactions are rapid, require low temperatures and positive reactions are interpreted using lateral flow strips, reducing the need for infrastructure and resources. This together with an ability to withstand inhibitors within urine makes RPA a promising technology for further development as a molecular diagnostic tool for urogenital schistosomiasis.

  5. Structure of a filament of stacked octamers of human DMC1 recombinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Liqin; Luo, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Octameric rings of DMC1 stacked into filaments in the crystal. Similar DMC1–DNA filaments have been observed previously using electron microscopy. Eukaryal DMC1 proteins play a central role in homologous recombination in meiosis by assembling at the sites of programmed DNA double-strand breaks and carrying out a search for allelic DNA sequences located on homologous chromatids. They are close homologs of eukaryal Rad51 and archaeal RadA proteins and are remote homologs of bacterial RecA proteins. These recombinases (also called DNA strand-exchange proteins) promote a pivotal strand-exchange reaction between homologous single-stranded and double-stranded DNA substrates. An octameric form of a truncated human DMC1 devoid of its small N-terminal domain (residues 1–83) has been crystallized. The structure of the truncated DMC1 octamer is similar to that of the previously reported full-length DMC1 octamer, which has disordered N-terminal domains. In each protomer, only the ATP cap regions (Asp317–Glu323) show a noticeable conformational difference. The truncated DMC1 octamers further stack with alternate polarity into a filament. Similar filamentous assemblies of DMC1 have been observed to form on DNA by electron microscopy

  6. Establishment of recombinase polymerase amplification assay for five hemorrhagic fever-related viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-feng CAO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish a one-step recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA method for pathogen screening and rapid detection in the field targeting for five hemorrhagic fever related viruses (Zaire ebola virus, Sudan ebola virus, Marburg virus, Lassa virus and Yellow fever virus. Methods The specific nucleic acid (NA fragments of each virus were selected as target genes by genome sequence analysis, and the primers and probes for RPA assays were designed according to the sequence. A series of diluted template genes were used for RPA detection to determine the sensitivity. The hemorrhagic fever-related viral nucleic acids were used for RPA detection to determine the specificity. The amplification experiments were carried out at different temperature ranging from 37℃ to 42℃ to validate the reaction temperature range. Results The RPA reaction systems of the five hemorrhagic fever viruses could effectively amplify the target genes, the sensitivities were between 1.5×102 and 1.5×103 copies. No cross reactions existed with the other hemorrhagic fever-related viral genes. Meanwhile, RPA assay could effectively amplify the target genes at 37-42℃. Conclusion The isothermal RPA assays of five hemorrhagic fever viruses are established, which may amply target genes fast and react at a wide temperature range, and be potentially useful for in field pathogens detection. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.06.09

  7. New Fpg probe chemistry for direct detection of recombinase polymerase amplification on lateral flow strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael L; Bowler, Frank R; Martinez, Aurore J; Greenwood, Catherine J; Armes, Niall; Piepenburg, Olaf

    2018-02-15

    Rapid, cost-effective and sensitive detection of nucleic acids has the ability to improve upon current practices employed for pathogen detection in diagnosis of infectious disease and food testing. Furthermore, if assay complexity can be reduced, nucleic acid amplification tests could be deployed in resource-limited and home use scenarios. In this study, we developed a novel Fpg (Formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase) probe chemistry, which allows lateral flow detection of amplification in undiluted recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) reactions. The prototype nucleic acid lateral flow chemistry was applied to a human genomic target (rs1207445), Campylobacter jejuni 16S rDNA and two genetic markers of the important food pathogen E. coli O157:H7. All four assays have an analytical sensitivity between 10 and 100 copies DNA per amplification. Furthermore, the assay is performed with fewer hands-on steps than using the current RPA Nfo lateral flow method as dilution of amplicon is not required for lateral flow analysis. Due to the simplicity of the workflow, we believe that the lateral flow chemistry for direct detection could be readily adapted to a cost-effective single-use consumable, ideal for use in non-laboratory settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Site-specific recombination in the chicken genome using Flipase recombinase-mediated cassette exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Kim, Young Min; Hwang, Young Sun; Park, Young Hyun; Park, Tae Sub; Han, Jae Yong

    2016-02-01

    Targeted genome recombination has been applied in diverse research fields and has a wide range of possible applications. In particular, the discovery of specific loci in the genome that support robust and ubiquitous expression of integrated genes and the development of genome-editing technology have facilitated rapid advances in various scientific areas. In this study, we produced transgenic (TG) chickens that can induce recombinase-mediated gene cassette exchange (RMCE), one of the site-specific recombination technologies, and confirmed RMCE in TG chicken-derived cells. As a result, we established TG chicken lines that have, Flipase (Flp) recognition target (FRT) pairs in the chicken genome, mediated by piggyBac transposition. The transgene integration patterns were diverse in each TG chicken line, and the integration diversity resulted in diverse levels of expression of exogenous genes in each tissue of the TG chickens. In addition, the replaced gene cassette was expressed successfully and maintained by RMCE in the FRT predominant loci of TG chicken-derived cells. These results indicate that targeted genome recombination technology with RMCE could be adaptable to TG chicken models and that the technology would be applicable to specific gene regulation by cis-element insertion and customized expression of functional proteins at predicted levels without epigenetic influence. © FASEB.

  9. A recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever Virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Bonney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever Virus (CCHFV is a rapidly emerging vector-borne pathogen and the cause of a virulent haemorrhagic fever affecting large parts of Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia.An isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assay was successfully developed for molecular detection of CCHFV. The assay showed rapid (under 10 minutes detection of viral extracts/synthetic virus RNA of all 7 S-segment clades of CCHFV, with high target specificity. The assay was shown to tolerate the presence of inhibitors in crude preparations of mock field samples, indicating that this assay may be suitable for use in the field with minimal sample preparation. The CCHFV RPA was successfully used to screen and detect CCHFV positives from a panel of clinical samples from Tajikistan.The assay is a rapid, isothermal, simple-to-perform molecular diagnostic, which can be performed on a light, portable real-time detection device. It is ideally placed therefore for use as a field-diagnostic or in-low resource laboratories, for monitoring of CCHF outbreaks at the point-of-need, such as in remote rural regions in affected countries.

  10. Duplex recombinase polymerase amplification assays incorporating competitive internal controls for bacterial meningitis detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Owen; Clancy, Eoin; Forrest, Matthew S; Piepenburg, Olaf; Cormican, Martin; Boo, Teck Wee; O'Sullivan, Nicola; McGuinness, Claire; Cafferty, Deirdre; Cunney, Robert; Smith, Terry J

    2018-04-01

    Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology that provides rapid and robust infectious disease pathogen detection, ideal for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics in disease-prevalent low-resource countries. We have developed and evaluated three duplex RPA assays incorporating competitive internal controls for the detection of leading bacterial meningitis pathogens. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae singleplex RPA assays were initially developed and evaluated, demonstrating 100% specificity with limits of detection of 4.1, 8.5 and 3.9 genome copies per reaction, respectively. Each assay was further developed into internally controlled duplex RPA assays via the incorporation of internal amplification control templates. Clinical performance of each internally controlled duplex RPA assay was evaluated by testing 64 archived PCR-positive clinical samples. Compared to real-time PCR, all duplex RPA assays demonstrated 100% diagnostic specificity, with diagnostic sensitivities of 100%, 86.3% and 100% for the S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis and H. influenzae assays, respectively. This study details the first report of internally controlled duplex RPA assays for the detection of bacterial meningitis pathogens: S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis and H. influenzae. We have successfully demonstrated the clinical diagnostic utility of each duplex RPA assay, introducing effective diagnostic technology for POC bacterial meningitis identification in disease-prevalent developing countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Targeted transgene insertion into the CHO cell genome using Cre recombinase-incorporating integrase-defective retroviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Yoshinori; Shimomura, Takuya; Huang, Shuohao; Imanishi, Suguru; Ito, Akira; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2016-07-01

    Retroviral vectors have served as efficient gene delivery tools in various biotechnology fields. However, viral DNA is randomly inserted into the genome, which can cause problems, such as insertional mutagenesis and gene silencing. Previously, we reported a site-specific gene integration system, in which a transgene is integrated into a predetermined chromosomal locus of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using integrase-defective retroviral vectors (IDRVs) and Cre recombinase. In this system, a Cre expression plasmid is transfected into founder cells before retroviral transduction. In practical applications of site-specific gene modification such as for hard-to-transfect cells or for in vivo gene delivery, both the transgene and the Cre protein into retroviral virions should be encapsulate. Here, we generated novel hybrid IDRVs in which viral genome and enzymatically active Cre can be delivered (Cre-IDRVs). Cre-IDRVs encoding marker genes, neomycin resistance and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), flanked by wild-type and mutated loxP sites were produced using an expression plasmid for a chimeric protein of Cre and retroviral gag-pol. After analyzing the incorporation of the Cre protein into retroviral virions by Western blotting, the Cre-IDRV was infected into founder CHO cells, in which marker genes (hygromycin resistance and red fluorescent protein) flanked with corresponding loxP sites are introduced into the genome. G418-resistant colonies expressing GFP appeared and the site-specific integration of the transgene into the expected chromosomal site was confirmed by PCR and sequencing of amplicons. Moreover, when Cre-IDRV carried a gene expression unit for a recombinant antibody, the recombinant cells in which the antibody expression cassette was integrated in a site-specific manner were generated and the cells produced the recombinant antibody. This method may provide a promising tool to perform site-specific gene modification according to Cre

  12. Activation of prefrontal cortex and anterior thalamus in alcoholic subjects on exposure to alcohol-specific cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M S; Anton, R F; Bloomer, C; Teneback, C; Drobes, D J; Lorberbaum, J P; Nahas, Z; Vincent, D J

    2001-04-01

    Functional imaging studies have recently demonstrated that specific brain regions become active in cocaine addicts when they are exposed to cocaine stimuli. To test whether there are regional brain activity differences during alcohol cue exposure between alcoholic subjects and social drinkers, we designed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol involving alcohol-specific cues. Ten non-treatment-seeking adult alcoholic subjects (2 women) (mean [SD] age, 29.9 [9.9] years) as well as 10 healthy social drinking controls of similar age (2 women) (mean [SD] age, 29.4 [8.9] years) were recruited, screened, and scanned. In the 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner, subjects were serially rated for alcohol craving before and after a sip of alcohol, and after a 9-minute randomized presentation of pictures of alcoholic beverages, control nonalcoholic beverages, and 2 different visual control tasks. During picture presentation, changes in regional brain activity were measured with the blood oxygen level-dependent technique. Alcoholic subjects, compared with the social drinking subjects, reported higher overall craving ratings for alcohol. After a sip of alcohol, while viewing alcohol cues compared with viewing other beverage cues, only the alcoholic subjects had increased activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior thalamus. The social drinkers exhibited specific activation only while viewing the control beverage pictures. When exposed to alcohol cues, alcoholic subjects have increased brain activity in the prefrontal cortex and anterior thalamus-brain regions associated with emotion regulation, attention, and appetitive behavior.

  13. Promoting Physical Activity in Hong Kong Chinese Young People: Factors Influencing Their Subjective Task Values and Expectancy Beliefs in Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    According to Eccles et al.'s (1983) Expectancy Value Model, the two major constructs that influence young people's activity choice are subjective task value and expectancy beliefs (Eccles et al., 1983). Eccles et al. (1983) conceptually distinguished four dimensions of subjective task value: attainment value, intrinsic value, utility value and…

  14. Pre-meal screen-time activities increase subjective emotions, but not food intake in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia O; Pollard, Damion; Welch, Jo M; Rossiter, Melissa; Faghih, Shiva; Bellissimo, Nick

    2017-04-01

    To determine the effect of pre-meal screen-time activities on subjective emotions, subjective appetite, and food intake (FI) in 9-14 year-old girls. In this clinical study, 31 girls completed four 45-min treatment conditions of television viewing (TVV), video game playing (VGP), a challenging computer task (CT), and sitting without screen exposure (control) in a randomized order. Each treatment condition was followed immediately by an ad libitum pizza lunch, and FI was calculated from the weight of the consumed pizza. Subjective appetite was assessed at baseline, 15, 30, and 45 min during the treatment condition, and upon trial completion at 75 min. Subjective emotions were assessed at baseline and at 45 min. FI was not affected by screen type, but was positively correlated with body composition (fat mass [FM, kg], fat free mass [FFM, kg]) in all treatment conditions. Subjective appetite was not affected by screen type, but increased with time in all treatment conditions (p < 0.0001). Subjective emotions were affected by VGP only. Anger, excitement, frustration, and upset feelings were increased at 45 min following VGP. VGP led to increased frustration compared to control (p = 0.0003), CT (p = 0.007) and TVV (p = 0.0002). Exposure to TVV or CT before eating did not affect subjective emotions, subjective appetite, or FI, and no difference was found between screen activities and the control condition for average appetite or FI. Despite a change in subjective emotions during the VGP condition, there was no increase in subjective appetite or subsequent FI. These findings suggest that physiologic signals of satiation and satiety are not overridden by environmental stimuli of pre-meal screen-time exposure among young girls. (Clinical trial number NCT01750177). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute effects of LSD on amygdala activity during processing of fearful stimuli in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, F.; Lenz, C.; Dolder, P. C.; Harder, S.; Schmid, Y.; Lang, U. E.; Liechti, M. E.; Borgwardt, S.

    2017-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces profound changes in various mental domains, including perception, self-awareness and emotions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the acute effects of LSD on the neural substrate of emotional processing in humans. Using a double-blind, randomised, cross-over study design, placebo or 100 μg LSD were orally administered to 20 healthy subjects before the fMRI scan, taking into account the subjective and pharmacological pea...

  16. The effects of Pilates breathing trainings on trunk muscle activation in healthy female subjects: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Tae; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of Pilates breathing on trunk muscle activation. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight healthy female adults were selected for this study. Participants' trunk muscle activations were measured while they performed curl-ups, chest-head lifts, and lifting tasks. Pilates breathing trainings were performed for 60 minutes per each session, 3 times per week for 2 weeks. Post-training muscle activations were measured by the same methods used for the pre-training muscle activations. [Results] All trunk muscles measured in this study had increased activities after Pilates breathing trainings. All activities of the transversus abdominis/internal abdominal oblique, and multifidus significantly increased. [Conclusion] Pilates breathing increased activities of the trunk stabilizer muscles. Activation of the trunk muscle indicates that practicing Pilates breathing while performing lifting tasks will reduce the risk of trunk injuries.

  17. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function

  18. Interrelationship among the health-related and subjective quality of life, daily life activities, instrumental activities of daily living of community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemasa, Seiichi; Nakagoshi, Ryoma; Uesugi, Masayuki; Inoue, Yuri; Gotou, Makoto; Naruse, Susumu; Nanba, Yoshihumi

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the health-related and subjective quality of life of community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients, and also examined how such quality of life correlate with their daily life activities and instrumental activities of daily living. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 27 community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients (mean age: 76.3 ± 7.4 years). Their health-related quality of life and subjective quality of life, life-space assessment, frenchay activities index were researched. [Results] For the relationships between the total subjective quality of life scores and health-related quality of life scores, significant positive correlations were observed for body pain, general health, vitality, social functions and mental health. The correlations were not statistically significant between the subjective quality of life scores and the life-space assessment and frenchay activities index scores. The correlations were statistically significant between some health-related quality of life scores and the life-space assessment and frenchay activities index scores. [Conclusion] The results suggest that supporting community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients to improve their sense of physical and mental well-being, and prevent and reduce their depression and physical pain, is required in order to improve their QOL.

  19. Increased orbitofrontal brain activation after administration of a selective adenosine A2A antagonist in cocaine dependent subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gerard eMoeller

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Positron Emission Tomography imaging studies provide evidence of reduced dopamine function in cocaine dependent subjects in the striatum, which is correlated with prefrontal cortical glucose metabolism, particularly in the orbitofrontal cortex. However, whether enhancement of dopamine in the striatum in cocaine dependent subjects would be associated with changes in prefrontal cortical brain activation is unknown. One novel class of medications that enhance dopamine function via heteromer formation with dopamine receptors in the striatum is the selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists. This study sought to determine the effects administration of the selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SYN115 on brain function in cocaine dependent subjects. Methodology/Principle Findings: Twelve cocaine dependent subjects underwent two fMRI scans (one after a dose of placebo and one after a dose of 100 mg of SYN115 while performing a working memory task with 3 levels of difficulty (3, 5, and 7 digits. fMRI results showed that for 7-digit working memory activation there was significantly greater activation from SYN115 compared to placebo in portions of left (L lateral orbitofrontal cortex, L insula, and L superior and middle temporal pole. Conclusion/Significance: These findings are consistent with enhanced dopamine function in the striatum in cocaine dependent subjects via blockade of adenosine A2A receptors producing increased brain activation in the orbitofrontal cortex and other cortical regions. This suggests that at least some of the changes in brain activation in prefrontal cortical regions in cocaine dependent subjects may be related to altered striatal dopamine function, and that enhancement of dopamine function via adenosine A2A receptor blockade could be explored further for amelioration of neurobehavioral deficits associated with chronic cocaine use.

  20. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Gryka; Wanda Pilch; Marta Szarek; Zbigniew Szygula; Łukasz Tota

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Material and Methods: Sixteen male subjects (20–23 years) were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5–16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mas...

  1. Factors influencing Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay outcomes at point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Lorraine; Siverson, Joshua; Lee, Arthur; Cantera, Jason; Parker, Mathew; Piepenburg, Olaf; Lehman, Dara A; Boyle, David S

    2016-04-01

    Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) can be used to detect pathogen-specific DNA or RNA in under 20 min without the need for complex instrumentation. These properties enable its potential use in resource limited settings. However, there are concerns that deviations from the manufacturer's protocol and/or storage conditions could influence its performance in low resource settings. RPA amplification relies upon viscous crowding agents for optimal nucleic acid amplification, and thus an interval mixing step after 3-6 min of incubation is recommended to distribute amplicons and improve performance. In this study we used a HIV-1 RPA assay to evaluate the effects of this mixing step on assay performance. A lack of mixing led to a longer time to amplification and inferior detection signal, compromising the sensitivity of the assay. However lowering the assay volume from 50 μL to 5 μL showed similar sensitivity with or without mixing. We present the first peer-reviewed study that assesses long term stability of RPA reagents without a cold chain. Reagents stored at -20 °C, and 25 °C for up to 12 weeks were able to detect 10 HIV-1 DNA copies. Reagents stored at 45 °C for up to 3 weeks were able to detect 10 HIV-1 DNA copies, with reduced sensitivity only after >3 weeks at 45 °C. Together our results show that reducing reaction volumes bypassed the need for the mixing step and that RPA reagents were stable even when stored for 3 weeks at very high temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tolerance of DNA Mismatches in Dmc1 Recombinase-mediated DNA Strand Exchange*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogno, María V.; Monti, Mariela R.; Zhao, Weixing; Sung, Patrick; Argaraña, Carlos E.; Pezza, Roberto J.

    2016-01-01

    Recombination between homologous chromosomes is required for the faithful meiotic segregation of chromosomes and leads to the generation of genetic diversity. The conserved meiosis-specific Dmc1 recombinase catalyzes homologous recombination triggered by DNA double strand breaks through the exchange of parental DNA sequences. Although providing an efficient rate of DNA strand exchange between polymorphic alleles, Dmc1 must also guard against recombination between divergent sequences. How DNA mismatches affect Dmc1-mediated DNA strand exchange is not understood. We have used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to study the mechanism of Dmc1-mediated strand exchange between DNA oligonucleotides with different degrees of heterology. The efficiency of strand exchange is highly sensitive to the location, type, and distribution of mismatches. Mismatches near the 3′ end of the initiating DNA strand have a small effect, whereas most mismatches near the 5′ end impede strand exchange dramatically. The Hop2-Mnd1 protein complex stimulates Dmc1-catalyzed strand exchange on homologous DNA or containing a single mismatch. We observed that Dmc1 can reject divergent DNA sequences while bypassing a few mismatches in the DNA sequence. Our findings have important implications in understanding meiotic recombination. First, Dmc1 acts as an initial barrier for heterologous recombination, with the mismatch repair system providing a second level of proofreading, to ensure that ectopic sequences are not recombined. Second, Dmc1 stepping over infrequent mismatches is likely critical for allowing recombination between the polymorphic sequences of homologous chromosomes, thus contributing to gene conversion and genetic diversity. PMID:26709229

  3. Tolerance of DNA Mismatches in Dmc1 Recombinase-mediated DNA Strand Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogno, María V; Monti, Mariela R; Zhao, Weixing; Sung, Patrick; Argaraña, Carlos E; Pezza, Roberto J

    2016-03-04

    Recombination between homologous chromosomes is required for the faithful meiotic segregation of chromosomes and leads to the generation of genetic diversity. The conserved meiosis-specific Dmc1 recombinase catalyzes homologous recombination triggered by DNA double strand breaks through the exchange of parental DNA sequences. Although providing an efficient rate of DNA strand exchange between polymorphic alleles, Dmc1 must also guard against recombination between divergent sequences. How DNA mismatches affect Dmc1-mediated DNA strand exchange is not understood. We have used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to study the mechanism of Dmc1-mediated strand exchange between DNA oligonucleotides with different degrees of heterology. The efficiency of strand exchange is highly sensitive to the location, type, and distribution of mismatches. Mismatches near the 3' end of the initiating DNA strand have a small effect, whereas most mismatches near the 5' end impede strand exchange dramatically. The Hop2-Mnd1 protein complex stimulates Dmc1-catalyzed strand exchange on homologous DNA or containing a single mismatch. We observed that Dmc1 can reject divergent DNA sequences while bypassing a few mismatches in the DNA sequence. Our findings have important implications in understanding meiotic recombination. First, Dmc1 acts as an initial barrier for heterologous recombination, with the mismatch repair system providing a second level of proofreading, to ensure that ectopic sequences are not recombined. Second, Dmc1 stepping over infrequent mismatches is likely critical for allowing recombination between the polymorphic sequences of homologous chromosomes, thus contributing to gene conversion and genetic diversity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Diurnal activity patterns of farm mink (Mustela vison) subjected to different feeding routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen H

    2008-01-01

    synchronize their daily activity rhythm to the expected time of feeding. In addition, a high feeding motivation appears to be a precondition for circadian anticipatory activity in mink whereas anticipatory activity of mink fed ad libitum or close to ad libitum may be provoked by stimuli from the actual...

  5. Effect of physical activity on pulse wave velocity in elderly subjects with normal glucose, prediabetes or Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsämarttila, Erja; Rodilla, Enrique; Jokelainen, Jari; Herrala, Sauli; Leppäluoto, Juhani; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2018-05-23

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity ((cf)PWV) is a measure of arterial stiffness, predicting cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the amount of physical activity (PA) is correlated with reduced arterial stiffness in Type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects. 570 subjects from the 1945 Oulu birth cohort were included in the analysis. (cf)PWV was determined by a non-invasive applanation tonometry. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and LDL and HDL cholesterol analyzed. PA was registered daily with a wrist-worn acceleration meter for two weeks. (cf)PWV values in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and T2D were higher than in normal glycemic subjects (P < 0.001). PA, fasting and 2 h glucose and HbA1c correlated significantly with (cf)PWV, but HDL or LDL cholesterol did not. The 2 h glucose, heart rate and alcohol consumption in T2D subjects had independent effects on (cf)PWV in multiple regression analysis. T2D and IGM were significantly associated to (cf)PWV. Interestingly, lipids did not have an additional effect on (cf)PWV. Subjects walking more than 10 000 steps/day had 0.2 m/s lower (cf)PWV than those walking less than 6000 steps/day. Presence of T2D, elevated heart rate and alcohol consumption in males were associated with increased aortic stiffening in elderly subjects.

  6. Men and Women Academics: An Anglo-American Comparison of Subject Choices and Research Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tessa; Fulton, Oliver

    1974-01-01

    In both the U.S. and the United Kingdom women academics are concentrated in certain subject fields. The causes of the different behavior and interests of men and women academics are likely to be a function both of cultural definitions of male and female roles in the wider society, and institutional factors associated with educational systems both…

  7. Out-of-home activities, daily travel, and subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Gärling, T.; Olsson, L.E.; Friman, M.

    2010-01-01

    It is argued that utility theory that underpins current cost-benefit analyses of daily travel needs to be complemented. An alternative theoretical framework is to this end proposed which applies subjective well-being (SWB) to travel behaviour analysis. It is posited in this theoretical framework

  8. Left temporal and temporoparietal brain activity depends on depth of word encoding: a magnetoencephalographic study in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, P; Hufnagl, B; Lindinger, G; Imhof, H; Deecke, L; Lang, W

    2001-03-01

    Using a 143-channel whole-head magnetoencephalograph (MEG) we recorded the temporal changes of brain activity from 26 healthy young subjects (14 females) related to shallow perceptual and deep semantic word encoding. During subsequent recognition tests, the subjects had to recognize the previously encoded words which were interspersed with new words. The resulting mean memory performances across all subjects clearly mirrored the different levels of encoding. The grand averaged event-related fields (ERFs) associated with perceptual and semantic word encoding differed significantly between 200 and 550 ms after stimulus onset mainly over left superior temporal and left superior parietal sensors. Semantic encoding elicited higher brain activity than perceptual encoding. Source localization procedures revealed that neural populations of the left temporal and temporoparietal brain areas showed different activity strengths across the whole group of subjects depending on depth of word encoding. We suggest that the higher brain activity associated with deep encoding as compared to shallow encoding was due to the involvement of more neural systems during the processing of visually presented words. Deep encoding required more energy than shallow encoding but for all that led to a better memory performance. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Type I iodothyronine 5′-deiodinase mRNA and activity is increased in adipose tissue of obese subjects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortega, F.J.; Jílková, Zuzana; Moreno-Navarrete, J.M.; Pavelka, S.; Rodriguez-Hermosa, J.I.; Kopecký, Jan; Fernández-Real, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2012), s. 320-324 ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC08008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adipose tissue * thyroid hormones * deiodinases * tissue expression * enzyme activity Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 5.221, year: 2012

  10. Intra-subject variability in muscle activity and co-contraction during jumps and landings in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, P C; Alkjaer, T; Simonsen, E B

    2017-01-01

    -subject variability in the muscle activity. Co-contraction was quantified for two thigh muscle pairs and one plantar flexor/dorsiflexor muscle pair and group differences were assessed (two-way ANOVA). No significant differences were observed in the less eccentric demanding CMJ while significantly higher muscle...

  11. Influence of unstable footwear on lower leg muscle activity, volume change and subjective discomfort during prolonged standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Zanyar; Allahyari, Teimour; Azghani, Mahmood Reza; Khalkhali, Hamidreza

    2016-03-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of unstable footwear on lower leg muscle activity, volume change and subjective discomfort during prolonged standing. Ten healthy subjects were recruited to stand for 2 h in three footwear conditions: barefoot, flat-bottomed shoe and unstable shoe. During standing, lower leg discomfort and EMG activity of medial gastrocnemius (MG) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were continuously monitored. Changes in lower leg volume over standing time also were measured. Lower leg discomfort rating reduced significantly while subjects standing on unstable shoe compared to the flat-bottomed shoe and barefoot condition. For lower leg volume, less changes also were observed with unstable shoe. The activity level and variation of right MG muscle was greater with unstable shoe compared to the other footwear conditions; however regarding the left MG muscle, significant difference was found between unstable shoe and flat-bottomed shoe only for activity level. Furthermore no significant differences were observed for the activity level and variation of TA muscles (right/left) among all footwear conditions. The findings suggested that prolonged standing with unstable footwear produces changes in lower leg muscles activity and leads to less volume changes. Perceived discomfort also was lower for this type of footwear and this might mean that unstable footwear can be used as ergonomic solution for employees whose work requires prolonged standing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation between two physical activity programs in the gait of sedentary elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Varkala Lanuez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the effect of exercise on gait using two different programs: a group of aerobic exercises (Group A, n = 18 and a group of flexibility and balance exercises (Group B, n = 19. Methods: A casualized controlled study, in which each sample controlled itself, was undertaken. The sample comprised 37 male and female subjects, aged from 60 to 90 years, from the outpatient clinic of the Geriatrics Unit of Hospital das Clínicas of Faculdade de Medicina of Universidade de São Paulo; the patients were sedentary and had not exercised regularly during the past six months. Results: Improvement of gait was seen mainly in the group that did specific exercises. Conclusion: The results of this study underline the importance of physical exercises in sedentary elderly subjects, but show the need for programming the exercises towards specific goals, which can optimize the results of this tool of health promotion for the elderly.

  13. Acute effects of LSD on amygdala activity during processing of fearful stimuli in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, F; Lenz, C; Dolder, P C; Harder, S; Schmid, Y; Lang, U E; Liechti, M E; Borgwardt, S

    2017-04-04

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces profound changes in various mental domains, including perception, self-awareness and emotions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the acute effects of LSD on the neural substrate of emotional processing in humans. Using a double-blind, randomised, cross-over study design, placebo or 100 μg LSD were orally administered to 20 healthy subjects before the fMRI scan, taking into account the subjective and pharmacological peak effects of LSD. The plasma levels of LSD were determined immediately before and after the scan. The study (including the a priori-defined study end point) was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov before study start (NCT02308969). The administration of LSD reduced reactivity of the left amygdala and the right medial prefrontal cortex relative to placebo during the presentation of fearful faces (PLSD-induced amygdala response to fearful stimuli and the LSD-induced subjective drug effects (PLSD modulates the engagement of brain regions that mediate emotional processing.

  14. Human preferences for symmetry: subjective experience, cognitive conflict and cortical brain activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Evans

    Full Text Available This study examines the links between human perceptions, cognitive biases and neural processing of symmetrical stimuli. While preferences for symmetry have largely been examined in the context of disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorders, we examine various these phenomena in non-clinical subjects and suggest that such preferences are distributed throughout the typical population as part of our cognitive and neural architecture. In Experiment 1, 82 young adults reported on the frequency of their obsessive-compulsive spectrum behaviors. Subjects also performed an emotional Stroop or variant of an Implicit Association Task (the OC-CIT developed to assess cognitive biases for symmetry. Data not only reveal that subjects evidence a cognitive conflict when asked to match images of positive affect with asymmetrical stimuli, and disgust with symmetry, but also that their slowed reaction times when asked to do so were predicted by reports of OC behavior, particularly checking behavior. In Experiment 2, 26 participants were administered an oddball Event-Related Potential task specifically designed to assess sensitivity to symmetry as well as the OC-CIT. These data revealed that reaction times on the OC-CIT were strongly predicted by frontal electrode sites indicating faster processing of an asymmetrical stimulus (unparallel lines relative to a symmetrical stimulus (parallel lines. The results point to an overall cognitive bias linking disgust with asymmetry and suggest that such cognitive biases are reflected in neural responses to symmetrical/asymmetrical stimuli.

  15. Disturbed functional connectivity of cortical activation during semantic discrimination in patients with schizophrenia and subjects at genetic high-risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Branch, Craig A; Nierenberg, Jay; Delisi, Lynn E

    2010-03-01

    Schizophrenia has a strong genetic component that is relevant to the understanding of the pathophysiology of the syndrome. Thus, recent investigations have shifted from studies of diagnosed patients with schizophrenia to examining their unaffected relatives. Previous studies found that during language processing, relatives thought to be at genetic high-risk for the disorder exhibit aberrant functional activation in regions of language processing, specifically in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). However, functional connectivity among the regions involved in language pathways is not well understood. In this study, we examined the functional connectivity between a seed located in Broca's area and the remainder of the brain during a visual lexical decision task, in 20 schizophrenia patients, 21 subjects at genetic high risk for the disorder and 21 healthy controls. Both the high-risk subjects and patients showed significantly reduced activation correlations between seed and regions related to visual language processing. Compared to the high-risk subjects, the schizophrenia patients showed even fewer regions that were correlated with the seed regions. These results suggest that there is aberrant functional connectivity within cortical language circuitry in high-risk subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Broca's area, which is one of the important regions for language processing in healthy controls, had a significantly reduced role in the high-risk subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Our findings are consistent with the existence of an underlying biological disturbance that begins in genetically at risk individuals and progresses to a greater extent in those who eventually develop schizophrenia.

  16. Growth hormone-induced insulin resistance in human subjects involves reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, B.; Vendelbo, M.H.; Nielsen, Thomas Svava

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance induced by growth hormone (GH) is linked to promotion of lipolysis by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that suppression of the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the active form (PDHa) underlies GH-induced insulin resistance similar to what is observed during fasting....

  17. Firing patterns of spontaneously active motor units in spinal cord-injured subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, Christine K.

    Involuntary motor unit activity at low rates is common in hand muscles paralysed by spinal cord injury. Our aim was to describe these patterns of motor unit behaviour in relation to motoneurone and motor unit properties. Intramuscular electromyographic activity (EMG), surface EMG and force were

  18. The activity pattern of shoulder muscles in subjects with and without subacromial impingement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Nørregaard, Jesper; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Altered shoulder muscle activity is frequently believed to be a pathogenetic factor of subacromial impingement (SI) and therapeutic interventions have been directed towards restoring normal motor patterns. Still, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the changes in muscle activity in p...... that the different motor patterns might be a pathogenetic factor of SI, perhaps due to inappropriate neuromuscular strategies affecting both shoulders....

  19. The occurrence of respiratory events in young subjects with a frequent rhythmic masticatory muscle activity: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujisaka, Akiko; Haraki, Shingo; Nonoue, Shigeru; Mikami, Akira; Adachi, Hiroyoshi; Mizumori, Takahiro; Yatani, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Kato, Takafumi

    2018-02-21

    Concomitant occurrence of respiratory events can be often overlooked in the clinical practice of SB. This study assessed physiological characteristics of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) and concomitant respiratory events in young SB subjects asymptomatic to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Twenty-two subjects (age: 24.1±1.9years; F 8: M 14; BMI: 20.2±1.9kg/m 2 ) were polysomnographically diagnosed as moderate-severe SB. Sleep architecture, oromotor (RMMA and non-specific masseter activity [NSMA]) and apnea/hypopnea events were scored. All subjects showed normal sleep architecture whereas 6 exhibited respiratory events at a mild level of OSA. In all subjects, RMMA predominantly occurred in Stage N1+N2 while NSMA occurred in Stage N1+N2 (approximately 60 %) and in Stage R (up to 30 %). Up to 50% of respiratory events were scored in Stage R. RMMA occurred more frequently in close association (e.g., within 10s) with respiratory events in 6 subjects with OSA than those without. The percentage of RMMA occurring closely to respiratory events was positively correlated with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in Stage N1+N2 only while that of NSMA was positively correlated with AHI in Stage N1+N2 and Stage R. A sub-analysis in 6 subjects with OSA, RMMA after respiratory events was followed to arousals while those before respiratory events were mostly associated with central apnea. A subpopulation of young SB subjects can show concomitant respiratory events. Further large sample studies are needed to demonstrate that the occurrence of subclinical respiratory events represents a clinical subtype of SB. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on the biological activity of certain antihistamines subjected to radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, M.E.; Roushdy, H.M.; Seham, H.H.M.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation of pheniramine maleate and dimenhydrinate solution the dose levels 15, 25 and 50 KGY on their antihistaminic activity has been investigated using the histamine aerosol and guinea pig ileum methods. From the results obtained it could be concluded that, the antihistaminic activity of both pheniramine maleate and dimenhydrinate was not significantly changed by radiation exposure at the dose levels 15, 25 and 50 KGY. Accordingly, both of the two drugs can be safely sterilized by gamma-irradiation without encountering deleterious effect on their antihistaminic activity

  1. Physiological Requirements to Perform the Glittre Activities of Daily Living Test by Subjects With Mild-to-Severe COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Gérson F; Moreira, Graciane L; Tufanin, Andréa; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Castro, Antonio A; Jardim, José R; Nascimento, Oliver A

    2017-08-01

    The Glittre activities of daily living (ADL) test is supposed to evaluate the functional capacity of COPD patients. The physiological requirements of the test and the time taken to perform it by COPD patients in different disease stages are not well known. The objective of this work was to compare the metabolic, ventilatory, and cardiac requirements and the time taken to carry out the Glittre ADL test by COPD subjects with mild, moderate, and severe disease. Spirometry, Medical Research Council questionnaire, cardiopulmonary exercise test, and 2 Glittre ADL tests were evaluated in 62 COPD subjects. Oxygen uptake (V̇ O 2 ), carbon dioxide production, pulmonary ventilation, breathing frequency, heart rate, S pO 2 , and dyspnea were analyzed before and at the end of the tests. Maximum voluntary ventilation, Glittre peak V̇ O 2 /cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) peak V̇ O 2 , Glittre V̇ E /maximum voluntary ventilation, and Glittre peak heart rate/CPET peak heart rate ratios were calculated to analyze their reserves. Subjects carried out the Glittre ADL test with similar absolute metabolic, ventilatory, and cardiac requirements. Ventilatory reserve decreased progressively from mild to severe COPD subjects ( P reserve than the mild and moderate subjects ( P = .006 and P = .043, respectively) and significantly lower Glittre peak heart rate/CPET peak heart rate than mild subjects ( P = .01). Time taken to carry out the Glittre ADL test was similar among the groups ( P = .82 for GOLD 1 vs GOLD 2, P = .19 for GOLD 1 vs GOLD 3, and P = .45 for GOLD 2 vs GOLD 3). As the degree of air-flow obstruction progresses, the COPD subjects present significant lower ventilatory reserve to perform the Glittre ADL test. In addition, metabolic and cardiac reserves may differentiate the severe subjects. These variables may be better measures to differentiate functional performance than Glittre ADL time. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. Energy metabolism during activity-promoting video games practice in subjects with spinal cord injury: evidences for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffurini, P; Bissolotti, L; Calza, S; Calabretto, C; Orizio, C; Gobbo, M

    2013-02-01

    Activity promoting video game (APVG) practice significantly affects energy metabolism through energy expenditure (EE) increase and has been recently included in strategies for health promotion. It is not known if the APVG practice provides similar outcomes in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI). Aim of the study was to evaluate cardio-pulmonary and metabolic adaptations during APVG practice and to find whether EE increase above resting condition could suggest the inclusion of this exercise in a more general strategy for health promotion and body weight control in subjects with SCI. Repeated measures study. Rehabilitation Institute. Ten male subjects with SCI (lesion levels from C7 to L1) age 26 to 55 years. We recorded pulmonary ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2) for EE esteem and heart rate (HR) at rest and while playing virtual bowling, tennis and boxing games using a portable metabolimeter equipped with ECG electrodes. The standard metabolic equivalent of task (METs) was calculated offline. The metabolic and functional parameters were referred to the 10th minute of each activity. Metabolic and functional parameters increased significantly from rest to bowling, tennis and boxing. METs exceeded in average 3 during boxing. One hour of APVG can increase daily EE by about 6% (bowling), 10% (tennis) and 15% (boxing). These considerable results suggest that physical exertion during APVG practice in subjects with SCI could contribute to health promotion as well as caloric balance control, especially when boxing is considered. This can be safely achieved at home with regular activity. These findings substantiate the potential for novel exercise modalities to counteract deconditioning due to inactivity in subjects with SCI by promoting physical activity through implementation of APVG exercise programs.

  3. Activation of the hippocampal complex during tactile maze solving in congenitally blind subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Schneider, Fabien C; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2012-01-01

    Despite their lack of vision, congenitally blind subjects are able to build and manipulate cognitive maps for spatial navigation. It is assumed that they thereby rely more heavily on echolocation, proprioceptive signals and environmental cues such as ambient temperature and audition to compensate...... imaging (fMRI) in congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted participants while they navigated through a tactile multiple T-maze. Both groups learned the maze task at a similar pace. In blind participants, tactile maze navigation was associated with increased BOLD responses in the right hippocampus...

  4. Role and future subjects of support project 'research activity on radiation etc. by high school students'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Noboru; Nakamura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    This is a report of the project of MEXT(The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) to support high school students researching radiation etc. This subject research consists of an exchange meeting, independence research, and a presentation meeting of the results. Media introduced the project and this was a very reputable project. However, regrettably this support project was broken off in the business year of 2012. In this document, the outline of the support project for seven years is introduced and the possibility of future deployment is discussed. (author)

  5. Young, healthy subjects can reduce the activity of calf muscles when provided with EMG biofeedback in upright stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taian M. Vieira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests the minimisation of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimising the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimise the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the centre of pressure (CoP. CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from ten healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects’ responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P<0.05 and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P<0.05. Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm. In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at

  6. Model-based active control of a continuous structure subjected to moving loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancioiu, D.; Ouyang, H.

    2016-09-01

    Modelling of a structure is an important preliminary step of structural control. The main objectives of the modelling, which are almost always antagonistic are accuracy and simplicity of the model. The first part of this study focuses on the experimental and theoretical modelling of a structure subjected to the action of one or two decelerating moving carriages modelled as masses. The aim of this part is to obtain a simple but accurate model which will include not only the structure-moving load interaction but also the actuators dynamics. A small scale rig is designed to represent a four-span continuous metallic bridge structure with miniature guiding rails. A series of tests are run subjecting the structure to the action of one or two minicarriages with different loads that were launched along the structure at different initial speeds. The second part is dedicated to model based control design where a feedback controller is designed and tested against the validated model. The study shows that a positive position feedback is able to improve system dynamics but also shows some of the limitations of state- space methods for this type of system.

  7. Discovery of Nigri/nox and Panto/pox site-specific recombinase systems facilitates advanced genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimova, Madina; Splith, Victoria; Karpinski, Janet; Pisabarro, M Teresa; Buchholz, Frank

    2016-07-22

    Precise genome engineering is instrumental for biomedical research and holds great promise for future therapeutic applications. Site-specific recombinases (SSRs) are valuable tools for genome engineering due to their exceptional ability to mediate precise excision, integration and inversion of genomic DNA in living systems. The ever-increasing complexity of genome manipulations and the desire to understand the DNA-binding specificity of these enzymes are driving efforts to identify novel SSR systems with unique properties. Here, we describe two novel tyrosine site-specific recombination systems designated Nigri/nox and Panto/pox. Nigri originates from Vibrio nigripulchritudo (plasmid VIBNI_pA) and recombines its target site nox with high efficiency and high target-site selectivity, without recombining target sites of the well established SSRs Cre, Dre, Vika and VCre. Panto, derived from Pantoea sp. aB, is less specific and in addition to its native target site, pox also recombines the target site for Dre recombinase, called rox. This relaxed specificity allowed the identification of residues that are involved in target site selectivity, thereby advancing our understanding of how SSRs recognize their respective DNA targets.

  8. Targeting of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells by Cre-Recombinase Transgenes Commonly Used to Target Osteoblast Lineage Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingzhu; Link, Daniel C

    2016-11-01

    The targeting specificity of tissue-specific Cre-recombinase transgenes is a key to interpreting phenotypes associated with their use. The Ocn-Cre and Dmp1-Cre transgenes are widely used to target osteoblasts and osteocytes, respectively. Here, we used high-resolution microscopy of bone sections and flow cytometry to carefully define the targeting specificity of these transgenes. These transgenes were crossed with Cxcl12 gfp mice to identify Cxcl12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells, which are a perivascular mesenchymal stromal population implicated in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell maintenance. We show that in addition to osteoblasts, Ocn-Cre targets a majority of CAR cells and arteriolar pericytes. Surprisingly, Dmp1-Cre also targets a subset of CAR cells, in which expression of osteoblast-lineage genes is enriched. Finally, we introduce a new tissue-specific Cre-recombinase, Tagln-Cre, which efficiently targets osteoblasts, a majority of CAR cells, and both venous sinusoidal and arteriolar pericytes. These data show that Ocn-Cre and Dmp1-Cre target broader stromal cell populations than previously appreciated and may aid in the design of future studies. Moreover, these data highlight the heterogeneity of mesenchymal stromal cells in the bone marrow and provide tools to interrogate this heterogeneity. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  9. Rearrangement of Rag-1 recombinase gene in DNA-repair deficient/immunodeficient wasted'' mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Weaver, P.; Churchill, M.; Chang-Liu, C-M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Libertin, C.R. (Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Mice recessive for the autosomal gene wasted'' (wst) display a disease pattern which includes increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency, and neurologic dysfunction. The recent cloning and characterization of recombinase genes (Rag-l/Rag-2) expressed in lymphoid and possibly central nervous system tissues prompted us to examine expression of these genes in DNA repair-deficient/immunodeficient wasted mice. Our results revealed that in thymus tissue, a small Rag-I transcript (1.0 kb) was detected in wst/wst mice that was not evident in thymus from control mice. In wst/[sm bullet] mice, a two-fold increase in Rag-1 mRNA was evident in thymus tissue. Rag-2 mRNA could only be detected in thymus tissue from wst/[sm bullet] and not from wst/wst or parental control BCF, mice. Southern blots revealed a rearrangement or deletion within the Rag-1 gene of affected wasted mice that was not evident in known strain-specific parental or littermate controls. These results support the idea that the Rag-1 gene may map at or near the locus for the wasted mutation. In addition, they suggest the importance of recombinase function in normal immune and central nervous system development as well as the potential contribution of this gene family to the normal repair of radiation-induced DNA damage.

  10. Activation of biceps femoris long head reduces tibiofemoral anterior shear force and tibial internal rotation torque in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Liyana; Ding, Ziyun; Xu, Rui; Bull, Anthony M J

    2018-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides resistance to tibial internal rotation torque and anterior shear at the knee. ACL deficiency results in knee instability. Optimisation of muscle contraction through functional electrical stimulation (FES) offers the prospect of mitigating the destabilising effects of ACL deficiency. The hypothesis of this study is that activation of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH) reduces the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee. Gait data of twelve healthy subjects were measured with and without the application of FES and taken as inputs to a computational musculoskeletal model. The model was used to investigate the optimum levels of BFLH activation during FES gait in reducing the anterior shear force to zero. This study found that FES significantly reduced the tibial internal rotation torque at the knee during the stance phase of gait (p = 0.0322) and the computational musculoskeletal modelling revealed that a mean BFLH activation of 20.8% (±8.4%) could reduce the anterior shear force to zero. At the time frame when the anterior shear force was zero, the internal rotation torque was reduced by 0.023 ± 0.0167 Nm/BW, with a mean 188% reduction across subjects (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, activation of the BFLH is able to reduce the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee in healthy control subjects. This should be tested on ACL deficient subject to consider its effect in mitigating instability due to ligament deficiency. In future clinical practice, activating the BFLH may be used to protect ACL reconstructions during post-operative rehabilitation, assist with residual instabilities post reconstruction, and reduce the need for ACL reconstruction surgery in some cases.

  11. Tangible and intangible costs of "protecting human subjects": The impact of the National Research Act of 1974 onuniversity research activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Jacobs

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article (1 examines the overall structure of regulatory research oversight in the United States; (2 details the origins and evolution of federal legislation pertaining to the protection of human subjects in biomedical and behavioral treatment and research; and (3 describes the expansion of oversight regulation from biomedical and behavioral treatment areas to the social sciences. In addition, the paper describes three areas identified by compliance administrators as susceptible to abuse: (1 informed consent, (2 assessment of risks and benefits, and (3 equitable selection of human subjects. There is a discussion of existing tensions in the implementation of oversight policies and procedures. Finally, the paper identifies four issues for future consideration: (1 scope of the mandate regarding protection of human subjects, (2 impact on the nature of research being undertaken, (3 financial burden of compliance and oversight activities, and (4 ethical standards, constraints, and potential.

  12. SCHOOL, CULTURE & MOVEMENT : SUBJECTS/ACTORS FACE THE TRACES OF THEIR OWN ACTIVITY WHEN CREATING ALBUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Pairis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns pupils' activity operated from the theoretical and methodological framework of data analysis of the "process of action" (Theureau, 2004 supporting on activity tracks (what emerges from the pre-reflexive consciousness and video recordings proceeded with individual interviews questioning the actors about their work : creation of albums into two classes of cycle 2 (one of them is an experimental artistic and cultural educational classroom with the help of an author/illustrator. The understanding of pupil’s activity answers the hypothesis of getting to work with creativity (Vygotski, 1930 in studying the "school well-being", the discourse analysis (case of Ramone who, in 2013, is not involved in the album creation while in 2014 he does not want to go out for a break before having finished the activity of visual art as well as the posture of their bodies at a moment of attentive listening. The results reveal that pupils need more movement than being in stand by (Jorro, 2013; Dewey 1934, in exploring their relationship to the space children become aware of the other ones (action vs passivity. The analysis of the pupils’ activity puts into perspective the impact of the artistic and cultural practices on learnings and movement (performance of their musical tale -moving in space with big-sized illustrations-, graphic movement : not only in writing but in positioning their body to accustom them to feel it before it hurts them as means of expression and cultural fact.

  13. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, Jorge; Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  14. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, Jorge [LABS and Rede D' Or Hospitais, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Neuroimagem e Neurologia do Comportamento; Eslinger, Paul J. [Pensylvania State Univ. (United States). College of Medicine. Div. of Neurology and Behavioral Science; The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PN (United States); Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de [Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (UNI-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Gaffree e Guinle]. E-mail: neuropsychiatry@hotmail.com

    2001-09-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  15. Recent research activities and future subjects on stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushita, Kouhei

    2001-12-01

    This report reviews the recent studies on the stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine from a viewpoint of environmental science, partly including historic references on this element. First, general properties, occurrence, and utilization of chlorine are described. Secondly, current status and research works on chlorine-compounds, which attract special attention in recent years as environmentally hazardous materials, are reported. Thirdly, research works on stable chlorine isotopes, 35 Cl and 37 Cl, are described with a focus laid on the newly-developed techniques; isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Fourthly, recent research works on chlorine radioisotopes, 36 Cl etc., are described, focusing on the development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its application to geochemistry and others. Finally, taking account of the above-mentioned recent works on Cl isotopes, possible future research subjects are discussed. (author)

  16. Recent research activities and future subjects on stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushita, Kouhei [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    This report reviews the recent studies on the stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine from a viewpoint of environmental science, partly including historic references on this element. First, general properties, occurrence, and utilization of chlorine are described. Secondly, current status and research works on chlorine-compounds, which attract special attention in recent years as environmentally hazardous materials, are reported. Thirdly, research works on stable chlorine isotopes, {sup 35}Cl and {sup 37}Cl, are described with a focus laid on the newly-developed techniques; isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Fourthly, recent research works on chlorine radioisotopes, {sup 36}Cl etc., are described, focusing on the development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its application to geochemistry and others. Finally, taking account of the above-mentioned recent works on Cl isotopes, possible future research subjects are discussed. (author)

  17. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryka, Dorota; Pilch, Wanda; Szarek, Marta; Szygula, Zbigniew; Tota, Łukasz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Sixteen male subjects (20-23 years) were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5-16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mass, heart rate, body skinfold thickness. The percentage fat content and then, the lean body mass were calculated. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, lipoprotein cholesterol LDL and HDL were measured in blood samples. A statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was observed during 3 weeks of sauna treatment and in the week afterwards. A significant decline in triacylglycerols was found directly after the 1st and 24 h directly after the 10th sauna session. After the 10th sauna session the level of HDL cholesterol remained slightly increased, but this change was not statistically significant. A decrease in blood plasma volume was found directly after the 1st and the last sauna bathing session due to perspiration. An adaptive increase in blood plasma volume was also found after the series of 10 sauna sessions. Ten complete sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna caused a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol fraction levels during the sessions and a gradual return of these levels to the initial level during the 1st and the 2nd week after the experiment. A small, statistically insignificant increase in HDL-C level and a transient decline in triacylglycerols were observed after those sauna sessions. The positive effect of sauna on lipid profile is similar to the effect that can be obtained through a moderate-intensity physical exercise.

  18. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gryka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Material and Methods: Sixteen male subjects (20–23 years were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5–16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mass, heart rate, body skinfold thickness. The percentage fat content and then, the lean body mass were calculated. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, lipoprotein cholesterol LDL and HDL were measured in blood samples. Results: A statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was observed during 3 weeks of sauna treatment and in the week afterwards. A significant decline in triacylglycerols was found directly after the 1st and 24 h directly after the 10th sauna session. After the 10th sauna session the level of HDL cholesterol remained slightly increased, but this change was not statistically significant. A decrease in blood plasma volume was found directly after the 1st and the last sauna bathing session due to perspiration. An adaptive increase in blood plasma volume was also found after the series of 10 sauna sessions. Conclusions: Ten complete sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna caused a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol fraction levels during the sessions and a gradual return of these levels to the initial level during the 1st and the 2nd week after the experiment. A small, statistically insignificant increase in HDL-C level and a transient decline in triacylglycerols were observed after those sauna sessions. The positive effect of sauna on lipid profile is similar to the effect that can be obtained through a moderate-intensity physical exercise.

  19. A Subject Classification of Math Lab Activities from School Science and Mathematics 1974-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstein, Louise S.

    1982-01-01

    Presented here is an index which indicates the title and location of each activity by volume and page numbers. The majority of items relate to arithmetic, elementary algebra, and plane geometry, but material also covers such topics as statistics, probability, trigonometry set theory, topology, and modern algebra. (MP)

  20. A new robust adaptive controller for vibration control of active engine mount subjected to large uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhari, Vahid; Choi, Seung-Bok; Cho, Chang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a new robust model reference adaptive control (MRAC) for vibration control caused from vehicle engine using an electromagnetic type of active engine mount. Vibration isolation performances of the active mount associated with the robust controller are evaluated in the presence of large uncertainties. As a first step, an active mount with linear solenoid actuator is prepared and its dynamic model is identified via experimental test. Subsequently, a new robust MRAC based on the gradient method with σ-modification is designed by selecting a proper reference model. In designing the robust adaptive control, structured (parametric) uncertainties in the stiffness of the passive part of the mount and in damping ratio of the active part of the mount are considered to investigate the robustness of the proposed controller. Experimental and simulation results are presented to evaluate performance focusing on the robustness behavior of the controller in the face of large uncertainties. The obtained results show that the proposed controller can sufficiently provide the robust vibration control performance even in the presence of large uncertainties showing an effective vibration isolation. (paper)

  1. Changes of cognition and regional cerebral activity during acute hypoglycemia in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie-Olsen, Lise G; Kjaer, Troels W; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as a marker of cerebral activity. Hypoglycemia was induced by intravenous insulin infusion in 19 healthy men performing two different cognitive tasks of varying complexity. The hypoglycemic stimulus [plasma glucose 2.2 mmol/liter (0.4)] produced a significant hormonal...

  2. Physiological response of Pseudomonas putida S12 subjected to reduced water activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.; Bont, de J.A.M.; Heipieper, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of osmotic stress, given as decreased water activity (aw), on growth and the accumulation of potassium and the compatible solute betaine by Pseudomonas putida S12 was investigated. Reduced aw was imposed by addition of sodium chloride, sucrose, glycerol or polyethylene glycol to the

  3. Visual cortex activity predicts subjective experience after reading books with colored letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.; Murre, J.M.J.; Scholte, H.S.; van Es, D.M.; Knapen, T.; Rouw, R.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most astonishing properties of synesthesia is that the evoked concurrent experiences are perceptual. Is it possible to acquire similar effects after learning cross-modal associations that resemble synesthetic mappings? In this study, we examine whether brain activation in early visual

  4. Inactivation of single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator by thrombin in human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, E. A.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Bos, R.; Haverkate, F.; Lassen, M. R.; de Maat, M. P.; Rijken, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    Thrombin cleaves single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) into a virtually inactive two-chain form (tcu-PA/T), a process that may protect a blood clot from early fibrinolysis. It is not known under what circumstances tcu-PA/T can be generated in vivo. We have studied the occurrence

  5. Multimode Preemptive Resource Investment Problem Subject to Due Dates for Activities: Formulation and Solution Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The preemptive Multimode resource investment problem is investigated. The Objective is to minimize the total renewable/nonrenewable resource costs and earliness-tardiness costs by a given project deadline and due dates for activities. In this problem setting preemption is allowed with no setup cost or time. The project contains activities interrelated by finish-start type precedence relations with a time lag of zero, which require a set of renewable and nonrenewable resources. The problem formed in this way is an NP-hard. A mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for the problem and parameters tuned genetic algorithm (GA is proposed to solve it. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, 120 test problems are used. Comparative statistical results reveal that the proposed GA is efficient and effective in terms of the objective function and computational times.

  6. The influence of N-acetylcysteine on the measurement of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, S; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    mg kg-1 h-1 for 32 h in six male subjects. The intrinsic, extrinsic and common pathway of coagulation were monitored with activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time, respectively. In addition, the extrinsic coagulation pathway was monitored with the clotting activity of single...... factors II, VII, and X. No effect on the intrinsic coagulation pathway was observed. There was a significant and rapid decrease in prothrombin time. Coagulation factors II, VII and X, the three components of prothrombin time, decreased significantly to different degrees. We conclude that infusion of N...

  7. Firing patterns of spontaneously active motor units in spinal cord-injured subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, Christine K

    2012-04-01

    Involuntary motor unit activity at low rates is common in hand muscles paralysed by spinal cord injury. Our aim was to describe these patterns of motor unit behaviour in relation to motoneurone and motor unit properties. Intramuscular electromyographic activity (EMG), surface EMG and force were recorded for 30 min from thenar muscles of nine men with chronic cervical SCI. Motor units fired for sustained periods (>10 min) at regular (coefficient of variation ≤ 0.15, CV, n =19 units) or irregular intervals (CV>0.15, n =14). Regularly firing units started and stopped firing independently suggesting that intrinsic motoneurone properties were important for recruitment and derecruitment. Recruitment (3.6 Hz, SD 1.2), maximal (10.2 Hz, SD 2.3, range: 7.5-15.4 Hz) and derecruitment frequencies were low (3.3 Hz, SD 1.6), as were firing rate increases after recruitment (~20 intervals in 3 s). Once active, firing often covaried, promoting the idea that units received common inputs.Half of the regularly firing units showed a very slow decline (>40 s) in discharge before derecruitment and had interspike intervals longer than their estimated after hyperpolarisation potential (AHP) duration (estimated by death rate and breakpoint analyses). The other units were derecruited more abruptly and had shorter estimated AHP durations. Overall, regularly firing units had longer estimated AHP durations and were weaker than irregularly firing units, suggesting they were lower threshold units. Sustained firing of units at regular rates may reflect activation of persistent inward currents, visible here in the absence of voluntary drive, whereas irregularly firing units may only respond to synaptic noise.

  8. Allelopathic activity of some grass species on Phleum pratense seed germination subject to their density

    OpenAIRE

    Halina Lipińska

    2012-01-01

    Efficient utilization of allelopathy in the agricultural practice requires searching for some species and developmental stages when the allelopathic substances are generated in bioactive concentrations. That also requires the knowledge of allelopathy mechanisms and primarily its separation from the other aspects of plant activity, mainly from competition for environmental resources. This task, however, has remained vital in the studies on plant interference, being extremely difficult to perfo...

  9. Experimental Observations of Nuclear Activity in Deuterated Materials Subjected to a Low-Energy Photon Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Benyo, Theresa L.; Pines, Vladimir; Pines, Marianna; Forsley, Lawrence P.; Westmeyer, Paul A.; Chait, Arnon; Becks, Michael D.; Martin, Richard E.; Hendricks, Robert C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Exposure of highly deuterated materials to a low-energy (nom. 2 MeV) photon beam resulted in nuclear activity of both the parent metals of hafnium and erbium and a witness material (molybdenum) mixed with the reactants. Gamma spectral analysis of all deuterated materials, ErD2.8+C36D74+Mo and HfD2+C36D74+Mo, showed that nuclear processes had occurred as shown by unique gamma signatures. For the deuterated erbium specimens, posttest gamma spectra showed evidence of radioisotopes of erbium ((163)Er and (171)Er) and of molybdenum ((99)Mo and (101)Mo) and by beta decay, technetium (99mTc and 101Tc). For the deuterated hafnium specimens, posttest gamma spectra showed evidence of radioisotopes of hafnium (180mHf and 181Hf) and molybdenum ((99)Mo and (101)Mo), and by beta decay, technetium ((99m)Tc and (101)Tc). In contrast, when either the hydrogenated or non-gas-loaded erbium or hafnium materials were exposed to the gamma flux, the gamma spectra revealed no new isotopes. Neutron activation materials showed evidence of thermal and epithermal neutrons. CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors showed evidence of fast neutrons with energies between 1.4 and 2.5 MeV and several instances of triple tracks, indicating (is) greater than 10 MeV neutrons. Further study is required to determine the mechanism causing the nuclear activity.

  10. Acute effects of exercise on mood and EEG activity in healthy young subjects: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattari, Eduardo; Portugal, Eduardo; Moraes, Helena; Machado, Sérgio; Santos, Tony M; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography has been used to establish the relationship among cortical activity, exercise and mood, such as asymmetry, absolute and relative power. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the influence of cortical activity on mood state induced by exercise. The Preferred Reporting Items in Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses was followed in this study. The studies were retrieved from MEDLINE/PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and SciELO. Search was conducted in all databases using the following terms: EEG asymmetry, sLORETA, exercise, with affect, mood and emotions. Based on the defined criteria, a total of 727 articles were found in the search conducted in the literature (666 in Pubmed, 54 in ISI Web of Science, 2 in SciELO and 5 in other data sources). Total of 11 studies were selected which properly met the criteria for this review. Nine out of 11 studies used the frontal asymmetry, four used absolute and relative power and one used sLORETA. With regard to changes in cortical activity and mood induced by exercise, six studies attributed this result to different intensities, one to duration, one to type of exercise and one to fitness level. In general, EEG measures showed contradictory evidence of its ability to predict or modulate psychological mood states through exercise intervention.

  11. DAF in diabetic patients is subject to glycation/inactivation at its active site residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flückiger, Rudolf; Cocuzzi, Enzo; Nagaraj, Ram H; Shoham, Menachem; Kern, Timothy S; Medof, M Edward

    2018-01-01

    Decay accelerating factor (DAF or CD55) is a cell associated C3 and C5 convertase regulator originally described in terms of protection of self-cells from systemic complement but now known to modulate adaptive T cell responses. It is expressed on all cell types. We investigated whether nonenzymatic glycation could impair its function and potentially be relevant to complications of diabetes mellitus and other conditions that result in nonenzymatic glycation including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and aging. Immunoblots of affinity-purified DAF from erythrocytes of patients with diabetes showed pentosidine, glyoxal-AGEs, carboxymethyllysine, and argpyrimidine. HPLC/MS analyses of glucose modified DAF localized the sites of AGE modifications to K 125 adjacent to K 126 , K 127 at the junction of CCPs2-3 and spatially near R 96 , and R 100 , all identified as being critical for DAF's function. Functional analyses of glucose or ribose treated DAF protein showed profound loss of its regulatory activity. The data argue that de-regulated activation of systemic complement and de-regulated activation of T cells and leukocytes could result from non-enzymatic glycation of DAF. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. High-dose interferon-alpha2a exerts potent activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 not associated with antitumor activity in subjects with Kaposi's sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, P. H.; de Wolf, F.; Reiss, P.; Bakker, P. J.; Veenhof, C. H.; Danner, S. A.; Goudsmit, J.; Lange, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity was assessed in HIV-1-infected homosexual and bisexual men receiving 18-36 MIU/day of recombinant interferon (IFN)-alpha2a for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The median baseline HIV-1 RNA level was 4.99 log10 copies/mL. Seventeen subjects (68%)

  13. Development of a rapid diagnostic assay for the detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid based on isothermal reverse-transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A molecular diagnostic assay utilizing reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) at an isothermal constant temperature of 39 °C and target-specific primers and probe were developed for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) in ...

  14. From Judicial Activism to Judicial Protagonism: For a Transforming Actuation in the Environmental Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iasna Chaves Viana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The judge’s action setting became modern ágora, preferential space of the relevant public deliberations. Today there is an invasion of the public choices’ usual spaces by the legalization of politics, result of Brazil's institutional design. The concepts of judicial activism and judicial protagonism oppose this scenario. At present it must be judicial action protagonist, transforming reality, understood that which is back to lend maximum effect to the Constitutional text. Especially relevant when it comes to environmental issues, given the enormous complexity of today's society. Case studies aim to show the evolution of the Brazilian Judicial understanding in this regard.

  15. Activity, time, and subjective happiness: An analysis based on an hourly web survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sakawa, Hideaki; Ohtake, Fumio; Tsutsui, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how people's happiness depends on their current activities and on time. We conducted an hourly web survey, in which 70 students reported their happiness every hour on one day every month from December 2006 to February 2008. This method is an extension of the experience sampling method (ESM), since it uses mobile phones and personal computers. Our new method has the same strength of ESM in that it can measure real-time happiness data and thus avoid reflection and memory...

  16. Perceptions of the use of intelligent information access systems in university level active learning activities among teachers of biomedical subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Fernando; Morales-Botello, María Luz; Rubio, Margarita; Hernando, Asunción; Muñoz, Rafael; López-Fernández, Hugo; Glez-Peña, Daniel; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; de la Villa, Manuel; Maña, Manuel; Gachet, Diego; Buenaga, Manuel de

    2018-04-01

    Student participation and the use of active methodologies in classroom learning are being increasingly emphasized. The use of intelligent systems can be of great help when designing and developing these types of activities. Recently, emerging disciplines such as 'educational data mining' and 'learning analytics and knowledge' have provided clear examples of the importance of the use of artificial intelligence techniques in education. The main objective of this study was to gather expert opinions regarding the benefits of using complementary methods that are supported by intelligent systems, specifically, by intelligent information access systems, when processing texts written in natural language and the benefits of using these methods as companion tools to the learning activities that are employed by biomedical and health sciences teachers. Eleven teachers of degree courses who belonged to the Faculties of Biomedical Sciences (BS) and Health Sciences (HS) of a Spanish university in Madrid were individually interviewed. These interviews were conducted using a mixed methods questionnaire that included 66 predefined close-ended and open-ended questions. In our study, three intelligent information access systems (i.e., BioAnnote, CLEiM and MedCMap) were successfully used to evaluate the teacher's perceptions regarding the utility of these systems and their different methods in learning activities. All teachers reported using active learning methods in the classroom, most of which were computer programs that were used for initially designing and later executing learning activities. All teachers used case-based learning methods in the classroom, with a specific emphasis on case reports written in Spanish and/or English. In general, few or none of the teachers were familiar with the technical terms related to the technologies used for these activities such as "intelligent systems" or "concept/mental maps". However, they clearly realized the potential applicability of such

  17. Theory of mind network activity is altered in subjects with familial liability for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohnke, Sebastian; Erk, Susanne; Schnell, Knut; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Schmierer, Phöbe; Romund, Lydia; Garbusow, Maria; Wackerhagen, Carolin; Ripke, Stephan; Grimm, Oliver; Haller, Leila; Witt, Stephanie H.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Tost, Heike; Heinz, Andreas; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Walter, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    As evidenced by a multitude of studies, abnormalities in Theory of Mind (ToM) and its neural processing might constitute an intermediate phenotype of schizophrenia. If so, neural alterations during ToM should be observable in unaffected relatives of patients as well, since they share a considerable amount of genetic risk. While behaviorally, impaired ToM function is confirmed meta-analytically in relatives, evidence on aberrant function of the neural ToM network is sparse and inconclusive. The present study therefore aimed to further explore the neural correlates of ToM in relatives of schizophrenia. About 297 controls and 63 unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia performed a ToM task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Consistent with the literature relatives exhibited decreased activity of the medial prefrontal cortex. Additionally, increased recruitment of the right middle temporal gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex was found, which was related to subclinical paranoid symptoms in relatives. These results further support decreased medial prefrontal activation during ToM as an intermediate phenotype of genetic risk for schizophrenia. Enhanced recruitment of posterior ToM areas in relatives might indicate inefficiency mechanisms in the presence of genetic risk. PMID:26341902

  18. Corrosion of reinforcing bars embedded in alkali-activated slag concrete subjected to chloride attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Aperador Chaparro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Steel bar embedded in an alkali-activated slag (AAS concrete was tested under complete immersion, in 3.5% NaCl solution by weight of the slag. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC was also tested for comparative purposes and exposed to the same solution. Monitoring of open-circuit potential, polarization resistance measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS were used to evaluate the corrosion behavior of steel bar. The corrosion resistances of AAS and OPC concretes were performed at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Electrochemical measurements shows that AAS concrete presents passive corrosion behavior the first 3 months, after this period of time, it presents corrosion resistance decreased due to the chlorides presence at the steel/AAS interface. For 0 months immersion (28 days of curing the AAS and OPC concretes presented a 10% of corrosion probability. After 3 months of immersion the tested AAS and OPC concretes showed similar behavior, the active potentials in the range from "0.2 to "0.6 V vs. Cu/CuSO4, indicate a 90% probability of corrosion.

  19. IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVE TEACHING METHODS AND EMERGING TOPICS IN PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND REMOTE SENSING SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kosmatin Fras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fast technological developments in photogrammetry and remote sensing areas demand quick and steady changes in the education programme and its realization. The university teachers and assistants are faced with ensuring the learning materials, data and software for practical lessons, as well as project proposals for student’s team work and bachelor or master thesis. In this paper the emerging topics that already have a considerable impact in the practice are treated mostly from the educational aspect. These relatively new topics that are considered in this paper are unmanned aerial systems for spatial data collection, terrestrial and aerial laser scanning, mobile mapping systems, and novelties in satellite remote sensing. The focus is given to practical implementation of these topics into the teaching and learning programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation at the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, and experiences gained by the authors so far. Together with the technological advances, the teaching approaches must be modernized as well. Classical approaches of teaching, where a lecturer gives lecture ex cathedra and students are only listeners, are not effective enough. The didactics science of teaching has developed and proved in the practice many useful approaches that can better motivate students for more active learning. We can use different methods of team work like pro et contra debate, buzzing groups, press conference, moderated discussion etc. An experimental study on active teaching methods in the class of students of the Master programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation has been made and the results are presented. After using some new teaching methods in the class, the students were asked to answer two types of a questionnaire. First questionnaire was the standard form developed by Noel Entwistle, an educational psychologist who developed the Approaches to Studying Inventory (ASI for identifying deep and

  20. Implementation of Active Teaching Methods and Emerging Topics in Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmatin Fras, M.; Grigillo, D.

    2016-06-01

    Fast technological developments in photogrammetry and remote sensing areas demand quick and steady changes in the education programme and its realization. The university teachers and assistants are faced with ensuring the learning materials, data and software for practical lessons, as well as project proposals for student's team work and bachelor or master thesis. In this paper the emerging topics that already have a considerable impact in the practice are treated mostly from the educational aspect. These relatively new topics that are considered in this paper are unmanned aerial systems for spatial data collection, terrestrial and aerial laser scanning, mobile mapping systems, and novelties in satellite remote sensing. The focus is given to practical implementation of these topics into the teaching and learning programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation at the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, and experiences gained by the authors so far. Together with the technological advances, the teaching approaches must be modernized as well. Classical approaches of teaching, where a lecturer gives lecture ex cathedra and students are only listeners, are not effective enough. The didactics science of teaching has developed and proved in the practice many useful approaches that can better motivate students for more active learning. We can use different methods of team work like pro et contra debate, buzzing groups, press conference, moderated discussion etc. An experimental study on active teaching methods in the class of students of the Master programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation has been made and the results are presented. After using some new teaching methods in the class, the students were asked to answer two types of a questionnaire. First questionnaire was the standard form developed by Noel Entwistle, an educational psychologist who developed the Approaches to Studying Inventory (ASI) for identifying deep and surface approaches to

  1. Influence of moderate physical activity on the levels of plasma lipoproteins in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković-Košćal Milanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physical activity and healthy diet, as lifestyle factors, are essential components in the prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases. Impared glucose intolerance (IGT is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Dyslipidaemia is a cardiometabolic risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of moderate physical activity of plasma lipoprotein indicators in high-risk subjects for diabetes mellitus during one-year planned intervention. Methods. We randomly assigned 60 overweight subjects with IGT aged 30-60 years. The subjects were divided into intervention group with 30 subjects, who were intensively and individually instructed on weight reduction, nutrition and increased physical activity, and control group with 30 subjects, who were counselled, as standard, on nutrition and increased exercise. Total cholesterol (TC, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C and triglycerides (Tg were measured at the beginning of the study, and at 2 months, 6 months, and at the end of the study (12 months. Results. Compared to the beginning of the study, after 2 and 6 months there was no statistically significant difference in serum lipid values. After 12 months, the average values of the measured lipid levels in the intervention group decreased by 18.36% for TC, 27.3% for LDL-C, and 34.2% for Tg (compared to 10.27%, 13.45%, and 10.4%, respectively in the control group. Value of HDL-C in the intervention group increased by 19.12%, and decreased in the control group by 1.48%. Total/HDL-C ratio was reduced by 30.6% and LDL-C/H by 38.1% in the intervention group (compared to 12.36%, and 15.9% in the control group. After 12 months, significantly greater decrease in TC (p<0.01, LDL-C (p<0.01 and Tg (p<0.0001 and significantly greater increase in HDL-C (p<0.05 was detected in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusion. Plasma lipoproteins can

  2. Multi-element analysis of the obese subject by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siwek, R A; Burkinshaw, L; Oxby, C B [Leeds General Infirmary (UK); Robinson, P A.J. [Saint James' s University Hospital, Leeds (UK)

    1984-06-01

    The Leeds facility for in vivo neutron activation analysis has been modified and calibrated for the simultaneous measurement of nitrogen, potassium, sodium, chlorine, phosphorus and calcium in obese patients weighing up to 210 kg. The effects of body size and shape were incorporated into the calibration by measuring 14 anthropomorphic phantoms of known composition representing individual patients being treated for obesity. The phantoms were constructed from tissue substitutes representing lean skeletal and adipose tissues, arranged to simulate the distributions of the corresponding tissues within the patients, as visualised by CT scanning. The precision of the method, determined by measuring a single phantom ten times over a period of ten weeks, is between two and three per cent for all elements except calcium, for which it is 11.3%. Accuracy is estimated to be similar to precision. The procedure has been used to study changes in body composition of patients undergoing therapeutic starvation.

  3. Allelopathic activity of some grass species on Phleum pratense seed germination subject to their density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Lipińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient utilization of allelopathy in the agricultural practice requires searching for some species and developmental stages when the allelopathic substances are generated in bioactive concentrations. That also requires the knowledge of allelopathy mechanisms and primarily its separation from the other aspects of plant activity, mainly from competition for environmental resources. This task, however, has remained vital in the studies on plant interference, being extremely difficult to perform under field conditions. Therefore, the studies were conducted in the laboratory. To determine the activity of an allelopathic agent of the selected grass species, the density dependent phytotoxicity model was employed. The model is based on the fact that an increase of acceptor plants density evokes a decrease of their response to the allelopathic compounds, whereas the negative effects of the competition become more intense. A higher rate of acceptor plants growth accompanying their density increase in the given object does not agree with the competition rules and thus, it may imply an allelopathic background of the observed changes. In the presented studies, the allelopathic properties of grasses - donors were evaluated by studying the effect of two densities of the emerging seeds and two- and four weeks aged seedlings of F. arundinacea, L. multiflorum, L. perenne and P. pratensis. The tested species - acceptor Ph. pratensis was sown in the density of 10 and 20 seeds in a pan. The results revealed that the germination of acceptor seeds was differentiated depending on their density in the pan, and on the species, density and the age of the donor. Inhibition of Ph. pratense seed germination in objects with a lover density may prove allelopathic effects of the studied donor grasses.

  4. The Influence of Problem Based Learning Model toward Students’ Activities and Learning Outcomes on Financial Management Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Tantri Hardini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the influence of problem based learning model toward students’ activities and achievement on Financial Management subject for undergraduate program students of Accounting Education. It was a quantitative research that used true experimental design. Samples of this study were undergraduate program students of Accounting Education in the year of 2014. Class A were control class and class B were experimental class. Data were analyzed by using t-test in order to determine the differences of learning outcomes between control class and experimental class. Then, questionnaires were distributed to gather students’ activities information in their students’ learning model. Findings show that there is an influence of Problem Based Learning model toward students’ activities and learning outcomes on Financial Management subject for undergraduate program students of Accounting Education since t-count ≥ t-table. It is 6.120 ≥ 1.9904. Students’ learning activities with Problem Based Learning model are better than students who are taught by conventional learning model.

  5. The effect of online chronic disease personas on activation: within-subjects and between-groups analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Catherine Devany; Hessing, Jason; Reed, Becky; Hess, Christopher; Reis, Janet

    2015-02-25

    Although self-management of chronic disease is important, engaging patients and increasing activation for self-care using online tools has proven difficult. Designing more tailored interventions through the application of condition-specific personas may be a way to increase engagement and patient activation. Personas are developed from extensive interviews with patients about their shared values and assumptions about their health. The resulting personas tailor the knowledge and skills necessary for self-care and guide selection of the self-management tools for a particular audience. Pre-post changes in self-reported levels of activation for self-management were analyzed for 11 chronic health personas developed for 4 prevalent chronic diseases. Personas were created from 20 to 25 hour-long nondirected interviews with consumers with a common, chronic disease (eg, diabetes). The interviews were transcribed and coded for behaviors, feelings, and beliefs using the principles of grounded theory. A second group of 398 adults with self-reported chronic disease were recruited for online testing of the personas and their impact on activation. The activation variables, based on an integrated theory of health behavior, were knowledge of a given health issue, perceived self-management skills, confidence in improving health, and intention to take action in managing health. Pre-post changes in activation were analyzed with a mixed design with 1 within-subjects factor (pre-post) and 1 between-group factor (persona) using a general linear model with repeated measures. Sixteen pre-post changes for 4 measures of activation were analyzed. All but 2 of the within-subjects effects were statistically significant and all changes were in the direction of increased activation scores at posttest. Five significant differences between personas were observed, showing which personas performed better. Of low activation participants, 50% or more shifted to high activation across the 4 measures

  6. Readiness of educational activity subjects for results-oriented cooperation in the inclusive educational practice of higher school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ts. Tsyrenov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the research is due to the necessity of integration of persons with health limitations and disabilities into the educational space of higher education institutions. With regard to this, the paper is aimed at finding out the extent of readiness of the educational activity subjects for results-oriented cooperation in inclusive educational practice of the higher school. The leading approach to studying this problem is the retrospective interdisciplinary analysis that allows an integrated consideration of the universities' readiness for full-fledged integration of people with health limitations and disabilities into the educational process. In the paper, the results of research into students' attitude toward the disabled and HL people and their readiness for results-oriented cooperation are presented, and the specific problems of psychological and social support rendering are described. The value references system of students with health limitations and disabilities has been found out, and grounds have been provided for having to include the subjects that form a tolerant attitude to special needs people into the student-training content. It has also been proven that qualified professional training has to be ensured for the academic teaching staff, infrastructure has to be provided, and an integrated program has to be developed that would allow personifying the academic process adjusted for the development particularities of students with health limitations. The materials of the paper are of practical importance for educational activity subjects involved into the higher-school inclusive educational practice.

  7. The brain smell centres - comparison of localisation and activation in male and female subjects using functional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchwicka-Wasiak, M.; Goraj, B.

    2004-01-01

    The study was conducted in order to determine and to compare the location and activation of smell brain centres in females and males brains using olfactory nerve-mediated (geraniol) and combined olfactory and trigeminal nerve-mediated (patchouli) stimulants. 10 normal volunteers (five women and five men), right-handed, non-smokers, without any CNS diseases were examined to determine the activated cortex areas during stimulation by geraniol and patchouli. MR brain scans were obtained using a 1.5 T clinical scanner, with the head-neck coil. The imaging was performed in each subject using SE and EPI sequences with a blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) effect. The individual inhaled odorized air during the 30 seconds period and alternating room air over the same period. The mean pixel intensity of activated images was substracted from the mean pixel intensity of preactivated images. The olfactory system-mediated stimuli (geraniol) evoked bilateral activation of female brains smell centres and right hemisphere centres activation in male brains. The exposure to the olfactory and trigeminal nerve-mediated stimuli (patchouli) showed more activated regions in both sexes than to the olfactory nerve-ediated stimuli. fMRI proved to be a useful method to compare the location and activation of male and female brain smell centres. (author)

  8. Subjective Experiences of an Art Museum Engagement Activity for Persons with Early Alzheimer’s disease and their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Jason D.; Liptak, Amy; Oakley, Mary Ann; Gogan, Jessica; Varner, Tresa; Lingler, Jennifer H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the subjective experiences of older adults with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease or related cognitive disorders (ADRD) and their family caregivers who participated in an art museum engagement activity. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with 10 persons with ADRD and 10 family caregivers following the completion one-time, three hour engagement activity. Participants also completed a brief satisfaction survey, and associations were examined using nonparametric statistics. Results Three key themes were identified: cognitive stimulation, social connections, and a sense of self. In addition, we identified programmatic issues such as activity-specific concerns and program logistics that could help improve future art program offerings. Past experience with art and perceived social cohesion were correlated with participants’ overall satisfaction with the program. Discussion Efforts aimed at improving the quality of life of those with Alzheimer’s and their family caregivers should consider the potential role of art museums. PMID:25216658

  9. Physical activity and sedentary behavior measured objectively and subjectively in overweight and obese adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janney, Carol A; Ganguli, Rohan; Tang, Gong; Cauley, Jane A; Holleman, Robert G; Richardson, Caroline R; Kriska, Andrea M

    2015-10-01

    Describe objective and subjective physical activity levels and time spent being sedentary in adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (SZO/SA). Baseline physical activity and sedentary behaviors were assessed among 46 overweight and obese community-dwelling adults (aged 18-70 years; BMI > 27 kg/m(2)) diagnosed with SZO/SA by DSM-IV-TR, with mild symptom severity (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score physical activity levels, measured using actigraphs, in WAIST were compared to a nationally representative sample of users (n = 46) and nonusers (n = 46) of mental health service (MHS) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004) matched by sex, BMI, and age. On average, adults with SZO/SA wore actigraphs more than 15 h/d for 7 days averaging 151,000 counts/d. The majority of monitoring time (81%) was classified as sedentary (approximately 13 h/d). Moderate/vigorous and light physical activity accounted for only 2% (19 min/d) and 17% (157 min/d) of monitoring time/d, respectively. Primary source of activity was household activities (409 ± 438 min/wk). Fifty-three percent reported walking for transportation or leisure. Adults with SZO/SA were significantly less active (176 min/d) and more sedentary (756 min/d) than NHANES users of MHS (293 and 640 min/d, respectively) and nonusers of MHS (338 and 552 min/d, respectively) (P physical activity; and significantly less active than NHANES users and nonusers of MHS. This sedentary lifestyle is significantly lower than those of other inactive US populations, is costly for the individual and community, and highlights the need for physical activity promotion and interventions in this high risk population. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. Modulation of attention network activation under antidepressant agents in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Heiko; Abler, Birgit; Hartmann, Antonie; Metzger, Coraline D; Walter, Martin

    2013-07-01

    While antidepressants are supposed to exert similar effects on mood and drive via various mechanisms of action, diverging effects are observed regarding side-effects and accordingly on neural correlates of motivation, emotion, reward and salient stimuli processing as a function of the drugs impact on neurotransmission. In the context of erotic stimulation, a unidirectional modulation of attentional functioning despite opposite effects on sexual arousal has been suggested for the selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine and the selective dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake-inhibitor (SDNRI) bupropion. To further elucidate the effects of antidepressant-related alterations of neural attention networks, we investigated 18 healthy males under subchronic administration (7 d) of paroxetine (20 mg), bupropion (150 mg) and placebo within a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over double-blind functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design during an established preceding attention task. Neuropsychological effects beyond the fMRI-paradigm were assessed by measuring alertness and divided attention. Comparing preceding attention periods of salient vs. neutral pictures, we revealed congruent effects of both drugs vs. placebo within the anterior midcingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, anterior insula and the thalamus. Relatively decreased activation in this network was paralleled by slower reaction times in the divided attention task in both verum conditions compared to placebo. Our results suggest similar effects of antidepressant treatments on behavioural and neural attentional functioning by diverging neurochemical pathways. Concurrent alterations of brain regions within a fronto-parietal and cingulo-opercular attention network for top-down control could point to basic neural mechanisms of antidepressant action irrespective of receptor profiles.

  11. Efficient delivery of Cre-recombinase to neurons in vivo and stable transduction of neurons using adeno-associated and lentiviral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sablitzky Fred

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactivating genes in vivo is an important technique for establishing their function in the adult nervous system. Unfortunately, conventional knockout mice may suffer from several limitations including embryonic or perinatal lethality and the compensatory regulation of other genes. One approach to producing conditional activation or inactivation of genes involves the use of Cre recombinase to remove loxP-flanked segments of DNA. We have studied the effects of delivering Cre to the hippocampus and neocortex of adult mice by injecting replication-deficient adeno-associated virus (AAV and lentiviral (LV vectors into discrete regions of the forebrain. Results Recombinant AAV-Cre, AAV-GFP (green fluorescent protein and LV-Cre-EGFP (enhanced GFP were made with the transgene controlled by the cytomegalovirus promoter. Infecting 293T cells in vitro with AAV-Cre and LV-Cre-EGFP resulted in transduction of most cells as shown by GFP fluorescence and Cre immunoreactivity. Injections of submicrolitre quantities of LV-Cre-EGFP and mixtures of AAV-Cre with AAV-GFP into the neocortex and hippocampus of adult Rosa26 reporter mice resulted in strong Cre and GFP expression in the dentate gyrus and moderate to strong labelling in specific regions of the hippocampus and in the neocortex, mainly in neurons. The pattern of expression of Cre and GFP obtained with AAV and LV vectors was very similar. X-gal staining showed that Cre-mediated recombination had occurred in neurons in the same regions of the brain, starting at 3 days post-injection. No obvious toxic effects of Cre expression were detected even after four weeks post-injection. Conclusion AAV and LV vectors are capable of delivering Cre to neurons in discrete regions of the adult mouse brain and producing recombination.

  12. Objectively measured sedentary behaviour and moderate and vigorous physical activity in different school subjects: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerli Mooses

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence shows the positive influence of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA and negative influence of sedentary time on health and academic achievement. Although schools can significantly contribute to overall physical activity, little is known about MVPA and sedentary behaviour in different school subjects in different grades. Methods Physical activity of 646 students from 18 schools (94 classes and from three school stages (grades 1–9, aged 7–16 was measured with accelerometry for 5 school days. Time and proportion of MVPA and sedentary time, also average sedentary bout length was calculated for native language (Estonian, mathematics, science, foreign language, music and crafts lessons. Results A total of 6363 lessons were measured, with lesson duration of 45 min. The average lesson time MVPA remained below 2.2 min in all school stages and in all subjects. Students in grades 4–6 had greatest decline in the proportion of lesson time MVPA in science (β = −1.9, 95%CI −3.1– -0.6 and music (−1.2, −2.1– -0.4 and in grades 7–9 in music (−1.7, −3.1– -0.3 lessons compared to grades 1–3. In grades 1–3 students spent on average 76% of lesson time (34.0 ± 7.0 min as sedentary, whereas in grades 7–9 the average proportion of sedentary time was 87% (38.9 ± 5.7 min. An average sedentary bout length increased from 13 min in grades 1–3 to 20 min in grades 7–9. An increase in sedentary bout length from grades 1–3 compared to grades 7–9 was present in most subjects, except crafts, with smallest increase in foreign language (6 min, 3.5–8.9 and greatest in music lessons (16.6 min, 11.9–21.3. Lessons with prolonged sedentary bouts formed a maximum 36% of all lessons in grades 1–3 and 73% in grades 7–9. Conclusion The long sedentary time, bout length and low MVPA in most subjects were unfavourable in respect of both health and academic achievement. Significantly

  13. Effect of body composition, aerobic performance and physical activity on exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Więcek, Magdalena; Maciejczyk, Marcin; Szymura, Jadwiga; Wiecha, Szczepan; Kantorowicz, Malgorzata; Szygula, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress could be the result of an increase in ATP resynthesis during exercise. The aim of the study was to compare prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) disturbances induced by exercise at maximal intensity in young men with differing body compositions. Thirty-nine subjects were selected from 1549 volunteers aged 18-30, based on lean body mass (LBM) and body fat percentage (%BF), and then assigned into one of the following groups: control group (CON), including subjects with average LBM (59.0-64.3 kg) and average %BF (14.0-18.5%); high body fat (HBF) group, including subjects with high %BF (>21.5%) and average LBM; and high lean body mass (HLBM) group, including subjects with high LBM (>66.3 kg) and average %BF. Participants' physical activity was determined. A running test with a gradually increased load was used. Before and 3 minutes after exercise, total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined in the plasma, and the Oxidative Stress Index (OSI = TOS/TAC) was calculated. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was comparable in the HBF and HLBM groups (53.12±1.51 mL/kg and 50.25±1.27 mL/kg, respectively) and significantly lower compared to the CON group (58.23±1.62 mL/kg). The CON, HBF and HLBM groups showed similar significant (P0.05). There was significant negative correlation between OSI, measured before and after exercise, and participants' physical activity. There was no correlation between OSI and VO2max, BM, LBM, %BF and BMI. Exercise at maximal intensity causes a similar increase in TOS and in TAC in subjects with increased %BF and elevated content of LBM and regardless of body composition, the ratios of TOS/TAC concentrations before and after maximal-intensity exercise, have lower values in people with higher physical activity levels and are not dependent on aerobic performance (VO2max).

  14. Concomitant administration of fluoxetine and amantadine modulates the activity of peritoneal macrophages of rats subjected to a forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Adam; Rogóz, Zofia; Kubera, Marta; Nawrat, Dominika; Nalepa, Irena

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies show that administration of a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, amantadine (AMA), potentiates the action of antidepressant drugs. Since antidepressants may modulate functioning of the immune system and activation of a pro-inflammatory response in depressive disorders is frequently reported, the aim of the present study was to examine whether a combined administration of AMA and the antidepressant, fluoxetine (FLU), to rats subsequently subjected to a forced swimming test (FST) modifies the parameters of macrophage activity, directly related to their immunomodulatory functions, i.e., arginase (ARG) activity and synthesis of nitric oxide (NO). We found that 10 mg/kg AMA and 10 mg/kg FLU, ineffective in FST for antidepressant-like activity when administered alone, increased the ARG/NO ratio in macrophages when administered concomitantly. This effect was accompanied by a decrease of cellular adherence. Concurrently, the basal metabolic activity of the cells measured with reduction of resazurin, and intracellular host defense as assessed by a synthesis of superoxide anion, were not affected by such antidepressive treatment. Our data indicate that co-administration of AMA and FLU decreases the pro-inflammatory properties of macrophages and causes a redirection of immune response toward anti-inflammatory activity, as one can anticipate in the case of an effective antidepressive treatment.

  15. Cuff Pressure Pain Detection Is Associated with Both Sex and Physical Activity Level in Nonathletic Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemming, Dag; Börsbo, Björn; Sjörs, Anna; Lind, Eva-Britt; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Gerdle, Björn

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pressure pain sensitivity on leg and arm in 98 healthy persons (50 women) using cuff algometry. Furthermore, associations with sex and physical activity level were investigated. Normal physical activity level was defined as Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) score ≤ 45 and high activity level as GLTEQ > 45. A pneumatic double-chamber cuff was placed around the arm or leg where a single chamber was inflated. The cuff inflation rate (1 kPa/s) was constant, and pain intensity was registered continuously on a 10 cm electronic visual analogue scale (VAS). The pain detection threshold (PDT) was defined as when the pressure was perceived as painful, and pain tolerance (PTT) was when the subject terminated the cuff inflation. For PTT, the corresponding VAS score was recorded (VAS-PTT). The protocol was repeated with two chambers inflated. Only single cuff results are given. For women compared with men, the PDT was lower when assessed in the arm ( P = 0.002), PTTs were lower in the arm and leg ( P active participants compared with less active had higher PDT ( P = 0.027) in the leg. Women showed facilitated spatial summation ( P physical activity level. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Walking with a four wheeled walker (rollator) significantly reduces EMG lower-limb muscle activity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suica, Zorica; Romkes, Jacqueline; Tal, Amir; Maguire, Clare

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the immediate effect of four-wheeled- walker(rollator)walking on lower-limb muscle activity and trunk-sway in healthy subjects. In this cross-sectional design electromyographic (EMG) data was collected in six lower-limb muscle groups and trunk-sway was measured as peak-to-peak angular displacement of the centre-of-mass (level L2/3) in the sagittal and frontal-planes using the SwayStar balance system. 19 subjects walked at self-selected speed firstly without a rollator then in randomised order 1. with rollator 2. with rollator with increased weight-bearing. Rollator-walking caused statistically significant reductions in EMG activity in lower-limb muscle groups and effect-sizes were medium to large. Increased weight-bearing increased the effect. Trunk-sway in the sagittal and frontal-planes showed no statistically significant difference between conditions. Rollator-walking reduces lower-limb muscle activity but trunk-sway remains unchanged as stability is likely gained through forces generated by the upper-limbs. Short-term stability is gained but the long-term effect is unclear and requires investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Envelope statistics of self-motion signals experienced by human subjects during everyday activities: Implications for vestibular processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriot, Jérome; Jamali, Mohsen; Cullen, Kathleen E; Chacron, Maurice J

    2017-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the brain's neural coding strategies are constrained by natural stimulus statistics. Here we investigated the statistics of the time varying envelope (i.e. a second-order stimulus attribute that is related to variance) of rotational and translational self-motion signals experienced by human subjects during everyday activities. We found that envelopes can reach large values across all six motion dimensions (~450 deg/s for rotations and ~4 G for translations). Unlike results obtained in other sensory modalities, the spectral power of envelope signals decreased slowly for low (2 Hz) temporal frequencies and thus was not well-fit by a power law. We next compared the spectral properties of envelope signals resulting from active and passive self-motion, as well as those resulting from signals obtained when the subject is absent (i.e. external stimuli). Our data suggest that different mechanisms underlie deviation from scale invariance in rotational and translational self-motion envelopes. Specifically, active self-motion and filtering by the human body cause deviation from scale invariance primarily for translational and rotational envelope signals, respectively. Finally, we used well-established models in order to predict the responses of peripheral vestibular afferents to natural envelope stimuli. We found that irregular afferents responded more strongly to envelopes than their regular counterparts. Our findings have important consequences for understanding the coding strategies used by the vestibular system to process natural second-order self-motion signals.

  18. Heterogeneous asymmetric recombinase polymerase amplification (haRPA) for rapid hygiene control of large-volume water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsäßer, Dennis; Ho, Johannes; Niessner, Reinhard; Tiehm, Andreas; Seidel, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Hygiene of drinking water is periodically controlled by cultivation and enumeration of indicator bacteria. Rapid and comprehensive measurements of emerging pathogens are of increasing interest to improve drinking water safety. In this study, the feasibility to detect bacteriophage PhiX174 as a potential indicator for virus contamination in large volumes of water is demonstrated. Three consecutive concentration methods (continuous ultrafiltration, monolithic adsorption filtration, and centrifugal ultrafiltration) were combined to concentrate phages stepwise from 1250 L drinking water into 1 mL. Heterogeneous asymmetric recombinase polymerase amplification (haRPA) is applied as rapid detection method. Field measurements were conducted to test the developed system for hygiene online monitoring under realistic conditions. We could show that this system allows the detection of artificial contaminations of bacteriophage PhiX174 in drinking water pipelines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Work station learning activities: a flexible and scalable instrument for integrating across basic subjects in biomedical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Soltero, Rocío; Learte, Ana Isabel R; Sánchez, Ana Mª; Gal, Beatriz

    2017-11-29

    Establishing innovative teaching programs in biomedical education involves dealing with several national and supra-national (i.e. European) regulations as well as with new pedagogical and demographic demands. We aimed to develop and validate a suitable instrument to integrate activities across preclinical years in all Health Science Degrees while meeting requirements of national quality agencies. The new approach was conceived at two different levels: first, we identified potentially integrative units from different fields according to national learning goals established for each preclinical year (national quality agency regulations). Secondly, we implemented a new instrument that combines active methodologies in Work Station Learning Activities (WSLA), using clinical scenarios as a guiding common thread to instruct students from an integrated perspective. We evaluated students' perception through a Likert-type survey of a total of 118 students enrolled in the first year of the Bachelor's Degree in Medicine. Our model of integrated activities through WSLA is feasible, scalable and manageable with large groups of students and a minimum number of instructors, two major limitations in many medical schools. Students' perception of WSLA was positive in overall terms. Seventy nine percent of participants stated that WSLA sessions were more useful than non-integrated activities. Eighty three percent confirmed that the WSLA methodology was effective at integrating concepts covered by different subjects. The WSLA approach is a flexible and scalable instrument for moving towards integrated curricula, and it can be successfully adapted to teach basic subjects in preclinical years of Health Science degrees. WSLA can be applied to large groups of students in a variety of contexts or environments using clinical cases as connecting threads.

  20. Paradox of choice and the illusion of autonomy: The construction of ethical subjects in right-to-die activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandsman, Ari

    2018-01-01

    The right to die is an issue is predicated on larger cultural understandings of autonomy. Autonomy, in turn, is centered around assumptions of choice, that individuals are able to make health-related decisions based on a rational calculation. In such a way, a medically assisted death is differentiated from suicide. Through an ethnographic study of right-to-die activists in North America and Australia and how they understand ideals of "good deaths," this article will complicate this view by examining the ethical subject constructed by such activism that reveals autonomy to be a useful guiding fiction that mask larger ethical relationships.

  1. Failure of activation of spinal motoneurones after muscle fatigue in healthy subjects studied by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgit; Westlund, Barbro; Krarup, Christian

    2003-01-01

    During a sustained maximal effort a progressive decline in the ability to drive motoneurones (MNs) develops. We used the recently developed triple stimulation technique (TST) to study corticospinal conduction after fatiguing exercise in healthy subjects. This method employs a collision technique....... This points to increased probability of repetitive spinal MN activation during fatigue even if some MNs in the pool failed to discharge. Silent period duration following cortical stimulation lengthened by an average of 55 ms after the contraction and recovered within a time course similar to that of the TST...

  2. Recombinase polymerase and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a DNA amplification-detection strategy for food analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago-Felipe, S.; Tortajada-Genaro, L.A.; Puchades, R.; Maquieira, A., E-mail: amaquieira@qim.upv.es

    2014-02-06

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Recombinase polymerase amplification is a powerful DNA method operating at 40 °C. •The combination RPA–ELISA gives excellent performances for high-throughput analysis. •Screening of food safety threats has been done using standard laboratory equipment. •Allergens, GMOs, bacteria, and fungi have been successfully determined. -- Abstract: Polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR–ELISA) is a well-established technique that provides a suitable rapid, sensitive, and selective method for a broad range of applications. However, the need for precise rapid temperature cycling of PCR is an important drawback that can be overcome by employing isothermal amplification reactions such as recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The RPA–ELISA combination is proposed for amplification at a low, constant temperature (40 °C) in a short time (40 min), for the hybridisation of labelled products to specific 5′-biotinylated probes/streptavidin in coated microtiter plates at room temperature, and for detection by colorimetric immunoassay. RPA–ELISA was applied to screen common safety threats in foodstuffs, such as allergens (hazelnut, peanut, soybean, tomato, and maize), genetically modified organisms (P35S and TNOS), pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp. and Cronobacter sp.), and fungi (Fusarium sp.). Satisfactory sensitivity and reproducibility results were achieved for all the targets. The RPA–ELISA technique does away with thermocycling and provides a suitable sensitive, specific, and cost-effective method for routine applications, and proves particularly useful for resource-limited settings.

  3. Recombinase polymerase and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a DNA amplification-detection strategy for food analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago-Felipe, S.; Tortajada-Genaro, L.A.; Puchades, R.; Maquieira, A.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Recombinase polymerase amplification is a powerful DNA method operating at 40 °C. •The combination RPA–ELISA gives excellent performances for high-throughput analysis. •Screening of food safety threats has been done using standard laboratory equipment. •Allergens, GMOs, bacteria, and fungi have been successfully determined. -- Abstract: Polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR–ELISA) is a well-established technique that provides a suitable rapid, sensitive, and selective method for a broad range of applications. However, the need for precise rapid temperature cycling of PCR is an important drawback that can be overcome by employing isothermal amplification reactions such as recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The RPA–ELISA combination is proposed for amplification at a low, constant temperature (40 °C) in a short time (40 min), for the hybridisation of labelled products to specific 5′-biotinylated probes/streptavidin in coated microtiter plates at room temperature, and for detection by colorimetric immunoassay. RPA–ELISA was applied to screen common safety threats in foodstuffs, such as allergens (hazelnut, peanut, soybean, tomato, and maize), genetically modified organisms (P35S and TNOS), pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp. and Cronobacter sp.), and fungi (Fusarium sp.). Satisfactory sensitivity and reproducibility results were achieved for all the targets. The RPA–ELISA technique does away with thermocycling and provides a suitable sensitive, specific, and cost-effective method for routine applications, and proves particularly useful for resource-limited settings

  4. Effect of CYP2B6 genotype on the pharmacokinetics of sibutramine and active metabolites in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Yong; Jang, Seong Bok; Lee, Yoon Jung; Park, Min Soo; Park, Kyungsoo

    2011-01-01

    Sibutramine is a pharmacologic intervention for the treatment of obesity. The effect of CYP2B6 genotypes on the pharmacokinetics of sibutramine and its active metabolites (desmethylsibutramine [M1] and didesmethylsibutramine [M2]) was evaluated in 57 healthy subjects. Each subject received a single oral dose of 10 or 15 mg sibutramine, and blood samples were collected up to 72 hours after dosing. The relationship between the genotypes and the pharmacokinetics of sibutramine, M1, and M2 was examined. A statistically significant difference in the elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of sibutramine M1 was found among the 3 genotype groups (P = .0006), between the *1/*1 and *1/*6 groups (P = .0001), and between the *1/*4 and *1/*6 groups (P = .012). The mean value of M1 t(1/2) in *1/*6 (33.3 ± 10.5 hours) was about 58% and 61% greater than that of the *1/*1 group (21.0 ± 7.4 hours) and the *1/*4 group (20.7 ± 9.8 hours), respectively. No significant differences in area under the concentration-time curve or maximum plasma drug concentration were observed between the groups. The CYP2B6*6 allele may be associated with a lower metabolic clearance of the M1 metabolite of sibutramine in human subjects.

  5. Gut-targeted immunonutrition boosting natural killer cell activity using Saccharomyces boulardii lysates in immuno-compromised healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yasuhiro; Marotta, Francesco; Kantah, Makoto K; Zerbinati, Nicola; Kushugulova, Almagul; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Illuzzi, Nicola; Sapienza, Chiara; Takadanohara, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Riyichi; Catanzaro, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the immunomodulatory effect of KC-1317 (a symbiotic mixture containing Saccharomyces boulardii lysate in a cranberry, colostrum-derived lactoferrin, fragaria, and lactose mixture) supplementation in immune-compromised but otherwise healthy elderly subjects. A liquid formulation of KC-1317 was administered in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) fashion to healthy volunteers (65-79 years) previously selected for low natural killer (NK) cell activity, and this parameter was checked at the completion of the study. A significant improvement in NK cell activity of KC-1317 consumers was observed as compared to placebo at the end of 2 months. Although preliminary, these beneficial immune-modulatory effects of KC-1317 in aged individuals might indicate its employment within a wider age-management strategy.

  6. Comparison of the electrical activity of trunk core muscles and knee muscles in subjects with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome during gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Dorosti

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: It seems that electromyographic activities of some of core muscles in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome in comparison with healthy subjects are different. However, there was no differences in electromyographic activities in some of the muscles around the knee between patients and healthy subjects.

  7. Crevicular Alkaline Phosphatase Activity and Rate of Tooth Movement of Female Orthodontic Subjects under Different Continuous Force Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study is aimed to compare the effects of two different orthodontic forces on crevicular alkaline phosphatase activity, rate of tooth movement, and root resorption. Materials and Methods. Twelve female subjects of class II division 1 malocclusion participated. Maxillary canines with bonded fixed appliances acted as the tested teeth, while their antagonists with no appliances acted as the controls. Canine retraction was performed using nickel titanium coil spring that delivered forces of 100 gm or 150 gm to either side. Crevicular fluid was analyzed for ALP activity, and study models were casted to measure tooth movements. Root resorption was assessed using periapical radiographs before and after the force application. Results. ALP activity at the mesial sites peaked at week 1 for 150 gm group with significant differences when compared with the 100 gm group. Cumulative canine movements were significantly greater in the 150 gm force (2.10 ± 0.50 mm than in the 100 gm force (1.57 ± 0.44 mm. No root resorption was in the maxillary canines after retraction. Conclusions. A force of 150 gm produced faster tooth movements and higher ALP activity compared with the 100 gm group and had no detrimental effects such as root resorption.

  8. Evidence of successful modulation of brain activation and subjective experience during reappraisal of negative emotion in unmedicated depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Daniel Gerard; Pizzagalli, Diego Andrea

    2013-05-30

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine cognitive regulation of negative emotion in 12 unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 24 controls. The participants used reappraisal to increase (real condition) and reduce (photo condition) the personal relevance of negative and neutral pictures during fMRI as valence ratings were collected; passive viewing (look condition) served as a baseline. Reappraisal was not strongly affected by MDD. Ratings indicated that both groups successfully reappraised negative emotional experience. Both groups also showed better memory for negative vs. neutral pictures 2 weeks later. Across groups, increased brain activation was observed on negative/real vs. negative/look and negative/photo trials in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), rostral anterior cingulate, left parietal cortex, caudate, and right amygdala. Depressive severity was inversely correlated with activation modulation in the left DLPFC, right amygdala, and right cerebellum during negative reappraisal. The lack of group differences suggests that depressed adults can modulate the brain activation and subjective experience elicited by negative pictures when given clear instructions. However, the negative relationship between depression severity and effects of reappraisal on brain activation indicates that group differences may be detectable in larger samples of more severely depressed participants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Timing and Activation Intensity of Shoulder Muscles during Handball Penalty Throwing in Subjects with and without Shoulder Impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zonnor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Shoulder injuries are common among athletes in sports that involve overhead throwing of the ball such as handball. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the timing and activation intensity of shoulder muscles during handball penalty throwing in individuals with shoulder pain and in control subjects. Materials and Methods: Using BTS FREE EMG 300 system with bipolar surface electrodes, the timing (onset and intensity of the activation of the shoulder muscles were measured including upper trapezius, anterior, middle and posterior deltoid, latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, supraspinatus and triceps during penalty throwing. Multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for between group comparisons with the significance level P< 0.05. Results: The activation intensity of upper trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles in the healthy individuals were about 50.74% and 43.42% higher than in patients. Middle deltoid in healthy individuals was about 38.05% smaller than that in patients. In control group, supraspinatus muscle started earlier (23.5 ms than the shoulder motion initiation. Triceps muscle was activated about 18.5 ms later than shoulder motion initiation. In patients, supraspinatus muscle started sooner (11 ms and triceps brachialis muscle started later than the other muscles (22.16 ms. Conclusion: The coordination of shoulder muscles i.e. the onset and intensity of muscle activity is disturbed in the patient group during throwing. Hence, strength and stretching programs are recommended for athletes to reduce the risk of shoulder pain syndrome. The rehabilitation program can be focused on modifying the pattern of activity in upper trapezius, supraspinatus, latissimus dorsi and deltoid muscles in addition to pain control in the rehabilitation centers.

  10. Fish Oil Supplementation Increases Event-Related Posterior Cingulate Activation in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boespflug, E L; McNamara, R K; Eliassen, J C; Schidler, M D; Krikorian, R

    2016-02-01

    To determine the effects of long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids found in fish oil, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on cortical blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity during a working memory task in older adults with subjective memory impairment. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Academic medical center. Healthy older adults (62-80 years) with subjective memory impairment, but not meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Fish oil (EPA+DHA: 2.4 g/d, n=11) or placebo (corn oil, n=10) for 24 weeks. Cortical BOLD response patterns during performance of a sequential letter n-back working memory task were determined at baseline and week 24 by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). At 24 weeks erythrocyte membrane EPA+DHA composition increased significantly from baseline in participants receiving fish oil (+31%, p ≤ 0.0001) but not placebo (-17%, p=0.06). Multivariate modeling of fMRI data identified a significant interaction among treatment, visit, and memory loading in the right cingulate (BA 23/24), and in the right sensorimotor area (BA 3/4). In the fish oil group, BOLD increases at 24 weeks were observed in the right posterior cingulate and left superior frontal regions during memory loading. A region-of-interest analysis indicated that the baseline to endpoint change in posterior cingulate cortex BOLD activity signal was significantly greater in the fish oil group compared with the placebo group during the 1-back (p=0.0003) and 2-back (p=0.0005) conditions. Among all participants, the change in erythrocyte EPA+DHA during the intervention was associated with performance in the 2-back working memory task (p = 0.01), and with cingulate BOLD signal during the 1-back (p = 0.005) with a trend during the 2-back (p = 0.09). Further, cingulate BOLD activity was related to performance in the 2-back condition. Dietary fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell omega-3 content

  11. Integrin α(IIb)β₃ exists in an activated state in subjects with elevated plasma homocysteine levels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGarrigle, Sarah A

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and thrombosis. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known but may relate to modification of cell surface thiols. The platelet specific integrin α(IIb)β₃ is a cysteine-rich cell adhesion molecule that plays a critical role in platelet aggregation and adhesion in haemostasis and thrombosis. In this study, we looked for evidence of a homocysteine-induced modification of α(IIb)β₃ using a fluorescently labeled PAC-1 antibody that recognizes the activated conformation of the integrin on the platelet surface. We show that exogenous Hcy (10-100 µM) and homocysteine thiolactone (HcyTL) (10-100 µM) increased PAC-1 binding to platelets in a concentration dependent manner in vitro. In parallel, we show subjects with clinical hyperhomocysteinemia exhibit a greater degree of activation of α(IIb)β₃ compared to age-matched controls. These findings demonstrate that circulating Hcy can modulate the activation state of the platelet integrin α(IIb)β₃, a key player in platelet aggregation and thrombosis.

  12. Failure of activation of spinal motoneurones after muscle fatigue in healthy subjects studied by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgit; Westlund, Barbro; Krarup, Christian

    2003-01-01

    . This points to increased probability of repetitive spinal MN activation during fatigue even if some MNs in the pool failed to discharge. Silent period duration following cortical stimulation lengthened by an average of 55 ms after the contraction and recovered within a time course similar to that of the TST......During a sustained maximal effort a progressive decline in the ability to drive motoneurones (MNs) develops. We used the recently developed triple stimulation technique (TST) to study corticospinal conduction after fatiguing exercise in healthy subjects. This method employs a collision technique...... conventional transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and responses to peripheral nerve stimulation were recorded following the same fatigue protocol. The size of both the MEPs and the peripheral responses increased after the contraction and were in direct contrast to the decrease in size of the TST response...

  13. NF-κB activity in muscle from obese and type 2 diabetic subjects under basal and exercise-stimulated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantiwong, Puntip; Shanmugasundaram, Karthigayan; Monroy, Adriana; Ghosh, Sangeeta; Li, Mengyao; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Mohan, Sumathy; Musi, Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    NF-κB is a transcription factor that controls the gene expression of several proinflammatory proteins. Cell culture and animal studies have implicated increased NF-κB activity in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and muscle atrophy. However, it is unclear whether insulin-resistant human subjects have abnormal NF-κB activity in muscle. The effect that exercise has on NF-κB activity/signaling also is not clear. We measured NF-κB DNA-binding activity and the mRNA level of putative NF-κB-regulated myokines interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in muscle samples from T2DM, obese, and lean subjects immediately before, during (40 min), and after (210 min) a bout of moderate-intensity cycle exercise. At baseline, NF-κB activity was elevated 2.1- and 2.7-fold in obese nondiabetic and T2DM subjects, respectively. NF-κB activity was increased significantly at 210 min following exercise in lean (1.9-fold) and obese (2.6-fold) subjects, but NF-κB activity did not change in T2DM. Exercise increased MCP-1 mRNA levels significantly in the three groups, whereas IL-6 gene expression increased significantly only in lean and obese subjects. MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expression peaked at the 40-min exercise time point. We conclude that insulin-resistant subjects have increased basal NF-κB activity in muscle. Acute exercise stimulates NF-κB in muscle from nondiabetic subjects. In T2DM subjects, exercise had no effect on NF-κB activity, which could be explained by the already elevated NF-κB activity at baseline. Exercise-induced MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expression precedes increases in NF-κB activity, suggesting that other factors promote gene expression of these cytokines during exercise.

  14. Acute Effects of a Caffeine-Containing Supplement on Anaerobic Power and Subjective Measurements of Fatigue in Recreationally Active Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Chelsea J; Jagim, Andrew R; Camic, Clayton L; Andre, Matthew J

    2018-04-01

    Hahn, CJ, Jagim, AR, Camic, CL, and Andre, MJ. Acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on anaerobic power and subjective measurements of fatigue in recreationally active men. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1029-1035, 2018-Studies show mixed results for the effects of caffeine on performance, warranting further investigation. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on anaerobic power and subjective measurements of fatigue during resisted sprinting on men. Fourteen recreationally active men (N = 14; [mean ± SD], age: 21.0 ± 0.7 years, height: 178.5 ± 5.1 cm, body mass: 77.3 ± 9.6 kg, and percent body fat: 12.6 ± 4.8%) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design study. The first visit required each participant to complete 3 sets of practice sprints on a nonmotorized treadmill ranging from 10 to 20 seconds. During the second visit, participants completed 5 more practice sprints ranging from 15 to 25 seconds. During the third and fourth visits, participants ingested one serving of a caffeine-containing or placebo beverage (the opposite beverage was consumed during the fourth visit), rested for 20 minutes, and completed a dynamic warm-up before sprinting. Anaerobic power was assessed using a countermovement vertical jump and nonmotorized treadmill sprint test. Psychological variables were scored using a 5-point Likert scale. No significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences were observed between conditions for average (p = 0.22) or peak power (p = 0.43). Both conditions resulted in a significant increase in fatigue, although the increase was less for the caffeine condition (caffeine [INCREMENT] = 0.93 and placebo [INCREMENT] = 1.71). These findings indicated that the caffeine-containing supplement improved perceived measures of fatigue but not power indices assessed through vertical jump or nonmotorized treadmill sprinting. The consumption of a caffeine beverage may be

  15. Different effects of clopidogrel and clarithromycin on the enantioselective pharmacokinetics of sibutramine and its active metabolites in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Dhananjay D; Kim, Ho-Sook; Choi, Jae-Seok; Pan, Wei; Bae, Soo Kyung; Yeo, Chang-Woo; Shon, Ji-Hong; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Shin, Jae Gook

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we assessed the effects of clopidogrel and clarithromycin, known CYP2B6 and CYP3A inhibitors, respectively, on the enantioselective disposition of racemic sibutramine in conjunction with CYP2B6 polymorphisms in humans. Sibutramine showed enantioselective plasma profiles with consistently higher concentrations of R-enantiomers. Clopidogrel and clarithromycin significantly increased the sibutramine plasma concentration, but their effects differed between enantiomers; a 2.2-fold versus 4.1-fold increase in the AUC in S-enantiomer and 1.8-fold versus 2.0-fold for the R-enantiomer, respectively. The AUCs of S- and R-desmethyl metabolites changed significantly during the clopidogrel phase (P sibutramine was higher in subjects with the CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype, but no statistical difference was observed among the CYP2B6 genotypes. These results suggest that the enantioselective disposition of sibutramine and its active metabolites are influenced by the altered genetic and environmental factors of CYP2B6 and CYP3A activity in vivo. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Physicochemical characterization, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in 'Gala' apples subjected to different UV-C radiation doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Gabrielle Dias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-C radiation is a food preservation method aimed to extend the life of the product, inactivate microorganisms, and stimulate the synthesis of phenolic compounds. This study aimed to physicochemically characterize and evaluate the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of ‘Gala’ apples subjected to different UV-C radiation doses.The fruits were harvested, sanitized, selected and inserted into a UV-C radiation chamber, and different radiation doses were applied as follows:0 KJ m-2 (0 min., 0.68 KJ m-2 (2 minutes,2.73 KJ m-2 (4 minutes, and 4.10 KJ m-2 (6 minutes. The apples were stored for 120 days at 5 ± 1°C and analyzed after 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of storage. Radiation doses had no influence on parameters, such as weight loss, firmness and Hue angle, and physicochemical aspects, such as pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity and the soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio. The 4.10 KJ m-2 dose was effective and increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activity for up to 90 days while maintaining the content of vitamin C during storage.

  17. Technical position on items and activities in the high-level waste geologic repository program subject to quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.B.; Bilhorn, S.G.; Kennedy, J.E.

    1988-04-01

    This document provides guidance on how to identify items and activities subject to Quality Assurance in the high-level nuclear waste repository program for pre-closure and post-closure phases of the repository. In the pre-closure phase, structures, systems and components essential to the prevention or mitigation of an accident that could result in an off-site radiation dose of 0.5rem or greater are termed ''important to safety''. In the post-closure phase, the barriers which are relied on to meet the containment and isolation requirements are defined as ''important to waste isolation''. These structures, systems, components, and barriers, and the activities related to their characterization, design, construction, and operation are required to meet quality assurance (QA) criteria to provide confidence in the performance of the geologic repository. The list of structures, systems, and components important to safety and engineered barriers important to waste isolation is referred to as the ''Q-List'' and lies within the scope of the QA program. 10 refs

  18. Comparison of soft tissue artifact and its effects on knee kinematics between non-obese and obese subjects performing a squatting activity recorded using an exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Julien; de Guise, Jaques A; Fuentes, Alexandre; Hagemeister, Nicola

    2018-03-01

    Rigid attachment systems are one of the methods used to compensate for soft tissue artifact (STA) inherent in joint motion analyses. The goal of this study was to quantify STA of an exoskeleton design to reduce STA at the knee, and to assess the accuracy of 3D knee kinematics recorded with the exoskeleton in non-obese and obese subjects during quasi-static weight-bearing squatting activity using biplane radiography. Nine non-obese and eight obese subjects were recruited. The exoskeleton was calibrated on each subject before they performed a quasistatic squatting activity in the EOS ® imaging system. 3D models of exoskeleton markers and knee bones were reconstructed from EOS ® radiographs; they served to quantify STA and to evaluate differences between the markers and bones knee kinematics during the squatting activity. The results showed that STA observed at the femur was larger in non-obese subjects than in obese subjects in frontal rotation (p = 0.004), axial rotation (p = 0.000), medio-lateral displacement (p = 0.000) and antero-posterior displacement (p = 0.019), while STA observed at the tibia was lower in non-obese subjects than in obese subjects for the three rotations (p exoskeleton were greater among non-obese subjects than obese subjects, which is encouraging for future biomechanical studies on pathologies such as osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Subjective Health Horizon Questionnaire (SHH-Q): Assessing Future Time Perspectives for Facets of an Active Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzel, Sandra; Voelkle, Manuel C; Düzel, Emrah; Gerstorf, Denis; Drewelies, Johanna; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2016-01-01

    A wider subjective time horizon is assumed to be positively associated with longevity and vitality. In particular, a lifestyle with exposure to novel and varied information is considered beneficial for healthy cognitive aging. At present, measures that specifically assess individuals' perceived temporal extension to engage in active lifestyles in the future are not available. We introduce and validate a new self-report measure, the Subjective Health Horizon Questionnaire (SHH-Q). The SHH-Q assesses individuals' future time perspectives in relation to four interrelated but distinct lifestyle dimensions: (1) novelty-oriented exploration (Novelty), (2) bodily fitness (Body), (3) work goals (Work), and (4) goals in life (Life Goals). The present study aims at: (a) validating the hypothesized factor structure of the SHH-Q, according to which the SHH-Q consists of four interrelated but distinct subscales, and (b) testing the hypothesis that the Novelty and Body subscales of the SHH-Q show positive and selective associations with markers of cognition and somatic health, respectively. Using structural equation modeling, we analyzed data from 1,371 healthy individuals (51% women) with a mean age of 70.1 years (SD = 3.6) who participated in the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II) and completed the SHH-Q. As predicted, the SHH-Q formed four correlated but distinct subscales: (1) Novelty, (2) Body, (3) Work, and (4) Life Goals. Greater self-reported future novelty orientation was associated with higher current memory performance, and greater future expectations regarding bodily fitness with better current metabolic status. The SHH-Q reliably assesses individual differences in four distinct dimensions of future time perspective. Two of these dimensions, Novelty and Body, show differential associations with cognitive status and somatic health. The SHH-Q may serve as a tool to assess how different facets of future time perspective relate to somatic health, cognition, motivation, and

  20. Promotion of Homologous Recombination and Genomic Stability byRAD51AP1 via RAD51 Recombinase Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Claudia; Dray, Eloise; Groesser, Torsten; San Filippo,Joseph; Shi, Idina; Collins, David W.; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Williams,Gareth; Rydberg, Bjorn; Sung, Patrick; Schild, David

    2007-04-11

    Homologous recombination (HR) repairs chromosome damage and is indispensable for tumor suppression in humans. RAD51 mediates the DNA strand pairing step in HR. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) is a RAD51-interacting protein whose function has remained elusive. Knockdown of RAD51AP1 in human cells by RNA interference engenders sensitivity to different types of genotoxic stress. Moreover, RAD51AP1-depleted cells are impaired for the recombinational repair of a DNA double-strand break and exhibit chromatid breaks both spontaneously and upon DNA damaging treatment. Purified RAD51AP1 binds dsDNA and RAD51, and it greatly stimulates the RAD51-mediated D-loop reaction. Biochemical and cytological results show that RAD51AP1 functions at a step subsequent to the assembly of the RAD51-ssDNA nucleoprotein filament. Our findings provide the first evidence that RAD51AP1 helps maintain genomic integrity via RAD51 recombinase enhancement.

  1. A next-generation dual-recombinase system for time and host specific targeting of pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtler, Christina; Zukowska, Magdalena; Eser, Stefan; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Paul, Mariel C.; Eser, Philipp; Klein, Sabine; Lowy, Andrew M.; Banerjee, Ruby; Yang, Fangtang; Lee, Chang-Lung; Moding, Everett J.; Kirsch, David G.; Scheideler, Angelika; Alessi, Dario R.; Varela, Ignacio; Bradley, Allan; Kind, Alexander; Schnieke, Angelika E.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Rad, Roland; Schmid, Roland M.; Schneider, Günter; Saur, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) have dramatically improved our understanding of tumor evolution and therapeutic resistance. However, sequential genetic manipulation of gene expression and targeting of the host is almost impossible using conventional Cre-loxP–based models. We have developed an inducible dual-recombinase system by combining flippase-FRT (Flp-FRT) and Cre-loxP recombination technologies to improve GEMMs of pancreatic cancer. This enables investigation of multistep carcinogenesis, genetic manipulation of tumor subpopulations (such as cancer stem cells), selective targeting of the tumor microenvironment and genetic validation of therapeutic targets in autochthonous tumors on a genome-wide scale. As a proof of concept, we performed tumor cell–autonomous and nonautonomous targeting, recapitulated hallmarks of human multistep carcinogenesis, validated genetic therapy by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase inactivation as well as cancer cell depletion and show that mast cells in the tumor microenvironment, which had been thought to be key oncogenic players, are dispensable for tumor formation. PMID:25326799

  2. A next-generation dual-recombinase system for time- and host-specific targeting of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhuber, Nina; Seidler, Barbara; Schuck, Kathleen; Veltkamp, Christian; Schachtler, Christina; Zukowska, Magdalena; Eser, Stefan; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Paul, Mariel C; Eser, Philipp; Klein, Sabine; Lowy, Andrew M; Banerjee, Ruby; Yang, Fangtang; Lee, Chang-Lung; Moding, Everett J; Kirsch, David G; Scheideler, Angelika; Alessi, Dario R; Varela, Ignacio; Bradley, Allan; Kind, Alexander; Schnieke, Angelika E; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Rad, Roland; Schmid, Roland M; Schneider, Günter; Saur, Dieter

    2014-11-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) have dramatically improved our understanding of tumor evolution and therapeutic resistance. However, sequential genetic manipulation of gene expression and targeting of the host is almost impossible using conventional Cre-loxP-based models. We have developed an inducible dual-recombinase system by combining flippase-FRT (Flp-FRT) and Cre-loxP recombination technologies to improve GEMMs of pancreatic cancer. This enables investigation of multistep carcinogenesis, genetic manipulation of tumor subpopulations (such as cancer stem cells), selective targeting of the tumor microenvironment and genetic validation of therapeutic targets in autochthonous tumors on a genome-wide scale. As a proof of concept, we performed tumor cell-autonomous and nonautonomous targeting, recapitulated hallmarks of human multistep carcinogenesis, validated genetic therapy by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase inactivation as well as cancer cell depletion and show that mast cells in the tumor microenvironment, which had been thought to be key oncogenic players, are dispensable for tumor formation.

  3. Generation of an allelic series of knock-in mice using recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebroek, Anton J M; Van Gool, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Molecular genetic strategies applying embryonic stem cell (ES cell) technologies to study the function of a gene in mice or to generate a mouse model for a human disease are continuously under development. Next to (conditional) inactivation of genes the application and importance of approaches to generate knock-in mutations are increasing. In this chapter the principle and application of recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) are discussed as being a new emerging knock-in strategy, which enables easy generation of a series of different knock-in mutations within one gene. An RMCE protocol, which was used to generate a series of different knock-in mutations in the Lrp1 gene of ES cells, is described in detail as an example of how RMCE can be used to generate highly efficiently an allelic series of differently modified ES cell clones from a parental modified ES cell clone. Subsequently the differently modified ES cell clones can be used to generate an allelic series of mutant knock-in mice.

  4. Civic activation, vulnerable subjects and public space: the case of the park of Rione Traiano in Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Esposito

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The woman, in every kind of human settlement, culture as well a time, plays a peculiar role in terms of active observation and multitasking actor of the urban form and their organization model. Studying urban phenomena through the filter of the gender interpretation and fostering a proactive participation of women in the process of urban planning could provide added value in terms of feasibility, effectiveness and efficiency. In this paper it was decided to dealing with this issue in the framework of public spaces through the construction of a case study centered on women-mothers and their contribution for interpreting and being proactive in a participatory process of urban regeneration. The expected result of this interactive process is twofold: developing a generalized methodology of interaction with communities for interpreting, in terms of space organization, the demand they express on the one hand as well as for dealing with specific context, with the involvement of activists and associations to define and share possible trajectories of transformation of public spaces, on the other hand. To pursue this goal we have chosen to deal with the specificities of a complex environment such as Naples and with a CEP district, the largest in Italy, whose construction was initiated in 1960: Rione Traiano. In this area has started a dialogue, with non-profit organizations operating in the area first and then with women in the community, in order to address the relationship between vulnerable people and public spaces, testing a methodology for interaction and civic activation finalized to collect, prioritize and translate into proposals instances as expressed by these subjects. The disciplinary horizon selected is the integration between established tools of community planning and project strategies typical of urban design.

  5. Asymmetry of neck motion and activation of the cervical paraspinal muscles during prone neck extension in subjects with unilateral posterior neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyue-Nam; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Kim, Su-Jung; Kim, Si-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Although unilateral posterior neck pain (UPNP) is more prevalent than central neck pain, little is known about how UPNP affects neck motion and the muscle activation pattern during prone neck extension. To investigate whether deviation in neck motion and asymmetry of activation of the bilateral cervical paraspinal muscles occur during prone neck extension in subjects with UPNP compared to subjects without UPNP. This study recruited 20 subjects with UPNP and 20 age- and sex-matched control subjects without such pain. Neck motion and muscle onset time during prone neck extension were measured using a three-dimensional motion-analysis system and surface electromyography. The deviation during prone neck extension was greater in the UPNP group than in the controls (p cervical extensor muscle activation in the UPNP group was significantly delayed on the painful side during prone neck extension (p cervical extensors, triggering a need for specific evaluation and exercises in the management of patients with UPNP.

  6. Subject-chosen activities in occupational therapy for the improvement of psychiatric symptoms of inpatients with chronic schizophrenia: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshii, Junko; Yotsumoto, Kayano; Tatsumi, Eri; Tanaka, Chito; Mori, Takashi; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2013-07-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects of subject-chosen and therapist-chosen activities in occupational therapy for inpatients with chronic schizophrenia. Prospective comparative study. A psychiatric hospital in Japan. Fifty-nine patients with chronic schizophrenia who had been hospitalized for many years. The subjects received six-months occupational therapy, participating in either activities of their choice (subject-chosen activity group, n = 30) or activities chosen by occupational therapists based on treatment recommendations and patient consent (therapist-chosen activity group, n = 29). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale were used to evaluate psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial function, respectively. After six-months occupational therapy, suspiciousness and hostility scores of the positive scale and preoccupation scores of the general psychopathology scale significantly improved in the subject-chosen activity group compared with the therapist-chosen activity group, with 2(2) (median (interquartile range)) and 3(1.25), 2(1) and 2.5(1), and 2(1) and 3(1), respectively. There were no significant differences in psychosocial functions between the two groups. In within-group comparisons before and after occupational therapy, suspiciousness scores of the positive scale, preoccupation scores of the general psychopathology scale, and psychosocial function significantly improved only in the subject-chosen activity group, with 3(1) to 2(2), 3(1) to 2(1), and 40(9) to 40(16) respectively, but not in the therapist-chosen activity group. The results suggested that the subject-chosen activities in occupational therapy could improve the psychiatric symptoms, suspiciousness, and preoccupation of the inpatients with chronic schizophrenia.

  7. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/ deletion dimorphism tracks with higher serum ace activities in both younger and older subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frossard, Philippe M.; Hill, Susan H.; Obineche, Enyioma N.; Lestringant, Gilles G.

    1998-01-01

    The absence of a 287 base pair alu sequence in the ACE gene (D allele) is associated with higher ACE levels than its presence (I allele) in adults. We carried out a case control study of thr ACE*I/D dimorphism in relation to circulating ACE activities to evaluate associations between the two variables in adults, compared to younger (18 years or less) individuals. Genotypes of the ACE*I/D dimorphism were determined on DNA samples from a population of 164 random (unrelated) Emirtaes nationals, composed of groups: 112 subjects above 18 years of age (range=20-77), and 52 subjects of 18 years or less (range=1-18) and analyzed for putative associations with serum ACE activities. ACE*I/D genotypes of the 164 individualds were determined by assays based on polymerase chain reaction. ACE activities were determined on serum samples of these subjects bu colorimetric assays. The D allele was associared with increasd ACE values in both adult and younger individuals. Mean ACE activity levels associated with II, ID and DD genotypes, however, were 42%-61% higher in the 18 years and under group of subjects. The ACE*I/D marker accounted for 28% of the variance of the phenomenon determining ACE levels in adults, and for 30% among youngsters. The ACE*I/D dimorphism is correlated strongly with circulating ACE activities in both and young Emirati, subjects and the corresponding mean ACE activities were significantly higher among the youngsters. (author)

  8. Positive Psychology in the Class: The Effectiveness of a Teaching Method Based on Subjective Well-Being and Engagement Increasing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is investigate that the effectiveness of a teaching method which is based on subjective well-being increasing activities and engagement increasing activities, has been developed for university students in the present study. The method of the present study is a mixed method. Thus, the most important feature of it has…

  9. Small high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses are increased with decreased activity of HDL-associated phospholipase A₂ in subjects with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippatos, Theodosios D; Rizos, Evangelos C; Tsimihodimos, Vasilios; Gazi, Irene F; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Elisaf, Moses S

    2013-06-01

    Alterations in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass distribution, as well as in the activities of HDL-associated enzymes, have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. HDL subclass distribution and the activities of HDL-associated enzymes remain unknown in prediabetic patients, a condition also associated with increased CVD risk. The aim of the present study was to assess any differences in HDL subclass distribution (using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and in activities of HDL-associated enzymes between prediabetic (impaired fasting glucose, IFG, n = 80) and non-prediabetic subjects (n = 105). Subjects with prediabetes had significantly increased waist circumference, blood pressure and triacylglycerol (TAG) levels compared with subjects with fasting glucose levels prediabetic subjects compared with their controls (p prediabetes (p prediabetes. In a stepwise linear regression analysis, the proportion of small HDL3 over HDL-C concentration was independently associated with the presence of prediabetes and with total cholesterol and TAG concentration (positively), as well as with HDL-C levels (negatively). We also observed a trend of increased small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in prediabetic subjects compared with their controls. Subjects with IFG exhibit increased proportion of small HDL3 particles combined with decreased activity of the anti-atherogenic HDL-LpPLA₂.

  10. Estimating the oligoelement requirements of children subject to exclusively parenteral nutrition by means of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziere, B.; Gros, J.; Comar, D.

    1979-01-01

    Because of the rich and varied food he eats, deficiencies in oligoelements of dietary origin are very rarely found in man. However, several cases of zinc and copper deficiency have been reported in adults and children subject to prolonged entirely parenteral nutrition. In the present case ten children (eight infants of less than 18 months and two children aged between 2 and 8 years) fed exclusively by intracardiac catheter on a reconstituted diet were studied. The serum concentrations of copper, manganese, selenium and zinc in the children fed on this artificial diet were measured by neutron activation and gamma spectrometry, both with and without chemical separation. The values obtained in the young patients and in controls of the same age were compared. The result of these comparisons and a study of the kinetics of serum concentrations in the patients (one analysis every 20 days for 90 days) enabled us to determine that there was a balanced intake of copper, an excess of manganese and a considerable deficiency in zinc and selenium. In view of these observations, the diet was modified and it was established that the serum oligoelement content followed changes in oligoelement intake. Thus the serum concentrations of selenium and zinc were restored in a few weeks - completely in the case of selenium with an intake three times higher (3 μg/kg/24 h) and incompletely in the case of zinc with the intake doubled (50 μg/kg/24 h). On the basis of these results and kinetic data on the mineral metabolism, we have been able to estimate the copper, manganese, selenium and zinc requirements of children undergoing parenteral nutrition. (author)

  11. Effect of gemfibrozil and rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics of selexipag and its active metabolite in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruderer, Shirin; Petersen-Sylla, Marc; Boehler, Margaux; Remeňová, Tatiana; Halabi, Atef; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2017-12-01

    Based on in vitro data, there is evidence to suggest that cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 is involved in the metabolism of selexipag and its active metabolite, ACT-333679. The present study evaluated the possible pharmacokinetic interactions of selexipag with gemfibrozil, a strong CYP2C8 inhibitor, and rifampicin, an inducer of CYP2C8. The study consisted of two independent parts, each conducted according to an open-label, randomized, crossover design. The pharmacokinetics and safety of selexipag and ACT-333679 were studied following single-dose administration either alone or in the presence of multiple-dose gemfibrozil (part I) or rifampicin (part II) in healthy male subjects. Gemfibrozil had comparatively small effects on selexipag (less than 2-fold difference in any pharmacokinetic variable) but, with respect to ACT-333679, increased the maximum plasma concentration (C max ) 3.6-fold [90% confidence interval (CI) 3.1, 4.3] and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC 0-∞ ) 11.1-fold (90% CI 9.2, 13.4). The marked increased exposure to ACT-333679, which mediates the majority of the pharmacological activity of selexipag, was accompanied by significantly more adverse events such as headache, nausea and vomiting. Coadministration of rifampicin increased the C max of selexipag 1.8-fold (90% CI 1.4, 2.2) and its AUC0 -∞ 1.3-fold (90% CI 1.1, 1.4); its effects on ACT-333679 were to increase its C max 1.3-fold (90% CI 1.1, 1.6), shorten its half-life by 63% and reduce its AUC0 -∞ by half (90% CI 0.45, 0.59). Concomitant administration of selexipag and strong inhibitors of CYP2C8 must be avoided, whereas when coadministered with inducers of CYP2C8, dose adjustments of selexipag should be envisaged. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  13. Permanent Genetic Access to Transiently Active Neurons via TRAP: Targeted Recombination in Active Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Guenthner, Casey J.; Miyamichi, Kazunari; Yang, Helen H.; Heller, H. Craig; Luo, Liqun

    2013-01-01

    Targeting genetically encoded tools for neural circuit dissection to relevant cellular populations is a major challenge in neurobiology. We developed a new approach, Targeted Recombination in Active Populations (TRAP), to obtain genetic access to neurons that were activated by defined stimuli. This method utilizes mice in which the tamoxifen-dependent recombinase CreERT2 is expressed in an activity-dependent manner from the loci of the immediate early genes Arc and Fos. Active cells that expr...

  14. Influence of gravity compensation on kinematics and muscle activation patterns during reach and retrieval in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury: An explorative study

    OpenAIRE

    Marieke G . M. Kloosterman, PT, MSc; Govert J. Snoek, MD, PhD; Mirjam Kouwenhoven, MD; Anand V. Nene, MD, PhD; Michiel J. A. Jannink, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Many interventions in upper-limb rehabilitation after cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) use arm support (gravity compensation); however, its specific effects on kinematics and muscle activation characteristics in subjects with a CSCI are largely unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional explorative study to study these effects. Nine subjects with a CSCI performed two goal-directed arm movements (maximal reach, reach and retrieval) with and without gravity compensation. Angles at elbow and shou...

  15. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with lateral flow (LF) strip for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y D; Xu, M J; Wang, Q Q; Zhou, C X; Wang, M; Zhu, X Q; Zhou, D H

    2017-08-30

    Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded vertebrates, resulting in a great threat to human health and significant economic loss to the livestock industry. Ingestion of infectious oocysts of T. gondii from the environment is the major source of transmission. Detection of T. gondii oocysts by existing methods is laborious, time-consuming and expensive. The objective of the present study was to develop a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip for detection of T. gondii oocysts in the soil and water. The DNA of T. gondii oocysts was amplified by a pair of specific primers based on the T. gondii B1 gene over 15min at a constant temperature ranging from 30°C to 45°C using RPA. The amplification product was visualized by the lateral flow (LF) strip within 5min using the specific probe added to the RPA reaction system. The sensitivity of the established assay was 10 times higher than that of nested PCR with a lower detection limit of 0.1 oocyst per reaction, and there was no cross-reactivity with other closely related protozoan species. Fifty environmental samples were further assessed for the detection validity of the LF-RPA assay (B1-LF-RPA) and compared with nested PCR based on the B1 gene sequence. The B1-LF-RPA and nested PCR both showed that 5 out of the 50 environmental samples were positive. The B1-LF-RPA method was also proven to be sufficiently tolerant of existing inhibitors in the environment. In addition, the advantages of simple operation, speediness and cost-effectiveness make B1-LF-RPA a promising molecular detection tool for T. gondii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid and sensitive detection of canine distemper virus by real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianchang; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Ruiwen; Liu, Libing; Yuan, Wanzhe

    2017-08-15

    Canine distemper, caused by Canine distemper virus (CDV), is a highly contagious and fatal systemic disease in free-living and captive carnivores worldwide. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), as an isothermal gene amplification technique, has been explored for the molecular detection of diverse pathogens. A real-time reverse transcription RPA (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of canine distemper virus (CDV) using primers and exo probe targeting the CDV nucleocapsid protein gene was developed. A series of other viruses were tested by the RT-RPA.Thirty-two field samples were further tested by RT-RPA, and the resuts were compared with those obtained by the real-time RT-PCR. The RT-RPA assay was performed successfully at 40 °C, and the results were obtained within 3 min-12 min. The assay could detect CDV, but did not show cross-detection of canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2), canine coronavirus (CCoV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), pseudorabies virus (PRV) or Newcastle disease virus (NDV), demonstrating high specificity. The analytical sensitivity of RT-RPA was 31.8 copies in vitro transcribed CDV RNA, which is 10 times lower than the real-time RT-PCR. The assay performance was validated by testing 32 field samples and compared to real-time RT-PCR. The results indicated an excellent correlation between RT-RPA and a reference real-time RT-PCR method. Both assays provided the same results, and R 2 value of the positive results was 0.947. The results demonstrated that the RT-RPA assay offers an alternative tool for simple, rapid, and reliable detection of CDV both in the laboratory and point-of-care facility, especially in the resource-limited settings.

  17. Role of ptsP, orfT, and sss recombinase genes in root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens Q8r1-96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrodi, Olga V; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Weller, David M; Thomashow, Linda S

    2006-11-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens Q8r1-96 produces 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), a polyketide antibiotic that suppresses a wide variety of soilborne fungal pathogens, including Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, which causes take-all disease of wheat. Strain Q8r1-96 is representative of the D-genotype of 2,4-DAPG producers, which are exceptional because of their ability to aggressively colonize and maintain large populations on the roots of host plants, including wheat, pea, and sugar beet. In this study, three genes, an sss recombinase gene, ptsP, and orfT, which are important in the interaction of Pseudomonas spp. with various hosts, were investigated to determine their contributions to the unusual colonization properties of strain Q8r1-96. The sss recombinase and ptsP genes influence global processes, including phenotypic plasticity and organic nitrogen utilization, respectively. The orfT gene contributes to the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in plants and animals and is conserved among saprophytic rhizosphere pseudomonads, but its function is unknown. Clones containing these genes were identified in a Q8r1-96 genomic library, sequenced, and used to construct gene replacement mutants of Q8r1-96. Mutants were characterized to determine their 2,4-DAPG production, motility, fluorescence, colony morphology, exoprotease and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production, carbon and nitrogen utilization, and ability to colonize the rhizosphere of wheat grown in natural soil. The ptsP mutant was impaired in wheat root colonization, whereas mutants with mutations in the sss recombinase gene and orfT were not. However, all three mutants were less competitive than wild-type P. fluorescens Q8r1-96 in the wheat rhizosphere when they were introduced into the soil by paired inoculation with the parental strain.

  18. [Proteinase activity in Candida albicans strains isolated from the oral cavity of immunocompromised patients, with oral candidiasis and in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Solís, Sandra E; Rueda-Gordillo, Florencio; Rojas-Herrera, Rafael A

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans has a variety of virulence factors, including secreted aspartyl proteases, which are determinant factors in the pathogenesis of this yeast in immunocompromised patients. Proteinase activity was identified in C. albicans strains isolated from the oral cavity of immunocompromised patients with cancer, diabetes and HIV+, with oral candidiasis and in healthy subjects. Two hundred and fifty C. albicans strains were analyzed, distributed in 5 different groups: patients with cancer, diabetes, HIV+, with oral candidiasis and healthy subjects. Proteolytic activity was identified in 46% of the strains from cancer patients, 54% from HIV+ patients, 60% from diabetics, 70% from oral candidiasis patients, and 42% from healthy subjects. Activity was higher in strains from immunocompromised and oral candidiasis patients than in healthy subjects. Differences were observed between the candidiasis-healthy, candidiasis-HIV+, and diabetic-healthy groups. No differences were observed between the oral candidiasis, diabetes and cancer patients, between the diabetes and HIV+ patients, or between the cancer patients, HIV+ patients and healthy subjects. The present results suggest that although secreted aspartyl proteases are important in the pathogenesis of C. albicans, their activity depends on host conditions. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Inverse Effects of Oxytocin on Attributing Mental Activity to Others in Depressed and Healthy Subjects: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pincus

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytocin is a stress-attenuating and pro-social neuropeptide. To date, no study has looked at the effects of oxytocin in modulating brain activity in depressed individuals nor attempted to correlate this activity with attribution of mental activity in others. Method: We enrolled 10 unmedicated depressed adults and 10 matched healthy controls in a crossover, double blind placebo controlled fmri 40 i.u. intra-nasal oxytocin study (20 i.u. per nostril. Each subject performed Reading the Mind in the Eyes task (RMET before and after inhalation of oxytocin or placebo control for a total of 80 scans. Results: Before oxytocin administration, RMET engaged medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, insula and associative areas. Depressed subjects showed increased anterior ventral activation for the RMET minus gender identification contrast whereas matched controls showed increased dorsal and frontal activity. Compared to placebo, oxytocin in depressed subjects showed increased activity in the superior middle frontal gyrus and insula, while controls exhibited more activity in ventral regions. Oxytocin also led to inverse effects in reaction times on attribution task between groups, with controls getting faster and depressed individuals slower to respond. Conclusion: Depression is associated with increased paralimbic activity during emotional mental attribution of others, appearing to be distinctly modulated by oxytocin when compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to explore long-term exposure to pro-social neuropeptides on mood in depressed populations and assess their clinical relevance.

  20. Evaluation of the effects of the Arm Light Exoskeleton on movement execution and muscle activities: a pilot study on healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, Elvira; Coscia, Martina; Marcheschi, Simone; Roas, Gianluca; Salsedo, Fabio; Frisoli, Antonio; Bergamasco, Massimo; Micera, Silvestro

    2016-01-23

    Exoskeletons for lower and upper extremities have been introduced in neurorehabilitation because they can guide the patient's limb following its anatomy, covering many degrees of freedom and most of its natural workspace, and allowing the control of the articular joints. The aims of this study were to evaluate the possible use of a novel exoskeleton, the Arm Light Exoskeleton (ALEx), for robot-aided neurorehabilitation and to investigate the effects of some rehabilitative strategies adopted in robot-assisted training. We studied movement execution and muscle activities of 16 upper limb muscles in six healthy subjects, focusing on end-effector and joint kinematics, muscle synergies, and spinal maps. The subjects performed three dimensional point-to-point reaching movements, without and with the exoskeleton in different assistive modalities and control strategies. The results showed that ALEx supported the upper limb in all modalities and control strategies: it reduced the muscular activity of the shoulder's abductors and it increased the activity of the elbow flexors. The different assistive modalities favored kinematics and muscle coordination similar to natural movements, but the muscle activity during the movements assisted by the exoskeleton was reduced with respect to the movements actively performed by the subjects. Moreover, natural trajectories recorded from the movements actively performed by the subjects seemed to promote an activity of muscles and spinal circuitries more similar to the natural one. The preliminary analysis on healthy subjects supported the use of ALEx for post-stroke upper limb robotic assisted rehabilitation, and it provided clues on the effects of different rehabilitative strategies on movement and muscle coordination.

  1. Wii Fit® training vs. Adapted Physical Activities: which one is the most appropriate to improve the balance of independent senior subjects? A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulotte, Claire; Toursel, Cindy; Olivier, Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    To compare the effectiveness of three protocols (Adapted Physical Activities, Wii Fit(®), Adapted Physical Activities + Wii Fit(®)) on the balance of independent senior subjects. Case comparison study. Healthy elderly subjects living in independent community dwellings. Thirty-six subjects, average age 75.09 ± 10.26 years, took part in this study, and were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental groups: G1 followed an Adapted Physical Activities training programme, while the second group (G2) participated in Wii Fit(®) training and the third one (G3) combined both methods. There was no training for the fourth group (G4). All subjects trained once a week (1 hour) for 20 weeks and were assessed before and after treatment. The Tinetti test, unipedal tests and the Wii Fit(®) tests. After training, the scores in the Tinetti test decreased significantly (P Wii Fit(®)) and G3 (Adapted Physical Activities and Wii Fit(®)) improved their balance. In addition, G1 and G3 increased their dynamic balance. The findings suggest that Adapted Physical Activities training limits the decline in sensorial functions in the elderly.

  2. Long-Term Monitoring of Physical Behavior Reveals Different Cardiac Responses to Physical Activity among Subjects with and without Chronic Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hallman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We determined the extent to which heart rate variability (HRV responses to daily physical activity differ between subjects with and without chronic neck pain. Method. Twenty-nine subjects (13 women with chronic neck pain and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated. Physical activity (accelerometry, HRV (heart rate monitor, and spatial location (Global Positioning System (GPS were recorded for 74 hours. GPS data were combined with a diary to identify periods of work and of leisure at home and elsewhere. Time- and frequency-domain HRV indices were calculated and stratified by period and activity type (lying/sitting, standing, or walking. ANCOVAs with multiple adjustments were used to disclose possible group differences in HRV. Results. The pain group showed a reduced HRV response to physical activity compared with controls (p=.001, according to the sympathetic-baroreceptor HRV index (LF/HF, ratio between low- and high-frequency power, even after adjustment for leisure time physical activity, work stress, sleep quality, mental health, and aerobic capacity (p=.02. The parasympathetic response to physical activity did not differ between groups. Conclusions. Relying on long-term monitoring of physical behavior and heart rate variability, we found an aberrant sympathetic-baroreceptor response to daily physical activity among subjects with chronic neck pain.

  3. Long-Term Monitoring of Physical Behavior Reveals Different Cardiac Responses to Physical Activity among Subjects with and without Chronic Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, David M.; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Lyskov, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Background. We determined the extent to which heart rate variability (HRV) responses to daily physical activity differ between subjects with and without chronic neck pain. Method. Twenty-nine subjects (13 women) with chronic neck pain and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated. Physical activity (accelerometry), HRV (heart rate monitor), and spatial location (Global Positioning System (GPS)) were recorded for 74 hours. GPS data were combined with a diary to identify periods of work and of leisure at home and elsewhere. Time- and frequency-domain HRV indices were calculated and stratified by period and activity type (lying/sitting, standing, or walking). ANCOVAs with multiple adjustments were used to disclose possible group differences in HRV. Results. The pain group showed a reduced HRV response to physical activity compared with controls (p = .001), according to the sympathetic-baroreceptor HRV index (LF/HF, ratio between low- and high-frequency power), even after adjustment for leisure time physical activity, work stress, sleep quality, mental health, and aerobic capacity (p = .02). The parasympathetic response to physical activity did not differ between groups. Conclusions. Relying on long-term monitoring of physical behavior and heart rate variability, we found an aberrant sympathetic-baroreceptor response to daily physical activity among subjects with chronic neck pain. PMID:26557711

  4. Seasonal changes of peroxidase and catalase activities in leaves of several arborescent species subject to different industrial air pollutions in Upper Silesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raczek, E.; Stolarek, J.

    1979-01-01

    Year-round investigations of seasonal patterns of peroxidase and catalase activities in leaves of several deciduous and coniferous arborescent species in forests of Upper Silesia subjected to various amounts of industrial gases and dusts were carried out. The samples of leaves of Betula verrucosa EHRH, Quercus robur L., Q. rubra L., Pinus nigra ARNOLD, and P. silvestris L. were collected at different distances from an iron smelting plant. It was found that raising level of the pollution enhances peroxidase activity in leaves and needles. The induction of peroxidase activity by pollutants exhibited seasonal changes specific for the species and was subjected to the effect of temperature of the environment and was also related to the natural resistivity of a given species. In contrast to peroxidase, the patterns of catalase activity changes did not appear to be specifically influenced by industrial air pollutants. 22 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  5. How passive image viewers became active multimedia users : new trends and recent advances in subjective assessment of quality of experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redi, J.A.; Zhu, Y.; Ridder, de H.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.; Deng, C.; Ma, L.; Lin, W.; Ngan, K.N.

    2015-01-01

    Subjective assessment of quality of experience (QoE) is key to understanding user preferences with respect to multimedia fruition. As such, it is a necessary step to multimedia delivery optimization, since QoE needs to take into account technology limitations as well as user satisfaction. The study

  6. Active Self-Tracking of Subjective Experience with a One-Button Wearable: A Case Study in Military PTSD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Eskelund, Kasper; Christiansen, Thomas Blomseth

    2017-01-01

    We describe a case study with the participation of a Danish veteran suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As part of psychotherapeutic treatment the participant and therapist have used our novel technique for instrumenting self-tracking of select aspects of subjective experience...

  7. Activity restriction induced by fear of falling and objective and subjective measures of physical function: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Nandini; Metter, E Jeffrey; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2008-04-01

    To examine whether activity restriction specifically induced by fear of falling (FF) contributes to greater risk of disability and decline in physical function. Prospective cohort study. Population-based older cohort. Six hundred seventy-three community-living elderly (> or = 65) participants in the Invecchiare in Chianti Study who reported FF. FF, fear-induced activity restriction, cognition, depressive symptoms, comorbidities, smoking history, and demographic factors were assessed at baseline. Disability in activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and performance on the Short Performance Physical Battery (SPPB) were evaluated at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up. One-quarter (25.5%) of participants did not report any activity restriction, 59.6% reported moderate activity restriction (restriction or avoidance of or = 3 activities). The severe restriction group reported significantly higher IADL disability and worse SPPB scores than the no restriction and moderate restriction groups. Severe activity restriction was a significant independent predictor of worsening ADL disability and accelerated decline in lower extremity performance on SPPB over the 3-year follow-up. Severe and moderate activity restriction were independent predictors of worsening IADL disability. Results were consistent even after adjusting for multiple potential confounders. In an elderly population, activity restriction associated with FF is an independent predictor of decline in physical function. Future intervention studies in geriatric preventive care should directly address risk factors associated with FF and activity restriction to substantiate long-term effects on physical abilities and autonomy of older persons.

  8. Influence of gravity compensation on kinematics and muscle activation patterns during reach and retrieval in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Marieke G. M.; Snoek, Govert J.; Kouwenhoven, Mirjam; Nene, Anand V.; Jannink, Michiel J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Many interventions in upper-limb rehabilitation after cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) use arm support (gravity compensation), however, its specific effects on kinematics and muscle activation characteristics in subjects with a CSCI are largely unknown We conducted a cross-sectional explorative

  9. Objective Indicators of Physical Activity and Sedentary Time and Associations with Subjective Well-Being in Adults Aged 70 and Over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Withall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the associations of the volume and intensity of physical activity and the volume of sedentary time with subjective well-being in a diverse group of 228 older adults in the UK (111 female, mean age 78.2 years (SD 5.8. Physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviour were assessed by accelerometry deriving mean steps per day, mean moderate/vigorous PA minutes per hour (MVPA min·h−1 and minutes of sedentary time per hour (ST min·h−1. Lower limb function was assessed by the Short Physical Performance Battery. Subjective well-being was assessed using the SF-12 health status scale, the Ageing Well Profile and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Linear regressions were used to investigate associations between the independent variables which included physical activity (steps and MVPA, sedentary time, participant characteristics (gender, age, BMI, education, number of medical conditions, and lower limb function and dependent variables which included mental and physical well-being. Steps, MVPA and lower limb function were independently and moderately positively associated with perceived physical well-being but relationships with mental well-being variables were weak. No significant associations between sedentary behaviours and well-being were observed. The association between objectively evaluated physical activity and function and subjective evaluations of physical well-being suggest that improving perceptions of physical health and function may provide an important target for physical activity programmes. This in turn may drive further activity participation.

  10. Mood Dimensions Show Distinct Within-Subject Associations With Non-exercise Activity in Adolescents: An Ambulatory Assessment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena D. Koch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to preserve both physical and mental health. However, the physical activity levels of a large proportion of adolescents are insufficient. This is critical, since physical activity levels in youth have been shown to translate into adulthood. Whereas in adult populations, mood has been supposed to be one important psychological factor that drives physical activity in everyday life, this issue has been poorly studied in adolescent populations. Ambulatory Assessment is the state-of-the-art approach to investigate how mood and non-exercise activity fluctuate within persons in everyday life. Through assessments in real time and real life, this method provides ecological validity, bypassing several limitations of traditional assessment methods (e.g., recall biases. To investigate whether mood is associated with non-exercise activity in adolescents, we equipped a community-based sample comprising 113 participants, aged 12–17 years, with GPS-triggered e-diaries querying for valence, energetic arousal, and calmness, and with accelerometers continuously measuring physical activity in their everyday lives for 1 week. We excluded all acceleration data due to participants' exercise activities and thereafter we parameterized non-exercise activity as the mean value across 10-min intervals of movement acceleration intensity following each e-diary prompt. We used multilevel analyses to compute the effects of the mood dimensions on non-exercise activity within 10-min intervals directly following each e-diary prompt. Additionally, we conducted explorative analyses of the time course of the effects, i.e., on different timeframes of non-exercise activity up to 300 min following the mood assessment. The results showed that valence (p < 0.001 and energetic arousal (p < 0.001 were positively associated with non-exercise activity within the 10 min interval, whereas calmness (p < 0.001 was negatively associated with non-exercise activity

  11. Reconstitution of DNA strand exchange mediated by Rhp51 recombinase and two mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kurokawa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, genetic evidence suggests that two mediators, Rad22 (the S. pombe Rad52 homolog and the Swi5-Sfr1 complex, participate in a common pathway of Rhp51 (the S. pombe Rad51 homolog-mediated homologous recombination (HR and HR repair. Here, we have demonstrated an in vitro reconstitution of the central step of DNA strand exchange during HR. Our system consists entirely of homogeneously purified proteins, including Rhp51, the two mediators, and replication protein A (RPA, which reflects genetic requirements in vivo. Using this system, we present the first robust biochemical evidence that concerted action of the two mediators directs the loading of Rhp51 onto single-stranded DNA (ssDNA precoated with RPA. Dissection of the reaction reveals that Rad22 overcomes the inhibitory effect of RPA on Rhp51-Swi5-Sfr1-mediated strand exchange. In addition, Rad22 negates the requirement for a strict order of protein addition to the in vitro system. However, despite the presence of Rad22, Swi5-Sfr1 is still essential for strand exchange. Importantly, Rhp51, but neither Rad22 nor the Swi5-Sfr1 mediator, is the factor that displaces RPA from ssDNA. Swi5-Sfr1 stabilizes Rhp51-ssDNA filaments in an ATP-dependent manner, and this stabilization is correlated with activation of Rhp51 for the strand exchange reaction. Rad22 alone cannot activate the Rhp51 presynaptic filament. AMP-PNP, a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog, induces a similar stabilization of Rhp51, but this stabilization is independent of Swi5-Sfr1. However, hydrolysis of ATP is required for processive strand transfer, which results in the formation of a long heteroduplex. Our in vitro reconstitution system has revealed that the two mediators have indispensable, but distinct, roles for mediating Rhp51 loading onto RPA-precoated ssDNA.

  12. Cre recombinase expression or topical tamoxifen treatment do not affect retinal structure and function, neuronal vulnerability or glial reactivity in the mouse eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneva, S K; Groß, T R; Schlecht, A; Schmitt, S I; Sippl, C; Jägle, H; Volz, C; Neueder, A; Tamm, E R; Braunger, B M

    2016-06-14

    Mice with a constitutive or tamoxifen-induced Cre recombinase (Cre) expression are frequently used research tools to allow the conditional deletion of target genes via the Cre-loxP system. Here we analyzed for the first time in a comprehensive and comparative way, whether retinal Cre expression or topical tamoxifen treatment itself would cause structural or functional changes, including changes in the expression profiles of molecular markers, glial reactivity and photoreceptor vulnerability. To this end, we characterized the transgenic α-Cre, Lmop-Cre and the tamoxifen-inducible CAGG-CreER™ mouse lines, all having robust Cre expression in the neuronal retina. In addition, we characterized the effects of topical tamoxifen treatment itself in wildtype mice. We performed morphometric analyses, immunohistochemical staining, in vivo ERG and angiography analyses and realtime RT-PCR analyses. Furthermore, the influence of Cre recombinase or topical tamoxifen exposure on neuronal vulnerability was studied by using light damage as a model for photoreceptor degeneration. Taken together, neither the expression of Cre, nor topical tamoxifen treatment caused detectable changes in retinal structure and function, the expression profiles of investigated molecular markers, glial reactivity and photoreceptor vulnerability. We conclude that the Cre-loxP system and its induction through tamoxifen is a safe and reliable method to delete desired target genes in the neural retina. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Conserved amino acid motifs from the novel Piv/MooV family of transposases and site-specific recombinases are required for catalysis of DNA inversion by Piv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiason, D M; Buchner, J M; Thiel, W H; Gernert, K M; Karls, A C

    2001-02-01

    Piv, a site-specific invertase from Moraxella lacunata, exhibits amino acid homology with the transposases of the IS110/IS492 family of insertion elements. The functions of conserved amino acid motifs that define this novel family of both transposases and site-specific recombinases (Piv/MooV family) were examined by mutagenesis of fully conserved amino acids within each motif in Piv. All Piv mutants altered in conserved residues were defective for in vivo inversion of the M. lacunata invertible DNA segment, but competent for in vivo binding to Piv DNA recognition sequences. Although the primary amino acid sequences of the Piv/MooV recombinases do not contain a conserved DDE motif, which defines the retroviral integrase/transposase (IN/Tnps) family, the predicted secondary structural elements of Piv align well with those of the IN/Tnps for which crystal structures have been determined. Molecular modelling of Piv based on these alignments predicts that E59, conserved as either E or D in the Piv/MooV family, forms a catalytic pocket with the conserved D9 and D101 residues. Analysis of Piv E59G confirms a role for E59 in catalysis of inversion. These results suggest that Piv and the related IS110/IS492 transposases mediate DNA recombination by a common mechanism involving a catalytic DED or DDD motif.

  14. Neural basis of moral elevation demonstrated through inter-subject synchronization of cortical activity during free-viewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë A Englander

    Full Text Available Most research investigating the neural basis of social emotions has examined emotions that give rise to negative evaluations of others (e.g. anger, disgust. Emotions triggered by the virtues and excellences of others have been largely ignored. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of two "other-praising" emotions--Moral Elevation (a response to witnessing acts of moral beauty, and Admiration (which we restricted to admiration for physical skill.Ten participants viewed the same nine video clips. Three clips elicited moral elevation, three elicited admiration, and three were emotionally neutral. We then performed pair-wise voxel-by-voxel correlations of the BOLD signal between individuals for each video clip and a separate resting-state run. We observed a high degree of inter-subject synchronization, regardless of stimulus type, across several brain regions during free-viewing of videos. Videos in the elevation condition evoked significant inter-subject synchronization in brain regions previously implicated in self-referential and interoceptive processes, including the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and insula. The degree of synchronization was highly variable over the course of the videos, with the strongest synchrony occurring during portions of the videos that were independently rated as most emotionally arousing. Synchrony in these same brain regions was not consistently observed during the admiration videos, and was absent for the neutral videos.Results suggest that the neural systems supporting moral elevation are remarkably consistent across subjects viewing the same emotional content. We demonstrate that model-free techniques such as inter-subject synchronization may be a useful tool for studying complex, context dependent emotions such as self-transcendent emotion.

  15. Review of Effects of Physical Activity on Strength, Balance, Mobility and ADL Performance in Elderly Subjects with Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankevoort, Christiaan G.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Boersma, Froukje; Luning, Helga; de Jong, Jeltsje; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Elderly individuals with dementia are vulnerable for a decline in physical functioning and basic activities of daily living (BADL) which can lead to a decline in autonomy and participation. This study reviews the effect of physical activity on physical functioning and BADL in

  16. Prefrontal Activity and Connectivity with the Basal Ganglia during Performance of Complex Cognitive Tasks Is Associated with Apathy in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Leonardo; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Taurisano, Paolo; Amico, Graziella; Quarto, Tiziana; Antonucci, Linda Antonella; Barulli, Maria Rosaria; Mancini, Marina; Gelao, Barbara; Ferranti, Laura; Popolizio, Teresa; Bertolino, Alessandro; Blasi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Convergent evidence indicates that apathy affects cognitive behavior in different neurological and psychiatric conditions. Studies of clinical populations have also suggested the primary involvement of the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia in apathy. These brain regions are interconnected at both the structural and functional levels and are deeply involved in cognitive processes, such as working memory and attention. However, it is unclear how apathy modulates brain processing during cognition and whether such a modulation occurs in healthy young subjects. To address this issue, we investigated the link between apathy and prefrontal and basal ganglia function in healthy young individuals. We hypothesized that apathy may be related to sub-optimal activity and connectivity in these brain regions. Three hundred eleven healthy subjects completed an apathy assessment using the Starkstein's Apathy Scale and underwent fMRI during working memory and attentional performance tasks. Using an ROI approach, we investigated the association of apathy with activity and connectivity in the DLPFC and the basal ganglia. Apathy scores correlated positively with prefrontal activity and negatively with prefrontal-basal ganglia connectivity during both working memory and attention tasks. Furthermore, prefrontal activity was inversely related to attentional behavior. These results suggest that in healthy young subjects, apathy is a trait associated with inefficient cognitive-related prefrontal activity, i.e., it increases the need for prefrontal resources to process cognitive stimuli. Furthermore, apathy may alter the functional relationship between the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia during cognition.

  17. [Motor skills and safety of patients with bi- or trimalleolar ankle injury : Comparison with healthy, active, age-matched control subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudovici-Krug, Dana; Benkenstein, Monique; Derlien, Steffen; Best, Norman

    2018-06-01

    Do patients with bi- or trimalleolar ankle injury show differences in motor skills and safety in comparison with healthy, active, age-matched control subjects? Prospective controlled cross-sectional study. Inclusion of 17 patients with bi- or trimalleolar ankle injury (mean 1.5 years postsurgery) and 23 healthy, active subjects of comparable age (fitness studio). Measurement instruments: motor test procedures and questionnaires. Comparison of patients and control subjects by routine daily motor function: patients  0.05), fear of falling: patients > controls (p = 0.003) and physical activity: patients motor deficits in activities of daily life between the patients and controls, only tendencies; however, the patients showed definite limitations with an increased fear of falling and a reduced physical activity compared with the healthy control group. The resulting differences should be positively influenced by appropriate enhancement of training or participation in sports courses. The aim is to achieve a similar quality of life by a perception of safety and trust in one's own motor skills.

  18. Prefrontal Activity and Connectivity with the Basal Ganglia during Performance of Complex Cognitive Tasks Is Associated with Apathy in Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fazio

    Full Text Available Convergent evidence indicates that apathy affects cognitive behavior in different neurological and psychiatric conditions. Studies of clinical populations have also suggested the primary involvement of the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia in apathy. These brain regions are interconnected at both the structural and functional levels and are deeply involved in cognitive processes, such as working memory and attention. However, it is unclear how apathy modulates brain processing during cognition and whether such a modulation occurs in healthy young subjects. To address this issue, we investigated the link between apathy and prefrontal and basal ganglia function in healthy young individuals. We hypothesized that apathy may be related to sub-optimal activity and connectivity in these brain regions.Three hundred eleven healthy subjects completed an apathy assessment using the Starkstein's Apathy Scale and underwent fMRI during working memory and attentional performance tasks. Using an ROI approach, we investigated the association of apathy with activity and connectivity in the DLPFC and the basal ganglia.Apathy scores correlated positively with prefrontal activity and negatively with prefrontal-basal ganglia connectivity during both working memory and attention tasks. Furthermore, prefrontal activity was inversely related to attentional behavior.These results suggest that in healthy young subjects, apathy is a trait associated with inefficient cognitive-related prefrontal activity, i.e., it increases the need for prefrontal resources to process cognitive stimuli. Furthermore, apathy may alter the functional relationship between the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia during cognition.

  19. Sleep Deprivation in Young and Healthy Subjects Is More Sensitively Identified by Higher Frequencies of Electrodermal Activity than by Skin Conductance Level Evaluated in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Posada-Quintero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed multiple measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS based on electrodermal activity (EDA and heart rate variability (HRV for young healthy subjects undergoing 24-h sleep deprivation. In this study, we have utilized the error awareness test (EAT every 2 h (13 runs total, to evaluate the deterioration of performance. EAT consists of trials where the subject is presented words representing colors. Subjects are instructed to press a button (“Go” trials or withhold the response if the word presented and the color of the word mismatch (“Stroop No-Go” trial, or the screen is repeated (“Repeat No-Go” trials. We measured subjects' (N = 10 reaction time to the “Go” trials, and accuracy to the “Stroop No-Go” and “Repeat No-Go” trials. Simultaneously, changes in EDA and HRV indices were evaluated. Furthermore, the relationship between reactiveness and vigilance measures and indices of sympathetic control based on HRV were analyzed. We found the performance improved to a stable level from 6 through 16 h of deprivation, with a subsequently sustained impairment after 18 h. Indices of higher frequencies of EDA related more to vigilance measures, whereas lower frequencies index (skin conductance leve, SCL measured the reactiveness of the subject. We conclude that indices of EDA, including those of the higher frequencies, termed TVSymp, EDASymp, and NSSCRs, provide information to better understand the effect of sleep deprivation on subjects' autonomic response and performance.

  20. Two Aspects of Activation: Arousal and Subjective Significance – Behavioral and Event-Related Potential Correlates Investigated by Means of a Modified Emotional Stroop Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Imbir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The arousal level of words presented in a Stroop task was found to affect their interference on the required naming of the words’ color. Based on a dual-processes approach, we propose that there are two aspects to activation: arousal and subjective significance. Arousal is crucial for automatic processing. Subjective significance is specific to controlled processing. Based on this conceptual model, we predicted that arousal would enhance interference in a Stroop task, as attention would be allocated to the meaning of the inhibited word. High subjective significance should have the opposite effect, i.e., it should enhance the controlled and explicit part of Stroop task processing, which is color naming. We found that response latencies were modulated by the interaction between the arousal and subjective significance levels of words. The longest reaction times were observed for highly arousing words of medium subjective significance level. Arousal shaped event related potentials in the 150–290 ms time range, while effects of subjective significance were found for 50–150, 150–290, and 290–530 ms time ranges.

  1. Effects of Canon chord progression on brain activity and motivation are dependent on subjective feelings, not the chord progression per se

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayashima Y

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yoshinori Kayashima,1,2,* Kazuhiko Yamamuro,1,* Manabu Makinodan,1 Yoko Nakanishi,1 Akio Wanaka,2 Toshifumi Kishimoto1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A number of studies have indicated that relaxing and pleasant melodies are useful for the treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and dementia. However, few studies have investigated what constitutive elements of the music had an effect on brain activity. As Canon chord progression is one of critical elements for pleasant melodies, we sought to examine the effects of Canon chord progression and pitch-shifted Canon chord progression on brain activity using performance on the auditory oddball task during event-related potentials (ERPs in 30 healthy subjects. Unexpectedly, we found no differences in ERP components between subjects listening to Canon chord progression (n=15 or pitch-shifted Canon chord progression (n=15. Next, we divided participants into two groups: those who found the melody pleasant (n=17 and those who did not (n=13, for both Canon chord progression and pitch-shifted Canon chord progression. The average of P300 amplitude was higher at Fz in subjects found the music pleasant versus those finding it unpleasant. Moreover, subjects who found it pleasant exhibited higher motivation scores than those who felt it was unpleasant, whereas listening to Canon chord progression did not matter. These findings suggest that the effects of Canon chord progression on brain activity and motivation depend on subjective feelings, not the chord progression per se. Keywords: music, Canon chord progression, motivation, event-related potential, subjective feelings 

  2. Properties of tonic episodes of masseter muscle activity during waking hours and sleep in subjects with and without history of orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mude, Acing Habibie; Kawakami, Shigehisa; Kato, Seiya; Minagi, Shogo

    2018-04-01

    To provide a scientific data related to the tonic activity of masseter muscle in subjects with and without history of orofacial pain during their normal daily life. Thirty-three subjects were divided into two groups, a pain history group (PHG) and a non-pain history group (non-PHG), based on their responses to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders questionnaire. After excluding four subjects with incomplete recordings, full-day masseter muscle surface EMGs of 29 subjects (10 men, 19 women; mean age 24.1 years) were analyzed. Tonic episode (TE) was defined as continuous EMG activity with a duration at least 2s with intensities above twice the baseline noise level. TEs were classified into 6 strength categories (40% of the maximum voluntary clenching (MVC)). The mean duration of activity observed in the non-PHG+2 SD was adopted as a cutoff for identifying sustained TE. During waking hours, the incidence of sustained TEs was significantly higher in the PHG than in the non-PHG (porofacial pain and the intensity range of 7.5-25% MVC would be an important range for future clenching studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Impaired synthesis and antioxidant defense of glutathione in the cerebellum of autistic subjects: alterations in the activities and protein expression of glutathione-related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feng; Chauhan, Ved; Chauhan, Abha

    2013-12-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with social deficits and behavioral abnormalities. Recent evidence in autism suggests a deficit in glutathione (GSH), a major endogenous antioxidant. It is not known whether the synthesis, consumption, and/or regeneration of GSH is affected in autism. In the cerebellum tissues from autism (n=10) and age-matched control subjects (n=10), the activities of GSH-related enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) involved in antioxidant defense, detoxification, GSH regeneration, and synthesis, respectively, were analyzed. GCL is a rate-limiting enzyme for GSH synthesis, and the relationship between its activity and the protein expression of its catalytic subunit GCLC and its modulatory subunit GCLM was also compared between the autistic and the control groups. Results showed that the activities of GPx and GST were significantly decreased in autism compared to that of the control group (Pautistic subjects showed lower GR activity than 95% confidence interval (CI) of the control group. GCL activity was also significantly reduced by 38.7% in the autistic group compared to the control group (P=0.023), and 8 of 10 autistic subjects had values below 95% CI of the control group. The ratio of protein levels of GCLC to GCLM in the autism group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P=0.022), and GCLM protein levels were reduced by 37.3% in the autistic group compared to the control group. A positive strong correlation was observed between GCL activity and protein levels of GCLM (r=0.887) and GCLC (r=0.799) subunits in control subjects but not in autistic subjects, suggesting that regulation of GCL activity is affected in autism. These results suggest that enzymes involved in GSH homeostasis have impaired activities in the cerebellum in autism, and lower GCL activity in autism may be related to decreased protein expression

  4. Evaluation of coagulation activation after rhinovirus infection in patients with asthma and healthy control subjects: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majoor, Christof J.; van de Pol, Marianne A.; Kamphuisen, Pieter Willem; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Molenkamp, Richard; Wolthers, Katja C.; van der Poll, Tom; Nieuwland, Rienk; Johnston, Sebastian L.; Sterk, Peter J.; Bel, Elisabeth H. D.; Lutter, Rene; van der Sluijs, Koenraad F.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma exacerbations are frequently triggered by rhinovirus infections. Both asthma and respiratory tract infection can activate haemostasis. Therefore we hypothesized that experimental rhinovirus-16 infection and asthmatic airway inflammation act in synergy on the haemostatic balance. 28 patients

  5. The effects of hip external rotator exercises and toe-spread exercises on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking in subjects with pronated foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of toe-spread (TS) exercises and hip external rotator strengthening exercises for pronated feet on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy adults with no present or previous pain, no past history of surgery on the foot or the ankle, and no foot deformities. Ten subjects performed hip external rotator strengthening exercises and TS exercises and the remaining ten subjects performed only TS exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] Less change in navicular drop height occurred in the group that performed hip external rotator exercises than in the group that performed only TS exercises. The group that performed only TS exercises showed increased abductor hallucis muscle activity during both stair-climbing and -descending, and the group that performed hip external rotator exercises showed increased muscle activities of the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis during stair-climbing and increased muscle activity of only the abductor hallucis during stair-descending after exercise. [Conclusion] Stair-walking can be more effectively performed if the hip external rotator muscle is strengthened when TS exercises are performed for the pronated foot.

  6. Increased probability of repetitive spinal motoneuron activation by transcranial magnetic stimulation after muscle fatigue in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgit; Felding, Ulrik Ascanius; Krarup, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Triple stimulation technique (TST) has previously shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) fails to activate a proportion of spinal motoneurons (MNs) during motor fatigue. The TST response depression without attenuation of the conventional motor evoked potential suggested increased...... probability of repetitive spinal MN activation during exercise even if some MNs failed to discharge by the brain stimulus. Here we used a modified TST (Quadruple stimulation; QuadS and Quintuple stimulation; QuintS) to examine the influence of fatiguing exercise on second and third MN discharges after......, reflecting that a greater proportion of spinal MNs were activated 2 or 3 times by the transcranial stimulus. The size of QuadS responses did not return to pre-contraction levels during 10 min observation time indicating long-lasting increase in excitatory input to spinal MNs. In addition, the post...

  7. Neural correlates of food anticipatory activity in mice subjected to once- or twice-daily feeding periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Ashutosh; Mintz, Eric M

    2017-10-01

    In rodents, restricted food access to a limited period each day at a predictable time results in the appearance of food anticipatory activity (FAA). Two shorter periods of food access each day can result in two FAA bouts. In this study, we examine FAA under 12:12 and 18:6 photoperiods in mice (Mus musculus) with one or two food access periods per day and measure the activation of the suprachiasmatic, dorsomedial and arcuate nuclei by assaying Fos protein expression, while making use of tissue-type plasminogen activator knockout mice to assess the role of neural plasticity in adaptation to restricted feeding cycles. Long days were utilised to allow for temporal separation of two restricted feeding periods during the light phase. Mice fed twice per day generally divided FAA into two distinct bouts, with mice lacking tissue-type plasminogen activator showing reduced FAA. Increases in Fos expression in response to one restricted feeding period per day were seen in the dorsomedial and arcuate nuclei in both 12:12 and 18:6 conditions, with an increase seen in the SCN in only the 12:12 condition. These increases were eliminated or reduced in the two feeding time conditions (done in 18:6 only). Both activity patterns and Fos expression differed for single restricted feeding times between 18:6 and 12:12 photoperiods. Fos activation was lower during RF in 18:6 than 12:12 across all three brain regions, a pattern not reflective of changes in FAA. These data suggest that involvement of these regions in FAA may be influenced by photoperiodic context. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPING ALONG WITH QUADRICEPS STRENGTHENING EXERCISES ON PAIN, JOINT RANGE OF MOTION AND FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES OF KNEE IN SUBJECTS WITH PATELLOFEMORAL OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Harshitha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patello femoral Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative disease in older age group, causing pain, physical disability, and decreased quality of life.As many treatment options available, kinesiotaping is an efficacious treatment for management of pain & disability in patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Previous studies have shown that kinesiotaping as well as quadriceps strengthening significantly yields functional benefits. But there is lack of evidence revealing combined effectiveness & effects of kinesiotaping along with quadriceps strengthening in subjects with patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Methods: 30 subjects with symptoms of patellofemoral osteoarthritis fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 15 in each group. Taping along with quadriceps strengthening program is compared to the quadriceps strengthening program alone. Pain were measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, knee ROM were measured by Goniometer, Functional status were measured by Western Ontario McMaster Universities index (WOMAC, score. Measurements were taken pre & post intervention. Results: The results indicated that kinesiotaping along with quadriceps strengthening exercises showed there was statistically significant improvement in pain (<0.05, knee ROM (<0.05 and functional activities (<0.05 after 6 weeks compared to quadriceps strengthening alone. Conclusion: Subjects with kinesiotaping along with quadriceps strengthening showed significant improvement in reducing pain, in improving ROM & functional activities at the end of 6th week treatment when compared to subjects with patellofemoral osteoarthritis underwent quadriceps strengthening exercises alone.

  9. 41 CFR 101-6.2103 - What programs and activities of GSA are subject to these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What programs and... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS...? The Administrator publishes in the Federal Register a list of GSA's programs and activities that are...

  10. Soluble glycoprotein VI, a specific marker of platelet activation is increased in the plasma of subjects with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Stack

    Full Text Available Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA have been shown to cause platelet activation in vitro, through the low-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG receptor (FcγRIIa on platelets. Platelet activation via engagement of FcγRIIa results in proteolytic cleavage and shedding of platelet specific glycoprotein VI (GPVI which can be detected in the plasma as soluble GPVI (sGPVI. We hypothesized that plasma levels of sGPVI would be increased among patients with seropositive RA as a consequence of antibody-induced platelet activation and GPVI shedding.Samples from 84 patients with RA (65 seropositive and 19 seronegative and 67 healthy controls were collected prospectively and analysed for sGPVI using a standardised ELISA.Patients with seropositive RA had significantly higher levels of sGPVI compared to seronegative RA and controls. Median (IQR sGPVI levels were 4.2 ng/ml (3.2, 8.0 in seropositve RA, 2.2 ng/ml (1.5, 3.5 in seronegative RA and 2.2 ng/ml (1.6, 3.4 in controls (p<0.0001. sGPVI levels correlated with ACPA titres (r = 0.32, p = 0.0026 and with RF titres (r = 0.48, p<0.0001.Plasma sGPVI, a specific marker of platelet activation is increased among patients with seropositive RA.

  11. Central ghrelin production does not substantially contribute to systemic ghrelin concentrations: a study in two subjects with active acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van der Toorn (Fanny); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); F. Broglio (Fabio); E. Ghigo (Ezio); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractINTRODUCTION: In an animal model of acromegaly (PEPCK-hGH transgenic mice), low systemic levels of ghrelin have been observed compared with normal mice. We hypothesized that systemic circulating ghrelin levels are also decreased in humans with active acromegaly and

  12. Experiences and Perceptions of STEM Subjects, Careers, and Engagement in STEM Activities among Middle School Students in the Maritime Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A.; Blotnicky, Karen; French, Frederick; Joy, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    To enhance understanding of factors that might improve STEM career participation, we assessed students' self-perceptions of competency and interest in science/math, engagement in STEM activities outside of school, and knowledge of STEM career requirements. We show that the primary positive influencer directing students to a STEM career is high…

  13. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is independently determined by obesity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Kappelle, Paul J. W. H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an emerging cardio-metabolic risk factor which is intricately involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Elevated plasma PLTP activity levels are reported in obesity and diabetes mellitus, but the relative contributions of obesity and insulin resistance to plasma

  14. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is independently determined by obesity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Background: Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an emerging cardio-metabolic risk factor which is intricately involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Elevated plasma PLTP activity levels are reported in obesity and diabetes mellitus, but the relative contributions of obesity and insulin resistance

  15. 34 CFR 79.3 - What programs and activities of the Department are subject to these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Metropolitan Development Act. (b) If a program or activity of the Department that provides Federal financial.... (5) Direct payments to individuals. (6) Financial transfers for which the Department has no funding... the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981). (7) Research and development national in...

  16. Salivary lipase and a-amylase activities are higher in overweight than in normal weight subjects: Influences on dietary beharior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennella, I.; Fogliano, V.; Vitaglione, P.

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence shows that hedonic eating, leading to overeating just for pleasure, can be driven by oro-sensory factors through the activation of reward processing and learning in the brain. Foods rich in sugars and fats are potent rewards and saliva composition influences oral taste, texture and

  17. Seasonal ovulatory activity exists in tropical Creole female goats and Black Belly ewes subjected to a temperate photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemineau, Philippe; Daveau, Agnès; Cognié, Yves; Aumont, Gilles; Chesneau, Didier

    2004-08-27

    Seasonality of ovulatory activity is observed in European sheep and goat breeds, whereas tropical breeds show almost continuous ovulatory activity. It is not known if these tropical breeds are sensitive or not to temperate photoperiod. This study was therefore designed to determine whether tropical Creole goats and Black-Belly ewes are sensitive to temperate photoperiod. Two groups of adult females in each species, either progeny or directly born from imported embryos, were used and maintained in light-proof rooms under simulated temperate (8 to 16 h of light per day) or tropical (11 - 13 h) photoperiods. Ovulatory activity was determined by blood progesterone assays for more than two years. The experiment lasted 33 months in goats and 25 months in ewes. Marked seasonality of ovulatory activity appeared in the temperate group of Creole female goats. The percentage of female goats experiencing at least one ovulation per month dramatically decreased from May to September for the three years (0%, 27% and 0%, respectively). Tropical female goats demonstrated much less seasonality, as the percentage of goats experiencing at least one ovulation per month never went below 56%. These differences were significant. Both groups of temperate and tropical Black-Belly ewes experienced a marked seasonality in their ovulatory activity, with only a slightly significant difference between groups. The percentage of ewes experiencing at least one ovulation per month dropped dramatically in April and rose again in August (tropical ewes) or September (temperate ewes). The percentage of ewes experiencing at least one ovulation per month never went below 8% and 17% (for tropical and temperate ewes respectively) during the spring and summer months. An important seasonality in ovulatory activity of tropical Creole goats was observed when females were exposed to a simulated temperate photoperiod. An unexpected finding was that Black-Belly ewes and, to a lesser extent, Creole goats exposed to

  18. Work-related psychopathology: rates in different work activities and relationship between subjective perception of work distress and psychiatric disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolfe, Giovanni; Mancini, Paola; Mancusi, Riccardo; Zontini, Gemma; Nolfe, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The link between work distress and negative mental health outcome is an emergent topic in the scientific literature. The studies that evaluated the risk of work-related psychopathologies in the different job sectors have obtained so far controversial and inconclusive results. The identification, by means of standardized evaluation tools, of the work activities at higher risk of poor mental health is a relevant target for the occupational psychiatry and medicine. To evaluate the relationship between the psychosocial work conditions and work related psychiatric disturbances and to verify the relationship between the higher pathogenic effect of work and specific job activities. A six-month diagnostic trial was conducted on 234 patients (35.4% women and 64.6% men). Psychiatric diagnoses were according to DSM-IV criteria; anxious and depressive dimensions were studied by means of Hamilton-Anxiety-Scale and Hamilton Scale for Depression; psychosocial work environments and bio-psycho-social features were measured by Naples-Questionnaire of Work Distress. Groups with higher and lower work-related pathogenesis were compared and their distribution among specific job activities was evaluated. Mood disorders were strongly linked to negative work environment. Patients with severe bullying obtained higher scores on Hamilton-Anxiety-Scale and Hamilton Scale for Depression than those with lower work-pathogenesis. The highest scores on Naples-Questionnaire of Work Distress were related to mood disorders, to poorer bio-psycho-social functioning and to higher work etiology. No significant relationship between work activities and work-related psychopathologies was found. Workplace bullying is predictive of work-related psychiatric disturbances with more severe clinical features and bio-psycho-social consequences. No significant differences were found about the relationship between work-related psychopathologies and work activities.

  19. Fear of happiness predicts subjective and psychological well-being above the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) model of personality

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yildirim; Hacer Belen

    2018-01-01

    Fear of happiness is an important psychological construct and has a significant effect on life outcomes such as well-being. This study sought to examine whether fear of happiness could explain variance in subjective well-being and psychological well-being domains after controlling for Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioral Activation System (BAS) Model of Personality. A total of 243 participants (189 males and 54 females) completed Fear of Happiness Scale, Positive-Negative Affect ...

  20. Relationships between Endogenous Plasma Biomarkers of Constitutive Cytochrome P450 3A Activity and Single-Time-Point Oral Midazolam Microdose Phenotype in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Sarah J; Beaton, Melanie D; Choi, Yun-Hee; Dresser, George K; Gryn, Steven E; Kim, Richard B; Tirona, Rommel G

    2016-04-01

    Due to high basal interindividual variation in cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity and susceptibility to drug interactions, there has been interest in the application of efficient probe drug phenotyping strategies, as well as endogenous biomarkers for assessment of in vivo CYP3A activity. The biomarkers 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4βHC) and 6β-hydroxycortisol (6βHCL) are sensitive to CYP3A induction and inhibition. However, their utility for the assessment of constitutive CYP3A activity remains uncertain. We investigated whether endogenous plasma biomarkers (4βHC and 6βHCL) are associated with basal CYP3A metabolic activity in healthy subjects assessed by a convenient single-time-point oral midazolam (MDZ) phenotyping strategy. Plasma 4βHC and 6βHCL metabolic ratios (MRs) were analysed in 51 healthy adult participants. CYP3A activity was determined after administration of an oral MDZ microdose (100 μg). Simple linear and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess relationships between MDZ oral clearance, biomarkers and subject covariates. Among study subjects, basal MDZ oral clearance, 4βHC and 6βHCL MRs ranged 6.5-, 10- and 13-fold, respectively. Participant age and alcohol consumption were negatively associated with MDZ oral clearance (p = 0.03 and p = 0.045, respectively), while weight and female sex were associated with lower plasma 4βHC MR (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.032, respectively). Neither 4βHC nor 6βHCL MRs were associated with MDZ oral clearance. Plasma 4βHC and 6βHCL MRs do not relate to MDZ single-time-point metabolic phenotype in the assessment of constitutive CYP3A activity among healthy individuals. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  1. Activities of fructan- and sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in wheat stems subjected to water stress during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianchang; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zhiqing; Zhu, Qingsen; Liu, Lijun

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated if a controlled water deficit during grain filling of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) could accelerate grain filling by facilitating the remobilization of carbon reserves in the stem through regulating the enzymes involved in fructan and sucrose metabolism. Two high lodging-resistant wheat cultivars were grown in pots and treated with either a normal (NN) or high amount of nitrogen (HN) at heading time. Plants were either well-watered (WW) or water-stressed (WS) from 9 days post anthesis until maturity. Leaf water potentials markedly decreased at midday as a result of water stress but completely recovered by early morning. Photosynthetic rate and zeatin + zeatin riboside concentrations in the flag leaves declined faster in WS plants than in WW plants, and they decreased more slowly with HN than with NN when soil water potential was the same, indicating that the water deficit enhanced, whereas HN delayed, senescence. Water stress, both at NN and HN, facilitated the reduction in concentration of total nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and fructans in the stems but increased the sucrose level there, promoted the re-allocation of pre-fixed (14)C from the stems to grains, shortened the grain-filling period, and accelerated the grain-filling rate. Grain weight and grain yield were increased under the controlled water deficit when HN was applied. Fructan exohydrolase (FEH; EC 3.2.1.80) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) activities were substantially enhanced by water stress and positively correlated with the total NSC and fructan remobilization from the stems. Acid invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) activity was also enhanced by the water stress and associated with the change in fructan concentration, but not correlated with the total NSC remobilization and (14)C increase in the grains. Sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99) activity was inhibited by the water stress and negatively correlated with the remobilization of carbon reserves

  2. T1rho, T{sub 2} and focal knee cartilage abnormalities in physically active and sedentary healthy subjects versus early OA patients - a 3.0-Tesla MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Robert [University of California, San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); University Hospitals-Campus Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Luke, Anthony; Ma, C.B. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA (United States); Li, Xiaojuan; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2009-01-15

    (1) To assess the degree of focal cartilage abnormalities in physically active and sedentary healthy subjects as well as in patients with early osteoarthritis (OA). (2) To determine the diagnostic value of T2 and T1rho measurements in identifying asymptomatic physically active subjects with focal cartilage lesions. Thirteen asymptomatic physically active subjects, 7 asymptomatic sedentary subjects, and 17 patients with mild OA underwent 3.0-T MRI of the knee joint. T1rho and T2 values, cartilage volume and thickness, as well as the WORMS scores were obtained. Nine out of 13 active healthy subjects had focal cartilage abnormalities. T1rho and T2 values in active subjects with and without focal cartilage abnormalities differed significantly (p<0.05). T1rho and T2 values were significantly higher (p<0.05) in early OA patients compared to healthy subjects. T1rho measurements were superior to T2 in differentiating OA patients from healthy subjects, yet T1rho was moderately age-dependent. (1) Active subjects showed a high prevalence of focal cartilage abnormalities and (2) active subjects with and without focal cartilage abnormalities had different T1rho and T2 composition of cartilage. Thus, T1rho and T2 could be a parameter suited to identify active healthy subjects at higher risk for developing cartilage pathology. (orig.)

  3. A point-wise fiber Bragg grating displacement sensing system and its application for active vibration suppression of a smart cantilever beam subjected to multiple impact loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Kuo-Chih; Ma, Chien-Ching; Liao, Heng-Tseng

    2012-01-01

    In this work, active vibration suppression of a smart cantilever beam subjected to disturbances from multiple impact loadings is investigated with a point-wise fiber Bragg grating (FBG) displacement sensing system. An FBG demodulator is employed in the proposed fiber sensing system to dynamically demodulate the responses obtained by the FBG displacement sensor with high sensitivity. To investigate the ability of the proposed FBG displacement sensor as a feedback sensor, velocity feedback control and delay control are employed to suppress the vibrations of the first three bending modes of the smart cantilever beam. To improve the control performance for the first bending mode when the cantilever beam is subjected to an impact loading, we improve the conventional velocity feedback controller by tuning the control gain online with the aid of information from a higher vibration mode. Finally, active control of vibrations induced by multiple impact loadings due to a plastic ball is performed with the improved velocity feedback control. The experimental results show that active vibration control of smart structures subjected to disturbances such as impact loadings can be achieved by employing the proposed FBG sensing system to feed back out-of-plane point-wise displacement responses with high sensitivity. (paper)

  4. Tiredness in daily activities: a subjective measure for the identification of frailty among non-disabled community-living older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the responses to questions about tiredness in daily activities is an early subjective sign of frailty indicating older community-living adults at increased risk for disability and mortality. Tiredness in daily activities as measured by the Mob......-T Scale, maximal power in sustained work, and comorbid diseases were assessed together with sociodemographic variables in a sample of 705 non-disabled, 70-year old men and women surveyed in 1984. Vital status of members was determined prospectively over the next 15 years. Onset of disability was measured...

  5. T cell activation and proliferation following acute exercise in human subjects is altered by storage conditions and mitogen selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlik, Jacob A; Deckert, Jake A; Benedict, Stephen H; Bhatta, Anuja; Dunbar, Amanda J; Vardiman, John P; Gallagher, Philip M

    2017-07-01

    Recent work investigating exercise induced changes in immunocompetence suggests that some of the ambiguity in the literature is resultant from different cell isolation protocols and mitogen selection. To understand this effect, we compared post-exercise measures of T cell activation and proliferation using two different stimulation methods (costimulation through CD28 or stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin [PHA]). Further, we investigated whether exercise induced changes are maintained when T cell isolation from whole blood is delayed overnight in either a room temperature or chilled (4°C) environment. As expected, an increased proliferation response was observed post-exercise in T cells isolated from whole blood of previously trained individuals immediately after blood collection. Also, cells stimulated with PHA after resting overnight in whole blood were not adversely impacted by the storage conditions. In contrast, allowing cells to rest overnight in whole blood prior to stimulation through CD28, lessened the proliferation observed by cells following exercise rendering both the room temperature and chilled samples closer to the results seen in the control condition. Changes in early markers of activation (CD25), followed a similar pattern, with activation in PHA stimulated cells remaining fairly robust after overnight storage; whereas cell activation following stimulation through CD3+CD28 was disproportionately decreased by the influence of overnight storage. These findings indicate that decisions regarding cell stimulation methods need to be paired with the timeline for T cell isolation from whole blood. These considerations will be especially important for field based studies of immunocompetence where there is a delay in getting whole blood samples to a lab for processing as well as clinical applications where a failure to isolate T cells in a timely manner may result in loss of the response of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CHARACTERISTICS AND DURABILITY OF ALKALI ACTIVATED SLAG-MICROSILICA PASTES SUBJECTED TO SULPHATE AND CHLORIDE IONS ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Heikal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to produce cementless eco-friendly binding material using alkaline activation of blast-furnace slag (GBFS and microsilica (MS. The preparation of cementless binding material was conducted with different GBFS-MS mass ratios (100:0; 98:2; 96:4; 92:8 with 0.75:0.50; Na2O:SiO2 mol kg-1 of GBFS-MS. The characteristics and durability of alkali activated GBFS and MS mixes were studied. Chemically combined water, combined slag contents as well as compressive strength increase with MS up to 4 mass %, then decreases with MS up to 8 mass %. Increase of MS content up to 8 mass %, the compressive strength shows a lower values at early ages (3-14 days. But, at later age up to 28-90 days, the compressive strength values increase. SEM micrographs show the presence of C-S-H and (N,C-A-S-H gel with low porosity. The alkali activated GBFS-MS pastes are more durable in 5 % MgSO4or 5 % MgCl2 solution than ordinary Portland cement (OPC up to 180 days.

  7. Cortical regions activated by the subjective sense of perceptual coherence of environmental sounds: a proposal for a neuroscience of intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Kirsten G; Rübsamen, Rudolf; von Cramon, D Yves

    2008-09-01

    According to the Oxford English Dictionary, intuition is "the ability to understand or know something immediately, without conscious reasoning." In other words, people continuously, without conscious attention, recognize patterns in the stream of sensations that impinge upon them. The result is a vague perception of coherence, which subsequently biases thought and behavior accordingly. Within the visual domain, research using paradigms with difficult recognition has suggested that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) serves as a fast detector and predictor of potential content that utilizes coarse facets of the input. To investigate whether the OFC is crucial in biasing task-specific processing, and hence subserves intuitive judgments in various modalities, we used a difficult-recognition paradigm in the auditory domain. Participants were presented with short sequences of distorted, nonverbal, environmental sounds and had to perform a sound categorization task. Imaging results revealed rostral medial OFC activation for such auditory intuitive coherence judgments. By means of a conjunction analysis between the present results and those from a previous study on visual intuitive coherence judgments, the rostral medial OFC was shown to be activated via both modalities. We conclude that rostral OFC activation during intuitive coherence judgments subserves the detection of potential content on the basis of only coarse facets of the input.

  8. The Active Subjects of Welfare Reform: a Street-Level Comparison of Employment Services in Australia and Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the similarities and differences between Denmark and Australia in adopting welfare reform activation measures in the field of employment services. In Australia and Denmark the discourse of welfare reform centres the 'activation' of citizens through 'mutual obligation' type requirements. Through various forms of case management, unemployed individuals are encouraged to act upon themselves in creating the right set of ethical dispositions congruent with 'active citizenship'. At the same time any resistance to heightened conditionality on the part of the unemployed person is dealt with through a range of coercive and disciplinary techniques. A comparative case study between these two countries allows us to consider how similar ideas, discourse and principles are shaping policy implementation in countries that have very different welfare state trajectories and institutional arrangements for the delivery of social welfare generally and employment services specifically. And in research terms, a comparison between a Nordic welfare state and an Anglo-Saxon welfare state provides an opportunity to critically examine the utility of 'welfare regime' type analyses and the neo-liberal convergence thesis in comparative welfare research. On the basis of empirical analysis, the article concludes that a single focus on abstract typologies or political ideologies is not very helpful in getting the measure of welfare reform (or any other major policy development for that matter. At the 'street-level' of policy practice there is considerably more ambiguity, incoherence and contradiction than is suggested by linear accounts of welfare reform.

  9. Ongoing activity in temporally coherent networks predicts intra-subject fluctuation of response time to sporadic executive control demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Takayuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Ihara, Mizuki; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kanno, Akitake; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-01-01

    Can ongoing fMRI BOLD signals predict fluctuations in swiftness of a person's response to sporadic cognitive demands? This is an important issue because it clarifies whether intrinsic brain dynamics, for which spatio-temporal patterns are expressed as temporally coherent networks (TCNs), have effects not only on sensory or motor processes, but also on cognitive processes. Predictivity has been affirmed, although to a limited extent. Expecting a predictive effect on executive performance for a wider range of TCNs constituting the cingulo-opercular, fronto-parietal, and default mode networks, we conducted an fMRI study using a version of the color-word Stroop task that was specifically designed to put a higher load on executive control, with the aim of making its fluctuations more detectable. We explored the relationships between the fluctuations in ongoing pre-trial activity in TCNs and the task response time (RT). The results revealed the existence of TCNs in which fluctuations in activity several seconds before the onset of the trial predicted RT fluctuations for the subsequent trial. These TCNs were distributed in the cingulo-opercular and fronto-parietal networks, as well as in perceptual and motor networks. Our results suggest that intrinsic brain dynamics in these networks constitute "cognitive readiness," which plays an active role especially in situations where information for anticipatory attention control is unavailable. Fluctuations in these networks lead to fluctuations in executive control performance.

  10. Comparison of erector spinae and hamstring muscle activities and lumbar motion during standing knee flexion in subjects with and without lumbar extension rotation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si-hyun; Kwon, Oh-yun; Park, Kyue-nam; Kim, Moon-Hwan

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the activity of the erector spinae (ES) and hamstring muscles and the amount and onset of lumbar motion during standing knee flexion between individuals with and without lumbar extension rotation syndrome. Sixteen subjects with lumbar extension rotation syndrome (10 males, 6 females) and 14 healthy subjects (8 males, 6 females) participated in this study. During the standing knee flexion, surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscle activity, and surface EMG electrodes were attached to both the ES and hamstring (medial and lateral) muscles. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to measure kinematic data of the lumbar spine. An independent-t test was conducted for the statistical analysis. The group suffering from lumbar extension rotation syndrome exhibited asymmetric muscle activation of the ES and decreased hamstring activity. Additionally, the group with lumbar extension rotation syndrome showed greater and earlier lumbar extension and rotation during standing knee flexion compared to the control group. These data suggest that asymmetric ES muscle activation and a greater amount of and earlier lumbar motion in the sagittal and transverse plane during standing knee flexion may be an important factor contributing to low back pain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activity in methemoglobin reduction by methylene blue and cyst amine: study on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient individuals, on normal subjects and on riboflavin-treated subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Barraviera

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors have standardized methods for evaluation of the activity of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and of glutathione reductase. The general principle of the first method was based on methemoglobin formation by sodium nitrite followed by stimulation of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with methylene blue. Forty six adults (23 males and 23 females were studied. Subjects were not G6PD deficient and were aged 20 to 30 years. The results showed that methemoglobin reduction by methylene blue was 154.40 and 139.90 mg/min (p<0.05 for males and females, respectively, in whole blood, and 221.10 and 207.85 mg/min (n.s., respectively, in washed red cells. These data showed that using washed red cells and 0.7g% sodium nitrite concentration produced no differences between sexes and also shortened reading time for the residual amount of methemoglobin to 90 minutes. Glutathione reductase activity was evaluated on the basis of the fact that cystamine (a thiol agent binds to the SH groups of hemoglobin, forming complexes. These complexes are reversed by the action of glutathione reductase, with methemoglobin reduction occurring simultaneously with this reaction. Thirty two adults (16 males and 16 females were studied. Subjects were not G6PD deficient and were aged 20 to 30 years. Methemoglobin reduction by cystamine was 81.27 and 91.13 mg/min (p<0.01 for males and females, respectively. These data showed that using washed red cells and 0.1 M cystamine concentration permits a reading of the residual amount of methemoglobin at 180 minutes of incubation. Glutathione reductase activity was evaluated by methemoglobin reduction by cystamine in 14 females before and after treatment with 10 mg riboflavin per day for 8 days. The results were 73.69 and 94.26 jug/min (p<0.01 before and after treatment, showing that riboflavin treatment increase glutathione reductase activity even in normal individuals. Three Black G6PD-deficient individuals (2 males and 1

  12. The impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program in older adults with schizophrenia on subjectively and objectively measured physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eLeutwyler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA on physical activity in older adults with schizophrenia. Methods: In this one group pretest posttest pilot study, twenty participants played an active videogame for 30 minutes, once a week for 6 weeks. Physical activity was measured by self-report with the Yale Physical Activity Survey and objectively with the Sensewear Pro armband at enrollment and at the end of the 6-week program. Results: There was a significant increase in frequency of self-reported vigorous physical activity. We did not detect a statistically significant difference in objectively measured physical activity although increase in number of steps and sedentary activity were in the desired direction. Conclusions: These results suggest participants’ perception of physical activity intensity differs from the intensity objectively captured with a valid and reliable physical activity monitor.

  13. The Impact of a Videogame-Based Pilot Physical Activity Program in Older Adults with Schizophrenia on Subjectively and Objectively Measured Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin; Cooper, Bruce; Dowling, Glenna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA) on physical activity in older adults with schizophrenia. In this one group pre-test, post-test pilot study, 20 participants played an active videogame for 30 min, once a week for 6 weeks. Physical activity was measured by self-report with the Yale Physical Activity Survey and objectively with the Sensewear Pro armband at enrollment and at the end of the 6-week program. There was a significant increase in frequency of self-reported vigorous physical activity. We did not detect a statistically significant difference in objectively measured physical activity although increase in number of steps and sedentary activity were in the desired direction. These results suggest participants' perception of physical activity intensity differs from the intensity objectively captured with a valid and reliable physical activity monitor.

  14. Antiviral activity of dolutegravir in subjects with failure on an integrase inhibitor-based regimen: week 24 phase 3 results from VIKING-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, G; Mills, A; Grossberg, R; Lazzarin, A; Maggiolo, F; Molina, J; Pialoux, G; Wright, D; Ait-Khaled, M; Huang, J; Vavro, C; Wynne, B; Yeo, J

    2012-01-01

    Background VIKING-3 aimed to examine efficacy and safety of dolutegravir (DTG) 50 mg twice daily in patients with resistance to multiple ARV classes, including integrase inhibitors (INI). Methods RAL and/or EVG-resistant (current or historical) adult subjects with screening plasma HIV-1 RNA ≥500 c/mL and resistance to ≥2 other ART classes received open-label DTG 50 mg BID while continuing their failing regimen (without RAL/EVG). At Day 8 the background regimen was optimised and DTG continued. Activity of the optimized background regimen (OBR) was determined by Monogram Net Assessment. Primary endpoints were antiviral efficacy at Day 8 and Week 24. Results 183 subjects enrolled, 124 with INI-resistance at screening and 59 with historical (but no screening) resistance. Population was advanced: at BL, median CD4 140, prior ART 13 yrs, 56% CDC Class C; 79% had >2 NRTI, 75% >1 NNRTI, and 70% >2 PI resistance-associated mutations, and 61% had non-R5 HIV detected. Of the 114 subjects who had the opportunity to complete 24 weeks on study before data cutoff, 72 (63%) had 1 log HIV RNA decline of 2, respectively. Discontinuations due to adverse events were uncommon (6/183, 3%); the most common drug-related AEs were diarrhoea, nausea and headache, each reported in only 5% of subjects. Conclusion A majority of the highly treatment-experienced subjects in VIKING-3 achieved suppression with DTG-based therapy. Responses were associated with Baseline IN genotype but not OSS, highlighting the importance and independence of DTG antiviral activity. DTG had a low rate of discontinuation due to adverse events at 50 mg BID in this advanced patient population.

  15. Increased parietal circuit-breaker activity in delta frequency band and abnormal delta/theta band connectivity in salience network in hyperacusis subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Joon Han

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that hyperacusis, an abnormal hypersensitivity to ordinary environmental sounds, may be characterized by certain resting-state cortical oscillatory patterns, even with no sound stimulus. However, previous studies are limited in that most studied subjects with other comorbidities that may have affected cortical activity. In this regard, to assess ongoing cortical oscillatory activity in idiopathic hyperacusis patients with no comorbidities, we compared differences in resting-state cortical oscillatory patterns between five idiopathic hyperacusis subjects and five normal controls. The hyperacusis group demonstrated significantly higher electrical activity in the right auditory-related cortex for the gamma frequency band and left superior parietal lobule (SPL for the delta frequency band versus the control group. The hyperacusis group also showed significantly decreased functional connectivity between the left auditory cortex (AC and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, between the left AC and left subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC for the gamma band, and between the right insula and bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and between the left AC and left sgACC for the theta band versus the control group. The higher electrical activity in the SPL may indicate a readiness of "circuit-breaker" activity to shift attention to forthcoming sound stimuli. Also, because of the disrupted salience network, consisting of the dACC and insula, abnormally increased salience to all sound stimuli may emerge, as a consequence of decreased top-down control of the AC by the dACC and dysfunctional emotional weight attached to auditory stimuli by the OFC. Taken together, abnormally enhanced attention and salience to forthcoming sound stimuli may render hyperacusis subjects hyperresponsive to non-noxious auditory stimuli.

  16. Change in brain activity through virtual reality-based brain-machine communication in a chronic tetraplegic subject with muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yasunari; Ushiba, Junichi; Kimura, Akio; Liu, Meigen; Tomita, Yutaka

    2010-09-16

    For severely paralyzed people, a brain-computer interface (BCI) provides a way of re-establishing communication. Although subjects with muscular dystrophy (MD) appear to be potential BCI users, the actual long-term effects of BCI use on brain activities in MD subjects have yet to be clarified. To investigate these effects, we followed BCI use by a chronic tetraplegic subject with MD over 5 months. The topographic changes in an electroencephalogram (EEG) after long-term use of the virtual reality (VR)-based BCI were also assessed. Our originally developed BCI system was used to classify an EEG recorded over the sensorimotor cortex in real time and estimate the user's motor intention (MI) in 3 different limb movements: feet, left hand, and right hand. An avatar in the internet-based VR was controlled in accordance with the results of the EEG classification by the BCI. The subject was trained to control his avatar via the BCI by strolling in the VR for 1 hour a day and then continued the same training twice a month at his home. After the training, the error rate of the EEG classification decreased from 40% to 28%. The subject successfully walked around in the VR using only his MI and chatted with other users through a voice-chat function embedded in the internet-based VR. With this improvement in BCI control, event-related desynchronization (ERD) following MI was significantly enhanced (p < 0.01) for feet MI (from -29% to -55%), left-hand MI (from -23% to -42%), and right-hand MI (from -22% to -51%). These results show that our subject with severe MD was able to learn to control his EEG signal and communicate with other users through use of VR navigation and suggest that an internet-based VR has the potential to provide paralyzed people with the opportunity for easy communication.

  17. Change in brain activity through virtual reality-based brain-machine communication in a chronic tetraplegic subject with muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Meigen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For severely paralyzed people, a brain-computer interface (BCI provides a way of re-establishing communication. Although subjects with muscular dystrophy (MD appear to be potential BCI users, the actual long-term effects of BCI use on brain activities in MD subjects have yet to be clarified. To investigate these effects, we followed BCI use by a chronic tetraplegic subject with MD over 5 months. The topographic changes in an electroencephalogram (EEG after long-term use of the virtual reality (VR-based BCI were also assessed. Our originally developed BCI system was used to classify an EEG recorded over the sensorimotor cortex in real time and estimate the user's motor intention (MI in 3 different limb movements: feet, left hand, and right hand. An avatar in the internet-based VR was controlled in accordance with the results of the EEG classification by the BCI. The subject was trained to control his avatar via the BCI by strolling in the VR for 1 hour a day and then continued the same training twice a month at his home. Results After the training, the error rate of the EEG classification decreased from 40% to 28%. The subject successfully walked around in the VR using only his MI and chatted with other users through a voice-chat function embedded in the internet-based VR. With this improvement in BCI control, event-related desynchronization (ERD following MI was significantly enhanced (p Conclusions These results show that our subject with severe MD was able to learn to control his EEG signal and communicate with other users through use of VR navigation and suggest that an internet-based VR has the potential to provide paralyzed people with the opportunity for easy communication.

  18. The modulation of venlafaxine on cortical activation of language area in healthy subjects with fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Liu, Yan; Li, Chun-Yong; Song, Xue-Zhu; Wang, Jun; Han, Li-Xin; Bai, Hong-Min

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, activators of the cortex, apparently improved language functional recovery after brain damage rather than simply affective disorders. Our aim was to determine whether venlafaxine (an agonist of both norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine) could modulate language cortex function. A double-blind, crossover, randomized design was used to compare two 7-day treatment sessions with either venlafaxine (75 mg per day) or placebo. A functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment and two language function tests were performed on eight healthy males (mean age, 28.25 ± 3.15 years) at the end of each session, i.e., study entry, after venlafaxine, and after placebo (days 0, 7, and 18). Hyperactivation (venlafaxine minus placebo >0) or hypoactivation (placebo minus venlafaxine >0) by venlaxafine was assessed on the basis of the activation-baseline contrast. The naming score (P gyrus frontalis medius and the bilateral fusiform gyrus and the bilateral outer occipital lobes, (2) hyperactivation was observed in the adjoining area of posterior upper Broca area and premotor area in the dominant hemisphere in venlafaxine session (after venlafaxine), (3) the hyperactivation of the left gyrus frontalis medius on fMRI and the increase in naming test score were positively correlated, and (4) by contrast, we observed hypoactivation in the temporo-parieto-occipital region in venlafaxine session (after venlafaxine). This improvement may be related to increased phonics-related output in the frontal language cortex of the dominant hemisphere.

  19. Uric acid but not apple polyphenols is responsible for the rise of plasma antioxidant activity after apple juice consumption in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Krol, Maciej; Krol, Bogusław; Zwolinska, Anna; Kolodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Kasielski, Marek; Padula, Gianluca; Grebowski, Jacek; Grębocki, Jacek; Kazmierska, Paulina; Kazimierska, Paulina; Miatkowski, Marcin; Markowski, Jarosław; Nowak, Dariusz

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether (1) rapid consumption of 1 L of apple juice increases blood antioxidant capacity, measured as ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and serum 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, and (2) apple polyphenols or fructose-induced elevation of plasma uric acid contributes to post-juice increase of blood antioxidant activity. The study involved 12 (mean age 32 ± 5 years, mean body weight 73 ± 7 kg) healthy nonsmoking subjects. Tested subjects consumed 1 L of clear apple juice and then FRAP; serum DPPH-scavenging activity, serum uric acid, and total plasma phenolics and quercetin levels were measured just before juice ingestion and 1, 2.5, and 4 hours after ingestion. This was repeated 3 times with 4-day intervals, but volunteers drank either 1 L of clear apple juice without polyphenols (placebo), or 1 L of cloudy apple juice (positive control), or 1 L of water (negative control) at the time. All juices had similar content of sugars (i.e., saccharose, glucose, and fructose) and precisely defined composition of phenolics and antioxidant activity. Consumption of all 3 juices transiently increased FRAP and serum DPPH-scavenging activity, with peak values at 1 hour post-juice ingestion. This was paralleled by the rise of serum uric acid, but no significant changes in plasma total phenolics and quercetin levels were observed after all dietary interventions. At the same time, no substantial differences were found between juices (especially between clear apple juice and clear apple juice without polyphenols) concerning the measured variables. A strong significant correlation was noted instead between serum uric acid and plasma antioxidant activity at all analyzed time points, before and after juice ingestion. Plasma total phenolics and quercetin levels were not associated with FRAP and serum DPPH radical-scavenging activity. We have demonstrated that rapid consumption of apple juice increased plasma antioxidant activity in

  20. Instant, Visual, and Instrument-Free Method for On-Site Screening of GTS 40-3-2 Soybean Based on Body-Heat Triggered Recombinase Polymerase Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Liu; Qian, Wenjuan; Qian, Cheng; Wu, Jian; Ying, Yibin

    2017-04-18

    On-site monitoring the plantation of genetically modified (GM) crops is of critical importance in agriculture industry throughout the world. In this paper, a simple, visual and instrument-free method for instant on-site detection of GTS 40-3-2 soybean has been developed. It is based on body-heat recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and followed with naked-eye detection via fluorescent DNA dye. Combining with extremely simplified sample preparation, the whole detection process can be accomplished within 10 min and the fluorescent results can be photographed by an accompanied smart phone. Results demonstrated a 100% detection rate for screening of practical GTS 40-3-2 soybean samples by 20 volunteers under different ambient temperatures. This method is not only suitable for on-site detection of GM crops but also demonstrates great potential to be applied in other fields.

  1. Modeling for analysis of the effect of Young's modulus on soft active hydrogels subject to pH stimulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hua; Ng, Teng Yong; Yew, Yong Kin

    2009-01-01

    Modeling is conducted in this paper for analysis of the influence of Young's modulus on the response of soft active hydrogels to environmental solution pH changes. A chemo–electro–mechanical formulation termed the multi-effect-coupling pH-stimulus (MECpH) model, which was developed previously according to linear elastic theory for small deformation description, is improved in this paper through incorporation of the finite deformation formulation into the mechanical equilibrium equation. The model is expressed by coupled nonlinear partial differential equations and solved via the meshless Hermite-cloud method with the modified Newton iteration technique. The improved MECpH model is examined by comparison between the computational and published experimental results. Numerical studies are then done on the influence of Young's modulus on the distributive variations of the diffusive ion concentrations and electric potential, and on the deformation variations of the pH-stimulus-responsive hydrogels within different buffered solutions

  2. THE EXAMINATION OF THE RESIDENTS’ ACTIVITIES AND DEDICATION TO THE LOCAL COMMUNITY — AN AGRITOURISM ACCESS TO THE SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko D. Petrović

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with conceptual guidelines, basic aspects and spatial frameworks of the development of agritourism. The holistic approach, in this regard, includes the integrated and the comprehensive aspects of tourist stays in the countryside. The authors define the impact of agritourism on rural surroundings and analyze the influence of spending leisure time outside urban areas and consuming agritourism activities. Understanding the many components of agritourism is essential for future planning, management, business decisions and strategies. For success in agritourism, knowledge is necessary in many economic fields, including organization, management and marketing, among others. In addition, this article emphasizes products and services in agritourism and provides insight into the facilities and opportunities that are offered to tourists in rural areas. The research findings represent a useful tool for obtaining information about many elements of agritourism development and can serve as a relevant instrument in travel industry research or in academic investigation.

  3. Can active music-making ameliorate neglect? An assessor-blind, within-subject, controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodak, Rebeka; Mazhari-Jensen, Daniel; Evald, Lars

    -aligned instrument from the stroke survivor’s right side into their left neglected space; the control involves playing novel rhythmic patterns on a single drum at midline. We hypothesise that the stroke survivors will perform better after the intervention than after the control on clinical neglect tests......Neglect often manifests following a right hemisphere stroke, and it is a strong predictor of poor rehabilitation outcome. Although many neglect interventions exist, systematic reviews repeatedly highlight that they yield limited clinical effectiveness and that there is little to no evidence of any...... functional gains. Drawing on recent successful case study pilot work, the aim of the present study is to investigate the impact of an active music-making intervention compared with a control. Stroke survivors with a diagnosis of neglect will be invited to participate in an assessor-blind, within...

  4. Evaluation of jaw and neck muscle activities while chewing using EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tomohiro; Narita, Noriyuki; Endo, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to quantitatively clarify the physiological features in rhythmically coordinated jaw and neck muscle EMG activities while chewing gum using EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses in 20 healthy subjects. The chewing side masseter muscle EMG signal was used as the reference signal, while the other jaw (non-chewing side masseter muscle, bilateral anterior temporal muscles, and bilateral anterior digastric muscles) and neck muscle (bilateral sternocleidomastoid muscles) EMG signals were used as the examined signals in EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses. Chewing-related jaw and neck muscle activities were aggregated in the first peak of the power spectrum in rhythmic chewing. The gain in the peak frequency represented the power relationships between jaw and neck muscle activities during rhythmic chewing. The phase in the peak frequency represented the temporal relationships between the jaw and neck muscle activities, while the non-chewing side neck muscle presented a broad range of distributions across jaw closing and opening phases. Coherence in the peak frequency represented the synergistic features in bilateral jaw closing muscles and chewing side neck muscle activities. The coherence and phase in non-chewing side neck muscle activities exhibited a significant negative correlation. From above, the bilateral coordination between the jaw and neck muscle activities is estimated while chewing when the non-chewing side neck muscle is synchronously activated with the jaw closing muscles, while the unilateral coordination is estimated when the non-chewing side neck muscle is irregularly activated in the jaw opening phase. Thus, the occurrence of bilateral or unilateral coordinated features in the jaw and neck muscle activities may correspond to the phase characteristics in the non-chewing side neck muscle activities during rhythmical chewing. Considering these novel findings in healthy subjects, EMG

  5. The effect of hip abduction on the EMG activity of vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis longus and vastus lateralis obliquus in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arakaki Juliano

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design Controlled laboratory study. Objectives The purposes of this paper were to investigate (d whether vastus medialis obliquus (VMO, vastus lateralis longus (VLL and vastus lateralis obliquus (VLO EMG activity can be influenced by hip abduction performed by healthy subjects. Background Some clinicians contraindicate hip abduction for patellofemoral patients (with based on the premise that hip abduction could facilitate the VLL muscle activation leading to a VLL and VMO imbalance Methods and measures Twenty-one clinically healthy subjects were involved in the study, 10 women and 11 men (aged X = 23.3 ± 2.9. The EMG signals were collected using a computerized EMG VIKING II, with 8 channels and three pairs of surface electrodes. EMG activity was obtained from MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in a seated position and MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° with patients in side-lying position with the knee in full extension. The data were normalized in the MVIC knee extension at 50° of flexion in a seated position, and were submitted to ANOVA test with subsequent application of the Bonferroni multiple comparisons analysis test. The level of significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Results The VLO muscle demonstrated a similar pattern to the VMO muscle showing higher EMG activity in MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion compared with MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction for male (p Conclusion The results showed that no selective EMG activation was observed when comparison was made between the VMO, VLL and VLO muscles while performing MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction and MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in both male and female subjects. Our findings demonstrate that hip abduction do not facilitated VLL and VLO activity in relation to the VMO, however, this study included only healthy subjects performing maximum voluntary isometric contraction contractions, therefore much remains to be discovered by

  6. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Activation energy of viscous flow. Density and viscosity of magnesium sulphate formamide + ethylene glycol mixed solvents ... high average power TEA CO2 laser. 659. Carpaine ... organic sulphides 2,2′-bipyridinium chlo- rochromate. 137.

  7. Effect of 3-Day Bed Rest on the Basal Sympathetic Activity and Responsiveness of this System to Physiological Stimuli In Athletes and Sedentary Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorawinski, Jerzy; Adrian, Jacek; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Greenleaf, John E.; Dalton, P. Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to examine the effect of three days of bed rest (BR) on basal plasma epinephrine [E] and norepinephrine [NE] and the catecholamine responses to various physiological stimuli, and (2) to find out whether previous physical activity modifies effects of BR. In the first series, 29 young men (11 sedentary students, 8 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test in supine position and to active orthostatic test before and after 3 days of BR. Plasma [E] and [NE] were measured after overnight fast (basal condition), at 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion (70 a), and at the 8th min of unsupported standing. In the second series, other 22 subjects (12 sedentary students, 10 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to 2 min cold pressor test (CPT) and exercise. Plasma E and NE were determined in the supine position after overnight fast and at 60th and 120th s of hand cooling. Then, after breakfast followed by 2-3 hour sitting, the subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise with workload increasing until volitional exhaustion. Plasma [E] and [NE] were determined at the end of each load. Plasma catecholamines were determined made radioenzymatically. After BR, basal plasma [NE] was decreased in endurance and strength athletes (psedentary subjects. In neither group BR affected the basal [E]. Responses of both catecholamines to glucose load were diminished after BR in all three groups (pwork intensity after than before BR (p<0.05).

  8. Hyperplastic Growth of Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells from Subjects with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Is Activated through JNK and p38 MAPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Wilson

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle in the pulmonary artery of PAH subjects, both idiopathic and hereditary, is characterized by hyperplasia. Smooth muscle cells (HPASMC isolated from subjects with or without PAH retain their in vivo phenotype as illustrated by their expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and expression of H-caldesmon. Both non PAH and PAH HPASMC display a lengthy, approximately 94h, cell cycle. The HPASMC from both idiopathic and hereditary PAH display an abnormal proliferation characterized by continued growth under non-proliferative, non-growth stimulated conditions. This effector independent proliferation is JNK and p38 MAP kinase dependent. Blocking the activation of either abrogates the HPASMC growth. HPASMC from non PAH donors under quiescent conditions display negligible proliferation but divide upon exposure to growth factors such as PDGF-BB or FGF2 but not EGF. This growth does not involve the MAP kinases. Instead it routes via the tyrosine kinase receptor through mTOR and then 6SK. In the PAH cells PDGF-BB and FGF2 augment the dysregulated cell proliferation, also through mTOR/6SK. Additionally, blocking the activation of mTOR also modulates the MAP kinase promoted dysregulated growth. These results highlight key alterations in the growth of HPASMC from subjects with PAH which contribute to the etiology of the disease and can clearly be targeted at various regulatory points for future therapies.

  9. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Ae; Song, Chorong; Oh, Yun-Ah; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Son, Ki-Cheol

    2017-09-20

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD) method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS). Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln) ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2-3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  10. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Ae Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV, prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS. Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2–3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  11. Elevation of serum insulin concentration during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies leads to similar activation of insulin receptor kinase in skeletal muscle of subjects with and without NIDDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, H H; Vestergaard, H; Kotzke, G

    1995-01-01

    The role of skeletal muscle insulin receptor kinase in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was investigated. Muscle biopsies from 13 patients with NIDDM and 10 control subjects at fasting serum insulin concentrations and approximately 1,000 pmol/l steady-state serum...... insulin during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps were immediately frozen. The biopsies were then solubilized, and the receptors were immobilized to anti-insulin receptor antibody-coated microwells. Receptor kinase and binding activities were consecutively measured in these wells. The increase in serum...... and control groups, respectively). Moreover, by selecting only the receptors that bound to anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, we found similar hyperinsulinemia-induced increases of this receptor fraction and its kinase activity in both study groups. In vitro activation of the immobilized receptors with 2 mmol...

  12. Identification of subjects for social responsibility education at universities and the present activity at the university of Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karima, Risuke; Oshima, Yoshito; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The management of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has recently become a critical concern for companies in advanced countries. For universities, there is a requirement to contribute to the promotion of CSR, resulting in graduates who have sufficient cognition of and a good attitude towards CSR. In addition, universities have social responsibilities, which can be called "University Social Responsibility (USR)." On the basis of the concepts of the guidelines for CSR in the "Green Paper," which was presented by the European Committee (EC) in 2001, we provide a perspective here on what factors dictate the establishment of education programs for social responsibilities at universities. These factors include an outline of the concepts and the significance of CSR, social ethics and the morals of higher education and research, compliances, human resource management, human rights, safety and health in academic settings, and various concerns regarding environmental safety and preservation. Additionally, through the concept postulated here for social responsible education, in this paper, we introduce the present activity at the University of Tokyo (UT) in terms of the education program for CSR and USR, proposing that the future establishment of university-wide education programs based on the concept of CSR and the value of sustainability is required at UT.

  13. The in vivo neutron activation analysis of calcium in the skeleton of normal subjects, with hypokinesia and bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.Ye.

    1993-01-01

    A facility developed for the in-vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium in some parts of tubular limb bones, in the hand, foot and spine is described. The 48 Ca(n,γ) 49 Ca reaction is used, the gamma-rays of 49 Ca (Eγ = 3.08 MeV, T 1/2 = 8.8 min) are measured. The irradiation is carried out with five of ten 238 Pu-Be neutron sources with a source strength of 5*10 7 n s -1 each arranged in a bath filled with water. NaI(Tl) detectors (from 2 to 4 in number) of 150 * 100 mm size supplied with lead and shadow shielding are used in counting unit. The construction of the facility started in 1972 and has been in operation since 1974. It has been used for the examination of patients suffering from limb bone tumors, of children with rickets-like and similar diseases and for studies in space medicine. (author) 20 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Ascorbate Peroxidase and Catalase Activities and Their Genetic Regulation in Plants Subjected to Drought and Salinity Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Sofo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, an important relatively stable non-radical reactive oxygen species (ROS is produced by normal aerobic metabolism in plants. At low concentrations, H2O2 acts as a signal molecule involved in the regulation of specific biological/physiological processes (photosynthetic functions, cell cycle, growth and development, plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Oxidative stress and eventual cell death in plants can be caused by excess H2O2 accumulation. Since stress factors provoke enhanced production of H2O2 in plants, severe damage to biomolecules can be possible due to elevated and non-metabolized cellular H2O2. Plants are endowed with H2O2-metabolizing enzymes such as catalases (CAT, ascorbate peroxidases (APX, some peroxiredoxins, glutathione/thioredoxin peroxidases, and glutathione sulfo-transferases. However, the most notably distinguished enzymes are CAT and APX since the former mainly occurs in peroxisomes and does not require a reductant for catalyzing a dismutation reaction. In particular, APX has a higher affinity for H2O2 and reduces it to H2O in chloroplasts, cytosol, mitochondria and peroxisomes, as well as in the apoplastic space, utilizing ascorbate as specific electron donor. Based on recent reports, this review highlights the role of H2O2 in plants experiencing water deficit and salinity and synthesizes major outcomes of studies on CAT and APX activity and genetic regulation in drought- and salt-stressed plants.

  15. Effect of co-treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone on the active behaviors and plasma corticosterone concentration in rats subjected to the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogóż, Zofia; Kabziński, Marcin; Sadaj, Witold; Rachwalska, Paulina; Gądek-Michalska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Several clinical reports have postulated a beneficial effect of the addition of a low dose of risperidone to the ongoing treatment with antidepressants in treatment-resistant depression. The present study aimed to examine the effect of treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine, given separately or jointly with risperidone, on active behavior and plasma corticosterone level in male Wistar rats subjected to the forced swim test (FST). The obtained results showed that fluoxetine (5 mg/kg), mirtazapine (5 and 10 mg/kg) or risperidone (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) did not change the active behavior of rats in the FST. However, co-treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) and risperidone (0.1 mg/kg) induced an antidepressant-like effect in that test because it significantly increased the swimming time and decreased the immobility time, while combined treatment with mirtazapine at 5 and 10 mg/kg and risperidone at 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg evoked a significant increase in the swimming time and also climbing, and decreased the immobility time. WAY 100635 (a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg inhibited the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone. Active behavior in that test did not reflect an increase in general activity, since combined treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone failed to enhance the exploratory activity of rats. Co-treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone did not reduce the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentration in animals subjected to the FST. The obtained results indicate that risperidone applied in a low dose enhances the antidepressant-like activity of fluoxetine and mirtazapine in the FST (but does not normalize the stress-induced increase in corticosterone level in these rats), and that 5-HT(1A) receptors may play some role in these effects.

  16. Insulin resistance in non-obese subjects is associated with activation of the JNK pathway and impaired insulin signaling in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh B Masharani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of insulin resistance in the absence of obesity is unknown. In obesity, multiple stress kinases have been identified that impair the insulin signaling pathway via serine phosphorylation of key second messenger proteins. These stress kinases are activated through various mechanisms related to lipid oversupply locally in insulin target tissues and in various adipose depots.To explore whether specific stress kinases that have been implicated in the insulin resistance of obesity are potentially contributing to insulin resistance in non-obese individuals, twenty healthy, non-obese, normoglycemic subjects identified as insulin sensitive or resistant were studied. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained during euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp were evaluated for insulin signaling and for activation of stress kinase pathways. Total and regional adipose stores and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL were assessed by DXA, MRI and (1H-MRS. In muscle of resistant subjects, phosphorylation of JNK was increased (1.36±0.23 vs. 0.78±0.10 OD units, P<0.05, while there was no evidence for activation of p38 MAPK or IKKβ. IRS-1 serine phosphorylation was increased (1.30±0.09 vs. 0.22±0.03 OD units, P<0.005 while insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation decreased (10.97±0.95 vs. 0.89±0.50 OD units, P<0.005. IMCL levels were twice as high in insulin resistant subjects (3.26±0.48 vs. 1.58±0.35% H(2O peak, P<0.05, who also displayed increased total fat and abdominal fat when compared to insulin sensitive controls.This is the first report demonstrating that insulin resistance in non-obese, normoglycemic subjects is associated with activation of the JNK pathway related to increased IMCL and higher total body and abdominal adipose stores. While JNK activation is consistent with a primary impact of muscle lipid accumulation on metabolic stress, further work is necessary to determine the relative contributions of the various mediators of impaired

  17. Generation of NSE-MerCreMer transgenic mice with tamoxifen inducible Cre activity in neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Ka Man Kam

    Full Text Available To establish a genetic tool for conditional deletion or expression of gene in neurons in a temporally controlled manner, we generated a transgenic mouse (NSE-MerCreMer, which expressed a tamoxifen inducible type of Cre recombinase specifically in neurons. The tamoxifen inducible Cre recombinase (MerCreMer is a fusion protein containing Cre recombinase with two modified estrogen receptor ligand binding domains at both ends, and is driven by the neural-specific rat neural specific enolase (NSE promoter. A total of two transgenic lines were established, and expression of MerCreMer in neurons of the central and enteric nervous systems was confirmed. Transcript of MerCreMer was detected in several non-neural tissues such as heart, liver, and kidney in these lines. In the background of the Cre reporter mouse strain Rosa26R, Cre recombinase activity was inducible in neurons of adult NSE-MerCreMer mice treated with tamoxifen by intragastric gavage, but not in those fed with corn oil only. We conclude that NSE-MerCreMer lines will be useful for studying gene functions in neurons for the conditions that Cre-mediated recombination resulting in embryonic lethality, which precludes investigation of gene functions in neurons through later stages of development and in adult.

  18. Subject Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Cygnus X-3. X-ray Spectroscopy of Cygnus X-3 (M. Choudhury & A. R. Rao), 39. Eta carinae. High Energy Phenomena in Eta Carinae (R. F. Viotti, L. A. Antonelli, S. Rebecchi &. C. Rossi), 19. Galaxy, active. The Multiwavelength Study of Two Unique Radio Galaxies (N. A. B. Gizani, M. A. Gar- rett & J. P. Leahy), 89. 261 ...

  19. Changes in leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviour at retirement: a prospective study in middle-aged French subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercberg Serge

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal studies on physical activity patterns around retirement age are scarce and provide divergent findings. Little is known about changes in sedentary behaviour in this context. Our aim was to investigate relationships between retirement and 3-year changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA patterns and sedentary behaviour in middle-aged French adults. Methods Past-year LTPA and sedentary behaviour (watching television were assessed in 1998 and 2001 using the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire on participants in the SU.VI.MAX (Supplementation with Antioxidants and Minerals study. A total of 698 men and 691 women aged 45-64 were included in this analysis. Comparisons were made between subjects who had retired between 1998 and 2001 and those who continued to work, using the Chi-square test, Student t-test, Wilcoxon rank test or covariance analysis where appropriate. Results 20.1% of men and 15.6% of women retired during follow-up. The baseline LTPA level was similar between subjects who retired during follow-up and those who continued to work. Mean LTPA increased by about 2 h/week in men and women who had retired, whereas no change was observed in employed persons. The positive change in LTPA following retirement was mainly related to an increase in activities of moderate intensity, such as walking. Retirement did not modify the ranking of the most frequently performed LTPAs, but the number of participants and the duration increased through retirement. In men, the increase in time spent watching TV was more than twice as high in retirees as in workers (+40.5 vs. +15.0 min/day, P Conclusions Retirement was associated with both an increase in LTPAs and in time spent watching TV, suggesting that retirement is an important period not only for promoting physical activity, but also for limiting sedentary behaviour.

  20. Decree of 16 February 1982 to amend the Ministerial Decree of 27 September 1965 determining activities subject to fire prevention inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Decree, issued by the Ministers of the Interior and of Industry, Commerce and Crafts, amends a Decree of 27th September 1965 listing the facilities and activities, also in the nuclear reactor, subject to fire prevention controls. The new Decree expands the list to include facilities for the storage of nuclear substances, radioactive products or waste, and facilities where nuclear fuels are held. In addition, facilities for the production, preparation and treatment of nuclear substances as well as for the separation of isotopes are now covered by the 1982 Decree. (NEA) [fr

  1. Long-term total sleep deprivation decreases the default spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern in healthy male subjects: a resting-state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai XJ

    2015-03-01

    .33; P=0.021. The ICA method showed that, compared with RW subjects, SD subjects had decreased rsFC in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL, BA40 and in the left precuneus (PrC/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC (BA30, 31. The two different areas were selected as regions of interest (ROIs for future rsFC analysis. Compared with the same in RW subjects, in SD subjects, the right IPL showed decreased rsFC with the left PrC (BA7 and increased rsFC with the left fusiform gyrus (BA37 and the left cluster of middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus (BA37. However, the left PrC/PCC did not show any connectivity differences. Compared with RW subjects, SD subjects showed lower ALFF area in the left IPL (BA39, 40. The left IPL, as an ROI, showed decreased rsFC with the right cluster of IPL and superior temporal gyrus (BA39, 40. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC value of the left IPL was 0.75, with a cutoff point of 0.834 (mean ALFF signal value. Further diagnostic analysis exhibited that the AUC alone discriminated SD status from RW status, with 75% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity. Conclusion: Long-term SD disturbed the spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern of DMN. Keywords: sleep deprivation, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, default-mode network, functional magnetic resonance imaging, functional connectivity, independent component analysis, receiver operating characteristic curve

  2. Fear of happiness predicts subjective and psychological well-being above the behavioral inhibition system (BIS and behavioral activation system (BAS model of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yildirim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fear of happiness is an important psychological construct and has a significant effect on life outcomes such as well-being. This study sought to examine whether fear of happiness could explain variance in subjective well-being and psychological well-being domains after controlling for Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS and Behavioral Activation System (BAS Model of Personality. A total of 243 participants (189 males and 54 females completed Fear of Happiness Scale, Positive-Negative Affect Schedule, Psychological Well-being Scales and BIS/BAS personality scales. In terms of correlational analyses, fear of happiness revealed significant negative correlations with positive affect, all domains of psychological well-being except purpose in life (autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, and self-acceptance and BAS fun seeking dimension while a significant positive correlation was found with negative affect. With regard to hierarchical multiple regression analyses, fear of happiness accounted for a unique variance in both affective aspects of subjective well-being, namely positive and negative affect and three aspects of psychological well-being (autonomy, positive relations and self-acceptance after controlling for BIS/BAS personality model. These results suggested that fear of happiness is uniquely useful to both subjective and psychological well-being beyond the effect of the aspects of BIS/BAS personality.

  3. Relationship between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity and subjective memory impairment in breast cancer survivors: role of self-efficacy, fatigue and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Siobhan M; Lloyd, Gillian R; Awick, Elizabeth A; McAuley, Edward

    2017-09-01

    Many breast cancer survivors report cancer and cancer treatment-associated cognitive change. However, very little is known about the relationship between physical activity and subjective memory impairment (SMI) in this population. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between physical activity and SMI and longitudinally test a model examining the role of self-efficacy, fatigue and distress as potential mediators. Post-treatment breast cancer survivors (N = 1477) completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, distress (depression, concerns about recurrence, perceived stress, anxiety), fatigue and SMI at baseline and 6-month follow-up. A subsample (n = 362) was randomly selected to wear an accelerometer. It was hypothesized that physical activity indirectly influences SMI via exercise self-efficacy, distress and fatigue. Relationships were examined using panel analysis within a covariance modeling framework. The hypothesized model provided a good fit in the full sample (χ 2  = 1462.5, df = 469, p = exercise self-efficacy and reduced distress and fatigue. Higher levels of physical activity, lower levels of fatigue and distress and higher exercise self-efficacy may play an important role in understanding SMI in breast cancer survivors across time. Future research is warranted to replicate and explore these relationships further. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. [Change in the activity of natural killer cells in normal subjects and in virus diseases on exposure to interferon in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, R V; Saidov, M Z; Koval'chuk, L V; Sorokin, A M; Kaganov, B S

    1984-04-01

    The activity of natural killers was examined in peripheral blood of healthy subjects and patients with chronic hepatitis and disseminated sclerosis. An attempt was made to correct natural killer activity by human leukocyte interferon in vitro. To assess the activity of natural killers, use was made of the method of serial dilutions. An optimal effector/target ratio was employed in experiments. The patients with chronic hepatitis and disseminated sclerosis demonstrated a reduction in the activity of natural killers whatever the effector/target ratio. The action of interferon in vitro is specific immunomodulatory in nature. Administration of interferon in a dose of 250 Units/ml raises the magnitude of the cytotoxic index in healthy donors and in patients with chronic hepatitis and disseminated sclerosis, making the shape of the killer activity curve approach that of normal. Such an approach can be used for preliminary assessment of the sensitivity of natural killers to interferon in viral diseases of man. The potentialities and efficacy of interferon in clinical medicine are discussed.

  5. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  6. Assessment of muscle function using hybrid PET/MRI: comparison of 18F-FDG PET and T2-weighted MRI for quantifying muscle activation in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddock, Bryan; Holm, Soeren; Poulsen, Jakup M.; Enevoldsen, Lotte H.; Larsson, Henrik B.W.; Kjaer, Andreas; Suetta, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between relative glucose uptake and MRI T 2 changes in skeletal muscles following resistance exercise using simultaneous PET/MRI scans. Ten young healthy recreationally active men (age 21 - 28 years) were injected with 18 F-FDG while activating the quadriceps of one leg with repeated knee extension exercises followed by hand-grip exercises for one arm. Immediately following the exercises, the subjects were scanned simultaneously with 18 F-FDG PET/MRI and muscle groups were evaluated for increases in 18 F-FDG uptake and MRI T 2 values. A significant linear correlation between 18 F-FDG uptake and changes in muscle T 2 (R 2 = 0.71) was found. for both small and large muscles and in voxel to voxel comparisons. Despite large intersubject differences in muscle recruitment, the linear correlation between 18 F-FDG uptake and changes in muscle T 2 did not vary among subjects. This is the first assessment of skeletal muscle activation using hybrid PET/MRI and the first study to demonstrate a high correlation between 18 F-FDG uptake and changes in muscle T 2 with physical exercise. Accordingly, it seems that changes in muscle T 2 may be used as a surrogate marker for glucose uptake and lead to an improved insight into the metabolic changes that occur with muscle activation. Such knowledge may lead to improved treatment strategies in patients with neuromuscular pathologies such as stroke, spinal cord injuries and muscular dystrophies. (orig.)

  7. Brain activity associated with memory and cognitive function during jaw-tapping movement in healthy subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seung-Yeon; Shin, Ae-Sook; Na, Byung-Jo; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Park, Seong-Uk; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether jaw-tapping movement, a classically described as an indication of personal well-being and mental health, stimulates the memory and the cognitive regions of the brain and is associated with improved brain performance. Twelve healthy right-handed female subjects completed the study. Each patient performed a jaw-tapping task and an n-back task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjects were trained to carry out the jaw-tapping movement at home twice a day for 4 weeks. The fMRI was repeated when they returned. During the first and second jaw-tapping session, both sides of precentral gyrus and the right middle frontal gyrus (BA 6) were activated. And during the second session of the jaw-tapping task, parts of frontal lobe and temporal lobe related to memory function were more activated. In addition, the total percent task accuracy in n-back task significantly increased after 4 weeks of jawtapping movement. After jaw-tapping training for 4 weeks, brain areas related to memory showed significantly increased blood oxygen level dependent signals. Jaw-tapping movement might be a useful exercise for stimulating the memory and cognitive regions of the brain.

  8. The brain activations for both cue-induced gaming urge and smoking craving among subjects comorbid with Internet gaming addiction and nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Gin-Chung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Chen

    2013-04-01

    Internet gaming addiction (IGA) has been classified as an addictive disorder in the proposed DSM 5 draft. However, whether its underlying addiction mechanism is similar to other substance use disorders has not been confirmed. The present functional magnetic resonance images study is aimed at evaluating the brain correlates of cue-induced gaming urge or smoking craving in subjects with both IGA and nicotine dependence to make a simultaneous comparison of cue induced brain reactivity for gaming and smoking. For this purpose, 16 subjects with both IGA and nicotine dependence (comorbid group) and 16 controls were recruited from the community. All subjects were made to undergo 3-T fMRIs scans while viewing images associated with online games, smoking, and neutral images, which were arranged according to an event-related design. The resultant image data was analyzed with full factorial and conjunction analysis of SPM5. The results demonstrate that anterior cingulate, and parahippocampus activates higher for both cue-induced gaming urge and smoking craving among the comorbid group in comparison to the control group. The conjunction analysis demonstrates that bilateral parahippocampal gyrus activates to a greater degree for both gaming urge and smoking craving among the comorbid group in comparison to the control group. Accordingly, the study demonstrates that both IGA and nicotine dependence share similar mechanisms of cue-induced reactivity over the fronto-limbic network, particularly for the parahippocampus. The results support that the context representation provided by the parahippocampus is a key mechanism for not only cue-induced smoking craving, but also for cue-induced gaming urge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes of postural control and muscle activation pattern in response to external perturbations after neck flexor fatigue in young subjects with and without chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Chien, Andy; Hsu, Wei-Li; Yen, Ling-Wei; Lin, Yang-Hua; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have identified sensorimotor disturbances and greater fatigability of neck muscles in patients with neck pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck pain and neck flexor fatigue on standing balance following postural perturbations. Twenty patients with chronic neck pain (CNP) (24.7±3.6 year-old) and 20 age-matched asymptomatic subjects (22.1±2.2 year-old) were recruited. Subjects stood barefoot on a force plate and experienced backward perturbations before and after neck flexor fatigue. Center of pressure, electromyography of cervical and lumbar muscles, and head/trunk accelerations were recorded. Two-way ANOVA (pain×fatigue) was used for statistical analysis. CNP group showed larger body sway during quiet standing but not during perturbed standing compared with asymptomatic adults. In both groups, neck flexor fatigue resulted in greater body sway during the quiet standing but smaller body sway during perturbed standing, increased neck muscle activations and decreased lumbar muscle activations, as well as increased time to maximal head acceleration. Disturbed balance control was observed in CNP patients during the quiet standing. However, a rigid strategy was used to minimize the postural sway and to protect the head against backward perturbations in both CNP and asymptomatic young adults after neck flexor fatigue. The results facilitate the understanding of how the subjects with chronic neck pain and with neck muscle fatigue deal with the challenging condition. Further studies are needed to verify if such phenomenon could be changed after the intervention of specific flexor muscle retraining and balance control exercises. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Neural activity related to emotional and empathic deficits in subjects with post-traumatic stress disorder who survived the L'Aquila (Central Italy) 2009 earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Monica; Pino, Maria Chiara; Tempesta, Daniela; Catalucci, Alessia; Masciocchi, Carlo; Ferrara, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a chronic anxiety disorder. The continued efforts to control the distressing memories by traumatized individuals, together with the reduction of responsiveness to the outside world, are called Emotional Numbing (EN). The EN is one of the central symptoms in PTSD and it plays an integral role not only in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic symptomatology, but also in the disability of emotional regulation. This disorder shows an abnormal response of cortical and limbic regions which are normally involved in understanding emotions since the very earliest stages of the development of processing ability. Patients with PTSD exhibit exaggerated brain responses to emotionally negative stimuli. Identifying the neural correlates of emotion regulation in these subjects is important for elucidating the neural circuitry involved in emotional and empathic dysfunction. We showed that PTSD patients, all survivors of the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake, have a higher sensitivity to negative emotion and lower empathy levels. These emotional and empathic deficits are accompanied by neural brain functional correlates. Indeed PTSD subjects exhibit functional abnormalities in brain regions that are involved in stress regulation and emotional responses. The reduced activation of the frontal areas and a stronger activation of the limbic areas when responding to emotional stimuli could lead the subjects to enact coping strategies aimed at protecting themselves from the re-experience of pain related to traumatic events. This would result in a dysfunctional hyperactivation of subcortical areas, which may cause emotional distress and, consequently, impaired social relationships often reported by PTSD patients.

  11. Differences in Activation Area Within Brodmann Area 2 Caused by Pressure Stimuli on Fingers and Joints: In Case of Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Baek, Ji-Hye; Lee, Jung-Chul; Park, Sung-Jun; Jeong, Ul-Ho; Gim, Seon-Young; Kim, Sung-Phil; Lim, Dae-Woon; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a constant pressure stimulus was applied on the 3 joints (first [p1], second [p2], and third [p3] joints) of 4 fingers (index, middle, ring, and little fingers), and the activation areas within Brodmann area 2 (BA 2) were compared for these different fingers and joints by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eight healthy male college students (25.4 ± 1.32 years) participated in the study. Each session was composed of 3 blocks, and each block was composed of a Control phase (30 seconds) and a Pressure phase (30 seconds). No pressure stimulus was applied in the Control phase, during which the subjects would simply lay comfortably with their eyes closed. In the Pressure phase, a pressure stimulus was applied onto one of the joints of the selected finger. For each finger and joint, BA 2 areas activated by the pressure stimulus were extracted by the region of interest method. There was a significant difference in the activation areas for the different fingers (P = .042) as well as for the different joints (P = .050). The activation area decreased in the order of the little, index, and middle fingers, as well as in the order of p1, p3, and p2.

  12. Supplementation with mixed tocopherols increases serum and blood cell gamma-tocopherol but does not alter biomarkers of platelet activation in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michael W; Ward, Natalie C; Wu, Jason H Y; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Puddey, Ian B; Croft, Kevin D

    2006-01-01

    Some studies have shown potential benefit of vitamin E on platelet function, but several clinical trials failed to show improved cardiovascular outcome with alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Gamma-tocopherol, a major dietary form of vitamin E, may have protective properties different from those of alpha-tocopherol. We compared the effects of supplementation with alpha-tocopherol (500 mg) and a gamma-tocopherol-rich compound (500 mg, containing 60% gamma-tocopherol) on serum and cellular tocopherol concentrations, urinary tocopherol metabolite excretion, and in vivo platelet activation in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Fifty-eight subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 500 mg alpha-tocopherol/d, 500 mg mixed tocopherols/d, or matching placebo. Serum, erythrocyte, and platelet tocopherol and urinary metabolite concentrations were measured at baseline and after the 6-wk intervention. Soluble CD40 ligand, urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2, serum thromboxane B2, soluble P-selectin, and von Willebrand factor were measured as biomarkers of in vivo platelet activation. Serum alpha-tocopherol increased with both tocopherol treatments. Serum and cellular gamma-tocopherol increased 4-fold (P tocopherol group, whereas red blood cell gamma-tocopherol decreased significantly after alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Excretion of alpha-carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman increased significantly after supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and mixed tocopherols. Excretion of gamma-carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman increased significantly after supplementation with mixed tocopherols and after that with alpha-tocopherol, which may reflect the displacement of gamma-tocopherol by alpha-tocopherol due to incorporation of the latter into lipoproteins in the liver. Neither treatment had any significant effect on markers of platelet activation. Supplementation with alpha-tocopherol decreased red blood cell gamma-tocopherol, whereas mixed tocopherols increased both serum alpha-tocopherol and

  13. Reduced hippocampal IL-10 expression, altered monoaminergic activity and anxiety and depressive-like behavior in female mice subjected to chronic social instability stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaka, Ainitze; Gómez-Lázaro, Eneritz; Vegas, Oscar; Pérez-Tejada, Joana; Arregi, Amaia; Garmendia, Larraitz

    2017-09-29

    Evidence indicates that release of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by social stress contributes to affective disorders. Additionally, there are known sex differences in both the stress response and the stressors that can elicit this response. In this regard, the chronic social instability (CSI) rodent model of stress appears to be the best fit for the social nature of females. This study analyzed the effects of CSI on female mouse behavior, hippocampal cytokine expression, tryptophan metabolism and monoaminergic activity. The activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes were also measured. Results showed a decrease in sucrose consumption in stressed subjects, indicative of anhedonic behavior and an increase in climbing activity in the forced swimming test (FST) and in whisking behavior, which have been associated with anxiety. Decreased interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression was found in the hippocampus of the stressed mice, while no differences in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and tryptophan (TRYP), kynurenine (KYN) or 3-hydroxy kynurenine (3-HK) levels were found. Increased hippocampal serotoninergic and noradrenergic activity was observed in stressed mice. The higher plasma corticosterone and lower hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression levels showed an increase in HPA activity after CSI. No differences were found in the plasma estradiol levels or the central estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) expression levels. These data indicate that the CSI stress-induced behavioral and physiological changes associated with anxiety and depressive disorders. Although additional studies are warranted, the results suggest an involvement of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the biobehavioral effects of social stress in female mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of sustained submaximal clenching fatigue test on electromyographic activity and maximum voluntary bite forces in healthy subjects and patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Fan, S; Cai, B; Fang, Z; Jiang, X

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the fatigue induced by sustained motor task in the jaw elevator muscles differed between healthy subjects and patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Fifteen patients with TMD and thirteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls performed a fatigue test consisting of sustained clenching contractions at 30% maximal voluntary clenching intensity until test failure (the criterion for terminating the fatigue test was when the biting force decreased by 10% or more from the target force consecutively for >3 s). The pre- and post-maximal bite forces (MBFs) were measured. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from the superficial masseter muscles and anterior temporal muscles bilaterally, and the median frequency at the beginning, middle and end of the fatigue test was calculated. The duration of the fatigue test was also quantified. Both pre- and post-MBFs were lower in patients with TMD than in controls (P fatigue test in TMD patients was significantly shorter than that of the controls (P fatigued, but the electromyographic activation process during the fatigue test is similar between healthy subjects and patients with TMD. However, the mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear, and further research is warranted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The influence of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity and beta-1 receptor selectivity on the recovery of finger skin temperature after finger cooling in normotensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, J W; Salemans, J; de Boo, T; Lemmens, W A; Thien, T; van't Laar, A

    1986-03-01

    A double-blind randomized study was designed to investigate differences in the recovery of finger skin temperature after finger cooling during dosing with placebo or one of four beta-blockers: propranolol, atenolol, pindolol, and acebutolol. In 11 normotensive nonsmoking subjects, finger skin temperature was measured with a thermocouple before and 20 minutes after immersion of one hand in a water bath at 16 degrees C. This finger cooling test caused no significant changes in systemic hemodynamics such as arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and forearm blood flow. The recovery of finger skin temperature during propranolol dosing was better than that during pindolol and atenolol dosing. There were no differences between the recoveries of skin temperature during pindolol, atenolol, and acebutolol dosing. Thus we could demonstrate no favorable effect of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity or beta 1-selectivity on the recovery of finger skin temperature after finger cooling.

  16. The pharmacokinetics of oxcarbazepine and its active metabolite 10-hydroxy-carbazepine in healthy subjects and in epileptic patients treated with phenobarbitone or valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartara, A; Galimberti, C A; Manni, R; Morini, R; Limido, G; Gatti, G; Bartoli, A; Strada, G; Perucca, E

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of oxcarbazepine (OXC) and its active metabolite 10-hydroxy-carbazepine (10-OH-CZ) after a single oral OXC dose (600 mg) were compared in healthy control subjects and in epileptic patients treated with phenobarbitone or sodium valproate (n = 8 in each group). In all groups, serum 10-OH-CZ concentrations were much higher than those of the parent drug. In patients on valproate, the kinetics of OXC and 10-OH-CZ did not differ significantly from those observed in controls. In patients on phenobarbitone, AUC values of both OXC and 10-OH-CZ were lower than in controls (2.9 +/- 0.4 vs 5.1 +/- 0.7 microg ml(-1) h and 89 +/- 7 vs 119 +/- 10 microg ml(-1) h respectively, means +/- s.e. mean, P effect is unlikely to be of great clinical significance. PMID:12959317

  17. Studies on immunoproteasome in human liver. Part I: Absence in fetuses, presence in normal subjects, and increased levels in chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasuri, Francesco; Capizzi, Elisa; Bellavista, Elena; Mishto, Michele; Santoro, Aurelia; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Capri, Miriam; Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca; Grigioni, Walter Franco; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Franceschi, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Despite the central role of proteasomes in relevant physiological pathways and pathological processes, this topic is unexpectedly largely unexplored in human liver. Here we present data on the presence of proteasome and immunoproteasome in human livers from normal adults, fetuses and patients affected by major hepatic diseases such as cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis. Immunohistochemistry for constitutive (α4 and β1) and inducible (LMP2 and LMP7) proteasome subunits, and for the PA28αβ regulator, was performed in liver samples from 38 normal subjects, 6 fetuses, 2 pediatric cases, and 19 pathological cases (10 chronic active hepatitis and 9 cirrhosis). The immunohistochemical data have been validated and quantified by Western blotting analysis. The most striking result we found was the concomitant presence in hepatocyte cytoplasm of all healthy subjects, including the pediatric cases, of constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome subunits, as well as PA28αβ. At variance, immunoproteasome was not present in hepatocytes from fetuses, while a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity for LMP2 and LMP7 was found in pathological samples, directly correlated to the histopathological grade of inflammation. At variance from other organs such as the brain, immunoproteasome is present in livers from normal adult and pediatric cases, in apparent absence of pathological processes, suggesting the presence of a peculiar regulation of the proteasome/immunoproteasome system, likely related to the physiological stimuli derived from the gut microbiota after birth. Other inflammatory stimuli contribute in inducing high levels of immunoproteasome in pathological conditions, where its role deserve further attention.

  18. Studies on immunoproteasome in human liver. Part I: Absence in fetuses, presence in normal subjects, and increased levels in chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasuri, Francesco; Capizzi, Elisa [Pathology Unit of the ' F. Addarii' Institute of Oncology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Bellavista, Elena [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Mishto, Michele [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Institute of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty Charite, Berlin (Germany); Santoro, Aurelia [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Fiorentino, Michelangelo [Pathology Unit of the ' F. Addarii' Institute of Oncology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Capri, Miriam [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca [Unit of General and Transplantation Surgery, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Grigioni, Walter Franco; D' Errico-Grigioni, Antonia [Pathology Unit of the ' F. Addarii' Institute of Oncology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Franceschi, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.franceschi@unibo.it [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy)

    2010-06-25

    Despite the central role of proteasomes in relevant physiological pathways and pathological processes, this topic is unexpectedly largely unexplored in human liver. Here we present data on the presence of proteasome and immunoproteasome in human livers from normal adults, fetuses and patients affected by major hepatic diseases such as cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis. Immunohistochemistry for constitutive ({alpha}4 and {beta}1) and inducible (LMP2 and LMP7) proteasome subunits, and for the PA28{alpha}{beta} regulator, was performed in liver samples from 38 normal subjects, 6 fetuses, 2 pediatric cases, and 19 pathological cases (10 chronic active hepatitis and 9 cirrhosis). The immunohistochemical data have been validated and quantified by Western blotting analysis. The most striking result we found was the concomitant presence in hepatocyte cytoplasm of all healthy subjects, including the pediatric cases, of constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome subunits, as well as PA28{alpha}{beta}. At variance, immunoproteasome was not present in hepatocytes from fetuses, while a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity for LMP2 and LMP7 was found in pathological samples, directly correlated to the histopathological grade of inflammation. At variance from other organs such as the brain, immunoproteasome is present in livers from normal adult and pediatric cases, in apparent absence of pathological processes, suggesting the presence of a peculiar regulation of the proteasome/immunoproteasome system, likely related to the physiological stimuli derived from the gut microbiota after birth. Other inflammatory stimuli contribute in inducing high levels of immunoproteasome in pathological conditions, where its role deserve further attention.

  19. Identification of BDNF sensitive electrophysiological markers of synaptic activity and their structural correlates in healthy subjects using a genetic approach utilizing the functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fruzsina Soltész

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that synaptic dysfunction is a core pathophysiological hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders. Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF is key synaptogenic molecule and targeting synaptic repair through modulation of BDNF signalling has been suggested as a potential drug discovery strategy. The development of such "synaptogenic" therapies depend on the availability of BDNF sensitive markers of synaptic function that could be utilized as biomarkers for examining target engagement or drug efficacy in humans. Here we have utilized the BDNF Val66Met genetic polymorphism to examine the effect of the polymorphism and genetic load (i.e. Met allele load on electrophysiological (EEG markers of synaptic activity and their structural (MRI correlates. Sixty healthy adults were prospectively recruited into the three genetic groups (Val/Val, Val/Met, Met/Met. Subjects also underwent fMRI, tDCS/TMS, and cognitive assessments as part of a larger study. Overall, some of the EEG markers of synaptic activity and brain structure measured with MRI were the most sensitive markers of the polymorphism. Met carriers showed decreased oscillatory activity and synchrony in the neural network subserving error-processing, as measured during a flanker task (ERN; and showed increased slow-wave activity during resting. There was no evidence for a Met load effect on the EEG measures and the polymorphism had no effects on MMN and P300. Met carriers also showed reduced grey matter volume in the anterior cingulate and in the (left prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, anterior cingulate grey matter volume, and oscillatory EEG power during the flanker task predicted subsequent behavioural adaptation, indicating a BDNF dependent link between brain structure, function and behaviour associated with error processing and monitoring. These findings suggest that EEG markers such as ERN and resting EEG could be used as BDNF sensitive functional markers in early

  20. Rapid diagnostic detection of plum pox virus in Prunus plants by isothermal AmplifyRP(®) using reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulu; Ravelonandro, Michel; Russell, Paul; McOwen, Nathan; Briard, Pascal; Bohannon, Seven; Vrient, Albert

    2014-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) causes the most destructive viral disease known as plum pox or Sharka disease in stone fruit trees. As an important regulated pathogen, detection of PPV is thus of critical importance to quarantine and eradication of the spreading disease. In this study, the innovative development of two AmplifyRP(®) tests is reported for a rapid isothermal detection of PPV using reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification. In an AmplifyRP(®) test, all specific recombination and amplification reactions occur at a constant temperature without thermal cycling and the test results are either recorded in real-time with a portable fluorescence reader or displayed using a lateral flow strip contained inside an amplicon detection chamber. The major improvement of this assay is that the entire test from sample preparation to result can be completed in as little as 20min and can be performed easily both in laboratories and in the field. The results from this study demonstrated the ability of the AmplifyRP(®) technique to detect all nine PPV strains (An, C, CR, D, EA, M, Rec, T, or W). Among the economic benefits to pathogen surveys is the higher sensitivity of the AmplifyRP(®) to detect PPV when compared to the conventional ELISA and ImmunoStrip(®) assays. This is the first report describing the use of such an innovative technique to detect rapidly plant viruses affecting perennial crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) of CaMV-35S promoter and nos terminator for rapid detection of genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Li, Liang; Jin, Wujun; Wan, Yusong

    2014-10-10

    Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel isothermal DNA amplification and detection technology that enables the amplification of DNA within 30 min at a constant temperature of 37-42 °C by simulating in vivo DNA recombination. In this study, based on the regulatory sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV-35S) promoter and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase gene (nos) terminator, which are widely incorporated in genetically modified (GM) crops, we designed two sets of RPA primers and established a real-time RPA detection method for GM crop screening and detection. This method could reliably detect as few as 100 copies of the target molecule in a sample within 15-25 min. Furthermore, the real-time RPA detection method was successfully used to amplify and detect DNA from samples of four major GM crops (maize, rice, cotton, and soybean). With this novel amplification method, the test time was significantly shortened and the reaction process was simplified; thus, this method represents an effective approach to the rapid detection of GM crops.

  2. Rapid diagnosis of Theileria annulata by recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow strip (LF-RPA) in epidemic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fangyuan; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-15

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of Theileria annulata infection contributes to the formulation of strategies to eradicate this parasite. A simple and efficient diagnostic tool, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip, was used in detection of Theileria and compared to other methods that require expensive instruments and skilled personnel. Herein, we established and optimized an LF-RPA method to detect the cytochrome b gene of T. annulata mitochondrial DNA from experimentally infected and field-collected blood samples. This method has many unparalleled characteristics, including that it is rapid (clear detection in 5min at constant temperature), sensitive (the limitation of detection is at least 2pg genomic DNA), and specific (no cross-reaction with other piroplasms that infect cattle). The LF-RPA assay was evaluated via testing 17 field blood samples and comparing the results of that of a PCR, showing 100% agreement, which demonstrates the ability of the LF-RPA assay to detect T. annulata infections in small number of samples (n=17). Taken together, the results indicate that this method could be used as an ideal diagnostic tool for detecting T. annulata in endemic regions with limited to fewer and local resources and could also be a potential technique for the surveillance and control of blood protozoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of potent inhibitors of human RAD51 recombinase based on BRC motifs of BRCA2 protein: modeling and experimental validation of a chimera peptide.

    KAUST Repository

    Nomme, Julian; Renodon-Corniè re, Axelle; Asanomi, Yuya; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu; Stasiak, Alicja Z; Stasiak, Andrzej; Norden, Bengt; Tran, Vinh; Takahashi, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that a 28-amino acid peptide derived from the BRC4 motif of BRCA2 tumor suppressor inhibits selectively human RAD51 recombinase (HsRad51). With the aim of designing better inhibitors for cancer treatment, we combined an in silico docking approach with in vitro biochemical testing to construct a highly efficient chimera peptide from eight existing human BRC motifs. We built a molecular model of all BRC motifs complexed with HsRad51 based on the crystal structure of the BRC4 motif-HsRad51 complex, computed the interaction energy of each residue in each BRC motif, and selected the best amino acid residue at each binding position. This analysis enabled us to propose four amino acid substitutions in the BRC4 motif. Three of these increased the inhibitory effect in vitro, and this effect was found to be additive. We thus obtained a peptide that is about 10 times more efficient in inhibiting HsRad51-ssDNA complex formation than the original peptide.

  4. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA of CaMV-35S Promoter and nos Terminator for Rapid Detection of Genetically Modified Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Xu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA is a novel isothermal DNA amplification and detection technology that enables the amplification of DNA within 30 min at a constant temperature of 37–42 °C by simulating in vivo DNA recombination. In this study, based on the regulatory sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV-35S promoter and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase gene (nos terminator, which are widely incorporated in genetically modified (GM crops, we designed two sets of RPA primers and established a real-time RPA detection method for GM crop screening and detection. This method could reliably detect as few as 100 copies of the target molecule in a sample within 15–25 min. Furthermore, the real-time RPA detection method was successfully used to amplify and detect DNA from samples of four major GM crops (maize, rice, cotton, and soybean. With this novel amplification method, the test time was significantly shortened and the reaction process was simplified; thus, this method represents an effective approach to the rapid detection of GM crops.

  5. Application of a novel regulatable Cre recombinase system to define the role of liver and gut metabolism in drug oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Colin J; McLaughlin, Lesley A; Osuna-Cabello, Maria; Taylor, Malcolm; Gilbert, Ian; McLaren, Aileen W; Wolf, C Roland

    2015-02-01

    The relative contribution of hepatic compared with intestinal oxidative metabolism is a crucial factor in drug oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. Oxidative metabolism is mediated by the cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase system to which cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is the essential electron donor. In order to study the relative importance of these pathways in drug disposition, we have generated a novel mouse line where Cre recombinase is driven off the endogenous Cyp1a1 gene promoter; this line was then crossed on to a floxed POR mouse. A 40 mg/kg dose of the Cyp1a1 inducer 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) eliminated POR expression in both liver and small intestine, whereas treatment at 4 mg/kg led to a more targeted deletion in the liver. Using this approach, we have studied the pharmacokinetics of three probe drugs--paroxetine, midazolam, nelfinavir--and show that intestinal metabolism is a determinant of oral bioavailability for the two latter compounds. The Endogenous Reductase Locus (ERL) mouse represents a significant advance on previous POR deletion models as it allows direct comparison of hepatic and intestinal effects on drug and xenobiotic clearance using lower doses of a single Cre inducing agent, and in addition minimizes any cytotoxic effects, which may compromise interpretation of the experimental data.

  6. Efficient Recombinase-Mediated Cassette Exchange in hPSCs to Study the Hepatocyte Lineage Reveals AAVS1 Locus-Mediated Transgene Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ordovás

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tools for rapid and efficient transgenesis in “safe harbor” loci in an isogenic context remain important to exploit the possibilities of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs. We created hPSC master cell lines suitable for FLPe recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE in the AAVS1 locus that allow generation of transgenic lines within 15 days with 100% efficiency and without random integrations. Using RMCE, we successfully incorporated several transgenes useful for lineage identification, cell toxicity studies, and gene overexpression to study the hepatocyte lineage. However, we observed unexpected and variable transgene expression inhibition in vitro, due to DNA methylation and other unknown mechanisms, both in undifferentiated hESC and differentiating hepatocytes. Therefore, the AAVS1 locus cannot be considered a universally safe harbor locus for reliable transgene expression in vitro, and using it for transgenesis in hPSC will require careful assessment of the function of individual transgenes.

  7. Design of potent inhibitors of human RAD51 recombinase based on BRC motifs of BRCA2 protein: modeling and experimental validation of a chimera peptide.

    KAUST Repository

    Nomme, Julian

    2010-08-01

    We have previously shown that a 28-amino acid peptide derived from the BRC4 motif of BRCA2 tumor suppressor inhibits selectively human RAD51 recombinase (HsRad51). With the aim of designing better inhibitors for cancer treatment, we combined an in silico docking approach with in vitro biochemical testing to construct a highly efficient chimera peptide from eight existing human BRC motifs. We built a molecular model of all BRC motifs complexed with HsRad51 based on the crystal structure of the BRC4 motif-HsRad51 complex, computed the interaction energy of each residue in each BRC motif, and selected the best amino acid residue at each binding position. This analysis enabled us to propose four amino acid substitutions in the BRC4 motif. Three of these increased the inhibitory effect in vitro, and this effect was found to be additive. We thus obtained a peptide that is about 10 times more efficient in inhibiting HsRad51-ssDNA complex formation than the original peptide.

  8. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Compared to Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Test for the Detection of Fasciola hepatica in Human Stool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M.; Malaga, Jose L.; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Bagwell, Kelli A.; Naeger, Patrick A.; Rogers, Hayley K.; Maharsi, Safa; Mbaka, Maryann; White, A. Clinton

    2017-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is the most widely distributed trematode infection in the world. Control efforts may be hindered by the lack of diagnostic capacity especially in remote endemic areas. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–based methods offer high sensitivity and specificity but require expensive technology. However, the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an efficient isothermal method that eliminates the need for a thermal cycler and has a high deployment potential to resource-limited settings. We report on the characterization of RPA and PCR tests to detect Fasciola infection in clinical stool samples with low egg burdens. The sensitivity of the RPA and PCR were 87% and 66%, respectively. Both tests were 100% specific showing no cross-reactivity with trematode, cestode, or nematode parasites. In addition, RPA and PCR were able to detect 47% and 26% of infections not detected by microscopy, respectively. The RPA adapted to a lateral flow platform was more sensitive than gel-based detection of the reaction products. In conclusion, the Fasciola RPA is a highly sensitive and specific test to diagnose chronic infection using stool samples. The Fasciola RPA lateral flow has the potential for deployment to endemic areas after further characterization. PMID:27821691

  9. Crystal Structure of the Phage T4 Recombinase UvsX and Its Functional Interaction with the T4 SF2 Helicase UvsW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajewski, Stefan; Webb, Michael R.; Galkin, Vitold; Egelman, Edward H.; Kreuzer, Kenneth N.; White, Stephen W. (Duke); (UV); (SJCH)

    2012-07-11

    Bacteriophage T4 provides an important model system for studying the mechanism of homologous recombination. We have determined the crystal structure of the T4 UvsX recombinase, and the overall architecture and fold closely resemble those of RecA, including a highly conserved ATP binding site. Based on this new structure, we reanalyzed electron microscopy reconstructions of UvsX-DNA filaments and docked the UvsX crystal structure into two different filament forms: a compressed filament generated in the presence of ADP and an elongated filament generated in the presence of ATP and aluminum fluoride. In these reconstructions, the ATP binding site sits at the protomer interface, as in the RecA filament crystal structure. However, the environment of the ATP binding site is altered in the two filament reconstructions, suggesting that nucleotide cannot be as easily accommodated at the protomer interface of the compressed filament. Finally, we show that the phage helicase UvsW completes the UvsX-promoted strand-exchange reaction, allowing the generation of a simple nicked circular product rather than complex networks of partially exchanged substrates.

  10. Effect of maltitol-containing chewing gum use on the composition of dental plaque microbiota in subjects with active dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Erica M; Kistler, James O; Moazzez, Rebecca; Thabuis, Clementine; Perreau, Caroline; Wade, William G

    2017-01-01

    Background : Sugar alcohols such as xylitol are incorporated in a number of oral hygiene products for their anti-cariogenic properties while chewing gum is known to be beneficial to oral hygiene. Objective : The aim of this study was to determine the composition of the dental plaque microbiota in patients with active caries before and after using a chewing gum supplemented with maltitol. Design : Forty subjects with active caries were randomly allocated to chew maltitol gum or gum base for two weeks. A healthy control group used gum base for two weeks. Plaque samples were collected before and after treatment and the microbiota analysed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Results : A total of 773,547 sequences were obtained from 117 samples. There was no difference in structure of the bacterial communities between groups (AMOVA). There was a significant difference in community membership between groups, (AMOVA, p=0.009). There was a significant difference between the control group after treatment and the maltitol patient group after treatment (p<0.001). A. naeslundii HOT-176 and Actinomyces HOT-169 were significantly reduced following use of maltitol chewing gum in patients. Conclusions : This study has shown that chewing gum containing maltitol had minor effects on the composition of the plaque microbiome.

  11. [Effect of a Physical activity program on self-esteem in subjects with chronic diseases. 'Pas a Pas' community intervention trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Felipe; Vinuesa, Angels; Pedret, Roser; Reche, Alicia; Domínguez, Eva; Arija, Victoria

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a 9 months of supervised Physical Activity (PA) Program with sociocultural activities, on self-esteem and its association on the control of chronic diseases in adult primary care users. Multicenter, randomized, controlled community intervention. 4 Primary care centers in Reus-Tarragona, Spain. 364 subjects, randomized to the Control Group (CG=104) and Intervention Group (IG=260). Supervised walking program of 120min/week with sociocultural activities once a month. At baseline and at post-intervention we assessed: PA (IPAQ-S), self-esteem (Rosenberg scale) and cardiovascular indicators: smoking, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, serum LDL and HDL cholesterol, and serum glucose. Sociodemographic characteristics and diagnostic of chronic diseases are recorded. The Program increased the PA in the IG (P=.001), while it decreased in the CG (P=.002), and also the self-esteem in the group of participants (1.28 points, P=.006) and in the groups with diagnoses of hypertension (1.60 points, P=.005), dyslipidemia (1.62 points, P=.012), excess weight (1.24 points, P=.011) or anxiety/depression (1.53 points, P=.045), assessed by multivariate statistical models. The increase in self-esteem during the intervention decreased SBP -0.5mmHg (P=.030) in the hypertension group, regardless of baseline SBP and the effect of the intervention. The PA program increased the PA and self-esteem in adult primary care users. The increase of self-esteem improved the control of SBP in hypertensive patients. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Change in weight and body composition in obese subjects following a hypocaloric diet plus different training programs or physical activity recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Pedro J; Bermejo, Laura M; Peinado, Ana B; López-Plaza, Bricia; Cupeiro, Rocío; Szendrei, Barbara; Calderón, Francisco J; Castro, Eliane A; Gómez-Candela, Carmen

    2015-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different physical activity programs, in combination with a hypocaloric diet, on anthropometric variables and body composition in obese subjects. Ninety-six obese (men: n = 48; women: n = 48; age range: 18-50 yr) participated in a supervised 22-wk program. They were randomized into four groups: strength training (S; n = 24), endurance training (E; n = 26), combined strength + endurance training (SE; n = 24), and physical activity recommendations (C; n = 22). In addition, all groups followed the same hypocaloric diet. At baseline and at the end of the intervention, dietetic and physical activity variables were assessed using validated questionnaires. Anthropometric variables were recorded along with body composition variables measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry techniques. At the end of the intervention, significant improvements were seen within groups in terms of body weight (S: -9.21 ± 0.83 kg; E: -10.55 ± 0.80 kg; SE: -9.88 ± 0.85 kg; C: -8.69 ± 0.89 kg), and total fat mass (S: -5.24 ± 0.55%; E: -5.35 ± 0.55%; SE: -4.85 ± 0.56%; C: -4.89 ± 0.59%). No differences were seen between groups at this time in terms of any other anthropometric or body composition variables examined. All groups increased their total physical activity in metabolic equivalents (MET) per week during the intervention, but with no difference between groups (S: 976 ± 367 MET-min/wk; E: 954 ± 355 MET-min/wk; SE: 1 329 ± 345 MET-min/wk; C: 763 ± 410 MET-min/wk). This study shows that, when combined with a hypocaloric diet, exercise training and adherence to physical activity recommendations are equally effective at reducing body weight and modifying body composition in the treatment of obesity (Clinical Trials Gov. number: NCT01116856). Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Performance Evaluation of State of the Art Systems for Physical Activity Classification of Older Subjects Using Inertial Sensors in a Real Life Scenario: A Benchmark Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awais, Muhammad; Palmerini, Luca; Bourke, Alan K; Ihlen, Espen A F; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2016-12-11

    The popularity of using wearable inertial sensors for physical activity classification has dramatically increased in the last decade due to their versatility, low form factor, and low power requirements. Consequently, various systems have been developed to automatically classify daily life activities. However, the scope and implementation of such systems is limited to laboratory-based investigations. Furthermore, these systems are not directly comparable, due to the large diversity in their design (e.g., number of sensors, placement of sensors, data collection environments, data processing techniques, features set, classifiers, cross-validation methods). Hence, the aim of this study is to propose a fair and unbiased benchmark for the field-based validation of three existing systems, highlighting the gap between laboratory and real-life conditions. For this purpose, three representative state-of-the-art systems are chosen and implemented to classify the physical activities of twenty older subjects (76.4 ± 5.6 years). The performance in classifying four basic activities of daily life (sitting, standing, walking, and lying) is analyzed in controlled and free living conditions. To observe the performance of laboratory-based systems in field-based conditions, we trained the activity classification systems using data recorded in a laboratory environment and tested them in real-life conditions in the field. The findings show that the performance of all systems trained with data in the laboratory setting highly deteriorates when tested in real-life conditions, thus highlighting the need to train and test the classification systems in the real-life setting. Moreover, we tested the sensitivity of chosen systems to window size (from 1 s to 10 s) suggesting that overall accuracy decreases with increasing window size. Finally, to evaluate the impact of the number of sensors on the performance, chosen systems are modified considering only the sensing unit worn at the lower back

  14. Performance Evaluation of State of the Art Systems for Physical Activity Classification of Older Subjects Using Inertial Sensors in a Real Life Scenario: A Benchmark Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Awais

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of using wearable inertial sensors for physical activity classification has dramatically increased in the last decade due to their versatility, low form factor, and low power requirements. Consequently, various systems have been developed to automatically classify daily life activities. However, the scope and implementation of such systems is limited to laboratory-based investigations. Furthermore, these systems are not directly comparable, due to the large diversity in their design (e.g., number of sensors, placement of sensors, data collection environments, data processing techniques, features set, classifiers, cross-validation methods. Hence, the aim of this study is to propose a fair and unbiased benchmark for the field-based validation of three existing systems, highlighting the gap between laboratory and real-life conditions. For this purpose, three representative state-of-the-art systems are chosen and implemented to classify the physical activities of twenty older subjects (76.4 ± 5.6 years. The performance in classifying four basic activities of daily life (sitting, standing, walking, and lying is analyzed in controlled and free living conditions. To observe the performance of laboratory-based systems in field-based conditions, we trained the activity classification systems using data recorded in a laboratory environment and tested them in real-life conditions in the field. The findings show that the performance of all systems trained with data in the laboratory setting highly deteriorates when tested in real-life conditions, thus highlighting the need to train and test the classification systems in the real-life setting. Moreover, we tested the sensitivity of chosen systems to window size (from 1 s to 10 s suggesting that overall accuracy decreases with increasing window size. Finally, to evaluate the impact of the number of sensors on the performance, chosen systems are modified considering only the sensing unit worn

  15. The Role of Life-Space, Social Activity, and Depression on the Subjective Memory Complaints of Community-Dwelling Filipino Elderly: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Lagdaan, Lovely France M.; Lagoy, Marie Lauren V.

    2015-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints are one of the major concerns of the elderly and remain a challenging area in gerontology. There are previous studies that identify different factors affecting subjective memory complaints. However, an extended model that correlates life-space on subjective memory complaints remains a blank spot. The objective of this…

  16. Phytochemical Profiles and Antimicrobial Activities of Allium cepa Red cv. and A. sativum Subjected to Different Drying Methods: A Comparative MS-Based Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Ali, Sara E; Hodaya, Rashad H; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Sultani, Haider N; Laub, Annegret; Eissa, Tarek F; Abou-Zaid, Fouad O F; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2017-05-08

    Plants of the Allium genus produce sulphur compounds that give them a characteristic (alliaceous) flavour and mediate for their medicinal use. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Allium cepa red cv. and A. sativum in the context of three different drying processes were assessed using metabolomics. Bulbs were dried using either microwave, air drying, or freeze drying and further subjected to chemical analysis of their composition of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Volatiles were collected using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with 42 identified volatiles including 30 sulphur compounds, four nitriles, three aromatics, and three esters. Profiling of the polar non-volatile metabolites via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution MS (UPLC/MS) annotated 51 metabolites including dipeptides, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and fatty acids. Major peaks in GC/MS or UPLC/MS contributing to the discrimination between A. sativum and A. cepa red cv. were assigned to sulphur compounds and flavonoids. Whereas sulphur conjugates amounted to the major forms in A. sativum , flavonoids predominated in the chemical composition of A. cepa red cv. With regard to drying impact on Allium metabolites, notable and clear separations among specimens were revealed using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA scores plot of the UPLC/MS dataset showed closer metabolite composition of microwave dried specimens to freeze dried ones, and distant from air dried bulbs, observed in both A. cepa and A. sativum . Compared to GC/MS, the UPLC/MS derived PCA model was more consistent and better in assessing the impact of drying on Allium metabolism. A phthalate derivative was found exclusively in a commercial garlic preparation via GC/MS, of yet unknown origin. The freeze dried samples of both Allium species exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities compared to dried specimens

  17. Phytochemical Profiles and Antimicrobial Activities of Allium cepa Red cv. and A. sativum Subjected to Different Drying Methods: A Comparative MS-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Farag

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Allium genus produce sulphur compounds that give them a characteristic (alliaceous flavour and mediate for their medicinal use. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Allium cepa red cv. and A. sativum in the context of three different drying processes were assessed using metabolomics. Bulbs were dried using either microwave, air drying, or freeze drying and further subjected to chemical analysis of their composition of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Volatiles were collected using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS with 42 identified volatiles including 30 sulphur compounds, four nitriles, three aromatics, and three esters. Profiling of the polar non-volatile metabolites via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution MS (UPLC/MS annotated 51 metabolites including dipeptides, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and fatty acids. Major peaks in GC/MS or UPLC/MS contributing to the discrimination between A. sativum and A. cepa red cv. were assigned to sulphur compounds and flavonoids. Whereas sulphur conjugates amounted to the major forms in A. sativum, flavonoids predominated in the chemical composition of A. cepa red cv. With regard to drying impact on Allium metabolites, notable and clear separations among specimens were revealed using principal component analysis (PCA. The PCA scores plot of the UPLC/MS dataset showed closer metabolite composition of microwave dried specimens to freeze dried ones, and distant from air dried bulbs, observed in both A. cepa and A. sativum. Compared to GC/MS, the UPLC/MS derived PCA model was more consistent and better in assessing the impact of drying on Allium metabolism. A phthalate derivative was found exclusively in a commercial garlic preparation via GC/MS, of yet unknown origin. The freeze dried samples of both Allium species exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities compared to

  18. Effects of Paracetamol on NOS, COX, and CYP Activity and on Oxidative Stress in Healthy Male Subjects, Rat Hepatocytes, and Recombinant NOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trettin, Arne; Böhmer, Anke; Suchy, Maria-Theresia; Probst, Irmelin; Staerk, Ulrich; Stichtenoth, Dirk O.; Frölich, Jürgen C.

    2014-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a widely used analgesic drug. It interacts with various enzyme families including cytochrome P450 (CYP), cyclooxygenase (COX), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and this interplay may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated the effects of paracetamol on prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide (NO), and oxidative stress in four male subjects who received a single 3 g oral dose of paracetamol. Thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis was assessed by measuring their major urinary metabolites 2,3-dinor-thromboxane B2 and 2,3-dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F1α, respectively. Endothelial NO synthesis was assessed by measuring nitrite in plasma. Urinary 15(S)-8-iso-prostaglanding F2α was measured to assess oxidative stress. Plasma oleic acid oxide (cis-EpOA) was measured as a marker of cytochrome P450 activity. Upon paracetamol administration, prostacyclin synthesis was strongly inhibited, while NO synthesis increased and thromboxane synthesis remained almost unchanged. Paracetamol may shift the COX-dependent vasodilatation/vasoconstriction balance at the cost of vasodilatation. This effect may be antagonized by increasing endothelial NO synthesis. High-dosed paracetamol did not increase oxidative stress. At pharmacologically relevant concentrations, paracetamol did not affect NO synthesis/bioavailability by recombinant human endothelial NOS or inducible NOS in rat hepatocytes. We conclude that paracetamol does not increase oxidative stress in humans. PMID:24799980

  19. Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification lateral flow dipstick (RPA-LFD) for the field diagnosis of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Po-An; Shiu, Jia-Shian; Lee, Shu-Hwae; Pang, Victor Fei; Wang, De-Chi; Wang, Pei-Hwa

    2017-05-01

    Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) in goats is a complex disease syndrome caused by a lentivirus. This persistent viral infection results in arthritis in adult goats and encephalitis in lambs. The prognosis for the encephalitic form is normally poor, and this form of the disease has caused substantial economic losses for goat farmers. Hence, a more efficient detection platform based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) was developed in the present study for detecting the proviral DNA of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV). Under the optimal incubation conditions, specifically, 30min at 37°C for RPA followed by 5min at room temperature for LFD, the assay was found to be sensitive to a lower limit of 80pg of total DNA and 10 copies of plasmid DNA. Furthermore, there was no cross-reaction with other tested viruses, including goat pox virus and bovine leukemia virus. Given its simplicity and portability, this RPA-LFD protocol can serve as an alternative tool to ELISA for the primary screening of CAEV, one that is suitable for both laboratory and field application. When the RPA-LFD was applied in parallel with serological ELISA for the detection of CAEV in field samples, the RPA-LFD assay exhibited a higher sensitivity than the traditional method, and 82% of the 200 samples collected in Taiwan were found to be positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report providing evidence to support the use of an RPA-LFD assay as a specific and sensitive platform for detecting CAEV proviral DNA in goats in a faster manner, one that is also applicable for on-site utilization at farms and that should be useful in both eradication programs and epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A centrifugal direct recombinase polymerase amplification (direct-RPA) microdevice for multiplex and real-time identification of food poisoning bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Goro; Jung, Jae Hwan; Park, Byung Hyun; Oh, Seung Jun; Seo, Ji Hyun; Choi, Jong Seob; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2016-06-21

    In this study, we developed a centrifugal direct recombinase polymerase amplification (direct-RPA) microdevice for multiplex and real-time identification of food poisoning bacteria contaminated milk samples. The microdevice was designed to contain identical triplicate functional units and each unit has four reaction chambers, thereby making it possible to perform twelve direct-RPA reactions simultaneously. The integrated microdevice consisted of two layers: RPA reagents were injected in the top layer, while spiked milk samples with food poisoning bacteria were loaded into sample reservoirs in the bottom layer. For multiplex bacterial detection, the target gene-specific primers and probes were dried in each reaction chamber. The introduced samples and reagents could be equally aliquoted and dispensed into each reaction chamber by centrifugal force, and then the multiplex direct-RPA reaction was executed. The target genes of bacteria spiked in milk could be amplified at 39 °C without a DNA extraction step by using the direct-RPA cocktails, which were a combination of a direct PCR buffer and RPA enzymes. As the target gene amplification proceeded, the increased fluorescence signals coming from the reaction chambers were recorded in real-time at an interval of 2 min. The entire process, including the sample distribution, the direct-RPA reaction, and the real-time analysis, was accomplished with a custom-made portable genetic analyzer and a miniaturized optical detector. Monoplex, duplex, and triplex food poisoning bacteria (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) detection was successfully performed with a detection sensitivity of 4 cells per 3.2 μL of milk samples within 30 min. By implementing the direct-PRA on the miniaturized centrifugal microsystem, the on-site food poisoning bacteria analysis would be feasible with high speed, sensitivity, and multiplicity.

  1. Surface mu heavy chain signals down-regulation of the V(D)J-recombinase machinery in the absence of surrogate light chain components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Gunther R; Mundt, Cornelia; Parker, Mathew; Pelanda, Roberta; Mårtensson, Inga-Lill; Winkler, Thomas H

    2004-06-07

    Early B cell development is characterized by stepwise, ordered rearrangement of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (HC) and light (LC) chain genes. Only one of the two alleles of these genes is used to produce a receptor, a phenomenon referred to as allelic exclusion. It has been suggested that pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) signals are responsible for down-regulation of the VDJH-recombinase machinery (Rag1, Rag2, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase [TdT]), thereby preventing further rearrangement on the second HC allele. Using a mouse model, we show that expression of an inducible muHC transgene in Rag2-/- pro-B cells induces down-regulation of the following: (a) TdT protein, (b) a transgenic green fluorescent protein reporter reflecting endogenous Rag2 expression, and (c) Rag1 primary transcripts. Similar effects were also observed in the absence of surrogate LC (SLC) components, but not in the absence of the signaling subunit Ig-alpha. Furthermore, in wild-type mice and in mice lacking either lambda5, VpreB1/2, or the entire SLC, the TdT protein is down-regulated in muHC+LC- pre-B cells. Surprisingly, muHC without LC is expressed on the surface of pro-/pre-B cells from lambda5-/-, VpreB1-/-VpreB2-/-, and SLC-/- mice. Thus, SLC or LC is not required for muHC cell surface expression and signaling in these cells. Therefore, these findings offer an explanation for the occurrence of HC allelic exclusion in mice lacking SLC components.

  2. A field based detection method for Rose rosette virus using isothermal probe-based Reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Binoy; Washburn, Brian K; Ertek, Tülin Sarigül; Miller, Steven H; Riddle, Charles B; Knox, Gary W; Ochoa-Corona, Francisco M; Olson, Jennifer; Katırcıoğlu, Yakup Zekai; Paret, Mathews L

    2017-09-01

    Rose rosette disease, caused by Rose rosette virus (RRV; genus Emaravirus) is a major threat to the rose industry in the U.S. The only strategy currently available for disease management is early detection and eradication of the infected plants, thereby limiting its potential spread. Current RT-PCR based diagnostic methods for RRV are time consuming and are inconsistent in detecting the virus from symptomatic plants. Real-time RT-qPCR assay is highly sensitive for detection of RRV, but it is expensive and requires well-equipped laboratories. Both the RT-PCR and RT-qPCR cannot be used in a field-based testing for RRV. Hence a novel probe based, isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-exoRPA) assay, using primer/probe designed based on the nucleocapsid gene of the RRV has been developed. The assay is highly specific and did not give a positive reaction to other viruses infecting roses belonging to both inclusive and exclusive genus. Dilution assays using the in vitro transcript showed that the primer/probe set is highly sensitive, with a detection limit of 1 fg/μl. In addition, a rapid technique for the extraction of viral RNA (rose varieties, collected from different states in the U.S. The entire process, including the extraction can be completed in 25min, with less sophisticated equipments. The developed assay can be used with high efficiency in large scale field testing for rapid detection of RRV in commercial nurseries and landscapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional performance and physical activity levels of subjects enrolled at an Open University of the Third Age at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities of the University of São Paulo (UnATI EACH-USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Caldeira de Melo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional performance, according to the physical activity levels, of the students of UnATI EACH-USP. The study included 269 subjects, of both sexes, aged between 50 and 80 years-old. The most active group showed better functional performance in balance, mobility and lower limb strength tests compared with the sedentary group. On the other hand, perform physical activities in an irregular fashion was not associated to better functional performance in middleaged/older subjects.

  4. Perceptions of health equity and subjective social status among baccalaureate nursing students engaged in service-learning activities in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa M; Jarvis, Sarah; Sparacino, Patricia; Kuo, Devina; Genz, Stephanie

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure undergraduate students' knowledge of social determinants of health, health equity, and subjective social status (SSS). A cross-sectional semi-structured survey was administered to 68 racially/ethnically diverse freshman students enrolled in a baccalaureate nursing program in O'ahu, Hawai'i. Students ranked the impact of 13 issues on Hawai'i residents' health and described how well the health care system addressed these issues. A 10-rung ladder was used to rank SSS; students marked an "X" on the ladder rung where they stand in society and explained what they would need to "move up or down" the ladder. The students identified three key issues that adversely impact health: substance abuse, diet/nutrition, and cancer. Sixty-nine percent of students stated that social determinants of health impact Hawai'i residents' health either "quite a bit" or "very much", while only 31% felt that the health care system adequately addressed these determinants. Students who ranked high on the ladder (rungs 6-10) cited family as the reason. The students who ranked low on the ladder (rungs 3-5) credited their position to lack of money. Students' perceptions of social determinants of health and health equity align with findings from public health studies in Hawai'i. These concepts were integrated into the 4-year nursing school curricula and findings inform future research and service-based learning activities conducted by the students. While findings presented here focus on nursing students in Hawai'i, this educational innovation could be replicated with students in other undergraduate health sciences programs.

  5. Physical activity domains and cognitive function over three years in older adults with subjective memory complaints: Secondary analysis from the MAPT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souto Barreto, Philipe; Andrieu, Sandrine; Rolland, Yves; Vellas, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to examine the associations of physical activity (PA) domains (i.e., PA in leisure-time (LTPA), for housework (HPA), or for gardening (GPA)) with cognitive function in older adults with subjective memory complaints (no-dementia) and to investigate if those associations were dependent on the status of apolipoprotein E allele 4 (APOE4), omega-3 levels and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Observational prospective secondary analysis using longitudinal data from a randomized controlled trial. Participants were 420 French community-dwelling people (aged 75.6±4.4; 66.4% women) randomized into the placebo group. They were assessed at baseline, 6-, 12-, 24- and 36-month using a battery of neuropsychological tests; a composite cognitive Z score was elaborated for all time points. Data on PA come from baseline and was obtained using a self-reported questionnaire. In time-adjusted analysis, LTPA significantly predicted cognitive function over three years for almost all tests and the composite Z score, with higher LTPA associated with better function; multivariate analysis showed a significant association only for verbal fluency. HPA was not associated to cognitive function, whereas GPA had mixed results. The magnitude of the PA-cognition associations was very weak, being the strongest for LTPA. Stratified analyses showed that the associations between PA and cognitive function were stronger for MCI, people with normal omega-3 index levels, and APOE4 non-carriers. PA domain is an important aspect to take into account when examining the associations between PA and cognitive function. Biomarkers of cognitive function may modulate the PA-cognition associations. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Subjective Positive and Negative Sleep Variables Differentially Affect Cellular Immune Activity in a Breast Cancer Survivor: A Time-series Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Singer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study on a breast cancer survivor suffering from cancer-related fatigue (CaRF and depression investigated the bidirectional relationship between cellular immune activity and subjective sleep. The 49-year-old patient (breast cancer diagnosis 5 years before the study, currently in remission collected her full urine output for 28 days in 12-h intervals (8:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.. These urine samples were used to determine urinary neopterin (cellular immune activation marker and creatinine concentrations via high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Each morning, the patient answered questions on five sleep variables: sleep quality (SQ, sleep recreational value (SRV, total sleep time (TST, total wake time (TWT, and awakenings during sleep period (ADS. For the purpose of this study, the time series of the nighttime urinary neopterin levels and the five sleep variables were determined. Using centered moving average (CMA smoothing and cross-correlational analysis, this study showed that increases in the positive sleep variables SQ and SRV were followed by urinary neopterin concentration decreases after 96–120 h (SQ, lag 4: r = −0.411; p = 0.044; SRV: lag 4: r = −0.472; p = 0.021 and 120–144 h (SRV, lag 5: r = −0.464; p = 0.026. Increases in the negative sleep variable TWT, by contrast, were followed by increases in urinary neopterin concentrations 72–96 h later (lag 3: r = 0.522; p = 0.009. No systematic effects in the other direction, i.e., from urinary neopterin levels to sleep, were observed in this study. Although preliminary, the findings of this study highlight the benefit of carefully investigating temporal delays and directions of effects when studying the dynamic relationship between sleep and immune variables in the natural context of everyday life.

  7. Generation of minipigs with targeted transgene insertion by recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Johansen, Marianne Gregers; Schmidt, Mette

    2012-01-01

    minicircles in RMCE in fibroblasts with all four acceptor loci and followed by SCNT, we produced piglets with a single copy of a transgene incorporated into one of the transcriptionally active acceptor loci. The transgene, consisting of a cDNA of the Alzheimer’s disease-causing gene PSEN1M146I driven...

  8. Serine integrase chimeras with activity in E. coli and HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso P. Farruggio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, application of serine integrases for genomic engineering has increased in popularity. The factor-independence and unidirectionality of these large serine recombinases makes them well suited for reactions such as site-directed vector integration and cassette exchange in a wide variety of organisms. In order to generate information that might be useful for altering the specificity of serine integrases and to improve their efficiency, we tested a hybridization strategy that has been successful with several small serine recombinases. We created chimeras derived from three characterized members of the serine integrase family, phiC31, phiBT1, and TG1 integrases, by joining their amino- and carboxy-terminal portions. We found that several phiBT1-phiC31 (BC and phiC31-TG1 (CT hybrid integrases are active in E. coli. BC chimeras function on native att-sites and on att-sites that are hybrids between those of the two donor enzymes, while CT chimeras only act on the latter att-sites. A BC hybrid, BC{−1}, was also active in human HeLa cells. Our work is the first to demonstrate chimeric serine integrase activity. This analysis sheds light on integrase structure and function, and establishes a potentially tractable means to probe the specificity of the thousands of putative large serine recombinases that have been revealed by bioinformatics studies.

  9. Effect of fermented red ginseng on cytochrome P450 and P-glycoprotein activity in healthy subjects, as evaluated using the cocktail approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Gul; Kim, Yunjeong; Jeon, Ji-Young; Kim, Dal-Sik

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the drug interaction profile of fermented red ginseng with respect to the activity of major cytochrome (CYP) P450 enzymes and of a drug transporter protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), in healthy volunteers. This study was an open-label crossover study. The CYP probe cocktail drugs caffeine, losartan, dextromethorphan, omeprazole, midazolam and fexofenadine were administered before and after 2 weeks of fermented red ginseng administration. Plasma samples were collected, and tolerability was assessed. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated, and the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios of the parameters were determined from logarithmically transformed data. Values were compared between before and after fermented red ginseng administration using analysis of variance (anova). Fifteen healthy male subjects were evaluated, none of whom were genetically defined as a poor CYP2C9, CYP2C19 or CYP2D6 metabolizer based on genotyping. Before and after fermented red ginseng administration, the geometric least-square mean metabolic ratio (90% CI) was 0.901 (0.830-0.979) for caffeine (CYP1A2) to paraxanthine, 0.774 (0.720-0.831) for losartan (CYP2C9) to EXP3174, 1.052 (0.925-1.197) for omeprazole (CYP2C19) to 5-hydroxyomeprazole, 1.150 (0.860-1.538) for dextromethorphan (CYP2D6) to dextrorphan, and 0.816 (0.673-0.990) for midazolam (CYP3A4) to 1-hydroxymidazolam. The geometric mean ratio of the area under the curve of the last sampling time (AUC last ) for fexofenadine (P-gp) was 1.322 (1.112-1.571). No significantly different drug interactions were observed between fermented red ginseng and the CYP probe substrates following the two-week administration of concentrated fermented red ginseng. However, the inhibition of P-gp was significantly different between fermented red ginseng and the CYP probe substrates. The use of fermented red ginseng requires close attention due to the potential for increased systemic exposure when it is used in

  10. Single molecule TPM analysis of the catalytic pentad mutants of Cre and Flp site-specific recombinases: contributions of the pentad residues to the pre-chemical steps of recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hsiu-Fang; Cheng, Yong-Song; Ma, Chien-Hui; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2015-01-01

    Cre and Flp site-specific recombinase variants harboring point mutations at their conserved catalytic pentad positions were characterized using single molecule tethered particle motion (TPM) analysis. The findings reveal contributions of these amino acids to the pre-chemical steps of recombination. They suggest functional differences between positionally conserved residues in how they influence recombinase-target site association and formation of ‘non-productive’, ‘pre-synaptic’ and ‘synaptic’ complexes. The most striking difference between the two systems is noted for the single conserved lysine. The pentad residues in Cre enhance commitment to recombination by kinetically favoring the formation of pre-synaptic complexes. These residues in Flp serve a similar function by promoting Flp binding to target sites, reducing non-productive binding and/or enhancing the rate of assembly of synaptic complexes. Kinetic comparisons between Cre and Flp, and between their derivatives lacking the tyrosine nucleophile, are consistent with a stronger commitment to recombination in the Flp system. The effect of target site orientation (head-to-head or head-to-tail) on the TPM behavior of synapsed DNA molecules supports the selection of anti-parallel target site alignment prior to the chemical steps. The integrity of the synapse, whose establishment/stability is fostered by strand cleavage in the case of Flp but not Cre, appears to be compromised by the pentad mutations. PMID:25765648

  11. Ecosecent:: Essence, Subject and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozachenko Hanna V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that due to multi-laterality the knowledge about security is distributed by various branches, one of which is ecosestate, within which conditions of secure functioning of socio-economic systems and methods of their provision are studied. It shows the essence of ecosecent as a component of the “state – region (branch – subject of economic activity” ecosestate vertical – a set of knowledge about economic security of subjects of economic activity. It considers reasons that cause establishment of ecosecent: practical needs and a necessity to reconsider basic concepts of the essence, limits and factors of economy. It formulates the subject of ecosecent. It considers the status of the “economic security of the subject of economic activity” notion as its state, described with a set of parameters or characteristic features as characteristics of the subject of economic activity as a condition of its activity and as a set of actions that allow ensuring or preservation of the state of security, in other words, protection of the subject of economic activity. It presents general approaches to structuring of ecosecent by activity, functional and branch features.

  12. Improving the Students' Activity and Learning Outcomes on Social Sciences Subject Using Round Table and Rally Coach of Cooperative Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningsih; Soetjipto, Budi Eko; Sumarmi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to analyze increasing students' learning activity and learning outcomes. Student activities which were observed include the visual, verbal, listening, writing and mental visual activity; (2) to analyze the improvement of student learning outcomes using "Round Table" and "Rally Coach" Model of…

  13. Potholes and obstacles on the learning path. An experimental analysis of a GI-curriculum using GI-activities as teaching subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rip, F.I.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, a small survey was held among teaching staff of the Master of Geo-information curriculum at Wageningen University. The objective was to find out if an overview of entry and exit mastery levels per teaching subject would provide a basis for judging the quality of the curriculum. Findings

  14. La posibilidad de autor femenino en la violencia doméstica/Possibility of the woman being active subject of the domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Julián Cristóbal Luengo (España

    2014-08-01

    female delinquency. It is because of this reason that it would be interesting to make a reflexion about the possibility of the woman being an active subject of the delinquency that takes place within the familiar sphere, a fact that, although it is unconnected to the purpose of the last reform of the Penal Code about the topic –Organic Law 1/2004, of gender violence-, it was taken into account in the articles of the Code, where the legislator never dismissed the possibility of a female author behind all the maltreat behaviors. We are still maintaining an unequal society in which, although in a lesser proportion, women are still submitted to men, a fact that is contributed by a series of stereotypes and roles that place women in the epicenter of a greater social control and the traditional male dominance. This gender inequality is even transferred to the inside of prisons, spaces that are a reflection of the society and where these inequalities are even increased.

  15. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  16. [Effect of healthy diet and physical activity on the level of non-HDL cholesterol in obese subjects without cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Móczár, Csaba

    2015-10-18

    Prevention program including lifestyle changes was initiated with the participation of obese and overweight subjects recruited from the practices of 29 family doctors. The aim of the author was to analyse changes of non-HDL-cholesterol levels, especially when triglyceride levels were above 2.26 mmol/l, and when non-HDL cholesterol levels were high in association with low HDL-cholesterol levels in overweight or obese subjects who had no cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Data obtained from 1192 subjects (424 men and 768 women) before and 12 month after inclusion into the prevention program was analysed. The average level of non-HDL-cholesterol in the whole group of subjects decreased from 4.74 to 4.64 mmol/l, but the change was not significant. However, the average concentration of non-HDL-cholesterol was reduced significantly from 4.87 to 4.4 mmol/l in men, whereas no significant change was detected in women. In cases when triglyceride levels were higher than 2.26 mmol/l, the non-HDL-cholesterol level was reduced by 0.65 mmol/l. In cases when the non-HDL-cholesterol level was high in association with low HDL-cholesterol level, the non-HDL-cholesterol was significantly decreased from 5.22 to 4.48 mmol/l. In addition, in cases when HDL-cholesterol levels were low, the average level of the HDL-cholesterol significantly increased from 0.84 to 1.3 mmol/l. Lifestyle changes decrease the level of atherogenic lipid fractions, particularly in men with high triglyceride levels. Improvement of the atherogenic lipid profile in response to lifestyle changes is related not only to the reduction of atherogenic lipid fractions, but also to the increase of HDL-cholesterol level.

  17. Moderate-to-vigorous physically active academic lessons and academic engagement in children with and without a social disadvantage : a within subject experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background: Integration of physical active academic lessons in the school curriculum may be an innovative way to improve academic outcomes. This study examined the effect of physically active academic lessons (Fit en Vaardig op school) on academic engagement of socially disadvantaged children and

  18. Electromiography comparison of distal and proximal lower limb muscle activity patterns during external perturbation in subjects with and without functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Khadijeh; Arab, Amir Massoud; Abdollahi, Iraj; López-López, Daniel; Calvo-Lobo, César

    2017-10-01

    Ankle sprain is one of the most common injuries among athletes and the general population. Most ankle injuries commonly affect the lateral ligament complex. Changes in postural sway and hip abductor muscle strength may be generated after inversion ankle sprain. Therefore, the consequences of ankle injury may affect proximal structures of the lower limb. The aim is to describe and compare the activity patterns of distal and proximal lower limb muscles following external perturbation in individuals with and without functional ankle instability. The sample consisted of 16 women with functional ankle instability and 18 healthy women were recruited to participate in this research. The external perturbation via body jacket using surface electromyography, amplitude and onset of muscle activity of gluteus maximums, gluteus medius, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus was recorded and analyzed during external perturbation. There were differences between the onset of muscles activity due to perturbation direction in the two groups (healthy and functional ankle instability). In the healthy group, there were statistically significant differences in amplitude of proximal muscle activity with distal muscle activity during front perturbation with eyes open and closed. In the functional ankle instability group; there were statistically significant differences in amplitude of proximal muscle activity with distal muscle activity during perturbation of the front and back with eyes open. There were statistically significant differences in the onset of muscle activity and amplitude of muscle activity, with-in and between groups (Pankle instability, activation patterns of the lower limb proximal muscles may be altered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies of the Gly482Ser polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) gene in Danish subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye, L; Rasmussen, S; Fenger, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a novel transcriptional co-activator that holds an important role in lipid and glucose metabolism. PGC-1alpha is a candidate gene for the metabolic syndrome (MS) as well as type 2 diabetes. Recent studies...... related to this syndrome. The variant was examined, using PCR-RFLP, in the DanMONICA cohort comprising a population-based sample of 2349 subjects. MS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program -- Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. The allelic frequency of the Ser482 allele...... and insulin secretion, 24-ambulatory blood pressure or left ventricular mass index. In conclusion, the Gly482Ser polymorphism of the PGC-1alpha gene is not associated with the metabolic syndrome, related quantitative traits or cardiac hypertrophy among Danish Caucasian subjects...

  20. Biogenesis of mitochondria in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) curds subjected to temperature stress and recovery involves regulation of the complexome, respiratory chain activity, organellar translation and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurek, Michal; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej M; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2015-01-01

    The biogenesis of the cauliflower curd mitochondrial proteome was investigated under cold, heat and the recovery. For the first time, two dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis was used to study the plant mitochondrial complexome in heat and heat recovery. Particularly, changes in the complex I and complex III subunits and import proteins, and the partial disintegration of matrix complexes were observed. The presence of unassembled subunits of ATP synthase was accompanied by impairment in mitochondrial translation of its subunit. In cold and heat, the transcription profiles of mitochondrial genes were uncorrelated. The in-gel activities of respiratory complexes were particularly affected after stress recovery. Despite a general stability of respiratory chain complexes in heat, functional studies showed that their activity and the ATP synthesis yield were affected. Contrary to cold stress, heat stress resulted in a reduced efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation likely due to changes in alternative oxidase (AOX) activity. Stress and stress recovery differently modulated the protein level and activity of AOX. Heat stress induced an increase in AOX activity and protein level, and AOX1a and AOX1d transcript level, while heat recovery reversed the AOX protein and activity changes. Conversely, cold stress led to a decrease in AOX activity (and protein level), which was reversed after cold recovery. Thus, cauliflower AOX is only induced by heat stress. In heat, contrary to the AOX activity, the activity of rotenone-insensitive internal NADH dehydrogenase was diminished. The relevance of various steps of plant mitochondrial biogenesis to temperature stress response and recovery is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. EEG activity as an objective measure of cognitive load during effortful listening: A study on pediatric subjects with bilateral, asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, Pasquale; Scorpecci, Alessandro; Cartocci, Giulia; Giannantonio, Sara; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Venuti, Isotta; Brizi, Ambra; Babiloni, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Deaf subjects with hearing aids or cochlear implants generally find it challenging to understand speech in noisy environments where a great deal of listening effort and cognitive load are invested. In prelingually deaf children, such difficulties may have detrimental consequences on the learning process and, later in life, on academic performance. Despite the importance of such a topic, currently, there is no validated test for the assessment of cognitive load during audiological tasks. Recently, alpha and theta EEG rhythm variations in the parietal and frontal areas, respectively, have been used as indicators of cognitive load in adult subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by means of EEG, the cognitive load of pediatric subjects affected by asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss as they were engaged in a speech-in-noise identification task. Seven children (4F and 3M, age range = 8-16 years) affected by asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss (i.e. profound degree on one side, mild-to-severe degree on the other side) and using a hearing aid only in their better ear, were included in the study. All of them underwent EEG recording during a speech-in-noise identification task: the experimental conditions were quiet, binaural noise, noise to the better hearing ear and noise to the poorer hearing ear. The subjects' Speech Recognition Thresholds (SRT) were also measured in each test condition. The primary outcome measures were: frontal EEG Power Spectral Density (PSD) in the theta band and parietal EEG PSD in the alpha band, as assessed before stimulus (word) onset. No statistically significant differences were noted among frontal theta power levels in the four test conditions. However, parietal alpha power levels were significantly higher in the "binaural noise" and in the "noise to worse hearing ear" conditions than in the "quiet" and "noise to better hearing ear" conditions (p cognitive load during effortful listening. Significantly higher

  2. The effect of a backrest and seatpan inclination on sitting discomfort and trunk muscle activation in subjects with extension-related low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Máire; Dankaerts, Wim; O'Sullivan, Peter; O'Sullivan, Leonard; O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have demonstrated that seating modifications reduce low back pain (LBP). One recent study found that a forward-inclined seatpan reduced low back discomfort (LBD), however this was only examined in people with flexion-related LBP. No study has yet investigated its effectiveness among people with extension-related LBP. This crossover study examined 12 subjects with extension-related LBP. Sitting discomfort and surface electromyography of three trunk muscles were recorded during a 10-minute typing task while sitting with two different seatpan inclinations, both with and without a backrest. LBD (p ergonomics prescriptions according to the individual presentation of people with LBP.

  3. Lipoprotein lipase activity and mass, apolipoprotein C-II mass and polymorphisms of apolipoproteins E and A5 in subjects with prior acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Arias Carlota

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe hypertriglyceridaemia due to chylomicronemia may trigger an acute pancreatitis. However, the basic underlying mechanism is usually not well understood. We decided to analyze some proteins involved in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia. Methods Twenty-four survivors of acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis (cases and 31 patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia (controls were included. Clinical and anthropometrical data, chylomicronaemia, lipoprotein profile, postheparin lipoprotein lipase mass and activity, hepatic lipase activity, apolipoprotein C II and CIII mass, apo E and A5 polymorphisms were assessed. Results Only five cases were found to have LPL mass and activity deficiency, all of them thin and having the first episode in childhood. No cases had apolipoprotein CII deficiency. No significant differences were found between the non-deficient LPL cases and the controls in terms of obesity, diabetes, alcohol consumption, drug therapy, gender distribution, evidence of fasting chylomicronaemia, lipid levels, LPL activity and mass, hepatic lipase activity, CII and CIII mass or apo E polymorphisms. However, the SNP S19W of apo A5 tended to be more prevalent in cases than controls (40% vs. 23%, NS. Conclusion Primary defects in LPL and C-II are rare in survivors of acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis; lipase activity measurements should be restricted to those having their first episode during chilhood.

  4. Bone mineral density, muscle strength and physical activity. A population-based study of 332 subjects aged 15-42 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düppe, H; Gärdsell, P; Johnell, O; Nilsson, B E; Ringsberg, K

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this population-based study was to find out whether differences in levels of physical activity have an influence on bone mass quantity and whether quadriceps muscle strength is a reliable determinant of bone mass. Included were 175 men and 157 women, aged 15-42 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at various sites by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single photon absorptiometry (SPA). Muscle strength was assessed using an isokinetic muscle force meter. A questionnaire was used to estimate the level of physical activity. We found a positive correlation between physical activity and BMD for boys at the distal forearm and for girls at the trochanter (age group 15-16 years). Active men (age group 21-42 years) had up to 9% higher BMD levels at the hip than those who were less active. Quadriceps muscle torque was not an independent predictor of BMD. Our data suggest that a higher level of physical activity-within the limits of a "normal life style"-may have a positive effect on BMD in the proximal femur of young adults, which in turn may lessen the subsequent risk of fracture.

  5. Lipoprotein lipase activity and mass, apolipoprotein C-II mass and polymorphisms of apolipoproteins E and A5 in subjects with prior acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Severe hypertriglyceridaemia due to chylomicronemia may trigger an acute pancreatitis. However, the basic underlying mechanism is usually not well understood. We decided to analyze some proteins involved in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia. Methods Twenty-four survivors of acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis (cases) and 31 patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia (controls) were included. Clinical and anthropometrical data, chylomicronaemia, lipoprotein profile, postheparin lipoprotein lipase mass and activity, hepatic lipase activity, apolipoprotein C II and CIII mass, apo E and A5 polymorphisms were assessed. Results Only five cases were found to have LPL mass and activity deficiency, all of them thin and having the first episode in childhood. No cases had apolipoprotein CII deficiency. No significant differences were found between the non-deficient LPL cases and the controls in terms of obesity, diabetes, alcohol consumption, drug therapy, gender distribution, evidence of fasting chylomicronaemia, lipid levels, LPL activity and mass, hepatic lipase activity, CII and CIII mass or apo E polymorphisms. However, the SNP S19W of apo A5 tended to be more prevalent in cases than controls (40% vs. 23%, NS). Conclusion Primary defects in LPL and C-II are rare in survivors of acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis; lipase activity measurements should be restricted to those having their first episode during chilhood. PMID:19534808

  6. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redford, J.S.

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included

  7. Cue-Induced Brain Activation in Chronic Ketamine-Dependent Subjects, Cigarette Smokers, and Healthy Controls: A Task Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Liao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundObservations of drug-related cues may induce craving in drug-dependent patients, prompting compulsive drug-seeking behavior. Sexual dysfunction is common in drug users. The aim of the study was to examine regional brain activation to drug (ketamine, cigarette smoking associated cues and natural (sexual rewards.MethodsA sample of 129 [40 ketamine use smokers (KUS, 45 non-ketamine use smokers (NKUS and 44 non-ketamine use non-smoking healthy controls (HC] participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while viewing ketamine use related, smoking and sexual films.ResultsWe found that KUS showed significant increased activation in anterior cingulate cortex and precuneus in response to ketamine cues. Ketamine users (KUS showed lower activation in cerebellum and middle temporal cortex compared with non-ketamine users (NKUS and HC in response to sexual cues. Smokers (KUS and NKUS showed higher activation in the right precentral frontal cortex in response to smoking cues. Non-ketamine users (NKUS and HC showed significantly increased activation of cerebellum and middle temporal cortex while viewing sexual cues.ConclusionThese findings clearly show the engagement of distinct neural circuitry for drug-related stimuli in chronic ketamine users. While smokers (both KUS and NKUS showed overlapping differences in activation for smoking cues, the former group showed a specific neural response to relevant (i.e., ketamine-related cues. In particular, the heightened response in anterior cingulate cortex may have important implications for how attentionally salient such cues are in this group. Ketamine users (KUS showed lower activation in response to sexual cues may partly reflect the neural basis of sexual dysfunction.

  8. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on the accuracy of the prothrombin time assay of plasma coagulation factor II plus VII plus X activity in subjects infused with the drug. Influence of time and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, S.; Teisner, A.; Jensen, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The prothrombin time (PT) assay of factor II+VII+X activity is an important predictor of liver damage in paracetamol poisoned patients. It complicates interpretation of results that the antidote, acetylcysteine (NAC) depresses this activity. The aim was to investigate if NAC influences...... added to plasma in vitro decreased factor II+VII+X activity at 37 degrees C in a time-dependent manner. This effect was quenched at temperatures 24 degrees C. Activity lost at 37 degrees C could partly be recovered by subsequent incubation at 5 or 20 degrees C. Incubation at 37 degrees C prior to assay...... led to a significant additional depression of factor II+VII+X activity in plasma from subjects infused with NAC during the first 3h of infusion indicating that it contained reactive NAC. The risk that this NAC interfered with the accuracy of the PT assay was considered minimal with samples stored...

  9. Assessment of the Water and Sediment Quality of Tropical Forest Streams in Upper Reaches of the Baleh River, Sarawak, Malaysia, Subjected to Logging Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck-Yee Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the impact of logging activities on water and sediment quality of Sarawak forest streams is still scarce despite Sarawak being the largest exporter of timber in Malaysia. This study was aimed at determining the water and sediment quality of forest streams in Sarawak and the potential impact of logging activities. In situ parameters were measured, and water and sediment samples were collected at six stations before rain. Additionally, water quality was investigated at three stations after rain. The results showed that canopy removal resulted in large temperature variation and sedimentation in the forest streams. Lower suspended solids were found at stations with inactive logging (<2 mg/L compared to active logging (10–16 mg/L activities. The highest concentration of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in water and sediment was 4.4 mg/L, 77.6 μg/L, 0.17%, and 0.01%, respectively. Besides, significantly negative correlation of sediment nitrogen and water total ammonia nitrogen indicated the loss of nitrogen from sediment to water. Water quality of the streams deteriorated after rain, in particular, suspended solids which increased from 8.3 mg/L to 104.1 mg/L. This study reveals that logging activities have an impact on the water quality of Sarawak forest streams particularly in rainfall events.

  10. Doenjang, a Korean fermented soy food, exerts antiobesity and antioxidative activities in overweight subjects with the PPAR-γ2 C1431T polymorphism: 12-week, double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Youn-Soo; Park, Yongsoon; Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo-Wan; Park, Kungmin; Kim, Yeonsoo; Lee, Haeng-Shin

    2014-01-01

    We examined the antiobesity and antioxidant effects of supplementation with doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, in overweight Koreans with the PPAR-γ2 C1431T polymorphism. Sixty overweight subjects were randomly assigned to consume either 9.8 g/day of doenjang or placebo for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, anthropometric and metabolic parameters, along with abdominal fat distribution and PPAR-γ2 polymorphisms, were measured. Fifty-one subjects completed the study, doenjang (n=26) and placebo (n=25) groups. Relative frequencies of the PPAR-γ2 genotypes CC, TC, and TT were 70% (n=41), 25.9% (15), and 3.4% (2), whereas those of the PPAR-γ2 alleles C and T were 81.6% and 18.4%. Visceral fat area (VFA) was significantly decreased by doenjang supplementation in subjects with a mutant T allele of PPAR-γ2 compared to those with a C allele after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. Plasma free fatty acid, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were also significantly increased in the doenjang group. Doenjang pills significantly activated radical clearance capacity (ORAC and DNA tail length) in subjects with the C allele. The catalase (CAT) activity was increased twofold in the doenjang-treated group with the C allele, but this phenomenon was reversed in those with the T allele. Doenjang-treated subjects tended to have low dietary carbohydrate and sodium intakes compared with those given placebo. We found that doenjang supplementation decreased visceral fat accumulation and aging most effectively in subjects with PPAR-γ polymorphisms. This study suggests that doenjang has antiobesity and antioxidative effects in overweight individuals with mutant alleles of PPAR-γ2.

  11. Differentiating Community Dwellers at Risk for Pathological Narcissism From Community Dwellers at Risk for Psychopathy Using Measures of Emotion Recognition and Subjective Emotional Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Somma, Antonella; Pincus, Aaron; Borroni, Serena; Dowgwillo, Emily A

    2017-06-01

    The Italian translations of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) and Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) were administered to 609 community dwelling adults. Participants who scored in the upper 10% of the distribution of the PNI total score were assigned to the group of participants at risk for pathological narcissism, whereas participants who scored in the upper 10% of the distribution of the TriPM total score were assigned to the group of participants at risk for psychopathy. The final sample included 126 participants who were administered the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and emotion-eliciting movie clips. Participants at risk for pathological narcissism scored significantly lower on the RMET total score than participants who were not at risk for pathological narcissism. Participants at risk for psychopathy showed a significant reduction in the subjective experience of disgust, fear, sadness, and tenderness compared to participants who were not at risk for psychopathy.

  12. Moderate-to-vigorous physically active academic lessons and academic engagement in children with and without a social disadvantage: a within subject experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W; Bosker, Roel J; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2015-04-19

    Integration of physical active academic lessons in the school curriculum may be an innovative way to improve academic outcomes. This study examined the effect of physically active academic lessons (Fit en Vaardig op school) on academic engagement of socially disadvantaged children and children without this disadvantage. In addition, the relationship between lesson time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and academic engagement was examined. From four elementary schools, 86 children who participated in the 22-weeks intervention were recruited (23 socially disadvantaged children). Academic engagement was determined by observing time-on-task during three classroom observation moments (start, midway and end observation). Every moment consisted of lesson observations after intervention lessons (post-intervention) and after regular classroom lessons (post-control). Differences in time-on-task between socially disadvantaged children and children without this disadvantage were analyzed using independent samples t-test. Differences between post-intervention and post-control observations were analyzed using multilevel analysis. Heart rate monitors measured the lesson time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. The relationship between percentage of moderate to vigorous physical activity during the intervention lessons and time-on-task was analyzed by calculation of partial correlations. Time-on-task of socially disadvantaged children was lower than that of children without this disadvantage, differences were significant at the start post-control (t(65) = 2.39, p < 0.05) and post-intervention (t(71) = 2.75, p < 0.05) observation and at the midway post-control (t(68) = 2.45, p < 0.05) observation. Multilevel analysis showed that the time-on-task of all children was significantly higher during post-intervention in comparison with post-control lessons (ES = 0.41). No significant difference was found at the start observation, but

  13. Increased CSF-BACE 1 Activity Is Associated with ApoE-[Epsilon]4 Genotype in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Michael; Zhong, Zhenyu; Burger, Katharina; Wallin, Anders; Blennow, Kaj; Teipel, Stefan J.; Shen, Yong; Hampel, Harald

    2008-01-01

    The Apolipoprotein (ApoE) [epsilon]4 allele is a major genetic risk factor of Alzheimer's disease, and may affect the production of amyloid beta (A[beta][subscript 1-42]). Recently, we have shown that [beta]-secretase (BACE 1) activity can be reliably detected within the brain and human CSF. Here, we have examined an association between the ApoE…

  14. Selective activation of intra-muscular compartments within the trapezius muscle in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome. A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C M; Juul-Kristensen, B; Olsen, H B

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular control of the scapular muscles is important in the etiology of shoulder pain. Electromyographical (EMG) biofeedback in healthy people has been shown to support a selective activation of the lower compartment of the trapezius muscle, specifically. The aim of the present paper was to...

  15. Effects of rivastigmine on visual attention in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A serial functional MRI activation pilot-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokde, Arun L W; Cavedo, Enrica; Lopez-Bayo, Patricia; Lista, Simone; Meindl, Thomas; Born, Christine; Galluzzi, Samantha; Faltraco, Frank; Dubois, Bruno; Teipel, Stefan J; Reiser, Maximilian; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hampel, Harald

    2016-03-30

    A pilot study to investigate the effects of rivastigmine on the brain activation pattern due to visual attention tasks in a group of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impaired patients (aMCI). The design was an initial three-month double blind period with a rivastigmine and placebo arms, followed by a nine-month open-label period. All patients underwent serial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at baseline, and after three and six months of follow-up. Primary endpoint was the effect of rivastigmine on functional brain changes during visual attention (face and location matching) tasks. There were five in the rivastigmine arm and two in the placebo arm. The face matching task showed higher activation of visual areas after three months of treatment but no differences compared to baseline at six months. The location matching task showed a higher activation along the dorsal visual pathway at both three and six months follow ups. Treatment with rivastigmine demonstrates a significant effect on brain activation of the dorsal visual pathway during a location matching task in patients with aMCI. Our data support the potential use of task fMRI to map specific treatment effects of cholinergic drugs during prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase, but not hepatic lipase activity, is related to plasma adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, R; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Sluiter, WJ; Van Tol, A; Dullaart, RPF

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships of plasma adiponectin with post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) activities, and to evaluate whether plasma adiponectin contributes to diabetes-associated dyslipidaemia. Plasma adiponectin, post-heparin plasma

  17. Effects of a short-term exercise training program on aerobic fitness, fatigue, health perception and activity level of subjects with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, S; Kesselring, J

    2002-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients of an inpatient rehabilitation program have been randomly assigned to an exercise training (MS-ET) or nontraining group (MS-NI). Before and after 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training, a graded maximal exercise test with measurement of gas exchange and a lung function test was administered to all 26 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Activity level, fatigue and health perception were measured by means of questionnaires. Twenty-six healthy persons served as control group and were matched in respect of age, gender and activity level. Training intervention consisted of 5x30 min sessions per week of bicycle exercise with individualised intensity. Compared with baseline, the MS training group demonstrated a significant rightward placement of the aerobic threshold (AT) (VO2+13%; work rate [WR])+11%), an improvement of health perception (vitality+46%; social interaction+36%), an increase of activity level (+17%) and a tendency to less fatigue. No changes were observed for the MS-NI group and the control groups. Maximal aerobic capacity and lung function were not changed by either training or nontraining in all four groups. Overall compliance to the training program was quite low (65%), whereas incidence of symptom exacerbation by physical activity has been lower than expected (6%).

  18. Effect of a mixture of pyridostigmine and atropine on forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and serum cholinesterase activity in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B F; Gefke, Kaj; Mosbech, H

    1985-01-01

    injection with a decrease to 27 +/- 5% (mean +/- SEM) of the original activity. Forced expiratory volume in the first 1s (FEV1) was measured at fixed time intervals for 90 min. No decrease in FEV1 was observed; on the contrary, there was a small increase. We conclude that atropine effective